---------- MDA ----------

382 Phase I Selections from the 02.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ADELPHI TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2181 Park Blvd.
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 328-7337
Dr. Melvin A. Piestrup
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Large Area X-ray Lenses for Directed-Energy, Sensing, and Imaging Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop large-area refractive x-ray lenses for medical, industrial, scientific, and directed-energy applications. In prior research and development, Adelphi Technology Inc. has developed compound refractive lenses (CRLs) that can focus and collimate hard x-rays. These lenses have very small apertures (< 1 mm) and are, therefore, limited in many applications. We propose to develop inexpensive lenses with unlimited aperture sizes capable of operating at x-ray wavelengths where medical and industrial applications abound. These lenses will have advantages of larger collection area, higher gain, and better resolution than previous compound refractive lenses. They will permit the imaging of layers at selected depths in objects unlike conventional radiography, which only produces only a shadow of the complete object. The proposed technology relies on well-documented techniques used in visible optics and, thus, has a high likelihood of success. The geometry, methods of fabrication and lens materials will be explored. A prototype lens system will be designed, fabricated, and tested. The development of x-ray lenses capable of focusing sources and imaging large objects will revolutionize military, medical, industrial and biological imaging, materials research, and nondestructive testing. Large x-ray apertures permit long range focusing and collection of x-rays for directed-energy and sensing applications.

ADVANCED ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
27 Industrial Blvd., Unit E
Medford, NY 11763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 514-0315
Dr. Hans Bluem
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Compact, High Power Microwave Amplifier
Abstract:High power microwave (HPM) sources have important potential application in a variety of military and non-military areas. One of the key stepping stones to reaching many of these applications is the development of a source capable of gigawatt level power output in a microsecond long pulse at a reasonable repetition rate. In addition, it would be highly desirable if this source were reasonably compact. A fast-wave amplifier such as the ubitron is the best choice for ultra-high-power applications. We propose to investigate a variation of the ubitron amplifier coupled with a compact Marx generator that holds promise for satisfying all of the above stated criteria. The discriminating attributes of a ubitron is its potential for a relatively wide instantaneous bandwidth, its wide-band tunability, and its potential for very high power operation. Significant military high power microwave (HPM) directed energy weapon and countermeasure applications exist at various pulse energy levels and frequencies, which will benefit from the proposed SBIR project. Non-DoD/commercial applications that could make use of such a source include material processing, pipeline cleaning, future TeV particle accelerators, and plasma heating of fusion energy devices.

ADVR INC.
910 Technology Blvd, Suite K
Bozeman, MT 59718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 522-0388
Dr. Philip Battle
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate:A new approach for a new material
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a promising new technique for fabricating periodic domain gratings in stoichiometric lithium tantalate(SLT). The key innovation in this SBIR effort is the use of externally mounted micro-electrodes to electrically pole the material. This poling technique, made possible because of the low coercive field found in SLT, will significantly reduce the complexity of the poling setup and thus result in lower fabrication costs and higher output yields than has previously been possible. In addition, this technique should make it possible to periodically pole SLT wafers up to 5 mm thick. Periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate, because of its increased ultra-violet(uv) transparency and high resistance to optical and photorefractive damage, will enable highly efficient, quasi-phase matched, nonlinear optical frequency conversion of high power continuous wave and pulsed laser radiation. The anticipated results of the Phase I effort include a demonstration of periodic poling using the micro-electrode technology and a preliminary assessment of the effect different sample thicknesses have on the quality of the grating period. In the Phase II effort, the poling technology will be refined and grating structures suitable for MDA specifc applications will be fabricated. The ability to engineer customized domain gratings in thick wafers of SLT will greatly expand its functionality and enable a broad range of new applications for both military and commercial purposes. For example, sequential gratings fabricated in single SLT wafers could be used to double and then triple a Nd:YAG laser or to combine quasi-phase matched optical parametric generation and difference frequency mixing for enhanced idler generation. Up-conversion to the uv will have applications in medicine, materials processing and optical lithography, while down-conversion to the mid-infrared will find applications in IR countermeasures, guidance and communications

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R. Mayes
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:A Gatling Marx Generator System for Directed Energy Defense and Radar Detection of Cruise and Ballistic Missiles
Abstract: Abstract not available...

ARKLIGHT, INC.
1540 Nettleship Street, Suite 14
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(501) 521-3934
Dr. Wei Shi
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:A new THz-to-millimeter-wave source
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project focuses on the implementation of a new THz module that can emit coherent and tunable THz waves. Recently, coherent THz radiation was generated at room temperature by PI, with a tuning range of 56.8-1618 m (5.27 - 0.18 THz), in GaSe based on difference-frequency generation. The peak THz power can be as high as 69.4 W at 196 m. The corresponding photon conversion efficiency reaches 3.3%. The objectives for Phase I include optimized design and detailed testing of the THz module. This module consists of all the optics, opto-mechanical components with knobs for adjustments, a mounted GaSe crystal, and a GaAs etalon for THz wavelength measurements. This module can be initially pumped by two laser beams, e.g., Nd:YAG laser and MOPO system. Presently, electro-optic sampling becomes a widely-accepted technique in the THz domain. However, for some applications such as the identifications of substances by the absorption of THz waves, there is a critical need for the development of a coherent quasi-CW THz source. To be usable for this application, the THz radiation should have high coherence, a narrow linewidth, a high power, and a low divergence angle. Such a type of the instrument can be eventually used for target acquisition as well as tracking and pointing. It also has applications in pollution monitoring, identifying toxic chemicals, remote sensing, molecular spectroscopy, bio-medical imaging, and security screening. It is expected that the proposed THz source will have applications in target acquisition as well as tracking and pointing. It can dramatically impact molecular spectroscopy. Such a type of the instrument can be eventually used to study pollution and toxic chemicals, for remote sensing, bio-medical imaging, and security screening. Moreover, such a THz source can be used to characterize optical phonons for solid state materials.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1505 Coal Creek Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Mark Lake
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Shockless, Thermally Actuated Release Nut
Abstract:Spacecraft require a variety of separation and release devices to accomplish mission-related functions. Composite Technology Development, Inc. and Starsys Research Corporation propose to develop and demonstrate an innovative, non-pyrotechnic, shockless retention and release device called the Shockless Thermally Actuated Release Nut (STAR Nut). Reducing shock-induced release and separation loads dramatically lowers the overall cost of spacecraft design, testing, and operation. The proposed device will have broad applicability to military, scientific and commercial spacecraft.

CU AEROSPACE
2004 S. Wright St. Extended
Urbana, IL 61802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 333-8274
Dr. David Carroll
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Closed-Cycle ElectriCOIL Technology
Abstract:The primary objective of CU AerospaceOs Phase I work will be to develop all-gas-phase closed-cycle electrically assisted COIL (ElectriCOIL) technology. CU Aerospace (CUA) and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) believe that this challenge can be surmounted with changes to gain generator research including 1) radically new O2(1D) generator subsystems which are amenable to closed-cycle operation; and 2) the total elimination of massive liquid phase laser fuel and pressure recovery systems by use of closed-cycle operations. Many technologies will merge to lead to a successful demonstration of the ElectriCOIL concept. These include discharge and injection techniques, further work with the properties of oxygen discharges, as well as materials research. Our experienced team of investigators represents disciplines in Aerospace Engineering and Electrical Engineering that provide the necessary broad base and the combined background to be successful in this challenging research effort in a relatively short period of time. Our teamOs depth of research experience with DOD lasers gives us a very good probability of success and the payoff for success in this multi-disciplinary endeavor is unusually high. The resulting closed-cycle chemical iodine laser has two primary markets D military and commercial. From a military standpoint, there will be a significant weight savings for BMDO Directed Energy programs as the massive quantities of liquid chemicals for classic COIL will be completely eliminated from the device operation, as well as a reduction in cost per kilowatt. The utility of commercial systems will be greatly enhanced by the development of closed-cycle ElectriCOIL technology.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
14125 Candlewood Ct.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 333-9029
Dr. Thomas L. Henshaw
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:A Scalable, All Gas Singlet Oxygen Generator for the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser
Abstract:A novel, electric/optical hybrid generator of singlet delta oxygen will be developed and analyzed. Singlet delta oxygen is the power source for the chemical oxygen iodine laser. This approach eliminates the use of toxic and explosive chemicals in the laser. In this concept for a gas-solid flow reactor, organic photosensitizers are immobilized on high surface area substrates. These photosensitizers are optically excited to metastable states by well-developed diode sources. Oxygen wall collisions in the flow reactor result in a transfer of energy and significant production of singlet delta. Fabrication of a gas-flow reactor and generation of flows of singlet oxygen will demonstrate concept feasibility. The combination of experimental testing and system modeling will culminate in a detailed design for a multi-kilowatt singlet oxygen generator. If proven successful, the generator will eliminate the technical problems of the aqueous peroxide-based COIL generators and provide an efficient all gas-phase, singlet oxygen generator for a wide assortment of laser applications in SBL, ABL and tactical missions. Additionally, the gas-flow rector will enable a commercial version of an oxygen iodine laser for high power material processing applications. The generator concepts examined in this proposal have the potential to impact high energy laser programs of the future. The knowledge gained in this effort will provide the basis for which to design, test and demonstrate more efficient COIL devices. The research performed under this contract will demonstrate a device that will minimize, if not eliminate, complications and inefficiencies present in the O2(singlet delta) and aqueous based singlet oxygen generators. A photosensitizer based singlet delta generator implemented in a next generation oxygen iodine laser would have significant applications in material processing. For years the chemical oxygen iodine laser has been considered an ideal source for materials processing because of its high average power and near perfect beam quality. However, the constraints imposed by the chemical operation have precluded its use in an industrial setting. At the kilowatt level of operation, its narrow line operation and superb beam quality would make it the best materials processing tool in the world. It would be used for welding, cutting, laser surface treatment, and micro machining. Since its wavelength of operation is compatible with fiber propagation, it can be distributed through fiber optics from a centrally located, high power device to a series of individual workstations in a material processing plant. Its narrow linewidth enhances frequency conversion efficiencies allowing for development of a short wavelength, high power source. This will be important for micro machining and photolithography applications.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
14125 Candlewood Ct.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 333-9029
Dr. Thomas L. Henshaw
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:A High-Flux NCl3 Generator for the All Gas Iodine Laser
Abstract:The All Gas Iodine Laser (AGIL) has been proposed as the next generation chemical laser for weapons applications. It has a strong heritage to the two current weapons grade chemical lasers, the Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Laser and Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL). AGIL uses an HF combustor for operation and the same lasing species and a similar energy transfer mechanism as COIL. AGIL is powered by excited NCl(a1') metastables through the reaction of Cl atoms with hydrogen azide (HN3), a highly explosive and unstable species. We propose to develop and deliver a device that uses NCl3 chemistry as an alternative source for NCl(a1') production, eliminating the risks inherent in the use of HN3. Fabrication of an efficient NCl3 gas-flow generator and storage of high concentrations of NCl3 will demonstrate concept feasibility. The combination of experimental testing and system modeling will culminate in a detailed design for an NCl3 generator sized to power a multi-kilowatt AGIL. If proven successful, the generator will eliminate the technical problems of the hydrogen azide-based AGIL and support the use of AGIL in a wide range of laser applications. These include SBL, ABL, and tactical missions in addition to various commercial high-power materials processing applications. The generator concepts examined in this proposal have the potential to impact high energy laser programs of the future. The knowledge gained in this effort will provide the basis for which to design, test and demonstrate more efficient AGIL devices. The research performed under this contract will demonstrate a device that will minimize, if not eliminate, complications and inefficiencies present in the hydrogen azide-based AGIL. Provided the NCl3 generator and AGIL can scale to significant power levels, it is anticipated the AGIL system could readily impact critical national directed energy missions. This is especially true with respect to AGIL insertion into the SBL and ABL HEL programs, where significant cost savings, increased reliability, improved logistics, and substantial risk reduction are possible. The NCl3 generator concept proposed in Phase I would have significant applications in material processing. For years, a chemical pumped iodine laser (COIL or AGIL) has been considered an ideal source for materials processing because of its high average power and near perfect beam quality. However, the constraints imposed by using highly unstable materials (BHP and HN3) have precluded its use in an industrial setting. In contrast, NCl3, which has a demonstrated industrial utility for over 50 years, is a viable replacement for the deleterious chemistry that has limited COIL and AGIL implementation in industrial applications. At the kilowatt level of operation, the narrow line operation and superb beam quality would make it the best materials processing tool in the world. It would be used for welding, cutting, laser surface treatment, and micro machining. Since its wavelength of operation is compatible with fiber propagation, it can be distributed through fiber optics from a centrally located, high power device to a series of individual workstations in a material processing plant. Compared to its two main competitors, CO2 and diode pumped solid-state, it has much better coupling efficiency and much better beam quality at high power. Its narrow linewidth enhances frequency conversion efficiencies allowing for development of a short wavelength, high power source. This will be important for micro machining and photolithography applications.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
14125 Candlewood Ct.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-9802
Dr. Tom Henshaw
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Broadly Tunable Optical Source for Strategic Defense Applications
Abstract:The development of a novel, highly efficient, broadly tunable source of visible and near infrared light is proposed. The device is expected to have a usable emission bandwidth from 450 nm to 1000 nm making it the most broadly tunable device ever. Alternative dopants may extend the gain bandwidth far into the infrared. The demonstrated broad ultraviolet to visible absorption band of the material couples exceptionally well to broadband optical sources, such as high-efficiency Xe lamps and laser sources including frequency doubled, diode pumped Nd:YAG. The laser will have broad applications in defense and commercial markets. Defense applications include a laser source for high power HF device diagnostics and alignment (third harmonic of 2.6-2.9 microns), femtosecond ultrafast lasers, a high power optically pumped oxygen iodine laser, and electro-optical countermeasures across the visible/near infrared. Frequency doubling could provide a compact, tunable source of ultraviolet radiation for covert communications and biological agent detection. Commercial applications include a 10 W source for the projection industry, as well as application in medical photodynamic therapy and imaging. Frequency doubling could provide a compact, tunable source of ultraviolet radiation for information storage applications. Commercial applications include a 10 W source for the projection industry, as well as application in medical photodynamic therapy and imaging. Frequency doubling could provide a compact, tunable source of ultraviolet radiation for information storage applications.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Dr. Everett G. Farr
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:An Integrated Portable High-Voltage Ultra-Wideband Transmitter
Abstract:High-voltage Ultra-Wideband transmitters are a key component in a wide variety of systems involving directed energy weapons, UWB radar, and secure communications. These applications require a UWB transmitter that combines a portable high-gain antenna with a fast-risetime high-voltage triggered source that is battery powered. Until recently, both the antennas and sources were too large and heavy to be practical for portable operation. New technologies are now available in both UWB sources and antennas that, when combined, would allow one to build a lightweight transmitter. Such a device would integrate a compact triggered wave-erection Marx generator into the center support of a Collapsible Impulse Radiating Antenna (CIRA). CIRAs with a four-foot diameter have already demonstrated outstanding performance in transmitting low-voltage signals, and these antennas could be enhanced for higher voltages. In addition, compact versions of a wave erection Marx generator have already been demonstrated with 300 kV peak voltage and 200 ps risetime. To achieve a compact UWB transmitter, we propose to integrate a compact Marx generator into the center support rod of a CIRA. The size of the resulting transmitter when collapsed would be about four inches in diameter, 2.5 feet in length, and would weigh about 15 pounds. During Phase I we will build both a prototype CIRA and a wave-erection Marx generator, which could be combined to form an integrated UWB transmitter. The CIRA will have a center support that will allow the Marx generator to fit within it. The Marx generator will be designed to operate at 300 kV peak voltage and 200 ps risetime. The pulser will operate at a repetition rate of 100 Hz, and it will drive a 200-ohm load. We will also design and test a zipper transition between the source and antenna. This research will lead to a new design for a compact integrated UWB transmitter, including triggered source and antenna. This device will be suitable for use as a portable directed energy weapon, or as a component of an Ultra-Wideband radar or secure communication system. A prototype antenna and source will be built and tested during Phase I, and the system will be integrated in Phase II.

JAYCOR, INC.
3394 Carmel Mountain Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 344-7455
Dr. Carl F Bloemker
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Phase Array Microwave System (PAMS)
Abstract:The Phase Array Microwave System (PAMS) concept will significantly reduce the risk and development time to field a practical HPM source for Theater Missile Defense system applications. PAMS is a novel approach which uses a phased array of microwave sources to leapfrog current technology limitations in order to field a microwave system in the near term. The PAMS concept is based on the principle of pattern multiplication. The Effective Radiating Power (ERP) has the potential to be increased by N^2, where N is the number of antennas. In a PAMS configuration all the transmit antennas can form one powerful beam to engage a distant threat. The transmitters can be sectioned into groups to attack medium range tactical threats. In close, the individual transmitters can operate independently to simultaneously engage close in threats. In addition, a PAMS system offers the opportunity to deny the use of space assets above the PAMS system. The PAMS system can be used to increase the capabilities of commercial aircraft tracking and location.

LIGHT PROCESSING & TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4028 Laurel Branch Ln
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 823-6983
Dr. Leon Glebov
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Holographic filters with adjustable transmittance for high power lasers
Abstract:The overall objective of the proposal is to develop the technology of production of robust filters with adjustable transmittance based on the phase Bragg gratings in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass. This glass is a very promising photosensitive medium for volume holograms because it has excellent response at any spatial frequencies up to ~10000 mm-1, large spectral window from 300 to 4000 nm, and perfect thermal, optical and mechanical stability. The adjustable filters should enable to vary the transmitted power of laser beam including high power laser radiation at least 100 times for selected wavelength in the indicated region. Total losses of beam power should not exceed (5-10)%. The important features of these filters will be an attenuation just of selected wavelength, large working area and homogeneously variable transmittance, high laser-induced damage threshold, and a stability of parameters over a long period of work. Such holographic mirrors can be the key components for different optical systems developed for task BMDO/02-001 which utilize laser beams including high power radiation. The target is the adjustable filters in photosensitive silicate glass. They are absent now on the market, though the stability of filters in silicate glasses is higher than normal filters and they can be favorable priced. Moreover, they are very promising for using in large-aperture high power laser systems because they have relatively small constructive overall dimensions and high laser-induced damage threshold. These adjustable filters should find very wide application anywhere from civil to military market and from low power laser to large-scale laser systems.

LITEWEAVER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
DBA LightMatrix Technologies,, 204 East Park Drive
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 722-0001
Dr. Anirudha Sumant
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:High Performance Diamond MEMS based RF Devices
Abstract:Over the last several years, Argonne National Laboratory has developed ultra-smooth diamond thin films that can be used in many applications. In this phase I project, we propose to develop the processes to fabricate high performance, harsh environment, low noise, RF-MEMS switches, based on this ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) technology. In phase I, we will demonstrate the core technology by fabricating small prototypes of UNCD based RF-MEMS switches and evaluating their electrical and switching characteristics and as well as mechanical properties. In phase II, we will focus on integration and evaluation of many RF-MEMS switches to develop a new class of high performance, mechanically robust RF-MEMS switch which can be used for space and defense applications. Applications of the proposed technology include novel RF MEMS devices, optical switches for telecommunication, biomedical sensors, field emission devices, hard coatings and vacuum microelectronic devices.

LUTRONICS
28 Ruthellen Rd.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 821-8448
Dr. Yalin Lu
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Nonlinear Optical Crystal--Large Aperture and High Nonlinearity
Abstract:Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate crystal (SLT: 50/50) was found to be overwhelmingly superior over its congruent counterpart (CLT: 48.75/51.25) in nonlinear optical, electro-optical (EO), UV transparency, and domain reversion. Third harmonic generation via periodically poled structure inside this SLT crystal is expected to be more efficient, and to be more realistic for fabricating novel compact UV lasers. However, many fundamental material properties related to the crystal are unidentified even till today. This project will thoroughly examine the crystal optical and electrical poling characteristics to identify those properties such as the maximum poling depth, minimum poling period, dispersion, and material absorption, via using Lutronics extensive experience in nonlinear optic materials and the development of the related devices. Successes in this Phase I effort related to the study of poling dynamics and optical properties of SLT crystal will identify the promise of this developed process for further UV or IR laser development. The military and civilian applications are diverse, including information storage, laser countermeasure, and laser sensing.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION INC
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Mr. Raffi Sahul
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Free-form Optics Polishing by Magnetorheological Approach
Abstract:Free-form optics such as mirrors for surveillance, UV lenses for lithography, X-ray mirrors for X-ray lithography, conformal optics (spherical and aspherical), laser rods and windows are some of the important defense and commercial applications of optic materials. The demand on optical performance of these materials is increasing significantly. To achieve high optical performance, ultraprecision polishing is required for these optical surfaces. Conventional methods cannot achieve high surface finish and are time-consuming and labor intensive. Materials Modification Inc proposes to polish such free-form optics with a novel magnetorheological approach. The Phase I efforts will evaluate the proposed approach by polishing samples of silicon carbide mirrors and sapphire flats. The proposed technique can be used to polish large area tracking and scanning lightweight mirrors Other potential defense applications include solar collectors and concentrators, X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) mirrors Commercial applications include high-precision polishing of mirrors and aspheric lenses

MS TECHNOLOGY
7922 Avenida Kirjah
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 558-6363
Dr. Saeid Ghamaty
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Heat Removal Device for Munition
Abstract:Advanced Future Munition (FM) as well as chip and board level space or munition electronics or optoelectronics will require innovative heat removal solutions to enable them to meet size, weight, power, high reliability, and low cost. Commonly, these approaches are based on efficient 2-D and 3-D arrangements of electronics, often involving "multi-chip modules" (MCMs). As chips are brought closer together, the area/volume power densities and, therefore, heat increases. MS Technology (MST) proposes a new type of heat removal modular device, which could solve space or munition electronic packaging problems of the FM and large scale electronic and optoelectronics systems. This new approach removes the generated heat by first converting it to electricity which could be dissipated in a shunt resistor far from the device or supplement the main system power supply. This supplementary power source further increases reliability, reduces cost and weight of the entire system. MST will evaluate and develop conceptual designs for this new device that should provide significant thermal management improvements compared to the thermal management techniques used in heat removal approaches now. MST will conduct proof of concept demonstrations to indicate the practicality of such techniques for use in device electronic systems. A low cost high performance heat removal modular device, will find commercial application in projects of interest to government, industry and academia, especially with respect to commercial applications. It is also possible in certain circumstances to find applications in other domains, where large amounts of dense circuitry can be confined with limited air flow boundary conditions. In view of general smaller satellite requirements (for cooling more high-power, more dense electronics with less costly, lighter weight, and more reliable systems) the potential market for a successful thermal management system is quite large for both the military (DoD), civilian (NASA) and commercial satellite industries. Potential commercial applications of the thermal management component(s)/system and associated technologies developed by this effort include communications and weather satellites and terrestrial thermal management systems, including co-generation applications, and residential, commercial and industrial heating and air conditioning.

ONYX OPTICS, INC.
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 833-1969
Dr. Helmuth Meissner
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Nd:GGG Adhesive-Free Bonding to enable 100kW Heat Capacity Laser for Ground and Air Based Missile Defense Systems
Abstract:Onyx Optics herein seeks SBIR funding to further its efforts related to GGG Adhesive-Free Bonding (AFB) for the 100kW Heat Capacity Laser program. To date efforts have focused on AFB of parasitic absorbing Cr4+:GGG claddings onto a central Nd:GGG slab. The work being proposed here also would evaluate edge-bonding of Nd:GGG to itself to facilitate larger size crystals than currently able to be grown by crystal growth techniques, in order to satisfy the slab size requirements for the Heat Capacity Laser program. Bonding interface behavior for GGG is not yet fully understood and not reproducible for large (6" x 2") cross sections. Some of the AFB interfaces produced to date have been acceptable for cladding architectures, but not for edge-bonding of Nd:GGG to make crystals larger than currently can be grown. The principal objective is to meet the requirements of the Heat Capacity Laser program for final-sized clad composite amplifier plates. Onyx AFB is expected to enable the most compact possible Heat Capacity Laser design, in order that such a system may be deployed in airborne missile defense systems such as ABL and UAV, as well as ground-based systems. Completion of a Phase I & II SBIR on this subject would enable a reliable supply of AFB GGG slab components of sufficient size and quality, to satisfy the design requirements of the Heat Capacity Laser program.

PHYSICS, MATERIALS & APPLIED MATH RESEARCH, L.L.C.
1333 N. Tyndall Ave. suite 212
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 882-7349
Dr. Kevin Kremeyer
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Lethality Using Self-Channeling Short-Pulse Lasers.
Abstract:Laser radiation suffers from two fundamental problems in Directed Energy applications: diffraction and turbulence. Our research has demonstrated the potential of directing the energy of a pulse along 100 micron diameter self-ionizing channels or "filaments". Preliminary estimates indicate that these filaments can contain up to 1 Joule of energy each, propagate over kilometers, and keep their integrity despite turbulence. Current systems, with no turbulence and perfect optics, would require lens/mirror diameters on the order of 25 meters to acieve a comparable "focus". In contrast, our system is constructed using optical elements of only a few centimeters to form the 100 micron filaments which are only vulnerable to ~100 micron turbulence (which is not of concern in the atmostphere). Our team consists of physicist and optics/materials faculty, and our preliminary results have been obtained in the world-class ultrafast laser laboratories at the Universtiy of New Mexico. We propose that these self-focusing "waveguides" be used individulally to riddle a target with small holes, or in bundles to deliver more energy simultaneously. Commercial applications for individual filaments are micromachining/processing, medical/surgical use, and imaging/remote sensing. It is anticipated that the system will allow accurate and consistent delivery, over kilometers, of laser energy constrained to travel along self-generated, ionized paths on the order of 100 microns in diameter. This sharp concentration of energy will be afforded despite the very small/deployable optical elements we will use. The result of these attributes are anticipated to be Directed Energy systems which are much more compact and energy efficient. The gain in efficiency will allow the use of solid state lasers, which will be much more robust and deployable. The UV filamentation depends only on intensity, allowing the energy to be scaled up by using longer pulses. Nanosecond pulses can be used for delivering very narrowly-focussed Joule-level deposition, useful in directed energy applications, whereas femtosecond/picosecond pulses can be used to deliver much smaller amounts of energy (micro-to milli-Joules) for micromachining and surgical/medical applications. Another benefit of using such high power-densities is that any material encountered by the filament/pulse is instantly vaporized, including countermeasure reflective coatings. In addition to the military applications, this systems can be commercially applied to micromachining, because of its ability to drill 100 micron wide holes (or less), to an effectively unlimited depth, with no taper. Consistent holes of this size, with "infinite" apsect ratio are currently not achievable, and would be of great use in microfluidics applications. We also intend to explore medical applications. The much smaller markets of remote sensing (currently performed using LIDAR techniques) and guidestar generation can be strongly impacted by this technology, but the initial entry into the market must presumably be led by military applications. The adaptive mirror we will implement to remove the aberrations from our gas amplifier stages will also prove beneficial in general military and commercial laser applications.

PROMETHEUS II, LTD.
P.O. Box 1037
College Park, MD 20741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 445-1075
Paul M. Koloc
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:PHASER: Phased Hyper-Acceleration for Shock, EMP, and Radiation
Abstract:The objective of this funds-restricted SBIR Phase I proposal is to demonstrate the merit of the core concept by physically forming the stable and highly rugged magnetoplasmoid (PMK) of ~25 cm diameter and one to five second lifetime in STP atmospheric air, and thus physically produce the PMK at weapon size. The proposed work is a direct extension of previous laboratory results that were marginal for acceleration studies and weapons application, because the initial work used lower energy and shorter current signature inputs. The Phase I physical demonstration will confirm scalability of the formation process and achieve formation of the "Encapsulated EMP Bullet" that will be compressed and accelerated during Phase II to hyperkinetic velocities from 50 to 200 kilometers/sec. Since the PMK is stable, a range of plasmoid energies and velocities are possible; consequently, the target goals for BMDO can be expanded. PLASMAKT technology has exciting potential for a PHASER weapon that launches hyperkinetic encapsulated EMP bullets directed at remote targets. It can be used for a range of purposes from stunning personnel to destroying the functionality of electronically operated devices, smaller rockets, vehicles, and packages that represent an immediate threat to the United States. This dialable PHASER weapon can be set on "Stun" or dialed down, selecting a non-lethal level for persons needed for later interrogation. The Phaser weapon resulting from Phase III commercial development will be made available to Defense, law enforcement, and intelligence organizations such as U.S. Army, Special Forces, Southern Command, DEA, the FBI, CIA, and numerous other groups that will benefit from their use. One mundane application for law enforcement would be the disruption of the engine electronics to stop vehicles that would otherwise be the target of a high-speed chase. Dialable versions of the PHASER will be available for use in civilian encounters. A number of manufacturers and specialty tool shops will be selected to produce components that Prometheus II, Ltd. will use to assemble and calibrate Phaser weapons for commercial distribution. For security purposes, each component will be produced by one or two different manufacturers. All manufacturers will be unrelated and will be chosen according to good project engineering physics and business management practices. BMDO will need advanced ultrakinetic projectiles that are launched at fractional lightspeed. In turn future high pulse power machines generating massive driver energy per pulse will be required. These are currently beyond the scope of this preliminary endeavor. Basic PLASMAKT technology will become the solution to this next problem within an additional time frame and at an appropriate funding level.

THE CORE GROUP, INC.
PO Box 11247
Albuquerque, NM 87192
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 258-9256
Mr. Kevin Probst
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Target Identification (ETID) for Strategic HEL Systems Using Bayesian-Topological Fusion Classification.
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of an enhanced target identification (ETID) method of classifying and identifying boost phase threat objects for targeting by a strategic HEL weapon such as a Space Based Laser (SBL), a Ground Based Laser (GBL) or an Airborne Laser (ABL) weapon. The work to be accomplished builds on past work on Target Identification (TID) algorithms accomplished for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Information Fusion (IF) Directorate. Under previous work, a concept for an ETID algorithm was formulated and preliminary design work was accomplished. However, due to funding reductions from BMDO, the actual full design, implementation, and testing of the ETID algorithm was not accomplished. We propose to finish the work on the ETID algorithm by completing the full algorithm design, developing the full algorithm for the current HEL weapon systems designs and missions, and testing the full algorithm using simulated and real threat data as available. The outputs of the Phase I program will be a prototype Enhanced Target Identification Algorithm, a detailed performance assessment of the ETID algorithm, and a plan for Phase II development of an operational algorithm. The proposed program would take a significant step toward solving one of the most difficult problems for SBL sensor, tracking, and weapon systems, that of identifying targets during an engagement. The resulting ETID algorithm technology could be applied to many other missile defense needs such as the ABL, GBL, and SBIRS programs, as well as non-BMD target tracking and engagement systems.

V CORP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7042 Nighthawk Court
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-1011
Dr. Scott R. Velazquez
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:ADC with Adaptive Parallel Combining for Improved SNR and SFDR
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project demonstrates a very high-resolution Analog-to-Digital Converter with Adaptive Parallel Combining (called Stacked ADC) which uses a parallel stack of high-speed, high-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with adaptive signal combining to dramatically improve resolution (both Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) ) while maintaining very high sample rate (wide bandwidth). Proprietary adaptive processing is used to optimally combine the parallel ADC outputs to maximize the SNR and SFDR. Proprietary digital FIR filtering is used to insure the parallel array of ADCs are extremely well-matched in gain and phase; when the parallel ADC signals are combined, these gain and phase mismatches would otherwise introduce errors in the ADC that significantly limit the dynamic range of the system. The Stacked ADC architecture will always exceed state-of-the-art because it can easily be upgraded as new, more powerful ADC products become available. For example, this technology is currently capable of using four 12-bit, 210 MHz sample rate ADCs in parallel to improve the SNR and SFDR by 26 dB over a wide range of input power levels and while maintaining the full 210 MHz sample rate. A stack of parallel ADCs and the efficient digital signal processing can be packaged in a compact, low-power multi-chip module (MCM) for use in the next generation of high-performance radar systems and RF receivers. The architecture is also applicable to dramatically improving the SNR and SFDR of digital-to-analog conversion for radar and RF transmission systems. Because the Stacked ADC approach maximizes the SNR and SFDR over a wide range of input signal levels, it significantly reduces (or eliminates) the need for additional automatic gain control (AGC) with feedback circuitry and variable gain amplifiers. V-Corp is currently working with Analog Devices, Inc. and their multi-chip products division on developing and packaging various high-performance multi-converter technologies, including the Stacked ADC. During Phase I, V-Corp will demonstrate the architecture via hardware breadboarding and using proprietary digital signal processing routines to improve the SNR and SFDR of the converter system. A real-time hardware implementation of the digital signal processing in the architecture will be designed in a Phase I Option. During Phase II, a compact real-time implementation of the Stacked ADC system will be implemented and integrated in a target system (e.g., advanced digital radar). The Stacked ADC approach overcomes the critical A/D conversion bottleneck which limits performance of state-of-the-art radio frequency transceiver systems. Virtually any high-performance modern electronic system will benefit from the technique. Significant applications include enhancement of radar systems, wideband universal RF transceivers, specialized test equipment, and medical imaging systems.

XINETICS INC.
2 Buena Vista
Devens, MA 01432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-0352
Dr. Thomas Price
MDA 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:High Gain Bandwidth Deformable Mirror for High Energy Lasers
Abstract:Compensation of thermal blooming and high scintillation affects requires simultaneous large amplitude and large bandwidth operation or high gain bandwidth. Present deformable mirror technology, provides 3 to 4 microns stroke with a full amplitude bandwidth approaching 500-Hz. It has been a design criteria that as the bandwidth increased, the amplitude decreased specific to a power spectral density profile set forth for the application. Recent test results have shown that present mirrors are limited by the ability of the actuators to withstand the high peak current loads required for the high gain bandwidth operational mode. Recent test results have also shown that present deformable mirror driver electronics do not source enough peak current to drive the actuator capacitive load to stable, high gain bandwidth products. The high gain and bandwidth deformable mirror will allow many compact laser propagation systems to overcome significantly more turbulent propagation paths than is currently possible. Laser communications, high energy beam weapon systems, tactical targeting systems and others would directly benefit from the development of the proposed Deformable mirror system.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Mr. Michael Fulcher
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Guidance Algorithm to Increase Hit-to-Kill Intercept Accuracy
Abstract:The high accuracies required by hit-to-kill interception places severe demands on interceptor maneuverability and flight control time response when engaging targets that are maneuvering either intentionally or unintentionally. A well-known guidance law for use against a maneuvering target is augmented proportional navigation (APN). It has been recently demonstrated that the limitations of APN can be overcome through the use of a new non-linear guidance (NLG) algorithm. The maneuver advantage requirement is much less, and it is effective with time constants that would otherwise degrade the performance of APN. Results are based on a two dimensional non-linear model with the target performing a weave maneuver. The new algorithm can achieve increased intercept accuracy under minimal maneuver advantage requirements over a wide range of initial conditions with reasonable levels of angle noise and target maneuver estimation error. Minimum maneuver advantage is essential in minimizing interceptor divert, and thus, minimizing weight and size. It is proposed that research be performed to refine the current NGL algorithm formulation and initiate the transition to executable code, with focus on implementing the algorithm on a 3-degree of freedom simulation with real word limitations on the availability, fidelity, and accuracy of measurement information. This research promises to contribute to future performance enhancements of those kill vehicles engaging maneuvering targets in the terminal and boost phases. If future countermeasures in the mid-course phase employ maneuvers, the NGL algorithms can play a role in mitigating the effects.

AEP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13110 NE 177th PL #234
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 672-1755
Mr. Randel Hoskins
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Low Shock, Shroud Separation System
Abstract:One of the key ballistic missile defense system approaches is the use of hit-to-kill vehicles. Shrouds are used to protect the kill vehicle's IR homing seekers. These protective shrouds need to be tightly held to the kill vehicle during flyout and then upon command, quickly released to expose the seeker. The shrouds have to be released with sufficient energy to prevent them from recontacting the kill vehicle. Conventional shroud release/ejection systems typically rely on explosive bolts, linear shaped charge, or explosively driven X-Cord to release the shroud haves. The pyrotechnic shocks imparted to the kill vehicle by the shroud removal system can create design and performance problems. The shroud separation pyroshocks can damage/misalign the relatively fragile seeker head of the kill vehicle and/or cause problems with the kill vehicle's IMU sensors. Efforts to make the seeker and IMU strong enough to withstand these shocks add kill vehicle weight and complexity while reducing kill vehicle performance. AEP Technologies is proposing a shroud separation system that would greatly reduce the shroud separation induced shocks. The low shock shroud separation technology proposed by AEP is applicable to a wide range of military and commercial missiles deploying shrouds. Operation of current technology, shroud separation systems induce large shocks into the kill-vehicles. These shocks create design and operational problems for the kill-vehicle's seeker and IMUs. These shocks can damage or misalign the seeker creating targeting problems. Similarly, these shocks can overwhelm IMU sensors (accelerometers, rate sensors, etc.) creating control problems and requiring more robust (and accordingly less sensitive) sensors. Efforts to minimize the problems caused by the shroud separation shocks increase kill vehicle weight, increase system complexity, reduces system performance and can reduce targeting and control accuracies. The Low Shock, Shroud Separation System (LSSS) reduces/eliminates these issues by greatly reducing shroud separation shocks imparted to the kill vehicle. The LSSS system is also applicable to protective shrouds of commercial missile launch vehicles. Induced pyroshocks associated with shroud removal are key design drivers for both commercial launch vehicles and their payloads. The LSSS shroud separator reduces launch system parasitic weights (i.e., allows larger/heavier payloads to be carried) and reduces launch stresses (increased payload reliability).

AEP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13110 NE 177th PL #234
Woodinville, WA 90872
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 672-1755
Mr. Randel Hoskins
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:MKV Dispenser
Abstract:The MKV ballistic missile interceptor system use large numbers of small MKV interceptors launched using a single booster. The MKV interceptors are deployed from the carrier vehicle to intercept and destroy multiple objects in the midcourse phase of a ballistics missile's trajectory. The MKV system provides a means to address countermeasures through multiple intercepts of all non-discriminated objects within a threat cluster. A critical aspect of MKV system concept is release of the individual MKVs from the carrier/launch vehicle. To avoid performance degradation or damage, the MKVs must be dispensed on controlled velocity vectors without inducing significant pitch, roll and yaw motions into the MKVs. AEP is proposing the development of an MKV dispenser. The dispenser would be capable of simultaneously dispensing a single tier of MKVs. The dispenser uses a pyrotechnically inflated metallic bag. The bag would be installed as a flattened toroid between the MKVs and the carrier vehicle. The location and geometry of the bag and the rate of bag inflation are used to dispense the MKVs on controlled vectors without imposing pitch, roll or yaw motions to the MKVs. A metallic bag is used to avoid any bag leakage or storage life concerns. This program will lead to the design and development of a lightweight, MKV (Miniature Kill Vehicle) carriage and dispensing system based upon inflatable metallic bags. The MKV dispenser would allow individual rings (tiers) of MKVs to be dispensed with very tightly controlled dispense velocities and radial directions. This same inflatable, metallic bag dispenser technology could be used for DoD submunition dispensing applications where precise dispensing control and no dispense bag leakage is required.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R. Mayes
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:A Pulsed Microwave Radar Source For Seeker Missile Systems
Abstract:Kinetic Kill systems, such as Seeker missiles, rely on Continuous Wave (CW) microwave signals or Infrared (IR) technologies for tracking entry vehicles. These systems are coupled with a volume/range tradeoff and have not proven to be a reliable means of tracking missile threats. Common reasons include their susceptibility to countermeasures and their long processing time of information. Both systems typically deliver long pulses of energy. CW radar systems tend to be large, complex and with a delivery of a low powered signal. Likewise, IR systems require a long pulse for a low signal-to-noise ratio. The net result is that reflected information from the target must be processed in the frequency domain and converted to the time domain. This proposal offers a novel impulse source that is extremely compact, delivers a high powered, short pulse and may be operated at repetition rates high enough to maintain accurate tracking. The proposed circuit is a "credit card" sized and has shown the promise of delivering peak power levels in the megawatt range using common electronic components and moderate source voltages. The compact impulse generator is well suited for Pockels cell drivers in electro-optics applications, and is also well suited for driving laser diode stacks for injection lasers. The same generator may also be used as a beacon source for stranded vehicles (marine, aircraft, or land-based). The compact Marx could serve as a source for recent advances in cancer research, which are requiring nanosecond, high voltage impulses with performance characteristics that are similar to the Marx. Its use as a hand-held, portable defibrillator may also be possible.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATES
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1205
Dr. Demos Kyrazis
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Active Laser Tracker for KKV
Abstract:Ballistic missile defense requires the ability to find, track and intercept a threat missile before it can reach its target. The kinetic kill vehicle (KKV) is a fundamental means to intercept and destroy the threat. To be successful, the KKV must be able to acquire and track the target autonomously while steering itself on an intercept course. It must do this within a very small Circular Error Probable (CEP) against a target of one meter diameter or less, that may employ countermeasures. To be effective the interceptor must hit the threat warhead, not the threat booster tank. One measure of the interceptor's effectiveness is its "probability of kill" (P kill). ATA's Active Laser Tracker for the KKV program is based on an innovative application of active laser target acquisition and tracking technology, on the interceptor, to increase Pkill. Our solution works either during exoatmospheric powered flight or coast. It offers advantages over alternate approaches including: 1)earlier target acquisition, 2) higher sensor resolution and 3)lack of sensor saturation during terminal intercept, and better target discrimination. The performance advantages offered by ATA's Active Laser Tracker (ALT) system poise it to be the "acquisition and tracking system of choice" for future Ballastic Missile Defense (BMD) KKV, and other DoD missile interceptor programs. It also provides a means to increase the performance of current interceptors through upgrade programs. These applications are restricted to government driven programs. However, ATA is separately pursuing the commercialization of ALT's core technology for demanding robotic manufacturing applications in the microelectronics, aerospace, and vehicle manufacturing industries. The development of ALT for a BMD application will accelerate and enhance the commercial product development and add new capabilities to these products in the future. This will directly benefit the industries mentioned, as well as provide indirect benefit to future government organizations / programs using tracker technology.

ARCHANGEL SYSTEMS, INC.
1500 Pumphrey Ave.
Auburn, AL 36832
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 826-8008
Mr. Victor Trent
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:MEMS Annular Rotating Sensor (MARS)
Abstract:A MEMS rotating Annular Sensor (MARS) is proposed, which senses rotation velocities and accelerations in one discrete time sensor. The sensor system is sensitive to accelerations in all three local directions x, y, and z and rotational velocities in two axes. Differential capacitance measured at various points about the annulus permit a single MARS to measure accelerations in 3 degrees of freedom and rotational velocities in two, missing only the angular velocity about the local z axis. Two MARS systems can be used for full three axis inertial measurements and provide redundancy in all three accelerations and two rotational velocity measures. With built-in processing capability, the MARS system results in an extremely small, low-cost yet robust inertial measurement system. Output of the MARS system will be in various digital serial formats. The MARS system has been designed to have four modes of operation: Storage, Start-up, Nominal operation and Shut-down. To enable reliable use, each mode is operated in a controlled operation enabling the device to handle very large g loads without failure. Sensing rotational rates up to 500 degrees per second and accelerations up to 100 g are anticipated with the device. Existing inertial sensors require three rotational sensors and three acceleration sensors to obtain the information required for inertial sensing and control. By using the MARS system, these requirements are reduced to two MARS, thereby lowering cost as well as reducing the size of the inertial sensing package. The reduction in size of the inertial package will allow its incorporation into the MMKV as well as allow application in existing inertial sensing products.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORPORATION
714 Bond Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Spatio-Temporal Interceptor Image Filtering for Threat Cloud RV/Chaff Discrimination
Abstract:During Phase I, CSC will explore the applicability of non-linear analog VLSI spatio-temporal filtering (STF) of interceptor sensor imagery to threat-cloud RV/decoy and chaff discrimination. Our approach will develop new STF analysis techniques to achieve robust RV micro-dynamics signature discrimination against accurately simulated threat-cloud chaff. Previous work, based on a cross-correlation analysis of the STF motion-energy exchange between pixels sampling distant targets in image sensor noise, has indicated potential for RV/decoy discrimination based on target micro-dynamics and has direct applicability to RV/chaff discrimination. Furthermore, significant interceptor 2-D spatial aspect target-target discrimination and target-clutter discrimination achieving track-before-detect (TBD) capability of intermittently resolved targets in heavy terrestrial terrain clutter has been demonstrated using spatial-temporal filtering coupled with dynamic programming. Our novel approach leverages the natural ability of massively parallel analog circuitry to perform computationally intensive image processing tasks in real-time, and centers on chaff effectively behaving as a clutter background, during a significant portion of the mid-course engagement time-line, surrounding lethal RV target(s) and/or decoys to IR or Visible seeker sensor systems. Hardware-in-the-loop testing and analysis using the existing spatial convolution engine in conjunction with our temporal image processing chips will proceed throughout Phase I to validate our simulated results. Early target identification capabilities using non linear motion energy image processing techniques integrated in analog image processors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military imaging applications. Analog image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas including automatic inspection, biometric identification, security, surveillance, and other machine vision applications. To date, non-linear motion energy image processing technology using TAIP chip technology developed under DARPA contract in conjunction with temporal filtering capability developed under ARMY-SMDC contract has demonstrated significant utility in detection, track-before-detect capability when coupled with dynamic programming, and discrimination of low flying missile targets in moving background clutter. CSC is fulfilling current DARPA and AIT sponsored contracts while aggressively pursuing potential commercial opportunities for analog VLSI image processing applications. The unique and powerful capability to perform massive convolution functions in real-time, in a small package and with low power requirements will enable a new generation of intelligent systems not previously considered viable by system and product designers systems for performing sophisticated imaging tasks including automatic target recognition, target tracking, feature extraction, 3D reconstruction, image classification, and image understanding are critical for the building of compact, low powered deployable missile defense systems.

DAVIDSON TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
689 Discovery Drive, Suite 200
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-3122
Mr. Don Tingle
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Concept Development and Assessment of a Multi-Mode Seeker for the National Missile Defense Exotmospheric Kill Vehicle
Abstract:Demonstrate the feasibility of using an RF Multi-Mode seeker on the NMD Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle to defeat countermeasures deployments on threat intercontinental ballistic missiles. Development of alternative seeker technologies is critical to the long term viability of kinetic hit-to-kill missile defense. Rapid proliferation of phenomenology, analysis capability and technologies provides opportunities for potential hostile nations to rapidly build and deploy countermeansures previously only attributable to Russial or China. Application to tactical missiles, including precision munitions.

DYNAMIC CONTROLS, INC.
Bldg. 145, Room 273, Area B
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 254-2529
Dr. Gavin D. Jenney
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:MultiMotor ElectroMechanical Actuator
Abstract:This proposal presents an approach to achieving faster response and increased reliability for electromechanical actuators, while reducing overall weight and providing improved distribution of the thermal load. 1. reduction in weight 2. improved reliability 3. improved thermal properties

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Dr. Raph Langensiepen
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight C/SiC Lined Carbon Foam Kick Motor Nozzle for Kill Vehicle Application
Abstract:FMI proposes to examine the potential of a C/SiC composite low erosion throat/exit cone that makes use of carbon foam as a support and insulation structure. This basic concept has been forwarded by Opeka and by Buesking et al., where a strong, low conductivity carbon foam insulator supports a high temperature thin ceramic liner. FMI has recently demonstrated that light weight, potentially low cost carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide ceramic matrix composites can survive simulated DACS environments under 3700F propellant testing. Bulk C/SiC test materials were shown to survive 4000F propellant conditions. As a class of materials, only fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites are likely to withstand the thermal shock and operational vibration loading present in DACS and axial boost applications in advanced kill vehicles. Densified and coated liners will be surrounded by a foamed-in-place carbon foam substructure to provide mechanical support and attachment, and a means to control thermal environment of the liner. A Phase I optimized integral liner/support structure nozzle test article will be made available for testing as a C/SiC CMC lined Carbon Foam backed kick motor throat/nozzle for enhanced kill vehicle application. Current high performance rocket throat/nozzles can be costly and/or fabricated with high density refractory metals or massive carbon/graphite components. A weight reduction through the use of ceramic composites and structural foam would allow for enhanced intercept capabilites in a kill vehicle, with minimized payload costs. The concept if successful may provide a means of reducing launch costs of commercial payloads by reducing total motor weight and nozzle costs in non-military launch systems.

