---------- ARMY ----------

354 Phase I Selections from the 02.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ADVANCED CERAMETRICS, INC.
P.O. Box 128, 245 North Main Street
Lambertville, NJ 08530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 397-2900
Dr. Farhad Mohammadi
ARMY 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Energy Generation
Abstract:Advanced Cerametrics, Inc. (ACI) has developed a technology to produce flexible and robust piezoelectric fiber composite transducers, which can be used to recover energy from various motions, including vibration, compression, and flexure, and then convert it into electric power. ACI proposes to design and develop a lightweight, low cost, piezoelectric fiber-based composite transducer energy recovery system that can be used as a power source for charging batteries. The energy harvesting transducers are durable (>20MM cycles with no degradation in properties), conformable, and can be fit and placed in various locations around the launch system area or even in a small caliber gun. The system converts mechanical energy that is available in the form of structural vibrations, originating from shocks, setback forces, gun launch, or transportation, into electrical energy, which is then stored in a capacitor. These piezoelectric fiber composites can convert up to 65% of the waste mechanical energy to electrical energy. Research will be conducted to determine location and magnitude of available sources of gun launch mechanical energy. A vibration table will be constructed that represents vibrational scenarios during gun launch and the output voltage will be measured and evaluated for the transducer design refinement for maximum output power efficiency. Harvesting of waste energy makes it possible to replace batteries or prolong the operation of battery-operated devices. Self-powered and lightweight energy sources will have a great impact in electronic device operations for extended period of time far beyond the battery's life span. This system represents a new fundamental technology platform where self-powered systems can perform functions, indefinitely, using waste energy, independent of outside control or power source. The devices will be maintenance free for many years and, therefore, will have broad application.

BIPOLAR TECHNOLOGIES
4724 Brentwood Circle
Provo, UT 84604
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 225-1974
Dr. Rodney M. LaFollette
ARMY 02-001      Selected for Award
Title:Miniature Hybrid Power Supplies for Enclosed Spaces
Abstract:The US Army needs hybrid power supplies to allow autonomous operation of electronic devices, that can extract energy from its environment in a variety of forms, store it temporarily , and then release it as needed. The power supply must have longevity, operate in a wide temperature range, and withstand high shear rates and pressure. It also must be adaptable to different electrical requirements, and be inexpensive. The purpose of this work is to develop an integrated hybrid power supply to meet this need. It will consist of (single or multiple) energy scavengers and microscopic batteries developed by Bipolar Technologies. A fuzzy-logic based controller will interface the energy scavenger(s) and battery. The controller will monitor battery state and transmit data to a remote host. It will detect energy availability through its energy harvester(s), and either supply that energy directly, or use it to charge the battery. This work leveraged from considerable experience by Bipolar Technologies and its affiliates, in micro power supplies and miniature energy storage. During Phase I, prototype power supplies will be built and demonstrated with several energy scavenger types. During Phase II, more mature, optimized devices will be built, with greater degree of integration and intelligence. Miniature Hybrid Power Supplies will be a significant enabler to numerous wireless technologies, particularly autonomous sensors. The potential market is hundreds of millions of dollars per year.

OMNITEK PARTNERS, LLC
Conklin Hall, SUNY Farmingdale, Melville Road
Farmingdale, NY 11735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 752-1559
Mr. Alex Treyger
ARMY 02-002      Selected for Award
Title: An innovative optical based wireless communications technology for smart munitions
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR project is to study the feasibility of a novel wireless, optical based communications concept for data transmission between sensors, actuators, processors and communications devices within munitions housing. The concept being proposed is an alternative to Radio Frequency (RF) wireless transmissions, and will provide a noise free and high bandwidth communication interconnect between major munitions elements, as well as close proximity sister munitions. The communications technology to be developed under this project is capable of withstanding the harsh environment of gun launched munitions, such as the high temperatures and pressures of firing and very high accelerations of sometimes in excess of 100,000 g's. The developed interconnect technology would also not emit energy, so that intelligence could not be monitored by external means. The proposed data communication networks also provide the possibility of being integrated into the structure of munitions, thereby occupying minimal added volume and greatly simplifying the problems related to wiring and their survivability, as well as high g hardening and survivability in the harsh firing environment Secure wireless optical based communications technologies that provide noise free and high bandwidth communication interconnect between various components of a device have numerous other military and commercial applications. Such communications links are ideal for use in different types of missiles and rockets, in satellites and in different types of commercial handheld electronic devices.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4170
Dr. Nese Orbey
ARMY 02-003      Selected for Award
Title:Cost-Effective and Safe Methods of Recovering Nitrocellulose from Gun Propellant Formulations
Abstract:The military is disposing of large quantities of obsolete, unserviceable, and excess gun propellant by incineration processes. Such disposal is no longer considered environmentally acceptable and wastes potentially valuable resources. In keeping with the impetus toward resource recovery and reuse (R3), the Army is seeking means of extracting components from the propellant wastes for reprocessing. To meet this need, an innovative process, suitable for recovering the main ingredients of triple-base formulations, is proposed for development. Key features of the process are safety and environmental compatibility. Processing costs are reduced by the use of common, inexpensive industrial solvents, and are expected to be offset by the value of the recovered products and byproducts. Costs associated with conventional disposal of explosive wastes and the long-term maintenance and liability associated with hazardous waste sites will be eliminated. The main objectives of the proposed Phase-I program are to evaluate the feasibility of the process and to generate sufficient data for estimating process costs. (P-020521) In addition to processing other military wastes containing nitrocellulose and amine components, the proposed process will find application in the food, pharmaceutical and coatings industries.

STELLAR PHOTONICS, LLC.
13910 SE 23rd Street
Bellevue, WA 98005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 746-9647
Mr. Igor Nemtsev
ARMY 02-004      Selected for Award
Title:Man-portable Integrated Laser Assault Riffle
Abstract:The Synchronized Photo-pulse Detonation method is based on Dr. Igor Nebtsev's research and development efforts with Yuri Raizer. The experiments proved Yuri Raizer's, idea of a double laser pulse, where the force or shock wave generated from the laser plasma can be used as an energy projectile. The SPD method uses 2 synchronized laser pulses to create a Laser Supported Detonation Wave (LSDW) in a mixture of target vapors and atmospheric air. The first pulse creates an ignition plasma spark (in a mixture of air and target vapors), while the second (higher powered) pulse serves to create and support a shock wave from the heated plasma. This shock wave heats the surrounding air layer (mixture of air and target vapors) so that it begins to absorb the laser beam and to create from itself the next plasma layer with the formation of a new shock wave. NOTE: SPD can be accomplished not only with chemical lasers but also by any other pulse lasers: for example, solid-state YAG-Nd lasers, CO2 and etc. Stellar Photonics propose two innovative Compact Laser Cannons (Solid State & Chemical); bringing the power of Star Wars technology to the field, providing the needed heavy punch capability to the SOF at a relative low cost. These systems would be portable and lightweight; the battery operated solid state laser system would be comparable in size to the Armbrust and Dragon anti-tank systems, while the chemical laser system would be smaller, comparable in size to the FN - F2000 or the ATK/HK - OICW (Objective Individual Combat Weapon) System. The man-portable SPD LSDW weapons system is expected to be lethal in the range of 1-5 miles, due to the fact that no sharp focusing of the laser beam is required. Therefore, it is capable of engaging both short and long ranged targets of any kind, greatly increasing the engagement area of current assault riffles. NOTE: The same system can also be used in non-lethal area denial to personnel applications. A pulse laser force field (shock wave) can be initiated instantaneously to prevent personnel from restricted areas. The strength of the pulse can be controlled pending these 5 variables: Power level, cartridge type, time delay, accelerator strength, and beam diameter. Past experiments with chemical lasers has shown that more than 5,000+ Joules of energy can be generated during a 1 microsecond pulse by using only 0.04m3 active volume of HF. So in order to achieve pulse energy ranging from 100 Joules to 1000 Joules, only 0.08cm3 to 0.08mm3 active volume of HF will be needed. Successful completion of Phase I will involve production of the following assets: . Materials and components research and development that is consistent with the current miniaturization efforts. . Reliable data describing the effectiveness and strength of different battery and charging systems for use with solid state lasers. This would give the charging time per shot, duration of pulses, energy lost, and pulses per battery. . Efficiency data on different solid state laser rods and flash lamp systems. This would be data on various, Ruby, YAG, Neodymium Glass and other solid state laser systems. . Research analysis on optical control and focusing systems to be used in both solid state and chemical laser weapon systems. . Research on chemical mix and flow forming technologies, along with nozzle material & unit shielding requirements. . Reliable data describing the effectiveness and difference between that of Laser Supported Detonation Wave (LSDW) verses Laser Supported Combustion Wave (LSCW). . A highly effective pulse timing algorithm for the Synchronized Photo-pulse Detonation (SPD) method with respect to target distance, velocity, size and force generation. . An optimal laser shock wave algorithm for the laser Supported Detonation Wave (LSDW) with respect to bean diameter, projected distance, and force of shock wave. . A proprietary, highly effective and efficient formula (ratios) of HF chemical mixture to be used as fuel for the chemical laser weapon system. . The preliminary designs of a small power solid state and chemical laser weapon system that can be eventually mass produced. . Preliminary designs of a compact chemical cartridge that over comes the time delay in the discharge and refill of mixtures in the laser cavity in between initiations and the handling (manufacturing, shipping, and storage) of the volatile chemical mixture.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James C. Withers
ARMY 02-005      Selected for Award
Title:The Development of Gradient/Reinforced Materials for Reducing Weight in Weapon Systems
Abstract:It is necessary to reduce the weight of weapon systems carried by the individual solder to achieve maximum effectiveness. This includes new weapon systems under development such as the Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) which initially is overweight. The development and utilization of advanced engineered materials for components, such as the housing and barrels of the OICW, have the potential to not only reduce weight, but also enhance performance. Functionally graded composites are a concept in materials composition that can exhibit exemplary properties that can be translated to reducing weight for the OICW. MER has demonstrated processing to produce functionally graded plastic composites as well as refractory materials graded into both metals and metal composites which will be produced, characterized, cost analysis performed for producing, and trade off analysis performed with the OICW prime contractor. These results will be translated into refining and optimizing processing, scale-up and producing components for OICW evaluation in Phase II as well as defining other applications for the developed graded/reinforced materials. Grade/reinforced composites have extensive applications in weapon systems for all military services as well as generally in aerospace, energy conversion including all engine types, general industry and sport equipment.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4105
Dr. David Ofer
ARMY 02-006      Selected for Award
Title:Electrolytic Ultracapacitors Based on Single-Wall Nanotubes
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to exploit exciting properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to develop electrolytic ultracapacitors having a 300 percent performance improvement over current versions. We will utilize SWNTs processed as cohesive, highly dispersed felts to replace conventional carbon black electrodes. SWNTs possess a remarkable structure that gives them a distinctive combination of electrical, physical and mechanical properties; enabling SWNT electrodes to have higher surface area, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity. In addition, SWNT electrodes require no polymer binder, thus further enhancing their energy storage capability. Ultracapacitors have been demonstrated as a superb electrical power buffer for several demanding applications; however, their success in high power output applications is limited by their smaller energy storage density compared to batteries. Ultracapacitor applications would be vastly expanded by the 300 percent increase in energy and power delivery capabilities that SWNT electrodes would provide. With partners Maxwell Technologies and Carbon Nanotechnologies, Inc, the Foster-Miller team is poised to take this product from the development stage through scale-up to manufacture. In this Phase I program Foster-Miller will make and characterize highly dispersed SWNT electrodes, utilizing processing techniques under development at Foster-Miller and CNI, incorporate them into ultracapacitor test cells, and characterize their performance. (P-020563) Ultracapacitors utilizing novel electrode structures based on carbon nanotube technology have the potential to increase the energy storage density of ultracpacitors by three times. This will make ultracapacitors the best devices to efficiently deliver power for kinetic and directed energy weapons and provide the increase in performance required to make ultracapacitors the ideal power caches for electric vehicles.

CHAN & ASSOC.
23520 Telo Avenue, #4
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 408-3225
Dr. William S. Chan
ARMY 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Uncooled, LWIR FPA for Hyper-spectral Imaging
Abstract:We propose to develop a long wave infrared (LWIR) focal plane array (FPA) capable of multi-spectral imaging over the entire LWIR spectrum, ideal for target acquisition, tracking and discrimination. The FPA, micromachined entirely out of Silicon using the so-called MEMS (micro electro-optical mechanical system) technology, consists of a 256x256 array of micro Fabry-Perot tunable filters (MFPTF) integrated with a same-size array of micro bolometers, so that each bolometer pixel is aligned with the correspondng MFPTF pixel. Thus, each bolometer may be tuned, by the MFPTF pixel, to respond to a different wavelength from another pixel, or each frame of the FPA may be tuned to a different wavelength from another frame. This tunability will provide an extraordinary capability for the FPA to discriminate target from clutter, background and decoys without using extensive data processing H/W and S/W assets. Each array will contain on-chip readout and control circuits. Phase 1 will define the FPA system mission and requirements, delineates it processes for fabrication and fabricate and test a small sample array to validate its concept and performance. Target acquisition, medical imaging, gas sensing, environmental monitoring and law enforcement applications.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Dr. Richard J. Nelson
ARMY 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Micro-lens Array Hyperspectral 3-D Sensor
Abstract:We propose to design and model a unique spectral imaging sensor that will be capable of simultaneously imaging sixteen color bands at video rates. The approach will utilize recent developments in micro-optics to create a sixteen-channel spectral imager based on a single focal plane array. The resulting spectral imager will operate in the visible band, incorporate a 4x4 micro-lens array, and use a 512'512 staring imager to capture one 128'128'16 spectral data cube during each integration time. The new sensor will have no moving parts and a small physical form factor. The design and development of this sensor represents a unique opportunity in hyperspectral sensing and imaging. This effort will benefit the development of algorithms for exploiting time-evolving spectral signatures. This spectral imager will be able to sample the data at rates in excess of 200 hyperspectral cubes per second with moderate spectral sampling. The sensor can be configured so that the spectral resolution varies independently of the sampling, allowing the sensitivity of the sensor to be optimized around phenomenologically important spectral regions. The proposed sensor combines staring imaging technology with recent developments in micro-lens technology from telecommunications to advance the state of the art in hyperspectral imaging. The ability of the new sensor concept to rapidly acquire hyperspectral data cubes should provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate algorithms for dynamic event classification based on temporal spectral signatures, countering CC&D, and evaluating surfaces. In addition, the small physical size of the sensor will demonstrate the possibility of portable hyperspectral imaging. Potential applications for defense purposes include buried mine detection, real-time bomb damage assessment, target tracking, and missile threat warning. In addition, we anticipate possible applications in medical diagnostics and medical imaging.

SUMMIT IMAGING, INC.
5025 Boardwalk, Suite 200
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 598-6006
Mr. David W. Gardner
ARMY 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Hyperspectral 3-D Detector
Abstract:Many DoD applications require hyperspectral imagery where several spectral bands are simultaneously captured to enhance targeting ability or to verify success of experimental tests. Information gathered over multiple spectral bands may provide critical information related to combustion efficiency, camouflaged weapons, target discrimination or missile launch detection. Regardless of the specific applications, a common characteristic in most tactical applications and tests is that the object being observed varies rapidly with time. Because of the high speed nature of these events, any attempt to capture spectral data in a time-sequential manner will result in undesirable artifact. It is therefore critical that the spatial and spectral data be captured simultaneously. Under this SBIR development, Summit Imaging proposes to analyze the feasibilty of developing a hyperspectral imager which can capture sixteen spectral bands over the range of 350nm to 860nm - each with a nominal bandwidth of around 35nm. The proposed imaging system would allow simultaneous capture of 512x512 images in each of sixteen unique spectral bands at up to 30 frames per second. Phase I will combine a theoretical feasibility study along with a proof-of-concept prototype test to demonstrate the techniques proposed using small, in-house test structures. A hyperspectral imager capable of providing simultaneous capture of both 2-D image data and spectral resolution would have tremendous commercial potential in such areas as thin film and combustion analysis, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and earth resource management.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. Mark S. Dombrowski
ARMY 02-007      Selected for Award
Title:Hyperspectral 3-D Detector
Abstract:A program to develop an advanced 3-D hyperspectral imaging sensor capable of operating in the NUV/VIS/NIR bands or MWIR/LWIR bands is proposed. The proposed system builds upon Surface Optics' real-time hyperspectral imaging activities, transforming the current line scanning Multiband Identification and Discrimination Imaging Spectroradiometer (MIDIS) system to a Full-Cube Imager (FC-Imager), simultaneously sampling at least 16 spectral bands over a full 2-D field, with an eye towards transitioning it to use in a tactical environment. Based upon requirements for simultaneous acquisition of all hyperspectral bands at each pixel in a full 2-D field, SOC will conduct a preliminary design of the Full-Cube Imager, which will include a compact, rugged, relatively inexpensive 3-D imager plus the real-time hyperspectral (HS) data processor. The proposed effort represents the culmination of three SBIRs aimed at developing MWIR/LWIR imagers and miniaturization (through ASIC development) of SOC's patented real-time hyperspectral image processor for inclusion in a highly portable sensor capable of real-time hyperspectral discrimination. By building on Surface Optics Corporation's and Rockwell Scientific's combined decades of experience in hyperspectral imaging system development, sensor development, and algorithm development, the proposed program will produce a new FC-Imager of unsurpassed capability, with varied military and commercial applications. By making hyperspectral sensors more portable, more rugged, and less costly, development of the Full-Cube Imaging sensor will dramatically enhance the military's capability to extract information from a scene that is unavailable to current tactical imaging sensors. Further commercialization will vastly improve the warfighter's ability to detect highly camouflaged threats. Potential non-threat sensing applications include remote sensing, surveillance, pollution monitoring, plume analysis, medical diagnostics, industrial production control, and land mine detection.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr. Jeffrey Paine
ARMY 02-008      Selected for Award
Title:Precision Robotic Tomography System
Abstract:The military and its munitions suppliers require an effective means for quality inspection of various types of munitions during production. The use of standard computer tomography scanning (CT scanning) methods, which the military has in place, requires munitions to be manually handled and controlled to prevent damage from mishandling and accidental discharge. Carrying munitions through the CT scanning process requires a combination of high force capacity, delicate handling capability, and very accurate positioning resolution. Robotic arms available for handling the heavy loads (up to 200 lb) have difficulty making careful moves and achieving the required accuracy. DSM proposes a unique combination of accurate robotics, vision-based control, and novel parts-handling concepts to automate the munitions inspection process. DSM's method will enable the careful, rapid and accurate inspection of all types of munitions. Servo-controlled robotics with micron level accuracy and safety concepts for components coming in direct contact with the munitions will be used. A part flow-through functionality plan will be developed. A scaled version of the critical carrier interface components and a feasibility concept for components of the generic precision robotics systems will be developed in Phase I. Precision robotic systems offer the advantage of automating processes that humans are often required to perform. Robotic munitions handling will speed up the munitions production process and reduce the cost to military users. Munitions and other highly energetic materials will be more safely processed and require less human intervention in the inspection process which also increases human safety issues. Finally, this process will enable other CT scanning inspection processes to be done more cheaply and effectively.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
ARMY 02-009      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Flash-bang Using Piezoelectric Transformers
Abstract:Commonly known to the military and law enforcement personnel, flash-bangs are grenade-like devices that produce a bright flash of light combined with a loud acoustic wave which is meant to momentarily incapacitate (startle) an enemy. The flash and bang are traditionally generated by a single explosion using pyrotechnics contained within the device. While effective at temporarily disabling the opponent, these devices do have some drawbacks. First, the explosion creates a lot of smoke, which can obscure the situation from the soldier as well, and delay situational control. Second, the flame used to initiate the detonation poses an unneeded risk of fire and injury to soldiers and non-combatants.Mid is proposing an innovative flash-bang device that utilizes the high voltage energy conversion capability of piezoelectric transformers, rather than pyrotechnics or explosives. These transformers output high voltage electricity that can be harnessed to provide appropriate flash and bang events by powering discrete visual and auditory devices, or by creating repeated plasma arcing (sparks). By leveraging the repeating and programmable nature of this electrical device, next-generation flash-bangs will provide similar disabling effects, while eliminating the drawbacks of conventional munitions. This novel flash-bang device will be a vital tool for momentarily incapacitating an enemy allowing the user to gain control of a situation. Advantages over conventional devices include the elimination of smoke and fire which delay situational authority and pose health risk to friendly personnel, repeatability in producing multiple events over a period of several seconds, flexibility for the user to select optimal operating parameters (event frequency, duration, intensity), and recoverability since the device will not destroy itself during operation. Several government agencies could directly benefit from the device, including law enforcement, the Department of Corrections, and many branches of the military.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Dr. Vladimir Rubtsov
ARMY 02-010      Selected for Award
Title:High Intensity Laser with Fiber Optic Multidirectional Strobe
Abstract:Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc. proposes to develop a portable, non-lethal, green or blue-green laser for military and law enforcement applications. A novel scanner will be incorporated into the device to provide a strobe effect. The scanner will be comprised of a fiber optic cartridge whose fibers will be arranged in an array that will sequentially produce laser flashes in multiple directions. The direction, duration, and repeatability of the laser bursts can be predefined and adjusted in real time, allowing the operator to maintain control over the subject. The fiber cartridge will be a few millimeters in diameter, and 5-7 centimeters long, and will be operated by a low power consumption micromotor. Unlike current unidirectional devices, the proposed multidirectional strobe laser will allow the security device to be used on groups and moving targets. However, the proposed laser will have the same laser power efficiency as devices without a fiber optic strobe. Commercial applications include civilian law enforcement agencies, perimeter and interior facility security, and biomedical applications for DNA sequencing and forensic sciences. Potential commercialization applications of the multidirectional laser include uses as: baton stun lasers for the law enforcement community, non-lethal weapons for air crews, or devices that can be incorporated into aircraft cockpit doors. Security officers at airport checkpoints could also be armed with such a device. The multidirectional dazzling laser can also be used to disperse violent crowds. Such a device could be used in addition to facility perimeter security cameras to prevent intrusions. The multidirectional laser also has applications in biomedical research. The device could be utilized in confocal microscopes as a spatial scanner, in DNA sequencing, and as a marker finder in the sorting of the objects. The multidirectional scanning cartridge can be used in CW lasers and in pulsed lasers for modulating and redirecting laser beams.