FIBERTEK, INC.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Mr. Francis Fitzpatrick
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-Compact Laser Radar
Abstract:This program will develop a new approach for laser transmitters for ultra-compact space-based ladar systems. The technology proposed has the potential for reducing the size, weight and cost of the laser transmitter by an order of magnitude over existing devices with the same average power. The laser design incorporates a novel multi-pass diode-pumped solid-state gain module that is optimized for efficiency and thermal management. This laser will find application as the transmitter for both short-pulse direct-detection and coherent ladar systems. The novel solid-state laser technology to be developed will decrease the size, weight and cost of high-power diode-pumped lasers. These reductions will make affordable new applications including materials processing and large area displays.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Ching-Fong Chen
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Nano-Particle Size Sintering Aids for High Stength and High Performance AlON Missle Domes
Abstract:AlON is a covalent bond material, which requires a sintering aid for liquid phase sintering. To minimize the IR scattering, the sintering aid has to be minimized. In order to overcome the very little amount of sintering aid, the sintering time and sintering temperature have to be increased so that the final sintered part can reach full density. The high temperature and long sintering time increase the cost of the products. In this program, a lower cost AlON missile dome will be developed through innovative sintering aids, which will reduce the processing cost by reducing the sintering temperature and time. Moreover, a high strength/high hardness AlON can be achieved with smaller grain size. Anticipated improvements in cost reduction of transparent AlON will be of immediate use where high strength, abrasion resistance, and high transparency are required. Several examples include transparent armor, sodium lamp envelop, bar code scanner, optical lens, etc.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION INC
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. R. Radhakrishnan
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Processing of Ceramic Composites for Non-Eroding Nozzles
Abstract:Missile Defense Weapons currently under development (THAAD, NMD, Standard Missile 3, or SM3) employ a hit-to-kill strategy to destroy enemy missiles at all stages of their trajectories. To achieve precise and repeatable divert thrust for the kill vehicle. Corrosion-resistant propulsion materials and components are required. New corrosion-resistant materials are required to enable digital propulsion to be cost-effective. Ceramic composites that possess high corrosion resistance will be fabricated using a low cost processing route. The proposed program will develop the processing methodology for these high payoff propulsion materials. High Temperature ceramic composites have potential applications in both the aerospace and military industry, and are expected to have significant impact on various sectors of the economy if successful. The military/aerospace applications will include rocket nozzles, re-entry surfaces, aerobrakes, and rocket engines for future spacecraft, supersonic vehicles, lunar and planetary missions. Industrial applications could include components for aircraft or stationary gas turbines and for nuclear reactors, crucibles for high temperature melting and containers for high temperature metallization.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION INC
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. T.S. Sudarshan
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Processing of Liners for Zero-Eroding Nozzles
Abstract:After September 11, 2001, Missile Defense has taken on a significantly higher national priority for the protection of the US homeland and territories of allies, as well as other important national assets. Missiles currently in development such as the THAAD, NMD, Standard Missile 3, or SM3, are multiple stage missiles designed to achieve the required range concurrent with the ability to impart the velocity (or kinetic energy) needed to destroy the target with a hit-to-kill strategy. Current booster motor (or "axial" boost propulsion) nozzles use costly carbon-carbon (C-C) composites or expensive and complex, multi-part (3-D) nozzles with forged tungsten inserts to achieve the high booster motor performance required. Development of a zero-erosion nozzle liner would enable significantly lower nozzle cost concomitant with a significant reduction in the cost of the propulsion system. MMI proposes a low-cost synthesis technique in conjunction with a fast processing technique for the fabrication of high payoff, lower cost nozzle liner materials. The development of the methodology suggested in this proposal will significantly increase the options for the boost propulsion designer and will minimize or eliminate the use of costly C-C and expensive multi-part forged tungsten based nozzles. commercial applications include: Scramjet and ramjet turbine component Reusable heat shields for reentry vehicle nosecones Flame nozzles Water jet nozzles

MICROSAT SYSTEMS
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-1821
Mr. James D. Christensen
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Micro Mass-Memory Storage Module (MMSM) for Space-Based Missile Defense Platforms
Abstract:MSI is proposing to design and build a Micro Mass Storage Module (MMSM) that demonstrates the feasibility of using hard disk drives in space. The increasing fidelity of satellite imagery along with the increased capability for on-board data processing is driving an increased need for on-board data storage. The development of a low cost, lightweight, modular on-board data storage system using commercial hard drives will meet the future storage needs of all government and commercial satellites. The use of hard disk drives in space holds great promise as it eliminates the need for continuous power, data densities are huge, and magnetic media are relatively immune to space radiation. In the past, mass and power requirements during operation have made this option undesirable. In recent years however, hard drives have become smaller, more rugged, and power consumption has been drastically reduced (all results of the commercial drive to smaller, laptop and handheld computing devices). Even though there have been substantial improvements in technology in recent years, disk drives still cannot withstand the rigors of space missions without special engineering packaging to both contain the atmosphere and control the environments. The MMSM provides the packaging necessary to meet space mission requirements. MSI's Micro Mass Storage Module will reduce the mass and cost of spacecraft on-board data storage up to fifty percent. The MMSM storage system is readily applicable to the on-board data storage needs of space-based sensor and interceptor platforms currently envisioned by the Boost Phase Intercept Missile Defense Team at BMDO. The MMSM can also be used in terrestrial applications that require a hermetic seal and isolation from extreme vibration and temperature environments.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
200 Boston Avenue Suite 2500
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Brett Masters
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Kinetic Energy Kill Vehicles and Components
Abstract:Hypervelocity missiles are currently dependent on the deflection of aerodynamic surfaces for flight control. These deflections and surfaces contribute significantly to the drag of the missile. By eliminating these surfaces it is estimated that an increase of up to 30 % in speed of kinetic energy penetrators can be achieved. Mid proposes to investigate the use of precisely controlled, fast acting shape memory alloy actuators in combination with novel robotic techniques to control the center of gravity of a missile in respect to its center of pressure and obtain flight control. The concept of a Mass Moment Missile is not new and has been under investigation by the Navy for some time. The benefit of superior power density smart materials, combined with precision robotics will enable the lightweight, simple and cost effective control of the center of gravity of a hypervelocity missile. This will eliminate all the drag producing control surfaces that are currently in use. The following benefits can be listed for the shape memory alloy control system: No external aerodynamic control surfaces. This reduces drag dramatically and can increase speed up to 30%. The material with the highest power density is used as an actuator. This means that the actuator is the lightest and uses the smallest volume while generating the required force. A simple, proven robotic system translates the single plane linear motion of the actuators to the three plane and three dimension motion required for flight control of the missile. Simplification of control algorithms. Combination of proven technologies. Lighter, faster and more lethal penetrators.

MISSILE SYSTEMS & TECHNOLOGIES, INC
P.O. Box 5010
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 423-8607
Mr. Harvey J. Gratt
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Guidance, Estimation and Control Algorithms for Future and Current Interceptors
Abstract:The objective of the proposalis to develop and extend the algorithmic state of the art for the guidance, target state and estimation, and control of current and advanced missile interceptors. Three potential areas have been identified which can benefit from the new and extended developments proposed. Most importantly, these three developments can be integrated with one another to provide a more complete algorithmic package which can be utilized on both future and current airframes. Reduce the biases and random errors associated with current target state estimation which will therefore allow more accurate and potentially mission enabling tracking and interception.

POWDERMET INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd, Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Mr. Dean Baker
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Light Weigth Materials For EKV Components
Abstract:Replacement of Be components is high on every BMDO contractors agenda. Not only will replacing Be reduce liability, it will also reduce component cost and quite possibly weight. In this Phase I SBIR Powdermet will investigate light weight composite materials to replace Be. Phase II of the program will involve optimizing the process and control of the composite replacement and final componeent fabrication for the EKV program. New class of light weight materials for various applications. One of the leading areas will be lightly loaded structure and electronic components currently fabricated with Be.

QUINTESSENCE PHOTONICS CORPORATION
15632 Roxford St.
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-4664
Dr. Jeffrey E. Ungar
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra Compact, Low Cost High Power Lasers for LADAR
Abstract:We propose to develop very high power pulsed laser diode sources for use in LADAR. These laser diode based sources promise peak powers two orders of magnitude greater than conventional laser diodes, but without compromising compactness, economy and reliability. These source lasers will be very attractive for use in kinetic kill applications. These high power laser sources will offer compelling advantages over conventional technology for free space communications and for LIDAR.

QUOIN INTERNATIONAL INC.
1331 N. Inyo
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 446-4052
Mr. Michael D. Jacobson
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Composite Flywheels for Kinetic Vehicle Attitude Control
Abstract:As BMDO strives to advance capabilities, one goal is to develop interceptor technologies that enable low mass, highly efficient, extremely agile interceptors to defend against current and projected BMDO threats. Specifically, they have identified a need for components that reduce size and mass, improve control, reduce on-board power consumption, increase accuracy of guidance and control, and increase divert capability. Recent advances in the flywheel attitude control systems are leading the way to fully functional, non-saturating KV control systems. These devices utilize a Quoin-developed concept defined as an integrating module to insure that the flywheels maintain a near zero average displacement. Expanding this concept to manufacture the flywheels from composite materials (such as T-1000 carbon fibers) offer the potential for vastly increased operating speeds. For the flywheel ACS, doubling the operating speed can reduce the flywheel weight by 50% or the diameter by 25%. This technology will provide improved performance and substantially lower program cost for the National Missile Defense Program.

QUOIN INTERNATIONAL INC.
1331 N. Inyo
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 446-4052
Mr. Michael D. Jacobson
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Micro-Flywheel Attitude Control for Multiple Warhead Kinetic Energy Vehicles
Abstract:In considering evolving threats, BMDO recognizes the need to intercept weapons with multiple warheads and/or multiple decoys. This requires the development of miniature interceptor technologies that provide the basis for systems capable of deploying autonomous multiple vehicles to counter these threats. They have identified the need for specific enabling technologies including miniature interceptor components that reduce size and mass, improve control, reduce on-board power consumption, increase accuracy of guidance and control, and increase divert capability. They are also actively seeking onboard power sources for future interceptors to improve reliability, safety and energy density. Quoin is currently developing a flywheel-based attitude control and power generation system for current 35 Kg kill vehicles that is 90% lighter and 80% cheaper than conventional stabilizing technology. The ACS uses the theory of gyroscopic force to induce torque to the missile. This torque can be applied in the X,Y or Z axes (depending on the location of the missile's target) to control pitch, yaw and roll. In this effort Quoin will miniaturize their flywheel ACS for micro-KV applications. Quoin will demonstrate functionality of the micro KV through analysis and simulation and build and test a single axis integrating module to demonstrate miniaturization concepts. This technology will provide improved performance, less weight and substantially lower program cost for the National Missile Defense Program.

RRR TECH LLC
P.O. Box 305
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 890-8141
Dr. Robert Buchl
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:EFP Study of Elliptical Munition and Explosive Al Nano-powder Cloud Formation
Abstract:Two different EFP munition designs are presented both of which have an elliptical liner shape. One device consists of a high explosive, a elliptical metallic liner, casing and few other components. The liner is explosively driven to form into a central projectile with a variable radial cross-section dependent on the material, thickness and eccentricity of the liner. To our knowledge, no similar munition geometry has been designed for producing a high velocity self-forming projectile. Using the hydrocodes CTH and EPIC 2001, it is shown that the projectile velocity attained is may be slightly higher than that of other explosively formed kinetic energy penetrators. The cross section density and outer surface geometry of the projectile is compared with other EFPs. Predictions for oblique plate penetration by the central and lateral projectiles are discussed in the proposal, along with the feasibility for optimization of parameters to obtain a high-speed projectile. The proposal also discusses options for the weaponization of the munition. The other elliptical munition is designed to produce an explosive Al nano-powder cloud after target penetration to enhance the lethality in addition to the behind target debris effect. It is proposed that the effectiveness of the munitions can be increased with further design studies using hydrocode computer modeling methodology. A high velocity projectile may be used to penetrate hard targets and defeat certain structures, including reactive applique armor and biological/chemical submunitions within incoming ballistic missiles. The munitions can be carried within and directed from a variety of alternative airframes based on selected target geometries. It will have commercial applications if the mining and demolition arenas. Computational methods using spherical hydrodynamics could possibly benefit through the development of this unique munition geometry.

SAGE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1018 West Ninth Avenue, Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 354-9100
Mr. Michael Wilson
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Diffractively Structured Multi-Spectral GaAs EO Seeker Windows for Kill Vehicles
Abstract:Strategic missile defense will benefit directly by increasing the operational IR bandwidth from the mid-wavelength to a multi-bandwidth capability. Increasing bandwidth performance will allow on-board processing (target acquisition and discrimination) to improve range performance, tracking, and hit-to-kill. Increasing bandwidth to include the near IR to the long wavelength IR also allows for incorporation of active sensing (LADAR) in addition to passive sensing. Sub-wavelength diffractive structures etched onto gallium arsenide (GaAs) present tremendous performance enhancement potential for missile applications. Employing gray scale lithography to etch the sub-wavelength diffractive structures onto both surfaces of the GaAs eliminates the need for anti-reflective coatings and allows for discreet sub-bandwidths of operation over a broadband operational window with very high performance, improved field-of-regard, and increased fracture toughness. Employing GaAs as the bulk IR window opens the bandwidth from the mid-wavelength region (sapphire) to include the near IR to the far long wavelength IR. It also provides a cutoff temperature of nearly 460C. GaAs and the sub-wavelength diffractive structures present a significant opportunity to improve spectral performance of the THAAD system or any kill vehicle utilizing the IR part of the spectrum. It is anticipated that GaAs as an IR window material which incorporates the sub-wavelength diffractive structures in place of conventional anti-reflection coatings will significantly reduce the cost of IR windows for tactical, strategic, and commercial systems, by as much as a factor 4. Additionally, using GaAs with the sub-wavelength diffractive structures will increase the available field-of-regard of the optical system since the IR window will no longer be restricted to a relatively narrow field-of-view due to the physics of the planar coating.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Dr. Mark Patterson
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Fabrication of IR Windows for Hypervelocity Interceptors
Abstract:There are presently three materials (sapphire, ALON and spinel) which are considered suitable for IR windows in severe hypervelocity environments. Of these materials spinel is presently the least developed, but offers optical performance advantages and a significantly lower fabrication cost than either sapphire or ALON. In the proposed development effort, the hot pressing process presently utilized will be optimized for producing large plates of thick sectioned spinel in a single step. Additional cost reduction approaches in the finishing operations will be investigated and their effect on the optical and mechanical performance of spinel quantified. Optical quality spinel will be fabricated with a variety of grain sizes and the optical, and thermal shock performance will be established. The fabrication approach will be developed for 11' diameter parts and the optical properties determined at both room temperature and 500C. This work will establish spinel as a low cost, high performance optical material. Development of this spinel plates will provide an alternative material to sapphire with improved optical properties and at considerably reduced cost. These spinel components are presently being developed and tested as lenses, IR windows, domes, hypersonic windows and as armor for a number of defense applications. Commercial applications such as security windows, IR lenses, fuses and IR windows are also being pursued.

VISIDYNE,INC.
10 Corporate Place, South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-2820
Mr. Christian Trowbridge
MDA 02-002      Selected for Award
Title:Compact 3-D Intercept LADAR
Abstract:Visidyne proposes to demonstrate that through an innovative mix of electro-optical and photonic technologies, an imaging, scannerless LADAR (or 3-D imager) can be designed and built that is a viable sensor for the terminal phase of guided kinetic energy weapons. Key elements in the mix are; a small, high power laser source, time coded for range, a unique focal plane array (FPA) that decodes the laser returns and fast pixel rate signal processing to recover simultaneous range and intensity images. This combination promises to provide a cost-effective imaging LADAR sensor that can detect passive targets at relatively long range and over a wide field-of-regard. Bearing and range to the target as well as target aspect relative to the interceptor will be calculated. The proposed LADAR would satisfy the needs of BMDO for an advanced terminal phase kinetic-energy interceptor targeting-sensor. Other DoD/NASA/DARPA applications are automated rendezvous and docking of satellites and inspection of orbiting vehicles. Commercial industrial applications include high frame rate 3-D imagery for the purpose of inspection, for example, establishing pose of an object during machining or assembly processes.

ADELPHI TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2181 Park Blvd.
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 328-7337
Dr. Jay Theodore Cremer
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:An Inexpensive, Material-Specific, Gamma-Ray Detector
Abstract:The objective of this proposed research is to develop a gamma-ray detector capable of detecting specific atomic species (e.g. N and O) of composite materials such as explosives, nuclear materials and drugs. The detector will detect nuclear resonance fluorescence (NFR) characteristic lines from specific atoms without using time-consuming pulse-height analysis. The resonance detectors will be sufficiently inexpensive to permit their incorporation into either linear or large-area arrays for detection and imaging. The research will proceed by the design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype detector capable of detecting a specific atomic species (e.g. nitrogen) from composite materials. A major goal will be to achieve a large area, sensitive detector capable of rapid identification. The detector will be made of materials that can be scaled to increase the devices collection aperture and sensitivity. The potential for successful development of the detector is high because of the simplicity of the design and prior research. A manufacturer of accelerators has expressed interest in the detectors for integration into existing x-radiographic imaging systems. The proposed device is capable of integration with existing gamma-radiographic systems, which are currently being used for imaging large containers, trucks, and cargo. Sensitive, large aperture detectors can be airborne and, thus, can be useful for identification of materials emitting gamma-radiation. Thus, such a device would improve current techniques for home security and drug law enforcement.

ANVIK CORPORATION
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Dr. Marc Klosner
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:CURVED FOCAL PLANE ARRAYS (FPAs) FOR VERY-WIDE FIELD-OF-VIEW STARING INFRARED DETECTION SYSTEMS
Abstract:The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the ballistic and cruise missiles that could deliver them pose a direct and immediate threat to the security of U.S. The capability to defend against an attacking missile in the boost, midcourse, and descent phase increases the chances that the missile and its payload will be destroyed. Given the prominent heat signature of ballistic missiles, infrared detection systems play an important role in high resolution imaging of missiles, and are thus critical for all phases of missile defense. In this program we will specify a lithography process for high-volume production of curved focal plane arrays operating at infrared wavelengths, and we will experimentally investigate several key elements of the fabrication process. These investigations will lead toward the development of wide-field-of-view infrared detection systems, and will therefore enhance the capability of the United States military to detect, classify, track, and destroy enemy missiles. The processes that we will experimentally investigate are based upon a proprietary lithography technology that has been developed by Anvik Corporation. This unique technology enables high-resolution lithography to be performed on curved surfaces, and can therefore be used for the fabrication of focal plane arrays on spherical substrates. Anvik's curved surface lithography technology will lead to the development of curved focal plane arrays for image detection. These curved FPAs will have numerous applications in the military and consumer sectors. In the military, they will be used for missile defense and other applications where targets must be identified and tracked. In the civilian sector the will be used integrated into infrared imaging systems that are used by law-enforcement agencies and search and recover units to enhance the public safety and public welfare.

ARETE ASSOCIATES
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Dr. Andrew J. Griffis
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:High Speed Electro-Optic Sensor System for 3-D Imaging
Abstract:Arete proposes to develop a compact (<1000cm3) flash imaging LIDAR receiver system in which a three-dimensional image is produced with each laser pulse. The proposed sensor combines commercially available semiconductor components from diverse applications well suited to the problem at hand. This merger of technologies obviates the need for moving parts, high-voltage or high-speed digitization electronics and results in a compact, low power system without sacrificing high temporal (i.e., range <10cm) and angular resolution. The system will be able to operate at different wavelengths for different applications (e.g., UV to 12um). Furthermore, its compact packaging will be used in missile targeting and seeker systems, UAV applications, and ground based reconnaissance or targeting systems. In addition to military applications, the small size of the system and relatively low cost provides the possibility of penetrating commercial markets such as obstacle avoidance and situational awareness in automated production, aviation, heavy equipment and automotive industries. Phase 1 will focus on characterizing a single pixel sensor element that demonstrates utility for an NxN three-dimensional flash LIDAR. Phase 2 will mature this into a tested array, and Phase 3 will incorporate the technology into high resolution 3-D imaging systems for both military and commercial customers. The proposed technology will introduce a new means of generating 3D lidar imagery with lower technical risk and improved performance over existing solid state approaches. It will also provide a means of directly upgrading existing streak tube lidar systems.

ASI TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
980 American Pacific Dr, #111
Henderson, NV 89014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 734-1888
Dr. Theodore R. Anderson
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Radar & MMW-Tunable Plasma Frequency Selective Surfaces for Shielding Radar Systems
Abstract:The performance of any radar, antenna, or electronic system depends on its ability to project and defend itself against various forms of electromagnetic interference including frequencies in the S and X band. Our proposal is to design a plasma barrier and tunable frequency selective surfaces that can be turned on and off on demand to shield antennas, radar, or electronic equipment. Metallic frequency selective surfaces (FSS) have been used as filters for electromagnetic energy. The problem with metal on dielectric frequency selective surfaces is that the filtering is fixed and cannot be made to appear or disappear on demand. In our proposed research on plasma frequency selective surfaces, we are replacing the metal in FSS by plasma elements. Plasma offers the possibility of improved shielding and the advantages of reconfigurability and stealth. We will research and design tunable filtering of electromagnetic waves which will pass the desired signals and reflect or absorb the undesired signals with the flexibility of performing in a variety of military environments. Tunable plasma barriers and tunable plasma frequency selective surfaces have wide application in commercial applications. Ultra wide band technology and communications technology has to satisfy strict standards set down by the FCC on interference issues. Often times it is difficult for a technology to satisfy FCC standards and become marketable. With tunable plasma barriers and tunable frequency selective surfaces we have a technology which can filter out unwanted electromagnetic interference and control power levels set by the FCC. With the development of this technology, many more powerful devices could satisfy FCC requirements and become marketable.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 College Avenue, Unit A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. HONNAVALLI R VYDYANATH
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:AlGaN Photodiodes for UV Detection
Abstract:Phase I effort will focus on demonstrating the feasibility of our approach to significantly improve the quantum efficiency of the back illuminated AlGaN photodiodes. Specific Phase I objective entails demonstration of high conductivity n type AlGaN with 60% AlN. Phase II work aims to demonstrate Quantum efficiency of 80% and Photodiode R0A figure of merit in excess of 1010 ohm-cm2 in 45% AlN containing AlGaN detector arrays in a 256x256 array format hybridized to silicon Read out Integration Chips (ROIC's) Applications include missile plume detection for military use, environmental monitoring, automobile engine combustion sensing, remote sensing of earth resources, solar astronomy and burner monitoring in gas turbines for commercial use.

BOSTON MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
30-H, Sixth Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5100
Dr. Dharanipal Doppalapudi
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:GaN substrates for Superior GaN based Devices
Abstract:There is a need for a cost-effective technology for producing III-nitride substrates for fabrication of high efficiency and high power radar transmit/receive modules, as well as opto-electronic devices. The problems with the current technology of fabricating III-nitride based devices on thin films grown on foreign substrates, such as sapphire or SiC, are the plethora of defects associated with the lattice and thermal mismatch between substrate and film, which put an upper limit on the performance, efficiency and stability of these devices. To date, efforts in the developments of GaN substrates by solution techniques, sublimation-recondensation methods, and deposition of thick GaN films by the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) method (followed by removal of the substrate after the growth) have suffered from a combination of residual thermal stresses, poor yield, and high cost. Boston MicroSystems and Boston University propose to develop stress-free GaN substrates by growing thick GaN films using the high growth-rate HVPE method on to novel sacrificial (111) silicon substrates. The low-cost Si(111) substrates are made compliant by an innovative micromachining method. Currently, III-nitride based LEDs and other devices are grown on sapphire or SiC substrates, due to the lack of native substrates. These substrates are expensive and limited to sizes below 100mm. Furthermore, the lattice and thermal mismatch between the film and substrates result in a high defect density, which limit the device efficiency and stability. Some of these defects may also act as leakage path, compromising the device quality. The proposed GaN substrates will alleviate many of these problems, by enabling high quality homoepitaxial growth. These GaN substrates will be made by HVPE method, which is relatively simple and inexpensive, on large area compliant silicon templates. GaN substrates, once developed can be used for fabricating GaN based devices such as bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors, LEDs (blue, green, yellow and white), laser diodes (blue, green and UV) and solar-blind detectors. The development of such devices is expected to affect a number of technologies include information storage, full color displays, true color copying, local area networks, underwater communications, space-to-space communication, high temperature, and RF power electronics, as well as microwave electronics and sensors.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road, Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Dr. Vicente Munne
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:ZnO Based UV Detector
Abstract:The goal of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of growing solar blind UV photodetectors made of zinc oxide. The primary goal of Phase I will be to demonstrate the growth of high quality homoepitaxial thin films of pure and alloyed ZnO using Cermet's MOCVD reactor and in-house fabricated ZnO substrates. Films will be analyzed using x-ray diffraction, PL, and electrical measurements. BMDO will benefit from this program by having a source of light and compact UV detectors unlike the present Si based detectors that require bulky band filters. This technology will produce homoepitaxially grown ZnO-based solar blind UV photodetectors, which can be used for misssile plume detection, solar astronomy, intersatellite communications, and combustion engineering.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Mr. Charles Bjork
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Sensors and Surveillance: Adaptive Waveform Coherent Ladar for Long Range Tracking, Discrimination, and Kill Assessment
Abstract:BMDO desires effective ways to acquire and track ballistic missiles/payloads, improve intercept prospects, and assess results of intercepts. Current approaches may have insufficient range or discrimination capability, require more platforms/interceptors and more expensive defense than desired, or have unacceptable target leakage/false alarm rates. Passive systems, even with projected technology, lose too much discrimination performance and battlespace to evolving threats. Currently conceived ladar systems either have insufficient range and discrimination performance, or may include immature technologies which threaten reasonable deployment timeframes. CTI proposes a novel coherent ladar/processing/tracking system, which makes acquisition in the boost phase, and discrimination in the post-boost phase possible?before effective deployment of decoys and other countermeasures. Precision updates after initial discrimination facilitates tracking and target/decoy track separation during heavily-countermeasured midcourse. This is made possible by a very efficient ladar, with near-term technology, many-pulse averaging and long-range sensing/processing of angle-angle-range-Doppler signatures. Initial assessments indicate reduction in constellation size over passive-only constellations, for fixed discrimination capability. This approach achieves resilience against threat growth, and discrimination capabilities otherwise unreachable. Finally, with its adaptivity and discrimination potential, diverse velocity and target volume regions of interest (ROIs) are measurable, permitting measurement of intercept volumes for kill assessment support. The proposed Phase I/II demonstrates the utility of a ladar/waveform/tracking system design for highly efficient laser radars, applied to some of the most challenging sensor applications, and estimates the cost and schedule for development. The system is eminently scalable to smaller, shorter-range systems, to cover a wide range of tracking/discrimination problems, including commercial air transport, space monitoring and surveillance, and AFRL?s Airborne Laser program.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH AND FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Plume Modulation IR Signature For Boost-Phase/Staging Detection And Threat Discrimination (BMDO/00-003E - IR>0.9 microns)
Abstract:The time-varying plume infra-red (IR) signature modulation provides a marker that allows a plume signal to be discriminated, in frequency space, from a cluttered background. From the perspective of Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD), it provides a novel opportunity for boost phase detection of targets. The temporal plume IR spectra contain characteristic tones, which can be exploited for missile typing algorithms and rocket motor identification. For BMD-related development of guidance sensors for interceptors, the modulation character in a spatially resolved plume acquires increased significance The plume-to-hardbody handoff problem becomes tractable since the plume contains temporal modulation while the hardbody emission does not. Absence of plume modulation models, detailed database of temporal signature & a validated plume simulator source for duplicating plume signatures have hindered exploitation of this distinctive signature for Boost Phase Intercept (BPI). CRAFT Tech proposes development of: 1) a high-fidelity model for plume signature temporal modulation, and, 2) a field IR plume simulator source hardware, both capable of simulating missile plumes in spectral and temporal domains. Unsteady flowfield simulations will provide temporal IR spectra by employing advanced turbulence modeling, including Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Lower frequency IR tones will be obtained using a novel acoustic decomposition technique. The modeling proposed is directly applicable to aircraft plumes. Civil/military aviation can utilize plume modulation signature for air traffic control. Potentially catastrophic wake turbulence from an earlier aircraft can be detected since the intensity of plume/wake interactions is indicated by magnitude of tones, present in the aircraft plume IR spectra

CRYSTAL RESEARCH, INC.
45275 Northport Court, Suite B
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 445-0833
Dr. Suning Tang
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:A High-Speed Polarization-Independent Wavelength Tunable Narrow-Band Filter Based on Novel Photonic Polymers
Abstract: Abstract not available...

CRYSTAL RESEARCH, INC.
45275 Northport Court, Suite B
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 445-0833
Dr. Suning Tang
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Electro-optic Switched True-Time-Delay Modules for Wideband Phased Array Antennas
Abstract:It has been realized that the lack of enabling technology of beam forming and steering devices significantly slow down the process in implementing wideband phased array antenna systems. Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated electro-optic switched true-time-delay module for wideband phased array antennas. The unique feature of this proposed approach is that both the true-time-delay waveguide circuit and electro-optic switching elements are made by using a single polymeric waveguide system and are monolithically integrated in a single substrate. As a result, it significantly reduces the device size while eliminating the most difficult packaging problem associated with the delicate interfaces between optical fibers and optical switches. Such a monolithic approach offers great precision for the RF phase control than the fiber-delay-lines due to the sub-micrometer accuracy of lithography-defined polymeric waveguides. More important, the proposed optical switched true-time-delay network requires very low electrical power consumption due to the low power consumption of electrically-switchable electro-optic waveguide gratings. Furthermore, the electrically-switchable electro-optic waveguide gratings have a very fast switching speed (<50 us) that is at least 100 time faster than any existing commercial optical switches. The proposed integrated electro-optic switched true-time-delay module represents a crucial technology for advanced photonic radar systems that are highly desired for capturing ballistic missiles in the boost phase, midcourse, and even terminal phase. The core technology of Electrically-switchable electro-optic waveguide gratings also can find wide applications in fiber-optic communication industry.

CYBERRND, INC.
10705 Cranks Road
Culver City, CA 90230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 838-5300
Dr. Oliver E. Drummond
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Early BMD Fusion of Radar and IR Data from Mobile Platforms (BMDO/00-003B, E, and G)
Abstract:The object of this proposed three-phase SBIR project is to develop the capability to track and discriminate the objects proliferated by ballistic missile launches. This surveillance system will be mobile and deployed early relative to the more extensive missile defense system being developed by MDA. Being mobile also permits location of the sensor platforms (ships and aircraft) so that each missile threat can be tracked early in its trajectory to facilitate shoot-look-shoot. The system uses existing sensors whose data complement each other and thus enhance tracking and discrimination performance. It will undergo field-tests starting September 2004 and be deployed soon thereafter. A major challenge is development and integration of processing methods to fuse data from distributed, disparate sensors. Current sensor data fusion processing methods are inadequate to handle phenomena that distributed sensors exhibit, such as, sensor registration biases, resolution differences, and different detection characteristics. Adequate fusion processing that combines data for each target from well located and well chosen multiple sensors can greatly improve tracking and discrimination performance. We have identified the most critical shortcomings of current fusion processing methods. Then proprietary and potentially patentable methods were devised that are designed to overcome those shortcomings. Provide field-tested algorithms and processing methods that overcome the current limitations in sensor data fusion processing methods. They will efficiently combine data from distributed sensors to provide the improved performance in terms of accuracy and timeliness required for implementation of effective surveillance systems. This will permit the early deployment of a mobile missile surveillance system. In addition, the field testing of this system will provide valuable information for use in the design of the more extensive MDA missile defense system and will also provide a laboratory for testing new sensors and fusion processing methods developed for that missile defense system.

EAST WEST ENTERPRISES INC.,
524 JORDAN LANE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4782
Dr. Dr Ramarao Inguva
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:3-D TARGET OBJECT MAP (TOM) ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT FOR ENHANCED THREAT IDENTIFICATION
Abstract:East West Enterprises Inc., (EWE) proposes to develop a Target Object Map (TOM ) algorithm development environment with new and advanced concept TOM algorithms . The environment will be an intelligent TOM processor based upon an open architecture design to allow for performing existing weapon system trade/feasibility studies and objective system implemention evaluations. Two advanced concepts are investigated which will enhance the current two dimensional TOM process. The first advanced concept will include the use of an on-board Ladar in existing sensor systems for missile defense applications to allow for a three dimensional mapping utilizing the range data from the Ladar and the Radar. The second advanced concept will utilize the combination of the probability of lethality from the TOM process (hand over from the Radar discrimination process) with the probability of lethality from the radiometric seeker discrimination data to enhance the lethal target designation process. Currently, work done in this field has utilized a correlation process of extracted feature data from both the seeker and radar, but not a combined probability likelyhood resultant from the TOM process with the IR discrimination process, which is proposed here. Performance improvements resulting from the TOM advanced concept algorithms will be quantified. The Proposed system will have numerous Missile Defense Applications for systems/programs such as Hercules, BPI, GBI,NTW,SBIRS,THAAD and NMD

EAST WEST ENTERPRISES INC.,
524 JORDAN LANE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4782
Dr. Hugh Wolfe Jr
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:VIRTUAL PHASED ARRAY RADAR FOR TACTICAL MISSILE AND CRUISE MISSILE DEFENSE APPLICATIONS
Abstract:We propose the design of a virtual phased array radar for ballistic missile defense applications. Virtual Phased array radar (VPAR) is a radical radar, a multi-mission radar (MMR) with roots in the missile defense community that, can provide better performance with much lighter weight and cube than current radars, at a much lower cost. We believe VPAR can provide a critical element of the future tactical missile (and air) defense systems, providing the surveillance and fire control sensor solution for tactical missile defense mission against ballistic missiles and cruise missiles, including successors to CORPS SAM, JLENS, STINGER/Avenger, and the Army's current surveillance radar, the MPQ-64 Sentinel. The radar will, serve the collateral, but technically simpler areas of air defense surveillance and fire direction. Will be an invaluable sensor for various missile defense applications. Other agencies such as FAA will also benefit from the proposed technology

ECOPULSE
PO Box 528, zip 22150, 7844 Vervain Ct
Springfield, VA 22152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 644-8419
Dr. Nino R. Pereira
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:X-ray sensors for intense pulses
Abstract:Advanced types of x-ray sensors are usually developed first to measure the energy of single photons, but the new materials are only rarely applied to high intensity radiation pulses as occur in nuclear explosions, or in radiation simulators. We will first determine the properties that make single-photon sensors suitable for measuring high intensity x-ray pulses, and test the most promising materials on radiation simulators to verify the predictions. Later on we will use the new detectors in radiation simulator diagnostics. Increased selection for nuclear explosion monitors on satellites, and options for diagnosing the x-ray pulse from radiation simulators used in testing the hardness of BMDO assets.

EMITECH, INC
476 Locust St., suit 5
Fall River, MA 02720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 324-0758
Dr. I. A. Levitsky
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Uncooled Infrared Detectors Based on Carbon Nanotubes, BMDO/ 02-003E
Abstract:Emitech, Inc. proposes an innovative approach aimed at the development of carbon nanotube infrared detectors capable of operating at room temperatures in the wavelength range of 1.5-14 mm. This new concept is based on the effect of reduced electron-phonon coupling in quasi one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which considerably suppress the thermal noise and enables higher detector operational temperatures. Semiconducting CNTs are known to exhibit the inverse proportional dependence of band gap on the nanotube diameter. Thus, the variation of the CNT diameter allows to control the detector operation range. The ability to move the position of CNT Fermi level through varying the voltage applied to the gate electrode (field effect) gives us an opportunity to control the dark photocurrent through the pinning of Fermi level to the CNT charge neutrality point. Photodetectors based on CNTs are anticipated to gain an advantage over commonly used at room temperature ternary and multinary II-VI group compound semiconductors follows: Enhanced chemical stability; Simple and robust fabrication technique; Suppressed thermal noise; Improved spatial resolution approaching the fundamental limit; Ability to simply control the detector operation range and signal level. The current multi-billion dollar market for the IR detectors stands up for their numerous applications in military and consumer electronics, medicine, and space industry. The advanced features inherent to CNT-based detectors are believed to make them elemental devices to build up a new generation of IR electronics beneficial to the whole field of emerging technologies.

EPIR, LTD
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Mr. Paul Boieriu
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:BMDO02-003E-IR(>0.9 microns) CdTeSe composite substrates lattice-matched with HgCdTe for advanced LWIR sensing focal plane arrays
Abstract:High-performance HgCdTe focal plane arrays (FPAs) sensing in the long-wavelength (LWIR) and very long wavelength (VLWIR) infrared spectral ranges are highly desirable for various applications supporting missile defense capabilities. Advanced sensor structures based on dual or multi-color HgCdTe IRFPAs will enhance early missile threat detection while providing mid-course tracking capabilities and discrimination data. An extremely high quality photon detector material becomes imperative in order to meet these requirements. As the research and development efforts are advancing, it has become obvious that substrate limitations are impeding the progress of LWIR HgCdTe FPAs. During the proposed Phase I effort, we intend to address the feasibility of epitaxially grown CdTeSe buffer layers on silicon. We plan to develop this novel type of lattice-matched substrate for the growth of HgCdTe (0.2 < x < 0.3). Growth of CdTeSe on silicon is expected to be a better alternative than epitaxial CdZnTe/Si for the growth of extremely high quality LWIR HgCdTe on large areas. Distinct features like low segregation coefficient, diffusion constants and specific atomic/elemental properties recommend CdTeSe/Si as a successful substrate candidate for the epitaxial growth of Hg0.8Cd0.2Te. EPIR Ltd. is poised to make composite epitaxial substrates commercially available to a strong U.S. IR manufacturing industry while continuing to focus its resources on the development of inexpensive, high performance future generations of IRFPAs. If this project proves to be successful, it will enable the commercialization of MBE-grown HgCdTe heterojunctions sensing at LWIR region for various BMDO applications. Advanced heterostructures, possibly fabricated in a single MBE run, will significantly improve the performance of LWIR HgCdTe IRFPAs, and therefore, improve BMDO's surveillance, tracking and threat warning capabilities. The understanding and control of MBE grown CdTeSe/Si substrates form a key step in developing future generation HgCdTe IRFPAs. The availability of low cost, large area substrates will facilitate not only the production of mega-pixel focal plane arrays but will also offer the possibility of increasing the yield factor in a large scale production environment. Growth of high quality HgCdTe on lattice matched CdTeSe/Si is paving the way for the development of very large scale (above mega-pixel) advanced HgCdTe IRFPAs with long-term thermal stability.

FERMIONICS CORPORATION
4555 Runway St
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0155
Dr. Muren Chu
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Large Format, 1280x1024 Longwave HgCdTe Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research project develops large format (1280x1024), longwave infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) cameras. The LWIR HgCdTe arrays will be fabricated by ion implantation. In Phase I, two types of implantations will be conducted to fabricate 320x256 LWIR arrays. The first is using boron implantation to produce n-on-p type diodes, and the second is to use arsenic implantation to produce p-on-n type diodes. The superior technique between these two will be used to fabricate 1280x1024 LWIR HgCdTe arrays in Phase II. Readout circuits matching the arrays will also be designed and manufactures. After hybridizing the HgCdTe arrays to the readout chips, imaging pictures will be taken by the LWIR cameras. In Phase III, the technology and products will be commercialized. High performance, large format HgCdTe infrared focal plane array cameras have a large variety of military and civilian applications. Military uses include target detection, surveillance, searching and tracking, and material property analysis. Civilian uses include spectroscopy, medical imaging, firefighting, searching and rescue, crop surveys, law enforcement, and environmental monitoring.

FIBERTEK, INC.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Mr. Guy Beaghler
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Single Photon Counting 3D Lidar Receiver
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a high-resolution 3-D imaging receiver subsystem, part of a direct detection laser radar (Ladar) used for BMD target discrimination and tracking. Currently, implementation of active Ladar sensors on exo-atmospheric kinetic energy kill vehicles (EKVs) and spaceborne/aircraft precision deployment phase and midcourse observation platforms are impeded in part by the large size, weight and cost of the Ladar components. The proposed Ladar receiver electronics form a part of a high repetition-rate Ladar system that will provide a significant (up to an order-of-magnitude) saving in cost, volume, mass and power consumption when compared to currently proposed BMDO Ladar systems. When combined with a high repetition-rate laser transmitter, this new receiver will enable deployment of Ladar sensors on miniature hit-to-kill interceptors and spaceborne/aircraft precision deployment phase and midcourse observation platforms. The high-resolution 3-D imaging receiver subsystem to be developed under the proposed SBIR program has tremendous potential application in military sensing systems. The single photon detection based receiver can replace existing eyesafe laser target imaging systems on vehicles in all three services.

I TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
2663 Wayside Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 761-3174
Dr. Robert E Sampson
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Midwave Infrared Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of a fast imaging spectro-polarimeter for the measurement of spatial, spectral, and polarization signatures of both targets and backgrounds for improved target recognition and discrimination. The proposed innovative snapshot imaging sensor provides spatial, spectral and polarization information on each pixel in the midwave infrared wavelength band at each frame time. This unique approach elimanates scanning through the spectrum as required by conventional approaches and provides for rapid construction of spatial, spectral, and polarization data sets including all four Stokes vectors. The proposed instrument design is field portable with no moving parts. The proposed project builds on developments at the University of Arizona's Optical Detection Laboratory and provides the most comprehensive and versatile sensor developed to date. Commercial applications of this sensor are numerous because of the potential of providing spatial, spectral, and polarization information simultaneously in a low cost field portable instrument. Applications include security, mineral and material identification, fire detection, medical applications, and landmine and military target detection and identification.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
6370 Nancy Ridge Drive, Suite 101
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Dr. Katsumi Ohnishi
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Space-Time Adaptive Processing for TBM Detection by Ship-Based Phased Array Radars
Abstract:Detecting tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs) in boost phase presents a significant technical challenge for a Navy ship-based radar operating in a littoral environment. In addition to mitigating land clutter, the radar will have to cope with terrain scattered interference or hot clutter generated by jamming signals. Traditional sidelobe blankers and sidelobe cancellation techniques provide some immunity to sidelobe jammers; however, they are ineffective against mainlobe interference. Since hot clutter can potentially provide mainlobe interference over a wide range of angles, alternate techniques are needed to address this question. Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) offers a high potential to mitigate both cold and hot clutter; however more efforts are needed to implement practical STAP in a Navy ship-based radar. The objective of this program is to develop a practical STAP algorithms for a Navy ship-based radar operating in littoral environment to detect TBMs in boost phase by combining the high potential of STAP algorithms in mitigating cold and hot clutter, and the efficiency and computational simplicity of traditional algorithms. The approach and attendant algorithms/software developed under this SBIR have obvious application to U.S. Navy ship-based electronically steered radars in environments of significant interference due to clutter/jamming. ISL?s initial commercialization strategy will be to obtain BMDO/Navy sponsorship for the production and retrofit into existing Navy ship-based radars such as the AEGIS SPY-1 family of radars, with later implementation into future Navy radars as applicable.

INTERSCIENCE, INC.
105 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 283-7500
Mrs. Olga Gutin
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Uncooled IR/FPA with YBaCuO Thermal Sensor
Abstract:The oxygen deficient, semiconductor phases of YbaCuO (YBCO) thin films have been shown to be a promising material for IR without cryogenics sensing because of its high sensitivity and relative ease of preparation that make the deposition process compatible with CMOS integration. Therefore, the material offers the prospect for the realization of high performance, uncooled IR/FPAs that can be massively produced at low cost. However, the optical and electrical properties of the material are very sensitive to the preparation process. As a result, no useful IR imaging arrays based on YBCO have been successfully demonstrated to date. A comprehensive effort to develop the application of this material that can lead to low-cost uncooled IR/FPAs by using MEMS technology is proposed. The Phase I effort will focus on the development of YBaCuO semiconducting materials for IR imaging together with a CMOS-compatible integration scheme. The results of Phase I can advance basic understanding of novel applications of YBaCuO thin film materials, as well as their integration scheme with the mature MEMS technology. Successful outcome of the proposed effort would lead to dramatically improved performance and sensitivity of uncooled microbolometers with significantly lower cost and low power requirement for high performance IR sensors, thereby develop broader and more affordable applications of these devices by the military and the civilian sector.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5131
Dr. Bruce Lanning
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Next Generation IR Focal Plane Array Using High Speed Tunneling Diodes (SubTopic 003E)
Abstract:ITN Energy Systems, Inc. believes that significant improvements in IR sensor performance could be achieved by replacing state-of-the-art detector technologies, such as bolometers and photodiodes, with ITN's proposed direct conversion device (DCD). An advanced planar metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunneling diode is the cornerstone of ITN's DCD, which employs an antenna aperture to efficiently couple to free space electromagnetic (EM) radiation and the MIM diode to rectify the resultant AC field. ITN's DCD will serve as the detector in a focal plane array that, when combined with existing signal processing and readout technologies, will enable imaging applications from standard scene definition to hyperspectral imaging with a single sensor technology. Compared to state-of-the-art detectors, ITN's DCD offers IR Imaging with 1) Greater bandwidth: A single device for short wave IR to long wave IR (and even longer wavelengths), 2) Hyperspectral imaging: Signature identification and target tracking heterodyne detection-spectroscopic scanning of key IR bands, 3) Increased sensitivity: Detection of weak, clandestine signals, and 4) Reduced Cost: Fabrication technology compatible with large area silicon processing. With ITN's proposed processing approach to formation of a stable and reproducible MIM tunneling barrier, monolithically integrated DCD's can be produced with the proposed properties herein. Due to the inherent scalability of ITN's antenna derived direct converstion device (DCD), the technology is expected to have applications throughout the electromagnetic spectrum (from RF to optical). A natural application for ITN's DCD next generation uncooled IR focal plane arrays where the DCD will serve as the detector to replace existing uncooled photodiode and microbolometer technologies. Compared to the state-of-the-art detectors, ITN's DCD is expected to provide detectors with greater bandwidth, increased sensitivity, decreased cost, and the ability to track targets with hyperspectral imaging. Current applications are both government and commercial sensors including surveillance, night vision, mobile targeting, and direction finding. As sensors become cheaper we expect the applications to expand into additional areas such as low-cost surveillance networks or integrated navigation and safety systems on automobiles.

KESTREL CORPORATION
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Dr. Leonard John Otten
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:High Efficiency Interferometric Spectral Imaging (BMDO/00-003E-IR)
Abstract:Under this Phase I SBIR the Kestrel Corporation proposes to demonstrate a new technique that increases the throughput of a Fourier transform hyperspectral interferometric imager by a factor of two while retaining the spectral and spatial resolution of the original instrument. The technique overcomes an existing limitation in virtually all interferometric instruments by recovering the light lost through the beam splitter, thereby providing increased signal to noise, improved optical efficiency, and greatly extended dynamic range. Uses in medical imaging provides a strong base for commercial development beyond the BMDO applications and have generated significant outside support in the form of over $100,000 in cash contributions and the potential for a $1,000,000 investment. The most promising commercial application of the high efficiency interferometric imaging technology is in the area of medical imaging, in imaging of the retina. In retinal imaging the amount of light available for analysis is quite small due to the 2% nominal reflectance of the retina and the limits on the amount of illumination flux the eye can safely be exposed to. Two types of uses are expected; screening for diabetic retinopathy and as a research device for spectral imaging of the retina.

LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 891-2243
Dr. Scott Courts
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Short Pass Deep UV Omnidirectional Optical Filter With Ultra Wide Blocking Range
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal addresses a need for improved UV and deep UV filters for aerospace and defense applications. A new approach to the design and fabrication short pass filters, based on a new photonic material, will allow filters to be made with transmission at wavelengths as short as 130nm or less. Both these properties are unachievable by any other means. In Phase I, it is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method by fabricating small area filters, measuring the transmission and other optical properties and comparing them with the design model. In Phase II, large area filters will be fabricated and the spatial uniformity of their optical properties and their physical properties will be evaluated, as well as the potential for scaling up to production. Phase III will involve product design, fabricating filter structures to meet customers' physical as well as optical needs, and marketing and sales investments. The filters will be used in solar-blind imaging systems or staring arrays for applications such as missile tracking, commercial applications such as automated arc-welding control and analysis, and ozone depletion monitoring, as well as in deep-UV lithography, spectroscopy, and astronomy. The proposed technique for making filters for the deep ultra violet will serve needs in missile tracking and monitoring, space-based missile defense, monitoring of corona and arcing activity of power lines, curing of advanced adhesives and polymers, medical applications, semiconductor photolithography, nanotechnologies, photochemistry and industrial processing, such as flame analysis. It will provide an inexpensive method for manufacturing blocking and short pass filters, not only in the Deep UV but also in the near UV and Far UV.