IROBOT CORP.
22 McGrath Hwy, Suite 6
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 629-0055
Dr. Brian Yamauchi
ARMY 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Griffon: A Small Scale Unmanned Air/Ground Vehicle
Abstract:We propose to develop Griffon, a man-portable UAV/UGV that is capable of delivering lethal and non-lethal payloads. Griffon will combine the speed and range of a UAV with the precise ground mobility of a UGV. Griffon will be based the rugged, all-terrain iRobot PackBot UGV. Griffon will add an Air Mobility System (AMS) to the PackBot consisting of a powered parafoil that attaches to the PackBot chassis. The powered parafoil provides a compact, lightweight means of adding flight capability to the PackBot. Griffon will fly autonomously to operator-specified waypoints using an onboard GPS receiver and a three-axis orientation sensor. Semi-autonomous launch and landing software will assist the operator in transitioning from ground to air modes and back. During Phase I of this project, we will develop a complete hardware and software design for Griffon. The hardware design task will include the development of a radio-controlled powered parafoil demonstrator to determine the power and control requirements for the AMS. The software design will include all of the Griffon software components and the system architecture for integrating these components. During the Phase I Option, we will integrate a gasoline-powered engine with a PackBot and develop the AMS engine control software. UAVs provide an operator with the ability to rapidly arrive at a site of interest, reconnoiter the area from above, and (in the case of the armed Predator) deliver a lethal payload to any exposed target. However, UAVs lack the ability to observe or attack targets that are concealed inside structures, such as caves or buildings. In contrast, UGVs have the capability to enter structures, search for targets, and examine these targets at close range (using video transmission). However, UGVs are much slower than UAVs, have limited range, and have less capability to cross very rough terrain. In many situations, what is needed is an unmanned vehicle that combines the strengths of UAVs and UGVs. We propose to develop Griffon, a man-portable UAV/UGV hybrid capable of performing reconnaissance, surveillance, and delivery of a lethal payload. Griffon will be based on the iRobot Corporation PackBot platform, a rugged, all-weather, all-terrain robot developed for DARPA's Tactical Mobile Robotics Program. PackBot is currently being tested by the U.S. Army in Afghanistan on missions to search cave complexes and suspected al Qaeda compounds. PackBot will be available as a commercial product in the fall of 2002. The extensive use of airstrikes in Afghanistan has been successful at limiting U.S. casualties due to enemy action. However, the limitations of airpower are evident when intelligence about ground targets is incomplete or suspect, both in terms of civilian casualties and the difficulty in precisely targeting enemy forces under concealment. Weapons like Griffon will enable the Objective Force to strike accurately at enemies in caves, buildings, and other structures - hitting the desired targets, minimizing collateral damage, and providing real-time assessment of the attack's effectiveness. Griffon will also have commercial applications in civilian search and rescue in rough terrain. Griffon's flight capability will enable it to fly over lakes, mountains, and other potential obstacles to ground movement. When Griffon finds a victim, it will be able to land, deliver medical aid, and allow the victim to communicate with rescuers.

THORPE SEEOP
320 S. Nina Suite #14
Mesa, AZ 85210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 969-2021
Mr. S.W. Stagg
ARMY 02-011      Selected for Award
Title:Small Scale Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Platform
Abstract:Trade study and conceptual design is proposed optimizing UAV/UGV Transforming Vehicles that land transforming into UGVs capable of inspecting caves and/or buildings to find people. A survey will be done and candidate vehicles including Spinwing as either a transforming UAV/UGV, or as a UAV transport for several UGVs. Also included will be fixed-wing UAVs that can transform into or transport UGVs. Employing a Small Scale UAV/UGV (SSUAV/UGV) would allow the warfighter to search and locate large numbers of caves and buildings from a forward position without risk to individual personnel. Employing numerous SSUAV/UGVs to explore caves and or buildings would allow the warfighter to explore places of concealment, without exposing themselves to a high-risk environment. This combination would have significant benefit to commercial aviation users and law enforcement, search and rescue, and resource managers would benefit from this technology

SOPHIA WIRELESS, INC.
14225-C Sullyfield Circle
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 961-9573
Dr. Steven Marazita
ARMY 02-012      Selected for Award
Title:High frequency Solid State Transceivers in an Ultra-Compact Volume
Abstract:State of the art high power and low noise technology is proposed to build a high frequency solid state transceiver in an ultra-compact volume. The unit takes advantage of rapid advances in the ever-evolving wireless technology base to lower costs and improve manufacturability. Transceiver architecture studies will be initiated to optimize the unit's performance for wide bandwidth needs in both government and commercial applications. High frequency RF technology is constantly evolving into new areas and applications as the technology base progresses. Digital communication radios, wideband optoelectronic systems, and military radars all benefit from improvements in power output and noise figure as new innovations come about. Progress also brings reduction in component volume which allows higher packing density and reduced weight requirements for systems.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
11350 Random Hills Rd., Suite 710
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7717
Dr. Dr. Suman Ganguly
ARMY 02-013      Selected for Award
Title:GPS Reconstitution
Abstract: Abstract not available...

LIQUIDMETAL TECHNOLOGIES
25800 Commercentre Drive, Suite 100
Lake Forest, CA 92630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 206-8090
Mr. Theodore Waniuk
ARMY 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Alternative Kinetic Energy Penetrators
Abstract:Liquidmetal Technologies proposes a novel tungsten (W) reinforced Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) composite penetrator that meets or exceeds current Depleted Uranium performance against current or future threat targets. The objective of this proposal is to develop the processes to produce an in-situ W reinforced BMG composite that exhibits self-sharpening penetrator characteristics. The in-situ W reinforcement would be produced by dendritic precipitation in the BMG. With controlled cooling of a desired composition, it will be possible to grow filaments of W dendrites directly from this melt with its longitudinal axis (called the <100> direction) aligned with the longitudinal axis of the penetrator rod. Because the <001> direction of the dendrites are aligned with the longitudinal axis of the penetrator rod, then deformation of the dendrites along the slip direction (known as the <011> direction) coincides with the 45' angle for self sharpening. Thus, the localized shear bands in the BMG matrix is anticipated to induce the <011> deformation in the tungsten dendrites; hence producing a composite rod with self-sharpening behavior. Liquidmetal Technologies has developed a family of Liquidmetalr BMG alloys and composites for use in a range of metallic based products. Over the past 5 years, Liquidmetal Technologies has been awarded 5 DoD research contracts (completed 2 and 3 in-progress) to develop Liquidmetal BMG for Kinetic Energy Penetrator (KEP) applications. Liquidmetal Technologies (LMT) mission is to research, develop and commercialize LMT patented amorphous metal for a wide range of applications. Target focus areas include defense, aerospace, consumer electronics, medical, automotive, light industrial products, sports and leisure and more. Certain aspects of the core technology developed under this proposed SBIR program will benefit the focus area applications listed above.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISES, INC.
Suite 106, 120 Centennial Ave.,
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-1088
Dr. Ganesh Skandan
ARMY 02-014      Selected for Award
Title:Ultrafine grained tungsten heavy alloy kinetic energy penetrators
Abstract:For quite some time, a suitable replacement for the environmentally harmful depleted uranium (DU) for use as long rod penetrators has remained elusive. Tungsten based heavy alloys, commonly termed WHAs, with a tungsten grain size in the several tens of microns, come close to the performance of DU for kinetic energy (KE) penetrators in general, but fall short when the L/D ratio is > ~ 10. Recent studies have shown that when the grain size is reduced by more than an order of magnitude, the mechanical behavior under dynamic loading conditions can be very different. Since the dynamic mechanical behavior is directly related to the performance of armor piercing penetrators, new processing technologies are required to develop WHAs with an ultrafine grained structure. In this program, we propose to develop a new generation of ultrafine grained KE penetrators using recent innovations (i) in the synthesis of nanocrystalline powders of tungsten alloys, and (ii) in powder consolidation using microwave energy. In Phase I, processing parameters will be developed and samples will be produced for structural characterization and testing of mechanical properties. In Phase II, the consolidation technology will be scaled to L/D > 12 with D = ~ 10 mm, or as desired by the Army. Samples produced under optimized conditions will be provided to the Army for testing in the field. The principles employed in powder synthesis and powder consolidation are generic, and will apply to materials that are generally difficult to process. For example, tantalum has several functional and structural applications, but is difficult to be processed. Therefore, we expect our program to have wide ranging implications in a number of application areas, although this specific program is geared toward a specific DoD need.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4099
Dr. Jonathan Arata
ARMY 02-015      Selected for Award
Title:An Innovative Method for the Prediction of Hydrogen Embrittlement in Steel
Abstract:Hydrogen embrittlement is among the more common forms of environmentally assisted cracking found in failed components made from high-strength steel alloys. There are numerous ways that hydrogen can enter the steel lattice and, under load, cause embrittlement. This embrittlement can lead to subcritical crack growth, a possible cause of premature catastrophic failure of the component. Traditional numerical analysis techniques do no account for such a complex phenomena. We propose a finite element-based method for the prediction of hydrogen embrittlement in steels, and the calculation of critical stress intensity factors based on such embrittlement. We propose a multi-scale modeling approach, with the lowest level of modeling being at the level of the microconstituents, including the embrittled steel region. The cohesive surface finite element method is used to predict the actual stress intensity factor for the onset of critical crack growth. This approach accounts for the thermo-micromechanical and chemical states of the steel over time, including the diffusion of hydrogen through the steel. (P-020588) Steel is among the most, if not the most, common of engineering materials. Hydrogen embrittlement is a significant problem for designers that employ steel in environments where hydrogen may be present. As such, a user-friendly computationally efficient method for prediction of hydrogen embrittlement in steels would have broad application across a wide range of industries, military and commercial. Any industry that utilizes steel machines and devices, and particularly those who design and manufacture them, would be interested in utilizing this tool as a design, maintenance, and prognostics device. Thus, this program could find wide audience in the commercial automotive, aviation, space and power industries, to name just a few, as well as having broad application potentially across the entire military spectrum.

DCS CORP.
1330 Braddock Place
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-8430
Mr. Andrew Struckhoff
ARMY 02-016      Selected for Award
Title:Driver Assist Smart Alignment System
Abstract:DCS Corporation proposes to develop an accurate Driver Assist Smart Alignment System to replace the on-the-ground spotters required for guiding the PLS and HEMTT vehicles to their "targets" during CROP loading operations. The "targets" are aircraft with logistical rail systems and MILVAN containers. The system will provide real-time data, to include range to the target and misalignment (angular and linear) between the vehicle and the target, to the driver on an easy to interpret, screen display. The system will also warn the driver of any obstacles in the path of the vehicle. The system will be a new application of machine vision technology and will utilize commercial-off-the-shelf components. During Phase I of this effort, DCS Corporation will design the electro-optical subsystem, the electrical subsystem, the ruggedized system packaging, and the system software. We will conduct experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of the core concepts and image processing algorithms, using our existing equipment. Our Phase I Option will be to create a breadboard system for more integrated testing prior to the Phase II prototype development. The proposed device will provide a simple and intuitive interface to allow PLS / HEMTT drivers to accurately align the vehicle to the target platform. By assisting the alignment process, the system will help reduce loading time, will reduce the chances for collateral damage to the vehicle, the CROP, the MILVAN, or the aircraft. The system will increase soldier safety by removing on the ground spotters from between the vehicle and the target. When used on commercial vehicles, the proposed device will provide increased situational awareness for vehicle manipulation in confined areas.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. Bernie Penrose
ARMY 02-016      Selected for Award
Title:LADAR Sensor & Vehicle Alignment System (LSVAS)
Abstract:SPEC proposes an innovative, eyesafe LADAR Sensor & Vehicle Alignment System (LSVAS) concept, based on missile LADAR technology, which fully meets cargo alignment requirements during loading/ unloading operations and for safety in sensing personnel in blind areas. For cargo alignment/loading/unloading, thumb-sized LSVAS sensors precisely locate the transport structure for the guidance system (with no on-the-ground spotter) which interacts with the operator to quickly and safely align and insert payloads to within 1 mm without the fear of binding on long palletized loads, even when the operator cannot physically view these areas. LSVAS will be easy to maintain, to learn, operate and interface to by a single operator. It will also be able to operate in varying lighting and adverse weather conditions while performing loading/unloading operations on any container/palletized cargo platform configurations. LSVAS can also provide a wide area protection LADAR safety grid for loading vehicle collision protection, detecting and locating personnel and ground equipment in the immediate area of operation. FCS combat mobility and sustainability is improved, along with operational responsiveness, by the quick and efficient transport of supplies that are vital to the successful implementation of FCS doctrine of agile, rapid force projection deployment. The ability to accurately sense range is key to providing precise feedback to assist in payload alignment and sensing personnel in blind areas. This would drastically reduce current cargo movement timelines thus improving aircraft turnaround time, greatly decrease or eliminate damage to vehicles, payloads and transport platforms during loading/unloading operations, along with increased safety during low light and adverse weather conditions and by eliminating driver blind spots where personnel or other objects may go unnoticed. Overall cargo related operating and support costs will be reduced by improved cargo handling times and increased safety by greatly reducing or eliminating damaged cargo and/or transport platform mishaps. These same devices can be used in other areas, such as backup collision indicators on personal and commercial vehicles, and for triggering front and side airbags on vehicles, to lower the inflation rates so as not to cause injury to small passengers. The airbag triggers would make use of the precise range, deriving range rate from range vs. time, and the amplitude, thresholding the size of object needed to cause a trigger.

ANHOLT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
440 Church Road
Avondale, PA 19311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 268-2758
Mr. Daniel D. Coppens
ARMY 02-017      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Lightweight Hybrid Ammunition Container
Abstract:Anholt proposes to combine a composite lightweight body with metallic endcaps and stacking flanges to reduce the weight and provide venting for Insensitive Munitions (IM). This marries the enhanced Cook-Off performance and lightweight benefits of composites with the damage tolerance and sealability of metallic ends. In addition, it uses both materials in their most cost efficient forms. Pultruded composite tubing fabricated from low FST resins promises to provide high performance at the lowest possible cost. In addition to steel, lightweight metals and metal foams will also be investigated for the metallic components. The concept applies to various size, cylindrical and rectangular containers. Anholt will base its design on the 2.75-inch Rocket container. High-speed production volume composite-to-metal joining technologies will be investigated so that the Hybrid Container system can be produced in an economically viable manner. The Hybrid system will be designed to meet the 3 psi seal requirements of MIL-STD-1904 and improved Fast Cook-Off performance of MIL-STD-2105B. Anholt is confident that at least a 25% weight reduction will be achieved. The technology will be applicable to all FASTPACK containers as well as other cylindrical and rectangular containers. A Technology Demonstrators will be produced incorporating the preferred Hybrid solution. This effort will result in Hybrid metal/composite technology applicable to a variety of ammunition container shapes and sizes across the entire DoD inventory. This type of rugged, reusable shipping container can be suitable for commercial products whenever they are shipped under adverse conditions. Sensitive machine components, electronics (which will also benefit from the container's static dissipation and EMI resistance), medical equipment and supplies are all potential cargo.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome P. Fanucci
ARMY 02-017      Selected for Award
Title:Pultrusion-Based Production of Next-Generation Composite Ammunition Containers
Abstract:KaZaK Composites proposes to investigate composite and metal/composite hybrid ammunition containers optimized for minimum cost production using highly automated pultrusion processing for the main structural tube and perhaps other components of the container. Pultrusion, the composite processing equivalent of aluminum extrusion, is capable of continuously making constant cross section parts with very little labor content at the rate of several feet per minute. Other conceivable composite processing methods are more costly because they make tubes one at a time. In addition to conventional composite designs, KCI will investigate a unique macro-composite structural concept that we have used with success in the past to produce 3.5-inch diameter military aircraft carrier stanchions with an unusual combination of high stiffness, strength, and extremely high impact damage resistance. These same properties are desirable in a composite ammunition container. In Phase I KCI will develop a number of candidate design concepts, then after appropriate analysis, trade study and discussion with the Army, select one or two for further investigation. Composite hardware samples of key structural components will be fabricated and subjected to bending and impact testing. A concept for a thermal fuse to prevent container overpressure in a fire will also be evaluated. There are many applications for low cost, damage resistant structural tubing. KCI is actively involved with the development of pultruded composite stanchions for Naval applications, as well as pultruded composite energy absorbing utility poles. Both these programs will directly benefit from the new design and processing concepts conceived and put into practice during the proposed program. In addition to the 2.75" rocket round package that will be developed in Phase I and II, military applications include packaging for a large variety of ammunition. Similar packaging can also be used commercially for shipping and storage of high value hardware.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Robert Hyland
ARMY 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:Cooperative Planning and Control of Future Combat Systems Resupply Operations: A Component-Based Approach
Abstract:ALPHATECH proposes a component-based software architecture and algorithms approach for multi-vehicle intelligent planning and control to support Future Combat Systems (FCS) resupply operations. The proposed system will enable a small number of human operators to rapidly develop, execute, and continuously update resupply plans that coordinate the activities of multiple materials-handling equipment (conventional, robotic, and/or fully autonomous) to meet tight deadlines and minimize idle time. Our three-level architecture integrates recent advances in constraint-based reasoning with state-of-the-art algorithms for hierarchical control. The top level implements a logistics-planning assistant that helps human operators develop and maintain feasible multi-vehicle plans and schedules. This level casts logistics planning as a constraint satisfaction problem providing a powerful means to translate complicated resupply plans into feasible control directives. A mid-level mission coordination module oversees plan execution, in turn employing vehicle-level controllers to manage the movement of individual vehicles. This research will provide a solid foundation for later work under Phase 2, which will harden and integrate our system into ARDEC's Smart Crane test bed, extend the approach to handle increasingly complex multi-vehicle resupply operations, and harmonize our approach with FCS's emerging sustainment CONOPS. This technology will help the FCS logistics officer prepare and execute efficient logistics plans with reduced personnel. Operations managers benefit from cooperative multi-vehicle schedules that automatically resolve contention and satisfy deadlines. Material Handling Equipment (MHE) operators are provided with prioritized task lists and increased logistical awareness. The proposed research addresses a critical problem faced by automated material handling, warehouse, and the seaport container handling industries.

APPLIED SYSTEMS INTELLIGENCE, INC.
11660 Alpharetta Highway, Suite 720
Roswell, GA 30076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 518-4228
Dr. Brock Stitts
ARMY 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptable/ Reusable Hardware/Software Architectures and Components for Future Combat System Automated Resupply
Abstract:A goal of the Future Combat System (FCS) is to perform resupply functions under combat conditions without exposing friendly personnel. With the demonstrated success of autonomous vehicles in the Army Research Laboratory's DEMO III Semi-Autonomous Off Road Mobility program this goal is now achievable. Autonomous vehicles become "mules," eliminating the need for resupply by humans. What remains to be shown is how these vehicles can be effectively managed in a combat situation. Applied Systems Intelligence, Inc. (ASI) proposes to apply its proven associate system technology in the design of a real-time, distributed mission control system that will improve the collaborative and distributive decision-making of logistics officers with the goal of reducing their error rate and increasing their efficiency. In the FCS, associate systems can improve the logisticians' situational awareness, manage their display information, provide cognitive decision-aiding, monitor their actions for errors, help evenly distribute their workload, and help them collaborate effectively. ASI's knowledge-based application development experience, proven associate system technology, and strong knowledge engineering processes have vastly reduced the time and expense required to create large specialized applications, resulting in a 10x reduction in time and a 10x reduction in cost when compared to competing approaches on similar projects. The FCS will operate in a very fast-paced, dynamic environment. Associate systems are able to quickly react to changes in the dynamic environment. Decision-aiding reduces the operator's cognitive workload and it also enables operators to work as effectively in normal conditions as they do at more critical times. Additionally, it enables novice operators to work as effectively as experts, even in the most critical conditions.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. John R. Budenske
ARMY 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Multi-Agent System for Coordinating Multiple FCS Platforms
Abstract:Battlefields of the future will consist of highly mobile, light forces that are supported by intelligent software, autonomous systems, and robotic platforms. The Future Combat Systems (FCS) concept embraces the use of tele-operated, semi-autonomous, and autonomous systems that will be coordinated together to provide both battle support as well as logistics capabilities. Coordination of multiple FCS platforms will require not only intelligent software for planning and scheduling, but also infrastructure support for autonomously executing tasks and allowing tele-operation when necessary across wireless battlefield networks. This Phase I research addresses the challenging problem of executing resupply, logistics, and other material handling missions upon distributed FCS platforms, and across wired/wireless networks. The approach includes a layered infrastructure of wired/wireless networking services, proxy and distributed processing, agent-based behaviors, remote tele-operative services, and mixed-initiative planning and scheduling technologies that will support the planning, control, coordination, and reconfiguration across multiple FCS platforms. The proposed design aims at maximizing commonality, reuse, and adaptability across platform type and configurations (for both legacy and next generation FCS platforms). Also, the design includes approaches for controlling platforms within tele-operational, semi-autonomous/ supervisory, and fully autonomous modes. Thus, providing the FCS operator with maximum control and flexibility over multiple platforms. This research will support critical DOD Future Combat Systems applications as well as other distributed control applications in autonomous unmanned vehicles, sensor networks, intelligent minefields, and battlefield robotics. Commercial applications include: intelligent highway and air traffic control; work-cell manufacturing; industrial inspection; job-shop scheduling; intelligent robotics; personal assistants (softbots); and mobility aids for the handicapped.

REAL-TIME INNOVATIONS
155A Moffet Park Drive, Suite 111
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 734-4200
Dr. Hung Pham
ARMY 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:Robust, Component-Based Vision Software Architecture For Future Combat Systems
Abstract:While machine vision is a critical enabler for Intelligent Automation, technology innovation has been slowed by custom development and high integration costs. This proposal addresses these issues by advancing a modular, component-based design that allows vision integrators to customize applications from prefabricated, interchangeable parts. The component-based approach provides end-user flexibility, while affording large economies through software reuse. In particular, the project will define a Reference Architecture for component-based vision systems. This definition includes application specifications, as well as functional and syntax requirements for all components and interfaces within the domain. The proof of concept is demonstrated by applying the proposed Reference Architecture design to a visual servo application. Specifically, visual servoing provides visual feedback cues for servo-level control. The primary benefit being that vision is used directly in the control loop, which provides greater automation capabilities and better overall performance. The vision system will be integrated into the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) to allow operator control of the pallet loading/unloading process from inside the cabin. The subsequent follow-on effort will demonstrate software reuse by reconfiguring the vision system for different hardware platforms and for different missions. The success of this project will directly impact both developers and end-users of vision systems. From the development perspective, the component and interface specifications will remove the proprietary barriers that many developers erect in an attempt to protect intellectual property. This will encourage greater competition and foster innovation at a greater level of granularity. To the vision integrator, component-based standards will provide the flexibility to choose the best implementation of a subsystem for his/her particular needs. Additionally, componentization will bring down the overall price of vision systems, making it more practical and accessible to a wider range of audiences.