LEFT HAND DESIGN CORPORATION
7901 Oxford Road
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 652-2786
Mr. Lawrence M. Germann
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced-Bandwidth Fine-Steering Mirror, subtopics A, C, D and E
Abstract:This is an innovative approach to achieving a higher servo control bandwidth with fine-steering mirrors. The primary anticipated result of this SBIR is a control bandwidth of 4000 Hz for a fine-steering mirror for a 15 mm optical beam and a 2800 Hz bandwidth for an FSM for a 35 mm beam. These are currently needed for SMDC's interceptor seeker applications. Achieving this bandwidth in the larger mirror will reduce the number of pointing mechanisms thus potentially reducing the size, mass, complexity and power consumption of the seeker system. These are high-performance fine-steering mirrors in terms of low mass, low surface figure errors and compact volumes. Servo control bandwidth limits the ability of pointing and tracking systems to correct vibrations of the host platform which induce optical jitter causing blur. During Phase I, LHDC will conduct analysis and determine specific design features to enhance bandwidth. Design modifications will be retrofitted to existing inventory units and characterized through test. Successful design features will be incorporated into a Phase I conceptual model to be implemented in Phase II. The primary application is an FSM for 15 to 35 mm optical beams which are currently needed for SMDC's interceptor seeker applications. Other aerospace programs that can use the proposed technology include NRL's interceptor seeker programs, Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), Earth Observation System (EOS), Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), Space Technology 3 (ST3), Airborn Laser (ABL), Space-Based Laser (SBL) and other applications such as Mars mappers and free-space laser communications. The NASA and DoD agencies involved include JPL, GSFC, LaRC, GRC, MSFC, AFRL, NRL, SMDC and BMDO.

MAGNOLIA OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES,INC.
52B Cummings Park, Suite 314
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 376-1505
Mr. Robert A. Bell
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:High Performance AlGaN HEMT Devices Grown on Lattice Matched Substrates
Abstract:AlGaN-based heterostructures have demonstrated versatility in optical and electronic applications which is practically unmatched by other material systems. The AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) constitute a leading candidate for simultaneously realizing ultra-high frequency low noise amplifiers and power amplifiers. The electron transport properties at the AlGaN/GaN interface along with the high electron saturation velocity and high breakdown fields in GaN are the basis for the superior performance of these devices. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC, 100 - 150 mm-wide with a record power density of 9.8 W/mm at 8 GHz (about ten times GaAs devices) have been demonstrated with gain of 9.6 dB and power added efficiency of 47%. While these devices and amplifiers were grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, recently AlGaN/GaN HEMTs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have essentially attained parity. We will study the design, development, and fabrication of HEMT devices using MBE. In the last decade, electronic devices that operate reliably at high temperatures in excess of 300 C and beyond have been under development for a wide variety of new applications. The GaN/AlGaN-based HEMT power transistors have wide commercial markets in radar and range finding, collision avoidance, digital transmission (including HDTV, MMDS and LMDS), satellites, and automobiles and engine sensors. The high temperature and high single transistor power capabilities would make the devices particularly useful for portable and aerospace applications. Existing and emerging high temperature markets, which are largely unfulfilled at present, have been estimated in the billions of dollar range.

MARINE PHYSICS & TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
365 McDuffie Dr.
Athens, GA 30605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(706) 548-7268
Dr. Charles A. Uzes
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:High Resolution 3d Acoustic Pre-Launch and Boost Phase Detection/Tracking System A-Acoustic and Seismic
Abstract:The proposed Phase I effort addresses the problem of early pre-launch warning for ballistic missiles and early boost phase missile detection and tracking. Specifically, the effort will evaluate the application of new energy efficient, high resolution, 3d, acoustic linear processing array concepts to the detection and tracking of pre-launch trailer-erector-launchers (TELs) and early boost phase missiles in spectrally competitive and realistic environments. The new linear processing technology obtains natural high resolution by managing arrays with many sensors, distinguishing it from contemporary technologies based upon cross-spectral density/beamforming (or mathematically equivalent) processing. This technology permits noise reduction and multi-target tracking to be accomplished without adaptive processing, the reconstruction of individual signals of resolvable targets for classification purposes, and a significant reduction in array power requirements in comparison to cross-spectral density based processors. The Phase I evaluation will develop sensor time series simulations of data collected for pre-launch TEL/convoy and early boost phase BMDO scenarios and apply to it the proposed optimized array processing technology. The Phase I product will report detection range and resolving power as a function of optimized array operational parameters, providing for future comparison with other acoustic array types. High resolution, 3d, energy efficient linearly processed array systems can be expected to have a broad spectrum of benefits and commercial applications beyond providing remote and unattended pre-launch and boost phase missile tracking and warning and launch confirmation. With use of miniature electronics, low power digital signal processors, and proper selection of sensor type one can envision unattended sensor deployments for passive domestic security and monitoring efforts, including airports, nuclear power plants, factories, marine mammal tracking and locating sources of seismic disturbances and/or sources within dams. Use of MEMS microphone technology would allow operation in difficult environmental conditions. The 3d algorithms will also prove useful for passive tracking and classifying submarines, surface ships, aircraft, and in domestic surveillance and border interdiction. The proposed arrays, deployed with appropriate sensors, could be attached to balloons, submerged on the ocean bottom, attached to walls of buildings, or buried in the ground. They can also be expected to play a significant role in land targeting to support Army, Navy, and Air Force initiatives in Internetted Unattended Ground Sensors. Their high positional accuracy and high resolutuion would also permit location of gunfire source positions in signal competitive environments, an important application for domestic law enforcement.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Bauke Heeg
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Solid State Optical Cooling at 35 K
Abstract:MetroLaser is proposing to perform a feasibility study of solid state optical cooling to very low (35 K) temperatures. Based on previously developed experimental and theoretical techniques, and a combination of a novel laser pumping scheme, recent developments in materials processing, and a rigorous analysis of spectroscopic data at ultra-low temperatures, this study will result in a set of performance characteristics such as cooling efficiency, wall-plug efficiency, operating conditions, weight, size, cost, durability and operability. Using these results, a prototype design will be presented for a Phase II development. This study will focus on the effect of gravity on micro-crystal formation and the resulting optical properties at very low temperatures. However, it will also benefit the development of cooling devices aiming to work at 77 K operating temperature, which is a proven concept technology with benefiting features. These features include no moving parts, no electromagnetic interference, compactness, low weight, long operational lifetime, and relatively inexpensive manufacture. The potential to make inexpensive, efficient cooling devices that are driven by small powerful diode lasers may revolutionize satellite, computer, and high-temperature superconductor electronics industries. Optical solid-state cooling is a truly enabling technology, filling the gap between mechanical and thermo-electric cooling devices.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive, Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Mark Williams
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Clustering for Classification
Abstract: Abstract not available...

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-2477
Dr. Yongdong Jiang
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Low cost fabrication of pyroelectric thin films and novel structures for IR sensors by combustion CVD
Abstract:Infrared (IR) sensors are required for military and commercial applications such as human body recognition, non-contact temperature detection, and image sensing. The U.S. infrared market is growing rapidly and the market would benefit greatly with further reduction in cost, size, weight and power consumption. Also, integrated devices and systems compatible with typical semiconductor process are becoming more and more needed. Hence, pyroelectric thin film based infrared sensors are being targeted for development and properties such as high sensitivity, low noise, low power consumption and smaller size. In this Phase I effort, we will utilize the innovative, low-cost, Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process to deposit dense, textured pyroelectric thin films including multiplayer structures on single crystal substrates. Deposited coatings will be characterized for their chemical, dielectric, and pyroelectric properties. Successful accomplishment of Phase I will lead to a follow-on Phase II effort where further development and commercialization of sensors will take place. The IR sensor market was estimated to be over $1.3 billion in 2001. Successful development of the CCVD technology will result in cost effective fabrication of integrated IR sensors and fulfill the industry's need of low cost, low power consumption and high performance infrared devices in the very near future. If MicroCoating Technologies triumphs in its product plan, both military and commercial segments would benefit immensely.

MICROCONTINUUM, INC.
57 Smith Place
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 354-1092
Dr. W. Dennis Slafer
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative bump bond process for low cost, high pixel count IR sensor arrays
Abstract:Successful BMD requires improved sensors and sensor sytems. IR sensors with significantly higher pixel counts and smaller pixel sizes would allow improved midcourse characterization ot target, target fragment, and deployed object spectral signatures, as well as spatially resolved radiometry of rocket plumes during launch. Conventional sensor arrays are limited not by detector materials technology but by the technique of bump bonding of the sensor layer output to the readout electronics. MicroContinuum proposes a new process of bonding sensor layers to readout circuits based on a unique combination of high resolution microfabrication techniques and versatile polymer sheet processing technology. Phase I of this program will demonstrate that the MicroContinmuum process approach will enable the production of affordable IR sensors with significantly improved resolution. An analysis of IR sensor layer/readout IC combinations will also be performed in Phase I to lay the necessary groundwork for scalability demonstrations and full-scale sensor layer/ROIC prototyping in Phase II. In addition to helping alleviate the pressing BMD need for high resolution/sensitivity large-format IR sensors, there are a multiplicity of other military, as well as non-military, areas that will be enabled by the results of the proposed program. Scientific optics applications include earth remote sensing, IR astronomy, charting of space debris, and measuring of atmospheric composition/contaminants and density. Potentially significant commercial applications of this technology lie in improved IR sensors for industrial process monitoring and control as well as multi-contact bonding for the new field of optical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS).

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED
10386B Democracy Lane
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 293-8910
Dr. Jose E. Velazco
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Terahertz Travelling-Wave Nanotube
Abstract:We propose the development of a revolutionary terahertz traveling-wave nanotube (TTN) that will provide ultra-short wavelength radiation for numerous military and civilian applications. The proposed TTN concept uses a nanotube in conjunction with an electron beam produced by a single micron-size emitter to produce terahertz electromagnetic radiation. The TTN should be easily fabricated using state-of-the-art solid state technology and will be a pioneering step towards combining vacuum tube technology with solid-state nanotechnology. Some of the applications for these exciting new devices include future high-resolution radar, satellite telecommunications systems, cellular communications, and ultrahigh-speed computers. Detailed numerical, computational and experimental analysis of this concept is proposed during Phase I in order to evaluate key issues such as bandwidth, maximum output power, efficiency and gain. Once successfully developed, the TTN will be the basis for a new generation of infrared sources capable of producing ultrahigh frequency radiation with high efficiency in an amazingly compact and lightweight package. If successful, traveling-wave nanotubes should efficiently provide coherent ultrahigh frequency radiation for many applications. Of particular interest are micrometer-wave sources for airborne radar, satellite communications, wireless television and communications, cellular telephones, and the next generation of the microwave power module.

MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 963-8761
Dr. Kathryn L. Doughty
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Optimized In-Pixel Mitigation Schemes for Photo-Detectors in Radiation Environments
Abstract:Current ballistic-missile defense relies upon semiconductor-based photo-detectors, which have inherent difficulties operating in a high-radiation environment, due to false targets and noise induced by the impinging radiation's interaction with the detector material. As environments become more challenging, previous approaches relying on shielding and off-chip processing will no longer be able to compensate. On-chip processing becomes attractive as a way to mitigate radiation effects, and to allow operation through the more difficult missions required by current scenarios. This interest is enhanced by the continuing reduction in circuit feature-size, which allows for per-pixel enactment of many previously discussed, but technologically unavailable, approaches. Real-life production and testing of these mitigation schemes is expensive and time consuming. The choice of mitigation scheme can be very dependent on mission environment. We propose the development of a tool to simulate common schemes and allow for direct evaluation of their efficacy under typical environments. This tool will be used to choose and optimize mitigation schemes for given mission scenarios. The choice will take into account the operational radiation environment, system processing capabilities and characteristics, and current foundry capabilities of circuit production. This tool will be used in the choice and design of mitigation schemes for photosensors in specified radiation environments. The tool will be used to provide mitigation recommendations optimized to the customer's particular environment. This will include customization of the mitigation scheme's parameters to match the output to the capabilities of the customer's processing system. Application of this tool includes commercial space surveillance satellites, environment and weather satellites, NASA assets in particular during high solar activity or due to rogue nation nuclear weapons, in addition to the obvious military applications.

MMCOMM INC
3625 Del Amo Blvd Ste 200
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 793-8892
Long Q Bui
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:subtopic B: Digital Beamforming (DBF) Subarray for Radar and Communications Applications
Abstract:MMCOMM with support from UCLA will design a low mass, low power digital beamforming (DBF) subarray for radar and communications applications. The technology is applicable to any communication or radar band, namely L, S, X or EHF. We will evaluate advanced DDS and D/A digital waveform generation. We will investigate flexible membrane materials such as Kapton and Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP). Tradeoffs will be performed comparing alternate architectures. The baseline approach is a DDS waveform generator feeding a hybrid RF/IF - digital beamformer. The DDS based approach is based upon extending the current MMCOMM developed DDS technology that operates at Ka-band. The digital beamforming technology is based upon that currently under development at UCLA for the commercial wireless market. Thus the utilization of applicable COTS technology is a potential realization for the proposed design. We will leverage the current MMCOMM DDS and microwave / MMW MMIC capability plus the UCLA MMW Lab DBF capability to develop the solution for Phase I. We will investigate the applicability of waveforms such as CDMA and OFDM. For Phase II we will propose building a demo subarray leveraging off the newly developing COTS microwave / MMW technology at MMCOMM and the MMW / digital beamforming technology at UCLA. A digital beamforming subarray having very low mass, and power consumption is an extremely useful component for DBF phased array antennas and DBF array feeds to lens and reflector antennas, for both military and commercial use. Space-based radar/communication/surveillance/reconnaissance systems would benefit greatly from the development of this technology. Military applications include satellite radar and communications systems at S-band thru Extremely High Frequency bands. Commercial applications that would benefit from this technology include satellite-based global communications systems.

NANOMATERIALS RESEARCH CORPORATION
2021 Miller Drive, Suite B
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 652-4001
Dr. Dmitri Routkevitch
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:High Resolution Ceramic Microchannel Plates
Abstract:National missile defense systems require a wide variety of sensor technologies that span the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Systems under development will need sensors for surveillance, launch detection, target tracking and target discrimination. Microchannel plates (MCP) are integral components of many advanced detectors from X-ray to near IR. Conventional glass-fiber-based MCPs have a number of inherent limitations, and opportunities for increasing their performance are leveling off. This proposal seeks support for the development of novel ceramic microchannel plates with high resolution, high open area ratio, and low noise. The proposed technology is based on the high aspect ratio micromachining of ceramics and atomic layer channel modification, and has a potential to enable detector systems with performance and lifetime unavailable before. During the Phase I project, in collaboration with our partners, we will produce and test MCP prototypes, and develop a clear path for product development efforts in support of advanced "eyes and ears" systems of the missile defense. The proposed technology has the potential to overcome the limitations of glass-fiber MCPs and provide solutions for a new generation of surveillance sensors and image intensifiers for multiple military and commercial use. Beyond the advantages of high resolution and flexible channel modification, our technology could potentially provide mechanical robustness, high temperature capabilities, long operational lifetime, high reproducibility, manufacturability, and substantially lower cost.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mr. Keith Huie
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:00-003B-Radar and MMW: Inkjet Print Self-Assembly of Multifunctional Devices on Flexible Nanosat Surfaces
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I BMDO SBIR program is to demonstrate the feasibility of inkjet print electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) of electronic and photonic devices on flexible nanosat surfaces. ESA processing consists of alternately adsorbing cationic and anionic molecules from water-based solutions onto substrates at room temperature and pressure to form organic/inorganic nanocomposite coatings. Electrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical, thermal and electric field-controlled functional properties of the coatings may be created by incorporation of selected molecular nanoclusters, advanced polymers and other molecules, by processing conditions, and by controlling the order of the multilayer geometry. The inkjet printing of the ESA process solutions onto solid substrates allows the rapid and low-cost prototyping and fabrication of functional devices. During the Phase I program, NanoSonic would work with Virginia Tech to design a prototype nanostructure with multiple layered device functions that could be `printed' onto flexible kapton and upilex surfaces using this process, and used to demonstrate the manufacturing method. During Phase II, NanoSonic will develop methods for upscaling and transitioning the ESA print process to manufacturing in cooperation with a major U.S. aerospace contractor. The inkjet print ESA process may be used to form a variety of high performance materials and devices integrated directly into lightweight polymer structural components. Low-cost ESA processing will allow the manufacturing of cost-competitive and multifunctional aerospace, electronic, optoelectronic, sensor and actuator materials, devices and integrated function structures.

NEW JERSEY MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
240 Martin Luther King Blvd.
Newark, NJ 07102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 297-1450
Dr. Donald E. Booth
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:BMDO/02-003G Proposal SBIR BMDO#02-003G Uncooled, Large Format, Low Noise, Co-registered Single Sensor Simultaneous Visible/MWIR/LWIR Multispectral
Abstract:Proposal SBIR BMDO#02-003g An Uncooled Large Format, Low Noise, Co-registered Single Sensor Simultaneous Visible,MWIR,LWIR Multispectral Imager. Can image any combination of visible color, SWIR/MWIR and LWIR with a potential NETD of 2 mK and a resolution of 7M/(number simultaneous) bands Provides the most compact, high resolution sensor for simultaneous, co-registered multi-wavelength images.

NUMERICA, INC.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Benjamin Slocumb
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Data Segmentation/Centroid Processing with Tracker Feedback for Tracking Closely Spaced Objects
Abstract:With wideband phased array radars, objects can be larger than the range resolution in which case multiple detections will occur across adjacent range cells. For conditions with closely-spaced objects (CSOs), a key processing function is the segmentation of detections (called primitive measurements) and the subsequent centroid processing of primitives into object reports for use in data association and track filtering. It is the presence of CSOs and the use of wideband waveforms to resolve CSOs that make effective data segmentation/centroid processing a critical function within radar systems supporting BMD. To address the needs, we propose to develop a new algorithm that includes merged monopulse measurement estimation procedures, clustering methods with segmentation rules, and feedback from local or network-level trackers. Track feedback from multiple networked radars with different resolution volumes (i.e., diverse locations) should allow for improved tracking of splitting objects. Currently, data segmentation/centroid processing for tracking CSOs with wideband phased array radars is an unfunded research area that is critical to the success of future BMD systems. Without effective data segmentation/centroid processing, the track performance for splitting objects will be degraded and will significantly delay the engagement of ballistic missiles. Several new radar systems are being developed to support the missile defense initiative. With high-resolution waveforms, it is intended that these radar systems will have the capability to resolve and identify multiple closely spaced objects (CSOs). However, there is a vital need for new data segmentation/centroid processing techniques to support the high resolving capabilities. Without the development of these new techniques, the tracking performance of these radars could be compromised. The algorithms to be developed in this proposal will address this critical need area. Numerica, Inc. has a very successful record of developing algorithms (specifically in the target tracking area), implementing the algorithms using highly-structured object-oriented software techniques, and licensing the software to defense contractors and the US DoD. Presently, Numerica, Inc. has licensed tracking software to almost all major aerospace companies. Our objective is to formulate new algorithm solutions for the data segmentation/centroid processing problem, develop high-quality software, and offer these solutions to MDA contractors and the MDA.

OCIS TECHNOLOGY
1401 W. Saltsage Drive
Phoenix, AZ 85045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 283-0858
Dr. Michael Tischler
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:AlGaN photodetectors on Improved Substrates
Abstract:UV (and blue) sensors have a wide range of commercial and Government applications. The III-V nitrides provide an attractive material system for such detectors, with bandgaps ranging from 2.0 to 6.2eV. While III-V nitride devices have made significant advances, especially in the area of LEDs, defects continue to compromise the performance and lifetime of detectors and lasers. The major limiting factors are defects resulting from the differences in the lattice constant and thermal coefficient of expansion (TCE) of the substrate and the AlGaN active layers. This problem gets worse when the Al composition is increased to achieve a particular wavelength or bandgap. This proposal describes a novel approach to eliminate these defects, and make AlGaN wafers of large diameter at commercially acceptable cost which are TCE matched to the device layers and provide high thermal conductivity. The quality of this material will be demonstrated using AlGaN photodetectors. This development will result is a process to make large area AlGaN substrates with improved characteristics at a low cost, permitting widespread use of nitrides in both Government and commercial applications.

OMAN MOMENTS, INC.
16 Whitehall Dr.
Huntington, NY 11743
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 366-3100
Dr. Stanley Rudman
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:A Dual-Band Sensor System for Boost-Phase Hard-Body Targeting
Abstract:A central challenge in Boost-Phase Intercept of a hostile ballistic missile is the targeting of the missile body in the brilliant plume. We propose an IR sensor system that takes advantage of special characteristics of plume radiation to provide two bands that have very different relative sensitivity to the plume and body. We combine these bands with an algorithm that exploits this relationship to make the hard body of the missile stand out in the image of the high altitude plume. In Phase I we will conduct tradeoffs among system parameters within current technology limits. We will set up design reference missions for kinetic and directed energy kill systems, and derive required sensor parameters. Output of Phase I will be a preliminary design for either a direct energy or a kinetic kill vehicle, with performance predictions, and a review of technology and development issues in detailed design, development and production of the sensor system. We will seek the goal of reducing sensor system cost to a small fraction (<5%) of the kill system overall cost. This proposal presents analysis to illustrate the promise of our 2-band approach. Phase II would develop the sensor concept further and conduct risk reduction demonstrations. We expect that this project will point the way to an IR sensor that has unique advantages in acquisition and tracking the vulnerable portions of a missile body while still in the boost phase. Conventional approaches to the clear imaging of the hard body in the presence of a brilliant plume have not yet shown convincing prospects for use in realistic boost-phase scenarios. The features of high altitude plume radiation present an opportunity for a relatively inexpensive way of extracting the hard-body image from the surrounding plume radiation, and we have outlined that methodology in its simplest terms in this proposal. If the analysis of Phase I shows the kind of promise and feasibility that characterizes our results so far, we would greatly expand that work in scope and detail in a Phase II investigation. Phase II would also include a teaming effort, in which we would work with BMDO to attract a partnership with one or more systems and/or sensor contractors to move forward through Phase II with the concept.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC. (OKSI)
4030 Spencer St, Suite 108
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-4445
Dr. Nahum Gat
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:A Sensor for Spatial-Spectral-Temporal Missile Signature Characterization and MPR (Spectral Range E)
Abstract:we propose to design, build and deliver a sensor capable of capturing full spectral signatures, over a 2D spatial extand at a high temporal resolution. The sensor is specifically appropriate for plumes and fast changing events such as intercepts kill assessment, for characterizing target signature, and specifically optimized for monocular passive ranging. We expect to develop and demonstrate the technology to be directly incorporated into various operational platforms. Specific target platforms include BMDO's HALO-II and later on NAIC Cobra Ball; The sensor is also applicable for BSIR architecture and similar space platforms, to UAVs including Global Hawk, and ground platforms such as ISTEF.

ORINCON CORPORATION
ORINCON Hawaii, Inc., 970 N. Kalaheo Ave. #C-215
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 254-1532
Dr. R. David Dikeman
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Sensors and Surveillance: Fusion-Generated Target Discrimination for BMDO Sensor and Surveillance Systems
Abstract:Technology is a controlling variable for cost, schedule, and performance design of U.S. ballistic missile defense systems. Target discrimination (the ability to identify or engage any one target when multiple targets are present) during National Missile Defense (NMD) midcourse engagement is a complex technological hurdle. Exoatmospheric kill vehicle (EKV) sensors need to discriminate among warhead(s), decoys and penetration aids in an extremely short detect-to-kill time. Feature differences among decoys, penetration aids, and warheads are not adequate for discrimination by current EKV passive IR sensors and the BMC4I surveillance system. Our Fusion-Generated Discrimination (FGD) approach will generate reliable, accurate Target Object Maps (TOM) to overcome future system hit-to-kill limitations. Using multispectral and active/passive sensor inputs, our FGD Toolkit will combine scene and kinematic processes. The FGD subsystem leverages proven multiple-hypothesis fusion and extended Kalman filter technologies for this EO/IR and radar application. As a result, multiple-wavelength signals and multiple phenomena are fused for improved discrimination and kill. As a future element of the NMD "system of systems," ORINCON's rapid, all-source data fusion enablers will offer the Missile Defense Agency enhanced discrimination capabilities. Adapting multiple-hypothesis fusion of multispectral data offers a means of achieving a substantial target discrimination capability at a reasonable cost and schedule risk. It would enhance BMD sensing capabilities for expanded Capability-1 ballistic threats and beyond, and greatly improve BMD surveillance (BMC4I) capabilities. The multispectral data fusion aspects of the proposed effort could benefit advanced medical imaging systems by providing a more accurate imaging capability.

PEREGRINE SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION
6175 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-0660
Dr. Ron Reedy
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:UV & Blue CCD Imager
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop near UV (NUV) and blue light CCD arrays with high sensitivity, high dynamic range and radiation hardness. A device structure is proposed that is inherently sensitive to short wavelength energy while being inherently insensitive to visible and IR wavelengths. Using a fully depleted UTSir CMOS on sapphire structure which has proven radiation hardness creates the potential for a high sensitivity, high dynamic range CCD device inherently sensitive only to short wavelengths. It is the purpose of this proposal to show that a complete UV/blue sensitive CCD can be developed in a proven radiation hard CMOS on sapphire process. By adding properly designed optical layers to the backside of the sapphire substrate, wavelength selectivity can be tailored to provide desired "solar blindness" which ensures applicability to daytime space-based navigation as well as to high dynamic range focal plane array imagers for space-based remote sensing. By using a commercially established process, manufacturability and time-to-market goals can be met and long term supply is ensured. Such a device would be applicable to space-based celestial navigation as well as blue and UV remote imaging. Commercially, such a device will find applications in biomedical imaging and in deep submicron microscopy.

PHASE IV SYSTEMS, INC.
3405 Triana Boulevard
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 535-2100
Mr. Robert H. Fletcher
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:A Low-Cost Anti-Jamming Capability Employing Sequential Nulling and Adaptive Processing (SNAP)
Abstract: Abstract not available...

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 331-6322
Mr. Anthony Sommese
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Model-Based Feature Extraction for Mid-Course Discrimination
Abstract:A main objective of BMDO is to reduce the dependency of the optical mid-course discrimination algorithms on a priori information. Existing algorithms use average intensity, modulation, signature trends and frequency content as features, which are very sensitive to both geometry and training assumptions and impose large storage requirements on an operational system. Also features like average intensity may be easily masked using simple countermeasures. PRA is proposing to use a physics model in conjunction with an estimation procedure to extract, in real-time from optical signatures, dynamics-based features such as coning angle, angular momentum vector and precession rate. These features reduce the dependency of discrimination on a priori information, make discrimination less susceptible to countermeasures and also simplify the training process. The estimator will use a physics model to iterate on a set of dynamics-based parameters until the sensor intensity measurements are best matched. In Phase I PRA will develop the models to be used by the real-time estimation algorithm to predict intensity measurements, incorporate the model into the estimator, demonstrate the feasibility of extracting dynamics-based features from infrared sensor measurements and show the performance benefits obtained by using these features in an discrimination example. The immediate benefit will be to make mid-course discrimination algorithms more robust by reducing their dependency on a priori information and their susceptibility to countermeasures. This has direct utility for systems such as SBIRS Low as well as GBI. The model-based estimator developed under this SBIR offers the commercial potential of developing a programmable logic array that would be a key product in a low cost interceptor system.

PIXON LLC
9295 Farnham Street
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 279-4253
Dr. Richard C. Puetter
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Image Analysis Hardware for High-Speed, Sub-Diffraction MDA Applications (Topic 02-003)
Abstract:The ability to resolve closely spaced objects, which are separated by angles less than the diffraction limit of the observing platform, greatly facilitates the early discrimination of missile payloads. We demonstrate that our image processing provides accurate source positions and radiometry for sources separated by 0.25-0.5 of the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point-spread function, or a factor of 2-4 closer than a separation of 1 FWHM or more, conventionally thought to be required for accurate detection. Furthermore, we show that this performance is at or near the theoretical limit derived from the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We propose to design custom image analysis hardware that implements our image processing in a small fraction of a second. This hardware is expected to be relatively compact (a few printed-circuit boards) and require low power, allowing its use aboard spacecrafts. Future ASIC implementation will further reduce size and power. In addition to missile defense, the proposed hardware will find applications in a number of military and commercial markets, such as military intelligence, medical imaging, commercial satellite imaging, and high-end microscopy. Missile Defense, Military Intelligence, Surveillance, Law Enforcement, Commercial Satellite Imaging, Medical Tomography, Rational Drug Design, Microscopy.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATES
2243 Chimney Swift Circle
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 804-0392
Dr. J. Clayton Kerce
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Tomographic Correction Techniques For An Enhanced Tropospheric Effects Compensation System
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates (PRA) introduces two innovative tomographic techniques, based on ground based GPS satellite signal measurements, that significantly improve angle of arrival error correction for radars tracking long range, low elevation targets. These tomographic techniques provide real-time updates to existing 3-D refractivity field data sets over a 360 degree field of view, enabling an order of magnitude reduction in error when compared to existing model based refractivity field estimators. PRA proposes to expand the capabilities of the Enhanced Tropospheric Error Compensation (ETEC) system concept, developed for BMDO by PRA under contract number DASG60-01-P-0042, with the addition of an Enhanced 3-D Refractivity Field measurement system. This system will incorporate Ray Tracing Tomographic Correction and Diffraction Tomographic Correction methods to allow real-time measurements of the tropospheric refractivity field for the mitigation of tropospheric error effects due to large scale bending and turbulence. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the Ray Tracing Tomographic Correction and Diffraction Tomographic Correction technique to estimate bending error and establish a system error budget for integration into the ETEC system. A Phase I Option is proposed that will develop a prototype design that can be integrated into either GMD XBR or NTW HPD-X for real-time operation. The anticipated results from the proposed research will be to establish the feasibility of the Ray Tracing Tomographic Correction and Diffraction Tomographic Correction techniques to mitigate tropospheric effects in the presence of realistic noise and error sources over a 360 degree field of view in near real-time. An error budget will be developed that allocates allowable error to various sub-components of the Ray Tracing Tomographic Correction and Diffraction Tomographic Correction techniques to mitigate tropospheric bending error to within 0.5% of the total bending error for target elevations less than 2. The proposed techniques will be integrated into the Enhanced Tropospheric Effects Compensation (ETEC) system concept, developed by PRA, Inc. for BMDO under contract DASG60-01-P-0042. The ETEC System concept has broad applications to improve performance in GPS, radar, sonar, and communications. The immediate application will be to improve target location accuracy and detection for low elevation radar targets. The Ray Tracing Tomographic Correction and Diffraction Tomographic Correction techniques and the ETEC technology can also be used to improve GPS accuracy by allowing GPS satellites to be tracked to low elevations, thereby providing additional satellites that can be used to obtain a GPS solution. There are two technologies derived from ETEC that will improve GPS accuracy - 1) the correction of angle error due to tropospheric bending and 2) the mitigation of multipath error. The ETEC technology has application in other media where signal-bending error is an issue. For example, in sonar and acoustics sound waves are bent due to the difference in water or atmospheric pressure. PRA will pursue applications of ETEC to angle error correction for sonar and acoustics. In addition, the estimation of the spatial and temporal correlation of turbulence using the Ray Tracing Tomographic Correction and Diffraction Tomographic Correction techniques along with existing statistical models will provide a method to discriminate the relative statistics among several objects. By accurately estimating the correlation statistics of turbulence in real-time, an algorithm will be developed that identifies desired targets embedded in multiple undesired objects that will have imaging applications in other propagation media such as medical imaging or seismography.

PROSENSING
107 Sunderland Road
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-4402
Dr. Andrew Pazmany
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Subtopic B Radar and MMW: Mobile mmW Radiotelescope for Detection of Rocket Plumes at Lunch
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal addresses the use of millimeter-wave radiometry to detect continuum radiation from rocket plumes at launch. Preliminary experiments carried out in a rocket test bed at Stennis AFB, showed that the radiometric signature of a rocket plume can exceed 1000o C at 35, 60 and 95 GHz. These results suggest that rocket plumes can be readily detected using a millimeter-wave radiometer. However, it is critical to carry out measurements of rocket plumes at launch to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of the millimeter-wave signature. This proposal describes our plan to deploy a mobile 95 GHz radio telescope having sufficient spatial resolution to map the rocket plume signature from a safe launch standoff distance of five miles or more. During Phase I, we will design the radio telescope around an existing 95 GHz radiometer that will be provided to this project by the University of Massachusetts. A field experiment plan will be developed, including launch schedules, boost profiles, and coordination of data fusion with on-site instrumentation. We will also investigate developing a dual use capability for Milstar or other existing millimeter-wave systems to be able to detect rocket launches from ships or aircraft. Successful completion of Phase II research will yield important data on the millimeter-wave signature of rocket plumes. Development of system concepts for dual-use conversion of Milstar or other existing millimeter-wave systems will result in an all-weather capability for missile launch detection.

REDSTONE ENGINEERING CONSULTING INC
P. O. Box 340
Carbondale, CO 81623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 406-7844
Mr. Robert Levenduski
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Multistage Cryocooler With Novel Expanders
Abstract:Long life cryocoolers are needed to cool doped silicon focal plane arrays to 10 Kelvin. Simultaneous cooling at several higher temperatures is also needed for optical and thermal components that support these focal planes. Development of a multi-stage 10K cryocooler would greatly enhance the total cooling system's reliability and reduce its size, weight, and power consumption. The proposed cryocooler is based on the reverse-Brayton cycle with a major innovation. Redstone has discovered that there is an operating pressure range or a "sweet spot" that leads to an easier and quicker development path. This pressure range eases the requirements for the recuperative heat exchangers, making these smaller and lighter. The required compression ratio is modest, making compressor development easier also. The innovation enabling this cryocooler is a new cryogenic expander that works in the "sweet spot". This expander incorporates many features for long life and robustness against contamination. Redstone's preliminary mechanical and thermodynamic analysis shows that this expander is worthy of further development. This proposal focuses on the development of the 10K multistage cooler and the new expander. Redstone will do this development with assistance from our team member, Swales Aerospace. Supports Air Force, DOD and NASA efforts to develop 10K space cryocoolers. Supports long-wave infrared and hyper spectral imaging sensors. Multistage low temperature cryocoolers could have many commercial ground based scientific and laboratory applications.

SAGE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1018 West Ninth Avenue, Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 354-9100
Mr. Michael Wilson
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Active Polarimetric LADAR System
Abstract:Polarization imaging holds promise for providing significant improvements in contrast for target detection and discrimination. It has been demonstrated that manmade objects have a significantly stronger polarized signal than natural backgrounds. There is also strong promise for improved target-background contrast with active imaging polarimeters, operating similarly to a LADAR system. SAGE proposes to develop a fast (>30 Hz) imaging polarimeter with an active mode capability in the infared. The proposed polarimetric LADAR system will serve as a prototype for a potential KV sensor & weapons system. The active polarimeter design, to be completed for Phase I, will include component specifications, data reduction algorithms, and a thorough performance analysis. The prototype instrument will be designed to be compatible with an active polarimetric sensor architecture, a modular system that will provide for expansion to other wavebands for related military and commercial applications. Additionally, SAGE proposes to incorporate superpixel technology at the detector. The concept will be modeled against microgrid technology for performance and risk. Superpixel technology offers several advantages over microgrids including elimination of scatter and obscuration of the incident light at the focal plane array. It is anticipated that the imaging polarimeter will significantly enhance target detection on a wide variety of military seekers and be directly applicable into the commercial market for search and rescue, security, and nondestructive evaluation of structural materials and protective coatings.

SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INC
15 WARD STREET
SOMERVILLE, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-1122
Dr. ALLEN FLUSBERG
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Dual-Band Visible/Long-Wavelength Infrared Imager
Abstract:Science Research Laboratory (SRL) proposes to develop an affordable, dual-band visible long-wavelength infrared (VLIR) imager. This revolutionary, new instrument can be switched instantaneously between conventional visible imaging and long-wavelength (7-12 microns) infrared(IR) imaging that is sensitive to thermally emitted radiation and can operate in complete darkness. In the visible mode, the image is projected directly onto a CCD/CMOS array. In the IR mode, a novel affordable (<$1000) uncooled thermo-optic focal-plane array (FPA) technology converts the CCD/CMOS visible-light camera into a high-resolution, high-sensitivity infrared camera for surveillance of a scene with no ambient illumination. The revolutionary design of the imager--a single optical train common to all wavelengths--guarantees intrinsic registration of the different-wavelength images. In Phase I a design of the imager will be completed, and a prototype will be fabricated in Phase II. With this new dual-band VLIR technology, a single camera installation (camera, mounting scan system, wiring, video monitor and recording system) will be capable of imaging both bands. Such visible-IR image integration will provide a very robust sensor for BMDO applications, enhancing discrimination between a missile and decoys. This new technology can also be used to retrofit existing visible-camera surveillance systems to provide an affordable dual-band capability: visible for daytime or artificially lit scenes, and IR for nighttime or for smoggy conditions. Under many daytime conditions the correlation of visible and IR images will improve sensitivity and overcome camouflage.The total size of the infrared imaging market is roughly estimated to be $500 million. The interchangeability with and superiority to visible cameras will create a strong demand for cameras based on the new VLIR technology. In addition, variants of the VLIR technology, utilizing affordable IR-to-visible transduction, will be applicable to a wide variety of visible/infrared imaging of commercial interest, including security surveillance cameras for public buildings, businesses and homes.

SMART PIXEL INC
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0206
Mr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors with Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation
Abstract:Hot HgCdTe detector that operates at high temperature and large reverse bias exhibits large dark current. The presence of the dark current reduces the sensitivity of High Operating Temperature (HOT) HgCdTe detector. The state-of-the-art technology uses cryogenic cooling of the device to reduce the dark current. However, cryogenic coolers cause reliability problems, increase the weight and power consumption and are consequently bulky and expensive. To overcome these problems, we propose a new generation of HOT HgCdTe detectors with a built-in resistor that is used to reduce the dark current and background photocurrent (dark Current skimming). The integrated resistor-photodiode combination is achieved by multi-layer HgCdTe growth by the cutting-edge Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technology. Bias is applied to the resistor to cancel the effect of dark current. The development of this new device technology will be of great interest to BMDO. The goals will be achieved by i) using the established flexible manufacturing molecular beam epitaxy technology for device quality HgCdTe materials growth on large area silicon substrates, and ii) incorporating novel device architectures including minority carrier exclusion, extraction to achieve high sensitivity infrared detection at high (TE cooled) temperature. Some of the potential applications that is defense related include proximity fuze, smart bombs, enemy target detection, infrared countermeasure system against the threat of missiles, LIDARs, night visions in the battlefield theater, land mine detection. Medical applications fall into non-invasive thermal imaging for diagnosis of breast cancer and other life threatening diseases. While industrial applications are non-destructive testing, thermal leak detection, process control, remote sensing, free space communication, etc.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Mr. William Clark
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:A Heterointegrated InGaAs 40Gb Optoelectronic Cross Bar Receiver E- IR (>0.9 microns)
Abstract:Advances in EO sensors and fiber optic information distribution systems have simplified the distribution of targeting information among the various systems. The requirements for higher levels of functionality and performance are pushing the levels of integration to a point that can no longer be satisfied by the industry mainstay approach of hybrid assembly. Significant improvements in fiber-optic systems and EO sensors can be gained at the component and packaging levels. Solid State Scientific Corporation (SSSC) has developed an integration technique, Epitaxial Layer Transfer (ELT), which eliminates many limitations of optoelectronic component integration, allowing the direct fabrication of optical devices on foundry-processed semiconductor wafers. SSSC proposes to demonstrate the potential of the ELT process in this Phase I program by integrating arrays of InGaAs photodetectors with foundry processed high-performance transistor amplifiers. This will be the first demonstration of the ELT technology on the high-speed circuits. The goal for Phase 2 is a fully integrated 32-channel Reconfigurable Optoelectronic Cross Bar Receiver operating at 40 Gb/s for next generation WDM optical fiber communications. Industries that will benefit from these technologies include military, telecom/datacom, and automotive. Aside from the communications applications described in this proposal,the military will also be interested in the heterogeneous integration technology for eye-safe range-finding, and low cost LADAR applications. In the telecom/datacom industries there are obvious benefits to using lower cost, high performance receivers and switches. Reconfigurable networks are of great interest as WDM metro area networks become the main area of telecom equipment deployment, and systems companies and service providers begin to offer much greater flexibility in the services that are provided. Another emerging area in the telecom/datacom arena is "free-space" optical communications. Here the optical transmission is carried out through air with no fiber. In these systems there are benefits to using eye-safe wavelengths and low cost PD/TIAs for improved sensitivity. The automotive industry will also be interested in the PD/TIA array technology because it promises to offer low cost high performance LADAR technology for use in automobile collision avoidance systems. Collision avoidance systems are just beginning to be installed in new vehicles.

SOPHIA WIRELESS, INC.
14225-C Sullyfield Circle
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 961-9573
Dr. Philip Koh
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:140 GHz Imaging Systems Based on an Innovative, Flexible Architecture
Abstract:We propose to develop a high resolution, low-cost high frame rate millimeter wave imaging system based on an innovative architechure. Airport security and concealed weapon detection

STIEFVATER CONSULTANTS
10002 Hillside terrace
Marcy, NY 13403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 334-4365
Dr. Vince Vannocla
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Radar and MMW Multistatic Concepts for Accurate Tracking & Dicrimination
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop a waveform selection and signal processing approach for multistatic radar systems. The exponential growth in RF hardware and processing hardware/software has made it likely that the technology will exist to support these multistatic concepts. As of now, it is not possible to fully exploit these emerging trends to gain the advantages of multistatic systems while overcoming their disadvantages (grating lobes, high sidelobes). This project will investigate an approach using simultaneous orthogonal waveforms being radiated from the multistatic systems subapertures to overcome these issues and made multistatic systems viable. Our proposed waveform/processing concept will address simultaneous missions/tasks from multiple sensors (SIMMMS). In a multistatic radar the transmit/receive aperture is divided into a number of subapertures that can be placed in various locations relative to each other. These locations can be chosen to optimize the performance of the radar in terms of some specific task. These systems can provide significantly improved tracking because of the large baseline between the various apertures. The resulting angular resolution can be orders of magnitude better than a monolithic system (single large radar). The same angular resolution can provide improved ECCM capability. Multistatic radars have a number of independent sources of information (the various monostatic and bistatic returns from the various subarrays). This data can be employed to provide an improved discrimination capability. Also, the independent sources of information can be combined in different fashions to accomplish different missions at the same time.

SVT ASSOCIATES, INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Peter Chow
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:InAs/GaInSb Superlattice Detector Development for > 20-Micron Infrared Focal Plane 02-003E
Abstract:InAs/GaInSb type II superlattices show great promise for use in Very Very Long Wavelength Infrared (VVLWIR, for wavelength > 20 um) detectors. System analysis indicates early detection of space borne vehicles is more easily achieved in this infrared regime. This III-V compound compares very favorably with the current HgCdTe technology in anticipated performance, manufacturability and operating costs (e.g. cryogenic cooling). Despite significant progress at shorter wavelengths (around 10 um wavelength) high performance detectors have yet to be demonstrated at these extremely long wavelengths, due to challenges posted by the material growth process. We propose to implement several monitoring techniques for tight control of the process parameters. We will also investigate processing steps for device fabrication. The Phase I work will lead to better understanding of the material growth and detector performance. This material system has detection capability from 2-30 um. Within the infrared range various products can be developed including thermal and medical imaging, and pollution monitoring.

TEC MASTERS, INCORPORATED
1500 Perimeter Parkway, Suite 215
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 830-4000
Dr. Holger Jaenisch
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Discrimination Via Phased Derived Range
Abstract:Discrimination Via Phased Derived Range Discrimination of threat reentry vehicles (RVs) from debris, heavy replicas, and other penetration aids can be achieved by forming a radar image of the target. Phased Derived Range (PDR) signal processing techniques have been shown to be capable of achieving extremely precise range measurements on individual target scatterers from coherent radar tracks. However, in the original formulations of the PDR equations the minor forces acting on the target were ignored. In actuality, the perturbations caused by these forces may provide additional information useful in discriminating threatening targets from non-threatening ones. Phase 1 of this task will be to identify the exoatmospheric forces acting on the target using standard formulations, taken from standard physics, to calculate their magnitude and to estimate their influence on target motions. These include the target dynamics of precession, nutation, and rotation about its axis. Development of the modification terms for the PDR processing equations. As a byproduct of the identification of forces, data taken previous tests that pertain to PDR processing and measurement accuracy will be determined and collected if possible. Platforms and tools for modeling the PDR processing technique in future phases will be determined. Commercialization Strategy There are many military and commercial applications for Phase Derived Range (PDR). The key benefit is the level of range accuracy of individual points on the target that is obtained from this technique. These can be used to form a radar image of the target that would aid in classification and identification. Many industries depend on accurate information to carry out their work. Civilian aircraft and maritime industries use very accurate radar to avoid collisions and to keep track of aircraft and ship positions. Accurate information is also important to meteorologists, who use it to track weather patterns. The PDR technique will significantly improve range resolution and provide the highest accuracy possible There are many military and commercial applications for Phase Derived Range (PDR). The key benefit is the level of range accuracy of individual points on the target that is obtained from this technique. These can be used to form a radar image of the target that would aid in classification and identification. Many industries depend on accurate information to carry out their work. Civilian aircraft and maritime industries use very accurate radar to avoid collisions and to keep track of aircraft and ship positions. Accurate information is also important to meteorologists, who use it to track weather patterns. The PDR technique will significantly improve range resolution and provide the highest accuracy possible.

TOWNSEND SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
1 Oak Hill Road
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 345-9090
Mr. Harry Clark
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Next Generation Imager
Abstract:Silicon based charged couple devices (CCD) have been the workhorse of solid state imaging technology for use in the visible spectrum. As the need for higher resolution is ever increasing, silicon based systems are being pushed to their limit. Either larger systems, constructed on a single wafer or higher pixel density per square centimeter are called for. In either case, all pixels in a frame must be clocked out in a serial manner. This causes a reduction in frame rates and as importantly data overload. When trying to fabricate large area devices on silicon, two constraints are imposed. The capacitance inherent in the poly-silicon lines, that shuffle the charge to the output register, limits the ability to drive the collected charge in the center pixels. The poly-silicon gates also reduce the quantum efficiency of the device due to the fact that they are place over the pixels and strongly absorb visible light. This has necessitated backside thinning of devices that increase production costs and lower yields. Also, the larger the area that a silicon imaging device covers on a substrate the lower the yield. This is due to defects formed during thermal cycling deposition steps and native defects found in the single silicon substrates. If a higher pixel density is chosen the full well capacity drops and saturation or blooming can occur even at a lower light level. Townsend Science and Engineering (TS&E) will possess the two critical elements for successful commercialization. The first is our unique technical solution to imaging. The second is both TS&E and it's key personnel have already established direct market channels to consumers. A key strategic partner has already been established, with over 100 retail outlets serving as an enviable point of entry for the consumer products produced by this program.

VEXCEL CORPORATION
4909 Nautilus Court, Ste. 133
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 583-0284
Mr. Don Coon
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Techniques for Ballistic Target Detection/Discrimination/Mensuration using Four-Dimensional (4-D) Radar Imaging -- Subtopic BMDO/00-003B - Ra
Abstract:Vexcel Corporation proposes to define advanced signal processing techniques and methods to provide next-generation ballistic target discrimination and mensuration capabilities for the NMD radar system against emerging Midcourse and Terminal Defense Segment threats. Signal processing techniques previously impractical are now viable due to the recently discovered attributes of using a special method for the high-resolution 3-D imaging of coherent wideband radar data. The formation of a sequence of 3-D images over time provides a unique, 4-D space-time image or "hypercube" that promises to support sophisticated target location/assessment algorithms. Any number of objects may be simultaneously imaged showing spatial relationships. The separation of the target(s) from other objects in the image cube allows detailed 3-axis target position determination and greatly mitigates decoys, chaff, and other penetration aids. Highly precise trajectory and velocity vectors are a readily available product, providing a basis for the accurate determination of higher-order motion parameters for objects having different masses, shapes, etc. A method to realize a large reduction in the data processing requirement (compared to conventional approaches) is an attractive feature. Data collection is performed using a land-based system. Vexcel anticipates that the proposed technology would have direct application to air traffic control systems in areas that experience dense air traffic.

VOXTEL INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 421-4389
Mr. George M. Williams
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title: INTELLIGENTSOI CMOS VISION-SYSTEM-ON-A-CHIP (VSOC) FOR SPACE OPERATIONS
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR effort, Voxtel Inc. proposes to optimize a high-performance,low power, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS, intelligent vision-system-on-a-chip (VSOC) that monolithically integrates, without compromising the optimal design and processing of any of its features, nearly ideal high-density,UV to NIR response photodetectors, in-pixel processing, thin film analog spatial/temporal processing, and mixed-signal in-pixel and on-chip circuitry. Imaging will be accomplished by backside thinning and illumination through the bulk substrate, allowing high-density integrated circuits to be integrated over 100% of the epitaxial silicon. In addition to SOI's inherent radiation hardness, it is lower power (<1.2V), by providing isolation allows greater transistor density, readily handle mixed signals, and is thus well suited for realizing a high level of functionality system-on-a-chip. A robust, small sized, low power, and highly functional imager benefits commercial satellite star trackers, autonomous navigation systems, security and surveillance, medical imaging, biometric face identification, remote sensing, night vision, border patrol, search and rescue, microscopy, industrial inspection, and astronomy applications.

VOXTEL INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 421-4389
Mr. James Gates
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:OPTIMIZED UV SOLAR BLIND GaN/AlGaN AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE FPA
Abstract:High performance ultraviolet solar blind APD arrays are presently unavailable. In this Phase I SBIR, Voxtel Inc proposes to optimize the design of a UV solar blind avalanche photodiode array enabled by: advances in GaN and AlGaN material growth and processing, a novel device architecture, and monolithic integration with high bandwidth, low noise, active/passive quenching, readout integrated circuitry (ROIC). Our Phase I research will perform design trades and 3D simulations of at least two detector architectures suitable for such high sensitivity applications including: 1) a GaN APD with an optimized avalanche layer and 2) a vertical Schottky contact GaN/AlGaN heterostructure APD. Concurrent to detector developments, a high performance ROIC will be designed and optimized for monolithically integration to enabling highly sensitive and high-speed sensor operation. Highly sensitivity, high speed photodetectors operating in the ultraviolet, especially in the solar blind region below 0.4 microns, are needed for both military and commercial applications including lidar, Cherenkov radiation monitoring, particle size and velocity measurements, flame sensing (including hydrogen), biological agent detection, time resolved UV spectroscopy, coronal studies, missile and shellfire detection, and ionosphere studies.

WELD STAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
610 Jennifer Drive
Auburn, AL 36830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 887-3985
Dr. Clyde Wikle
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Passive Sensor for the Detection of Hydrazine Leaks in Missile Canisters
Abstract:Hydrazine is a widely used missile propellant that is highly toxic to humans in low exposures. The maximum exposure limit is 10ppb over an 8 hour time period. To insure the readiness of BMDO missiles and the safety of personnel during missile transport and storage, it is desired to monitor the interior of missile storage canisters for hydrazine leakage. Commercially available hydrazine sensors are either to bulky, draw excessive continuous current or have inadequate operational life to meet expected life cycle times of BMDO missiles. The objective of this proposal is to develop a conductive polymer based, passive MEMs sensor that does not draw continuous power, lasts five years, is small in size, and has a hydrazine sensitivity of a few ppb. Hydrazine and its methyl derivatives are used extensively in rocket propulsion (NASA and DOD) and commercially in the electric power industry as an oxygen scavenging anticorrosive agent. Hydrazine is also used in the synthesis of drugs, fertilizers and polymers. A detector with ppb detection levels would greatly improve the safety of workers from accidental hydrazine leaks.

XONTECH, INC.
6862 Hayvenhurst Avenue
Van Nuys, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 894-2286
Mr. Lem Pottsepp
MDA 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Subtopic B - Interactive Discrimination Techniques utilizing Advanced Interceptor Concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I program will evaluate the feasibility of combining innovative interactive discrimination techniques with advanced interceptor concepts to enhance the robustness of existing and future Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Systems against countermeasures. Countermeasures are one of the primary concerns of BMD System designers. As such, the real challenge to the defense designer is to be able to provide a capabilities based development approach. This program attempts to combine advanced interceptor concepts with innovative, interactive discrimination techniques to provide an extremely robust capability to defeat most countermeasures. This activity will leverage past BMD discrimination work performed by XonTech to assess the capability of interactive discrimination techniques to measure potentially small imparted motions. The program will also utilize advanced interceptor concepts, postulated by XonTech and others, which might provide additional robustness beyond "standard" hit-to-kill interceptors used on most defense programs today. These generic concepts include multiple kill vehicles per booster, "artificial atmospheres" for interactive discrimination, and sweeper concepts that might actively eliminate a large portion of the threat cloud. The final product will be a feasibility assessment showing, which of the discrimination techniques is suitable for consideration with each of the generic advanced interceptor concepts. The commercialization of this SBIR Phase I Program will likely be limited to Ballistic Missile Defense applications, by any number of different customers including: THAAD, the NMD Program, Project Hercules, SMDC's Joint Center for Technology Integration, SMDC Sensors Directorate, or the Navy Theater Wide Program. If any of the advanced interceptor concepts examined are funded and applied at a system level, this work will be critical to the successful implementation of interactive discrimination. The future commercialization goal of this program is the insertion of interactive discrimination algorithms to complement advanced interceptor concepts in existing or future Defense Programs. Depending upon the program, this commercialization may include future sales to the U.S Defense Department and to foreign allies such as the United Kingdom, Israel, Japan or others. XonTech will work with the sponsor of this program to help identify appropriate programs and applications for future algorithm development and insertion opportunities. XonTech is a recognized leader in the market of discrimination algorithm development and will utilize this experience base to help make commercialization of this Phase I Program a success.

ADVANCED CERAMICS MANUFACTURING
3292 East Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Mrs. Marlene Platero-AllRunner
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Cost Effective High Temperature Fibrous Monolith Propulsion Components Through Manufacturing Process Development
Abstract:Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing proposes to investigate the potential cost reduction and production yield of Fibrous Monolith (FM) composite propulsion components through process flow analysis and adjustment. ACM will begin by selecting a developed and tested FM material system (specific for propulsion application). Alliant Tech Systems will assist ACM in selecting a prototype part to fabricate. ACM will conduct process flow and cost analysis. Fabrication techniques will be incorporated or eliminated to reduce production costs, increase productivity and reproducibility thereby classifying FMs as a truly low-cost, robust and environmental friendly material. For carbide-based FMs to be cost effective and easily integrated within TMD and NMD systems, the production of FM components must be within reasonable lead times, cost effective, and of reproducible quality while maintaining mechanical, thermal and physical properties that make these materials advantageous. ACM's primary objective is to develop and implement a manufacturing process that produces carbide-based FM propulsion components at lower costs while producing a high performance propulsion material. In accomplishing the program objective, BMDO and potential commercial customers such as ATK will be able to test and utilize FM advanced materials in propulsion components in a time and cost efficient manner. If successful, this program will have demonstrated that the newly developed carbide-based Fibrous Monolith composites could be a cost competitive advanced material for TMD and NMD propulsion systems. Within this program, ACM would have produced a FM prototype component within reasonable lead times in a cost effective manner for BMDO and potential propulsion customers such as Alliant Tech Systems or Honeywell.

ADVANCED OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 410
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-0036
Mr. Kenneth S. Merwin
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Significant Optical Manufacturing Advancement (SOMA) Process Development
Abstract:Advanced Optical Systems (AOS) offers the Significant Optical Manufacturing Advancement (SOMA) Process Development program. We recognize that new technologies require an appropriate manufacturing process and that affordability is a significant factor of any military system. Prototype systems require an investment in Design For Manufacturability and Assembly (DFMA), but often this funding is only available late in the acquisition cycle. DoD manufacturing thrusts are typically aimed at the component, not the systems level. Two key thrusts are innovative manufacturing technologies and dual-use manufacturing where the government reaps the cost advantages of using a system that is also making commercial products. These processes are well understood by electronic and mechanical system manufactures. Optical system manufacturing processes are absent or are closely held secrets of major consumer companies, generally unavailable to entrepreneurs. If these manufacturing techniques are developed at the system level, MDA will receive significant technological advancements for missile defense. The SOMA Process Development Program will make revolutionary advancements in the manufacturing optical systems that will provide two direct benefits to MDA. The first will be advancement in optical signal processing technologies. The second will be the application of the SOMA process to a wide range of optical systems, accelerating optical prototypes into the production cycle.

ANVIK CORPORATION
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Mr. Marc Zemel
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Low Temperature Fabrication of Integrated Large-Area MEMS Devices on Flexible Substrates
Abstract:The integration of large-area MEMS devices with electronic circuitry promises to deliver significant benefits, such as reduction of device size, increased sensor sensitivities, and reduced fabrication costs. Further, the use of flexible substrates provides additional benefits in improved environmental performance, conformability, and lower fabrication costs. The applications of an integrated large-area MEMS device on a flexible substrate are numerous, such as improved low-cost inertial sensors for missile and aircraft navigation and shear stress and strain sensor arrays for aircraft skins. Despite advances in the development of MEMS devices with integrated electronics on flexible substrates, limitations still exist that preclude tighter and broader integration. The high temperature processes in standard IC fabrication change the mechanical and/or electrical properties of the materials that would be used in MEMS devices and also prevent the fabrication of conventional thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates. Another problem has been the lack of large-area high-resolution processing techniques to enable the fabrication these devices. In this proposal, we present a plan to develop a new, combined MEMS and IC fabrication methodology that would eliminate the high-temperature process steps of IC fabrication and enable large-area, high-resolution patterning on flexible substrates. This methodology would build upon Anvik's extensive ongoing activities in lithography, ablation and materials processing systems. The integration of large-area MEMS devices with electronic circuitry promises to deliver significant benefits, such as reduction of device size, increased sensor sensitivities, and reduced fabrication costs. Further, the use of flexible substrates provides additional benefits in improved environmental performance, conformability, and lower fabrication costs. The applications of an integrated large-area MEMS device on a flexible substrate are numerous, such as improved low-cost inertial sensors for missile and aircraft navigation, shear stress and strain sensor arrays for aircraft skins, and lightweight adaptive micro-optics for space-based telescopes.

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
1110 Benfield Blvd.
Millersville, MD 21108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Dr. Mark Patterson
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra Refractory Composites: Enabling Performance and Cost Payoffs For Divert Propulsion Components
Abstract:Ceramic Composites Inc. proposes its novel fiber reinforced Ultra Refactory Composites as an enabling technology for replacement of heavy and expensive rhenium components in BMDO divert and attitude systems (DACS). A systematic approach for optimizing a graded C-Re matrix and a graded C-HfC/SiC matrix densification process for different carbon fiber preforms; i.e. for divert thrusters and hot gas valve assemblies, respectively, is outlined. Multiple hot firing tests in a solid DACS envirornment by OEM ATK Thiokol, will provide the success criteria necessary to transition to full scale component testing in phase II. Weight savings of 7:1 and cost savings of 5:1 compared to solid rhenium component are achievable. Millions of dollars in production cost avoidance and enhanced performance capabilities will be realized for Standard Missile III interceptor, a critical part of the Theater Missile Defense' s AEGIS Weapon System. Similar benefits are achievable for THAAD DACS components as well as advanced aricraft propulsion systems and hypersonic missiles. Major spinoff commercial market opportunities have also been identified.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORPORATION
714 Bond Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Hardware in the Loop Operational Testing for Analog VLSI Image Processor Design
Abstract:The objective of this project is to perform Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) operational testing and analysis in support of critical BMDO missions using spatio-temporal image filtering hardware previously developed by Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC). This hardware supports, and is enabling to, BMDO program algorithms that flow down to major missile defense systems. This testing will use simulated and real-world government supplied imagery addressing critical boost phase and mid-course issues of RV detection and micro-dynamics based identification, closely spaced object discrimination in cluttered background environments, and high frequency spatial and temporal filtering for hardware compression. The simulation and hardware development work to date is ready for extensive HWIL testing validation to guide further application-optimized technology development. Specifically, these results will determine the key parameters and architectural features to drive a new analog VLSI chip design tailored optimally for supporting these tasks and suitable for captive flight-testing. This design will be more compact and consume less power than digital alternatives. In Phase I we will produce a chip architecture derived from HWIL results supported by extensive simulations performed to validate the new chip architecture filtering capabilities. Commercial, integrated, analog image processors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military imaging applications. Analog image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas including automatic inspection, biometric identification, and other machine vision applications.

CONFORMAL TECHNOLOGIES
1007 Goosecross Court
Bel Air, MD 21014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 639-8183
Dr. Krishnan S. Menon
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Battery Manufacturing and Unit Cost reduction
Abstract:A new, innovative battery manufacturing process and related battery structure enabling conformal designs with more than 30% increase in energy/power density and more than 50% unit cost reduction compared to the state of the art, with substantially improved cycle life and safety is proposed. The manufacturing process affords continuous multi-cell lamination from just one anode, one cathode and two separator feed rolls to laminate any number of cell layers together. The process requires certain modifications in the support materials like the separator and the current collector. The separator technology uses a phase-inversion membrane to bond the separator and the electrodes at room temperature and under light pressure. Room temperature lamination eliminates heat transfer problems that prevents one of the problems with multi-cell lamination. A highly conductivity composite current collector (instead of aluminum and copper foils/grids) with innovative trimming techniques eliminate burrs and stringers, that plague the battery manufacturing process and prevents multi-cell lamination, while reducing weight and decreasing cost and increasing process yield significantly. The technology uses state of the art active materials. The material selection affords availability. The increased cycle life and reduced unit cost makes the unit cycle cost very low (<1/4th) compared to the state of the art. This technology is applicable to other battery chemistries as well. Significant unit cost reduction; new innovative manufacturing process eliminating complex stacking process for assembly and significantly reducing the trimming, cutting and/or punching operations; related capital cost savings; conformal designs with substantial freedom to shape the battery; and improvement in the energy/power density, cycle life and safety are the anticipated benefits. The drastic reduction in unit cost and unit cycle cost is what BMDO is looking for. The cost reduction would make this technology, with added safety, very attractive to electric vehicles. In addition to these advantages, the conformal design possibilities will make it very attractive to the military battery market. Military market will gain added cost advantage from the commercial success too: commercial off the shelf (COTS) advantage. Prolonged usage, extended cycle, shallow depth discharge applications like in space crafts is another advantage, where the battery is expected to provide >60,000 cycles. The huge cell phone, lap-top and other portables market also should open up due to this technology because of the benefits this technology brings.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. D. Ernest Havens
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing of Novel, High-Performance Composites for Propulsion Components
Abstract:Improving performance while reducing cost and weight of kinetic energy kill vehicles and components will require the development of several innovative improvements in materials, processing and manufacturing technologies. For example, many accepted rocket nozzle-manufacturing processes are labor intensive, consume excessive amounts of energy and time, and force engineering tradeoffs involving geometry and efficiency. Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop new, high-performance propulsion components and sub-components based on the combination of advanced composite technology and innovative processing techniques. The result is multilayer, organic- and inorganic-matrix-composite propulsion components that are capable of achieving the desired performance while dramatically reducing cost. CRG has assembled a highly-qualified team of consultants to ensure the viability of transitioning and implementing the materials and process technology in propulsion components and sub-components. The team consists of Edison Materials Technology Center (EMTEC), who will provide technical support and consulting services; Alliant Techsystems (ATK), who will provide technical support on the design of propulsion components; and Goodrich Aerospace Corporation (formerly BF Goodrich), who will provide engineering support and manufacturing expertise to assist in integrating their proprietary polymer systems into the composite end product. The proposal discusses the development of advanced materials and processing technology for the low-cost manufacturing of propulsion components, such as high-performance rocket nozzles. The development of this technology will provide the means for lowering costs and actualizing current concepts of propulsion systems and components. One of the primary limiting factors of these enhanced systems has been cost. By overcoming this limitation, a new aerospace market of missile system development and high performance propulsion will be established. Our strategy for initial commercialization lies within in our established relationship with ATK and Goodrich Aerospace.

ENSER CORPORATION, THE
5430-B 70th Avenue North
Pinellas Park, FL 33781
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 520-1393
Mr. Harry Straub
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Cavity Die Technology
Abstract:Thermal batteries are mission-critical components utilized in virtually every weapon system. Thermal batteries require four types of pellets that comprise the energy-producing portion of the battery. These include: (1) anode pellets, composed of Li(Si) alloy and electrolyte salt, (2) cathode pellets, consisting of either FeS2 or CoS2 and electrolyte salt, (3) separator pellets, consisting of MgO and electrolyte salt and (4) heat pellets containing iron and potassium perchlorate. Pellet size and number vary by battery type and application. A pellet is manufactured by compacting its powdered constituents in an automated press. The powder is loaded into a feed shoe, which automatically fills a die cavity. Press tonnage is a function of pellet diameter and thickness. Currently, pellet production is the rate-limiting step in thermal battery manufacture, hence, it is essential to optimize press throughput. At present, only one pellet is produced at a time, i.e., the press tooling is comprised of only one die cavity and one punch. This proposed SBIR project focuses on identifying and addressing the design challenge to implement two (or more) die cavities and punches in order to double, or perhaps even triple, pellet production rate. Virtually every thermal battery production program will benefit as a result of increased production rate capability and concomitant lower unit cost.

ENSER CORPORATION, THE
5430-B 70th Avenue North
Pinellas Park, FL 33781
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 520-1393
Mr. Heath Norris
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:High Rate Powder Mixing
Abstract:Thermal batteries are a mission-critical component utilized in virtually every weapon system. Four types of pellets comprise the energy-producing portion of a thermal battery. These include: (1) anode pellets, composed of Li(Si) alloy and electrolyte salt, (2) cathode pellets, consisting of either FeS2 or CoS2 and electrolyte salt, (3) separator pellets, consisting of MgO and electrolyte salt and (4) heat pellets containing iron and potassium perchlorate. A pellet is manufactured by compacting its powdered constituents in a die cavity. Pellet production has typically been the rate-limiting step in thermal battery manufacture; hence, press cycle times have been reduced to at/near their minimum practical values. A separate SBIR effort has been proposed to develop/ demonstrate multi-cavity dies to double or triple the number of pellets produced per press cycle. As press throughput rates are increased, the bottleneck in the manufacturing process will switch to raw material powder processing. This proposed SBIR project focuses on identifying and addressing the design challenges associated with substantially increasing powder production rates. Along with successful incorporation of multi-cavity die technology, this effort will result in a substantial increase in thermal battery production capability. Virtually every thermal battery production program will benefit as a result of increased production rate capability and concomitant lower unit cost.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Stephen A. Michaud
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Investigation of Placed Fiber Fabrication Process for Manufacture of Integrated Structures for Interceptor Applications
Abstract:A program is proposed to investigate and demonstrate an innovative approach to the production of integrated structures for interceptor applications such as the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) System. Currently, the THAAD shroud consists of a tape wrapped quartz/phenolic (Q/P) heatshield bonded to an aluminum substrate. The aluminum substrate requires considerable machining to prepare, and the tapes require preparation of a woven fabric and a resin impregnation step. It is proposed that the placed fiber process can be used to spray a composite substrate with carbon-fiber and bismalemide-resin (C/BMI), and to then spray Q/P panels from which tapes are cut, wrapped, and then cured directly on the C/BMI substrate, creating a single integrated shroud. One or more production steps would be eliminated. Phase I efforts will verify that placed fiber processes for C/BMI and Q/P materials respectively, can be used to create a single, integrated composite. In a Phase II program, an integrated shroud would be fabricated to the THAAD design using C/BMI placed fiber for the substrate Q/P placed fiber for the outer heatshield. The integrated shroud would be fully characterized to show that physical, mechanical and thermal properties required by the shroud requirements are met. The direct benefit will be a single, integrated shroud that can be used in DoD interceptor applications as well other applications where heatshields and thermal protection systems are required. Significant cost reductions should also lead to commercial aerospace applications where high temperatures are present. In addition, the integrated composite can be used in fire protection applications.

INNOVATIVE BUSINESSS SOLUTIONS INC
301 Concourse Boulevard, Suite 301
Glen Allen, VA 23059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 812-5555
Mr. Edward Jans
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Flexible Processor Packaging for Advanced Interceptors
Abstract:The commercial industry is agressive to reduce size and weight to meet the demands of portable consumer electronics. Smaller component footprints and flexible circuits are key to this high density packaging. We are proposing to apply these approaches and develop an innovative flexible interceptor processor. Phase 1 will capture the commercial technology roadmap of electronics packaging. In addition, the best approach for a ruggedized solution for an interceptor application will be defined. Design, Hardware build and evaluation will be addressed in Phase 2. The proposed program will determine the feasibility of applying the advanced high density packaging approaches of portable consumer electronics to interceptor applications.

LASSON TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6059 Bristol Parkway
Culver City, CA 90230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-4049
Dr. Bruno Pouet
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Active Ultrasonic Fluid Probe for Vibration Monitoring of High Speed Machine Tools
Abstract: Abstract not available...

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturing Cost Reduction for Key Enabling Thermal Management Applications Using CTE Controlled Graphite Fiber Reinforced Al
Abstract:This proposal shows how innovations in producing a family of CTE controlled, high thermal graphite aluminum composites will reduce manufacturing costs and improve system performance for specific BMDO, Navy, and commercial applications. Technologies developed by a graphite fiber producer, paper textile manufacturer, and metal composites foundry will create a superior thermal management material ideally suited for high volume semiconductor packaging production. BMDO, through the AIT program, supported an effort to develop a Ka-band solid-state transmitter (SST) based on IMPATT (Impact Avalanche Transit Time) diode technology as a significantly lower cost, more reliable upgrade to the current traveling-wave tube (TWT)-based transmitter for the PAC 3 Missile. A light weight, fast machining composite with diamond matched CTE and high thermal conductivity will facilitate a revolutionary breakthrough in concurrent integration of piece part components. Also, Lockheed Martin's Naval Electronics and Surveillance Systems for Aegis destroyers could save an estimated 5000 lbs per ship set - realizing tremendous cost savings and performance benefits. Conventional materials are too heavy, too expensive, inadequate thermally, or are unable to obtain low, reproducible CTE needed for emerging BMDO requirements, as a result - the graphite aluminum and manufacturing innovations proposed are a key enabler to future electronics warfare development. If the overall Phase I and Phase II goals and objectives are met, MMCC will have available to DoD and commercial customers a cost effective, state of the art composite materials technology that will enable new design concepts and reduced manufacturing costs for high thermal conductivity, CTE controlled thermal management solutions. By using graphite aluminum composites, the integrated manufacturing concepts proposed will combine multiple piece part components, provide drastic reductions in weight, improve reliability, and lower costs.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Model Foundry for Low Cost Rapid Prototyping, Rapid Manufacturing of Metal Matrix Composites Parts
Abstract:Manufacturing technology development and integration of MMCC's 3- DPT, Tool-Less MoldT and Advanced Pressure Infiltration(APICT) technologies are proposed. Investment casting of preforms printed directly from a CAD or laser file and subsequent pressure infiltration will enable parts to be manufactured without the added expense of tooling development. With investment materials being recycled and constituent materials being inexpensive aluminum melt stock and low cost ceramic abrasive powder, the process will be cheaper than any competitive process for limited quantity production and competitive at high volume manufacturing. Moreover, the flexibility in design and the elimination of molds and tooling makes it possible to proceed from art to part in as little as two weeks with a fresh design. The overall Phase I and Phase II objective is to create an efficient model foundry that can be licensed to high volume commercial customers, used for component development and limited volume manufacturing or reproduced at any given location and used to manufacture parts for the DoD at low cost and rapid delivery. The specific objective is to show feasibility by producing subscale SM3 guidance housings in collaboration with Raytheon and to deliver a demonstration segment of a full scale housing. Complex parts for BMDO and DoD applications will be manufactured for a fraction of the cost of machined parts. Beryllium and AlBe will be replaced by CAST discontinuous aluminum parts at a fraction of the cost and negligible environmental impact. Designers and component developers will be able to modify designs late in the design cycle without adversely affecting schedules. The technology developed on this project can be transferred to commercial castings where it will be competitive with sand and die casting.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.)
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1607
Dr. James M. Daughton
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Magneto-Thermal MRAM
Abstract:Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) density is limited by thermal stability of the storage elements for 0.1 micron and smaller lithographies. This proposed program overcomes the thermal stability limits of MRAM cells through the use of intrinsically high coupling fields between a ferromagnetic film and an anti- ferromagnetic film, which creates high storage energy, and through the use of both magnetic fields and heating for writing selected cells. Currents in the cell produce both the magnetic field and Joule heating. Either or both the Neel temperature of the antiferromagnet and/or the Curie point of the ferromagnet must be lower than about 300 degrees C for best operation. Materials, modes of operation, and memory architectures will be explored in Phase I. Repeated (to 10 billion) cell switching with switching times faster than 3 ns using the preferred mode of operation will be shown during Phase I. Phase II will show operating arrays of magneto-thermal cells with 0.05 micron lithography. This technique can extend the ultimate density of MRAM by more than a factor of 10, reduce currents (power), and improve producibility. Very high density nonvolatile memory can be used commercially for "instant on" applications in computing and to replace slow access time hard disk drives, especially where less than 100 GBytes are required. The intrinsic radiation hardness and rugged nature of this memory make it especially suited for space applications.

ONYX OPTICS, INC.
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 833-1969
Dr. Helmuth Meissner
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Efficient Manufacture of Flanged Composite Yb:YAG Laser Rods for kW-Class Lasers
Abstract:Military and commercial applications of diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL) using end-pumped flanged Yb:YAG composite rods, incorporating Onyx Optics Adhesive-Free Bond (AFB) and flange-finishing technology, have the potential for significant growth because they represent a new class of compact, efficient and economical high-brightness lasers. They are expected to be crucial as a laser-radar (LADAR) device and as illuminator laser for programs such the Airborne Laser (ABL). For commercial applications they are expected to improve the quality of traditional laser machining techniques and enable new applications such as welding of aluminum car bodies, and cutting of aluminum and titanium for aircraft parts. Therefore, this laser system offers to leverage commercial volume production for supplying a high-performance, low-cost laser system for incorporation into BMD systems. The scale-up of flanged Yb:YAG composite rods for kilowatt-class lasers poses the problem of developing a production process of a lasing element of complex shape. Onyx pioneered the manufacture of such rods in prototype quantities. Onyx Optics now proposes to break new ground in the development of a cost-effective manufacturing process for production quantities of flanged Yb:YAG composite rods with polished barrels. The proposed production process would form the basis for opening a large market for military and commercial high-power laser-diode end-pumped solid state laser systems based on flanged Yb:YAG composite rods.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 490-3927
Mr. William J. Buckley
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Missile Defense Concept Analysis Tool (MiDCAT)
Abstract:Phase I efforts will research requirements for a low-fidelity simulation that address a layered Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) for all phases of missile flight and all ranges. Phase I also will demonstrate a Missile Defense Concept Analysis Tool (MiDCAT) concept for new and evolving BMD systems (GMD, MEADS, THADD, Navy TWD, TBMD, etc.) and Ballistic Missile Command, Control, and Communications (BM/C3). This demonstration will be accomplished through development of a BMD scenario and modification of the Jane's Fleet CommandO military simulation/gaming engine. Research efforts also will address scenario generation, automated data collection, and assessment capabilities to support cost-effective 'first order' analysis at the Joint National Integration Center (JNIC) and Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) Joint Experimentation. These capabilities seek cost reductions for conducting full-blown BMD simulations or tests. Phase II efforts will develop a MiDCAT prototype system of a Battle Management Center, as well as, demonstration and evaluation at the JNIC. This research will contribute significantly to the development of a fully functional concept development testing system that will support a BMD command environment on a PC-based system. This technology represents a cost reduction approach to concept testing. We anticipate that the technology developed under this SBIR topic will be employed in future Military programs (ABL, SBIRS, DD(X), CVNX, JCCX, etc.), and within the Military's concept testing infrastructure. This research also will provide simulation support with extensions for "human-in-the-loop" human systems integration (HSI), workload analysis, and training.

SUMMIT IMAGING, INC.
5025 Boardwalk, Suite 200
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 598-6006
Mr. David W. Gardner
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:High Depth of Field MEMS Inspection
Abstract:A primary limitation in the implementation of new MEMs devices is the inability to inspect the 3-dimensional structures. Unlike semiconductor circuits, MEMS may contain structures with features extending tens of microns above the wafer's surface. Moreover, these features move, tilt, vibrate or rotate. Because the features in MEMS devices extend significantly along the z-axis, optical microscopes used in conventional semiconductor inspection are of limited use. The narrow field depth of an optical microscope makes it impossible to have the entire MEMS design in focus all at one time. Historically, designers have addressed this issue by using scanning electron microscopes (SEMS). While the SEM is capable of providing a very large depth of field, they are expensive, stimulus must be brought in via cumbersome, hermetically sealed electrical headers and the electron beam used in SEM perturbs conductive elements in MEMS designs. Summit proposes a solution which allows the use of conventional microscopy to examine MEMS structures. Unlike conventional microscopes where the depth of field may be 1 micron or less, the technique proposed offers focal depths as high as hundreds of microns. Moreover, since no vacuum chamber is involved, sophisticated electrical stimulus may be provided with relative ease. The ability to provide high depth of field microscopic analysis has direct application in MEMs manufacturing/inspection, medical microscopy and general microscopy. Traditionally, the only means of providing both high magnification and high depth of field is to stop down the optics. This reduces the light throughput by orders of magnitude in an already light-starved situation. The proposed technique provides ultra high depth of field with no reduction in optical throughput.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard, Mailstop 100
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Amish Desai
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Mass Fabricated Digital Array Micro Thrusters for Miniature Interceptor Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS)
Abstract:New developments in MEMS-based fabrication concepts permit dense packaging of micro thrusters collocated with the microelectronics required to provide digital control. The MEMS-based DACS is a low-cost approach to providing digital micro propulsion that greatly reduces the DACS footprint and mass that miniature interceptors require. This will lead the way for much higher mission performance at less cost for multiple system applications like attitude control for MMKV/MKV, possibly for micro and small satellite stationkeeping, and certainly within the emerging family of medium caliber precision-guided autonomous munitions, like Light Fighter Lethality, which may be spin stabilized, and will require digitally-controlled annular DACS. Tanner Research proposes to dramatically reduce the cost to implement digital array micro thrusters by using MEMS fabrication techniques adapted from the microelectronics industry. Thruster fabrication will be done in its entirety at Tanner Research, and will be facilitated by multiple ongoing projects to develop wafer-based micro cavities. The micro cavities, which are micro thrusters, are currently being tested and evaluated by TACOM-ARDEC for use as micro detonators and MEMS-based safe and arm devices; and, by OSD/WPAFB as a micro thermite device for anti tamper applications. In Phase I, Tanner Research will fabricate micro thrusters on 4-inch silicon wafers, with each wafer containing 200 micro thrusters. The micro thrusters, in a hybrid arrangement, will be digitally controlled from a wire-bonded PC board. We will demonstrate dynamic control of impulse-levels of thrust. The 4-inch wafer design will be multi-functional: e.g., it can be segmented as 5, 10 or 20 separate DACS, each with digital control; or made flexible for conformal mounting. Volume cost projection: $100 per wafer.

THIRD WAVE SYSTEMS, INC.
7301 Ohms Lane, Suite 580
Minneapolis, MN 55439
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 832-5515
Dr. Troy Marusich
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Machining of Ceramics Materials
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project will investigate and deliver a validated software modeling and analysis capability specifically for the machining of ceramic materials. Industry currently lacks the knowledge and ability to model machining and associated material removal processes in these materials. The proposed innovation will allow customers to study, through simulation and process modeling, the manufacturing conditions inherent to the machining of ceramic materials. This innovation will lead to potentially many new applications of ceramic components for automotive, aerospace and machine components. Industry will benefit economically through significantly reduced testing trials, improved productivity, lower component costs, increased component quality and expanded manufacturing capability. The core research of the project is to implement and validate a constitutive modeling environment specifically for ceramic materials. The baseline modeling environment will be Third Wave Systems AdvantEdge software product, which will then provide a strong commercialization path for the technology to industry. The commercial applications for the proposed innovation are primarily to provide manufacturing professionals an analytical modeling tool for ceramic machining processes. Such capability will provide large economic benefits through reduced testing trials, improved component quality and capabilities, and lower costs to manufacture. Initially industry applications are expected in the engines, bearings, and semiconductor marketplace where use of these materials in new applications is growing.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Dr. Darren K. Rogers
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Carbon Foam-Based Lightweight Mirrors
Abstract:Several current and upcoming space-based telescope and laser beam director designs, such as the Next-Generation Space Telescope and the Space-Based Laser, call for large aperture optical components, often tens of meters in diameter. Using conventional mirror/director technologies, the cost and weight of these systems would be prohibitive. In addition, conventional materials, such as glass, offer insufficient stiffness and their performance is affected by vibration and thermal service conditions. A method of fabricating mirrors/directors by infiltrating coal-based carbon foam with sol-gel glass compositions is proposed. The coal-based foam can be tailored with regard to stiffness, thermal expansion, and graded in density and pore structure through its thickness to provide localized stiffness and thermal expansion control while maintaining an overall weight-efficient structure. The sol-gel derived glass provides the optical surface - in a form amenable to foam infiltration by common resin transfer molding practice. Both materials are very inexpensive (cents per pound) and, together, offer broad design flexibility. Polishability to obtain optical quality surfaces and thermomechanical performance in simulated space service conditions will be considered in the proposed effort. Carbon, when graphitic and highly ordered as in fiber or deposited film forms, can exhibit unmatched stiffness and thermal stability (e.g., near-zero thermal expansion). Carbon foams can provide similar performance to woven or knitted carbon fiber forms at a fraction of the cost and significantly greater design/use flexibility. Optical systems based on infiltrating these foams with glasses or polymers can be designed in terms of stiffness, thermal expansion, and density - even on localized scales. Demonstration that glass-foam composites can be used in space-based optical systems - controlling structure stiffness and thermal expansion and surviving exposure to launch conditions, thermal cycling, vibration, and high-temperature oxidation - will aid in carbon foam insertion into other space-based and/or optical structures. These include: mirrors and directors, optical benches, reaction structures, reinforcement for large-area structures, and thermal protection systems.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 784-0431
Mr. Matt Thompson
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:LIGHTWEIGHT, COMPOSITE PROPULSION MANIFOLD SYSTEM WITH INTEGRAL PROPELLANT LINES
Abstract:Liquid propellant Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS) are unanimously recognized as the most mature, low risk, and most versatile type of propulsion for maneuvering small vehicles and structures. This program will apply a low cost composite fabrication process to a new technology application for BMDO interceptors and commercial satellites. The product, integrally molded propellant lines within a composite propulsion system manifold, will be based on a) a precision composite fabrication process called matched metal net molding, and b) proven liquid propellant systems which are firmly established for a majority of BMDO interceptor programs including the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile, Ground Based Interceptor (GBI), and the Anti-Satellite (ASAT) programs. This new product will be based on proven composite materials fabrication technologies developed by BMDO and innovative propulsion concepts being developed by Rocketdyne. It has direct application to the THAAD Attitude Control System (ACS) Propellant Manifold, and has garnered interest by the engineering staff at Boeing North American Rocketdyne. The work conducted in the tasks will be linked to other development programs at Rocketdyne developing non-toxic liquid propellant technology for Navy BMDO applications, specifically with potential uses on the Gel DACS design. Propulsion systems have traditionally been fabricated from high density metals, in part because the stress states are complex; however, the development and demonstration of stitching technology in combination with resin infusion technology now makes the use of graphite fiber reinforced composites feasible for these applications. The primary benefit to the interceptor is weight reduction with composite density only 20 percent of steel and 60 percent of aluminum. A weight reduction of the ACES Manifold that is located at the aft end of the KV can be leveraged substantially. Once the material properties and manufacturing database have been deveoped and demonstrated for the ACS Manifold, other candidate propulsion applications such as the Divert Attitude Control System (DACS) Manifold become obvious targets for further weight reduction.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 784-0430
Mr. Gary D. Wonacott
MDA 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost THAAD Interceptor Kill Vehicle Integrated Airframe Manufacturing Process
Abstract:As the THAAD interceptor transitions from demonstration validation to production, there is increased emphasis on lower cost manufacturing processes. The proposed program offers the potential to reduce the airframe manufacturing cost by 35 to 40 percent by eliminating almost half of the process steps. This will be accomplished by eliminating the step that attachs the heatshield to the substructure. The proposed approach will lay up dry fiber preforms of the substructure and the heatshield reinforcement followed by injection and cure of a single resin to form the entire airframe. Fabrication of coupons using the VARTM (i.e., vacuum assist resin transfer molding)process confirmed the potential to use the same resin for both the heatshield and the substructure. Tests of the coupons conducted at the AMES arcjet facility demonstrated the viability of this material to withstand the interceptor aerothermal environments. The proposed program will continue the development and demonstration of the technology using a building block approach (i.e., fabrication of coupons and extraction of key aerothermal and structural data), fabricating demonstration articles that can be used to assess aerothermal performance enhancement by stitching the heatshield laminate, and fabrication of full scale test articles for qualification testing in Phase II. The integrated airframe has two benefits: 1) reduce the manufacturing cost 30 to 40 percent compared to the current approach, and 2) enhance the aerothermal performance by stitching the glass layer, thus providing a 2.5 D effect. The material property and producibility database generated for the VARTM process in this program can be used to enable the process to replace more expensive conventional manufacturing processes currently used for everything from space satellite bus structure to ground transit bus structures.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R. Mayes
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:A Compact Pulse Power Module for Missile Defense Systems
Abstract: Abstract not available...

BOUNDLESS CORPORATION
1730 Conestoga Street SE
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 415-9029
Dr. John Olson
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Dual-Function Carbon Composite Electrodes for Multifunctional Structural Sandwich Panels Incorporating Ultracapacitor Elements as Sandwich Core
Abstract:Low-mass, highly optimized power systems are critical to the success of advanced missile defense systems and HEVs. Augmenting primary power sources like fuel cells, batteries or internal combustion engines with ultracapacitors promises to reduce their size, but the mass and volume of conventional high-power ultracaps is still substantial. Boundless' CapaciCoreTM High-Power Multifunctional Ultracapacitor Panel offers a unique and innovative solution to this problem by replacing missile or vehicle structure with high-performance, load-bearing carbon composite electrodes. High specific power and high power density is achieved by: Spreading capacitor active material in very thin layers relative to the thickness of the bulk current collector, yielding low resistive losses and minimizing heat generation at high discharge rates. Constructing capacitor electrodes in a corrugated configuration and spreading them out within a large volume, forming cooling channels adjacent to heat sources. Using carbon composite electrodes for structural support as well as for energy storage, enabling high ratios of current collector to active material without excessive mass. Replacing the inert structure with a structural ultracapacitor, allowing the ultracapacitor mass to be discounted to account for structural utility, further enhancing effective specific power. Since the unique CapaciCoreTM multifunctional ultracapacitor becomes part of the missile or vehicle structure, it promises improvements in specific power, specific energy, power density, and energy density. Prospective commercial partners have expressed interest in CapaciCoreTM for next-generation THAAD or Patriot missiles - its low mass and volume may allow larger, more advanced payloads or electronics packs without sacrificing range or transportability. Structural capacitors could help the U.S. Army achieve aggressive mass and volume reduction goals (70% mass reduction, 50% volume reduction) for the Future Combat System and may enable FCS elements like electromagnetic guns, electro-thermal chemical guns, and directed energy weapons. Near-term, DARPA's Hybrid RST-Vs, Electric M113 Armored Tracked Vehicles, Hybrid Bradley Tanks, and Hybrid HMWWVs are all targets for structural ultracapacitor adaptations, as is the Navy All-Electric Ship. These military applications will pave the way for integrating CapaciCoreTM into the large and rapidly growing commercial markets for fuel-cell and HEVs. Commercial manufacturers of fuel cell vehicles (like the Freedom CAR participants) and HEVs can improve fuel efficiency and range without reducing passenger space or eliminating features and accessories consumers have come to expect.

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9036 Winnetka Avenue
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Mr. Haixing Zheng
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells via the Sol-Gel Process
Abstract:Future DoD/commercial space missions will require photovoltaic devices having specific power ratings in excess of 1000 W/kg. Thin film devices (which have effective area density equal to the substrate) have the potential of providing higher specific power ratings. In this proposed research, we plan to use the sol-gel process to make the dense crystalline CIGS films at room temperature. Typical processes will be employed to make the cells and modules. We are targeting to achieve higher than 10% efficiency using the low density polymer (~ 1 g/cm3) as substrates in order to obtain a specific power rating of 1000W/kg. The proposed research has great potential to reduce the cost in manufacturing CIGS solar cells because the process in non-vacuum and low temperature. Low cost high efficiency thin film solar cells could be used for terrestrial/space applications. The market place for commercial space based/terrestrial solar arrays is strong and growing at a rapid rate.

DOTY SCIENTIFIC, INC.
700 Clemson Road
Columbia, SC 29229
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 788-6497
Dr. F. David Doty
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Turbo-generators for 1-1000 kW Variable-load Aero-Missions
Abstract:Preliminary analysis and simulations show a novel, recuperated, open Brayton cycle gas turbine should achieve system specific mass (including the generator and power conditioning) below 5 kg/kWE and efficiency of 35-50% over the range of 1-1000 kW with extremely low thermal and acoustic signatures at altitudes from sea level to 14 km. The dual-spindle compressor will enable high efficiency over a very wide load range, from idle to full power, with response time of 3-10 s after a 15-minute warm-up, making the system well suited to pulse-mode as well as continuous operation. The design integrates advanced features in the Si3N4 turbine, superalloy microtube recuperator, 2-stage compressor with intercooling, micro-jet combustor, high-speed generator, bearings, and power conditioning. The engine will be compatible with most liquid and gaseous fuels and achieve very low emissions. The Phase I is expected to include off-design engine calculations and simulations, detailed CFD and FEA turbine blade optimizations, analysis of factors in erosion of Si3N4 turbine blades, NOX decomposition kinetics analysis, superalloy vacuum brazing experiments, initial spindle design for a 10 kW unit, and tests of a model spindle at turbine tip speeds over 400 m/s. Manufacturing cost analyses will also be an important part of both Phase I and Phase II. Initial applications will be for aerospace and air-platform ballistic missile defense power sources where mass, efficiency, and variable-load compatibility are very important. Eventually, this advanced turbo-generator, perhaps burning propane, diesel, or ethanol, may also replace gasoline and diesel generators in many other air-platforms, land, and sea-based applications.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Mr. Paul J Glatkowski
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:High Eneregy Density Nanocomposite Dielectric For Power Capacitors
Abstract:Eikos Inc. proposes to develop a nanocomposite with high dielectric constant (K), low loss, and high breakdown strength, to meet the design objectives of high energy density (HED) capacitors. This technology offers substantial improvements in energy storage by lowering size, weight, and system cost applicable to a wide array of future and existing systems. In the proposed Phase I program, we will apply rigorous computational techniques, with support from our partners at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to predict the properties of this new class of nanocomposite polymers and enable more advanced weapons design. We will create nanocomposite films, and measure its electrical properties. Initial calculations and experiments indicate that these polymers will have greatly enhanced dielectric properties than analogous polymers lacking nanotubes. The development of nanocomposite materials is crucial to overcoming the current plateau in dielectric materials development. This technology lends itself to application and enhancement of existing polymer and ceramic dielectric materials. The compact, high temperature and high-energy density DLC capacitors have myriad uses in both commercial and military applications. These include applications such as domestic utilities and appliances, well drilling equipment, power supplies, aircraft, satellites, trains, automobiles and medical devices. The high temperature capability of the capacitors will enable electronic devices to be mounted close to aircraft engines. This enables more sophisticated engine actuators, sensors and controls to be implemented with a net reduction in weight achieved through the reduction or even elimination of wiring hardware, which is necessary when the electronics have to be remotely located. High-energy density capacitors are also greatly needed for DoD pulse power applications. Eikos has already started negotiations with venture capital firm for securing additional financing for commercialization of this promising technology

HYPER TECH RESEARCH INC.
110 E. Canal St.
Troy, OH 45373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 332-0348
Mr. Michael Tomsic
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Magnesium Diboride Coils for High Voltage Superconducting Transformers
Abstract:New high power airborne and mobile military systems will require megawatts of electrical power produced by very lightweight power sources. The majority of these new systems will require multi-megawatts of power delivered at very high-voltages. Generators will not be able to directly produce the high voltages so high-voltage, multi-megawatt transformers will be required. A superconducting transformer offers the possibility of developing very lightweight, high power transformer. While BSCCO and YBCO coated conductors are being considered for this application, the AC loss characteristics of these conductors are not ideal. In January 2000 it was announced that magnesium diboride compound is superconducting up to 39 K. Our present properties of magnesium diboride wires in the 20-30 K range in magnetic fields up to 2 tesla appear ideal for superconducting transformers. We have also demonstrated a magnetic shielding approach that can result in a significant reduction of AC losses. This proposal explores the development and demonstration of magnesium diboride coils for both the primary and secondary coils of a superconducting transformer. By accelerating the development of a low cost, low AC loss magnesium diboride wire, commercial applications for superconducting transformers, open MRI, generators, and motors will implemented sooner in the marketplace.