ROBOTICS RESEARCH CORP.
101 Landy Lane
Cincinnati, OH 45215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(859) 525-4064
Mr. Paul H. Eismann
ARMY 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptable/ Reusable Hardware/Software Architectures and Components for Future Combat System Automated Resupply
Abstract:The US Army has a mandate to advance the materiel handling, re-supply and logistics automation technology to support Future Combat System (FCS) applications. There is an immediate need to reduce the workload and manpower requirements, and expedite the distribution of ammunition shipments through the in-theater storage areas to combat end users. To support this initiative, this program will develop and implement the enabling component technologies required for highly-autonomous, configured load building. By extending the autonomy of robotic field material handling equipment through the integration of sensor driven, intelligent controls, the efficiency and expedition of forward supply operations will be significantly increased. RRC established in a previous program that through the application of sensor technologies and advanced robotic control, an existing manual material handling system could be modified to perform many tasks autonomously. RRC incorporated new hardware and software controls to the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System to demonstrate this capability. The Smart Crane represents an integrated set of core component technologies, which are reusable and adaptable for widespread deployment throughout the military's material handling domain. The Smart Crane uses a shared control approach, whereby an operator has the option to either perform selected tasks via manual teleoperation or invoke several autonomous strategies for crane control operation. The greatest impact to increasing operational efficiency and throughput in material handling operations will be achieved by advancing the autonomy of the system, thereby promoting the operator to a supervisory role. The objectives of Phase I are the specification and development of components that advance the automation of three requisite material handling activities that are the most time consuming and require the highest level of operator involvement; munitions payload acquisition, payload release, and configured load building. This program builds on technology previously developed for the Army by RRC and others and will provide the Army with a suite of reusable and adaptable hardware and software components that can be applied to a broad range of existing field material handling systems. In addition to the material handling applications within the military complex, the development of generic sensor technologies and intelligent controls has significant government and commercial market potential in any application demanding robotic manipulation in unstructured and/or hazardous environments, such as assembly, welding, cutting, stripping, cleaning and coating operations. Target sectors include the environmental remediation industry; civil infrastructure and commercial construction and manufacturing industries; and the shipbuilding and aircraft industries.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5200
Dr. Eric van Doorn
ARMY 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:UWB Intelligent Ammunition Monitoring System
Abstract:This proposal details an innovative ammunition monitoring system based on Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology. Our approach is to seamlessly integrate sensitive detection of intruders, communications with friendly forces, and tracking of ammunition units. Sophisticated algorithms for the analysis of radio and radar scans show great potential to limit false alarm rates due to small animals, etc. Due to the nature of UWB, the proposed system will be low power, low probability of intercept/detection, and able to both operate in cluttered multi-path environments, and under adverse weather conditions. Preliminary experiments confirm the feasibility of our approach. Apart from the direct military applications, robust monitoring systems will have increased market potential due to recent emphasis on homeland security, and the protection of government institutions, national borders, and critical infrastructure.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4379
Mr. Arnis Mangolds
ARMY 02-020      Selected for Award
Title:Smart Munition Area Denial System (SMADS)
Abstract:The Small Mobile Area Denial Systems (SMADS) is a wheeled/tracked mobility platform that conforms to the NSD-A 6-Shooter anti-personnel land mine. The SMADS is plug compatible with the 6-Shooter and can share power, comms and control, freeing up space and weight for additional sensors for enhanced breaching detection systems. The real advantage of the SMADS is the ability to move the mine system. A number of tactics can be envisioned, including distributed mine distributions, the ability to allow safe passage of friendly forces and the capability to set up ambushes. into place, or out of and to aim close. The agility of the system and its ability to operate in snow and mud, to turn and bring other miniature grenade launchers to bear, and to self level for predictable ballistic trajectories provides a higher kill probability and more efficient operation. SMADS compliments wide area and off route anti-tank systems and can be adapted to carry AT mines. The SMADS format enhances safety, flexibility and introduces the possibility of new tactics as a significant force multiplier for the Objective Force. (P-030006) The proposed SMADS system is a low profile, system that enhances the kill probability and utility of the next generation Non Self Destruct-Alternative antipersonnel land mine. The SMADS approach can be a 6x force multiplier over static systems, and offer greater friendly force protection by remote operation and removal of the mine from the field. The SMADS operates with planned of the shelf systems and does not require the addition of new munition development yet remains highly adaptable to product improvements, particularly in sensor, communications and control.

SCHAPPELL AUTOMATION CORP., INC.
12363 West Belleview Avenue
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 979-5001
Mr. Roger T. Schappell
ARMY 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:The Metal Storm Crowd Control System (MSCC)
Abstract:This project will result in the design and demonstration of a totally unique and versatile "Crowd Control System" that essentially inhibits fatalities while still neutralizing the individual(s) due to its ability to compensate for major range variations and target characteristics in terms of crowd density, motion and composition. These attributes are possible due to the re-configurable multi-barrel, Metal Storm system. The Metal Storm concept has been demonstrated and tested both in a human portable and hard mounted configuration. For the first time, the user will have an extremely rapid fire sequential and/or concurrent capability, instantaneously selectable munitions types, and accuracy, as a function of range. Other attributes are reduced weight due to the composite barrels, electric non-mechanical firing, no moving parts, computer control, and the Metal Storm "pod" that can provide varied calibers and types of munitions in one weapon, handheld or vehicle mounted. The proposed concept will provide the required accuracy regardless of range and will require minimum training for its employment. Other benefits are its versatility to accommodate a variety of non-lethal munitions, its ease of target selection, a wide range of dispersion patterns at a high rate of fire, if required. Metal Storm technology provides for a system whereby the following characteristics advantageous to crowd control can be exhibited by a single weapon: - Munitions can be delivered with a KE or Muzzle Velocity (MV) automatically selected using real-time range to target information. - One compact weapon can house various calibers and types of munitions, whether the system is handheld or vehicle mounted. - Munitions can be delivered singularly (one at a time from any particular barrel when required) or over a large area in a single firing instance. Area-effect munitions can be deployed extremely precisely, in a pre-determined pattern and over a pre-determined area. - For the first time, a user can choose from a variety of instantaneously selectable munitions and deliver these munitions at a user defined rate, continuously variable from a single shot to an extremely rapid rate of fire, sequentially and/or concurrently. - The system is modular and can be `lego' pieced together to match the requirements of each individual mission. - The system can be easily integrated into vehicles, robots, and other platforms. - Inherent attributes of the Metal Storm system include electric non-mechanical firing, no moving parts and computer control (a single `chip' can control the entire system). - The system can be built with significantly reduced weight (on top of the already drastically reduced weight compared to a regular gun) by the use of composite barrels (1/5 the weight of steel). - A more general advantage is that the system is very inexpensive when compared to the other options that would be required to achieve the same result. The potential commercial and military applications are significant when considering the number of at-risk police forces, SWAT teams, and National Guard units. Whether the crowd control system is used for riot control, prison uprisings, out of control sports events, border patrol or even suicidal individuals, the less than lethal capability is highly desirable.

BEAMTEK, INC.
3149 S. Chrysler Ave.,
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-0200
Dr. Philip Lam
ARMY 02-022      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Molded Optics for Small Caliber Projectiles
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project proposes to develop a manufacturing method of molded glass optical ogive for the Light Fighter Lethality Projectile, a small caliber-maneuvering projectile. Low cost chalcogenide glasses will be used, which exhibit an excellent transmission in the 7 to 14 mm wavelength region and suitable thermal and mechanical properties for direct molding lens fabrication. Molded optics provides the required target transmission characteristics and the manufacturing cost savings not possible with conventional grinding process. Lens with diffractive structure will be employed to compensate the chromatic aberration of chalcogenide glasses. Support structure of the optical components will be designed based upon the tolerance analysis of installing and aligning of the optical system. In Phase I program a chalcogenide glass meniscus lens will be molded. The surface quality and the size of the lens will be characterized in order to correlate the relationship between the resulted lens quality and the molding parameters. In Phase II we will also develop new materials, which exhibit superior performance to currently available materials, to improve their mechanical properties and resistance to thermal-shock. This low cost, molded optic infrared lens is applicable to both military and non-military optical systems. This low-cost manufacturing method can dramatically reduce the cost of high quality infrared lenses, which are needed for military and civil infrared imaging systems.

CDM OPTICS, INC.
4001 Discovery Drive, Suite 2110
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5593
Dr. Alan E. Baron
ARMY 02-022      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Molded Optics for Small Caliber Projectiles
Abstract:CDM Optics proposes to develop a low-cost IR imaging system for use in high lethality Fire and Forget projectiles. The system is intended for incorporation into the Autonomous Seeker Projectile of the Army's Light Fighter Lethality STO under the Joint Service Small Arms Program. CDM Optics will design a low-cost optical system using two innovative technologies, Wavefront Coded optics and a moldable IR optical material. Using these innovations, the proposed design consists of single moldable lens that not only outperforms conventional multi-lens systems, but will be cheaper to manufacture and assemble, and weigh considerably less than conventional optics. This translates to increased lethality and greater deployability across IR seeker type weapons platforms. In Phase I, a moldable single lens will be designed specifically for a proprietary molding process. Specifications for the optical system, support structure and molding plan will be delivered. The Phase I Option effort will fabricate a test lens and design a test fixture. In Phase II, CDM Optics will develop prototype IR seeker systems complete with signal processing for Wavefront Coding, target acquisition and tracking. CDM Optics will partner with a leading IR optics producer to develop molded lens components in Phase II. The Phase I/II effort will speed integration of Wavefront Coding technology into two large market segments, miniature digital cameras and machine vision/inspection applications. Miniature digital cameras have been integrated into a variety of consumer products including automobiles, laptop and desktop computers, PDAs, cell phones, toys, security and video cameras and digital still cameras. This extremely price sensitive market can incorporate Wavefront Coding to reduce costs while maintaining imaging performance. Machine vision systems are used for material inspection, barcode and text imaging, automated assembly, product metrology and quality control. Wavefront Coding benefits these applications by increasing depth of field without reducing resolution or requiring increased illumination.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry Marcus
ARMY 02-023      Selected for Award
Title:Future Theater Distribution System (FTDS)
Abstract:The Future Combat System is drawing from the Operation and Organization Plan and Operational Requirements Document a concept of having a 72 combat pulse, with rotation of the combat elements back to the MSS for resupply and rest before rotating back into another 72 pulse. During the combat pulse, there would three periods of intense activity, separated by lulls. These lulls, called maintenance pulses, allow repair/replace of minor Line Replenishment Units by crews of combat repair teams and other minor replenishment at the SRS. These pulses are intense, and the lulls are short. Therefore, one needs to be able to bring every platform back up to full stock and readiness status in a brief period. Everything must be exactly prestaged and coordinated. In order to accomplish this, all the distribution elements supporting the SRS and MSS must be integrated into that fluid and dynamic process. 21st Century Technologies Inc. and Cougaar Software, Inc. will demonstrate real-time consumption feeds (Class V for Phase I) for flow back from the forward edge maneuver units to the SRS, MSS and distribution system allowing the dynamic generation of a very tight plan for precision resupply during the SRS maintenance pulse and MSS resupply periods. This will directly support the TACOM Smart Distribution Program and will provide the basis of a joint collaboration between TACOM and the Future Combat Systems program.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N Bethlehem Pike, Ste 300
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 618-1060
Mr. Ken Graves
ARMY 02-023      Selected for Award
Title:Intermediate Staging Base Decision Aid
Abstract:As Objective Force systems such as Future Combat System (FCS) and Objective Force Warrior (OFW) are fielded, the battlespace will feature increased lethality, reduced numbers of combat systems, reduced decision making cycles, and a shift from traditional logistics planning/ execution to logistics distribution closely paralleling the Just-In-Time (JIT) logistics used in the commercial workplace. High expenditures of precision munitions in the Objective Force environment, coupled with relatively low inventories of the munitions will make FCS logistics a critical component of mission success. The ISB decision aid will be an answer to the problem of gaining and maintaining the logistics flexibility required for the Objective Force. It will provide top to bottom logistics visibility for the Objective Force logistics structure, alerting and prediction of logistics problems, planning/replanning for logistics nodes and routes, and interact with other logistics and operations/planning systems for full mission integration of logistics. ISB-DA is designed to dramatically increase throughput at all logistics nodes by decreasing uncertainties associated with logistics decision making due to incomplete information. ISB-DA will be designed as a component which can fit easily into the ARDEC decision aiding reference architecture, and which will be compliant with the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTAA). ISB-DA (Intermediate Staging Base Decision Aid) is an answer to the problem of limited visibility of logistics assets at all levels of the force structure. Complete implementation of ISB-DA during Phase I and II of the proposed effort will take place within the context of the ARDEC Combat Decision Aiding System (CDAS) program. The concepts and implementations will serve as a technical base for technology insertion into a number of Army Science and Technology Objective (STO) programs under consideration for Objective Force operations. The decision aid component can also be applied to civilian domains such as transportation, logistics management, and emergency management.

INFORMATION IN PLACE, INC.
501 North Morton Street, Suite 206
Bloomington, IN 47404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 856-4202
Mr. Eugene H. Kirkley, Jr.
ARMY 02-024      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Embedded Training for Objective Force Warrior
Abstract:This proposal outlines a comprehensive plan to research, develop and test embedded training, performance measurement, and review methodologies for use in training proficient operation and tactical use of Objective Force Warrior (OFW) soldier equipment. The resulting instructional and methodology assessment systems will use these methodologies to help instructional designers, trainers and soldiers design training for use in mixed reality (virtual and augmented) training environments. The proposing organization, Information in Place, Inc. is uniquely qualified to perform this project because of its strengths in instructional design, mixed reality software development, human factors engineering, and Army subject matter expertise. The proposal describes the underlying technical infrastructure for supporting the deployment of embedded training in a mixed reality environment, a system known as MARCETE: Mobile Augmented Reality Contextual Embedded Training and EPSS (Electronic Performance Support System). This system will be used as the platform for prototyping and testing the instructional development methodology and resulting training scenarios in simulated MOUT sites using virtual reality and in a real MOUT environment using augmented reality in Phase 2. The resulting technology will enable the development of powerful new embedded training methodologies for use with OFW. This will help ensure the US Army maintains training superiority as it fields its next generation soldier system. These methodologies should empower individual soldiers and unit trainers to have more control over their training while maintaining high standards. This will result in enhanced situational understanding, reduced training costs, and better trained personnel. We anticipate dual use applications across other defense markets as well as commercial sectors including: Defense ; Emergency, public safety, and security services; Marine/boating; Mobile medical imaging; Field equipment maintenance; Field training/on-site/just-in-time/just-in-place training situations; Modeling and simulation; Computer-assisted design and engineering (CAD/CAE); and Computer gaming

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 482-6404
Mr. Tim Bowden
ARMY 02-025      Selected for Award
Title:Identifying and Assessing Interaction Knowledges, Skills, and Aptitudes for Objective Force Soldiers
Abstract:The focus of this Phase I SBIR effort will be twofold. First, we will use primarily existing resources (literature review and applied research) to identify the interaction/interpersonal knowledge, skills, and aptitudes (KSAs) required by the Army's Objective Force soldiers. This work will be aimed at specifying the KSAs that are determinants of the critical OFS performance components that have been identified in previous ARI work (NCO21, Select21). Having identified the target KSAs, the next step will be to formulate a plan for their assessment. This assessment plan will include a combination of relatively traditional measurement methods, some that may be adapted for computer administration, and more experimental techniques that take more extensive advantage of advances in computer technology. Key to the success of this effort will be the ability to create psychometrically sound assessment tools that are easy to use and meet the needs of the intended application(s) in the U.S. Army. The assessment package will be designed to support selection of soldiers (e.g., for MOS requiring particularly high levels of these KSAs), but will also be useful as a diagnostic tool for identifying KSAs that may require remedial training. A comprehensive assessment battery covering interpersonal KSAs could be applied to a wide variety of military and industrial settings. The proposed tool will measure an individual's ability to interact effectively with team members, customers, and colleagues in a wide variety of settings. The tool will provide both the ability to assess candidates on a wide variety of KSAs that are required for successful interpersonal interactions and the capability of identifying areas for remediation. The tool will be useful in military teams as well as non-military settings such customer service oriented occupations (e.g. call centers).

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Alan Spiker
ARMY 02-026      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Development of a Shared Mental Model Management Tool
Abstract:This SBIR will establish the conceptual foundation for and functional requirements of a computer-based tool to facilitate management of shared mental models (SMMs) within an Army command & control team. A mental model is an internal representation of a complex situation. Research has shown that teams having a greater overlap in their respective mental models perform better, particularly under high workload. Unfortunately, the Army's hierarchical order/report system is not always conducive to this sharing. There are principles, however, from fields such as organizational learning, negotiation, argumentation, and transactive memory that describe techniques for information sharing, reflection, inquiry, and other skill areas. Our tool will provide scenario-based instruction in these techniques, and will include an advanced cognitive methodology for measuring SMM overlap. In Phase II, we will develop hypertext application software that will operate the scenarios, display SMM principles, and measure MM overlap. A formal evaluation of user acceptance and tool effectiveness will be conducted. The techniques, skills, and principles contained in the tool can be made applicable beyond the Army setting via development of more generic scenarios requiring collaborative planning, distributed decision-making, and time-constrained problem solving. The tool will be marketed as a business strategy game or team training method. We anticipate a number of benefits from the eventual development of a shared mental model management (SM3) tool. Improved sharing should positively impact a variety of team processes, including coordination, communication, and situation awareness. This, in turn, should enhance team effectiveness, as reflected in better plans (i.e., more robust, flexible, detailed plans), better decisions (i.e., more choices considered, more timely), and greater success in solving problems. A more successful organization should result, as indicated by greater mission success, higher team morale, and increased team effectiveness. As the Army moves toward its Objective Force, with a faster tempo and greater distributed decision making, access to a SM3 tool should help ensure that commanders can successfully share their vision and intent with their staff and subordinate commanders. The SM3 tool can be made commercially viable by revising its scenarios into non-tactical planning, decision-making, and problem-solving exercises. Regardless of the scenarios used, the underlying principles involving negotiation, discussion, reflection, inquiry and the like will still apply. The tool can be readily transformed into a business strategy game by awarding points to the team achieving the highest overlap in their MMs. As well, the SM3 tool can be distributed as a team training aid, thereby entering the lucrative government/industry training market (in excess of $25B annually).

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Jared Freeman
ARMY 02-027      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Training Rapid Decision-Making Processes Required by the Dismounted Objective Force Leader
Abstract:Objective Force Warriors will use new technologies that provide them with information in unprecedented volume. To use these assets well, leaders of small units will need strong problem-solving and decision-making skills. Current Army training may address some of these skills, but not all. The challenge is to discern what training is needed to prepare Objective Force leaders, to reuse relevant training, and design and validate new training. To meet this challenge, we propose an innovative, hybrid method for analyzing future decision requirements, allowing us to "look ahead' into the electronic battlefield. In addition, we will design a rapidly reconfigurable testbed that can be used to test hypotheses concerning decision requirements, deliver training, and evaluate it. This solution positions ARI to conduct rigorous experimental research to develop and refine training as the technologies and missions of the Objective Force evolve. When completed (Phases I and II), the proposed research will produce a method of analyzing decision requirements for future technology environments, an analysis of Army training with respect to those requirements, new training content that addresses new (future) decision requirements, and a testbed that enables the research community to continuously test hypotheses concerning future decision requirements, and allows the training community to deliver and evaluate training in decision skills. The Phase I effort demonstrates the feasibility of this ambitious effort by analyzing decision requirements for warriors using one current technology suite and one future technology suite in a single scenario. It defines initial training requirements and maps these to extant Army training. It produces samples of training content for OFW soldiers, and designs for a testbed on which to validate decision requirements, and deliver and evaluate training. Finally, it develops designs for experimental validation. Option tasks include an initial, face validity test of these products and a revision of the testbed design.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. North
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Dr. Gary Klein
ARMY 02-027      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:MINDPRINT: Defining the cognitive requirements for small unit leader training in the context of Objective Force Warrior
Abstract:The Army, along with many other organizations, is investing heavily in advanced technology, including information technology, expecting to revolutionize operations. The MINDPRINT program is designed as a front-end analysis tool to identify the cognitive training requirements for operating the technology, and, even more important, for operating "with" the technology. This proposal is to demonstrate and pilot test the core components of the MINDPRINT program: a method for documenting the impact of information technology on decision strategy, a model and a template for estimating the cognitive requirements that emerge upon the introduction of advanced technology, and a platform for achieving computer-based training keyed to lessons learned from the field. The MINDPRINT program will be developed in conjunction with Objective Force Warrior (OFW). In this way, the MINDPRINT components will be tailored to the specific needs of OFW. Further, the MINDPRINT program will be strengthened by directing it at the critical challenges of one of the most ambitious technology-based re-engineering efforts currently being pursued. The MINDPRINT program will provide a technology for cognitive training in settings such as the Army, the DoD, or commercial aviation, where advanced technology, including information technology, is being introduced. The program can be the difference between effective implementation and either a failed or an ineffective implementation of the technology.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Mr. Rick Archer
ARMY 02-027      Selected for Award
Title:Training Rapid Decision-Making Processes Required by the Dismounted Objective Force Leader
Abstract:The Army is transforming to an objective force. This transformation will be revolutionary. More than a change of equipment, Objective Force represents an overarching change in organization and doctrine with associated impacts on leadership development, logistics concepts, selection and training. Objective Force Warrior (OFW) is one component of the Objective Force that encompasses a system of equipment and capabilities for the individual warfighter. OFW is scheduled for fielding in 2008 and is composed of an integrated electronic capability suite to help the soldier see first, understand first, and act decisively. The transition to the Objective Force will place new training demands on the warfighter as he learns to integrate information from the conventional and electronic battlefield. This proposal describes an opportunity to train the analytical skills the OFW will need to make sense of the variety of information he will receive electronically together with the recognitional skills he'll need to use his electronic systems effectively. We describe below how this training can take place independently of "knobology" that will necessarily follow when the OFW systems are fielded, and we discuss how this training will reflect a more general method for identifying the particular analytical skills needed to synthesize information. A methodology to develop training for new electronic and conventional equipment and systems as the equipment and systems are themselves under development would provide a means for spiral development. Successfully applying this concept will result in the training and the system development to influence each other. This will allow the Army to be ready to respond to modern threats around the world on short notice.

FEDERAL MANAGEMENT PARTNERS, INC.
1500 North Beauregard Street, Suite 320
Alexandria, VA 22311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 671-6600
Ms. Tara Carpenter
ARMY 02-028      Selected for Award
Title:Defining and Developing Interpersonal Performance for Objective Force Soldiers
Abstract:With the end of the Cold War, the U.S. Army began facing the challenge of defending the United States in a radically altered world. This new world requires soldiers to possess an expanded skill set including the ability to manage and leverage social relationships, use personal and institutional influence in productive ways, and form cooperative relationships that maximize benefits for the Army and United States. Clearly, social skills are important for the Army's success. Helping soldiers develop the social skills necessary for successful job performance represents a unique challenge for the Army. Effective social skill assessment and training procedures largely do not exist in the Army. When a soldier is deficient in social skills, no tools exist to identify the specific interpersonal skills in which a soldier is deficient, to assess the level of deficiency, to provide targeted training, or to assess the success of training and the proficiency of soldiers trained in the use of social skills. Phase I will develop an interpersonal performance assessment system by identifying those aspects of interpersonal performance which are necessary for successful performance for a target MOS, developing a system and standards for assessing interpersonal performance, and evaluating the interpersonal assessment system. The ability to interact effectively with others and use one's social environment to meet organizational goals is important for almost all jobs. The procedures developed in this SBIR for assessing and training interpersonal performance will be widely applicable across the military, as well as within other public and private sector organizations.