INTERPHASES RESEARCH
166 N Moorpark Rd, Suite 204
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 497-2677
Dr. Shalini Menezes
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Low-temperature Fabrication for CIGS Solar Cells
Abstract:Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) based thin-film devices could potentially provide high specific power for future BMDO space missions if they could be fabricated at low temperatures on low-density polymer substrates. This project proposes a new non-vacuum method for low temperature deposition of CIGS films on polymer foils. The method uses a new molecular level electrochemical approach to synthesize high quality CIGS films that can be used directly in device fabrication without further heat treatments. Phase I will develop and validate this method for CIGS deposition on polymer substrates. Phase II will extend the method to the other device components to complete the device. The low process temperatures will eliminate the need for insulating layer, de-lamination or etching. Atomically controlled electrodeposition will increase CIGS device efficiency. Method implementation will result high specific power, low-cost, radiation resistant cells that is amenable to monolithically integrated solar arrays. The project will lead to high efficiency energy converters for use in DoD spacecrafts and commercial solar arrays. Lower costs, easier manufacturing will translate into a wider spectrum of mobile and space commercial markets. Its commercialization will provide a timely solution to the nation's escalating energy and environmental problems.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5135
Dr. Lawrence M. Woods
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Enabling Durable Bottom Cell for Multi-Junction Thin-Film Photovoltaics
Abstract:ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) intends to meet the requirements for future spacecraft power by developing >20% efficient photovoltaic (PV) cells on lightweight flexible substrates. ITN will achieve this goal using a two-terminal monolithic tandem (multi-junction) structure with thin-films of high-efficiency and radiation resistant copper indium diSelenide (CIS) and bandgap tunable CIS-alloys with Ga and/or Al. As an intermediate goal to this large endeavor, ITN will perform research and development on a durable bottom cell (low-bandgap) for the multi-junction device, which would survive the harsh processing conditions of the monolithically deposited top cell. This new photovoltaic device will avoid the CdS top heterojunction layer that is typically associated with CIS-alloy devices, but that is responsible for degradation under top cell processing conditions. Several different pathways to achieving durable bottom cells will be investigated. The achievement of a 10% efficient durable bottom cell would be enabling for the multi-junction device and allow for several promising thin-film technologies as the wide-bandgap top cell. Light weight, flexible, high efficiency, long life, radiation resistant, durable thin film PV modules would quickly takeover the small and medium spacecraft power market due to their inherent low cost and high specific power (W/kg). Light weight, flexible, high efficiency, long life, radiation resistant, durable thin film PV modules would quickly takeover the terrestrial photovoltaic market, and small to medium spacecraft power market due to their inherent low cost and high specific power (W/kg). Lightweight and flexibility (folded or rolled PV) will also be enabling for terrestrial military applications where quiet, and mobile, power sources are required.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. M. Zafar A. Munshi
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries
Abstract:The objective of this BMDO SBIR Phase-I program is to perform research and development on new designs of anode materials for lithium ion batteries, including novel methods of fabrication with useful levels of specific power and specific energy, high reliability, very high cycle life and low cost, when compared with presently available lithium ion cells. This can be achieved by synthesizing high capacity anode materials and designing batteries in a very thin film configuration. This approach will overcome kinetic constraints on the specific power, cycling efficiency and capacity utilization. The results of this investigation will provide a battery technology that delivers at least 30-40% more energy per unit weight and volume at a projected cost per unit performance well below present cost than existing lithium ion batteries. The proposed work addresses a new class of novel intermetallic silicide anodes and novel methods of electrode fabrication. The results of this investigation will help assess the utility of the very thin film electrode structures in mass manufacture/cost-effective practical batteries. Successful development of high capacity, thin film lithium intercalation anodes should pave the way for the development of a safer lithium ion battery with higher energy density and exceedingly high cycle life than the state-of-the-art technology. Increasing the energy of the battery by 30-40% over the existing lithium ion cell will induce a commercial market of several billions of dollars and a consequent shift from today's batteries. It should ensure BMDO choice market competitive battery for its future needs. A number of small size batteries for high volume commercial markets are opening up including batteries for smart cards, sensors, and hobbyists, and low volume but high-end medical markets for spinal cord implants and LVADs that are being targeted by Lithium Power Technologies for the near-term entry.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. M. Zafar A. Munshi
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:High Capacity Thermal Batteries
Abstract:The objective of this BMDO SBIR Phase-I program is to perform research and development on new designs of thermally stable low-temperature electrolytes and high voltage cathode materials for lithium thermal batteries, including novel methods of synthesis, which when incorporated in cells, yields useful levels of specific power and specific energy, high reliability, and low cost, when compared with presently available thermal batteries. This can be achieved by utilizing a very high capacity, high voltage cathode material that is not only compatible with a low melting electrolyte, but has a flatter discharge profile, excellent chemical, electrochemical and thermal stabilities and good kinetic properties. Specific results of the work will include, the thermal stabilities of the components, self-discharge, steady discharge and pulse power characteristics, and modeling on the thermal management. The results of this investigation will provide a battery technology that delivers packaged energies of at least 150-200 Wh/kg. It is expected that there will be a major reduction in the thermal insulation required which will further reduce the weight and volume and also cost. Successful implementation of low temperature chemically, electrochemically and thermally stable electrolytes with high voltage cathodes for lithium-based thermal batteries should pave the way for the development of higher energy density and lighter power source for BMDO's missile applications. The results of this work will enable us to determine the feasibility of high temperature lithium batteries using non-aqueous solvents electrolytes for oil drilling services, which may open up other high temperature applications.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Kevin C. White
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:High Energy Composite Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes the fabrication of novel composite cathode materials for lithium ion batteries based on vanadium pentoxide and conducting polymers. These composite electrodes are expected to utilize the polyvalent intercalation capabilities of V2O5, allowing access to all four of the available valence states in the active material. Currently, the high capacity available in V2O5 can not be accessed due to a capacity fade mechanism driven by concentration polarization and an irreversible phase change induced at high current loads. Access to all four valence states will be accomplished by implementing conducting polymers that will maintain electronic conductivity in the V2O5 system through all of its low conductivity phases. Utilizing the amorphous xerogel phase of V2O5 and the additional mechanical support provided by the conducting polymer is expected to resist detrimental phase changes and increase cycle life. Batteries constructed with the proposed composite cathode material will exhibit energy densities greater than 400 Wh/kg and approach 40,000 cycles with little capacity fade. These composites will be made through simple sol-gel processes yielding a cathode material hydro-gel that is air stable and amenable to standard roll fabrication processes common to the battery industry. This effort will demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing a V2O5 / conducting polymer composite as a high capacity, high energy cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Performance of the batteries constructed with the proposed cathode will show three times the specific energy and four times the specific capacity of their predecessors. These batteries will find application in mobile telephones, lap top computers, power tools, personal data assistants, portable entertainment devices, and military communications and weapon systems. In addition there is an emerging market in electric vehicles.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 766-9844
Mr. Daniel Merewether
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Continuous, Low Cost Cancellation of Harmonics at Power Grid Nodes
Abstract:Higher order harmonics of 60 Hz in electrical power distribution systems have been shown to significantly impact the operating life and performance characteristics of equipment vital to mission success for military facilities. To reduce unexpected equipment failures and equipment downtime, these higher order harmonics must be prevented from entering equipment. On a facility wide basis, though, every power grid node must be protected. Because of the large number of such nodes, technologies to eliminate harmonics must be sensitive to cost considerations and must utilize a minimum of components which are susceptible to failure or faulty operation. SARA, Inc. proposes a unique and innovative method for removing higher order harmonics from electrical power used by mission critical equipment that is both low-cost and technologically simple. SARA's technique utilizes a single-phase core-form transformer and is based on continuously sampling the input electrical waveform, extracting the higher order harmonic component present in the sample, amplifying and phase shifting the sample, and using the sample to drive a tertiary coil installed on the transformer core. In this manner, higher order harmonics are cancelled at the secondary coil location by magnetic flux cancellation, and only the desired 60 Hz component is transmitted through. The proposed harmonic cancellation technique will protect critical military equipment from the damaging effects of higher order harmonics propagating within a facility power grid. The technique has application to single-phase and three-phase electrical systems in both commercial and military settings.

SIERRA ENGINEERING, INC. FORMERLY JOHNSON ROCKETS
603 East Robinson Street, Suite 7
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 885-8483
Mr. Daniel A. Greisen
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:A Compact, Transportable JP-8 Reformer
Abstract:Highly efficient, high energy density electrical generation systems are needed for ground based assets. Fuel cell electrical generation systems provide high efficiency, low emissions, and low thermal signatures. A cost effective, transportable reformer system, providing hydrogen, while using a military fuel such as JP-8, and meeting military operational requirements does not exist. The development of a compact, transportable JP-8 reformer will allow new high performance technologies to enter military and commercial uses. The focus of the Phase I program is defining a reformer supplying high pressure, high-quality hydrogen while achieving the weight and volume goals. System-level design trades using proven reformer approaches and three innovative component design concepts will result in a design demonstrable during the Phase II program. Sierra Engineering Inc. brings significant analysis, design, fabrication, and test experience to the development of thermal fluid systems in which chemical reactions are present. Sierra possesses extensive experience with high-pressure combustion devices and thermal management systems utilizing kerosene-type fuels. Sierra's extensive system modeling capability is critical to the understanding of component interactions and system optimization. Sierra's experience in fuel cell stack design, operation, and testing will ensure that the reformer can be integrated with a fuel cell system. Projections of distributed power requirements exceed 71,000 MW by the year 2010. A hydrogen reformer system operating on a kerosene-type fuel could support a vast arena of potential military and commercial distributed power generation applications. Distributed power generation offers several advantages over centralized power generation approaches. These include: a "building block" approach in which capability is added as needed, a reduced cost of initial installation, lower maintenance cost, and increased reliability. Operation on a modest-grade kerosene, like JP-8, opens numerous opportunities for distributed power in even the most remote locations.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Dr. Aleksander A. Maiorov
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:High Efficiency Selective Emitter Matched Thermophotovoltaic Cell Module
Abstract:The Antimonides Group at Structured Materials Industries (SMI) has recently demonstrated high-efficiency InGaAsSb TPV cells with a cut-off wavelengths of 2.4 microns and is developing 1.8/2.4 micron tandem TPV and 2.7 InAsSbP TPV cells. The overall efficiency of TPV modules could be greatly improved by spectrally matching the bandgap of the cell to the output of a selective emitter. SMI proposes to develop a thermophotovoltaic converter module based on the combination of a high efficiency TPV cell and a rare-earth doped ceramic selective emitter. In the Phase I program we will develop a most promising selective emitter material and design a TPV cell to match it in Phase II the emitter and cell will be combined in a module and packaged for commercialization. This program will provide cost-effective, high-efficiency TPV modules for space power and other commercial and military applications. Specific applications include combustion-fueled portable battery chargers, co-generation of electricity from furnaces and nuclear reactors, and power for deep space missions utilizing radioisotope heat sources.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Drive, P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 213-1637
Dr. Chuanjing Xu
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:A High Performance, Low Temperature Li-ion Battery Using a Metal Alloy Anode
Abstract:This BMDO Phase I proposal is aimed at developing a high performance Li-ion battery using a metal alloy anode for low-temperature applications. The anode materials are based on nano-structured metal alloys that directly address two major limitations of commercial graphite anodes: First, the materials allow faster lithium diffusion than in graphite. Second, the materials are compatible with electrolytes that have better low-temperature properties than currently-used ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. In Phase I, we will demonstrate that the combination of nano-structured metal alloy and high performance electrolyte will give a low temperature capacity far superior to the commercial graphite-based anodes. In Phase II, we will further develop Li-ion prototype batteries for low-temperature applications. If successful, the proposed system will significantly improve the low-temperature performance of Li-ion batteries and expand their application to the defense and space industries where a near-term application is expected. Such batteries are critical for the success of the National Missile Defense, a plan that becomes increasingly urgent given the increased threats by terrorist countries and organizations. On a broader scale, T/J Technologies' tin-based anode materials are developed for use in lithium rechargeable batteries including lithium ion and lithium polymer cells. Potential customers include battery manufacturers and battery material suppliers.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Joseph DiCarlo
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Novel, Thin Film Lithium-ion Battery Technology
Abstract:Lithium-ion batteries offer several performance advantages over conventional rechargeable batteries including higher specific energy ( 150Wh/kg), energy density (>325 Wh/L) and cycle life. While these advantages have lead to the recent growth of lithium-ion technology for various consumer applications, this technology still needs development to be used in some non-commercial applications that require higher rate, longer cycle life and an expanded operating temperature range. This proposed study involves the replacement of the standard anode material in state of the art lithium-ion cells with a low cost silicon based material that will significantly improve the cells performance in the area of cycle life, energy density, power density and expanded temperature operating range. In addition to the change of anode, a new separator system will be utilized that is low cost and will improve safety aspects of this system. The technology being explored in this study would advance the state of the art in lithium-ion technology in the areas of energy density, specific energy and cycle life. The commercial potential for this technology will be in the areas of aerospace and portable electronic applications that require more energy and an expanded temperature operating range than what is now commercially available.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Mr. Roberto Serenyi
MDA 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Onboard Power Sources for Interceptor Missiles
Abstract:This SBIR program is aimed at improving the power density of primary silver-zinc cells in general, and particularly those used in interceptor ballistic missiles. We intend to achieve that objective by advancing the state-of-the-art of bipolar electrodes, where both positive and negatives are built on a common current collector, and of the "pile" batteries made with them, which are capable of up to four times the power output per unit volume, compared to conventional (monopolar) batteries. The major obstacles to the development of such batteries have been (1) the problem of intercell electrolyte leakage, which creates parasitic currents, and eventually leads to failure and (2) overheating. However, we are confident to overcome those obstacles by using recently developed heat resistant plastics and epoxy adhesives, and individual cell valves capable of containing the electrolyte, at the same time allowing excessive gas pressure to vent. The successful completion of this program would result in silver-based batteries capable of up to 4 times the power density of those presently available, very attractive for military and space applications, existing and new, such as high speed underwater propulsion systems, short bursts of very high power, anti-ballistic missiles, etc.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Mr. Michael Fulcher
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Filament Design for Enhanced Fibrous Monolith Properties
Abstract:Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR) proposes to design and develop novel micro-filament composite structures for fabrication of improved thermal shock and damage tolerant small diameter propulsion components. These parts are typically wound uniaxially, which allows only one plane of crack deflection using conventional FM filament. ACR will conduct a study to evaluate the material properties of ZrC-based fibrous monolith composites using a cable-like design, similar to suspension cables for bridges. ACR has obtained a significant amount of baseline data for other ZrC-based systems of a conventional FM design for comparison with the designs to be developed on this proposed effort. The effort will focus on evaluating two critical design parameters and establishing their influence on composite mechanical properties. These parameters are the ratio of core bundle to winding, and the solids loading of the winding filament. Test coupons with different design parameters will be fabricated, and mechanical property will be collected and evaluated for each design. Sample single filament orientation parts will be made using the most promising design and compared with parts made from conventional FM filament. Testing results will be documented and recommendations made with respect to designs and additional material systems that warrant further investigation. Small propulsion parts made from conventional FM filament typically have a single filament orientation, with filaments parallel to the circumference of the part. While these parts have excellent thermal shock resistance and damage tolerance, the weak interface provides only one plane for crack deflection, which is parallel to the axis on which the part is wound. Using the proposed technology, parts can be made having a micro-filament structure that allows for crack deflection both parallel and perpendicular to the winding axis. This will result in parts with improved thermal shock resistance and damage tolerance.

AEROASTRO, INC.
520 Huntmar Park Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 451-8630
Mr. Dan Cohen
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Demonstration of On-Orbit Logistics System
Abstract:The lifetime of many space systems critical to missile defense is limited by the availability of on-board expendable resources, such as cryogenic fluids and fuels. As these systems become more complex and expensive, the ability to extend the capacity of on-board cryogenics becomes a key driver of total life cycle cost and effectiveness. AeroAstro will develop an end-to-end architecture for fluid replenishment missions. A number of companies are addressing the rendezvous, docking, and fuel transfer phases of the mission, but currently the rapid launch and orbit transfer phases of the mission are not being pursued. AeroAstro will address these two critical phases by leveraging experience with two existing commercial projects, Escort and SPORT. Escort is an on-orbit inspection and servicing microsatellite for commercial use. SPORT (Small Payload ORbit Transfer vehicle) is an orbit transfer vehicle designed to deliver microsatellites from GTO to customized low earth orbits on piggyback launches. A complete end-to-end system architecture will be developed and designed in Phase I, along with a roadmap to identify all steps required to commercialize this technology and build a demonstration unit for launch on the Space Shuttle in Phase II. There are a number of military and commercial applications that can be enabled by an on-orbit refueling/servicing microspacecraft. The military applications that stand to benefit include SBIRS Low, Space Based Laser, and the DSP and MILSTAR systems. These applications will focus on replenishing on-board fuels and cryogenic fluids to extend mission life and functionality. The recent interest in on-orbit servicing and proximity operations is evidence of this shift in direction in the military community. Commercial applications for on-orbit servicing and inspection are mainly for large, expensive GEO communications satellites. AeroAstro is already exploring this market and has found interest among satellite insurers, manufacturers, and operators in an add-on microsatellite that could be deployed in case of a malfunction and used to diagnose problems. We have obtained commercial investment towards this end from Space Machine Advisors, Inc., a major satellite insurance brokerage. Finally, a number of users including the Air Force Space Test Program and a number of commercial microsatellite users have a need for an orbit transfer and maneuvering system, which this product will serve.

AP MATERIALS, INC.
4041 Forest Park Avenue
St. Louis, MO 63108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 615-6305
Mr. Douglas P. DuFaux
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Coated Aluminum Nanoparticles for Advanced Propulsion Applications
Abstract:This program will lead to advanced high energy density composite metallized propellants that will ignite faster, burn more completely, more rapidly, and with less agglomeration than presently used fuels and thus, greatly improve rocket motor performance. Powder will be produced through a novel combustion process that couples industry-standard chemistry with a proven industrial powder production system. This process yields metal nanoparticles that are coated with sodium chloride, which serves as a protective barrier for safe handling and storage in air. Prior to implementation into propellant formulations, these powders will be processed to remove the sodium chloride and apply a protective coating that constitutes only a minor fraction of the total mass, thus maximizing performance of the particles. To-date, exploitation of nanomaterials in propulsion applications has been hindered by the high cost and highly reactive nature of nanopowders. During Phase I, to demonstrate feasibility, aluminum nanoparticles will be produced, processed, and tested in laboratory combustion tests. In addition to demonstrating the improved performance of propellant materials, the program will enable production of a broad range of technologically important materials because the production and processing technologies are generic and will thus enhance the leadership role of the U.S. in advanced materials. This program will produce a new class of advanced propellants by exploiting the unique properties of high purity metal nanopowders. A low-cost domestic source of high purity, low oxygen metal nanoparticles will open up many markets in metal-based high energy density materials for propulsion and explosives, both in the U.S. military and in commercial applications. Furthermore, the generic technology enables production of a broad range of nanomaterials and opens up many markets in the automotive, biomedical, defense, electronics, and other industries. Both the U.S. military and commercial sector are demanding substantial advances in such technologies and the proposed materials offer a realistic scenario for achieving these goals.

APPLIED THERMAL SCIENCES
PO Box C, 1861 Main St.
Sanford, ME 04073
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 459-7777
Mr. Karl Hoose
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Lightweight Hot Gas Valve/Nozzle for Divert and Axial Thrusters
Abstract:A unique hot gas valve/nozzle concept promises low cost and lightweight for divert and axial thrusters. Key requirements for divert and attitude control (DAC) systems on kinetic kill vehicles (KVV's) are lightweight, low volume and cost, high impulse with minimal power requirements. Current hot gas valves for DAC's employ exotic materials such as rhenium to prevent ablation and erosion that severely impacts the effectiveness of the overall system. However, the high cost, long lead times, and high density of rhenium warrants further development efforts for realizing a low cost and lightweight system. The proposed concept employs a unique approach of manipulating the hot gas flow path to reduce heat transfer to the valve and nozzle material. This reduction in heat transfer allows the opportunity for lower cost and lighter weight to be utilized. In addition, the concept minimizes actuation requirements resulting in low power needs, which translates into smaller battery weight and volume on the vehicle. The proposed concept affords the opportunity to use lower cost and lighter weight materials for proportional divert and axial thrusters for interceptor applications. This technology could be used in all types of rocket applications, including liquid, gel and solid propulsion systems. Specific areas include thrusters for station keeping of satellites in orbit, divert and attitude control systems for interceptors (miniature KKV's) and axial thrust motors. In addition, commercial applications include gas metering devices and pressure regulation systems for cold or high temperature gases.

BUSEK CO. INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Bruce Pote
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Single Converter Hall Thruster Power Processor
Abstract:The need for low mass, cost and complexity electric propulsion systems driven by the growing interest in microsatellites to perform high delta-V missions requiring north/south station keeping, orbit transfer, inclination changes and precise formation flying can be enabled by Busek's multi-mode low power Hall thruster. However, state-of-the-art electric propulsion technology is complex and costly for many mission applications. Of the subsystems that comprise the propulsion system, the most fruitful to achieve a significant reduction in cost, complexity and mass is the power processing unit. In Phase I, Busek will demonstrate the feasibility of a new power processing architecture that replaces the four (4) main DC to DC converters of the conventional PPU with a single converter architecture. The single converter design utilizes a high power converter to provide the discharge power to the thruster and both heat and start the cathode. The proposed converter topology will be a derivative of Busek's nominal 500 W (350 V; 1.5 A) discharge converter developed and demonstrated as part of the AFRL/VS TechSat 21 mission. In addition Busek will develop a modified cathode design capable of heating at low input current. Experiments will be performed to develop a starting sequence and operating algorithm for the thruster. The long-term objective is to develop a simplified flight qualification low power Hall thruster system with high performance and low system mass. Busek's low power Hall thruster system is capable of steady state and variable impulse operation and offers a new paradigm of multi-mode electric propulsion. A simplified PPU architecture will reduce the mass and cost of the most taxing subsystem of the propulsion system. A simplified Hall thruster system can find application across the spectrum of satellites requiring high delta V missions. This includes altitude control on large satellites that use Xe based primary propulsion while enabling missions of fleets of satellites requiring precise, variable impulse bits for close proximity formation flying.

BUSEK CO. INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Lawrence T. Byrne
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Rapidly Starting Cathode for Electric Propulsion
Abstract:Busek's tandem Hall thruster can deliver precisely controllable, repetitive or single impulse bits of arbitrary magnitude, the latter dictated by the duration of the discharge pulse. To fully capitalize on the pulsed operation of a Hall thruster requires a cathode capable of rapid starting to minimize the time from the command for thrust to the time the discharge pulse can be initiated. The most significant delay occurs during the time required to heat the cathode emitter and the time to establish expellant within the cathode. In the Phase I program Busek will evaluate several methods and approaches to rapidly starting an electron source for the thruster. Approaches to be analytically and experimentally characterized include a derivative of our standard hollow cathode designed for rapid heating of the emitter insert and novel approaches for heaterless style cathodes. Proof of concept and preliminary experiments will be conducted to determine methods for rapid starting and characteristic turn-on times. The most promising approaches will be further investigated for thermal and discharge cycle capability. In Phase II prototype cathodes will be designed and fabricated for integrated testing with a Hall thruster in the pulsed and steady state operating modes. Busek's low power propulsion system can fulfill all the propulsion requirements of missions requiring orbit raising, repositioning and close proximity formation flying. A rapidly starting cathode would significantly improve the efficiency and Isp of the thruster particularly during short duration firings. This also would make the Hall thrust attractive for attitude control on large satellites that use Xe based primary propulsion capitalizing on fuel commonality. Consequently, the low power thruster system can find applications across the power and size spectrum of satellites thereby broadening its commercial potential.

DE TECHNOLOGIES INC.
3620 Horizon Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 270-9700
Mr. Richard Foedinger
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Thruster/Valve Seat for Divert Attitude Control Systems
Abstract:Solid divert attitude control systems (SDACS) for missile defense applications currently employ multiple thrusters welded to rhenium valves to control the direction and duration of thrust. These valves are expensive and time consuming to fabricate and are the controlling factor for producing a deliverable SDACS unit. The proposed Phase I research program will develop and evaluate innovative material processing and structural design concepts for integrated, high temperature divert attitude control system (DACS) components. The focus of the proposed research is on the development, analysis and preliminary testing of integral rhenium thrusters and valve seats fabricated via an electroforming (El-FormO) process. Design trade studies will be performed to establish a demonstration component design that will be hot-fired to demonstrate perfomance. Improved thruster design concepts employing integral insulation and high temperature composite structural overwraps will also be identified and evaluated as part of the proposed Phase I program. The proposed research offers significant benefits for BMDO in reducing costs and improving performance of DACS components for TMD and NMD applications. It is anticipated that the successful development and demonstration of an electroformed Re valve seat/thruster design will lead to significant cost reductions in the production of high acceleration low-mass DACS components. The proposed manufacturing and design technology also has immediate benefits and significant commercialization potential for producing lower cost spacecraft attitude control systems.

ENIGMATICS, INC.
P.O. Box 8610
Monterey, CA 93943
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 486-1725
Mr. David Chyung
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Fuels for High-Power-Density Miniature PDE Divert Systems for MKV Applications
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal is aimed at developing efficient, storable, and safe liquid fuel systems for miniature Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) that will be used as divert engines for Miniature Kinetic Kill Vehicles (MKVs). The PDE is a very-small-scale propulsion system, with no moving parts in the power production section and producing higher specific impulse than conventional rockets because of its constant-volume, nonsteady operating cycle. Our approach is based on a novel design totally integrated with the MKV structure, which allows a fully controlled vector thrust capability. A prototype system has been built, bench- tested, and operated at detonation frequencies up to 250 Hz. The outstanding obstacle to further development is that no liquid monopropellant fuel has yet been identified which is safe, storable, and can be electrically detonated. In Phase I we will design a liquid-fuel PDE test bed in order to assess three complementary strategies for fuel development and will develop a plan to research the detonability of various fuels partially confined in a metal tube and initiated by an electric discharge generated by a spark-plug-type system. In Phase II we will carry out this study and will fabricate and demonstrate a liquid-fuel engine compatible with MKV requirements. The fuel system that will result from this research will allow safe operation and storage and permit simple low-cost implementation of high-power-density high-frequency injection and initiation in both military and civilian applications of PDEs. Success in attaining this goal will pave the way to the development and demonstration of a low-cost prototype divert propulsion system that can be used for MKV systems and adapted to future advanced programs. It will provide propulsion with enhanced reliability, flexibility, and efficiency.

EXOTHERMICS, INC.
24 Crown Street
Nashua, NH 03060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 578-9800
Mr. Stephen G. DiPietro
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Toughened Hafnium Nitride Cermets for KKV Propulsion Systems
Abstract:This proposal addresses MDA's stated requirement to significantly improve the affordability, maintainability and technical performance characteristics of kinetic kill vehicle propulsion hardware; specifically, divert and attitude control system (DACS) components. In light of these challenges, Exothermics proposes that a new, ultrahigh temperature-capable category of refractory nitride cermets (two phase metallic + ceramic materials) be developed, using hafnium nitride as the primary oxidation/erosion-resistant and ultrahigh temperature constituent phase. These hafnium nitride (HfN) cermets should show excellent potential to enhance the performance and significantly lower the manufacturing cost of KKV DACS components. The combination of favorable manufacturing economics, prospects for ductile phase toughening, reduced system weight and excellent high temperature properties could significantly improve the affordability and performance characteristics of high-performance KKV DACS and tactical missile hardware. Phase 1 efforts will focus on development of three HfN cermet compositions. Phase 1 will conclude with fabrication of a limited number of mechanical test specimens and solid rocket motor blasttube articles. If the proposed work is successful, HfN cermets will show the potential to displace or substantially reduce the use of more costly ceramic composites or precious metals in rocket nozzle or liner applications. The availability of ultrahigh temperature capable HfN-based cermets could substantially lower the dependence of DACS component designers on exotic metals such as rhenium, while increasing DACS system performance potential. Significant commercial product opportunities exist within DoD, the aerospace primes and elsewhere for components such as rocket nozzles, nozzle liners, solid propellant valves and seats and specialty high temperature processing applications

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Dr. Ralph Langensiepen
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:HfB2-filled Braided C/SiC Nozzles for High Performance DACS
Abstract:FMI has recently demonstrated that light weight, potentially low cost carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide ceramic matrix composites can survive simulated DACS environments under 3700F propellant testing. Higher temperature capabilities are sought to attain performance advantages afforded by higher temperature propellants. Ultra High Temperature Ceramics in the composition range ZrB2-HfB2-SiC have been proven in recent years to be highly effective in re-entry body applications. Still, these ceramics have been shown to be prone to catastrophic failure. Only fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites are likely to withstand the thermal shock and operational vibration loading present in DACS applications. We propose to examine the potential of an enhanced C/SiC composite that makes use of hafnium diboride particulate additives to a commercial silicon carbide polymer precursor. Thin wall braided carbon fiber preforms will be rigidized with a CVD derived carbon interphase coating. The preform will then undergo repeated filled polymer impregnation cycles to densify the interstitial space with a composite matrix of HfB2/SiC. A hermetic surface coating will be applied using further liquid phase processing to achieve a higher temperature CMC. A pair of Phase I optimized DACS nozzle test articles will be made available for testing. Lightweight higher temperature nozzle components for improved DACS systems would allow for increased acceleration and manueverability in next generation interceptor missile and kill vehicles. Similar benefits may derive in CMCs used in less demanding applications, from axial boosters for missiles and satellites to ground based energy conversion systems. These materials could also find application in aircraft engine components.

HI-Z TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Suite 7400, 7606 Miramar Road
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 695-6660
Mr. Norbert B. Elsner
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Application of the RIT Model to Mateiral Selection for Zero Erosion Throats for Rockets Firing Aluminized Propellants
Abstract:The erosion of four transition metal carbides in a 6100F rocket nozzle test has been correlated with predicted thermochemical reactions with the alumina formed by an aluminized propellant. Correlation with the reaction initiation temperature model (RIT model) will permit improved compositions to be predicted. Extension of the model to both lower and higher alulminized propellants, longer firing times, higher chamber pressures and to the onset of cavitation loss is needed before the model can be used most effectively. Current design of throats for 21% aluminized propellants use massive tungsten inserts to conduct the heat away to maintain a surface temperature below the melting point of tungsten at 6170F. This restriction is removed with carbides that often melt above 7000F. Replacement of tungsten (density 0,7 lbs/inch^3) wuth niobium carbide plus graphite could reduce the weight of the Mark 104 nozzle from 43 to 32 lbs, as well as allow an increase to 6500F flame temperatures. Establishment of the RIT model will permit clean sheet nozzle designs to be made, will permit higher aluminized propellants to be used for longer firing times, and will reduce both weight and cost compared with nozzles using tungsten inserts. In addition to the prediction of improved compositions to allow higher temperatures, longer times and higher pressures, the program will lead to better understanding of reacitons at the throat. Understanding often lends to improvements in performance in unanticipated ways. Replacement of the heavy tungsten insert used in nozzles such as the Mark 104 will be possile with weight (approximately 25% with aluminized propellants) and associated cost savings due to this weight reduction. This weight reduction will allow commercial launches of satellites to be more competitive,

MACH I INC.
340 East Church Road
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 279-2340
Mr. Albert C. Condo
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Robust, Highly Producible Gel Propellants Formulated for Improved Performance, Reduced Toxicity, and Extended Storability
Abstract:Gel bi-propulsion systems can be used as simple boosters and variable thrusters for NASA launch vehicles, spacecraft and satellites as well as bi-propellant systems utilizing advanced energy management for increased performance tactical missiles, as compared to currently deployed solid propellant systems. The increased safety of gels over current hypergolic liquids and high energy-density solid propellants decreases hazards of manned space flights and reduces handling & transportation risks in ground operations. The intent of this research is to demonstrate feasibility of formulating high performance particulate fuel gels for bi-propulsion systems wherein the gellants are formulated with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and dimethylaminoethylazide (DMAZ)fuels that are hypergolic with gelled inhibited red fuming nitric acid (gIFRNA). The object- ive is to develop two families of bi-propulsion gel fuels that combust easily with IRFNA such that neither the L* of the engine must be increased nor the nozzle exhaust plume have a smoky signature. In Phase I, MACH I, Inc. plans to synthesize particu- lates in the form of various nitramine encapsulated cyclodextrin and cyclodextrin ni- trate polymers, nanocarbon fibers and platelets, GAP & GAP ETPE prepolymers and nano- meter particles of alumina and silica. These energetic and nano-particulates will be formulated with MMH (storable gel propellant baseline for high performance) and DMAZ (reduced toxicity high performance gel fuel alternative) at various concentrations to yield candidate fuel gels. These gel formulations (filled and loaded, plus 'neat' non-particulate alternatives) will be concurrently engineered for efficient manufac- turing processes, as opposed to conventional batch-preparation methods. MACH I, Inc. will team with GenCorp Aerojet for feasibility of screening of the candidate gel formulations for storage stability, density, centrifuge stability, yield point, shear rate viscosity and rheology characterization. In a Phase II, extended rheol- ogy work will be performed on optimum particulated gel candidates, which will be se lected for scale-up synthesis to demonstrate wide temperature range rheology matching to gIRFNA and small demo-engine test. Data will also be obtained to develop Arrhen- ius plots of regression analysis of off-gas measurements and activation energy esti- mates, shear rate viscosity vs rheology characterization to target promising candi- dates for the pilot plant development. Improvement of gel for bi-propellant systems is an area of high interest due to poten- tial for increased performance and reduced toxicity, while meeting Insensitive Muni- tions (IM) criteria (MIL-STD-2105) by optimizing fuel gels via the application of optimized particulates in their formulations. Particulated bi-propellant gels can be shown to replace detonable munitions without attendant hazards and provide perfor- mance and manufacturing producibility improvements. Performance improvements in tac- tical scenarios result in greater lethality, accuracy, farther standoff, reduced han- dling hazards or incidents or combinations thereof. Additionally, while maintaining IM characteristics, gelled fuels may also be formulated to improve upon toxicity concerns of conventional liquid and solid formulations. One such liquid, DMAZ, is believed to be extremely promising as compared to MMH at given particulate type and loading levels.

MONTEC RESEARCH
1901 South Franklin
Butte, MT 59701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 723-2222
Dr. Madan Parvatiyar
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:HIGH DENSITY METALLIZED GEL PROPELLANT
Abstract:A novel method of micro-mixing by inducing a low frequency resonant sonic vibration (LFRSV) in the fluid medium results in the increased rate of energy dissipation per unit mass of the fluid, allowing rapid and efficient dispersion of solids, gases, and immiscible liquids. This enhanced way of achieving micro mixing, can be used for dispersing nano particles in making gel propellants. Rheological properties of the metallized gel propellants are very much depend on the homogeneity of the metallized gel propellant made. In order to have a smooth and efficient burning of the metallized gel propellant, a uniform distribution of the dispersed metal powder is desired. Pulsating flow due to the presence of inhomogeneity in particle suspension density, may initiate combustion instability during combustion. Through the use of LFRSV technology, a uniform rheological properties of the high density metallized propellants can be achieved. Testing their ignition delay measurement with respect to red fuming nitric as an oxidant will carry out a further characterization of the prepared propellants from different liquid fuels. A comparative performance of all the prepared high density metallized propellants will be evaluated. A commercially available Low Frequency Resonant Sonic Vibration (LFRSV) reactor will be of great interest to research and industrial communities. Out of many applications possible, in particular, biotechnology and high energy fuel mixing process technology would favor this technology because of its capability to produce micro-mixing due to enhanced mass transfer and reduced shear rate as compared to conventional mixtures.

NANOMAT, INC.
1061 Main Street, Building #1 - Drawer #18
North Huntingdon, PA 15642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 861-6121
Mr. Clarence Skena
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Nanocomposites for High-Temperature Nozzles in Rocket Engines
Abstract:Materials used for the rocket-engine nozzles, hot-gas valves and turbopump blades, require high elevated-temperature tensile and creep strength, ductility, hardness, and fracture toughness as they operate at temperatures ( 2200K) well above the melting points of state-of-the-art intermetallics and superalloys. Current techniques to manufacture W-Re-0.32HfC and W-Re-ThO2 alloys include sintering of elemental powders and arc and electron-beam melting of presintered tungsten-rhenium alloys. These methods result in exaggerated grain growth thereby severely impairing these alloys_ high-temperature properties. The objective of this Phase I effort is to select and manufacture nanocrystalline W-Re alloys with nanosize HfC,TiB2, and ThO2 dispersoids, which will exceed or meet the performance characteristics of the conventionally sintered alloys. These composite powders will be rapidly hot-consolidated to near-theoretical density at substantially lower processing parameters enabling considerable savings in manufacturing and processing costs. The manufactured components are expected to be extremely ablation and erosion-resistant in various operating environments. Phase I will focus on research and development for optimization of the synthesis, consolidation, and characterization while Phase II will concentrate on optimization of process-structure-property-performance parameters and building and testing of the prototypes resulting in a standardized composition that will exceed the performance requirements. Commercial applications include aerospace components (nozzles, thrusters, rocket engines components and turbines) high-temperature structural components, and tools for drilling oil wells. These materials can also be employed as metal cutting tools, mining and construction tools, die and wear parts, microelectronic packaging, counterweights, hypervelocity projectiles, radiation shielding, lamp filaments, and heating elements. Furthermore, W-Re-HfC and W-Re-ThO2 are currently considered for thermionic fuel element materials. The superior formability of these nanocrystalline materials lends itself to substantial cost savings via superplastic forming. Throughout this investigation, we will be cognizant of the costs associated with productivity and dealing with any hazardous waste streams that could prohibit commercialization.

PHOTONIC ASSOCIATES
200A Ojo de la Vaca Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 466-3877
Dr. Claude Phipps
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Micro Laser Plasma Thruster Technology Development
Abstract:BMDO has a critical need for advancements in propulsion to achieve major reductions in the costs of placing and maintaining payloads in desired locations. In particular, efficient launch systems for small technological payloads and advances in small thrusters propulsion systems are needed, and these require revolutionary, new aerospace propulsion-related technologies. The micro Laser Plasma Thruster (uLPT) which Photonic Associates originated is such a technology. Our uLPT uses a cluster of diode lasers focused to a 50mm spot on the back of a transparent tape coated with a 50mm-thick carbon-containing absorbing layer. As the tape moves across the laser focus, a high-temperature jet is created on the opposite side from the laser without burning through the tape. This is called "transmission mode" illumination. Under earlier Air Force funding, we developed and tested a preprototype thruster which exceeded the TechSat 21 requirement of 75mN thrust per axis. Technical issues which remain include "reflection" vs. "transmission" modes of target illumination and minimizing outgassing of ablation coatings. In this Phase I effort, we will address remaining technical issues and design a commercially viable prototype thruster to be built under Phase II. The laser-driven engine we propose will have 200N thrust, 30W power requirement, and total mass 0.75kg. This effort will lead to Phase II development of the first laser-driven microthruster. Its applications are precise positioning and orientation of micro- and nano-satellites in constellations such as TechSat 21.

RICE SYSTEMS, INC
1150 Main Street, Suite C
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-8768
Dr. Colleen Fitzpatrick
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Real Time Optical Sensor for Detecting Surface Contamination from Propulsion Byproducts
Abstract:In this project, we will demonstrate the feasibility of a low cost Fiber Optics Evanescent Wave Sensor (FOES) for real time detection of surface contamination from propulsion byproducts. The FOES is an all optical, low cost, lightweight (<100 grams) device, capable of sensing the spatial extent and nature of a variety of chemical species to the level of a few parts per billion. Preliminary tests have indicated that the FOES is capable of sensing contamination from chemical deposition as well as from material ablation from the impact of space debris. Because the FOES is based on silica glass fiber technology, the sensor is rugged, consumes low power (<250 mW), and can operate in harsh environments. The FOES could be easily be incorporated into a critical spacecraft or missile surface, even one with limited accessibility or complex shapes, for nonintrusive measurements of multiple chemical species. A single FOES sensor produces an integrated measurement; a networked matrix of FOES sensors can be used to obtain the coordinates of a specific contaminated area. The innovation here is the development of a new and highly sensitive method of contamination detection, compatible with the rigorous payload restrictions of flight hardware, features which are attractive for low mass or miniature interceptors and microsatellites. The development of the FOES complements recent BMDO-sponsored efforts by Rice Systems on the design of an integrated optics sensor for characterizing the composition of micropropulsion exhaust products. The combined use of the FOES and the micropropulsion sensor with the addition of fluid dynamics software could produce a complete history of micropropulsion effluents from the moment they are expelled in the exhaust to the instant they are either deposited on spacecraft surfaces or expelled into space. This would lead to more efficient propulsion systems associated with much lower contamination levels.

ROCKET PROPULSION ENGINEERING COMPANY
P.O. Box 1056
Mojave, CA 93502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 824-4570
Mr. Thomas Pavia
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:High Performance Missile Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engine
Abstract:Rocket Propulsion Engineering Company (RP) will generate a preliminary engineering design for a storable liquid-propellant rocket engine suitable for use as an upper stage engine for Navy Standard Missile or other suborbital or orbital applications. Propellants used will be hydrogen-peroxide and NavFuel, a fuel developed over 6 years by the Naval Air Warfare Center China Lake (NAWC). The engine will employ a regeneratively-cooled chamber, hypergolic (self-igniting) propellants, and direct injection of liquid hydrogen-peroxide, thus eliminating both the engine ignition system and catalyst bed. RP will also identify key safety issues related to storage and utilization of hydrogen-peroxide based propellants in missile systems. The engine design will be completed to a level of sufficient detail to permit construction of a working prototype engine during Phase 2, when it will be used in a hot-fire engine test program at RP facilities. Storable liquid propellant rocket engines have advantages over solid motors used in interceptor and target missile systems, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Among these are potentially higher performance, simple and unlimited restart capability, the potential for throttling, storage/shipping in the inert condition, and lower cost. However, available liquid rocket engines have typically utilized very hazardous propellants such as the extremely toxic MMH/NTO combination. Peroxide/hydrocarbon liquid engines offer a low-toxicity alternative to MMH/NTO, but peroxide engines of traditional design have offered problems as well. Until now, conventional peroxide engines have been a poor alternative to more toxic systems since they require problematic and sensitive catalyst beds which limit performance, impose long engine startup latencies, and prevent the use of stabilized peroxide (which contributes to safe long-term peroxide storage). The hydrogen-peroxide/NavFuel RP rocket engine solves these problems. This room-temperature storable propellant combination has very low toxicity and will eliminate the use of both the engine catalyst bed and ignition system. The resulting design simplification permits the use of high-concentration, high-performance peroxide stabilized for long-term storage, and provides for a simple, reliable, fast-starting engine.

SCHAFER CORPORATION
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 721-9572
Mr. Andrew Thies
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Piezoceramic Fin Control System
Abstract:BMDO has a need for advanced propulsion and aerodynamic control technologies and systems that significantly reduce overall vehicle mass to permit substantial diverts and agile maneuvering in order to enhance the performance of missile interceptors. A control system is proposed that utilizes durable fins, that are deployed and controlled using low-mass, solid-state, high-speed piezoceramic actuators. The high piezoceramic electrical to mechanical efficiency permits enhanced aerodynamic flight control in a significantly reduced package size and greatly reduced mass. Novel lightweight, high-strength, materials are available that provide the stiffness and stability to the fins and permit it to withstand the high temperature aerothermal environment. The low mass of the fin coupled with the strength of the actuator permits it to rapidly deploy and retract, allowing the vehicle to more quickly respond to commanded maneuvers. The only massive component of the system is the battery to supply the power to actuate the fins and the battery can be placed in any convenient location within the vehicle. The successful completion of this proposed effort will demonstrate that the piezoceramic flight control system (PFCS) can meet the broad needs of future BMDO systems, especially for THAAD and AIT type interceptors. This proposal outlines an investigation into the integration of piezoceramic adaptive aerodynamic structures technology with novel lightweight materials (ceramics, carbon nanofoam, expanded metal foams, and/or diamond-like coatings) to create a launch hardened flight control system that can meet the broad needs of future BMDO systems, especially for THAAD and AIT type interceptors. The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) has a continuing need for advanced propulsion technologies, components, and systems that can significantly enhance the capability of ballistic missile defense systems to respond to threats while increasing operational flexibility, and reducing costs. Of particular interest is advances in divert and sustained maneuver capabilities, required for high acceleration, low-mass or miniature interceptors proposed for both NMD and especially TMD applications. The PFCS capitalizes on miniaturization and integration to produce significant reductions in the overall vehicle mass permitting more substantial diverts and more agile maneuvering. These attributes are of value in other military aviation systems such as small-scale smart munitions, UAVs, and remote sensing platforms. The PFCS technology is applicable to several Department of Defense (DoD) Key Technology areas such as Air Platforms (high-speed propulsion), Material/Processes (materials for survivability, affordability, and environmental quality), Space Platforms (launch vehicles), and Weapons. The military and aerospace industry has potential uses for the lightweight ceramics as large-scale optics and mirrors and as lightweight insulation for the high-speed aerothermal flight regime. These markets will be explored through the establishment of close business relationships with many of the current aerospace contractors and suppliers. There is considerable potential for use of piezoelectric actuators in military, aerospace, and commercial systems as position sensors and fine-scale position motors in scanning systems, ultra-high resolution photolithography systems, precision manufacturing, and specifically precision machining, especially where active vibration damping and real-time adjustment is desired. This market continues to expand and commercial partners exists if a specific application developed for the military market should show promise to transition to a commercial product.

SWIFT ENTERPRISES, LTD.
1291 CUMBERLAND AVENUE, B102
WEST LAFAYETTE, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8336
Dr. John J. Rusek
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:INTEGRATED PROPELLANT FUEL CELL FOR ONBOARD POWER AS APPLIED TO KINETIC KILL VEHICLES
Abstract:Feasibility of an integrated power and propulsion system for kinetic kill vehicles will be examined. This will involve numerical analysis as well as experimental testing. Common rocket fuels will be used in a fuel cell to test the viability of an integrated fuel cell and rocket engine. Of particular interest to Swift Enterprises, Ltd. is the use of hydrogen peroxide. To test this, an aluminum hydrogen peroxide semi-fuel cell prototype will be constructed and tested. Other fuels and oxidizers will be examined as possible candidates in the study. This innovation has potential to improve and power and propulsion systems on board missiles. The integration of these two systems allows for a more compact space that can be utilized for greater payload or fuel storage. In addition to military uses, the examination of novel fuel cell components may lead to more practical fuels for use in the automotive industry. Launch vehicles will also need more efficient power systems which can make use of the same fuel as is used to reach orbit. Other applications include advanced fuel cells for underwater vessels. Some of these are currently using aluminum and hydrogen peroxide.

THOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7600 Jefferson NE, Suite 9-115
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 348-8797
Dr. Stuart T. Schwab
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Materials & Processing Methods for Non-Eroding Nozzles
Abstract:Missile performance is currently limited by the available materials, particularly in the propulsion system. The development of non-eroding materials for rocket nozzles has the potential to increase missile performance and reduce motor component cost. Refractory metal ceramics are leading non-eroding material candidates for a wide range of propulsion systems. Unfortunately, these materials are in an early stage of technical development, and advances in processing technology are needed before they can be utilized effectively. Thor Technologies, Inc. will team with Los Alamos National Laboratory and ATK Thiokol to combine novel preceramic polymers with innovative processing techniques to yield a rapid, low-cost, net shape method of producing refractory metal ceramic nozzle materials for rocket motors. The microstructrue and mechanical properties of these materials will be determined, and specimens suitable for testing in Thiokol's blast tube test facility will be prepared and delivered to BMDO. In addition, the potential for the use of RMCs in non-military applications will be investigated. With extensive experience in preceramic polymer design and novel ceramic processing techniques, the project team is uniquely well-suited to execute the proposed development successfully. The availability of refractory metal ceramics will enable dramatic increases in rocket motor performance while reducing cost. Civilian applications that would benefit from low-cost, thermochemically stable and erosion resitant materials abound.

WILSON COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGIES
1004 River Rock Drive, Suite 240
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 989-4812
Mr. Charles Griffin
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Microcrack Investigation and Mitigation for Cryogenic Systems
Abstract:This program explores the entire concept of microcracking of composite materials with liquid hydrogen and liquid helium where the differential from room temperature is 500 or more. The program reviews microcracking on an empirical basis using resin systems with and without fiber content. The concept of using chopped and continuous random fiber mat for preventing the penetration of microcracks through a composite material is explored using a comprehensive test program. Testing of material systems is performed at Kirtland Air Force Base using flat panels with six-inch diameter specimens exposed to cryogenic fluid on one side with a leakage detection sensor down stream from the panel. The worst condition is a non-toughened thermoset set resin with no fiber content, which cracks rapidly and the cracks should move through the specimen with leakage recorded. This is used as the baseline test system for comparison with other resin systems. Test specimens are designed with variations in thickness and fiber content to provide a full range of empirical data. Detailed test procedures are provided. Following test, the composite specimen is mounted as a metallurgical test specimen and polished to provide measurement of microcrack and penetration. The principal benefit to the government from this program will be a full, detailed exploration of the concept of microcracking when materials are exposed to a 500F temperature differential in the cryogenic region. A standard test method is envisioned for materials that have the potential of being used for tanks and pressure vessels in liquid hydrogen and liquid helium systems. The details resulting from this empirical test program will be compared against a mathematical analysis in the Phase II program. This will result in design data to verify the reliability of system design using linerless composite materials in structures that have a direct exposure to cryogenics. These design details can be expanded to a detailed design procedure, which can be used to support future launch vehicle, satellite and space station needs for cryogenic storage, distribution and dispensing. Data resulting from this program can be transferred to commercial requirements for storage and transportation of cryogenic fluids.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng C. Tan
MDA 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Processing of Ultra-Lightweight Microcellular Foams from POSS-PMMA Nanocomposites
Abstract:This proposal is submitted in response to BMDO SBIR solicitation 02-006#5. Conventional processing techniques for polymer foams involve multiple steps and the blowing agent used is toxic. Those foams are mostly over 3 pcf in density and suffer from the serious problems of moisture infusion and retention that leads to structural degradation and damage. The efficiency of thermal and sound insulation is less effective because of their open connected channels. In this Phase I research we propose a novel technique to process ultra-lightweight microcellular foams that does not use or release any hazardous chemicals/gases. We will foam ultra-lightweight POSS-PMMA with densities ranging from 0.5 to 3 pcf. POSS-PMMA nanocomposite has low thermal conductivity as it contains Silica and PMMA. Ultra-lightweight microcellular foams processed from this nanocomposite will be thermal insulators. It will also have excellent strength and stiffness to weight ratio, barrier properties, and superior impact and damage resistant properties. Once exposed to flame or very high temperature these microcellular foams will form a ceramic layer on the exterior surfaces and protect the underneath materials. Sandwich structures can be fabricated using these POSS-PMMA nanocomposite foams by heat pressing, thereby reduce manufacturing and assembling costs. The proposed research will result in a new generation of ultra-low density, damage resistant microcellular foams that enable many structural and insulation applications. Ultra-low-density microcellular POSS-PMMA nanocomposite foams are expected to have many commercial applications including sandwich insulation and structural materials for cryogenic tank, high speed aircraft, aerospace, outerspace vehicles, housing and support structures for rockets and propulsion components. Conventional utilization of aluminum honeycomb core for these applications can be replaced by the proposed microcellular POSS-PMMA foams with significantly improved moisture and impact resistant properties yet lighter in weight. On the ground applications, it would be beneficial to components that need thermal insulation like cryogenic tanks, refrigerators, coolers, and wall panels.

ADVANCED REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGIES
533 22nd St.
Boulder, CO 80302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 786-8281
Mr. Ran Yaron
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Laser Refrigerator
Abstract:MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) market was supposed to make the breakthrough in miniaturization. In practice, they are limited in power and so are reduced to very simple optical uses. With this engine, a new world of applications will be available in the defense, space, communication and medical industries. We propose an engine 1,000X faster; smaller; and more powerful than electrically powered ones. Our engine can power miniature mechanical devices, opening up a world of applications now unavailable due to technical constraints of current solutions. For instance, two possible applications are micro refrigerators and mechanical actuators 1,000X smaller than electromechanical ones. A specific use for the technology we intend on developing is to power a closed cycle miniature cryocoolers, forced convection cooling loops for high power electronics and lasers and multiple use pyrotechnic devices. Commercial opportunities include powerful miniature medical instrumentation and "cash cow" applications such as true all-optical switches and true laser ink jet printers with five times the speed of current inkjet, for the same cost.

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
188 CEDAR HILL STREET
MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. George Gould
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-lightweight Aerogel Superinsulation for SBL IFX
Abstract:A significant investment is made each year in the continued development of increasingly robust and sophisticated heating/cooling technologies for future utilization in a ballistic missile technology program or a major defense acquisition program. However, the effectiveness of thermal management systems is often directly related to the performance of insulation components utilized in their design. Accordingly, the commercial availability of (completely passive) thermal super-insulation material is an essential step toward realizing BMDO goals for thermal management on missile defense systems. In addition to protecting sensitive structures and subsystems from direct solar heating, some space platforms for missile defense will require years of storage of large amounts of cryogen with minimum cryogenic loss. For instance, the Space-Based Laser Integrated Flight Experiment (SBL IFX), scheduled for deployment in the 2012 time-frame, has requirements to protect sensitive optical components as well as other structural components (fluid storage tanks) from excess heating due to exposure to the Sun and the Earth's albedo. Lightweight thermal insulation materials will enable the thermal subsystem of the SBL IFX to minimize power consumption while maintaining critical temperature control of key components without exceeding launch vehicle lift capabilities. Aerogel superinsulation systems will find use on critical structures of the space-based laser system, helping streamline design and improve cryogenic cooling efficiencies. Insulation systems developed during this project will be commercialized for aerospace, refrigeration, high-R value ductwork, and pipeline systems.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1505 Coal Creek Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Naseem A. Munshi
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Microcracking Polymer Composite Cryogenic Pressure Vessel
Abstract:CTD will develop and demonstrate an engineered composite material for use in cryogenic pressure vessels. This effort will provide a composite material that does not microcrack and has suitable properties. Candidate composite materials will be designed. Test laminates will be fabricated and tested for microcracking and helium permeation at cryogenic temperatures. The development of reliable, robust, and economical all-composite tanks for use at cryogenic temperatures will lead to reduced risk, increased capability, and lower costs for military and commercial space and launch vehicle programs.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1505 Coal Creek Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Naseem A. Munshi
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:LOX Compatible Polymer Composite Cryogenic Pressure Vessel
Abstract:CTD will develop and demonstrate an engineered composite material specifically for use in cryogenic liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. This effort will provide a composite material with acceptable and well-understood LOX compatibility and suitable mechanical properties. CTD will identify and screen candidate polymer matrix materials and composites for LOX compatibility and other critical properties needed for composite LOX tanks. Reliable, robust, and economical all-composite LOX tanks will provide reduced risk, increased capability, and lower costs for miliraty and civilian spacecraft and launch vehicle programs.

CREARE INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V. Zagarola
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:A Cryogenic Heat Transport Loop for Space-Borne Gimbaled Instruments
Abstract:A high-performance cooling system for gimbal-mounted infrared sensors is a critical need for future space-based target acquisition and tracking systems. The optimal approach uses a high performance cryocooler remotely located on the spacecraft platform combined with a high conductance, cryogenic heat transport system to exchange heat from the sensors to the cryocooler. The heat transport system must be highly reliable, compact, lightweight, high conductance, produce minimal additional parasitics, and impose minimal torque on the gimbal. To meet these challenging requirements, we propose to develop a single-phase cryogenic heat transport loop consisting of a highly reliable, miniature cryogenic circulator; flexible transfer lines; and compact, effective heat exchangers. During Phase I, we will prove feasibility of the concept by: (1) producing a preliminary design of the system, and (2) performing life cycle fatigue tests and flexibility tests on the transfer lines at cryogenic temperatures. During Phase II, we will fabricate and test the system at cryogenic temperatures. Creare is uniquely qualified to develop this system because of our extensive experience in developing high-performance cryocoolers, high-speed cryogenic turbomachines, and high-effectiveness, compact heat exchangers. The proposed cryogenic circulating loop will provide highly reliable cross-gimbal cooling in a compact package. Military applications include space-based surveillance and missile-defense systems. Scientific applications include space-based visible and infrared detectors. Commercial applications include communication satellites.

K TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 628-8681
Mr. Mark J. Montesano
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:High Power Density Radiator Concept Using Short Staggered Heat Pipes Imbedded in Honeycomb Panels with High Conductivity Face Sheets (kTC P 208)
Abstract:As more powerful systems emerge, radiator technology is challenged to dissipate the waste heat in space at minimum weight. k Technology Corporation (kTC) believes there is an opportunity to combine the heat pipe and high conductivity (5x that of Aluminum) materials (k-Core) to develop a new class of weight efficient radiators. To this end, a radiator concept based on honeycomb panels that has k-Core as face sheets and short, simple, imbedded, staggered, heat pipes is proposed. Such a design should produce high heat dissipation density, have small thermal distortions, be highly survivable and won't require complex 2-D heat pipe arrays. As indicated by the letter of support from TRW, system primes believe this effort could lead to a new generation of efficient radiators. In Phase I, kTC proposes to develop innovative, low-weight heat pipe/k-Core radiator concepts. Design variables will include heat pipe geometry and spacing, heat pipe/k-Core interfaces, and k-Core encapsulants. Best concepts will be analyzed using 3-D, nonlinear finite element methods to predict performance. Then, representative elements will be fabricated, tested, and results compared to analytical predictions. Based on results of the Phase I, a solid foundation will be developed for follow on work to qualify selected radiator concepts for space. The range of applications and functions of spaceborne electronics is rapidly expanding. New applications like cellular phone systems, satellite TV links, and Global Positioning Units, as well as new technologies like multi-chip modules have increased the technical requirements of the electronics on satellites. Mission sophistication has increased dramatically for both commercial and government satellites, alike. Power requirements of a typical satellite launched even a few years ago were less than 8. kilowatts. The HS 702, launched in 1998 is destined to become the new generation workhorse for Hughes, will typically be deployed with electronics generating 15 kilowatts - nearly a doubling of power requirements in a few years. Combined with the quest for miniaturization, the power densities of spaceborne electronics are rapidly accelerating. Demands to dissipate heat through radiators must be addressed. The heat-pipe k-Core to be demonstrated under this program would have applications in the commercial satellite market, as well as the obvious military and NASA uses. Key potential applications rely heavily on the successful verification and certification of the proposed materials' performance. With increasing acceptance, the heat-pipe/k-Core concept will be attractive to automotive and power supply manufactures. Enabling technologies will allow the increase of production and the realization of the economies of scale. At this level, one can only estimate the potential impact on the personal computer and other high volume heat sensitive products.

KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5670
Mr. Thomas Carroll
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Evolution of Pultruded Carbon-Phenolic Heat Pipe with Integral Wick
Abstract:Increasingly demanding requirements for satellite electronics make it more difficult to effectively dissipate heat. One attractive means for managing spacecraft thermal environments is use of heat pipes to passively transfer heat to radiator panels. Weight is a major consideration, so composite materials are desired to replace metallic components. Carbon-carbon composites are used in radiator panels. Concerns for matching CTE of the radiator and heat pipes leads to a desire to make heat pipes from carbon/carbon as well. KCI proposes to expand previous developments of component technologies needed to produce carbon-phenolic heat pipes (a precursor for carbon/carbon) using pultrusion-based processing, a highly automated composite production method. KCI has demonstrated the ability to fabricate high quality carbon-phenolic tubes with finally detailed internal wicking structures. KCI's preliminary process required a large amount of labor, resulting in high cost and quality variations. This proposal suggests development of automated technology for placement of carbon fiber to produce heat pipe wall and wicking structures in a single processing step, forming the foundation for Phase II tailoring of composite architecture, use of mesophase pitch matrix and potentially, pultruding the entire thermal radiator with embedded heat pipe. Lockheed Martin will support KCI with technical inputs. Many applications can potentially benefit from the technology developed in this program. Composite heat pipes produced with integral wicking structures may find a niche in applications requiring high chemical resistance for certain cooling liquids. Anti-scaling carbon-phenolic tubes may be able to replace heat exchanger tube bundles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have found that use of phenolic coatings are effective in providing maintenance free extension of service life for hot water heat exchangers. Exterior surfaces on proposed hypersonic vehicles may experience intense stagnation heating rates during the ascent and re-entry portions of their trajectories, where the use of carbon-carbon heat pipes would be important.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORPORATION
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Lawrence R. Grzyll
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:The Development of High-Performance Working Fluids for Spacecraft Thermal Management Systems
Abstract:Future spacecraft military electronics will require two-phase thermal management systems to maintain appropriate operating temperatures. Thermal control systems such as heat pipes, pumped loops, heat pumps, etc. are systems being considered for this application. In order for these thermal control systems to be compact and low-mass, new high performance working fluids are desired with suitable thermophysical, environmental, materials compatibility, and hazard properties. Water is a high-performance, safe fluid that is not suitable for spacecraft applications because of its high freezing point. Ammonia is another high-performance fluid that has concerns over its toxicity and handling. Conventional halocarbon refrigerants are safe and compatible with many materials of construction, but suffer from performance and environmental concerns. Hydrocarbon working fluids are flammable and also have performance penalties. What is needed is a fluid with the performance of water or ammonia, the safety of halocarbon refrigerants and water, a low freezing point, and no environmental drawbacks. The fluid must also be cost effective. The payoffs of developing the desired fluid include enhancing the lifetime of spacecraft electronics, minimizing spacecraft size and mass, and allowing for the thermal control of high-power spacecraft through the use of two-phase thermal management systems. In addition to the spacecraft applications, other military applications include avionics cooling, aerospace cooling, and weapons thermal control. There are also significant commercial terrestrial applications for this technology.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORPORATION
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Gregory S. Cole
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Performance Improvements of Spray Cooled GaN Microwave Amplifiers
Abstract:Mainstream Engineering Corporation has already demonstrated the value of integrating a saturated liquid spray cooling system with high power GaAs microwave amplifiers in phased array transmitters. Optimized cooling systems can increase reliability by an order of magnitude, improve efficiency by 30%, and increase power by 30%. Mainstream will now demonstrate similar performance enhancements of GaN amplifiers being developed for x-band active aperture arrays. In Phase I a detailed thermal model will be experimentally derived, performance tests on actual GaN chips will be conducted, and demonstration of a breadboard system will be completed. A Phase II Fast Track is planned and will be used to demonstrate and life test a complete wide bandgap amplifier package and thermal management system. There is an urgent need to develop advanced cooling methods that can be implemented into the thermal packaging of the next generation of military, aerospace, and commercial electronics. Mainstream has already demonstrated saturated liquid spray cooling systems that are possible and practical. Commercial applications include satellites and super-computer chip modules.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORPORATION
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Gregory S. Cole
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Demonstration of a Saturated Liquid Refrigerant Spray Cooling System for Laser Diode Arrays
Abstract:Next-generation laser diode arrays and solid-state lasers being developed for a variety of military and commercial applications, are rapidly becoming limited by their cooling systems. Improved high heat flux capabilities of the thermal management system can significantly improve device output power, reliability, size, and mass. Researchers have demonstrated the potential of spray cooling laser diode modules, but were limited by small surface areas, below ambient spray pressures, and high temperatures. Mainstream, a world leader in spray cooling of electronics devices, will demonstrate the advantages of a saturated liquid refrigerant spray cooling array and its application to large laser diode arrays. In Phase I, Mainstream will demonstrate both high heat flux capability at low wall superheat and uniform high heat flux capability over large surface areas. The advantages of this thermal system will be demonstrated on an actual laser diode array. Phase II will demonstrate laser performance and life improvements of an integrated diode array / high heat flux thermal management system. The worldwide market for diode lasers reached $6.59 billion in 2000. With a growth rate of 108% there is an urgent need to develop high heat flux cooling techniques that can be implemented into the thermal packaging of the next-generation military, aerospace, and commercial lasers. Mainstream has already demonstrated saturated liquid spray cooling systems for high power microwave amplifiers. The technology is prime for optimization and integration into lasers. Commercial applications include telecommunications, optical data storage, medical therapy, materials processing, and solid-state laser pumping.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Witold Kowbel
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid C-C/Foam Thermal Radiators
Abstract:Currently used polymeric composites in space thermal management suffer from high cost, low thermal conductivity and CRe mismatch with metallic housing. A novel hybrid carbon-carbon (C-C) composite/graphite foam approach is proposed. C-C composite offers structural requirements, while foam provides additional thermal performance and low modules for the strain isolation with metallic housing. Up to 50% weight savings over Al radiators. Commercial satellites.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION INC
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. B.G. Ravi
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Nanostructured Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) for Thermoelectric Cooling
Abstract:Thermoelectric devices have a wide variety of applications in many different fields: solid state thermoelectric refrigerators are used to cool high power integrated circuits, superconducting devices, and infrared detectors, while thermoelectric power converters are utilized in waste heat energy conversion and deep space probes. The efficiency of current solid-state thermoelectric devices is primarily limited by the relatively low efficiency of the thermoelectric materials used to fabricate these devices. Nanocrystalline materials offer excellent opportunities for many technological advancement because of their enhanced thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. The objective of this project is to research the feasibility of fabricating a thermoelectric device using nanocrystalline materials with high thermoelectric figure of merit. In Phase I, Materials Modification Inc. proposes to synthesis Bi2Te3 nanocomposite powders and consolidating them using plasma pressure compaction method. An efficient thermoelectric cooling device for a specific application will be fabricated and tested. Several of the potential applications of thermoelectric devices using nanocrystalline Bi2Te3 materials are: Military/Aerospace: Inertial Guidance Systems, Night vision equipment, "smart" munitions, Electronic equipment cooling, cooled personnel garments, Parametric Amplifiers and portable refrigerators. Laboratory and Scientific Equipment Infrared detectors, Photo multiplier tube housing coolers, Laser diode coolers, charge couples device coolers (CCD), Charge induced device coolers (CID), Integrated circuit coolers, Laboratory Cold plates, Stir coolers Cold chambers, Immersion coolers, ice point reference baths, Microtome stage coolers, Electrophoresis Cell coolers and Osmometers

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Isotropic Graphite Fiber Reinforced Al for High Performance Thermal Management Applications
Abstract:The rise of next generation electronics depends on advances in microelectronic packaging materials. Power, frequency, and functionality are increasing while cost, size, and margin for error are declining. Military and commercial electronics are reaching performance limitations since conventional CTE controlled heat sink materials are unable to keep pace with emerging cooling requirements. Graphite aluminum composites represent a breakthrough opportunity for the high reliability microelectronics industry by providing a new class of CTE matched heat sink materials that could facilitate substantial cost and performance benefits. Most electronics cooling applications require a high degree of through thickness cooling in the range of 200 W/Mk - a performance criteria that has not been achieved due to the anisotropic nature of fiber reinforced composites. But recent achievements in graphite fiber manufacturing processes, combined with cheaper raw material costs, have allowed MMCC to examine production of isotropic graphite aluminum composites for widespread use in commercial and military electronics. MMCC, with phase I support from BMDO, will team with a non-woven textile company, a microelectronic packaging contractor, and military and commercial end users to develop, qualify, and commercialize a high performance, isotropic graphite aluminum composite for thermal management applications. Improve the performance of multichip packaging technologies (MCP) when a high performance, highly integrated package is needed in a limited space without weight penalties. An isotropic graphite aluminum composite will improve thermal performance and help maximize semiconductor performance by permitting high speed data transfers among die to ensure electrical performance and lower junction temperatures leading to greater reliability. Applications requiring very high speed and minimum space such as cellular, telecom, automotive, satellite, and portable electronics are a few areas that will benefit from thermally enhanced packaging materials.

OMEGA PIEZO TECHNOLOGIES
470 Upper Georges Valley Road
Spring Mills, PA 16875
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-3055
Dr. David Pickrell
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High Thermal Conductivity Metal Matrix NanoComposites for Thermal Management
Abstract:Thermal management is in many areas key to solving problems related to an improvement in the performance of electrical components. With IC miniaturization trends, ever increasing clock speeds, and the proliferation of intelligent power control modules that magnify die level heat generation, there is an emerging need for new, high performance substrate and heat sink materials which can effectively maintain the temperature of semiconductor devices at acceptable levels. The preferred characteristics of such substrate materials are high thermal conductivity, a coefficient of thermal expansion which matches that of the semiconductor die, mechanical and chemical durablity, and appropriate electrical properties. The main objective of this proposal is to produce an advanced composite packaging material with these properties using carbon nanotubes in a copper matrix. Metal matrix composites are materials that have tailorable properties through adjustment of the filler type, amount, particle size, and orientation. This project will result in the first demonstration of copper-carbon metal matrix composites which utilize carbon nanotubes. The composites will be fabricated by powder mixing and hot pressing. The structure and properties, including thermal conductivity, of the resultant material will be thoroughly characterized. It is expected that this project will result in a unique material with a very high thermal conductivity, a tailorable thermal expansion coefficient, and good mechanical properties. These materials will be useful for a wide range of commercial and military applications for electronic circuitry that is thermally constrained. Such applications include the very fast growing market of microwave modules for wireless broadband systems (point to point and point to multipoint), DC-DC converter computer engineering and telecommunication, power electronic devices in automobiles and other vehicles, and in industrial electronics.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES INC
7319 Sands Cove Court, Suite 2
Winter Park, FL 32792
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 681-2080
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Highly compact, light-weight and effective recuperator with low pressure loss for next-generation, ultra-reliable reverse-Brayton cryocooler
Abstract:RTI will design and optimize a recuperative heat exchanger that is compact, lightweight, and has high effectiveness with low pressure loss, using a novel design concept. Based on preliminary analysis, the heat exchanger is expected to be approximately 3X3X7.5 cm in linear dimensions, weigh about 0.085 kg (3 oz or 0.188 lb), have an effectiveness of 0.992 and a pressure drop of 6000 - 8000 Pa using Neon at a flow rate of 0.00181 kg/s. The Phase II goal is to fabricate and test the recuperator and then to integrate it with other components and demonstrate a single-stage reverse turbo Brayton cycle (RTBC) cryocooler that will provide a cooling of 20 W at 80 K, with the minimum and maximum cycle temperature being 64K and 440 K respectively. The overall power consumption will be 240 W and COP at least 0.083. The whole RTBC cooler is expected to be 6.4 cm (2.5 inch) in diameter, 15 cm (6 inch) in length and 0.91 kg (2 lb) in weight. This RTBC cryocooler is expected to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of a desirable cryocooler for space applications, with very high reliability, high COP, compact size, and light weight. In addition, there will be negligible or no vibration of the cold head. The proposed recuperator will enable a highly reliable, compact, light-weight and efficient cryocooler with significant improvement in performance compared to the current state-of-the-art. This cryocooler is expected to find niche applications in military and commercial systems, particularly for medical equipment and telecommunications industry, and for spaceport and launch systems activity of NASA.

SENSORTEX
515 Schoolhouse Road
Kennett Square, PA 19348
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 444-2383
Dr. William Biter
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Conformal Appliqu for Thermal Control in Space
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR will develop a new and novel method of controlling the radiated energy from the surface of a spacecraft. It is based on an existing device, an electrostatic switched radiator (ESR), which has demonstrated large changes in radiated energy as measured in space-like conditions. The device works by switching the heat transfer mode from conduction to radiation and has demonstrated changes in LWIR emissivity over .7. This proposal will take the existing structure and fabricate it as an appliqu which can be easily applied to a surface. Presently, the ESR requires a separate, rigid substrate. Although with this substrate, it is still lighter than alternative approaches, this proposal will fabricate this device as a surface coating appliqu which can be applied easily to most surfaces to control the heat radiated from the surface. Using a combination of molding and MEM's-like fabrication techniques, a lightweight coating less than .004" thick with a emissivity change greater than .8 and with an operating voltage below 30 volts, will be developed. This is a new and important tool for temperature control in space and will be suitable for virtually all satellites. A new and novel radiation control system is proposed which will have multiple uses in temperature control of satellites and spacecraft. It is lightweight which will be a major advantage in space applications and will have very wide range of emissivity, giving good thermal control. The approach also uses minimal power and is thus suited for all long mission time spacecraft/satellites.

SIERRA LOBO, INC.
426 Croghan Street
Fremont, OH 43420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 499-9653
Mr. Robert Stochl
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Thick Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) System and Design Software Tool
Abstract:A thick multilayer insulation (MLI) system is proposed for meeting the cryogenic fluid storage requirements of future space missions. This thick MLI system will be an integration of the most promising new technologies and advances in materials, fabrication processes, assembly techniques, and supplemental components. As a primary part of the proposed effort, an MLI software design tool will be constructed using a layer-by-layer analysis based on first principles. Developed from a system designer's perspective, this design tool will enable rapid analytical investigation of candidate thick MLI technologies while providing accurate thermal performance predictions for a wide variety of applications. Lastly, a concept for full-scale demonstration in Phase II of an optimal thick MLI system for liquid hydrogen tankage will be developed. Advanced passive insulation technologies and related design tools developed under this proposal will have direct and immediate application to a variety of space missions requiring long-term storage of cryogens. These missions include: interplanetary missions, orbital depots, space based directed energy weapons, orbit transfer vehicles, and lunar/Mars outposts. Other commercial industries where cryogens are stored and/or transported would benefit from enhanced thermal performance of cryogen storage vessels and the subsequent reduction of boil-off gases that represent both a financial loss and potential negative environmental impact. Non-aerospace commercial markets include: industrial gases; chemical and petroleum processing; metallurgy; electronics; food processing; medical oxygen; and automotive fuel cells/hydrogen systems.

THERMAL MANAGEMENT & MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY
4664 Vista de la Tierra
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 665-2348
Dr. John W. McCoy
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Gr Foam/Cu Composite for Thermal Management
Abstract:Major obstacles to TMD and NMD system implementation are the current limitations of thermal management materials and cooling technologies. An innovative thermal management material concept providing high thermal conductivity and improved coefficient of thermal expansion matching for high power electronic cooling applications is proposed. The improved material system provides higher heat flux operation, yet maintains the junction temperature of the critical electronic components and provides a robust material design. Devices such as laser diodes, T/R modules and high-power electronic components can utilize this innovative material system to significantly improve performance. The new material system provides enhanced thermal capability for a broad range of military systems as well as commercial components. The material concept provides a mass-efficient and highly effective thermal management approach to address critical technology needs. A composite of copper and high thermal conductivity graphite foam can be tailored to approach the thermal expansion of any semiconductor, and to exceed the thermal conductivity of even pure copper. The proposed study will establish feasibility by fabricating test articles using different types of high conductivity graphite foams and infiltrating them with molten copper. The thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of the resulting composite materials will be measured. The high heat flux material system will have immediate application for ballistic missile systems, ground and space-based radar systems and high-energy laser directed energy weapon systems. High system payoffs include higher heat flux operation, reduced component mass, lower temperatures and improved integrity of the electronic components. The technology can be applied to other high heat flux applications including: commercial power devices, advanced avionics, electric vehicles and high performance supercomputers.

TTH RESEARCH, INC.
14625 Baltimore Avenue, #445
Laurel, MD 20707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 641-2954
Dr. Triem T. Hoang
MDA 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Miniature Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe for Flexible and Lightweight Cooling Transport System
Abstract:At present, a passive cryogenic cooling technology that is lightweight and flexible for on-gimbal cryogenic cooling applications is non-existent or, at best, incomplete. Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loops (CCPLs) demonstrated that they were capable of providing several watts of cooling at 77K. However CCPLs required intrinsically rigid liquid cooled shields (LCS) that made them impossible for use in across-gimbal cooling applications. An advanced concept of Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe (C-ALHP) - developed by TTH Research, Inc. - worked extremely well from 70-100K (Nitrogen as working fluid) to 20-30K (Hydrogen). But, like CCPLs, a hot reservoir was needed for the C-ALHP to minimize its system pressure during charging at room temperature. The hot reservoir was a large and heavy cylinder that would make its space utilization impractical. In this Phase I endeavor, TTH Research proposes to develop an innovative passive cryogenic cooling concept - miniature Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe (mini-CLHP) - that is efficient, lightweight (no hot reservoir), and highly flexible (1/16" transport lines) for cryogenic cooling in the temperature range of 70-120K (Nitrogen or Oxygen), 30-40K (Neon), 20-30K (Hydrogen), or 4-5K (Helium). The proposed miniature Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe (mini-CLHP) provides a lightweight and flexible cryogenic cooling technology for IR sensors or high temperature superconductor electronics. Potential applications of the technology include cryocooling of Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), on-gimbal cryogenic cooling of IR sensors and instruments.

CELIS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION
5475 Mark Dabling Blvd., Suite
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 262-5145
Mr. David Kamp
MDA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Very Dense, Low Power, Radiation Hardened, Nonvolatile Memory on SOI
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing very dense, radiation-hardened, low-power ferroelectric semiconductor memory for nonvolatile data storage in spacecraft, such as the SBIRS-Low. The approach to be demonstrated in this proposal is to use a one-transistor ferroelectric memory cell technology, the feasibility of which was demonstrated in a prior BMDO SBIR program, coupled with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology. The one-transistor memory cell can provide a very high memory density comparable to Flash memory, and fabrication on SOI can provide higher levels of radiation tolerance, particularly for SEU events. Fabrication on SOI may also provide an additional degree of freedom for decoding the memory without disturb of deselected memory cells in harsh environments. Phase II is proposed to be fabrication and characterization of an SOI test chip and Phase III proposes to use a sponsor to apply the technology in a product to meet BMD needs. While Flash memory can provide the nonvolatile memory densities required for many aerospace applications, it is fundamentally not radiation tolerant. Even with shielding, Flash memory cannot meet many radiation requirements. One-transistor ferroelectric memory cell technology coupled with SOI can provide very high density and very high levels of radiation tolerance without shielding. The use of this technology can have an important major impact on strategic and space systems that require radiation hardened nonvolatile memory. The proposed SBIR research can be expanded into radiation-hardened ferroelectric memory products for broad U. S. military and space markets.

CHAMELEON OPTICS, INC.
3401 Market Street, Suite 217
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 287-2717
Ms. Marie Di Pasquale
MDA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Transparent Coating that Senses and Rejects Damaging Laser Radiation
Abstract:Chameleon Optics Inc. was founded on March 10, 1998 in Philadelphia, PA, for the purpose of developing unique devices based on proprietary chromogenic (color-changing) coatings. The company is a resident organization of the University City Science Center, one of the largest and most successful business incubators in the world. Chameleon Optics Inc. enjoys technical support from Drexel University and financial support from the Ben Franklin Technology Partners of Southeastern Pennsylvania and the U.S Department of Energy. The objective of this Phase I effort is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a novel laser resistant chromogenic coating. This proposed conformal coating is normally transparent, but senses potentially damaging laser radiation and instantly becomes reflective at the point of impingement. The coating reverts to transparent at the end of the attack. The coating is a polymer composite applied in a manner similar to paint and cured under relatively mild conditions. It is durable and cost effective. We propose to (1) formulate the coating, (2) evaluate the physical and spectral properties of the coating, and (3) issue a technical report on the results. These operations will take place at Chameleon Optics and Drexel University. Laser Resistant Chromogenic Coatings would be the first of an entirely new class of materials-- flexible chromogenic (color-changing) films. Large and diverse potential markets for chromogenic films include military camouflage, concealment and deception; electronic displays; and solar control devices. Taking the solar control device market as an example, there is an immediate demand for hundreds of millions of square meters of a practical chromogenic window film that cycles between opaque and transparent. This would be applied to architectural and automotive glass to provide thermal control and privacy. Chromogenic window film would be a multi-billion dollar business with an estimated growth rate of 20%, creating thousands of new manufacturing jobs. Other markets for chromogenic films are potentially as large.

FARTECH, INC.
10350 Science Center Drive, Building 14, Suite 150
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-6655
Dr. Ioan N. Bogatu
MDA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Time-Resolved Spectrometer for Warm X-Rays, 20 to 200 keV
Abstract:During aboveground testing for the effects of nuclear weapon X-rays, the Services have requested higher fluence and more reproducible sources especially in the warm, 10 - 200 keV spectral region. Part of the limitation to meeting this need is the lack of a good diagnostic tool for accurately measuring the absolute details of the emitted spectra. The development of X-ray simulators and benchmarking computer models require accurate X-ray spectra and the users need assurance of correlation within test series and over the years of simulator replacements. FARTECH, Inc. proposes a unique high precision spectrometer that will meet these requirements. The design concept is simple, compact, flexible, robust, low cost, and is applicable for Departments of Defense and Energy X-ray simulators. The diagnostic technique uses carefully matched filter pairs, with suitable detectors, to build a spectrometer capable of providing real-time, shot-to-shot spectra in the warm X-ray region. During Phase I, FARTECH will design, fabricate and perform proof-of-principle tests with a prototype single channel balanced filter spectrometer, around 40 keV, on an X-ray simulator. In Phase II, we will develop and test a complete prototype multi-channel spectrometer over the range of 20 to 200 keV. FARTECH's innovative X-ray spectrometers based on the balanced filter method will benefit the diagnostics of high intensity pulsed power X-ray sources, such as Z-pinch plasmas, inertial confinement fusion plasmas and magnetic confinement fusion plasma devices. They can enhance the contrast of medical radiographic and tomographic images to a new level. Their compactness will allow their use in space vehicles or satellites to measure astrophysical X-ray emission sources.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
14200 Carlson Circle
Tampa, FL 33626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 854-4332
Dr. Matt Aldissi
MDA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Shielded Infrared-Windows using Polymers with Copper-Like Conductivity
Abstract:There are three important parameters in the design of an IR window shielding layer: shielding effectiveness in the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radar frequency range, mid-infrared (IR) transmissivity through the shielding layer, and durability of the shielding layer. To ensure effectiveness and reliability, the design of the shielding layer has to take these three parameters into account simultaneously, particularly the first two. In Phase I, we propose a novel design that addresses the above parameters, reduce the design to practice by applying the shielding layer onto the appropriate substrates, followed by a hardening process, and use the necessary techniques to determine performance characteristics. The proposed work is based on new processes that produce easily copper-like conductivity in intrinsically conductive polymers. This will serve as a guideline for the Phase II work, in which we will optimize the shielding layer, deposition process and durability characteristics, and by applying it onto IR window materials. Once electrical and optical requirements are met, a scale up design will be developed as a part of the Phase II program towards commercialization of the technology. In addition to missile domes and space-based IR systems, a high performance IR window shielding layer with high transmissivity would be highly beneficial for reliable operation of a variety of military and commercial IR detectors, seekers and sensors, photovoltaic arrays and fiber optic sensors.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. Jonathan Masere
MDA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Robust Optical Limiters From Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials
Abstract:Robust and transparent polysilsesquioxane ceramics with high TGA values, around 500 C, that can withstand harsh space environments like the wide temperature range in space and high vacuum are proposed as matrices for "agile" laser protection devices. Incorporating metallophthalocyanines or metallonaphthalocyanines optical dyes with different ?max values into transparent thin-film polysilsesquioxane ceramics matrices is expected to yield laser-attenuating films. The dyes span a broad range of ?max values typical of lasers on the market and each high-frequency laser pulses because of the intrinsic molecular photoresponsive mechanism; fast reaction times and recovery times less than 1 x 10-12 s. We expect the sensor-protection device to attenuate radiation by factors higher than 400 and figure of merit (FOM) values higher than 7500. The robust and agile sensor-protecting functional gradient optical limiters are expected to offer the combined physical ruggedness of rugates, the agility of carbon suspensions and the processibility of polycarbonates. Though the primary objective of the proposed process and materials is for the manufacture of eye-safety devices for protection against laser radiation for the military markets, need for ground-troop protection, pilot protection and sensor protection, there does exist a market that will increasingly need laser-attenuating protective screens. The successful demonstration of the feasibility of making 2-mm plastic sheets with optical limiter gradients for visors and goggle or thinner plastic with functional gradients using the cost-effective modified polymerization mechanism would usher in the Phase II stage in which Lithium Power can develop these materials in tandem with fighter-jet manufacturers.

MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 768-7716
Mr. Marcos CdeBaca
MDA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened Small Scale Integrated Circuits for Nuclear Surety
Abstract:The proposed project will design, simulate, and perform layout on a series of small scale integrated circuits to be used as replacements for 5400 series devices used in many military and space systems. The 5400 series microcircuits were originally developed as bipolar TTL (transistor-transistor logic) devices and then redesigned into new bipolar and CMOS technologies as they became available. The devices are used universally throughout existing military and space systems and continue to be designed into new systems. Unfortunately, many vendors are stopping production on the devices because of reduced demand from the commercial sector. Device types with demonstrated radiation hardness needed for many military and space systems are particularly difficult to find. The proposed designs employ a unique processing technology and design methodology to provide radiation hardened 5400 series parts. The devices can be operated at either 5 volts or 3.3 volts to assure compatibility with both existing systems and new, low voltage systems. The 5400 series of small scale integrated circuits are found throughout military and space systems. However, radiation hardened versions of those devices are rapidly becoming unobtainable due to the small number required and the advances of technology to higher levels of integration. The proposed development of a radiation hardened series of 5400 part types will permit sales to both new and existing military and space systems. Additional commercial markets as parts for multi-chip modules are also expected.

PHYSITRON, INC.
3304A Westmill Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4844
Mr. James P. Paxton
MDA 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:EMI/EMP Shielding Polymers Based on Nanotechnology
Abstract:BMDO needs survivability technologies that provide passive protection from Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Pulse (EMI/EMP) for Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) and other missile defense systems. Physitron proposes to develop an organic/inorganic hybrid polymer that provides EMI/EMP shielding properties over a minimum frequency range between 20 kHz and 1.5 GHz. The innovation is embodied in nanoparticles called graphitic carbon nanofibers (GCNFs). Graphitic carbon as a bulk material has inherent electromagnetic shielding properties that are a result of its absorptive nature at electromagnetic frequencies. This research program seeks to combine GCNFs with various polymer materials commonly used in the applications described and induce electromagnetic shielding properties to those polymers. GCNFs differ from carbon nanotubes in that they have specifically altered surface chemistries that covalently bind to the polymer backbone. This facilitates the ability to achieve high loading levels of GCNFs in a polymer matrix while simultaneously resulting in uniform distribution. Phase I will demonstrate the ability to impart electromagnetic shielding characteristics to a relevant polymer. It will consist of a polymer matrix selection, GCNF synthesis, GCNF integration into the polymer matrix, and materials tests. Phase II will refine the synthesis and integration technologies, investigate other polymers, and scale-up hybrid materials production. The development of hybrid polymer materials having electromagnetic shielding characteristics will result in many benefits to government and industry. The resulting material will have widespread application in both the military and private sector. Specifically, the military has a need for protection technologies for communications links, electronic circuitry, connectors, cabling and others on systems that are used outside of hardened facilities. The private sector will benefit from this material's use in medical life support systems, cellular communications, computer, audio and video equipment to name a few. The beauty of this approach is that it will result in a more highly processable material when compared to competing technologies that are relying on the use of carbon nanotubes to provide electromagnetic shielding properties due to the covalent incorporation of the GCNFs in the polymer. Likewise, cost benefits will be realized through this technology due to the lower specific cost of GCNFs over carbon nanotubes. The list of polymer components that could benefit from the material enhancements provided by Physitron's hybrid system is almost endless. Physitron has developed a detailed strategic plan for the commercialization of this technology. The plan provides many opportunities for commercialization ranging from sales of additives for raw polymers materials to the development of finished materials or parts based on this technology.

ENIG ASSOCIATES, INC.
12501 Prosperity Drive, Suite 340
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 680-8600
Dr. D. John Pastine
MDA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:Interpreting RF Radiation from Interceptor/Targets for Missile Kill Assessment
Abstract:A methodology is proposed through which the radiative output of distant high intercept speed (>Mach 7) collisions between pairs of solid bodies may be used to evaluate the results of such collisions in terms of the subsequent status of the impacted bodies. Based on a theoretical model developed at Enig Associates, Inc and relying on state-of-the-art CFD codes, we intend to calculate the following (i) the thermodynamic states of the bodies during and after impact; (ii) the electric charge distribution, the radiation from the acceleration of this distribution, and the thermal radiation that results from these thermodynamic states. In addition we will show how the radiation as measured by remote devices can be interpreted to determine the final state of the impacted bodies. Because the radiation is related to the conductivity within the bodies and the products of impact, and this depends sensitively on the temperature, the need for accurate temperature equations of state of the products is imperative, and we intend to use our own specialized, equations of state for some of these calculations. In addition to the charge- accelerated nonthermal radiation predicted by our theory, the normal thermal RF output will be included in the calculations along with that of the IR and UV bands. Damage assessment with passive system at a far distance from missile intercept or target explosion; to counter terrorists and hostile forces; to detect sources of weapons fire; to locate and track missile plumes to identify sources of building demolition, land clearance, and mining operations, pyroclastic flows and underground magma.

MEVATEC CORPORATION
1525 Perimeter Parkway, Suite
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 864-2155
Mr. Jay WIllis
MDA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:Directed Energy Lethality and Collateral Effects Modeling
Abstract:The BMDO core Modeling & Simulation software Post-Engagement Ground Effects Model (PEGEM) will be modified to facilitate the study of collateral effects resulting from Directed Energy (DE) weapon engagements of threat missiles. This provides a critical tool for DE weapon lethality and vulnerability analysis and the associated military utility assessment. While maintaining PEGEM configuration control, modularity, and HLA compliance, the code will be modified to provide new capabilities for the analysis of ascending threats (particularly boost-phase missiles), tracking of damaged reentry vehicles (providing options for fuze and arming condition, degraded ballistic behavior, etc.), slow release of chemical/biological agent or submunitions from damaged warheads, and tracking cruise missiles that follow prescribed non-ballistic flight paths. This modification of PEGEM will greatly enhance the capability of DE weapon analysts (SBL, ABL, etc.) to gauge the military utility of their weapon systems by analysis of the unintended ground effects resulting from threat missile intercept. This issue has proven to be of very high importance for KE interceptor programs, critical to continued progress through acquisition decisions and review, but the capability is presently entirely lacking from the tool kit of the DE weapons analyst. The improved PEGEM tool will support all the armed services, including their industrial contractors, and those civil government-sponsored entities to whom PEGEM has been distributed with specific BMDO authorization.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. William T. Laughlin
MDA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:Effectiveness of RP and CW Lasers for Target Damages
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes an experimental and analysis program to determine the relative advantages or limitations of two different high-energy laser waveforms for inflicting lethal damage to metal aerospace targets. Repetitively pulsed (RP) and continuous wave (CW) waveforms will be used to irradiate steel, a typical tactical target material. Metal melting rates will be measured and melt removal phenomena observed. The melt-through times will be compared to predictions from PSI thermal response models for RP and CW material heating. Any advantages of vaporization-assisted melt removal for the RP waveform will be quantified. A fundamental understanding of the lethality of RP and CW lasers against military targets is important because it helps to guide the development of the most effective high power laser technology. For example, in RP laser development understanding effects on materials could guide the technology in issues such as the most effective pulse lengths or pulse repetition frequencies. A better physical understanding of RP and CW interaction phenomenology could also provide guidance to the commercial laser market with optimized choices of laser waveforms ideally suited to cutting, machining, drilling, and welding of materials.

RDAS, INC.
11003 E.Bradford Circle
Cerritos, CA 90703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 379-4802
Mr. Augustus H. Green, Jr.
MDA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) Fusion Algorithm Development
Abstract:This proposal is concerned with Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) that is one of the most critical areas of missile and air defense systems and that is a major DOD R&D thrust topic. One of the most pressing needs for various DOD departments is the capability to recognize or to identify unknown targets when no signal is available from a target to indicate the type of target that it may be. The set of unknown targets that can exist is extremely large and can include commercial and military aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed research is focused on developing a fusion algorithm and a analogous simulation concept to asses the performance of the fusion algorithm that: (1) addresses the fusion of multiple sensors; (2) is inherently expandable to support future growth; and (3) allows an identification of the necessary software/hardware components by availability vs. need to develop or extend. The end product (Phase Three) for this effort would be a fusion algorithm that, with respect to a single recognition technique alone, significantly increases the probabilities for correct recognition/identification of airborne and sea targets that are within or beyond visual range. If the proposed research is successful, it can have tremendous impact on numerous weapon systems that have a need for Non-Cooperative Target Recognition/Identification. The ability to achieve NCTR has been sorely needed by all DoD services. It has the potential to give the battlefield commander better control over his resources and to reduce logistics' requirements considerably. With this technique, the battlefield commander will have a capability to determine which of his resources is the most applicable for any threat engagement scenario. This can reduce operating and support costs significantly. Not only can costs be reduced, but also better weapon system performance can be realized. The methodology could be applied to fuse multiple sensors together at airport location to improve air traffic control and relieve the coordination and stress that air traffic controllers are under. On commercial aircraft information must be fused together to present information to the flight crew in an efficient manner. This technology allows this to take place.

SOLUS, INC.
6555 Fort Myer Dr., Suite 700
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 351-5262
Dr. Roger von Hanwehr
MDA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:TRIPOL Agent Defeat Submunition for BW/CW Warhead Intercept
Abstract: Abstract not available...

SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1027
Glen Burnie, MD 21060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 332-0633
Dr. Timothy J. Langan
MDA 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:Electron-Beam & Magnetron Sputtering Formation of Reactive Materials for Non-Parasitic Anti-Material Structures
Abstract:Surface Treatment Technologies, Inc. (ST2) proposes the application of advanced electron-beam physical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering (EB-PVD/MS) materials processing for the formation of novel reactive structures to function as non-parasitic warhead materials for ballistic missile kill-vehicles. These reactive structures can be used either as kill vehicles against incoming threat systems, or as payloads for "bunker-buster" defeat approaches to chemical/biological stockpiles. Current missiles employ the hit-to-kill defeat concept, which may prove insufficient for chemical/biological threat systems. The addition of conventional warheads would add excess weight and make intercept more difficult. The proposed approach would use rapid PVD processing to form full structural bodies that would also provide flame/incendiary capabilities upon impact. EB-PVD processing has demonstrated the ability to form large structures (1 meter diameter) with thickness of 5-10 millimeters in a period of less than 3 hours. The process can be adapted for single metal materials, multi-layered functionally gradient, or thermally reactive structures. The Phase I effort will select materials systems with potentially unique pyrophoric properties and verify both thermal and mechanical properties of the candidate using magnetron sputtering. Phase II will develop designs via computation fluid dynamics, as well as form and test large monolithic reactive structures. E-beam and magnetron sputtered formed reactive structures will provide both structural and thermal properties to missile systems for anti-missile interceptors as well as "bunker-buster" technologies.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. William C. Snyder
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Model-Based Classification for Laser Radar
Abstract:Laser Radar (ladar) sensors are under consideration for BMD ground and interceptor platforms. An advantage of ladar over other modalities, such as SAR, is that it has very high range and Doppler (range rate) resolution. Therefore, ladar has the potential to separate, characterize, and classify closely spaced objects, which is a critical part of the BMD problem. To realize this potential for complex threat clouds requires advanced scene understanding methods. We propose to apply the model-based approach, where features extracted from the collected data are matched with those predicted from a physical model of the scene. In this SBIR, we develop and evaluate a model-based approach suitable for ladar data analysis that results in a probabilistic physical description of closely-spaced objects in the scene. For BMD, the model parameters of interest include the number of objects, and object shapes, locations, and kinematics. This work will combine the expertise of two companies: ALPHATECH, Inc. will develop the model-based scene understanding system, based on our experience as lead algorithm developers in the MSTAR SAR ATR program. The sub-contractor, SPARTA, Inc. provides expertise on ladar phenomenology and in simulating realistic ladar signatures for feature prediction, as well as for test and evaluation. The technology developed under this program will contribute directly to the BMDO objective of improving threat object classification and tracking from ladar data for a variety of targets and under a variety of conditions. Specifically, the high resolution results from ladar model-based scene understanding will improve discrimination and enhance the products from other sensors. Furthermore, we anticipate that the methods developed here could be used to enhance peacetime applications such as treaty compliance assessment and monitoring.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Herb Landau
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Stereo CSO Detection, Tracking and Object Feature Extraction for SBIRS Low Midcourse Discrimination
Abstract:The Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) is scoped to provide timely and accurate warning of missile attacks against the United States and Allied forces worldwide. The SBIRS Low component provides information to active defensive systems by detecting and tracking intercontinental, intermediate/medium, and short range ballistic missiles in their boost (TBR), post boost, mid-course and early terminal flight phases. While the SBIRS Low system has the sensitivity to sense the midcourse object complex, it can be large in number and can overwhelm weapon system targeting capacity. The SBIRS Low system must therefore discriminate the objects and classify the lethal re-entry vehicles prior to targeting. Weapon systems need targeting information as early as possible, but full object separation relative to sensor resolution can occur a significant time after initial bus release. The challenge therefore, is to isolate and extract decoupled multi-object temporal features before the objects are resolved by the SBIRS Low sensors. ALPHATECH proposes to design stereo-spatial super-resolution and frequency super-resolution techniques, which will provide the timely features for target classification. Algorithm evaluation will occur in a standalone testbed incorporating threat and sensor models. Model parameters will be provided by the Northrop Grumman component of the Spectrum Astro SBIRS Low team. The proposed technology will help provide BMDO improved situation awareness and will support tracking, identification and engagement of ballistic missiles. Commercial and military applications include border and maritime surveillance and reconnaissance, Theater Missile Defense and National Missile Defense.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Jason J. Sroka
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Extended Look-Ahead Sensor Management for Missile Defense with a Bayes Net Battle Model
Abstract:Effective missile defense relies on an array of sensors performing diverse collection tasks to successfully engage a missile attack. Sensors cannot cover the entire battle volume continuously, and Sensor Management is needed to allocate sensors to tasks providing the greatest mission utility. Prior research has shown two ways to achieve effective Sensor Management: (1) integrate sensor allocation with weapon-target pairing and (2) use extended look-ahead horizons to make optimal use of defense-in-depth tactics. Tight integration of sensor and weapon tasking yields superior task plans, but has computational requirements that grow exponentially with the length of the look-ahead horizon, and is impractical for real-time execution. Our innovation for Sensor Management is to use extended look-ahead horizons, and partially de-couple the sensor and weapon tasking problems. Partially de-coupling the sensor and weapon task planning into separate, coordinating sub-problems reduces computational requirements by several orders of magnitude while preserving much of the mission effectiveness of tight integration. Partially de-coupling the problems makes it possible to use extended look-ahead horizons, and thereby capture the benefits of defense-in-depth tactics. Sensor Management is an essential activity in complex military and commercial systems, and is most effective when sensor tasking is aligned with the mission needs for information. Our innovation provides a computationally tractable way to achieve effective sensor management.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Michael K. Schneider
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Auction Based Approaches to Distributed Sensor Management
Abstract:In the proposal, we will extend ALPHATECH's dynamic programming based approach to sensor resource management so that it can control a network of heterogeneous sensors. To reduce the complexity of the problem to a manageable level, the system will employ a hierarchical approach and will assume that processing occurs in a single centralized node. The algorithm proposed will decompose the problem into assigning tracking and discrimination responsibility for individual targets to particular sensors and, then, to subsequently solve the optimal sensor scheduling problem for the responsible sensors. For performing the sensor-target assignment, we will apply a variant of a constrained auction algorithm. The resultant mode scheduling problem will then be solved independently for each sensor using a dynamic programming based approach. A prototypical implementation of the resultant system will be constructed and evaluated and appropriate measures of performance will be generated. This research will provide a solid and necessary foundation for later work in which we will consider the implications of a distributed management architectures using a similar algorithmic approach. ALPHATECH envisions that the technology that will result from this SBIR program effort will have the potential for significant interest from a large customer base, both within DoD and the commercial sector. Within the DoD community, the problem of performing distributed sensor management is of interest not only to BMDO, but also to the Future Combat Systems program, as well as others. Furthermore, we feel that this technology can also be applied to numerous commercial applications involving networked sensors working in a coordinated fashion, such as the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) and civilian air traffic control systems.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R. Mayes
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Compressed FDTD Simulation Software for Missile Defense
Abstract: Abstract not available...