JOB PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS, INC.
1240 N. Pitt St,, Suite 100
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 799-3652
Dr. Douglas Rosenthal
ARMY 02-029      Selected for Award
Title:Cost-Effective, Realistic Measures of Job Performance
Abstract:The Army is seeking effective and affordable tests of MOS performance. To the extent possible, the Army would like to assess performance in a manner that realistically captures the complexities and demands incumbents face in doing their jobs. JPS proposes to create a methodology linking MOS clusters to a set of best bet test types. The methodology will produce a decision model that identifies which test type is most appropriate from among options such as high and medium fidelity simulations, simulated walk throughs, and proceduralized multiple choice tests. Once a test type is determined, then the methodology specifies a two stage job analysis process to support test design and development. The methodology assumes computer administration of all tests and internet data transfer. The methodology also includes a process improvement system to track, evaluate, and make continual improvements in achieving affordability and high realism goals. The successful development and implementation of this methodology will enable the Army to objectively assess job performance of personnel working in upwards of 200 MOS. It will also make high quality, objective performance tests more affordable for commercial firms with jobs similar to those in the Army.

BEVAN INDUSTRIES
168 Peachtree Circle
Atlanta, GA 30309
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 872-5381
Dr. Thomas Bevan
ARMY 02-030      Selected for Award
Title:Developing New Predictors of Stress Resilience for the Objective Force
Abstract: This proposal advances a model that provides a stress resilience index (SRI) that will be useful for personnel selection, proficiency in stress resilience training, and assessment and construction of training courses for stress resilience. The model will be based on objective predictive measures that will predict the impact of stress on performance in combat-related tasks. Examples of such predictors might include physiological measurements such as cardiovascular recovery rate, pupil dilation or evoked potentials to stressful stimuli, or psychological predictors such as paper-and-pencil scales for personality variables or knowledge of stress reduction techniques. Quantification of the effects of these predictive measures on performance will be accomplished by conducting experimentation in conjunction with stressful military training exercises that will involve pre-exercise and post-exercise measurement of military significant tasks such as weapons proficiency. The proposed model treats psychological stress and physical stress as contributors to the negative physiological consequences of stressful battlefield events and military life. These negative physiological consequences cause degraded performance until the body, through the normal physiological processes of homeostasis, returns to physiological balance and health. The time to recover depends on the severity and duration of the insult. Resilience to stress refers to the degree to which an individual can resist the negative consequences of stressful events through psychological and physical readiness, and therefore minimize the physiological insult and the time to recovery. Resilience to physical and psychological stress should also reduce long-term, delayed effects wherein recall of stressful events causes negative physiological consequences because the events will be recalled as less stressful. The form of the quantified model will be a metric, or equation, that relates stress resilience index (SRI) to predictive measurements. Predictive measurements will have theoretical validity because they will be identified in Phase I from existing theoretical constructs and measurements in the literature that have been advanced as constructs for stress resilience. In Phase I, the model will be constructed which identifies potential predictive measurements and representative military tasks. A Phase I Option is proposed to develop paper-and-pencil instruments in preparation for Phase II. Experimentation will be performed in Phase II to correlate predictive measurements with changes in performance on representative military tasks due to simulated military stress in training exercises. Weights will be assigned to each measurement based on Phase II experimentation through multiple regression techniques. The metric equation will add up each of the selected weighted measurements to provide a stress resilience indicator. The resulting model will operationalize a battery of tests that will provide the predictive measurements. The principal investigator, Dr. Thomas Bevan has particular expertise to conduct the proposed research and development. Dr. Bevan received training in physiological psychology at Princeton University and served in the US Army as a Physiologist and Psychologist. He has particular expertise in development of performance metrics, having contributed to the development of image quality equations that relate military image intepreter performance to human and system variables. Dr. Bevan has developed expertise with a wide range of psychological and physiological measurement techniques. More recently, Dr. Bevan has studied civilian first responders to identify requirements for development of technology and training through a center he developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology and is thus in position to apply models of military stress resilience to first responders (e.g. firemen, police, emergency managers). As part of this center, Dr. Bevan is developing physiological measurement instrumentation for use by the US Marine Corps, specifically in areas contaminated by chemical, biological, nuclear, radiological releases. Dr. Bevan has successfully managed research and development programs for DARPA, USAF and the US Marine Corps. The research and development activities proposed provide a unique opportunity to develop a model that can be applied to stressful job functions in both military and civilian life. It can be used to assess and improve military readiness, reduce negative consequences from military operations and provide military leadership with clear scientific information on how to prepare military personnel for stresses of the battlefield and military life. In the civilian world, the model developed for military use, can be adapted to deal with stressful job functions. The model also has implications for the general population as it deals with the psychological stress of terrorism. The research and development activities proposed provide a unique opportunity to develop a model that can be applied to stressful job functions in both military and civilian life. It can be used to assess and improve military readiness, reduce negative consequences from military operations and provide military leadership with clear scientific information on how to prepare military personnel for stresses of the battlefield and military life. In the civilian world, the model developed for military use, can be adapted to deal with stressful job functions. The model also has implications for the general population as it deals with the psychological stress of terrorism. The commercial application of the model proposed is to develop a package of hardware and software to implement a test battery that can be run on a personal computer in order to predict stress resilience. Such a package might include physiological and psychological measurements, depending on the outcome of the proposed research and development effort.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry Marcus
ARMY 02-031      Selected for Award
Title:Graph Matching Intrusion Detection for the Insider Threat
Abstract:We propose the Graph Matching Intrusion Detection (GMID) system, a novel approach to detecting insider and coordinated insider-outsider threats based on our algorithms for solving the subgraph isomorphism (graph matching) problem. GMID performs data fusion on information from dense sensor networks inside and outside the secured system to build a graph representation of network topology, user activity, and network state. Threat patterns are represented as graphs, and our graph matching algorithms quickly identify suspicious activity within the sensed network state. The GMID approach provides new capabilities for "putting all the pieces together" to detect distributed and coordinated attacks perpetrated by insiders and/or outsiders - a single user need not act out the entire threat pattern for it to be detected. False alarms are avoided because threats are expressed in a rich representation that describes multiple coordinated actions, not just simple packet filters. Previously unseen threat variations can be detected by our capability for inexact matching. The GMID approach provides new capabilities and does not suffer the limitations of current graph-based intrusion detection systems. The research described in this proposal will yield a novel and more powerful approach to the intrusion detection (ID) problem. It will exceed current techniques' abilities in the detection of insider and insider-outsider threats by using dense sensor networks within the border of the secured system, and because of the unique capabilities of the GMID approach. Sensors within the secured system will collect the pieces of evidence left by insider attacks. The GMID approach will put these pieces together to detect the entire threat picture and alert the sysadmin. GMID surpasses the data fusion and pattern matching capabilities of current commercial and research ID systems. In addition, it does not suffer from the limitations of other graph based ID systems under research. The result will be an ID system that is much more capable of detecting insider attacks and generates fewer false alarms. These same algorithms can potentially be applied to predicting securities fraud and identifying product design defaults from individual failure reports.

ADVANCED SCIENCE & NOVEL TECHNOLOGY
28119 Ridgefern Court
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 377-6029
Dr. Alexander Tartakovsky
ARMY 02-031      Selected for Award
Title:An Efficient Distributed Scalable Intrusion Detection System for Rapid Detection of Insider Attacks
Abstract:The critical criteria for intrusion detection systems (IDS) are the speed of detection, the false alarm rate, and the number of types of attacks that can be detected. Unlike external attacks, insider attacks are not well understood today. Advanced Science and Novel Technology (ADSANTEC) proposes key technological advancements in the area of insider IDS based on its revolutionary adaptive change-point detection algorithms with the following major benefits: (1) Efficient local IDS algorithms for rapid detection of insider attacks (2) Multi-sensor distributed detection technology with multi-level false alarm filtering (3) Fusion center for data and decisions identifying insider attack trends and patterns During Phase I, ADSANTEC will identify most informative observables, demonstrate the flexibility of the approach, and evaluate the advantages of our detection system compared to existing ones. As an illustration, we will apply this methodology for detection of unauthorized access and misuse of resources. Existing solutions for detection of these intrusions do not employ statistical methods and suffer from uncontrollable false alarm rates and scalability problems in large distributed networks. The ADSANTEC's approach addresses both of these crucial issues. Active probing and service quality monitoring when combined with the ADSANTEC's change-point detection methods will allow us to achieve two important improvements as compared to the existing IDS: an increase of the probability of detection of unknown, stealthy attacks and a decrease of the false alarm rate. We also anticipate that the distributed, scalable IDS configuration will allow us to improve the overall performance of the system in terms of detection capabilities and lowering false detections. Phase I architectural and algorithmic design along with the results of preliminary simulations will constitute a basis for the development, training, and testing in Phase II where the proposed detection methods will be extensively trained and experimentally tested in the available testbeds. The successful completion of this program will result in commercialization of the most advanced algorithm for rapid detection and mitigation of insider attacks in military, homeland defense and industrial networks.

WISE WEB SOFTWARE
7905 Rodger Rd
Elkins Park, PA 19027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 635-0705
Dr. David Goldstein
ARMY 02-031      Selected for Award
Title:Security and Integrity Learning Expert System
Abstract:Military information systems are force multipliers; systems reliability is more critical than ever. Wise Web softWare proposed to leverage its expertise in network security, intrusion detection, fraud detection, expert systems, data mining, and adaptive interfaces for the Security and Integrity Learning Expert System (SILES) to monitor and analyze threats to systems. SILES will not only consider aspects of the problem discussed in the topic, such as target and attacker profiling, system-wide security data fusion, feature extraction/classification, data mining, and run-time system monitoring of users/systems, but also the following critical items. 1. A probability-based engine to easily and intuitive describe the significance of threats that affect information systems. 2. A semantic analysis tool to automatically categorize documents for appropriate dissemination. SILES will categorize, intercept, deceive, and alert administrators on inappropriate attempts to access sensitive materials. 3. An intuitive interface personalized to individual users for specifying knowledge about equipment, security software, operating systems, applications, etc. 4. An effective interface for readily interpreting security threat data. Threats must be readily prioritized, understood and (sometimes automatically) compensated to be more useful. The final objective (i.e., Phase II prototype) will be a collection of agents for monitoring the appropriate usage of resources (including specific types of documents) on networks. SILES will also include interfaces, controlling software, and software for discovering / adding new elements to agent's knowledge. SILES will add several crucial capabilities that dramatically improve upon the state-of-the-art in fraud detection, employee monitoring, and intrusion detection systems. Wise Web softWare develops and sells software tools, applications and training in web-based artificial intelligence solutions. Our software has already been leveraged under the Army ACT II program and is being sold both in the U.S. and abroad. The most immediate marketplace is, obviously, with the topic's program office (e.g., High Performance Computing Modernization) through invitations of the topic authors to the office. Other obvious government customers include Army CECOM, USAF Information Technology Branch, the Office of Naval Research, and Defense Information Systems Agency - for the technology - and security personnel for the system itself. Significant civilian government and private sector customers also exist. Our marketing personnel will use our contacts in the health care industry to penetrate these markets; hospitals are rapidly transitioning to wireless networks, even at costs of tens of millions of dollars per facility, and are legally obligated to privacy concerns (through HIPAA). Another market that we are currently assessing is the employee monitoring domain. We are also assessing the value of marketing our tool in the Knowledge Management and Categorization software domains.

REACTIVE NANOTECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2400 Boston St., Suite 300
Baltimore, MD 21224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 516-4071
Dr. Timothy P. Weihs
ARMY 02-032      Selected for Award
Title:Reactive Multilayer Joining of SiC and Ti
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project introduces a new technology for joining components exhibiting large mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. The proposed technology is a reactive joining process that uses reactive multilayer foils as local heat sources for melting brazes or solders. The foils are a new class of nano-engineered materials, in which self-propagating exothermic reactions can be ignited at room temperature with a spark. By inserting a multilayer foil between two braze (or solder) layers and two components, heat generated by the reaction in the foil melts the braze and consequently bonds the components. This new method of joining eliminates the need for a furnace and, with very localized heating, avoids thermal damage to the components. The reactive bonding process is more rapid than competing technologies, and results in strong and cost-effective joints. Phase I effort will: (1) establish the feasibility and effectiveness of this joining method to produce large-area, 4 in. x 4 in., joints between plates of Ti-6-4 and SiC, (2) develop and validate a design model for predicting heat transport and braze melting during the reactive joining process, and (3) demonstrate that the strength of the resulting joints are two times higher than best epoxy joints. Successful development of reactive multilayer joining, and its adaptation to the joining of SiC and Ti-6-4 will not only enhance the performance of advanced ceramics in armor applications, but it will also open new opportunities for industrial joining, mounting and assembly applications.

TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2103 River Falls Drive
Kingwood, TX 77339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 359-8520
Mr. Robert P. Radtke
ARMY 02-032      Selected for Award
Title:Joining Metals and Ceramics that Exhibit a Large Mismatch in Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Abstract:This proposal for the U.S. Army addresses the challenges of brazing dissimilar materials, initially silicon carbide to titanium alloy Ti-6A1-4V, while achieving the minimum attachment shear strength of 2x (76MPa, 11,000psi) that of epoxy glues. Technology International, Inc. (TII) recently developed novel microwave and combustion synthesis methods for brazing polycrystalline diamond and tungsten carbide for commercial abrasive applications. These brazing techniques were developed by TII, Colorado School of Mines (CSM), and NASA JPL, with financial support from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Institute, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The joining of dissimilar material pairs for lightweight armor usage, with coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) ratios similar to that of diamond and tungsten carbide, can be applied with confidence using similar scientific methods and brazing techniques. TII has demonstrated the ability to control residual thermal stress while achieving attachment shear strength in excess of 345 MPa (50,000 psi). TII respectfully submits a proposal for a six-month Phase I and four-month Phase I Option project as follows: Task 1 - Materials and Processing Task 2 - Microwave Brazing Task 3 - Visual, Ultrasonic, Impact and Shear Testing Task 4 - Reports and Presentations 1.2. Anticipated Benefits and Potential Commercial Applications High-strength bonding of dissimilar materials, particularly with high-performance ceramics to low and high-density metals, has commercial appeal and application in many industries. Obviously, the primary purpose of this proposal is to increase protection of U.S. Army military hardware and personnel. Broader applications are numerous, including power turbines, heat exchangers, nozzles, commercial aircraft, automobiles, mining, and earth moving equipment, metal refining, oil refining, chemical processing facilities, petroleum drilling and production, medical devices, and abrasives. Some of these private sector applications will require higher temperature metal substrates, such as steel, molybdenum and tungsten carbide, a modest extension of the scope of this proposal. Once technically successful, the economics for the market place must be addressed. For military hardware, superior ballistic performance is paramount. The tactical importance of superior lightweight armor is under the national security umbrella and outweighs industrial commercial considerations. For military purposes, field fabrication and servicing units are well within expectations. Nevertheless, the proposed development of equipment and processes to join dissimilar materials for lightweight armor, does not entail huge capital investment or unwieldy production components. Power requirements for this technology are less than 5 KW and the system can be designed to become modular for deployment. For private-sector applications, new product cycles and scalability are consistent with the natural flow of microwave brazing process development. Interest in licensing the process and equipment for diamond- abrasive applications has already been expressed. The initial size of the commercial market for an advanced method for dissimilar brazing would be 50 - 100 millions of dollars. Capital investment would be substantial in meeting what is perceived as accelerating double-digit demand and would most likely be accomplished employing some or all of the following: cash flow from operations, interim financing, venture capital, partnerships, and licensing arrangements. Peripheral growth in the manufacture and servicing of processing equipment would follow. Furthermore, no hazardous by-products are created, exploitation of resources is low, and other environmental impacts are negligible or non-existent. Because of TII's prior work and experience in this area, the likelihood for new discovery during a Phase I project is high and success likely. After consulting with Resource Marketing International, Inc., a Houston market research company, the conservatively estimated initial market components are shown below. For new, practical, cost effective technology where demand already exists, annual revenue growth rates are typically 20 - 30%. Estimated Annual World-wide Market Potential Commercial Aircraft & Stationary Power Turbines $15,000,000 Nozzles, valves, abrasives, slurries handling $10,000,000 Oilfield and mining drilling and downhole tools $ 5,000,000 Tar Sand and Oil Shell Production (synthetic oils) $ 2,000,000 Earth moving and ore handling $1 0,000,000 Automobiles, brakes, wear surfaces $ 1,000,000 Heat treating, heat exchangers $ 2,000,000 Wear components in automated processes $ 5,000,000 Military applications $50,000,000

ARMORWORKS, INC.
7306 S. Harl Avenue
Tempe, AZ 85283
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 517-1150
Dr. Ken An-Lou
ARMY 02-033      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost, Mine-Blast-Resistant Crew Seat for Interim Armored Vehicle (IAV) and Future Combat System (FCS) Ground Vehicles of the Objective Force
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to demonstrate specific mine-blast-resistant crew seat design concepts that can attenuate or absorb the high G loading, with lowest weight and cost possible. A computer simulation will be presented to identify the required shock absorber characteristics. Various shock absorber devices will be evaluated and selected for mine-blast-resistant crew seat applications. Two mine-blast-resistant crew seat design concepts using a generic floor-mounted vehicle seat will be demonstrated along with a system weight and cost budgets. Mine blast shock absorber system applicable to all military and civilian vehicles exposed to landmine threats. Improved vehicle protection technologies and improved analysis and design tools for vehicle acceleration events such as mine blasts. Lightweight and low-cost shock absorber devices for military and civilian vehicle industries.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4376
Mr. Kash Kasturi
ARMY 02-033      Selected for Award
Title:Mine Blast Resistant Energy Absorbing Crew Seat for Ground Armored Vehicles
Abstract:An innovative approach for tank seats for Interim Army Vehicle (IAV) and Future Combat System (FCS) Ground Vehicles is proposed. The innovation consists of using metal foam that can be easily retrofitted to existing and future army vehicles. Two seat designs for a driver's seat and a crew seat are proposed. The goal is to reduce occupant injuries through reduction in vertical dynamic loads at the seat level of 20 g's during a duration of no more than 7 ms due to a blast loading condition of 1840 g's over 0.32 ms on the seat floor. Using advanced finite element modeling of the seat/occupant system under crash impulse loads, the seat design will be optimized and preliminary designs will be developed for improved occupant safety. Two different designs will be released to Army. (P-020578) The energy absorbing elements of the proposed seat design has the potential for widespread use in both government and commercial vehicles. While the Army will be the immediate beneficiary of this work, manufacturers of commercial vehicles such as HUMVEE's can incorporate the energy absorbing elements into their seat design.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 213-9048
Mr. David M. Kane
ARMY 02-034      Selected for Award
Title:MEMS Beam Steering (MBS) Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) Module for a Small Robotic Platform
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop a novel Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) architecture & design approach that leverages the MEMS Beam Steering (MBS) sensor miniaturization technology currently being developed by Aret Associates. The MEMS Beam Steering (MBS) architecture was initially developed as a solution for addressing the 2p sr 3D imaging requirement for MK 80 class bomb in our ongoing Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR Aim Point Selection (STILAPS) program. The MBS RSTA concept could be a major support element of the Land Warrior or Future Combat Systems architecture, providing a modular mission re-configurable information gathering capability. The MBS architecture provides significant benefits to the RSTA concept. First, it eliminates the requirement for gimbals or external scan mechanisms to address large sensor fields of regard. This results in lower volume, lower mass, less power (MEMS consume mW's), higher reliability with no moving parts exposed to the environment and higher Line of Sight pointing accuracy with no need for rotational encoders or resolvers. Due to MEMS scan mirror's small size, extremely high scan rates are possible. In the STILAPS application, the MBS scans 4000o/s, covering 2000 sr/s.

ANTHROTRONIX, INC.
387 Technology Drive
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-0156
Dr. Corinna Lathan
ARMY 02-035      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Human/Robot Control Interface
Abstract:The ability of remote robotic vehicles to achieve their tasks depends on how well they can be controlled. An effective human/robot interface would minimize the limitations of the human and robot and prioritize the level of human/robot interaction. The interface must provide a range of robotic control, across the semi-autonomous to fully manually-controlled spectrum. Communication needs across this spectrum vary between the human receiving a Situation Report to directly controlling and receiving live information from the robot. Due to possible failures in hardware and software, purely autonomous robots in dynamic, hazardous environments are not feasible. The human operator has the adaptability needed in these environments. However, situations in a combat/hazardous environment test the operator's physical and cognitive limits. We propose an efficient, intuitive, unobtrusive, and intelligent human/robot interface with multiple modalities of input for robotic control (proportional-tactile, speech) and multiple modalities of feedback information from the robot (video, graphical display, audio). The interface will prioritize information flow, based on the human's and robot's situations. Objectives are: 1. Identify and test input and output hardware and modalities. 2. Evaluate the Land Warrior system for available resources. Existing Land Warrior hardware will be used whenever possible to minimize weight, size, and complexity. By facilitating successful operation of mobile robots, the human/robot interface will reduce the risk to dismounted infantry during combat operations. Urban search and rescue is the most obvious dual-use application for this technology. Fire and rescue personnel, police, and other agents could use a robust and reliable human/robot control interface, to control small robotic platforms in collapsed building environments, sniper situations, fires, and chemical contamination environments.

LASEN, INC.
300 North Telshor Blvd., Suite 600
Las Cruces, NM 88011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 522-5110
Mr. Allen R. Geiger
ARMY 02-036      Selected for Award
Title:Active Infrared Multi-Spectral Sensor
Abstract:The objective of this research is to construct an ultra-compact and lightweight mid-infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL) sensor capable of operating from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and similar platforms. The sensor will operate in the 3.2--3.6-um spectral region, the fingerprint absorption region for many fuels and paints, as well as some known chemical and biological threats. Compared to the presently used near-infrared laser systems, the sensor will be less affected by common battlefield obscurants. The use of a nonlinear frequency converter in the receiver will allow the system to attain unparalleled sub-meter level of spatial resolution in the mid-infrared spectral range. This feature, combined with a frequency-agile, solid-state-tunable laser transmitter will enable the sensor to rapidly interrogate targets both spatially and spectrally with high resolution. The resulting technology will offer a superior means of target location and identification in a cluttered battlefield environment. Military applications: the success of the Phase I/II SBIR program will accelerate the development of mid-infrared Aided Target Recognition (ATR) and tracking systems with enhanced resilience against battlefield obscurants, combined with superior capabilities of target identification. Commercial applications: the same technology will provide an airborne chemical sensor platform that will offer a rapid and economic means for pipeline inspections and environmental monitoring.

ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Dr. John Lovell
ARMY 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Buried Explosive Detection System
Abstract:The goal of this multi-phase project is to develop a trace explosives detection system to reliably locate land mines from a vehicle traveling at walking pace. Under the Phase I program ADA Technologies will apply advanced geochemical techniques, which have previously been used to detect oil and gas and base metal mineralization lying beneath tens to thousands of meters of overburden, to the problem of locating buried explosives. The Phase I program will demonstrate a novel and elegant approach to enhance the detectability of traces of TNT, RDX, 2,4, DNT and two of the common degradation products of TNT, 2A-DNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene) and 4A-DNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene). The Phase I program will use atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (ACPI/MS/MS) as the analytical system to define the best operating parameters of the proposed approach. The Phase I Option program will include a demonstration of the approach with field samples known to be contaminated with explosives from buried explosives. Candidate analytical devices for Phase II will investigated. In Phase II, ADA will build a prototype fieldable unit. A successful demonstration of the proposed concept will accelerate the detection and destruction of the more than 100 million land mines that are dispersed throughout the world and which injure, or kill over 20,000 men, women and children annually. The proposed approach also has a potential commercial application for screening cargo containers, luggage, airline passengers and vehicles for traces of contraband explosives and terrorist devices.

COGNISCENT, INC.
410 Concord Rd.
Weston, MA 02493
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 863-0069
Dr. Joel White
ARMY 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:An Explosive Detection System Based on Biological Principles
Abstract:There are currently no established hand-held methods for accurately detecting bulk explosives. Explosives and related compounds, however, exhibit a range of volatilities, suggesting that the best, and perhaps only, method for rapidly detecting them is by detecting their molecules released into the air. Typical analytical chemistry instruments are not appropriate for this task due to their size and weight, as well as lack of rapid, real-time response. We have developed a new portable sensor array device for rapidly detecting and identifying volatile compounds in the environment. It actively samples ambient air through sniffing, identifies odorants in near real-time, and can be trained to recognize a range of target odorants. The device is sensitive to the TNT precursor dinitrotoluene (a compound associated with TNT landmines) in the air at concentrations below 500 parts per trillion. Field tests indicate that the device can detect, and discriminate from complex backgrounds, the vapor signature of buried landmines. The objectives of the research proposed here are to test the ability of the device to detect additional explosive-related compounds alone and in various backgrounds, to field test the device to demonstrate explosives detection in situ, and to design a small, light-weight hand-held version of the device. Funding from this SBIR will be used to finalize designs for a small, light and relatively low cost hand-held explosive detection device. The device will be initially marketed to the armed forces for mine detection and also later offered to humanitarian organizations concerned with land mine removal. An obvious and early additional application will be for remediation of other UXO at military bases. Also, the device will have application for screening personnel and baggage, both for military and domestic security.

APPLIED MEDIA ANALYSIS, LLC
7814 Rockburn Drive
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 493-9041
Dr. Huiping Li
ARMY 02-038      Selected for Award
Title:MATES: Multilingual Automatic Translation Engine for Signs
Abstract:When the United States military commits to operations in foreign territories, it is important for soldiers to have the ability to understand signs accurately and in a timely manner. We propose the development of a sign understanding and translation system called MATES (Multilingual Automatic Translation Engine for Signs) that can be operated by a novice user to obtain and interpret signs in foreign languages. The system will be comprised of a hand-held Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and camera along with a dynamically reconfigurable embedded component architecture and software developed for text detection, recognition and translation, and a configuration and visualization interface to aid personnel deployed in foreign countries. Our text detection and recognition approach builds upon our previous R&D to provide a lightweight, trainable, and robust solution which can be easily adapted to different foreign languages. The perspective distortion is detected and rectified to further improve the performance. Our novelty lies on the use of context for both recognition and translation/transliteration. In order to deal with uncertainty in OCR and in the translation of sign content, we will rely heavily on contextual information and optional feedback provided by the user of the system, combined with robust techniques for indexing and incorporating domain information. The general philosophy will be to provide a system where additional context and resources will be supported by dynamic reconfiguration. The component architecture supports a view such that different resources and software components can be loaded on demand. In addition to military applications the development of an autonomous sign translation system has tremendous commercial potential. For example: Assisting visitors to foreign countries that are unable to read the local language for help with reading transportation schedules, or menus or while shopping. The sign detection module and recognition modules can be integrated into systems for the visually impaired. The sign recognition module can be used in numerous applications including automated mapping, robot navigation, autonomous vehicle navigation and driver support systems

POLAR RAIN, INC.
425 Costa Mesa Ter #H
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 735-1054
Mrs. Esin Darici Haritaoglu
ARMY 02-038      Selected for Award
Title:Scene Text Extraction and Translation for Handheld and Mobile Devices
Abstract:We propose novel solution to implement a full automatic text detection and identification system for road sign translation which will run on a commercially off the shelf Personal digital Assistants (PDA). The system consists of a PDA, a digital camera attached to a PDA, and a storage device which can be attached compact flash II ports of the PDA. The fast and memory efficient system consists 4 modules for road sign translation: (a) low-level image processing techniques to enhance to image better text detection and extraction, segmentation (b) feature extraction modules where the text identified, and skew and orientation distortion are corrected (c) a shape histogram based method for latin and non-latin character recognition (d) a limited dictionary-context based machin translation module translates the recognized text in to desired language. The translated text is augmented on to same location where the original foreign text was, so user will sees the road sign/text in their language. As the system is full automatic text detection interaction between user and program will be minimal and simple. User need only point the device to road sign and press a button. In the Phase-I effort, we will implement a prototype system to evaluate the feasibility of the methods. System will support a language pair in the phase-I effort, and it will include multiple language support as a Phase-II effort. First commercial applications of our proposed image processing technology will be in the areas of navigation aids for people in foreign country. People will get the software in their mobile devices and use them whenever they need a short translation, such as, time-table in metro station at Tokyo, a Chinese menu in Beijing, shopping in market place at Dubai. The other initial private sector applications we will focus on will address the needs of vision-impaired people to function comfortably and independently. Our applications will help them use the public transportation system by announcing the number and destination of an arriving bus, navigational signs in the metro system, identify street signs, and name of stores in shopping malls. Population of senior citizens has been increasing steadily in developed countries, and along with that the number of vision impaired people who can benefit from such a product. In recent study shows that there are 5.5 Million visually impaired people in US only who may not read the sign and text even they are very close the signboard.

QED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1040 University Ave.
Rochester, NY 14607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 256-6540
Dr. William Kordonski
ARMY 02-039      Selected for Award
Title:Production of Non-Traditional Optical Surfaces for Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Guidance
Abstract:The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the feasibility of polishing 3.0 inch diameter ogive-shaped optical domes (fineness ratio 1.0-1.5) using a magnetorheological (MR) jet polishing process. The MR jet process utilizes an MR fluid mixture comprised of magnetic particles and nonmagnetic abrasives, a delivery system capable of supplying a fluid jet with a velocity > 10 m/s, and an MR fluid jet shaper used to stabilize the shape of the jet. Interferometric characterization of the removal function and control of the positioning of the jet impingement on the optic surface by a computer numerically controlled (CNC) system will allow polishing with the required precision. An understanding of the effects of MR fluid characteristics, jet impingement angle, standoff distance and jet speed on the removal rate of a variety of materials will enable this process to be used to polish complex, conformal shapes. Developing a process to manufacture precision polished conformal shapes is important for many applications. Ogive domes and other conformal shapes are immediately needed by the Department of Defense for surveillance, target acquisition and guidance systems. Additional applications include commercial optics and a variety of other components.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-6488
Mr. Boyd Bucher
ARMY 02-040      Selected for Award
Title:Complex Obstacle Traversing Suspension System for Wheeled Ground Vehicles
Abstract:Future military wheeled vehicles will inevitably require equal or superior mobility and a greater ability to traverse complex obstacles in comparison with current tracked and wheeled vehicles. Ideally, no complex obstacle found in either a rural or urban settings should impede a vehicle's ability to maintain it's operational tempo. This proposal demonstrates the feasibility of a complex user controlled multi-link suspension system for use on future four-wheeled vehicles. The proposed system will be verified by analytically testing its ability to traverse a specified set of complex obstacles. These obstacles are much greater in size and complexity than what current wheeled vehicles with a traditional suspension design are able to traverse. This proposal responds specifically to the United States Army's request for a complex suspension design that will be tested on the Mongrel test vehicle. This design will work in conjunction with the vehicle's electric motor-driven wheels, and will be an independent suspension design that can be used at each wheel, regardless of location. The vehicle will be able to traverse the proposed obstacles as well as be capable of traveling on typical roads and through parking lots at typical speeds. The resulting Phase I design can be used as a tool to initiate conversation between potential partners/buyers/manufactures of the proposed design. TIAX is predominantly a fee-for-service technology development and management firm and does not have the internal resources to undertake the production and management of a suspension product line at this time. However, TIAX has a long history of working with industrial clients and partners in the development and production of new products and would be pleased to seek such a partner for the final development and production of the new suspension system. The main objective in any post Phase I discussions with outside sources would be to assess interest in investing in or supporting the manufacturing efforts of the Phase II effort. Upon completion of Phase II, a more complex market study can be done to determine end use and target markets for the resulting technology. Uses might include search and rescue vehicles, logging vehicles, mining vehicles, construction vehicles, and forest fire-fighting vehicles. These markets might include major automobile manufacturers, OEM's, aftermarket suppliers, off-road vehicle specialty shops, military specific vehicle manufacturers, aftermarket military specific vehicle shops, and agricultural equipment manufacturers. Application of this technology to commercial use will help strengthen it's application to the military. Depending on the target markets, and the position of TIAX relative to each of them, an investigation can be completed into the potential licensing of the design to any interested parties. For this to happen, TIAX will have to investigate patenting the resulting phase II design, putting them in a position to licensee the rights of the design to any interested parties. TIAX's employees have a long history of commercializing new technologies while part of Arthur D. Little's Technology and Innovation Business. Commercialization has taken place in the form of licensing technologies, marketing products directly to customers, and creating spin-off companies.

LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6145 Scherers Place
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 718-3000
Mr. Richard D. Tenaglia
ARMY 02-041      Selected for Award
Title:Laser Peening for Army Vehicle Life Extension
Abstract:Laser peening significantly increases the fatigue life of components by the introduction of deep compressive residual stresses. The U.S. Army utilizes numerous fatigue-critical components, which potentially could take advantage of the improvements offered by laser peening. Such parts include gears, which are used in a variety of aircraft, vehicles, and support equipment. Helicopter gears are of particular interest because these gears are prone to fatigue failures, which lead to high inspection and maintenance costs. Limited attempts to match the demonstrated fatigue life benefits achieved with laser peening for titanium-alloy engine parts in hardened steel gears have fallen short of expectations. This result is believed to be related to the presence of a hardened surface layer and the rather complex gear geometry. A program is proposed to characterize the interaction of the shock wave with the microstructural features and gear tooth geometry. This information is needed to develop improved laser peening methods for fatigue-resistant, steel gears. The need within the military and private sectors for increased gear life is important and urgent. The development of affordable laser peening processing for gears will have a tremendous economic impact through enabling more reliable, fuel efficient vehicles along with reduced maintenance, repair and gear replacement costs. The benefit of this program will be to provide a laser peen processing method that increases the fatigue life of gear components for the Army. The new processing methods can be applied to all components beyond the Army needs. These applications include, for example, the lift fan gears that are to be used in the Joint Strike Fighter for the Navy/Marines. Other low cost parts, such as gears and shafts for automotive applications, will be able to take advantage of the LaserPeenT process developed in this program.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 642-3000
Mr. Mike Geile
ARMY 02-042      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Position and Orientation for Distributed Sensors (PODIS)
Abstract:The success of remote sensing using a network of distributed sensors depends on knowing the position and orientation of each sensor. However, in many sensor deployments, accurate knowledge of sensor locations and orientations is unavailable. We propose to develop and demonstrate an innovative and robust technique for self-locating and self-orienting of the sensors that meets the cost, size, and weight requirements of sensor nodes. The techniques will use acoustic and/or RF signals to determine relative range and bearing of signals, and this information is fused to compute the locations and orientations of all sensors. Significantly, the source signals may be at unknown locations, and need not be co-located with sensors. Both relative sensor calibration (with respect to one another) and absolute calibration techniques (with respect to an absolute frame of reference) will be developed. In addition, accuracy bounds for calibration performance will be found. We will develop a clear understanding of the advantages and limitations of both RF-based and acoustic-based self-calibration methods. We will also develop an innovative algorithm suite for robust self-calibration and demonstrate, via software simulation, the ability to robustly self-calibrate sensors separated by 30-500 meters using these techniques. Finally, we will identify critical algorithmic and system implementation issues that need to be addressed to improve robustness of the self-calibration system in a Phase II design. The self-calibration techniques will be developed for Phase II implementation as part of a sensor network system. A robust, self-contained system for localization and orientation is critical for providing accurate tracking and targeting information to the warfighter in areas where other sensing assets are blind or denied. Commercial applications in sensor networks have application for locating people in burning buildings or forests, providing distributed sensing of large public areas for homeland security, and developing smart houses.

LS TECHNOLOGIES
33288 Jamie circle
Fremont, CA 94555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 825-0581
Dr. J-Q Liu
ARMY 02-043      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Display Devices
Abstract:We strive to develop a low weight, bright, high resolution, and practical 3D display technology that will generate true volumetric images utilizing a crossed-beam laser volume addressing technique. Rather than using the existing 3D display media - a solid block of upconversion fluoride glass doped with rare earths, which is heavy, expensive, and faint with very low fluorescent upconversion efficiency, we will focus on developing a new nonlinear optical media for 3D display using much lighter and more efficient fluorescent molecules, which selectively absorb only the sum frequency of two IR photons of different wavelengths from two lasers and emit visible light covering RGB band for full color 3D display. By rastering the crossing point of the two laser beams in a 3D container filled with such fluorescent media, a real 3D image can be created. We expect a dramatic improvement of the 3D display brightness at much less weigh with the crossbeam 3D imaging technique using the new fluorescent media. With the successful development of a new fluorescent media in Phase I, we will deliver a true 3D emissive display with cross laser volume addressing that is portable, bright, and commercially viable at the conclusion of this SBIR program. We live in a 3-D world and naturally interact with 3D objects, therefore, development and commercialization of affordable and high quality 3-D display will significantly impact our society and should lead to many major applications in military, medical, commercial imaging and potential 3-D video displays. Differing from the pseudo-3D displays, such as the stereo display technique, which requires special glasses to separate right and left eye images, or the swept volume technique, where 2D image is used to sweep out a volume of space cyclically at a frequency higher than the eye can resolve, the proposed cross-beam 3-D display technology directly create a real 3-D image in the space, without any unwanted physiological side effects for the viewers. Multiple viewers can view these 3-D displays from almost any direction simultaneously, without the need for glasses or headgear, thereby providing real depth perception to users. With the successful development of a new fluorescent media in Phase I, we will deliver a true 3D emissive display with cross laser volume addressing that is portable, affordable, bright, and commercially viable in this SBIR program.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro & Holography, 20600 Gramercy Place Bldg100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
ARMY 02-043      Selected for Award
Title:Collaborative Multiperspective Environment True Three Dimensional Display
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new collaborative multi-perspective environment true 3-D display visualization technology that will enable battle field commanders and controllers to view and analyze all activity on the battle ground simultaneously and rapidly. The proposed true 3-D display will be automultiscopic: a series of narrow view perspective images of a 3-D scene or object are optically projected in a high-speed sequence, through the use of a high speed high resolution video projectors onto an in-plane spinning holographic optical element on a thin film screen. This display will be in the form of a large tabletop workbench, and will present multiple perspective views around it, forming integrated virtual volumetric 3-D images, overcoming the shortcomings of conventional stereoscopic 3-D displays. In Phase I, POC will design a laboratory prototype and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method by integrating a high speed projector with holographic optical element fabricated for the demonstration. When fully developed, the proposed collaborative multi-perspective environment true 3-D display will be able to show distortion free, high resolution, very bright, full color, gray scale virtual volumetric 3-D images at a standard video rate encompassing very high volume of information. Commercial applications of the collaborative multi-perspective environment 3-D display will be in training and simulation, air traffic control, CAD/CAM, surveillance photogrammetry, molecular modeling, medical imaging and video games.

SANTEC SYSTEMS, INC.
716 South Milwaukee Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 215-8884
Dr. Jaswinder S. Sandhu
ARMY 02-044      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Field Portable Acousto-Optical Ultrasonic Evaluation System
Abstract:Novel acousto-optic (AO) sensors that overcome the limitations of current AO sensor will be developed. These sensors will be used to demonstrate feasibility of an ultrasonic evaluation system to provide simple, fast and low-cost method for NDE of fielded structures. The proposed approach will circumvent the need for cumbersome, multi axes mechanical scanning equipment required in conventional ultrasonic scanning. The operator skill requirements are expected to be relatively low, since data is provided in image form as opposed to an electronic signal. There is a significant potential for the proposed work to address the health monitoring needs of the Dept. of Defense aviation and other structures.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Dr. Hooshang Heshmat
ARMY 02-045      Selected for Award
Title:Oil-Free Thrust Bearings for Army Turboshaft Engines
Abstract:The Army's need to identify suitable high performance gas turbine engine oil-free thrust bearings is to be met in this program through a thorough evaluation of at least five different classes for oil-free thrust bearing concepts. Detailed parametric evaluations of each component design will be completed and used in assessing critical technical barriers. This data will then be used to assess the benefits to the identified classes of gas turbine engines. Preliminary thrust bearing testing of at least one concept will be completed using one of MiTi's several oil-free thrust bearing development rigs. The optional tasks will include test rig modifications needed for Phase II and will establish preliminary bearing designs for Phase II. Oil free gas turbine engines using the developed bearings will be suitable for both military and commercial applications. Military applications include both air and ground manned and unmanned vehicles. Commercial applications include general aviation bizjets, microturbine generators, gas pipeline compressors, motor driven compressors, cryogenic turboexpanders and the like.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Gerhard Holleck
ARMY 02-046      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Lithium-Air Polymer Battery
Abstract:The Li-Air polymer cells offer the potential of an extremely high energy density system with a specific energy in the 500-1000 Wh/kg range and an energy density of ~1000 Wh/l. Cell performance is determined mainly by the cathode, which controls the capacity and to a large degree also cell polarization. Therefore, the development and characterization of improved, efficient cathode structures is proposed. The performance of the new components will be demonstrated in complete thin layer pouch cells.

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
Dr. Mark SALOMON
ARMY 02-046      Selected for Award
Title:High Rate Li-Ion Batteries with Gelled Electrolyte
Abstract:MaxPower, Inc. is proposing an SBIR project responding to the Army's need for improved Li-ion chemistries. The Phase I and Option Phase parts of the program will focus on new gel electrolytes with improved conductivities and stability. The proposed program on gelled electrolytes is designed to eliminate the commonly used salt LiPF6 while maintaining high conductivities (0.1 to 1010-3 S cm-1) over the extended temperature range of -40C to 70C. Gelled electrolytes were selected for advanced R&D because they have much lower vapor pressures than liquid electrolytes which is an important safety consideration. Due to high vapor pressures of liquid electrolytes, for safety reasons Li-ion cells based on these liquid electrolytes must be hermetically sealed in metal containers and/or cans. Since gelled electrolytes have no "free flowing" electrolyte, Li-ions cells based on gelled electrolytes are easily and economically packaged in thin, lightweight plastic pouches. The studies on improved anode and cathode materials focus on rate and capacity optimization over the required temperature range. Specific areas of importance here relate to high rate charging (1C rate or higher) with improved capacity retention upon cycling and storage. Nanotechnology will greatly input to these studies. Successful introduction of high rate and high energy density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries is expected to have significance in commercial markets as well as for military and aerospace markets. The key features in MaxPower's proposed SBIR battery R&D program are high energy density, high rate, long cycle life, and an operational range over an extremely wide temperature range. Uses in commercial markets include power tools, mobile computing (e.g. notebook PCs with energy and power demanding disk drives), implantable medical devices such as cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, and the high power battery required for hybrid electric vehicles, e.g. in combination with a low power very high energy density fuel cell.

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
Dr. David Chua
ARMY 02-046      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:New Approaches for Ambient Temperature Li-Based Reserve Batteries
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I program presents a significant opportunity to look at new generation of friendlier chemistries which have equivalent electrochemical capability to the oxyhalides, and at the same time offer a reserve battery technology that can lend itself to miniturization and/or mass production. Thus, a viable reserve technology must cover 1) chemistry, 2) reservoir design, and 3) activation method. The use of an organic-based electrolyte solution(s) coupled to two innovative high-voltage cathode systems is the basic foundation of this proposal. The battery technology in recent years has seen a significant progress in advancing the material science of cathode materials. Available to the battery field are materials possessing improved energy and rate. These materials exist as bulk and as nano-scale forms. This progress provides a great opportunity to re-look and re-strategize the military need for R/T Lithium Primary Reserve Batteries. During Phase I, the selections of the components will be guided by the critical strategic need for shelf life, reliability of activation, and ability to perform at broad-based temperature. The focus will be at cathode materials, electrolyte solutions, and corrosion behavior of the typically used materials-of-constructions. A reservoir/activation method will also be designed during this option period. The ENVIRONMENTALLY reserve battery addressed in this SBIR topic, to a large extent, uniquely belonged to the military. It is also recognized as a critical component for any of the mines, missile, and Sonobouy applications. For "homeland security", it is conceivable that there is a place for reserve battery to provide more reliable emergency power of longer duration. Another break-through commercial market, although traditional in application, would be for emergency lighting for home, institutions, and offices which, to-date, is predominantly using the Pb-acid batteries.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Boris Ravdel
ARMY 02-046      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced High Energy Batteries
Abstract:Lithium-ion batteries containing organic solvent have been reported to combust and explode. To reduce the flammability of the electrolyte, one uses flame retardant (FR) components as additives the to solution. Among the others, the FR-additives containing phosphorus and nitrogen were found as very effective. The research seeks to investigate new P-N containing flame retarding additives. The proposed studies will include the synthesis of these additives, determination of the electrochemical properties of lithium-ion battery electrolytes containing them, studies of flame retardant properties of the additives, and testing the batteries with the electrolytes. Lithium-ion batteries combine high energy and power with the potential for extended cycle life needed for many applications. However, in order to make them a practical reality, especially for high-capacity batteries, a safety issue is of great importance. The proposed program is aimed at achieving this by the decreasing of the combustion danger of lithium-ion batteries.