ARGUS SYSTEMS GROUP, INC.
1809 Woodfield Drive
Savoy, IL 61874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 355-6308
Mr. Paul A. McNabb
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Operating System Defense against Network Stack Denial of Service Attacks
Abstract:In a network stack Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack, numerous network packets flood the packet queues on a computer system, rendering the processing software on that machine (the "network stack") incapable of processing normal traffic. (This is not the same as a network bandwidth attack, in which copious packets overwhelm the capabilities of the data lines in and out of the computer.) We propose to extend the operating system (OS)-level protection of PitBull Foundation to defend against network stack attacks by assigning certain packets a Security Label (SL) with network priority. A packet with the specified SL would be guaranteed priority in the network stack, thereby allowing a remote administrator to access and recover a system even during a CPU DoS attack. Recovery during attack is key to survivability. An administrator would be able to access a computer, either at the computer or over a network, even during a network stack DoS attack. The administrator could then take actions to recover the system and keep it operational.

AVANZA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 241900
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(559) 683-6702
Mr. Philippe Richard
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Project SCORE Proposal
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a secure peer-to-peer network environment. Our project, called SCORE (Secure Communication Object Repository Environment), is intended to show that a robust, hardy, secure peer-to-peer network environment can meet the needs of the military to integrate diverse data sources in the context of efforts such as the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) and other large-scale battle management C3 systems. The SCORE approach overcomes many of the problems associated with peer-to-peer networks by using Avanza's patented approach to create an environment that secures all data before it becomes vulnerable and by encapsulating the data without regard to its original format. Unlike existing collaborative computing frameworks, it is a true peer-to-peer approach, because any machine on the network can function as the environment's administrative server if needed. It is scalable and flexible, and runs on off-the-shelf hardware using standard communication protocols. SCORE presents an exciting opportunity to provide a robust, adaptable, practical approach to network connectivity in a battle management C3I environment. Avanza foresees a number of commercial applications for the type of secure object environment envisioned for this project. SCORE's thorough approach to security and flexibility in handling files and messages means that it is well-suited for creating a variety of custom peer-to-peer solutions. Here are some examples: * Creating a package of secure communications services, such as private chat rooms, spam-proof e-mail addresses, and B2B solutions, that an internet service provider can offer as a value-added proposition to its users. * Creating a secure collaboration platform for corporate workgroups that offers the security of a virtual private network without all the overhead and allows the workgroup to use all their current applications with complete confidence in the security and integrity of their data. * Creating a music download service with the simplicity and flexibility of Napster, but offering superior piracy resistance and user privacy protection.

BEVILACQUA RESEARCH CORPORATION
4040 South Memorial Parkway, Suite B2
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 882-6229
Dr. David Skipper
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Synthetic System Representation (SSR) Entities For The Extended Air Defense Testbed (EADTB)
Abstract:With the need to produce simulation environments that are distributed and that combine live, virtual and constructive elements, there is a need for the constructive entities (SSR's) within the EADTB to act/react in a much more realistic way. Human behaviors are now routinely modeled as part of the modeled "system" within simulations. What is needed, therefore is a more robust method of collecting, storing and correlating information so that the human elements of the SSR model can act/react much more realistically, keeping up with future needs to have "intelligent" constructive elements within EADTB. This proposal describes a concept for using an innovative new hybrid Artificial Intelligence (AI) architecture based on the use of conceptual graphs coupled with intelligent software agents to create a highly maintainable, robust method for creating validated, standardized SSR's for EADTB. The Phase I program will lay the groundwork for full-scale development of a newer, more capable and more maintainable Synthetic System Representation scheme for EADTB. This architecture will have a tremendous amount of uses in the commercial sector for uses where intelligent software is needed such as process control and decision aids.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Barry Ambrose
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Network Data Compression Library
Abstract:The BMDO is tasked with the integration of leading edge and emerging technologies into an effective acquisition policy for missile defense. A missile defense system must potentially track thousands of objects with many networked sensors and data processors. To support this need, the BMDO requires advanced network-centric data compression algorithms for networks of sensors. To address this demand, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to develop a novel Sensor Network Data Compression Library (SNDCL). In particular, the SNDCL will be based on innovative data compression algorithms developed in 2001 by Caltech researchers Effros and Zhao. They have shown 20-30% additional compression performance on network sensors, compared to encoding each sensor signal independently. BCI's SNDCL will extend the code design methods by incorporating BCI's proprietary Nearest Neighbor partitioning scheme, which can speed up the design and optimization of the compression codes by embedding them into a set of software libraries that can be used for compressed data transmission from a large number of network sensors. The BCI SNDCL will also address the practical issues of determining the level of correlation of the data sources, and monitoring the performance of the codes over time to determine whether any codebook adjustments are needed. In addition to BMDO's sensor network transmission applications, this technology is also applicable to many military real time sensor data collection/processing operations and mission critical C3I network applications. The proposed technology is applicable to any commercial network applications that can benefit from sensor network data compression. Potential applications include, but are not limited to, monitoring equipment alarms, weather station data collection and remote monitoring of the health of seriously ill patients.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH AND FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Dr. Sanford M. Dash
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Efficient Parallel Architecture Simulation of 3D Missile/Divert Jet Flowfields Using PowerMac G4 Clusters
Abstract:Solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for modeling 3D interceptor missile flowfields and divert jet interactions requires the availability of high performance, massively parallel, computing facilities since the grid resolution requirements and large equation sets can necessitate runtimes exceeding weeks and even months, depending on the problem. Reasonable turnaround times routinely require access to over one hundred parallel processors. The availability of such large computational resources using standard supercomputers (i.e., HPCC) is extremely limited due to large acquisition and operating costs. This limits the level of modeling fidelity attainable for systems analysis and impedes the design and analysis of complex missile systems. A commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Apple Power Mac computer cluster system, in conjunction with a highly parallelized CFD simulation code routinely used for missile flowfield analysis, and specially developed networking software, is proposed which will provide a fast, efficient, accurate, and highly cost effective alternative to traditional high-cost mainframes and conventional PC clusters. Benchmarking to date has shown significant performance benefits in the use of an Apple cluster over that of conventional Pentium PC clusters. Computer hardware availability is the principal limitation to fast throughput in high fidelity missile system analyses. Successful operation of the proposed Apple Power Mac cluster will significantly increase the number of simulations that can be performed for supporting the varied modeling efforts of the BMDO community via substantially reducing computational costs. Demonstration and packaging of a very low-cost, massively parallel framework complete with a benchmarked and validated CFD analysis tool will offer CRAFT Tech significant marketing opportunities in both the Government and commercial sectors. CRAFT Tech has provided PC clusters with licensed software to DoD and industry and feels that the Apple cluster provides significant additional benefits in terms of speed and costs per CPU.

COMNET TECHNOLOGY GROUP, INC.
1110 N. Glebe Road, Suite 900
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 855-2520
Mr. Marc Nguyen
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptive Secure LAN/WAN Wireless Network
Abstract:Deliver a methodology or system architectural model of secure broadband wireless technology, capable as a stand-alone medium or interconnected to existing networks. This is a multi-layer security, network system concept with robust features of short (less than 300 feet) to long (greater than 2 miles) range communications under civil and austere conditions. This methodology or system model is scalable and intended to be integrated with existing commercial products that may require some re-engineering or innovative technology to satisfy security requirements. Parts, or all of the proposed system and model, could feasibly attain NSA Type-I security compliance and certification to benefit the Missile Defense Agency and government communities' WAN applications and other military purposes. CTG may obtain private companies to sponsor and develop this prototype system for commercialized applications. For example, the wireless technology architecture can be implemented in rural areas or rocky mountain areas where it is too costly to lay fiber networks.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOCIATES, INCORPORATED
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:SOAPi Services - Large Scale Integration of Distributed Systems Exposed as SOAP-Based Web Services
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I SBIR project is to successfully demonstrate SOAP-based integration (SOAPi) of Missile Defense Agency (MDA) information systems exposed as Web Services (SOAPi Services). This will lead to a Phase II prototype system, in which we will demonstrate large-scale, distributed systems integration using emerging industry standards, such as SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI. This implementation of the emerging b2b Web Services model will demonstrate more efficient, less costly, and more extensible systems integration within the military and commerical sectors. During Phase I, we will assess MDA's current and near-future knowledge infrastructure by studying existing and emerging domain-specific metadata schemas. We will derive the most suitable message passing schema for use within MDA, military and commercial SOAP-based brokering architectures. Finally, we will design and demonstrate a SOAP-based brokering architecture for development of a full prototype in Phase II. During the Phase I project, we will aggressively seek Fast Track sponsorship from MDA, other military, and commercial sources. Given the outstanding requirement for information integration within military and commercial infrastructures, we anticipate a high level of interest in and return from this research. The immediate benefits to MDA include more efficient, less costly, and more extensible integration of existing and emerging distributed systems using cutting-edge industry standards, as well as more efficient systems design and operation based on a clear understanding of the current and near-future knowledge infrastructure within MDA, the military at large, and the commercial sector.

DART COMMUNICATIONS
111 Dart Circle
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 339-8040
Mr. Michael J. Baldwin, Jr.
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:A Self-Learning, Non-Geometric, Knowledge-Based Computer Vision System
Abstract:Currently knowledge representation models and low-level computer vision algorithms are fundamentally separate domains, where knowledge has no 'meaning' in the visual system itself. Visual recognition algorithms generally attempt to statistically match predesigned geometric models or features to images, being limited to narrow applications because of a lack of contextual understanding. The proposed effort aims to implement a revolutionary new method of fundamentally merging knowledge representation with computer vision algorithms to produce a computer vision system that is entirely self-learning and functional in any context, without predefined geometric models. It involves a 100% object-oriented model that integrates all three elements of symbolic knowledge representation (frames, a variant of default and modal logics, and forward- and backward-chaining rules) with a one-shot fast-learning approach. This system combines maximum flexibility with efficient and accurate object recognition (including non-geometric objects), developing its visual capabilities progressively from low-level to high-level. Proposed work involves the technical design, implementation and testing of this model, and its effectiveness will be demonstrated at the end of Phase I with a functioning prototype. Military benefits in the air include vastly improved automatic recognition and comprehension of all types of objects in the air, ground objects, and landscapes. Fast-learning capabilities mean the system can adapt quickly and spontaneously to new characteristics of aircraft or missiles. All objects can be detected, especially including non-geometric contextual landscape elements, not just those in a predefined geometric model database. Sensing, discrimination and kill assessment will all be greatly improved. Commercial applications and military benefits on the ground include robotics vision systems, industrial imaging, biological/face recognition, and more.

EMBEDDED RESEARCH SOLUTIONS, LLC
9687F Gerwig Lane
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 995-6055
Dr. David B. Stewart
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Miniature Software for Pervasive Computing Applications
Abstract:Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems will increasingly rely on pervasive computing technology to provide intelligent sensing and control. The embedded computing for such applications is provided by hundreds of very tiny processing units, each with the ability to capture data from sensors and wirelessly transmit it in real-time to other nodes or to a base station. Due to the physical size and power constraints of these nodes, computing resources will be much less than needed by the code produced using modern software engineering techniques. The proposed alternate solution is a new software engineering concept that we call "miniature software". The approach combines component frameworks, model-based design, real-time programming, aspect-oriented software design methods, and hardware/software co-design methods, but in such a way that it is specifically suited to the very limited resources of minimally-powered nodes. Phase I research is to validate the concept of miniature software, and to compare and contrast it with traditional embedded code by building an experimental prototype of a sensor network. ERS's strategy is to develop the miniature software framework, and initially use it as the infrastructure for targeting new application areas. In addition to BMDO and other military needs, several large commercial application markets would benefit greatly from miniature software. Some that we have identified and are actively pursuing are machine diagnostics and real time monitoring, physiological and performance monitoring, environmental monitoring, and local positioning and tracking can especially use the technology. Revenues are expected to come from three primary sources: Building products within identified application areas, obtaining contracts from third parties (including military contracts), and licensing the miniature software framework to tool vendors.

FLOWLYNX
3313 Bob Wallace Ave, Suite #202
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-7851
Mr. Luis Lopez
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Machine Intelligence Tools for Automated Code Refactoring
Abstract:FlowLynx proposes development of an intelligent, web-based legacy code refactoring and conversion system that significantly improves current software re-engineering methodologies. The FlowLynx proposed tools and methods facilitate collaborative human understanding and behavioral algorithm "mining" directly from sections of unstructured software code. It will then use this "mined" behavioral information to learn how to detect and extract algorithmic patterns from unstructured code thereby enabling the capture and automation of code understanding, re-engineering and translation knowledge. This effort will demonstrate the feasibility of developing an artificially intelligent de-compiler or "algorithm detector" that can learn how to refactor low-level code into higher-level algorithmic constructs. Alternatively this system could be used to develop intelligent code optimization tools, generalized de-compilers, plus the detection and repair of damaged code within an "intelligent operating system" context. Code maintenance, reuse and translation, behavior mining, and de-compiler technology. Aerospace firms have a tremendous amount of legacy code that requires significant reengineering and can benefit from re-factoring and translation into modern languages. This technology will address a critical step in automated re-factoring of primitive code into algorithmic structures that improve code understanding, optimization, language translation and automated analysis.

FORELL ENTERPRISES, INC.
6061 Dale Street, Suite N
Buena Park, CA 90621
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 690-7720
Ms. Eleonora R. Gianoulis
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Software Engineering and Estimation for Decision Architectures (SEEDA)
Abstract:Software schedule, cost, and risk assessment is a discipline that very few have mastered. This can be gleaned from the large percent of large software intensive developmental programs that encounter schedule and cost overruns, not only because of lack of adequate program controls but also because of the unknown risk associated with using new technologies and paradigms. A current emerging trend in system development is the use of Decision Architectures, using decision theory and knowledge management and engineering. The schedule, cost, and risk implications when using this technology in major developmental programs is currently unknown and current estimation models do not specifically address system development using new paradigms, such as Decision Architectures. FORELL proposes to extend the widely recognized Sage estimation model to address Decision Architecture based system development. FORELL?s KBArchitectingTM is a new engineering paradigm that will support the development of systems using Decision Architectures. FORELL will evaluate BMDO?s Decision Architecture system development process to define the appropriate metrics. An interface to Sage will be designed to leverage existing algorithms and new predictive algorithms will be identified and designed to better support software schedule, cost, and risk assessment for Decision Architecture based system development. A well-defined Decision Architecture based system development process with specified products and appropriate metrics will provide the basis to better evaluate and assess schedules, cost, and risk, which are major areas of concern for each and every major system acquisition program. Providing an interface to an established and well recognized estimation tool, such as Sage, and complementing existing predictive algorithms and domain knowledge bases with the unique algorithms and knowledge bases required for Decision Architecture based system development, FORELL will provide the basis for a way to provide insight in these future system developments, minimizing schedule and cost overruns.

FORELL ENTERPRISES, INC.
6061 Dale Street, Suite N
Buena Park, CA 90621
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 690-7720
Dr. John Clymer
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Mulit-Agent Adaptive Feature Tracking and Discrimination (MAAFTD)
Abstract:Effective Ballistic and Theater Missile defense requires that data be fused from all available sensors leveraging the unique capabilities of each sensor and its features. Until now, improvements in sensor resolution and discrimination technologies have been looked at to provide the required fusion and target discrimination. It is thesis of this proposal that additionally, new adaptive approaches to such fusion and distributed battle management are required. A technical approach is needed that is capable of producing adaptive component behaviors between sensors that will optimize reliability and convergence of multiple data from multiple sensors in such systems. FORELL is proposing that BMDO Project Hercules utilize an adaptive intelligent agent approach with Ballistic Missile Defense architecture sensor component related decision networks to enhance Ballistic Missile tracking and target discrimination. A multi-agent system will aggregrate feature sets based on processed signal data from individual sensors and transform those sets into Decision Feature sets. The Decision Feature sets are processed in a Decision Model that is capable of learning decision rules and that generates tracking and discrimination outputs for use in engagement decisions and for feedback and tuning the sensor front ends. This approach to fusion for missile tracking and discrimination relies on the principles of Simulation-Based Engineering of Complex Adaptive Systems using a Classifier Block as an expert system controller. Potential benefits of the MAAFTD approach are: 1.Improved sensor efficiency, which equates to higher threat capacity per sensor. This improvement is anticipated as the result of sensor management agents that identify only those measurements that support or refute alternate hypothesis. The goal of the measurement agent selection criterion is selection of only measurements that have significance given previously identified threat characteristics, e.g., if previous measurement confirmed the threat as having tethered decoys, only measurements that are useful in presence of tethered decoys will be scheduled for the sensor. This approach differs from state of the art processing of discrete sensors raw data at the detection level, to extract a list of features from every threat object. 2.Better classification decisions less susceptible than a standard classifier approach to single feature countermeasures. Traditional classifiers utilize a finite set of hypotheses that must be defined a-priori. MAAFTD agents build the decision logic as part of the processing. Given inherent multi-agent interactive sensor management, better performance for missile tracking and target discrimination should be achieved. MAAFTD depends on the combined resolution of the sensors and the local processing of the raw data. Networked processing of tracks contributes additional resolution and discrimination. Sensor cueing for initial detection may also be a benefit of this approach. 3.The MAAFTD decision classifier approach is easily adaptable to change. In MAAFTD you have a distributed decision making a system that is constantly working to identify and then reduce tracking/classification related decision ambiguity. Inherent in this process is the concept of using fuzzy classifier rules. Modifying rules that characterize the threat by fuzzy criteria is easier than traditional methods of feature identification from a threat database, then model the feature then build the feature database of anticipated feature metrics. 4.The MAAFTD decision agents are distributed to each sensor and hence, the decision process is more survivable. MAAFTD will use the agents at the surviving sensors to construct the best available threat picture given the surviving sensor suit. Traditional ID fusion is not inherently stable or survivable. Such sensor specific countermeasures can 1) cause tracks not to correlate, 2) cause the fusion process to reach conflicting conclusions or 3) rely on data from sensors that are not available. Traditional approachs are attempt to obtain a complete measurement set and are not self-focusing. 5.The classification process using sensor cueing may result in better sensor performance and a faster classification process. In standard approaches to ID fusion, raw data is often associated with the target track, then combined with other sensor data after a track to track (or plot to track) correlation decision is made. Implicaitons of this approach is that the the fused ID must be delayed for the time it takes for each track to stabilize. In MAAFTD the sensor output data is reduced to a discrete set of multi-dimensional array fuzzy sets which are distributed to the other sensor agents. These sets are aggregated at the sensor agent and the end aggregation function in to ?track sets? that capture the threat picture alternatives. This raw aggregation approach reduces the time delay associated with track formation prior to ID fusion.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Thomas McConnell
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Algorithms and Models/Simulations
Abstract:With pressure to shorten acquisition cycles, provide more capability, and reduce costs, the Department of Defense (DoD) has initiated acquisition reforms. One effort that supports these reforms is known as Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) - a process in which DoD and Industry are enabled by robust, collaborative use of simulation technology integrated across acquisition phases and programs. The heart of SBA is a distributed collaborative decision support (DCDS) environment. DCDS entails the application of advanced distributed modeling and simulation, information science, and engineering tools in an integrated framework. This multi-phase SBIR provides a DCDS environment and affordability assessment tools which can be used to not only evaluate the affordability technology investments but also to evaluate the utility of the MDA systems under evaluation. DoD's acquisition community has a problem that is also common to many businesses: determine how to optimize return on investment (ROI) for technologies. Decisions to invest in technologies that appear to have large performance potentials but do not deliver the desirable ROI, cost millions in lost opportunities. In their effort to develop and produce systems better, cheaper and faster, many large industries, aerospace and automotive, are moving to virtual digital design environments. The objective of this research project is to provide a distributed collaborative decision support environment that will enable the MDA, DoD, and industry to evaluate the utility (value) of their technology investments, thereby enabling effective investments and design trades to ensure affordable systems. The tool has great potential for effective use in any industry considering using virtual, collaborative design tools (e.g., aircraft, transportation systems shipbuilding, architectural, and construction.).

GRAMMATECH, INC
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Static Analysis for Software Assurance
Abstract:Software continues to be deployed with large numbers of flaws. Existing approaches for detecting flaws in software are mostly dynamic: they rely on the executing the software on a particular set of inputs. In contrast, static approaches consider all possible executions of the program. Static approaches have achieved some success, but to date have not realized their full potential because they are based on analysis of superficial surface structures, are not interprocedural, not whole-program, and are blind to aliasing effects. We have developed highly-advanced static analysis technology for reverse engineering that addresses these shortcomings, and we now propose to apply that technology to finding flaws in software. Our technology computes the dependence graph representation of programs, which captures their semantics at a much deeper level. We propose a tool that will address a wide range of flaws including resource mismanagement errors, failure mode checking, division by zero defects, and illegal conversions. The challenge is to achieve accuracy (fewer false positives) and completeness (fewer false negatives), while maintaining the ability to scale to very large programs. We propose to prototype the system in Phase I, and develop an experimentation plan to measure its efficacy. The proposed tool will used to significantly enhance the quality of software systems. It will allow software developers to develop higher-quality software with lower software assurance costs.

INFO VALLEY CORPORATION
1100 First Avenue, SAIC Building, Suite 300
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 992-8744
Dr. Sakunthala Gnanamgari
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Team Computer Interface (TCI) Technology
Abstract:A Team Computer Interaction (TCI) technology for the Battle Management and Command and Control (BMC2) is proposed leveraging innovative interaction techniques being developed at InfoValley using speaking, pointing and sketching modes of operation. Simplicity and practicality are the corner stones of proposed research and development effort. During Phase I, InfoValley will study the potential needs of BMC2 and explore the possible scenarios for experimenting with MSUIT capabilities to determine whether the proposed TCI technology is a practical one for the BMC2. The resulting solution will enable team members to simultaneously access a large display wall, present their information, and work together in real time using their own computing systems located anywhere. Resulting technology will be useful for diverse groups who want to interact in real time and work together to accomplish a task. Integrated speaking, pointing and sketching will be useful in education and training as well as corporate conference room settings.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 725-1112
Dr. Shozo Mori
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Decision Network Based BMD Battle Management Algorithms
Abstract:The IET Team, consisting of IET, Booz Allen Hamilton, Oregon State University, and George Mason University, proposes intelligent, integrated, BMD BM/C2 solution concept development, by applying Decision Network technology that is a decision-theoretic extension of Bayesian Network inference technology. The proposed approach consists of three steps: (1) Formulate multiple-agent, distributed BM/C2 problems in a large-scale Decision Network. (2) Generate a coarse Decision Network by applying appropriate Decision Network coarsening techniques such as the node aggregation method. (3) Finally let each local BM/C2 agent generate a finer Decision Network to optimally make local decisions based on locally available information. This three-step approach is based on informational centralization, process distribution by replicating centralized decision-making design, coarse modeling by aggregation, and local refinement. The Phase I tasks include development of the solution concept following this approach, and design of the process for the algorithm development that is planned for the Phase II efforts. The result of this Phase I effort will be distributed BMD BM/C2 solution concepts based on Decision Network technology. These will include effective multiple-agent, distributed decision-making algorithms not only for BMD BM/C2 functions but also for any large-scale distributed decision-making system. The resulting technology will be applicable to markets that deal with large-scale diagnostics in uncertain environments (e.g., aircraft maintenance, remote facilities management, factory maintenance, and real-time component monitoring), object recognition tasks in uncertain environments (e.g., data fusion, entity discrimination, and site monitoring), and event predictions in complex and uncertain environments (e.g., identification of potential terrorist events and control of system inputs).

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 752-7473
Mr. Dan Upper
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Scalable Inference Algorithms for the BMD Decision Architecture.
Abstract:IET proposes to develop a suite of hybrid, exact+approximate Bayesian network solution algorithms that can robustly and dynamically trade-off accuracy of the solution algorithm against the solution's time and memory requirements. These algorithms will enable scaling of the Missile Defense Agency's Decision Architecture to simulate and experiment with the expected solution complexity of fully modeled Decision Architecture Bayesian networks. The result of this Phase I effort will be a suite of hybrid inference algorithms that combine the strengths of exact and approximate algorithms to dynamically optimize solution accuracy to Bayesian Network queries against the time and memory required to execute the hybrid solution algorithm computations. There are several commercial markets that routinely give rise to Bayesian Networks whose reduction in solution time is likely to be a selling point for a hybrid solution algorithm suite including of medical diagnosis, raw resource exploration and pharmaceutical drug discovery.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 752-7473
Dr. Francis Fung
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Tools for Facilitation of Influence Diagram Assembly in BMD Inference Collaborative Environment (BMD-ICE)
Abstract:Construction and maintenance of large influence diagrams in an operational environment is a complex task. Modelers need tools to collaboratively build and evaluate these influence diagrams in the context of real world problems. Information Extraction and Transport (IET) is building the Ballistic Missile Defense Inference Collaboration Environment (BMD-ICE) to support specification of libraries of JPF frames, automatically generate situation specific influence diagrams and perform inference. Modelers need capabilities to help them construct, interpret, debug, and extend these influence diagrams. To effectively validate a large influence diagram, a modeler needs to be able to focus on subnets and individual variables, to examine an enormous number of probabilistic relationships, to understand how situation-specific models evolve, and to understand the computational costs of his/her modeling decisions. We propose to design tools to aid the modeler in predicting, explaining, and controlling the behavior of their models by supplying them with capabilities for contradiction checking, frame-based acyclicity checking, localization major influences on a given variable, subnet extraction, specification of test suites, stepthrough of model construction and inference, and complexity estimation. The result of this Phase I effort will be the analysis, design, and preliminary implementation of functionality to support modelers, in particular for localization of influence, frame-based acyclicity checking, frame-based contradiction checking, incremental step through, test suite execution, and influence diagram complexity estimation. The resulting technology will be applicable to markets that deal with large-scale diagnostics in uncertain environments (e.g., aircraft maintenance, remote facilities management, factory maintenance, and real-time component monitoring), object recognition tasks in uncertain environments (e.g., data fusion, entity discrimination, and site monitoring), and event predictions in complex and uncertain environments (e.g., identification of potential terrorist events and control of system inputs).

INTEGRATED MAGNETOELECTRONICS
1214 Oxford St.
Berkeley, CA 94709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 841-3585
Mr. Richard Spitzer, PhD
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Interfacing Between Transpinnor Logic and Semiconductor Logic
Abstract:A new technology is now emerging, where the central role for electronics is not the electron charge - as in semiconductor technology - but its spin. The proposer is developing all-metal (no semiconductors) electronics, in which all functional elements are based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR). The foundation for such all-metal devices is the transpinnorr, an active device that has shown amplification and logic capabilities. Nonetheless, semiconductor technology is deeply entrenched, and there will be a need, for some time to come, to address the important issue of interfacing between transpinnor logic and semiconductor logic. This proposal addresses that opportunity. The proposed project will develop interfacing between these two logic technologies. Specific circuits for interfacing between transpinnor logic and semiconductor logic will be designed. The designs will be reviewed and evaluated by modeling and simulation. The Phase I project will provide the foundation for the fabrication in Phase II of the interfaces using the proposer's GMR technology. These interfaces will provide the necessary bridge to existing semiconductor products. All-metal technology has applications in nearly the entire electronics and storage markets presently held by the semiconductor and hard-drive technologies. For most of these, it will have significant performance and cost advantages over both semiconductor devices and hybrid magnetic/semiconductor devices. The transpinnor/semiconductor interfaces are the key to a successful market transition to magnetoelectronics.

IRVINE SENSORS CORPORATION
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #4
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8715
Dr. Volkan Ozguz
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Self-Reconfigurable Advanced Packet Processor Module for Intrusion Detection
Abstract:ISC proposes to develop a self-reconfigurable packet processor module for Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). This module will allow intrusion detection algorithms to operate at line data rates up to OC-192 by accessing the appropriate detection algorithm from the built-in memory via a wide bus. The module will use a programmable gate array (FPGA)/co-processor coupled with up to 512 MB memory. The processing speed of information at high data rates enables on-the-fly reconfiguration of IDS algorithms depending on the data pattern. This speed is critical for target identification and tracking purposes. Bit-processed operation over data is performed at line-rate detecting any anomaly that may exist and preventing the anomaly information from perpetrating onto the existing system, network, or machine. Multiple modules coupled together are capable of rapid recovery through their distributed processing interconnection. Multiple modules can fit on a single 3 x 5 network card for ease of maintenance and future R&D missile projects. The IDS module can be used to secure any military communication system and can be inserted into any platform due its compact size. The IDS module can also be installed in existing routers, servers, and other machines to expand the Intrusion Detection System within the total network architecture - local, regional, and global in scope.

MAXIMUM TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
4825 University Square, Ste. 2, P. O. Box 1181
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 864-7630
Mr. Early Ehlinger
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Assited Embedded Missile Source Code Manipulation Using SQL
Abstract:he development of embedded software systems is commonly plagued by missed deadlines, faulty behavior, and non-reusable, brittle code. The cause of these problems can commonly be tracked to a failure to reuse existing code effectively; "reuse" actually means copy-and-modify in practice. A better approach is to "refactor" existing source code into smaller, more manageable components, place these components into a library, and to reuse the library without change. The only problem is that this leads to a number of components that is difficult to track. Structured Query Language (SQL) is a proven technology for managing databases and is commonly used to manage extremely large datasets, often in the terabyte range, but it has not been previously applied to the management of source code. The proposed effort seeks to provide a mechanism to build and track libraries of source code components using SQL. Source library management has general utility for the entire software development community, from the development of embedded systems to games, all the way up to and including the largest clustered and distributed computing systems. For example, companies implementing an operating system would benefit from the ability to "coagulate" portions of their code into constituent libraries.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive, Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Lawrence D. Stone
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Reconnecting Subnets in a Decision Architecture
Abstract:The Decision Architecture (DA) being developed by project Hercules consists of a large Bayes' net designed to combine information from multiple, sources, and systems to help make decisions about the number, kinematic state, and types of targets present during all phases of a ballistic missile attack. The DA will integrate information from a number of disparate subsystems in several locations. During this process it may be useful or necessary for one or more of these subsystems to operate in isolation without sending or receiving information from the rest of the DA. The proposed work will develop methods to connect or reconnect a subnet to rest of the decision architecture in such a manner that (1) information from the subnet is correctly and optimally integrated into the Bayes' net representing the rest of the DA; (2) information from the DA is correctly and optimally integrated into the subnet; (3) integration is performed without interrupting the incorporation of other information being obtained during the integration; (4) integration is performed automatically and autonomously at the time of reconnection without requiring special operations by DA. A successful completion of this work will improve the Decision Architecture by increasing its modularity. Subnets can be maintained at different locations and on different computers and connected or reconnect when desired. The DA will be more robust to communications limitations and failures. The DA will be able to dynamically add and remove subnets from the DA at any time.

MZA ASSOCIATES CORPORATION
2021 Girard SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Mr. Steve C. Coy
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:A Component-Based Software Framework for Large Scale Systems
Abstract:We propose to develop a component-based software framework for developing large-scale software and hardware/software systems based upon an innovative software architecture we originally developed for use in the modeling and simulation of complex systems. This architecture make use of the familiar concepts and terminology of systems engineering - systems, subsystems, inputs, outputs, and so forth - combined with the power and flexibility afforded by modern software technology. This allows us to give system developers the freedom they need to meet mission requirements, while keeping the framework relatively simple, easy to understand, and easy to use. One of the most innovative and useful features of the proposed framework would be a powerful integrated facility for modeling and simulation; we expect this would prove invaluable throughout the entire system lifecycle, from initial requirements analysis and design all the way through deployment, operations, and maintenance. This integrated simulation facility would be especially useful in developing large-scale hardware/software systems which must adapt to complex, changing environments. Anticipated benefits included reduced costs, more efficient use of personnel, and increased mission effectiveness. The proposed tool would provide a component-based software framework and development environment, easy to learn and easy to use, and yet powerful enough and robust enough for the most demanding real-world applications. One of the most innovative and useful features of the proposed framework would be a powerful integrated facility for modeling and simulation; we expect this would prove invaluable throughout the entire system lifecycle, from initial requirements analysis and design all the way through deployment, operations, and maintenance. it would promote software reuse, while its simple, intuitive connect-the-block architecture makes software maintenance easier and facilitates iterative, incremental development. The integrated simulation facility would prove invaluable throughout the entire system lifecycle, and the fact that it would be fully integrated would eliminate unnecessary duplication of effort and opportunities for error, greatly increasing the cost-effectiveness of simulation, and thereby promoting its effective use. The net result would be shorter development times, lower development costs, and better, more robust systems. In any application, military or commercial, this would translate into money saved; in military applications it would also translate into a more effective fighting force.

NUMERICA, INC.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Aubrey B. Poore
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:A Bayesian Network Model for Tracking in Support of Discrimination
Abstract:The success of hit-to-kill missile defense systems depends on correct discrimination of an entire collection of tracks. A number of organizations are now building Bayesian Network (BN) system models that assume near-perfect tracking knowledge, and these BNs use single tracks and collections of tracks to define their inputs. An additional capability in support of this effort is the modeling of imperfections that occur in most realistic tracking systems, such as misassociaqtions, track termination and reinitiation, track spawning, track switching, and spurious and redundant tracks. On the other hand, Numerica is developing a Multi-Frame Assignment (MFA) tracker as a state-of-the-art tracking systems for BMD applications, but this tracking system does not perform target discrimination. Currently, the following issues need to be addressed: (1) inclusion of tracking knowledge in the system model, (2) reasoning using collections of tracks to understand the situation and to enhance the discrimination results, (3) incorporating results of the reasoning process to enhance tracking. To address these three issues, Numerica will first represent track imperfections in a BN. Second, Numerica will design an interface between the tracking system and the discrimination system such that the discrimination process starts, evolves, and reaches a conclusion. Numerica, Inc. has a very successful record of developing algorithms (specifically in the target tracking area), implementing the algorithms using highly-structured object-oriented software techniques, and licensing the software to defense contractors and the US DoD. Presently, Numerica, Inc. has licensed tracking software to almost all major aerospace companies. Our objective is to formulate new algorithm solutions for tracking in support of discrimination, develop high-quality software, and offer these solutions to MDA contractors and the MDA. This work potentially makes a strong contribution to advancing the state-of-the-art in tracking and discrimination systems design.

NUMERICA, INC.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Aubrey B. Poore
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Multiple Frame Cluster Tracking
Abstract:The aim of the BMD program is to provide a layered defense against ballistic missile threats. A central component to the BMD system is the tracking system which has to provide accurate tracks for discrimination and prediction of the threat's position. Countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm any tracking system that tracks only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups of objects or clusters followed by transitions to individual object tracking if and when individual objects separate from the clusters is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objective of the proposed program is to demonstrate feasibility of multiple-frame cluster tracking capability for missile defense. The proposed approach will form multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The combination then presents a seamless set of algorithms for cluster and individual object tracking and transitions between the two for BMD. Although appropriate clustering methods are to be investigated, two candidate methods are Bayesian EM clustering and the distance based k-means algorithm. Numerica, Inc. has a very successful record of developing algorithms (specifically in the target tracking area), implementing the algorithms using highly-structured object-oriented software techniques, and licensing the software to defense contractors and the US DoD. Presently, Numerica, Inc. has licensed tracking software to almost all major aerospace companies. Our objective is to formulate new algorithm solutions for a cluster tracking architecture, develop high-quality software, and offer these solutions to MDA contractors and the MDA. The result of this proposed MFA cluster tracking program as well as current MFA algorithm development for Project Hercules will be a seamless set of gold standard algorithms for cluster and individual object tracking for BMD. Other commercial applications include sophisticated multiple-frame clustering algorithms for general data mining applications.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC. (OKSI)
4030 Spencer St, Suite 108
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-4445
Dr. Nahum Gat
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Monocular Passive Ranging (A-MPR)
Abstract:The proposal addresses an advanced method of Monocular Passive Ranging (MPR). MPR is a differential absorption technique to determine the range to an emissive target without the use of active illumination (RADAR or LIDAR). Classical MPR uses sensor measurements in two discrete bands (an atmospheric window and an absorption band), assumes the target source radiance ratio and atmospheric conditions, and then solves directly for range. This method suffers from the fact that incorrect parameter assumptions produce poor range retrievals. We introduce a novel computational paradigm that can take advantage of the target spectral signatures measured in multiple bands, and in which physics based model (MODTRAN in this case) predictions are combined with sensor measurements to retrieve the Bayesian best estimate of the parameters. The algorithm, Simultaneous Constraint Optimization for Parameter Extraction (SCOPE), is based on a constraint optimization of an objective function that expresses the best estimates weighted by the covariance of the uncertainties in the initial guess of the parameters, uncertainties in the sensor measurements, and model uncertainties. The primary constraint is an analytical expression which is the Taylor expansion of the complete MODTRAN model. The Jacobian matrix for the expansion is obtained from the Automatic Differentiation augmented MODTRAN code. The proposed computational paradigm, SCOPE, lends itself to computerize and automate the process of solving the inverse problem. In this case the inverse problem of interest is MPR, but since it already contains the proper physical model (MODTRAN), it is also readily available for atmospheric compensation of earth surface measurements. The proposed advanced MPR will support DoD activities and projects including MDA's HALO-II, NAIC's Cobra Ball, and other potential spaceborne assets.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-9741
Dr. Joseph Shanks
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Efficient Signature Ensemble Generation for Non-Nominal Countermeasures
Abstract:The proposed effort will address an important problem for missile defense: the efficient generation of signature ensembles that incorporate realistic distributions in the shape and dynamics of countermeasures. Such breadth in the training ensembles is required for the development of robust discrimination-algorithms and decision-architectures, and for accurate prediction of performance against the actual threat. The Phase-I product will be a software tool (GUI + executable code for the Linux and SGI platform, + target-model library) for the efficient calculation of Visible-LWIR optical intensity and radar RCS vs. time, in which the primary input parameters may be simply specified, or defined probabilistically. The output is then the ensemble of signatures, and a summary of the corresponding distribution of basic features. The VISIG signature code, with its exceptionally efficient rendering engine (for which rendering resolution is decoupled from the resolution of the target model) will be employed. The target library will include both nominal models and a collection of off-nominal targets inspired by the observed behavior of inflatable and erectable countermeasures. Within the Phase-I effort, the models will be modified by conformal scaling along the three axes. A limited set of debris and chaff models will also be provided. While the proposed Phase-I effort is tailored to meet the near-term needs of the Missile Defense Agency, we believe the commercial potential of the product to be demonstrated under Phase-II is substantial. The powerful COTS product Studio-3Dmax is widely used by the animation/special-effects/simulation community, and is here employed to create the realistic off-nominal target models-the first linkage of the code with a high-fidelity Optical-RF signature code. Under Phase-II, we would propose to integrate the programs, supporting user-specification of complex 3-D objects and generation of corresponding Optical-RF imagery and movies. We see commercial application across the broad Optical-RF simulation marketplace, for training of firefighters or pilots or night-fighting soldiers.

QUADRIVATE, INC.
3161 Elliott Ave. #390
Seattle, WA 98121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 284-2055
Mr. Rusty Lee
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:A Robust Security Architecture Using Redundant Security Measures
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel approach to software security based on a new software architecture. Traditional security models rely on a weak chain of logical assumptions for security. If one of those assumptions is broken, whether due to operator error, carelessness, hardware or software changes, or hardware failures, the entire security model collapses. The proposed software architecture is based on a component model to provide a wide range of coverage of possible intrusion points in a simple and uniform manner and to allow the isolation of individual code modules. This architecture uses redundant security measures to reduce both the likelihood and impact of a security breach, particularly under sabotage, errors, or other unfavorable circumstances. Code modules in the proposed architecture are isolated from each other so that all communications occur through a message passing system. Isolating the modules in this manner provides stability, modularity, and allows fine-grain control over security since security modules can monitor all interactions between components. Multiple security modules can be used to provide redundant monitoring in case of security intrusions. The proposed software architecture is designed with redundant security measures on each point of possible intrusion, so that if a hardware failure, software modification, bug, or other unforeseen circumstance occurs that may allow an intruder to circumvent the standard security model, the redundant security measures will resist the intruder. This makes computer systems much more secure and resilient to attacks, since a system can be secure even in unfavorable conditions or if some bug or security hole is overlooked. The fault-tolerance and security benefits of the proposed architecture could save companies which rely on their network servers millions of dollars per year. In June of 1999, the popular online auction company eBay lost more than $5 million in revenues due to a single failure of their servers. As a result, their stock price fell more than 25% in just five days. There is clearly a need for a more robust security architecture.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
6540 Lusk Blvd, Suite C200
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9074
Dr. Robert McGraw
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Data Mining Implementations for High Performance Computing to Support MDA
Abstract:Collaborative applications involve the acquisition, processing, and delivery of very large volumes of remote sensing and related data for a variety of applications. In order to handle this data, collaborative environments must manage, store, search for and retrieve data across highly distributed and networked topologies. This effort will provide a technology that supports distributed data management by developing software libraries that consists of data access interfaces and search algorithms that facilitate parallel data analysis and mining. These libraries will be integrated with existing simulation technologies such as SPEEDES and RAM Laboratories WarpIV simulation engine to provide a parallel and distributed data mining capability. This effort will take advantage of existing persistence and save/restore mechanisms to support basic storage and retrieval of data. More complex search mechanisms that traverse a parallel hierarchical grid data structure will then be employed to coordinate searches using massively parallel high-performance interest management. The resultant technology can be applied to both government-based and commercial collaborative applications. This SBIR is viewed as having excellent commercial potential. Naturally, this SBIR and the distributed data mining technology it will develop have far reaching implications for BMDO. The data access interface and algorithm libraries will allow for better performance and data management for all collaborative environments. This technology will augment an existing technology that already inherently supports parallel and distributed computing. While improving collaborative applications, this technology will also greatly improve the state of the art with respect to performance for simulation and collaborative environments concerning applications using high volumes of data. While improving support for collaborative applications in many areas addressed by BMDO, this technology also has far reaching applications to commercial industry. The electrical, computer, telecommunications, medical and transportation industries will benefit from this advancement in technology. Specifc commercial uses include the banking and financial communities where the data mining technology can be used to predict trends and detect patterns in both the marketplace and user characteristics. This technology can also be applied to commercial search enterprise to implement linguistic based approaches and other AI based searches.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
6540 Lusk Blvd, Suite C200
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9074
Dr. Robert McGraw
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Reducing Latencies for Distributed Environments
Abstract:While simulation can be used as a real-time battlefield aid in support of network centric interoperability, existing simulation frameworks do not provide the necessary performance. Problems exist in the areas of data latency, processing efficiency, and bandwidth utilization. One way of improving simulation performance in the network centric paradigm is to improve communications over a wide area network. This effort proposes to develop a specialized Wide Area Network Communications Library and Distributed Server based on destination-based multicast using the TCP/IP protocol. This effort proposes to implement the distributed server using smart routing tables in software at each branch of the distributed router. The resulting implementation will provide not only a destination-based multicast implementation for Wide Area Networking, but will also server as a starting point for an Adaptive Routing-based implementation. This technology will be integrated in both the SPEEDES Simulation Framework and RAM Laboratories' WarpIVTM simulation engine. This SBIR is viewed as having excellent commercial potential. Naturally, this SBIR and the support for simulation across wide area networks will have far reaching support for the DOD in the area of network centric warfare. However, .the distributed server technology and wide area network libraries will provide for better performance and across all collaborative environments. This technology will augment an existing technology that already inherently supports parallel and distributed computing. While improving support for collaborative applications over a wide area, this technology also has far reaching applications to commercial industry. The electrical, computer, telecommunications, medical and transportation industries will benefit from this advancement in technology. Specific commercial uses include the banking and financial communities where the technology can be used in support of distributed databases. This technology also would have far-reaching applications into the distributed gaming, web-based simulation, and advanced distance learning disciplines.

REIFER CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 4046
Torrance, CA 90510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4493
Mr. Donald J. Reifer
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Software Sneak Circuit Analysis
Abstract:RCI proposes to develop a software sneak circuit methodology to assist BMDO in responding to Mr. Gansler's anti-tampering policy memo. This methodology would embed sneak circuits into the code to obfuscate critical software/firmware and COTS/GOTS components and protect them against tampering. Sneak circuits would also be used to collect evidence of tampering. If our Phase I research is successful, we would be able to protect critical software/firmware components from tampering in a manner capable with approaches used to protect hardware. Such compatibility is advantageous because it allows those using the technique to put a single, comprehensive test program into place to verify and validate that weapons systems comply with the anti-policy guidelines issued by the DoD Anti-Tampering Program Office in the Pentagon. RCI proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of its innovation during Phase I. During Phase II, we will implement a planned demonstration of the technology. Protection against tampering is required to protect software/firmware used in embedded systems, both military and commercial. If successful, this effort would provide those defending against tampering with a sneak circuit methodology and associated toolset that they could use to systematically counter the threat.

SAGE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1018 West Ninth Avenue, Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 354-9100
Mr. Robert Lee
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:A Hybrid NS/PNS Unstructured-Grid Based Efficient CFD Solver Using Zonal Strategy
Abstract:Development of an unstructured-grid based PNS/NS CFD solver provides advances in unstructured-grid technology to provide a more efficient analysis tool. Over a wide range of the missile flight trajectories, a PNS methodology is sufficient and a more cost effective approach to provide CFD analysis capability than a traditional NS approach. Overall memory and the CPU requirement can be reduced to provide a predictive CFD capability running on modern desktop platforms. With the latest announcement by Intel Corporation to provide 64-bit PC architecture, traditional expensive hardware requirements could be replaced with a more cost-effective class of PC desktops. The technical challenge is to merge the grid generation process with a hybrid PNS/NS CFD solver. The goal of this SBIR effort is to develop necessary techniques required in integrating grid generation and the data structure topology to the flow solver. Under a Phase I effort, a hybrid PNS/NS solver will be developed from an existing NS solver, and a 2D grid generator will be integrated into the flow solver. With a continuation of Phase II effort, the method developed will be extended to a 3D flow solver. With the software developed in object-oriented approach, other physical models such as chemically reacting flows, turbulent flows, multi-phase flows could all be added as a module to the developed baseline capability. The method and the resulting software as proposed by this effort will have cost saving benefits by reducing the hardware costs and by reducing the costs associated with the simulation effort. Also, the resulting software will be available as a module to existing commercial vendors to provide an integrated toolkit from grid generation to flow analysis to visualization within a single framework.