MILLITECH LLC
29 Industrial Drive East
Northampton, MA 01060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 582-9620
Mr. Philip Langlois
ARMY 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:Antenna Array Architectures that Accommodate Polarization Diversity and Beam-Spoiling Architecture
Abstract:Millitech will investigate the tradeoffs between required design parameters of an electronically scanned antenna (ESA) operating in upper Ka-Band (35 - 40 GHz), and constructed as a planar aperture. The main thrust of this research will be to generate a design that has fast switching between vertical, horizontal, right circular and left circular polarizations with minimal feedline losses. Other parameters for optimization include scanning angle range, beamwidths, beam spoiling capability, and polarization purity. This design will be created with CAD tools, and simulated with a computer models to demonstrate conformance to required specifications. At the end of Phase I, Millitech will be ready to proceed with the fabrication of subarray prototypes of the ESA design. A lightweight, loww loss ESA would have several applications, among which include vehicular radar, wetaher radar, and mobile satellite communications.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC.
6730 Mesa Ridge Road, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 373-0832
Dr. Robert Matthews
ARMY 02-048      Selected for Award
Title:Compact, Man Portable, Lightning Warning and Localization System
Abstract:We propose to apply a new and significant advance in compact electromagnetic sensing instrumentation to provide warning of imminent lightning strike, and localization of lightning discharges, with a single compact man-portable system suitable for tactical situations. In an initial test with the new sensors, charge redistribution effects associated with lightning strikes were clearly visible at 50 km, suggesting a detection range for prediction of an imminent lightning strike hazard of a comparable distance. Furthermore, standard results and calculations show that it should be possible to localize a lightning strike using a single sensor unit comprised of current technology at ranges well over 100 km. In Phase I we will collect data on approximately 100 lightning strikes in order to evaluate the system capabilities under practical outdoor conditions. Using these results, we will consider the benefits of adding information from other sensors, and a design for a Phase II prototype system will be drawn up. The proposed system offers truly new capabilities in lightning detection in a package that is already suitable for man portability in a tactical situation. Other government applications include all cases in which lightning monitoring and lightning hazard warnings are needed. Comparable commercial opportunities exist in general weather monitoring, and for specific cases in which a group of people or sensitive equipment is at risk if a lightning strike occurs. Secondary markets exist in research instrumentation for studying lightning and atmospheric physics.

WEATHER DECISION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1818 W. Lindsey, Building D, Suite 232
Norman, OK 73069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 579-7675
Mr. Michael D. Eilts
ARMY 02-048      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Battlefield Deployable Lightning Decision Support System
Abstract:Weather Decision Technologies, Inc. (WDT) proposes exploratory development of a design for an integrated lightning hazard decision support system for tactical applications. The design addresses the needs articulated in solicitation topic #A02-048 for means of detection, location, imminent prediction, and mitigation of lightning-strike hazards in tactical, battlefield situations. WDT is ideally positioned to address this topic effectively. WDT has developed a Lightning Prediction Information System (LPIS) that employs Doppler radar data, lightning ground-strike location data, and model forecast information to predict 30 minutes in advance the area that has a lightning threat. WDT has deployed this algorithm over the continental United States. WDT's customers are provided very accurate predictions of lightning hazard, including specific information for a given point of the Estimated Time of Arrival and the Estimated Time of Departure of the threat. WDT has also begun to address the need stated by many of our customers to know when the threat of a lightning ground strike at a specific location is great enough to justify cessation of outdoor operations and when the threat has dissipated sufficiently that operations may resume. Recognizing that knowledge of the electric field at the surface beneath growing storm clouds is the essential component of such a system, WDT is exploring options for inclusion of data from electric-field sensors located at the site of interest. The objective of the work proposed herein is to design a lightning hazard decision support system that includes 1) electric-field-meters and local lightning detection sensors suitable for battlefield deployment 2) appropriate means for data ingest and analysis, 3) a decision-support product that integrates the localized hazard warning decision product into the LPIS, and 4) expanding the LPIS to include alternative data sources that are likely to be available for any location (e.g., satellite data). A combination of a model-based prediction system based on large-scale meteorological data, such as the LPIS, with localized information on the electrical state of clouds overhead and recent lightning detection data, is likely to provide the best decision support under battlefield conditions. The proposed SBIR development will increase the applicability of a new class of electric-field meter in a wide range of situations for which there is currently no economically feasible solution to the problem of lightning hazard assessment and warning. The resulting instrumentation and techniques will augment the efficacy of, and commercial potential for, lightning hazard warning systems that will facilitate decreases in deaths, injuries, and property damage caused by lightning. WDT presently has Airline ramp operations, golf courses, amusement parks, and other outdoor operations as customers. We will market this system to that customer base as well as expand further into those industries.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Michael G. Izenson
ARMY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Methanol Concentration Control for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Abstract:Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can provide a very lightweight and compact source of electric power for individual soldiers if they can be fueled with pure methanol. Used as a charger for rechargeable Li-ion batteries, they promise an attractive hybrid power source for future soldier systems. A key technology that will enable concentrated methanol fuel is a system to control the concentration of methanol in the small volume of dilute solution that flows through the fuel cell stack. We propose an innovative methanol concentration control system that will enable a DMFC to use pure methanol fuel. The system responds twenty times more quickly than conventional techniques and is lightweight, compact, low-power, and reliable. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of the system by: (1) assembling a proof-of-concept methanol concentration control system, (2) proving the operation of the system using a direct methanol fuel cell, and (3) using the results of the Phase I development and testing to design a prototype system for Phase II. In Phase II we will demonstrate the operation of a complete, self-contained, 15 W DMFC that is powered by highly concentrated methanol. The methanol concentration control system can enable an order-of-magnitude improvement in the energy density available from a DMFC system compared to fueling with dilute solution. Our concept for methanol concentration control is simple, compact, lightweight, and straightforward to integrate with a DMFC stack. Commercial applications include portable power sources for laptop computers, recreational equipment, and portable medical devices.

GINER ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS, LLC
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0506
Ms. Cecelia Cropley
ARMY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Utilizing Concentrated Methanol
Abstract:The Army requires a compact lightweight fuel cell-battery hybrid power source to power the electronic and other equipment carried by individual soldiers. The power source is required to deliver an average of 15 W for missions of greater than 72 hours. Hybrid power sources based on a Li-Ion battery recharged as necessary by a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) are promising candidates for this application. However, reductions in weight, volume and cost of the DMFC stack and system are required. To meet this need, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC proposes to develop a DMFC battery charger featuring a lightweight DMFC stack having minimal methanol crossover, allowing operation on methanol concentrations as high as 10M, compared to maximum methanol concentrations of 1M for state-of-the-art stacks. The decreased crossover and use of more concentrated fuel will significantly reduce the amount of fuel and diluent water that must be carried. The proposed stack will also result in a simpler, lighter-weight system through reduction in the size and number of components required to treat the cathode effluent. The proposed compact lightweight DMFC system is an attractive power source for portable electronics for both military and commercial applications due to the potentially high specific energy and energy density of the proposed system A DMFC-Li-Ion battery hybrid will provide uninterrupted operation for an extended duration. DMFCs are expected to have long shelf and operating lives and will be easily refueled. Methanol fuel cells use an inexpensive, easily transported and stored fuel. Environmental concerns with DMFCs are significantly lower than for primary Li batteries. These benefits apply equally to civilian markets for power supplies for electronic devices. The primary military customers would be the U.S. Army and the Marine Corps. The primary commercial customers would be manufacturers of portable electronic devices, such as laptop computers, cellular phones, electronic notebooks, global positioning devices, and a myriad of other consumer electronics.

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES, LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-6968
Dr. Jerry L. Martin
ARMY 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:DMFC/Battery Hybrid with optimized components
Abstract:Mesoscopic Devices proposes to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell battery charger that will operate on concentrated methanol. Our design is based on a system-level optimization approach that minimizes the size and power draw of the auxiliary components while maximizing the stack output. In Phase I, we will prove the feasibility of two key components to meet the system requirements by demonstrating a compact, lower power-draw methanol concentration sensor and a unique microchannel water condenser. The proposed concentration sensor is smaller, lighter, and has a faster response than current generation sensors, allowing minimum solution volume and fast response. The water condenser is optimized for low pressure drop and high thermal effectiveness, and will allow the system to operate in high ambient temperatures while maintaining water balance. A DMFC battery charger, combined with rechargeable lithium batteries would be a near-term fieldable system for powering electronics for the individual soldier. A single DMFC/battery hybrid could replace multiple batteries, with weight savings of up to 50 pounds per soldier for longer missions. The availability of lightweight, quiet systems for recharging batteries in the field will enhance our warfighting capability, particularly for reconnaissance missions. Civilian variants of the DMFC system are in great demand for powering portable computers, cellular telephones, and remote equipment.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. J.C. Withers
ARMY 02-050      Selected for Award
Title:A Low Cost Electrolytic Process to Produce Titanium Alloy From Ti02-MxOy
Abstract:The production of titanium is by the Kroll process, which is mature, yet expensive, limiting titanium?s usages. Titanium alloys are produced by mixing the alloying elements with Kroll pure titanium and performing several vacuum remelts to reduce interstitial contaminants. Electrolysis to produce titanium has significant potential but has not been perfected to produce acceptable purity and low cost from any titanium precursor compound. A unique electrolytic process of utilizing a composite Ti02 electrode has been demonstrated to produce high purity titanium, as well as co-reduce other oxide compounds to their elemental form, thus electrolytically producing titanium alloys directly. The electrolytically produced titanium alloy powder can be melt-free consolidated to billets for forming into titanium products at only a few dollars per pound. This program will demonstrate producing titanium alloy powder by unique electrolysis from Ti02-Mx0y composite electrodes. The titanium alloy powder will be melt-free transformed to Grade 5 Ti-6A1-4V for well under $9.00/lb. finished part. Electrolytically producing high purity titanium alloy powder directly from Ti02/rutile at only a few dollars per pound constitutes a breakthrough, which has the potential to expand the market for titanium by several orders of magnitude. Expanded markets include armor, automotive, aerospace, chemical process/corrosion resistance, etc.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Robert J. Kline-Schoder
ARMY 02-051      Selected for Award
Title:Electronic Communication and Dosimetry System for High Noise Environments
Abstract:Creare proposes to design, fabricate, and test a system that will simultaneously enable full duplex voice communication while monitoring sound exposure to the ear for soldiers working in high noise environments. Current Army artillery crews are forced to work in close proximity to cannons that produce in excess of 180 dB of impulsive noise, which can result in noise-induced hearing loss after brief exposures without sufficient hearing protection. These ground crews also have a need to communicate with other personnel. However, no existing hearing protection system offers sufficient noise reduction for these crews to work safely in extreme noise environments while simultaneously enhancing the communication signal and monitoring sound exposure to the ear. Creare's Electronic Communication and Dosimetry System for High Noise Environments is based on advanced audio signal processing and state-of-the-art acoustic hardware. During the Phase I project, we will fabricate and test a bench-top prototype system. During the Phase II project, we will fabricate and test optimized prototype systems for enhanced communications and dosimetry in high noise environments. The Creare system for electronic communications and dosimetry in high noise environments will reduce the harmful effects of long duration exposure to extremely high noise levels, will facilitate speech intelligibility, and will monitor individuals for sound exposure. The system can be used by tank crews, flight crews, flight deck personnel, mechanized infantry, and commercial operators of noisy equipment.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Mr. Michael Painter
ARMY 02-052      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:ATLAS: A Generalized Maintenance Modeling and Simulation Tool Suite
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to develop an ATLAS (Army Transformation in Logistics And Sustainment) environment that provides a unified modeling and experimentation framework for assessing current and future combat systems maintenance concepts, maintenance manpower and capacity planning and soldier load / effectiveness with simulation, tradeoff analysis, data-mining analytics and optimization capabilities. We call this system ATLAS as the effectiveness of the current and future Army rests on the shoulders of its maintenance; standing on its logistics footprint. Furthermore, with this technology, the Army's goals of a 90% Ao (Operation Availability) and a 20% TOCR (Total Ownership Cost Reduction) for existing weapon systems can be pursued in a rigorous fashion and will provide the basis for establishing realistic sustainment specifications for performance based logistics support. The proposed effort involves an accelerated development approach to produce a mature, robust, and proven technology developed through proven technology reuse; extending KBSI's model library for wheeled vehicles, tracked vehicles, and aircraft maintenance process simulation; and in situ technology demonstration and field testing at Ft. Hood, Ft. Campbell Texas, Anniston Army Depot, and Corpus Christi Army Depot. The proposed effort will help the Army make substantial reductions in total ownership costs while improving operational availability. Making these improvements requires understanding what drives three parameters that directly affect these metrics: 1) maintenance event rates (MER), 2) down time per maintenance event (DTME), and 3) cost per maintenance event ($ME). Understanding the drivers for these three parameters requires accurate models of the tasks performed both at the weapon system level and in the supporting logistics infrastructure. This will be made possible by providing users with a technology that provides altogether new levels of maintenance organization asset and capacity visibility and that helps users analyze and simulate unit performance based on observed or anticipated conditions. This technology will provide a unified modeling and experimentation framework for assessing current and future combat systems maintenance concepts, maintenance manpower and capacity planning and soldier load / effectiveness with simulation, tradeoff analysis, data-mining analytics and optimization capabilities. Using this technology, decision-makers within each maintenance organization can pursue the Army's of a 90% AO (Operation Availability) and a 20% TOCR (Total Ownership Cost Reduction) for existing weapon systems and directly pursue performance based logistics goals in a rigorous fashion.

DESE RESEARCH, INC.
315 Wynn Drive, Suite 2
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 758-0050
Mr. Leon Stine
ARMY 02-053      Selected for Award
Title:Decision Support for Rapid Deployment Planning at Air Ports of Embarkation
Abstract:Using Popkin? System Architect 2000 (SA2000), our primary C4ISR compliant modeling tool used in the design and implementation of enterprise-wide information systems, we will demonstrate the feasibility of determining hindrances to deployment. DESE enhancements to SA2000 allow us to complete the C4ISR framework while providing additional diagrams and reports to help clients understand their enterprise more completely. Graphics will be customized to represent the objects throughout the enterprise, in this case the unit, it's equipment, cargo, and facilities. Interim products of this process include an Operational Activity Model and Node Tree utilizing the IDEF0 modeling convention and an Operational Event/Trace Model utilizing Unified Modeling Language (UML) notation. In addition, process variables and metrics will be determined in order to realistically recreate the real time operating conditions of rapid deployment air cargo operations. This will establish accurate estimates of the real time operating conditions used to complete an Operational Rules Model using IDEF3 notation. This model integrates with the Operational Activity Model providing a basic simulation capability that uses the process variables and their metrics. When coupled with DESE's Digital Glue Concept, provides the nexus for creation of the Decision Support Tool for Rapid Deployment at APOE. The Decision Support Tool developed during the SBIR process has applicability to many venues as a result of the increased security posture of all sectors of the United States. Proposed commercial application would enable faster passenger and cargo loading operations at air, sea, and land terminals.

MS TECHNOLOGY
7922 Avenida Kirjah
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 558-6363
Dr. Saeid Ghamaty
ARMY 02-054      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:A New Heat Removal Device for Future Army Systems
Abstract:Advanced Future Army Systems (FAS) include chip and board level electronics or optoelectronics which will require innovative heat removal solutions to enable them to meet size, weight, power, high reliability, and low cost. Commonly, these approaches are based on efficient 2-D and 3-D arrangements of electronics, often involving "multi-chip modules" (MCMs). As chips are brought closer together, the area/volume power densities and, therefore, heat increases. MS Technology (MST) proposes a new type of heat removal modular device, which could solve electronic packaging problems of the FAS and large scale electronic and optoelectronics systems. This new approach removes the generated heat by first converting it to electricity which could be dissipated in a shunt resistor far from the device or supplement the main system power supply. This supplementary power source further increases reliability, reduces cost and weight of the entire system. MST will evaluate and develop conceptual designs for this new device that should provide significant thermal management improvements compared to the thermal management techniques used in heat removal approaches now. MST will conduct proof of concept demonstrations to indicate the practicality of such techniques for use in device electronic systems. A low cost high performance heat removal modular device, will find commercial application in projects of interest to government, industry and academia, especially with respect to commercial applications. It is also possible in certain circumstances to find applications in other domains, where large amounts of dense circuitry can be confined with limited air flow boundary conditions. In view of general smaller satellite requirements (for cooling more high-power, more dense electronics with less costly, lighter weight, and more reliable systems) the potential market for a successful thermal management system is quite large for both the military (DoD), civilian (NASA) and commercial satellite industries. Potential commercial applications of the thermal management component(s)/system and associated technologies developed by this effort include communications and weather satellites and terrestrial thermal management systems, including co-generation applications, and residential, commercial and industrial heating and air conditioning.

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3275 Progress Drive, Suite D
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 281-1948
Mr. Daniel J. Hartman
ARMY 02-055      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Software Driven Virtual Minefield
Abstract:The proposed research builds upon the basic research results from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Duke University. The proposed team will conduct the research and development work that is necessary for the creation of a new detector research and training capability for land mine detection. This new simulation capability will provide to the operator of handheld landmine detection systems a virtual experience for training that combines a minefield with realistic sensor signals corresponding to actual target signatures in various realistic soil and environmental conditions. The system would provide feedback to the operator for performance enhancement and would support operator training and reorientation to a new environment, as well as experimentation with operator cueing formats. The system uses real-time video tracking technology and realistic audio-visual feedback. Engineering Technology, Inc. (ETI) has implemented the real-time video tracker into the deployable Sweep Monitoring System (SMS). When the operator is using the virtual minefield, the simulated detector generates a realistic audio response as if it were a true working detector operating in an environment with real buried mines. This program brings together a team of university researchers at CMU and Duke University and Engineering Technology, Inc. (ETI), a defense contractor, to insure success from laboratory development through technology transition and commercialization. Since the software driven minefield will be able to emulate any common sensor response, it will transition rapidly to the commercial market because it be highly effective in training the demining personnel on current land mine sensor technologies and will significantly enhance their performance. This commercial market is expected to be an order of magnitude larger than the military market, resulting in a significant dual use capability.

MESOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
415 N Quay St. Blge A, Suite 5
Kennewick, AL 99336
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 222-2002
Mr. Mike Powell
ARMY 02-056      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Safe Packaging of Ammonia for Compact Hydrogen Sources
Abstract:The U.S. Army has funded development of compact hydrogen generators that extract hydrogen from anhydrous ammonia. However, use of these ammonia-based hydrogen generators will likely be restricted unless the ammonia can be stored such that the potential for a dangerous ammonia release is minimal. We have studied a variety of approaches for safe storage of ammonia and reached the conclusion that monolithic, closed-cell foam materials offer the desired characteristics of compact and lightweight ammonia storage with relatively little safety risk. Lightweight, closed-cell foam materials will be used to fill the ammonia-storage tank and thereby reduce the rate of ammonia release in the event of tank failure. Scoping tests demonstrate that closed-cell foam materials offer a promising method for improving the safety of ammonia storage. We propose development of an ammonia-storage tank filled with closed-cell foam monolith. Based on scoping tests, we predict our storage tank will have an ammonia capacity of 500 g (1.5 kWhe), an overall volume of 1.2 liters, and a total mass of less than 950 g (including 500 g ammonia). The maximum ammonia release rate will be low enough to minimize safety concerns yet high enough to supply the ammonia-based hydrogen generators. Development of a compact, lightweight, and safe means for storing anhydrous ammonia will eliminate the principal drawback of ammonia-based hydrogen sources for fuel-cell-based power supplies. Once an appropriate ammonia-storage system is available, the existing ammonia-based hydrogen generators can rapidly move toward deployment in the U.S. Military for compact power supplies. Many commercial, compact-power applications will also become feasible once safe ammonia storage is available. In addition, these ammonia-storage foams may find application for safe storage of other toxic and flammable chemicals, such as propane.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. John D. Lennhoff
ARMY 02-056      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Safe Packaging of Ammonia for Compact Hydrogen Sources
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to demonstrate the utility of using Metal Organic Framework (MOF) materials for the safe, low pressure storage of ammonia. MOF's are self assembled organic inorganic hybrid materials that are low density, nanoporous crystalline solids. The exact structure of these materials can be tailored for unit cell size and therefore pore diameter. These materials are expected to provide similar room temperature hydrogen atom densities as 3000 psi hydrogen gas storage at two orders of magnitude lower pressure by utilizing the MOF nanopore structure. The polar nature of the ammonia molecule provides pore condensation enhancement through functionalization of the organic edge of the MOF to retain the ammonia. During the Phase I program PSI will optimize the MOF pore structure and chemistry to maximize the ammonia storage and delivery parameters. PSI has assembled a Phase I team that includes: Prof. Omar Yaghi of the University of Michigan who designed the MOF materials, and Prof. Doug Way of the Colorado School of Mines who has developed a membrane reactor for the conversion of ammonia to hydrogen and modeled their operation. On a Phase I Option PSI will fine tune the functionalization of the MOF and expand the isotherm measurement range. The major benefits of the proposed energy storage design are higher power and specific energy densities than are attainable using batteries. Successful development of this energy storage system will find widespread use for power generation in portable tools, communication equipment, and remote and emergency power applications.

ROCKY RESEARCH
1598 Foothill Dr, PO Box 61800
Boulder City, NV 89006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 293-0851
Mr. Paul Sarkisian
ARMY 02-056      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Ammonia Storage as Complex Compounds for a Safe and Compact Hydrogen Source
Abstract:Ammonia is an attractive media for storing hydrogen for fuel cells because it exceeds 17% hydrogen by weight and leaves only nitrogen after decomposition and hydrogen removal. Safety questions related to the relatively high vapor pressure of ammonia can be alleviated if ammonia is stored on an absorbent. Complex compounds are the best absorbents for ammonia, in that they have extremely high storage density, can release the full ammonia charge at constant pressure, and are available with different degrees of vapor pressure suppression. Rocky Research has been developing thermal equipment utilizing ammonia absorption on complex compounds since 1985, and we have solved historical problems of salt migration while increasing reaction rates dramatically. Proposed in Phase I are measurement of vapor pressure and ammonia uptake of compounds which were not previously characterized since they were not suitable for refrigeration cycles. Following experimental characterization of new compounds, selection of optimal compound(s) will be made from our entire database. A demonstration storage system will be built with one of the selected compound(s), and tested in Phase I. Based on the demonstration system in Phase I, ammonia storage vessels will be fully optimized for minimum weight in Phase II. Potential commercial applications for an ammonia storage & fuel cell system are extremely numerous and include remote power sources for campers and rescue workers, and power packs for computers and other electronics. They would be used for any application where regenerable electric power storage for more than a few watt-hours is required. Replaceable ammonia storage vessels could give the power source unlimited life. The proposed R&D will result in the lightest reduced-pressure ammonia storage vessels possible. Development of ultra light weight ammonia storage vessels will contribute to successful development of small-scale complex compound refrigeration systems as well as the target fuel cell application.

SORPTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
239 Goldfinch Turn
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 369-6166
Dr. XiaoChun Lu
ARMY 02-056      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:High Density Ambient Condition Ammonia Storage Materials
Abstract:In this Phase I program, a unique carbon material is proposed as high density, ambient condition ammonia vapor storage media. Ammonia is a potential solution of hydrogen supply for fuel cell systems; it has high hydrogen content and cracking ammonia generates COx-free hydrogen gas. The preferred ammonia storage system is the one that based on vapor adsorption system at near ambient conditions to avoid high pressure and potential liquid ammonia leakage. The proposed porous carbon materials adsorb and desorb large amounts of ammonia vapor at near ambient conditions. The overall storage capacities are up to 68% ammonia vapor per carbon weight, which corresponds to practical energy density of 2.36kWhe per kilogram carbon material. The ammonia vapor adsorption-desorption cycles operate between vapor pressure of 1 to 3 atmospheres; therefore, no high pressure or vacuum is required. The materials are synthesized from a low cost precursor with simple processes. During this Phase I study, the feasibility of using this carbon material for high capacity ambient condition ammonia storage applications will be established. That is, the carbon samples will be synthesized; their micropore structure and chemical properties will be modified; their ammonia vapor adsorption/desorption properties will be evaluated; and their ammonia vapor charging-discharging recyclability will be tested. The proposed system, if successful, will provide a high density, low cost, and ambient condition ammonia storage system. The proposed system will be ideal as person-portable power source for combat field soldiers. It will also have potential to be used as on-board fuel storage for fuel cell powered vehicles.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Mr. Alan George
ARMY 02-057      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Hybridized Full Wave ? Asymptotic Electromagnetic (EM) Computational Engine for Antenna Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Abstract:Black River Systems (with consultant Dr. Tapan Sarkar, and Stiefvater Consultants inc.) proposes to develop a hybrid electromagnetic modeling compute engine. This hybrid engine will model the small features of antenna/vehicle structure simultaneously with the large environmental features, executing on both parallel processor and single CPU computers. Traditional computational electromagnetic analysis is performed exclusively in either the frequency or time domain. Extrapolation in either domain is sometimes numerically unstable, thus affecting accuracy. When both small and large features are modeled, the impedance and excitation matrices need to be simultaneously and accurately computed. Errors from using an approximate asymptotic method to characterize large structures can cause small features in the solution to be completely masked. We avoid this obstacle by applying a hybrid approach and in estimating the characteristics of the solution. This hybrid approach utilizes the strengths of both frequency domain and time domain methodologies and minimizes the weaknesses of each by using the frequency domain for low frequency response and time domain for the high, greatly reducing the required processing. We believe that this approach of hybridizing time and frequency domain solutions to analyze structures has advantages over an asymptotic approach while still retaining the processing gains. The technology developed will become instrumental in developing RF antennas for future DoD and commercial applications. These applications include uses such as surveillance, track, SAR and multifunction radar, as well as antennas used communication. This modeling technology is also well suited for signal processing algorithm development for these applications.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Kin Sze
ARMY 02-057      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Hybridized Full Wave ? Asymptotic Electromagnetic (EM) Computational Engine for Antenna Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Abstract:The objective of this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project is to develop accurate and computationally efficient scalable algorithms that can be used to characterize the performance of antennas and array systems built on complex vehicle platforms. By accurate modeling of antenna-platform interactions, these effects can be taken into account during the antenna design process. Such virtual prototyping can save time and cost during the design cycle. For the Phase I feasibility study, it is proposed to interface a full-wave finite element simulator with high frequency asymptotic techniques such the shooting and bouncing rays (SBR) method. The resulting code will be validated with results from a complete full-wave solution run on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. A visual software environment with design utilities will be developed to facilitate the usage of the code. The CAD tool resulting from this SBIR project will be able to save time and cost for military and commercial antenna designers. It will help achieve better antenna designs by taking the platform effects into account.

BIOTRACES, INC.
13455 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 793-0907
Dr. Andrzej K. Drukier
ARMY 02-058      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Towards understanding germination of B. anthracis spores
Abstract:The potency of anthrax as a BW agent is due to the ability of the anthrax spores to survive in a dormant state even under extreme conditions. Unfortunately, the molecular signals controlling Bacillus spore germination are not well known. Identifying the germination mechanism will permit the discovery of new classes of germinants. The elucidation of receptors responsible for germination is especially important, because it will permit the design of new classes of potent germinants acting in vivo, i.e. supplementing antibiotic based therapies. Multi Photon Detection (MPD) methods are applicable to the full spectrum of BW agents, including viruses and bacteria, and biotoxins. In this proposal we describe the applications of MPD to the understanding of the germination of B. anthracis. The methods of proteomics, especially MPD enhanced differential display of proteins will be used to understand the difference in phenotype of the spores which easily and with difficulty induced to germinate. Initially, we will apply the methods of MPD enhanced proteomics to understand the spores proteome. The Phase I effort will separate the proteins which are correlated with the initiation of the germination process. The difference in proteome between the "early germinators" and "late germinators " will be elucidated. We expect that the supersensitive, universal detection of BW agents will be a large, profitable market in which MPD based methods have technical advantages. BW agent detection is actually much more difficult than many life science applications. Because of the extreme toxicity of BW agents, many orders of magnitude higher sensitivity is required. Because of the need for early detection and immediate treatment, the time from sample acquisition to results has to be very short. We initiated a series of strategic ventures with both the smaller companies already active in the field of BW detection, and with very large companies, either active in diagnostic industry or large military contractors who would like to move into homeland security applications.

OMNISITE BIODIAGNOSTICS, INC.
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. John G. Bruno
ARMY 02-058      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:DNA Aptamer Induction of Anthrax Germination
Abstract:OmniSite BioDiagnostics Inc. proposes to determine the feasibility of using DNA Aptamers to bind key germinant receptors on nonpathogenic Sterne strain anthrax spores to induce synchronous germination, hence leading to more effective antibiotic treatment of inhalation anthrax. DNA Aptamers are short oligonucleotides that act like antibodies by binding any target against which they are raised with very high affinity and specificity. Aptamers are generated by a process called SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) consisting of alternating iterations of affinity selection (from a random DNA library allowed to interact with the immobilized target), washing and PCR amplification of selected DNA sequences that bind the target. Dr. Bruno (proposed PI and CTO of OmniSite) is well versed and published in the area of Aptamer generation and assay development. In fact, Dr. Bruno made and published on the first anthrax spore binding DNA Aptamers (Bruno & Kiel, Biosensors & Bioelectronics 1999). OmniSite proposes separation and characterization of inner and outer cortex proteins (by PAGE followed by Coomassie and silver staining) from anthrax spores with generation of aptamers to each identified protein. Then OmniSite will test the aptamers generated for their ability to enhance or inhibit spore germination by colony counts. This proposed project has several major scientific benefits in that, if successful, it may uncover previously unknown spore receptors that turn on germination and it will increase scientific understanding of the germination process. In a business sense, the project may lead to new therapeutic Aptamers capable of enhancing spore germination so that ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics can be more effective at killing the vegetative form of B. anthracis. In a broader sense too, technology gained by performance of the project may lead to new Aptamer-based ways to kill or inhibit pathogenic bacteria.

CALL/RECALL, INC.
6160 Lusk Blvd., Suite C206
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 550-0596
Dr. Edwin Walker
ARMY 02-059      Selected for Award
Title:High Density Optical Data Storage
Abstract:The objective of this effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of producing at low cost, a removable write-once random access near-field multi-layer optical digital storage system that is capable of very high capacity (~TByte per removable media), while achieving very high data densities (> 1Tb/sq.in.). These figures make the proposed near-field multi-layer based system ideally suited for security and reconnaissance systems supporting high-speed data filtering, and content as well as index based data searching algorithms. The proposed near-field photochromic multi-layer optical data storage approach presents opportunity to launch a series of new products targeted for security and reconnaissance systems by the second half of this decade, providing revolutionary performance critically needed for these applications.

TIAX LLC
Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5070
Dr. Mehmet Rona
ARMY 02-059      Selected for Award
Title:High Density Optical Data Storage
Abstract:TIAX (formerly Arthur D. Little's Technology Division), in partnership with Harvard University, proposes to develop a revolutionary data storage technology with the potential to provide data densities of > 2 Terabits/in2 and data access rates that are 3 orders of magnitude faster than the current optical technology. Such dramatic advances over the state-of-the-art will not only enable entirely new data storage products critical for next-generation warfare, but will also create exceptional opportunities in the commercial arena that will transform the multi-billion dollar data storage industry. Our proposed effort is based on the recent discoveries at Harvard University that provide us with a powerful technique to go beyond the limits set on the data density of conventional optical storage technologies by the Rayleigh criterion. Our technique enables us to create spots of light with diameters that are well below the wavelength of the light, and is the basis of our approach to high-density optical data storage. The proposed effort will develop a technology that will ultimately enable accessibility to a much richer data set in the field in vehicles, aircraft and by the soldier - an ability of vital importance in next-generation warfare. It will be uniquely suited for applications where large amounts of data are required for use in extreme environments, where mobility is required, and when communications are limited either by security or bandwidth. The potential commercial applications of this technology are very diverse and include large corporate, government, and Internet data centers, numerous desktop applications, wireless and handheld devices as well as consumer products like digital cameras, audio players, DVD players and camcorders etc.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Lawino Kagumba
ARMY 02-059      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Two Photon "WORM" Optical Data Storage
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. and it's team members proposes to develop a novel method to increase the capability of current state of the technology in optical data storage to achieve or exceed one terabit/in2 with improved data access rates. Triton's team will use its proprietary multilayer fluorescence technology to expand data storage to three dimensions. The proposed technology utilizes sub-Rayleigh spot sizes without the need for near field optics. In the digitized battlefield of the future, the Land Warrior will require the ability to carry higher quantities of information; this requires higher data storage density in a small package. In the proposed Phase I program, Triton's team will create a proof of principle device that will demonstrate the ability to write once read many (WORM) to an optical medium. Triton views this proposed development program as a superb opportunity to transition its polycarbonate and multilayer fluorescence technology into the optical data storage marketplace. Because of the exploding use of DVD's and CD's, the consumption of polycarbonate is expected to double within five years to reach 770,000 tons in 2005. Currently roughly 4% of the polycarbonate goes to DVD's; this is expected to increase to 23% by the year 2005. To meet the increased demand, Bayer has launched a series of expansions, starting in 1999 and valued at $860 Million, which should double the company's current capacity to almost 1.3 million tons by 2005.

PICOTRONIX, INC.
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 864-5639
Dr. David Zimdars
ARMY 02-061      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Terahertz Interferometric Imaging Systems (TIIS) for Detection of Weapons and Explosives
Abstract:We propose to develop a continuous wave terahertz interferometric imaging spectrometer tunable from 0.2 to 3 THz in order to remotely detect, monitor and identify concealed explosives such as C4 and RDX as well as metal weapons. The fully realized system will consist of a high brightness THz source illuminating the region of interest and detected by a tunable THz interferometric imaging array. The array will consist of a multiple spaced THz semiconductor heterodyne photomixers driven by a common fiber optic coupled frequency stabilized tunable optical heterodyne source. In phase I, a wide field of view and high spatial resolution THz imaging array will be designed. A proof of principle array will be constructed using modified commercial THz photomixing modules driven by a diode laser optical heterodyne source. Initial tests will be made using homodyne photomixing detection. The geometrical array parameters, type of antennas within the array, antenna optics, and optimum high power source will be evaluated to best image at short-range target objects concealed within transparent dielectrics. Photomixing devices will serve both as source and detectors in Phase I. A database of required THz-frequency spectral signatures for target explosives will be developed using existing time-domain THz spectroscopy equipment. A successful Phase II will result in a compact tunable THz remote detection system for concealed explosives and weapons. No such interferometric imaging THz spectrometer is currently commercially available. The proposed system will be useful not only in defense applications as a stationary perimeter defense system and outward looking remote surveillance system, but for civilian security applications as well, such as airport screening for explosives, biological agents, and other contraband. In addition, the components designed will have commercial applications manufacturing, process control, medical, and environmental diagnostics.

AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-9500
Dr. Joda C. Wormhoudt
ARMY 02-062      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Portable Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Sensor for Detection of Biological Agents
Abstract:Detection and identification of biological agents are challenging tasks, requiring the assessment of a variety of sophisticated analysis techniques. This proposal addresses what is agreed to be the most dangerous threat, agent delivery in aerosol form. Our goal is to develop a field-portable laser diagnostic instrument capable of analyzing a large fraction of the total particles in a sample flow. This sampling efficiency is accomplished by combining an aerodynamic lens and a high repetition rate microchip laser. The analysis technique will be broadband laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), capable of performing a complete elemental analysis in real time. The critical task of demonstrating discrimination against background particles based on LIBS spectra and particle size information will be carried out in collaboration with researchers at the University of Florida. Their current work on biological agent detection using conventional lasers will be extended to microchip lasers. We have shown that these lasers have several unique characteristics for LIBS applications, including substantial advantages. The resulting instrument will be useful both as a warning device and for surface sampling. In addition to biological agent detection, a compact, sensitive aerosol sampling LIBS instrument would find important applications in environmental sampling, such as monitoring toxic metals emissions in exhaust streams. This device should be a good complement to our existing line of commercial aerosol analysis instruments.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Kazem F. Sabet
ARMY 02-063      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Packaging for Radio Frequency Microelectronic (MEMS) Devices Subjected to Harsh Environments
Abstract:The objective of this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project is to investigate the development of durable, low-cost, Level 1 packaging schemes for RF MEMS devices so that they can withstand extreme loading (mechanical/thermal) conditions and the harsh environment of the battlefield. Our approach will incorporate design and fabrication of three-dimensional interconnects for low-loss and excellent RF performance along with a hermetic on-wafer packaging architecture utilizing Si micromachining and thermo-compression gold bonding. Such a packaging technique offers the optimal approach to highly integrated multifunctional RF systems. In the Phase I feasibility study, we will conduct a research and development program in order to identify materials and technologies for the design of RF MEMS packaging and interconnects such that they will withstand extreme conditions. The research during Phase I will include a theoretical analysis to predict deformation, fracture and failure of both the devices and the packaging seal as well as experimental verification of some of the concepts proposed. One the major problems with the commercial application of RF MEMS devices is their packaging. The outcome of this SBIR project will herald reliable packaging schemes for RF MEMS systems for both military and commercial communication and sensing systems.

MICROASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3065 Richmond Parkway, Suite 109
Richmond, CA 94806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 758-2600
Dr. Michael Cohn
ARMY 02-063      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Metal-Metal Sealing Process for Robust Low-Cost MEMS Packaging
Abstract:Wafer scale hermetic metal-metal sealing process provides robust packaging for MEMS and other components. Low bonding temperatures enable CMOS compatibility. This packaging process has been implemented in multiple MEMS applications, including high-g accelerometers for munitions, automotive accelerometers, and for vacuum packaging high-Q resonators. Military applications include radar and communications applications. Commercial wireless applications include cellphone, WLAN and anticollision radar systems. Low bonding temperatures (down to room temperature) provide CMOS compatibility.

XCOM WIRELESS, INC.
1718 E. Ocean Blvd #4
Long Beach, CA 90802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 495-6090
Dr. Daniel Hyman
ARMY 02-063      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:RF MEMS Packaging for Severe Environments
Abstract:XCom Wireless is a developer of RF MEMS relays, high-performance components that have been identified as a critical technology for the next generation of defense and commercial electronics. The XCom Wireless process for developing RF MEMS provides a direct alternative to solid-state devices so communications and radar equipment manufacturers can easily upgrade to this technology, saving weight, space, power, and money. The proposed program is to test the ruggedness of the present RF MEMS package design under severe battlefield conditions of physical and thermal shock, acceleration, and corrosion. Causes of device failure will be examined through microscopy, with a plan developed for Phase II material and process studies. The goal of this research and development effort will be to forward the state of the art of RF MEMS packaging with a flexible, modular, rugged hermetic seal offering the capability for operation under severe environments. A general suitability of this work towards other RF MEMS device efforts may be possible, but specific advantages of the temperature-tolerant XCom Wireless relays will be employed. The development of relay prototypes is performed in a complementary DARPA-sponsored RF MEMS packaging program, with the testing of severe conditions and failure analysis of these packages supported by this proposed effort. Hybrid assembly of RF MEMS promises low-cost and rapid manufacturing potential for specialized, high-performance defense needs, and access to robust encapsulation techniques allows packaging options with improved survivability and operability under extreme battlefield conditions. The direct benefits to the Department of Defense from supporting this effort include the analysis and extension of a novel packaging scheme for RF MEMS relays and other micromachined components. The leveraging of XCom Wireless expertise with a DARPA package design program allows for the low-cost development of fully-ruggedized versions of compact, highly functional MEMS technologies already in development for multiple government agencies and commercial product programs. The package technologies to be analyzed and modified in this program are well-suited to the needs of high-performance RF front-end subsystems, and the individual relays to be packaged are specifically designed to meet military and satellite specifications requirements. The benefit to the critical civilian radio industry is significant, in that the markets for high performance RF components and subsystems is large and growing at 35% yearly. The test and instrumentation community, the aerospace communications and radar community, and defense wireless system developers have been identified as the first adopters of RF MEMS technology, with relevant MEMS-enabled sales expected to grow to over $200 million in 2005. Consumer markets for RF MEMS include fixed broadband equipment, wireless LAN hardware, and civilian handsets, and are projected to reach $1.5 billion in 2005.

CHA CORP.
372 West Lyon
Laramie, WY 82072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 742-2829
Dr. Chang Yul Cha
ARMY 02-064      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Microwave Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons In Aqueous Solutions
Abstract:Successful development of this proposal will result in the destruction of hydrocarbons and other chemical agents in water contaminated through front line washing of military vehicles. This washing creates contaminated water that poses serious risks to the health and safety of military personnel. Currently, no effective means exists for the destruction of these contaminants. The proposed technology offers an effective portable treatment system for this critical problem. The proposed microwave technology will treat a wide range of chemical and biological material, and eliminate its threat to human health in a manner that does not pose significant risks to human or environmental health and safety. Initial research indicates that the combination of microwaves and activated carbon provide the best available catalysis for this problem. Preliminary experimental results show destruction rates of up to 99.8%. The activated carbon in water, combined with microwave energy, acts as an oxidation catalyst for the destruction of hydrocarbons and other chemical agents. Furthermore, microwave energy is an effective means of sterilization. The Phase I proposed project would demonstrate the feasibility of microwave energy combined with the activated carbon as an oxidation catalyst to destroy chemical and biological agents in water while reducing the environmental impact. The primary benefit/commercial application that may result from this research is a portable microwave system that is capable of treating waste water produced from the washing of combat vehicles. A secondary benefit could also be a portable microwave unit capable of providing clean drinking water for army personnel in a combat zone. Furthermore, this unit will provide a basis for the recycling of water used in washing civilian vehicles.

NASCENT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, LLC
P. O. Box 1470
Yorktown, VA 23692
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-0687
Dr. Joseph S. Heyman
ARMY 02-066      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Non-invasive Device for Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome
Abstract:Nascent will adapt recent work at the Mayo Clinic in vibro-acoustics to make a non-invasive, portable sensor for the diagnosis of compartment syndrome-a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability. Vibro-acoustics is a form of elasticity imaging in which a focused ultrasound beam is used to apply a localized pressure field to a tissue. This pressure produces an acoustic response proportional to the size, shape and viscoelastic properties of the tissue. In a recent laboratory test, this acoustic response was highly correlated with the internal pressure of a latex tube filled with water. In the Phase 1, Nascent proposes a series of phantom studies to test the ability of vibro-acoustics to measure intramuscular pressure. In addition, Nascent will design and test low-cost, portable instrumentation suitable for field studies of the vibro-acoustic sensor. A series of human cadaver tests will be conducted to provide final validation of this instrumentation for compartment syndrome diagnosis. This sensor will provide a portable, non-invasive method for diagnosing compartment syndrome for both military and civilian uses. A portable, low-cost vibro-acoustic sensor may also have other uses in medical diagnostics and nondestructive evaluation of materials.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
3085 Woodman Drive, Suite 200
Dayton, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 299-5999
Dr. Gordon R. Little, PhD.
ARMY 02-066      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Non-invasive Device for Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome
Abstract:Spectra Research, Inc. (S*R) proposes to leverage its current development efforts to investigate a novel method for identifying compartment syndrome in medical trauma cases. The proposed method is based on S*R's Non-Invasive Field Triage Device (NFTD) that uses electromagnetic waves in the X-band frequency range and special signal processing algorithms to detect the presence of various internal injuries. In the proposed Phase I program, S*R will employ its patented RF interrogator and software algorithms to the clinical condition of compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome is defined as the clinical condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability. In previous studies, the S*R technology has been able to detect changes in the dielectric signature from various medium including fluid accumulation in the cranium, collapse lung (pneumothorax), and hemorrhagic stroke. Independent third-party studies have also suggested that this technology can detect as little as 2cc or greater of fluid in an injured limb. Spectra Research, Inc. (S*R) is developing an ambitious plan to take the NFTD technology from the laboratory to the military and civilian first responder markets. This plan has been presented to various Federal, state, and local agenices, including the U.S. Army; and the interest in such a device is quite high. S*R recognizes that development of the NFTD will require expertise in the design and packaging of medical equipment, as well as knowledge of the relevant radio frequency (RF) parameters associated with the system. S*R plans to retain the services of medical instrumentation personnel, phycisians, and other experts as a consultant base. Initial discussions have also begun with major RF equipment manufacturers for assistance in the development of the NFTD. Prior efforts have produced initial market estimates that indicate a significant opportunity exists.