SCHAFER CORPORATION
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 721-9572
Mr. Richard Steinberg
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Human Engineered Intelligent Tools
Abstract:As computer workstations continue to increase in the ability to display more information, the necessity for an intuitive Command and Control (C2) display becomes paramount. Interaction efficiency is critical to avoid operator fatigue and minimize operator error rates that could cost lives. In emerging C2 systems and concepts, the user typically acts as a manager by exception while the majority of system activity is computer automated. While direct interaction of the user with the system is minimal, an inaccurate action by the user can have catastrophic consequences. There is clearly a need for decision aiding systems in C2 Displays. This proposal suggests the use of human engineered intelligent tools to satisfy this need. An intelligent tool is a process than acts as an assistant to the user by displaying suggested actions. However, the method of displaying information directly affects the action taken by an operator. The actions taken by an operator may be erroneous if the decision aiding display method is not compatible with the cognitive functions of the operator. Without the appropriate incorporation of Human Factors Engineering integrated into a decision aiding display, the most sophisticated intelligent algorithm is made useless. Many potential applications exist for the integration of intelligent user interface tools and OSI research. In addition to the obvious applications in DoD real-time systems (C2 of elements against Terrorist warfare, weapon, C2, communication, aviation, etc), time critical, accuracy demanding, decision making display applications exist both in state and local governments, and in the commercial sector. The potential non-DoD areas for application of this technology include Relief Operations Centers of state and local Emergency Management Agencies, Police 911 centers, the Air Traffic Control System, and in manufacturing plants to support real-time manufacturing control. During Phase II, we plan to employ commercial software development procedures and to develop software to as near a marketable condition as possible. Phase III will begin with a market survey to assess the potential for commercial and state/local Government sales. If the market survey confirms the need, a target area will be chosen and Schafer will commit significant corporate funding to complete the commercialization of the product. Anticipated Phase II activities include Beta-site testing of the software, usability testing to refine the product, documentation, marketing and sales.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0863
Mr. Peter A. Kiss
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Event-Driven Distributed Information Fusion
Abstract:Whether the subject is satellite surveillance data, clues on terrorist activities, or corporate decision-making, we are globally drawing in information. To win the war on information we need knowledge and the appropriate systems to optimally use it on information. To solve Autonomous Satellite Cluster Data Fusion and other distributed information fusion problems, we must be able to autonomously process and act on information, distribute and share knowledge, and enable distributed systems to work cooperatively. Sentar proposes to address these challenges with an Event-Driven Distributed Information Fusion (EDIF) System. Our concept is to build the EDIF System with a hierarchy of intelligent agents. Using our KnoWeb technology for Dynamic Distributed Problem Solving will greatly accelerate our ability to build systems of autonomous components capable of sharing knowledge and solving distributed fusion problems cooperatively. The benefits of such a system are clear in the context of enhanced surveillance mission effectiveness and processing efficiencies on autonomous satellites. These same benefits can greatly impact the war on terrorism as well as corporate decision-making and customer support. By enabling satellites and other distributed assets to share information and cue each other for data collection and fusion, surveillance mission effectiveness is greatly enhanced. The benefits of finding and preventing one terrorist plot are not meaningfully measurable. In the commercial world the savings from autonomously solving customer problems via the web verses by phone are 33:1 in dollars. We will commercialize the EDIF technology within the government by applying it to autonomous systems data fusion for the military and homeland defense. In the corporate world we will license the technology to KnoWave, Inc., who will apply it in the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) market.

SYSTEM STUDIES & SIMULATION, INC.
615 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 539-1700
Mr. James P. Walsh
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Bayesian Network For Assessing EKV Lethality
Abstract:The Ground-Based Midcourse (GMD) Defense system must operate within demanding requirements - our lives depend upon its success. The end-game of the engagement sequence is planned to execute flawlessly to achieve hit-to-kill lethality. Many threat, system, and environmental parameters influence the success or failure of the engagement, e.g. aspect angle between the threat and kill vehicle at beginning of end-game. Evaluating the complex relationship between the influencing factors and probability of kill is "success critical". The product of this SBIR is a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model of the GMD end-game. The analysis achievable through the BBN approach is a risk mitigator. The use of test and simulation in conjunction with our powerful machine learning algorithms define the complex relationship among the factors. The BBN is both a predictive model and a diagnostic tool wherein the conditions that yield a high probability of kill can be readily identified. The BBN is both an analysis aid to test planning (identifies where additional data is needed) and decision aid for the system battle manager (plans optimal engagement parameters to maximize the opportunity for successful intercept). The EKV Lethality BBN approach offers risk mitigation to the government's Missile Defense Agency and their hardware developers in three critical GMD system engineering problem areas: Enhanced GMD performance verification by ability to derive more exact estimates of performance variablity under the variety of operational scenarios; Improve test design and optimization by identifying operational regions with highest performance variability due to lack of test measurements; Improved GMD system battle management algorithms to plan and select optimal engagement geometries.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6121
Mr. John Friskie
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:National Intelligent Missile Response & Optimization of Defenses (NIMROD)
Abstract:When a potentially hostile missile is launched, decision-makers manning the National Missile Defense (NMD) Battle Management/Command, Control, and Communications Center (BM/C3) at Cheyenne Mountain, CO need to make timely decisions that may impact millions of American lives. National Intelligent Missile Response & Optimization of Defenses (NIMROD) will take advantage of 21st century technology to provide National Missile Defense commanders a current, accurate, and complete picture of the battlespace in which they must make timely life or death decisions. In this Phase I SBIR, SYTRONICS will develop, in concert with our Government sponsors, an initial set of requirements for NIMROD. SYTRONICS will develop a top-level design and architecture to the extent necessary to perform a feasibility assessment. SYTRONICS will demonstrate the concepts involved with the integration of the various technologies necessary to provide an engagement decision-aid. The concept demonstration will include data fusion, intelligent agent algorithms, and process tools to visualize decision-quality information. Finally, SYTRONICS will contact potential commercial customers (homeland security, etc.) and product-marketing partners to ascertain the commercial product potential for NIMROD. Military users of the National Intelligent Missile Response and Optimization of Defenses (NIMROD) research will realize increased efficiency in parsing large amounts of data and the assimilation of meaningful information providing military commanders with improved situational awareness of the battlefield. The commercial application for this technology spans a large spectrum of possibilities from international banking corporations to rural doctors' offices.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6121
Mr. John Friskie
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Theater Intelligent Missile Response & Optimization of Defenses (TIMROD)
Abstract:When a potentially hostile missile is launched, theater commanders need to make timely decisions that may impact American and allied troops in the theater of operations. Theater Intelligent Missile Response & Optimization of Defenses (TIMROD) will take advantage of 21st century technology to provide Theater Missile Defense commanders a current, accurate, and complete picture of the battlespace in which they must make timely life or death decisions. In this Phase I SBIR, SYTRONICS will develop, in concert with our Government sponsors, an initial set of requirements for TIMROD. SYTRONICS will develop a top-level design and architecture to the extent necessary to perform a feasibility assessment. SYTRONICS will demonstrate the concepts involved with the integration of the various technologies necessary to provide an engagement decision-aid. The concept demonstration will include data fusion, intelligent agent algorithms, and process tools to visualize decision quality information. Finally, SYTRONICS will contact potential commercial customers (homeland security, etc.) and product-marketing partners to ascertain the commercial product potential for TIMROD. Military users of the Theater Intelligent Missile Response and Optimization of Defenses (TIMROD) research will realize increased efficiency in parsing large amounts of data to and from numerous sources and the assimilation of meaningful information providing theater commanders with improved situational awareness of the battlefield.

TECHFINITY, INC.
18345 Ventura Blvd., Suite 509
Tarzana, CA 91356
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 654-9701
Dr. Phillip W. Dennis
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Missile Defense Planner Algorithmic Architecture
Abstract:Since tactical ballistic missiles of increasing capabilities will be a major feature of future battlefields, a critical need exists to provide the capability to evaluate the best utilization of missile defense elements such as launchers, sensors, battle management, and communcications assets. The task is to position these elements to provide a defense that meets or exceeds the commander's campaign objectives in real-time battle. This task is complicated and entails multi-dimensional considerations, not only in the space-time domain, but also constraints such as weapons effectiveness, enemy threat lethality, friendly asset value, asset hardness, enemy and friendly inventories, etc. This parameter space is too large to be effectively explored by semi-automated search methods with human intensive evaluation. A potentially optimal method will require sophisticated automated computational and dimensional reduction approaches. Currently implemented solutions are embryonic, partly automated and essentially elaborate calculators employed by a human planner. The operator employs "drag and drop" interfaces to position defensive assets; invokes calculation agents; and surveys output that presents a plan "score." Depending on the score the operator repositions assets to improve the overall coverage and iterates until a satisfactory plan is found. This "place and score" method is a time intensive "trial and error" approach guided by automated calculation aids. We will develop efficient algorithmic methodologies that go beyond the "place and score" technique and that can be used in a planning system to compute optimal positions and orientations of elements to defend friendly assets. The need to determine a near optimal defense lay down of both BMD assets is a critical need, especially when employing a limited number of launchers and sensors. At the present, there are no existing completly automated solutions for BMD planning. There are additional computationally intensive issues such as the modeling of the statistics threat tubes. This problem will require development of key dimensional reduction techniques using probabilistic decision techniques to avoid the computationally prohibitive evaluation of defenses against thousands of potential threat trajectories and scenarios. The proposed work will build upon and expand the dimensional reduction techniques for air and missile defense planning developed by TechFinity staff on other programs such as THAAD and GMD with an anticipated benefit of significantly reduced time to perform exhaustive exploration of the planning parameter space. A major goal of this study is to develop algorithmic methodologies that address these areas and that will lead to a fully automated BMD planning system that can rapidly solve complex defense lay down analyses. Moreover, our approach will provide multiplicative, order of magnitude cost savings to current and future BMD systems development as our table-driven BMD planning algorithms and software will be easily tailored and inserted into fieldable systems. That is, having solved the problem once, and having solved it rigorously and right, it can then be utilized as an off-the shelf, plug-and-play BMD planner capability in a variety of systems and configurations. Our approach would, therefore, contribute a key piece to a modular, distributed BMD BMC4I architecture, avoiding current stovepipe designs.

TECHFINITY, INC.
18345 Ventura Blvd., Suite 509
Tarzana, CA 91356
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 654-9701
Dr. Phillip W. Dennis
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Decision Architecture for Adaptive, Intelligent BMD Information Fusion
Abstract:Defense against Ballistic missiles is a complicated problem domain that entails multi-dimensional considerations, not only in the space-time domain such as threat kinematics, but also constraints such as threat type and classification and weapon effectiveness. Other dimensions include "physics based" modeling and considerations of sensor management and tasking. Beyond this BM defense should also consider non-physics based "epistemological" information such as enemy dispositions, plans, and intentions. The JDL fusion model defines four levels of fusion: level 1 - Object refinement, level 2 - Situation refinement, level 3 - Threat Refinement, and level 4 - Process refinement. Within the BMD domain, the different problem and solution spaces spanned by the JDL fusion levels require data and information of apparently vastly different types. Heretofore, the prototype techniques to solve these problems have used disparate representational and processing techniques such as state vectors and Kalman filters for tracking, Bayesian fusion for discrimination, and knowledge based rules, frames, and "fuzzy" reasoning for modeling group behaviors in order to infer enemy dispositions and courses of action. Partly reflective of the relative immaturity of fusion levels 2-3, extremely different and specialized point-designs have been devised to address the different levels of fusion. A consideration of the high level functional decomposition of BMD functions mapped to the levels of the JDL fusion model has suggested that it is possible to specify a common core world-model representation of the BMD situation and a set of processes that operate on that representation. These information representations and processes thus provide a maximal and modular, adaptive, distributed architecture for BMD information fusion. The objective of this study is to explore and design an algorithmic decision architecture to serve as a rigorous foundation for developing an integrated, platform-independent BMD information fusion system. By identifying the core representational world model in the BM defense domain, we will be able to provide a complete and uniform set of algorithms that are capable of maximally fusing all of the available information that is both causally and epistemologically coupled. This approach will provide multiplicative order of magnitude cost savings to current and future BMD systems development as the core representations and processes can be tailored and inserted into fieldable systems such as GMD and THAAD. That is, having solved the problem once, and having solved it rigorously, it can then be utilized as an off-the-shelf, plug-and-play distributed information fusion algorithmic architecture in a variety of systems and configurations. Our approach would, therefore, contribute a key piece to a modular, distributed BMD BMC4I architecture, avoiding current stovepipe designs.

VANU, INC.
1 Porter Square, Suite 18
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 864-1711
Dr. Matteo Frigo
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Portable Optimizing Assembler for SIMD Instruction Sets
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will develop a compiler for a portable vector assembly language. This tool will allow portable low-level programs to be written for signal-processing applications, and will produce efficient code for modern general-purpose processors (GPP), taking full advantage of their vector (SIMD) instruction sets such as SSE on the Intel Pentium and Altivec on the Motorola PowerPC. This tool will reduce the software development time and cost, and reduce the hardware parts cost, for a variety of BMDO and commercial signal processing systems. GPPs with SIMD offer superior price/performance and MIPS/Watt/Volume compared to any other COTS processors, but currently, programs that exploit SIMD instructions must be explicitly targeted to a single processor and are not portable. By restricting the problem domain to signal-processing algorithms, and by restricting the portable source language carefully, we expect the compiler developed in this project to output code competitive with hand-written SIMD assembly code. The large software engineering improvements that come from eliminating hand-written assembly code, and the reduction in hardware costs due to running efficient code on GPPs, give this compiler significant commercial potential for use by developers of radio communications systems, medical devices, audio systems, and other signal processing applications. BMDO applications that could potentially benefit from this compiler include signal processing of pulsed doppler radar signals for discrimination, acquisition and tracking; pattern recognition; and target identification. Commercial applications include reducing the time-to-market and reducing the parts cost of a variety of signal processing applications, including radio communications, medical devices, and audio systems.

VEROS SYSTEMS, INC.
2533 Crosstimers Dr.
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 575-0071
Dr. Alexander G. Parlos
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Application-level Quality-of-Service Control of Real-time Flows in Best-effort Networks
Abstract:Internet performance is far from being satisfactory while transporting real-time or media content, such as video or audio. The case is worse for content generated by interactive real-time applications, such as Internet telephony and videoconferencing. Persistent and uncertain end-to-end delays and delay variations result in unsatisfactory end-user experience. Several alternatives have been proposed to enable the Internet and the Next Generation Internet to efficiently transport multimedia content. Most require network infrastructure modifications to support the various multimedia-related protocols being proposed. It is proposed to address application-level Quality-of-Service (QoS) control of interactive real-time applications in best-effort networks, such as the Internet, through the use of the recently developed Active Content Control (ACC) technology. This adaptive predictive flow control technology embedded in RTSwitch, a content switch for interactive flows residing at the network edges, promises to enhance the performance of the current Internet in delivering interactive content, without any core network infrastructure modifications. In Phase I of this SBIR project the feasibility of application-level QoS control of interactive real-time flows in best-effort networks will be demonstrated through extensive packet-level simulations/emulations. Based on recent developments in application-level QoS control of non-interactive real-time flows in best-effort networks, the proposed concept demonstration will include enhancing the applicability of the ACC technology to interactive real-time flows and applications. The commercial potential of an application-level QoS control technology for interactive applications in best-effort networks, such as the Internet, is enormous. Every segment of the Nation's economy, including the defense establishment, can greatly and immediately benefit from such a technological development. From videoconferencing and telephony applications for distance learning and training, to remote surveillance for national security purposes, to remotely operated medical equipment and instruments, to remotely controlled factory automation equipment, networked interactive applications are countless. The worldwide videoconferencing market alone is currently estimated at $3 billion in product and service revenues. Besides its commercial potential, the proposed technology will have a significant societal impact for offering to the public-at-large a cost-effective medium for interactive multimedia communications.

WRITE FOR YOU, INC.
25 Dover Hill Drive
Nesconset, NY 11767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 366-3100
Dr. Stanley Rudman
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Missile Launch Signature Generation
Abstract:This proposal is aimed at providing information and methods to make the problem of missile detection at launch tractable. SBIR Solicitation: "Kinetic Boost Phase intercept is a challenge because the threat missile must be detected and confirmed within seconds of launch." At present there is a dearth of knowledge about the spectral/temporal emission/electromagnetic properties associated with a missile launch. Therefore, it is not possible to rationally specify requirements for a launch detection sensor system. Details of the missile launch phenomenology must be understood so as to discriminate launch signals from other events. The approach of this proposal is to embody the currently understood launch physics in a computer code which is the product we will develop. The "Missile Launch Signature Code" would then be available to contractors. The output of the code would be the optical emission (UV/VIS/IR) and the electromagnetic properties of the ionized gases in the launch cloud. The philosophy behind the code would be to employ simple building block solutions to fluid mechanics and chemistry associated with the missile launch cloud. The methodology is aimed at rapid evaluation techniques that would have wider application in missile plume technology and possibly for environmental evaluations. The anticipated benefits are a capability to rationally specify a sensor system for the detection of missile launches. One output of the code would be the optical temporal/spectral signature of a missile launch. These properties set the requirements for the launch sensor design and optimization. In addition, the electromagnetic information generated by the "Launch Signature Code" may open the door to other possible launch detection technologies such as passive or active radar detection.

XFINIT
373 N.Farms Rd., suite 201
Florence, MA 01062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 517-0088
Mr. Jeff Hausthor
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Intrusion Detection System for Host Computers
Abstract:Current host-based intrusion detection systems are mostly based on attack signatures and are unreliable for detecting insider and/or new attacks and they create too many false positives so that administrators become complacent about potential security risks. The opportunity exists to build hierarchical statistical models for host-based intrusion detection systems that will perform deviation detection within information systems while minimizing false alarms. The system is based on the creation of a behavior dictionary for accurate monitoring of deviations. It has three innovative key components. They are: (1) new algorithms for extracting a behavior dictionary from system call data. (2) a statistical model for command names and parameters sequence and (3) an information fusion system based on artificial intelligence techniques for fusing the detection signals generated from different levels of operation data. Tests using the DARPA Intrusion Detection Evaluation data hosted at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory have been very successful. Xfinit's Intrusion Detection System will serve financial institutions, large corporations and government agencies. They will benefit from tighter security that is simple and easy to manage. Xfinit has a unique solution that will enhance internal security and will create trust mechanisms between outsourcing partners. With tighter security, companies and organizations will be able to take advantage of cost saving systems and data transference.

XONTECH, INC.
6862 Hayvenhurst Avenue
Van Nuys, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9123
Mr. Jeff Johnson
MDA 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:Object-Oriented Radar Analysis and Simulation Building Blocks
Abstract:Radar simulation is an important tool in the design and analysis of radar systems. The radar engineer typically uses radar simulations and other computer computations to perform trade studies of configurations, develop signal and data processing algorithms, and analyze performance. These simulations are usually built from scratch, possibly leveraging code from existing simulations, to meet the needs of the specific radar being designed at significant cost in money and time to a program. The resulting simulation is often not user-friendly, understood by only the developers themselves, and not very flexible, requiring significant modification to incorporate even simple design or operational changes. Unfortunately, radar engineers do not have available to them a Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) product that will facilitate the development of radar simulations. The creation of a completely generic simulation is not practical. However, building blocks can be created that the engineer can choose and assemble to make calculations and perform simulations at various levels of fidelity while retaining complete knowledge of the models and providing for future growth. This proposal is to investigate the feasibility of creating these building blocks to provide modeling capabilities for all types of radars. This type of COTS product would allow the radar engineer to quickly make computations and build simulations of all types of radars. The building blocks created for a project will provide a flexible and expandable simulation capability. A COTS product used by engineers throughout the industry will result in simulations that are readily understood by others in the community. It will also provide for a more standardized verification and validation (V&V) of simulation models. As a completely generic product, it could be marketed to a large number of government contractors and private sector companies working on radar design and analysis.

AGILITY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
421 Pine Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 690-1762
Dr. Michael Larson
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:High Power Widely Tunable Semiconductor Laser for Radar Backplane Reconfigurable WDM Interconnects - Subtopic: BMDO/ 02-211B (Optical Devices)
Abstract:Fast, widely-tunable frequency-agile lasers have the potential of delivering dramatic improvements in capacity, capability, robustness, compactness, and cost in fiber optic communications and sensing systems, for both military and commercial applications. The SGDBR (Sampled Grating Bragg Reflector) laser is a leading candidate device technology among widely tunable lasers. The primary challenge facing this type of lasers is output power; namely, achieving high (>20 mW) power while still preserving a wide tuning range and high spectral purity. Powers of the order of 10 mW have been obtained through the monolithic integration of Tunable Laser and Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA). However, the maximum amplifier gain is limited by power saturation effects and furthermore, extremely stringent requirements are placed on the facet coating to reduce the effects of spurious facet reflections. Further increases in power and efficiency for 40 mW and beyond require a novel device structure, which is the subject of this proposal: the SGDBR laser monolithically integrated with a coupled power oscillator (SGDBR-CPO). The specific objectives of this Phase I program are: developing static and dynamic models of the device; exploring design trade-offs governing power, tuning range and spectral purity; developing an approach to test and control of the device. The full implementation of this project will result in widely tunable transmitters (tunable over 40 nm in the 1550 nm wavelength range) with high output power (more than 40 mW in the optical fiber) and high spectral purity. These devices will enable unmatched flexibility in the interconnection of the different elements comprising a radar system and other defense systems with similar wide bandwidth communication requirements. Rapid (nanosecond) and wide wavelength tunability are of substantial benefit to these systems. At the same time, monolithic integration provides the smallest possible component footprint and reduced power consumption. The potential commercial applications of this device are significant, leading to high volume manufacturing and reduced cost. This will provide a low-cost manufacturing base to benefit both commercial and defense applications. Some of the commercial applications include: transmitter sparing in long-haul DWDM systems, dynamic networks (both metro and long-haul applications), optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs), optical switches.

AGILTRON CORPORATION
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-0513
Dr. Jing Zhao
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Self-latching solid-state fiber optic cross-connect switch array
Abstract:High performance fiberoptic switches are in great demand for use in both modern commercial and defense communication networks and next-generation military sensing systems. Current fiberoptic switches lack reliability and operation speed. Carrie-class reliable switch matrix has not been realized because of the intrinsic limitation of existing technologies. Agiltron Corporation proposes to develop a novel all solid-state cross-connect switch technology that overcomes these drawbacks. The non-mechanical fiberoptic switch has leading edge performance attributes, which include excellent thermal and temporal stability, high-speed operation, polarization insensitivity, low optical loss, fault-tolerance self latching, as well as compact and rugged. This advanced switch is well suited for defense applications that require ultra-high reliable long-term and fail-safe operation in harsh environment. The design eliminates the need for mechanical movement and organic materials, which introduce intrinsic drawbacks. Moreover, the design is simple, compact, scalable, and cost effective. It is anticipated that state-of-the-art performance in several key specifications can be achieved through this program. These include uncompromising optical performance and reliability that has not been reached before. Prototype 1x4 switch will be fabricated to demonstrate functionality in Phase I. It is anticipated that the proposed high performance switch will have wide application in DoD systems such as aviation networks, photonic radar, and fiberoptic microwave distribution network. The anticipated commercial communication switching market is very large with forecasted reaching billion dollars by year 2006.

AIM-WAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5431 N. Indian Trail
Tucson, AZ 85750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 299-3883
Dr. David Geraghty
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Tunable Dispersion Compensator for Telecommunications Using Ion-Exchanged Waveguides
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project develops tunable dispersion compensators by planar glass waveguide technology. The buried ion-exchanged waveguides we propose to use enable the fabrication of low-loss waveguides with very low birefringence. The process is extremely simple and reproducible, which will facilitate the low-cost production of devices. The proposed design will eliminate the need for the expensive and lossy circulators used in many fiber-based designs. Successfully meeting the goals in this Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. It will also provide a stepping stone towards the development of integrated optic dispersion compensators suitable for use in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Successfully meeting the goals of the proposed project will facilitate further development of high-speed optical networks for data- and telecommunications. These networks have been critical in the recent, unprecedented growth in the U.S. economy, allowing the development of new technologies and services. High-speed data communications are critical to the sophisticated technology aspects of the U.S. defense.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Valery Rupasov
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Optical Quantum Information Processing in Photonic Crystals
Abstract:Quantum mechanics predicts that quantum two-level systems - quantum bits, or simply qubits - can provide fundamentally new methods of information processing due to possible existing in an arbitrary coherent superposition of quantum states. That offers an enormous gain in the use of information technology resources such as time and memory. The first qubits and quantum logic gates are now being built in the laboratory. ALTAIR Center proposes to develop a novel practically realizable physical scheme for optical quantum information processing based on polarized states of atoms embedded in a photonic crystal. Spontaneous decay of the photon-atom bound state is completely suppressed. That allows constructing the long-life qubits and single-atom quantum logic gates. The proposed physical realization solves the problem of decoherence critical for building the quantum information processing devices. In Phase I of this project we will prove feasibility of the proposed concept by modeling simulation and study quantum properties of the degenerate two-level systems embedded in a photonic crystal. In Phase II of the project the obtained results will be applied to developing of a comprehensive model for the prototype quantum information devices. The developed model will be delivered to DoD by the end of the project. In addition to immediate military applications the quantum information science and technology has great commercialization potential and niche market which cannot be covered by conventional classical technologies including the development of unbreakable cryptographic schemes, design of quantum computation algorithms and the development of quantum technologies for implementations in telecommunication, computer and information industry.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Sergei Krivoshlykov
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Self-assembling of micro-lenses on optical fibers
Abstract:ALTAIR Center proposes to develop an innovative technology for fabrication of a micro-lens directly on the optical fiber employing a simple and efficient self-organization process of the lens formation based on Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). During this process the micro-lens is automatically created exactly on the fiber core as a result of a chemical reaction. Geometrical parameters of the micro-lens can be easily controlled via the proper choice of the regime of processing. The process of formation of the self-assembled micro-lens is extremely simple and cost-effective. It does not require special clean room facilities. It is much faster than conventional gas-phase CVD process. In Phase I of the project we will perform feasibility study, develop and demonstrate this new technology. The optical characteristics of the deposited lens will be investigated as the function of experimental conditions. In Phase II the process of formation of the self-assembled lens will be applied to fabrication of effective couplers for laser diodes and optical fiber sensors. By the end of the project the developed prototype apparatus for fabrication of micro-lenses on optical fibers will be delivered to DoD. In addition to immediate military applications, the self-assembled lenses can be used in optical fiber communication industry, sensors, scanning near field optical microscopes (SNOM), fiber-pigtailed high brightness laser diode systems, laser surgery, etc.

BEAM ENGINEERING FOR ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS COMPANY
686 Formosa Avenue
Winter Park, FL 32789
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 629-1282
Dr. Nelson V. Tabiryan
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Universal building blocks for modular photonics and related all-optical technologies
Abstract:The goal of the present Phase 1 proposal is introducing nonlinear optical technologies for controlling light beams in complex optical structures, including fiber optics interconnects and switches. We will revisit and gain further insight into the processes of laser beam interaction with liquid crystals proving that novel materials have matured those processes for modern applications. Operation of a diversity of new generation photonics devices will be tested in order to demonstrate the depth of the potential impact of new nonlinear optical materials and processes on photonics. Among them are Nonlinear Optical Cubes as universal building blocks for all-optical logic gates, interconnects, switches, scanners, and limiters. Liquid Crystal Streak Cameras will visualize optical trajectories in complex optical structures like tapered and bent fibers. They will also make possible on-line measurement of intrafiber light radiation, control with its power, polarization and mode structure. Optical and mechanical properties of liquid crystals will be used for demonstration of such unique phenomena as Optically Controlled Optical Bistability and non-reciprocal light propagation. New nonlinear optical materials will be synthesized specifically for controlling near and mid IR beams using the opportunities provided by the synthetic versatility of liquid crystal systems. Modular Photonics and new opportunities for all-optical light manipulations will simplify construction and reconfiguration of complex optical structures and will enhance versatility, robustness and reliability of optical systems incorporated in DoD and commercial applications.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Dr. Murty Bhamidipati
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Hybrid Photonic Materials for Optically Addressed Light Modulators (Subtopic A)
Abstract:Novel bio-organic/inorganic hybrid materials for use in optically addressed light modulators is proposed. Supramolecular chemistry will be used to prepare previously unknown materials for light modulation. If successful, the proposed research will improve the speed, pixel count, resolution and contrast of spatial light modulators while simultaneously reducing their size, weight and cost. Phase I research includes materials synthesis and optical tests to define the capabilities of the proposed materials and compare these with those of existing materials. The proposed new materials will have applications in optical computing, holographic storage media, machine vision, optical pattern recognitition and multi-layer optical disk storage.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road, Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Dr. Vicente Munne
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Bulk Growth of Gallium Nitride Single Crystal Boules
Abstract:The primary goal of Phase I will be to demonstrate the feasibility of growing high quality 5-mm thick boules of GaN single crystal using the physical vapor transport method. Cermet will employ a novel, proprietary technique to enable the production of a gallium-containing vapor. The vapor will then be crystallized on a seed in a nitrogen-containing atmosphere in the form of GaN boules. Crystals will be characterized using x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and GDMS. This technique will provide BMDO with a high quality source of single crystal GaN. This Technology will provide a source for GaN single crystals, which will be used in the fabrication of nitride laser diodes, high power nitride devices, nitride blue and white light emitting diodes, and nitride photodetectors.

CRYSTAL RESEARCH, INC.
45275 Northport Court, Suite B
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 445-0833
Dr. Suning Tang
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Micro Wavelength-Division-Multiplexers (WDM) Based on Holographically Formed Photonic Bandgap Polymers
Abstract:Photonic bandgap crystals exhibit unique property of strong dispersion that is particularly useful for producing ultra small wavelength separation devices with much improved performance at reduced cost. These artificially micro structured materials contain periodically modulated dielectric constant on a length scale comparable to the wavelength of light. It has been realized that the lack of fabrication technology and the lack of photonic materials significantly slow down the technology advancement in this area. In this Phase I program, Crystal Research, Inc. proposes a micro wavelength-division-demultiplexer (WDMs) based on holographically formed photonic bandgap polymers. CRI's technology breakthrough in forming unique photonic polymers based on conventional holography technology breaks a new ground for fabrication of photonic bandgap materials. No complicated fabrication and material engineering are required. The innovative photonic bandgap polymers developed at Crystal Research have the dispersion of light 1,000 times stronger that the dispersion in conventional prisms. The application of such photonic bandgap polymers can create the next generation of integrated micro-scale planar lightwave circuits ( PLCs). We will deliver preliminary prototype of WDM device made of photonic bandgap polymers with a device dimension at least 1000 times smaller in area compared to any existing WDM devices. The proposed WDM concept will open a novel field of photonic dispersion optics. The application of photonic bandgap polymers can create the next generation of integrated micro-scale planar lightwave circuits ( PLC's). Such PLC's will allow more efficient use of wavelength resources when used in the wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers for improved performance at reduced cost.

DATA FUSION CORPORATION
10190 Bannock Street, Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Dr. A. Steven Younger
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:An Optical Neural Device
Abstract:Optical Neural Networks can perform function mapping problems, such as target classification, faster than any other technology available today. However, they are slow at learning new mappings. This is because learning requires changing the optical synaptic weights, which us usually done off-line by a conventional computer. It also requires that the new synaptic medium - such as a photographic plate - be created and installed. We propose a solution to this problem called Optical Fixed-Weight Learning Neural Networks, which can learn at full optical speeds. These networks store mapping information in recurrent neural signal loops. They also have their learning algorithm embedded or wired into their neural circuitry. Instead of having information about how to do a single functional mapping stored in their synaptic weights, Optical Fixed-Weight Learning Neural Networks have information about how to learn any mapping stored in their synapses. Thus, these networks can learn new mappings without changing the synaptic medium. Very fast learning optical neural networks.

DIGITAL OPTICS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
500 Old West Road
Randolph, MA 02368
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 963-3280
Dr. John Donoghue
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Super Parallel Holographic Optical Correlator for Rapid Identification of Targets (BMDO/02-211B: Optical Devices)
Abstract:In many situations, it is necessary to identify a target rapidly. Here, we offer to demonstrate a novel device that can search through more than ten million images, stored in a one terabyte holographic memory unit (HMU), in a millisecond. Called the super parallel holographic optical correlator (SPHOC), this device can be viewed as nearly two thousands holographic optical correlator (HOC) running in parallel. The key innovation here is a novel architecture we have developed and demonstrated, where the query image is split into 1600 copies using a holographic multiplexer/demultiplexer (HMD). Each image is then applied to one of the 1600 sub-areas of the HMU, each storing nearly 8000 images that are angle-multiplexed in two dimensions. An HMD along with two detector arrays (one with 1600 elements, the other with 8000 elements) are used to decipher which, if any, image is matched. The SPHOC outperforms an HOC by nearly three orders of magnitude, and has an effective speed that is more than a million times faster than a digital signal processing based correlator. Many HMU's can be loaded serially to search through billions of images. The ability to access very rapidly such an enormous database, which could contain many views of each missile, would enable identification and tracking of an incoming missile more efficiently than any existing technology. This technology is likely to revolutionize the field of image identification. For BMDO, this technology will enhance significantly the speed and capacity of automatic target recognition, especially in the context of identifying and tracking missiles. Commercial applications include computer vision, photo identification, finger print identification, and data mining.

F&H APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOCIATES, INC.
P.O. Box 853
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 235-6781
Dr. Robert Fischl
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Optical Transmitters Utilizing Microchip Lasers, BMDO/02-211B
Abstract:The overall goal of the proposed program is to develop a new generation of compact solid state lasers for a variety of applications including frequency-hopped millimeter wave communication; chirped Lidar/Ladar for target detection and ranging; generation of high frequency, low jitter clock signals; high resolution Analog to Digital converters; and ultra low-noise millimeter wave signal generation for radar and medical diagnostics. The key element of the proposed research is an electro-optic microchip laser, a generic device that can be tailored to meet the specific requirements of a variety of applications. The innovative concept is a monolithic optical cavity comprised of a gain section and a modulator section providing for interaction between the optical and millimeter wave fields. High frequency, low-jitter optical clock oscillators for military and civilian applications, such as A/D conversion in the semiconductor industry; frequency-tunable millimeter wave optical transmitters with very high chirp rates for target detection and medical imaging/diagnostics; secure military and commercial communications; and DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) of information signals. The potential market for this family of devices is varied and significant, with both military and non-military applications.

KENT OPTRONICS, INC
275 Martinel Dr., Suite W
Kent, OH 44240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 897-0138
Dr. Le Li
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Photonics; BMDO/02-211B-Optical Devices
Abstract:In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I proposal, development of fully integrated stationary wave-guided NxN optical router switches is proposed. The new witches over perform the MEMs and conventional liquid crystal switch technologies. Made from the revolutionary liquid crystal based single layer switchable mirror, this new switch features low insertion loss, low cross-talk, low polarization dispersion loss, fast speed, low cost, beam self-alignment and easy to manufacture. Based on the Phase I success, prototypes of NxN optical switch with N up to 64 will be fabricated in the anticipated Phase II program followed by a full commercialization. The switch will replace the currently deployed electro-mechanical optical switch to enhance current optical network performance. The success of this proposal will have many broad-based applications. Telecommunication system is the primary application. Other application is to use the developed liquid crystal switchable mirror as a light valve for projection display device. Third, a spectrally tunable filter can be developed based on this technology.

KENT OPTRONICS, INC
275 Martinel Dr., Suite W
Kent, OH 44240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 897-0138
Dr. Le Li
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Photonics; BMDO/02-211A-Optical Materials
Abstract:This SBIR program proposes a novel laser line discrimination technology for military applications based on a novel filter made from special liquid crystal thin films. In the "off" state, the laser line discrimination device is optically clear under zero voltage. Once electrically switched, the device exhibits narrow band reflection peaks that reject incoming laser lines at two or more predetermined wavelengths to protect eyes and/or detectors from laser damage. Other unique features of the proposed device include high contrast ratio at the reflection wavelengths, high transmittance under zero voltage, high off-peak transmittance outside the reflection peaks, fast speed, simple and compact device structure, light weight, and low cost. Although this technology is designed to suite the military applications for laser line discrimination, it can be extended to many other applications. Examples include an optical matrix switch array for telecommunication. As a second example, it can be used to create a spectrally responsive color filter whose reflection wavelength can be electrically tuned. Other applications include polarizer, spectrum dispersion element, spectrum tunable mirror, spectrum filter, beam splitter and combiner, display and photonics instrument such as spectrophotometer, lasers, and optical imaging and detection systems.

LIGHTSMYTH TECHNOLOGIES
2440 Panorama Drive
Eugene, OR 97405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 954-4799
Dr. Thomas Mossberg
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Fully Integrated, Multiport, Planar-Waveguide, Spectral Comparators And Multiplexers Based On Lithographic Holography
Abstract:By combining fabrication methods perfected in the semiconductor industry with device concepts derived from optical holography, LightSmyth Technologies intends to develop a new family of fully integrated, robust, optical devices uniquely suited to high performance spectral filtering, spectral target recognition, optical multiplexing, temporal correlation of optical waveforms, and the temporal coding and decoding of optical signals as needed for lidar or for code-based communications. The new device family utilizes lithographically scribed holographic structures on planar waveguides. Member devices are expected to simultaneously incorporate robustness, low-cost, and high performance. The present proposal focuses on multiport planar holographic devices for use in optical multiplexing, in wavelength-division-multiplexed communication systems or for spectral target recognition/sensing where very high speed comparison of target spectra with multiple reference spectra is needed. Other applications include the simultaneous cross-correlation of received optical signals with a collection of reference waveforms. Multiport planar holographic filters utilize an overlay of multiple independent holographic structures providing a multiplicity of spectral transfer functions within a single device. Technical objectives include the modeling of important operation parameters including expected insertion loss, polarization dependence, and spectral programmability. A Phase II program focused on device fabrication is planned. If successful, the R&D outlined in this proposal will provide the basis for a new family of high performance, robust, low-cost, fully integrated multiplexers for application in wavelength-division-multiplexed communication systems. Planar holographic multiplexers will permit mixed channel spacing and fully configurable channel-specific bandpass profiles. Pathways to ultra low cost multiplexer devices for access networks exist. Alternative device applications include target spectrum recognition through high-speed comparison to device-stored reference spectra.

LIGHTSPIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 30198
Bethesda, MD 20824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-8562
Dr. Eric S. Harmon
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Optical Gain Modulators and Switches Using Toggling (BMDO02-011B)
Abstract:An optical waveform can be driven by an electrical signal using the novel physics and device structure of a "toggling" gain modulator. Operation over 100 GHz is anticipated with high extinction. Toggling modulators are expected to dissipate little power, tolerate wide variation in operating temperature, and avoid amplified spontaneous emission noise. Toggling gain modulators should enable a new class of ultra-fast gated optoelectronic devices, including modulation of CW or pulsed sources, optical switching, gated detection, and interprocessor communications devices.

LUNA INNOVATIONS INCORPORATED
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4270
Dr. Daniela Marciu Topasna
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Nanostructured Ionically Self-Assembled Monolayer Films for Electro-Optic Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project will demonstrate the enhanced second order nonlinear properties of electro-optic thin films fabricated by the ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) technology. This revolutionary method of creating multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer has been proven to yield self-assembled, electronically and photonically active polymeric thin films. Luna Innovations and its research partners have previously demonstrated that the ISAM technique can be used to fabricate noncentrosymmetric electro-optic polymer films. In particular, we have previously shown that the ionic nature of the deposition process results in a polar ordering of organic second order nonlinear chromophores that requires no additional processing after creation of the film and exhibits inherent long-term stability, in contrast to nonlinear optical poled polymers. Here, we propose that a greater than order of magnitude enhancement in the c(2) of ISAM thin films is made possible through the use of multi-ionic chromophore molecules rather than side-chain polymers. The ISAM process allows precise molecular level control over the assembly of an electro-optic thin film with exceptional homogeneity and ease of processing. ISAM nonlinear optical films offer additional major advantages of excellent homogeneity for low scattering loss, high thermal and chemical stability, simplicity and low-cost. ISAM electro-optic thin films have immediate application in military and commercial optical communications areas as optical modulators and directional couplers.

LUTRONICS
28 Ruthellen Rd.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 821-8448
Dr. Yalin Lu
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Novel 2D Optical Superlattice for Optical Interconnection Devices
Abstract:Optical computation requires very specific optical interconnection schemes such as the in-plane sharp bends and the fast channel switching functions. The integration requirement with existing waveguide technologies further put many limitations on using the current technologies to develop such a device with acceptable performances. This project proposes a new concept of using a new bistable mechanism to fabricate such a interconnection device that will provide lossless sharp bending waveguide connections and fast switching functions of nanoseconds. This device will be are very important for many optical computation and fiber optic communication applications. Successes in this Phase I effort related to the identification of this new bistable mechanism and the novel device will identify the promise of this developed process for further highly integrated interconnect device development. The military and civilian applications are diverse, including optical computation and fiber optical communication technology.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-3919
Dr. Robert E. Schwerzel
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:LOW-LOSS HYBRID RF/ELECTROOPTIC SUBSYSTEMS-ON-A-CHIP
Abstract:The proposed research program seeks to develop a totally new hybrid waveguide materials platform for low-loss integrated-optic subsystems-on-a-chip that incorporate both electrooptic and RF electronic functionality. The unique architecture of these chips will integrate mode-matched doped silica input and output waveguides with the electrooptic waveguide region, so as to provide exceptionally low insertion losses for the overall subsystem. An epitaxial thin film of barium titanate will be used for the electrooptic waveguide material, and an epitaxial thin film of barium strontium titanate will be integrated onto the same chip, away from the optical waveguide region, for use in RF electronic devices, such as phase shifters. The combination of these capabilities on a single chip will allow the fabrication of a wide variety of compact, low-loss, low-power subsystems-on-a-chip, such as optical controllers for RF phased array antennas and chips for RF-to-fiber conversion. The fabrication of the unique materials platform that enables these advances is made possible by MCT's proprietary Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) technology, which permits the deposition of complex metal oxides with excellent film uniformity and compositional control in an open-air, non-vacuum environment. MCT expects that the successful completion of the proposed Phase I program, together with an anticipated Phase II development program and a subsequent Phase III commercialization program, will enable the development of a variety of integrated-optic / RF-electronic subsystems-on-a-chip. Because of the performance advantages that MCT's hybrid materials platform will provide, these subsystems-on-a-chip will offer low insertion losses and sub-nanosecond response times to meet the growing demand for greater bandwidth, lower power, and smaller size for both military and commercial telecommunications and signal processing applications. The resulting products will combine multiple optical and electronic functions on a single chip or wafer, and will have greatly increased robustness as compared to comparable subsystems today, which must be assembled from a number of discrete components. Because MCT's CCVD technology provides a unique capability for fabricating the chips we envision, the proposed project represents a major opportunity for MCT. MCT expects to market both component and subsystem offerings of hybrid optical/electronic subsystems-on-a-chip, using our "Optiguide" waveguide architecture as described above. In a best-case scenario, this will position MCT as the "Intel" of the photonics industry. In 2005, the targeted marketplace is estimated at $23 billion/year. Capturing even a tiny percentage of this market represents a significant opportunity for MCT.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mr. Mike Vercellino
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:02-211A-Optical Materials: Polymer Photonic Claddings by Electrostatic Self-Assembly
Abstract:The proposed BMDO SBIR program would develop polymer-based optical cladding materials and device structures for use in high-speed optical communication systems. NanoSonic Inc. would work with a major research university and a company involved in the development and evaluation of advanced electro-optic devices. During Phase I, our team would design and synthesize required polymer and other molecules, form these precursors into candidate electro-optic waveguide claddings by electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processing, and evaluate resulting dielectric and conductive properties, core-cladding waveguide losses, environmental stability and other properties. The ESA process consists of the alternate adsorption of oppositely-charged molecules onto substrates to form multilayered coatings. Prior NanoSonic research has demonstrated that ESA processing leads to the formation of noncentrosymmetric materials without the need for electric field poling. The proposed new and separate work would approach ESA synthesis using a different strategy, involving a different molecular-level design approach to control cladding conductivity and index while retaining other desired properties. Increased cladding conductivity would result in decreased modulation voltage losses in the cladding material, and lower half-wave voltage requirements for electro-optic modulators.. Extensive facilities for design, processing and evaluation of molecular precursors, ESA materials and prototype devices are available to support this program. Polymer-based electro-optic materials have important applications in high-speed optical communication devices and systems for military and commercial use. The ESA process is a potentially useful manufacturing tool for the fabrication of such devices, as well as a wider range of nanostructured organic/inorganic materials and device products

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY INC.
9380 SW 72nd Street, B-180
Miami, FL 33173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. Jame J. Yang
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Array Waveguide Evanescent Coupler for Card-to-Backplane Optical Interconnect Applications
Abstract:Card-to-backplane optical interconnects are required for high speed opto-electronic packaged computing systems. Present method of interconnection employs 90 out of plane turn by the optical waveguide. Such approach greatly increases cost of manufacture and degrades backplane reliability. Furthermore, the presence of such local waveguide termination consumes optical power even when the card is not plugged in at the interconnect location. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes herein an array waveguide evanescent coupler for card-to-backplane optical interconnection. The new coupler facilitates easy coupling between card and backplane waveguides through an auto alignment packaging. It eliminates the problems of 90 out of plane turn and local waveguide termination. Without local card plug-in there is no optical energy consumption at the connector location. With card plugged-in the card-to-backplane coupling efficiency can be adjusted through a locking screw. Adjusting coupling efficiency can also support broadcasting function for multiple-card interconnects. This approach is thus an energy efficient approach with excellent repeatability and interconnect reliability. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the array waveguide evanescent coupling. Phase II will optimize the coupler and interconnect system for the realization of a practical optical interconnected opto-electronic computing system. The successful development of the proposed array waveguide evanescent coupler will realize a practical card-to-backplane optical interconnect system for fast opto-electronic computing applications. Fast computing will benefit military applications in missile interception, C4I, fast access to large intelligent database. Commercial applications include multi-port fiber coupler with adjustable coupling efficiency for communication. The development will also benefit data fusion, neural networks, complex multimode radar systems, and high speed general pattern recognition problem solving.

NP PHOTONICS, INC.
UA Science&Technology Park, 9030 S. Rita Road#120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7438
Dr. Arturo Chavez-Pirson
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Side-pumped monolithic optical amplifier arrays based in erbium-doped phosphate glass
Abstract:This project will focus on the development of side-pumped, monolithic amplifier and amplifier arrays based on short-length, high gain erbium-doped phosphate glass. The proposal will attempt to bring together two exciting approaches aimed at producing compact, highly functional optical amplifiers with the potential for rapid reduction in the cost per amplifier port. First, we will investigate a novel side-pumping geometry using inexpensive, high power multimode pump laser sources to simultaneously energize an array of erbium-doped active cores. The pumping geometry allows for massive sharing of the pump power over several amplifier ports. It also eliminates the need for the complicated and costly pump-signal wavelength-division multiplexers used in conventional erbium-doped amplifiers. Second, we will explore low cost fiber drawing methods to produce compact, monolithic amplifier array structures. In contrast to other fabrication approaches, fiber drawing technologies support the formation of active core elements with very high erbium and ytterbium doping concentrations, circular cross sections, and dramatically lower per unit cost. The demonstration of side-pumped monolithic amplifier arrays will pave the way for widespread deployment of low-cost, compact amplification throughout a variety of optical communication networks. The side-pumped, monolithic amplifier array device proposed here has the potential to be widely used in optical communication networks, optical processing components and networks, and sensor networks.

NUONICS, INC
3361 Rouse Road, Suite 170
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 381-1663
Dr. Nabeel Riza
MDA 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:High Speed True Time Delay Photonic Beamforming for Wideband Radar
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project deals with a unique true time delay photonic beamforming technology applicable to BMDO TMD and NMD radar program activities such as the PATRIOT Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile system, Navy Area Wide AEGIS/Standard Missile System, and the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) System. This beamformer uses solid-state optical device technology that meets the microsecond switching speed requirement for TMD. It is assembled from compact signal processing modules, leading to ease in scalability of the radar. The module features low - 100 dB RF crosstalk noise and simultaneous independent channel operations for creating multiple simultaneous independent radar beams utilized for fast search and tracking. Each module can handle watt level optical powers and can be designed for time delays from pico-seconds to tens of nanoseconds. The beamformer has the additional capability to provide high > 100 dB RF dynamic range signal amplitude control, a feature highly useful in adaptive nulling and beam shaping. Phase I research will concentrate on the basic proposed module and its proof of concept experimental demonstration. Groundwork will be laid to indicate technical concept feasibility that will lead to a Phase II plan for prototyping and development. Apart from use in TMD-mod