RAVEN RESEARCH CORP.
1950 Mountain View Road
Lenoir City, TN 37771
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 986-1166
Dr. John V. Draper
ARMY 02-067      Selected for Award
Title:Achievability Control Theory for Supervisory Computer-Human Systems
Abstract:The objective of the proposed project is the development of technology for more efficient and effective human-computer supervision of complex systems. Systems that combine humans and automation in a synergistic or cooperative manner may be termed hybrid systems. Hybrid systems offer advantages over both purely automated systems and purely manual systems in many circumstances. However, future hybrid systems will be even more complex than contemporary ones. This gives rise to a serious need to develop methods for integrating humans more closely-and more efficiently-than is possible now within hybrid systems. We will achieve this by developing Achievability Control Theory (ACT), an innovative extension of Supervisory Control Theory. The ACT approach has potential to enhance both the efficiency and flexibility of hybrid systems. During Phase I we will provide a proof of concept by developing the formalized control theory necessary to integrate achievability within a supervisory control framework. Specifically, we will consider the special case when a human participates in a hybrid system. Successful completion of the proposed research will (1) enhance the flexibility and efficiency of future hybrid systems (including battlefield robots), in turn enhancing the mission success rate, robustness, and survivability; (2) support optimal integration of humans and computer supervisors in future missions; (3) enhance mission planning for hybrid systems, and (4) guide other research and development by identifying problematic areas within particular missions and by identifying problematic functions for hybrid systems generally.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Holger Luther
ARMY 02-068      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Mobile Multi-spectral Beam Steering Device
Abstract:A method of scene projection is required to test turret-mounted sensors without the need for direct hardware interface with the sensor under test (SUT). SSG proposes the application of multiple high resolution gimbal systems to project a target scene from a MIRSP or IRSS source to the SUT via one or more scan mirrors. Non-invasive measurement of the SUT position is accomplished through any one of several technologies proposed and which mount co-boresighted or in parallax to the scene projector. The proposed system is able to project over a large range (360 degrees) with a scalable system configuration using modular components. This SBIR builds upon SSGPO's extensive experience with high resolution and high accuracy (sub-microradian) scanning and pointing mirror systems for ground based, airborne and space based optical systems. In Phase I, a system architecture and a technology for remote sensing of the turret position will be selected. Phase II will provide a prototype for each of the two types of gimbal systems proposed. SSGPO has similar experience as a supplier for the Navy's Advanced Telescope Optical Sub-System (ATOSS) and a developer of a low-cost alternative to the EOTADS optical system, a component of the EOSS on the RAH-66 Comanche. Development of a MMBSD will provide a testing solution and training interface for a wide variety of optical sensors that are turret and gimbal mounted. Such systems are used extensively in the military and in commercial remote sensing applications. Remote position sensing techniques used by the MMBSD would also be useful for machine vision and manufacturing inspection applications.

LSA
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Mr. David A. Warner
ARMY 02-069      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Precision Metric Zoom Lens
Abstract:Current weapons system testing frequently requires optical data collection under adverse conditions. In the case of missile testing, the extreme range of target-to-instrument distance stresses current test operation instrumentation. A single imaging instrument that can automatically zoom and focus during a missile test can overcome loss of critical data that occurs during the switching of instrumentation. We propose to assess the feasibility of developing a metric zoom lens that has a continuous zoom capability over the varying mission range and incorporates automatic focus and iris control. We envision that the metric zoom system would be compatible with existing 35mm camera film and 20mm digital image formats and would have a remote communication link for control and diagnostics. There are many applications and benefits to the proposed technology outside of the primary application of missile trajectory monitoring during flight. The zoom lens devices and technology developed through this effort may offer a solution to numerous problems encountered in industry. The tracking precision developed in this technology may be applicable to assisting assembly line and other types of robots. Another commercial potential application area is adapting the design to tracking photography and broadband communications, and space applications as well as earthbound applications such as using the track and positioning signals to provide a low cost automotive guidance system, which could lead to collision avoidance applications. It could also apply to boating and aviation uses. The television and motion picture industries could also use the zoom technology to track sporting events or other variable range imaging situations such as tracking golf ball trajectories. Also, law enforcement and surveillance could benefit.

SPECIAL OPTICS
315 Richard Mine Road
Wharton, NJ 07885
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 366-7289
Dr. J. Michael Finlan
ARMY 02-069      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Precision Metric Zoom Lens
Abstract:We propose to design a zoom lens with a focal length that is continuously variable from 20 inches to 150 inches. The lens will be designed to be color corrected from 400 nm to 700 nm with a resolution of 100 line pairs per millimeter. In Phase I, we will also fabricate and deliver a scaled version of the zoom lens. A zoom lens will provide the ability to image distant targets at various ranges without the need to maintain an inventory of multiple lenses with fixed focal lengths.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5532
Dr. Margaret Roylance
ARMY 02-070      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Composite Aircraft Structures with Embedded Strain and Damage Detection
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes an aircraft structural health monitoring system based on the intrinsic properties of the carbon fiber reinforced composite fuselage materials. The electrical resistance of a multifiber carbon tow is known to vary as a function of both elastic strain and fiber breakage. The basis for our proposed approach rests on the ability to monitor the resistivity of carbon tows in the structural laminate. Applied loads and/or impact damage would create measurable current fluctuations. Hence the "sensor" is made from the very structure in which it is embedded and can be positioned anywhere within the laminate. Structural loads or damage strains due to foreign object damage (FOD), stiffener disbonds or delaminations are reflected as local changes in resistivity in the "sensor" fabric. An acceptable signal-to-noise ratio will be achieved via an innovative circuit design. The Phase I program will make extensive use of instrumented tensile testing to determine the relationship between the electrical resistance of a laminate, applied strain and induced damage. A major military helicopter company will place the data into context with strain and damage events of interest in a real airframe. (P-020587) By teaming with a helicopter company, the proposed technology has a potential outlet to legacy helicopter systems and Future Transport Rotorcraft. Furthermore, embedded sensor technology is considered an "enabling technology" in the large ongoing Army (AATD) program entitled "Survivable, Affordable, Repairable Airframe Program" (SARAP). Embedded structural health monitoring would also have application in the fixed wing and space vehicle communities.

GLOBAL CONTOUR, INC.
1145 Ridge Road West
Rockwall, TX 75087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 514-4085
Dr. Jaycee Chung
ARMY 02-070      Selected for Award
Title:Embedded Sensing Capability for Composite Structures
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project is an in-situ, real-time and on-board composite structural damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) system/technique development using graphite fiber composite materials' multifunctional properties the way they are designed and manufactured, by measuring electrical conductivity changes. Unlike embedded or surface-mounted sensor applications using piezoelectric, acoustic emission, fiber-optic and MEMS sensors, this proposed composite structural health monitoring system/technique is applicable to already fielded (in-service) weapon system composite structures as well as new composite structures to be designed and manufactured. The embedded senseor installation presents sensor impregnation/curing process difficulties, material (fatigue) property degradation due to foreign object material insertion, sensor repair-ability and reability problems, etc. Surface-mounted sensor installation also presents other unique problems. Such sensor applications also require a number of sensors/interface-connectors (I/O) that make the technology application impractical to composite structures. The proposed composite self-sensing system/technique overcomes the limitations of the above embedded and surface-mounted sensor applications. This proposed project presents an innovative and unique graphite composite structural self-sensing technology, and provides in-situ, real-time and on-board composite SHM means for diagnosis and prognosis of in-service composite structures used in military weapon systems as well as those used for commercial aviation and civil infrastructures. This SBIR will result in development of in-situ, real-time and on-board composite structural damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) system/technique for military composite weapon systems as well as commercial aviation and civil infrastructures. The proposed self-sensing system/technique can be used to insure the structural integrity of composite weapon systems, and the sensing results can be used to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the composite weapon systems (diagnosis/prognosis).

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
ARMY 02-070      Selected for Award
Title:Novel method for sensing Structural Health of Composites
Abstract:A novel method that uses the measured electrical resistances of a composite structure only along the edges of the structure is proposed to monitor its health. The major advantage of the proposed innovation is that it is practical, it minimizes wiring/cabling and it does not require any additional sensors to be embedded within the composite. Not embedding sensors in the composite maintains the strength and integrity of the structure and reduces cost. In Phase I Mid will refine its patent pending algorithm that estimates the internal resistances of a grid-like network for this application. The method will be laboratory demonstrated on simple composite plates and a test article that will be used to demonstrate the technology in Phase II will be identified or designed in Phase II. In Phase II feasibility will be demonstrated on more complex composite structures and on existing pr fielded systems. Phase II will also design, fabricate and package the required electronics. The ability to detect the health of composite structures in situ or during maintenance with a method that does not require any significant modifications to the composite will enable the ability to cheaply monitor the structural health of composites. The research will lead to two new products. The first being a suite of instrumentation products to be used by composite manufacturers and the second being the diagnostic hardware/ software that will be sold to maintenance facilities.

ACELLENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 745-1188
Dr. Peter X. Qing
ARMY 02-071      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:A Real-time Active SMART Patch System for monitoring the integrity of bonded repair on aircraft structures
Abstract:Bonded repair is a preferred technique for repairing localized damage in aircraft structures that can provide an efficient method for restoring the ultimate load capability of the structure. However, the effectiveness of a bonded repair depends heavily upon the integrity of the bonding interface between the repair patch and the host structure. Currently there are few inspection methods available to actively determine the "quality" of the bond and assess its long-term durability. Acellent Technologies proposes to develop a "Real-time Active SMART Patch System" for monitoring of bonded repair on aircrafts through the use of an innovative "health monitoring" approach using sensors placed in or around the repair to monitor (a) the initial quality of repair, (b) long term durability of the repair and (c) location and extent of damage in the repair patch. A SMART patch system for the bonded repair configuration will be developed based on Acellent's patented SMART Layerr technology, utilizing a network of built-in miniature sensors and actuators embedded on a thin flexible film which upon integration with the repair can be used to actively monitor any structural or adhesive property changes within the repair with the help of diagnostic software built-into a remotely connected diagnostic unit. Safety and reliability of aircrafts are of great concern to the manufacturing and maintenance personnel. Current maintenance and inspection techniques for monitoring of bonded repair are labor-intensive and time-consuming. The proposed development provides an innovative alternative that can significantly reduce inspection costs, enhance the reliability of the aircraft structures and improve their efficiency and readiness. Furthermore, once developed, the system can potentially be applied in other major applications such as detection of flaws around fasteners. The technology can be employed to constantly monitor critical areas on in-service structures, equipment and vehicles. Maintenance of a real-time operational database of structural information will permit early warning of degradation, damage and the potential of catastrophic failure while minimizing the need for most NDE procedures and associated time/costs. Potentially, the market for developed technology is large including industries such as aircraft, spacecraft, automobiles and civil infrastructures.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGY
3300 A Westminister Ave.
Santa Ana, CA 92703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 691-1668
Dr. Fei Zhou
ARMY 02-072      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Light Weight Material for Ballistic Armor
Abstract:Weight reduction for present and future armor systems is critical to rapid deployment of military contingencies, and ultra-light weapon platforms will be the cornerstone for dominating the future battlefield. In general, Al-based alloys are the material candidate for structural applications where weight saving is of primary concern. However, the highest tensile strength of commercial Al-based alloys is in the range of 550~600 MPa, and usually does not exceed 700 MPa even by optimizing thermomechanical treatment or by other strengthening approaches. The technology of nanostructured materials is uniquely poised to revolutionize materials for advanced Army systems. We propose to develop and manufacture a novel class of ultra-high hardness and strength, high impact energy, light-weight, nanostructured metal matrix composites (NMMCs) that can be used for future lightweight ballistic armor package systems. The Nanostructured Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (NMMCs) are intended for lightweight structural materials that will improve the design and fabrication of future armor package systems with unprecedented weight savings (e.g., a decrease in 80% as compared to conventional materials), and for the development of the capability to design, optimize, and manufacture cost-effective armored vehicle transport systems with survivability and performance characteristics that exceed those of current systems.

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Mr. Harry S. Katz
ARMY 02-072      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Light Weight Material for Ballistic Armor
Abstract: Abstract not available...

LOCUST, USA, INC.
8324 N.W. 74 Ave.
Miami, FL 33166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 877-2426
Mr. Jules Kish
ARMY 02-073      Selected for Award
Title:High Reduction Ratio Drive System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Abstract:The proposed program will evaluate and compare different drive concepts, and will deliver a preliminary design of the most attractive concept for achieving the high speed reduction ratio required by small UAV turbine engines appropriate for UAV propeller powered,or rotor driven aircraft. Several conventional inline and offset gearbox concepts will be assessed along with unconventional traction, harmonic, and cycloidal drive concepts. The concepts will be compared based on size, weight, transmission efficiency, cost, and predicted reliability. A 25 to 1 gear ratio, efficiency of 98% and input shaft speed of 105,000 rpm will be addressed in this program. A refined preliminary design will be completed, and will provide the basis for a Phase II program in which the drive concept will be detailed, fabricated and tested. This Phase I program will provide the Army with a complete preliminary design of a high reduction ratio drive system suitable for small UAV engines. In Phase II a prototype of this drive system will be built and tested. With the growing interest in UAV aircraft this drive system along with small turbine engines should find numerous applications in the Army and other DOD organizations. In the civilian marketplace, this drive system will be used where light weight, heavy fuel alternatives are needed for aero, marine, business, or home applications.

CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Suite 400 Technology Cntr, 4th Floor 1001 Broad St
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 793-0248
Mr. Howard R. Stevenson Jr.
ARMY 02-074      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Ultra Wideband Network Datalink
Abstract:The proposed effort will develop a Ultra Wideband Network Datalink. Properly designed Data Link layers of protocol stacks take into account both the channel characteristics provided by the physical layer (in this case an, Ultra Wideband transciever) and the higher layers and applications above the Data Link layer. Likewise, the design of a Physical layer that reflects the requirements of an upper Data Link layer is a superior design methodology than simply designing them in isolation. The primary product for the Phase 1 effort is a combined design of both an ultra wideband Physical layer and Data Link layer. Formal design documentation will be developed and delivered. All designs specified in the performance of Phase I shall take into account availability of components required to realize a prototype implementation in Phase II. Ultra Wideband is an emerging technology with great promise. The inherent benefits of ultrawide transceivers are well known, and by themselves provide many desirable characteristics for both military and commercial applications. A combined design process that yields a Data Link layer that is optimized to the characteristics of the ultra wideband trascievers can bring the inherent beiefits of ultriwideband technology to wireless networking product.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5200
Dr. Eric van Doorn
ARMY 02-075      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Wireless zero power torque sensing using SAW-IDT
Abstract:This proposal details an innovative set of wireless sensors that are small, low cost, accurate, and flexible, and require no local power. They are able to measure strain, cracks, and other parameters. We propose to use a novel implementation of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology in combination with a wireless Transceiver Telemetry System (TTS). The basic sensor technology was developed at the Center for the Engineering of Electronic and Acoustic Materials (CEEAM) at Pennsylvania State University by Dr. V.K. Varadan. Each sensor can be fabricated with a unique identification tag (IDT) which can be read remotely, simultaneous while reading desired data. We refer to the sensor as SAW-IDT. The SAW-IDT sensor is truly wireless and passive (no power at sensor location). Because it requires no wires, no power, is very thin and light, and can be conformally mounted it is ideal for making measurements on curved metal surfaces. The SAW-IDT sensor is a breakthrough in sensing because of the reasons noted above. It has already been used to sense pressure, temperature, wind shear, force, strain, and has been made into gyroscopes, accelerometers, and even chemical sensors. A working system has been built where a car tire valve stem was fitted with a SAW-IDT sensor measuring pressure. A TTS reader measured tire pressure directly from inside the vehicle.

INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC MACHINES
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 449-5504
Mr. Zack Mian
ARMY 02-075      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Non-Contacting Torque Sensor for Helicopter Tail Rotor Drive Systems.
Abstract:Torque pervades our everyday life, and without even thinking about it, we rotate or use products that rotate hundreds of times a day. The challenge in the present application is to be able to measure transient torque accurately, economically, and in a non-contact manner in a demanding environment. International Electronic Machines Corporation, which is an instrumentation and sensor development company with products in over 15 countries, proposes to perform a feasibility comparison of two innovative approaches which can meet the challenges of the present application and do not suffer from the shortcomings of present approaches. Based on IEM's preliminary calculations, these approaches will be able to provide all of the required performance specifications. In Phase I of this project, IEM will evaluate the two approaches and further develop one of the two approaches. IEM will build a pre-prototype of the selected approach to demonstrate its performance. The output from the torque sensor will be integrated into a fatigue monitoring approach. The potential applications include: transportation market, process control, machine monitoring

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. Robert M. McKillip, Jr.
ARMY 02-076      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:A Scalable Dynamic Rotorcraft Model Test Facility
Abstract:Acquisition cost reductions for future Army manned rotorcraft and UAVs will require advanced testing tools to support design development prior to flight testing. All too often, rotorcraft suffer from interactional aerodynamic effects that prolong the introduction of new aircraft, while configuration changes are made to address trim and stability/control shortfalls. Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (CDI) proposes the development of a new dynamic model rotorcraft testing facility, which may be scaled to accommodate a variety of wind tunnels and test venues. This system will leverage previous corporate experience in dynamic model rotor testing and a first-principles, time-accurate free wake analysis to design model supports and instrumentation that permits testing of the dynamic response of rotorcraft in a limited degree-of-freedom model experiment. Use of a high-end, scalable rotorcraft model will aid the understanding of the scaling issues and limitations of the test facility. The proposed Phase I program will carry through the conceptual design of this new rotor system testing tool and demonstrate feasibility through a combination of analysis and experimental demonstration of key components. The goal of Phase I will be identification of a candidate test facility for fabrication and evaluation testing in Phase II. Accurate dynamic model testing of rotorcraft would bring substantial reductions in acquisition cost for a wide range of rotorcraft concepts, through the reduction of time-consuming and expensive configuration changes at the prototype stage. Understanding of the various design and operational limitations present in a rotorcraft configuration through dynamic testing would be particularly significant for the coming generation of Army VTOL UAVs. The test facility could help support both military applications and commercial rotorcraft, where the eventual payoff in operational cost reductions would be still more significant.

MCDONNELL HELICOPTER CO.
54 Roan Lane
St. Louis, MO 63124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 994-0244
Mr. William Randall McDonnell
ARMY 02-077      Selected for Award
Title:Active Control Rotor Using No Swashplate
Abstract:This proposed effort is to develop an approach to eliminate the requirement for hydraulics, swashplates and control rods on conventional helicopters. A servo tab on a servo tab approach is used to provide a two step amplification of power using the energy in the airstream to provide the cyclic, collective and high-frequency control for flight control and vibration reduction of a full size rotor using small electric actuators in the rotating system. The servo tab is on the leading edge of the rotor for reduced trim drag. This technology is applicable to any new or existing commercial or military rotary wing aircraft. Benefits include increased vehicle fatigue life and reliability, reduced acquisition and maintenance costs, reduced vibrations, drag and structural weight

SYSTEMS PLANNING & ANALYSIS, INC.
2000 N. Beauregard St, Suite 400
Alexandria, VA 22311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 474-1310
Dr. Peter C. Chen
ARMY 02-077      Selected for Award
Title:Active Control Rotor Using No Swashplate
Abstract:Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) propose to systematically analyze, develop, and test a primary rotor control system based on trailing-edge flaps actuated by Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy (MSMA) materials. A comprehensive design effort will be undertaken based on the University of Maryland Advanced Rotor Code (UMARC) to determine full-scale flap actuation requirements (size, stroke, location, power requirement, etc.) for the Boeing Apache AH-64 helicopter main rotor. Primary and secondary control (vibration suppression) will be investigated by analysis. Full-scale actuator requirements will be determined evaluated with laboratory tests of MSMA materials in Phase I. Candidate flap actuation mechanisms will be built and tested in preparation for model and full-scale prototyping and testing in Phase II. Conventional swashplate-based flight control devices have characteristically been some of the most complex, precise, and flight critical devices on a helicopter. These systems are maintenance intensive, inspection critical, costly, and act as a significant source of drag. The final product of this proposed effort will be a swashplateless rotor control technology that will enable reduced operating costs for the Army. In addition to fiscal benefits, the superior aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of the smat flap rotor will allow the rotorcraft to operate with greater speed and with superior maneuverability, thereby improving the tactical advantage of Army combat helicopters. The smart actuation technology proposed herein is also directly applicable to aircraft and unmanned air vehicles, where reduced radar signature, improved manueuverabilty, and reduced operating costs, are also projected.

DISTRIBUTED SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
11315 Corporate Boulevard, Suite 115
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 206-3390
Mr. Darren Humphrey
ARMY 02-078      Selected for Award
Title:OpenGL Graphic's for Rotorcraft Displays
Abstract:The development of a "Flight Authoring Toolkit" for Army aviation platforms needs to standardize on a common graphics language. The toolkit must be capable of creating Operational Flight Code that can run on aircraft embedded systems. During Phase I, DiSTI proposes to investigate the Army's requirements for the generation of symbology for future aviation missions and the use of OpenGL and C++ to meet these requirements. The requirements will be added to GL Studio, a real-time OpenGL/C++ authoring toolkit with an open, modular architecture that could easily be adapted to the Army's specific requirements. DiSTI's effort will focus on learning the sponsor's specific requirements and enhancing and extending GL Studio to support the requirements of Operational Flight Code. DiSTI's approach to extend an existing commercial product will maximize the sponsor's return on investment and minimize risk. DiSTI's experience in developing simulated aircraft displays for multiple branches of the military and for commercial flight simulation ensures that DiSTI will be able to rapidly understand the sponsor's requirements. DiSTI is uniquely qualified to commercialize the extended benefits of this toolkit through its distribution network. DiSTI will actually produce a prototype display running on embedded hardware as part of the Phase I effort. The anticipated benefit of this proposal is to truly innovate the avionics software development life cycle by focusing on the creation of tool that generates reusable software components using object oriented C++. The C++ code created by this tool will be reusable or portable to a variety of platforms including aircraft embedded platforms and standard computer operating systems (e.g Windows, Solaris and Linux). By creating truly reusable software components, this tool will revolutionize the avionics software life cycle and allow for more rapid adoption of new avionics software both onboard aircraft and in related systems ranging from CBT and desktop trainers to full fidelity flight simulators. This tool will initially focus on creating graphics using OpenGL, however the tool will be sufficiently open to support future industry directions (e.g. Direct 3D). The tool will also be compatible with numerous other software development tools through the use of XML to provide an open and extendible interchange format for the authoring tool design files. This will allow the software components generated by the authoring tool to be seamlessly integrated into software generated using other industry standard COTS tools. The newly created software tool will also filter it's way down into commercial aviation sector. DiSTI is already working with several commercial aviation companies to develop "highway in the sky" types of displays.

TECHNOLOGY IN BLACKSBURG, INC.
2901 Prosperity Rd
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-4401
Dr. Jonathan Fleming
ARMY 02-079      Selected for Award
Title:Developing an Effective Control System for VTOL UAVs in Adverse Winds
Abstract:A valuable new resource being developed for today's soldier are ducted fan VTOL UAVs. Although beneficial in many ways, a major operational problem of ducted fan vehicles is disturbance rejection when flying in turbulent or gusty winds. A large sideways momentum drag component is characteristic of any ducted fan vehicle flying in gusts, and methods are sought to for better control when subjected to large unsteady forces. Techsburg, by teaming with AVID, Honeywell Labs, and MLB, proposes an aggressive analytical and experimental work plan to take advantage of current methodologies and testing resources developed as part of large VTOL UAV program. The proposed work plan focuses on selection and aerodynamic modeling of a candidate VTOL UAV control systems. The most promising of these ideas will then be wind tunnel tested by integrating the new control system with an existing VTOL UAV wind tunnel model. These results can then be used as input into an existing control system modeling framework that can be used to predict the vehicle's dynamic response to turbulence. In addition to an improved flight control system, insights into establishing disturbance rejection criteria for VTOL UAVs will be gained, and can be used for future vehicle development efforts. As the military becomes increasingly engaged in unconventional battlefield scenarios, the need for enhanced situational awareness will be filled by small UAVs capable of hovering flight. The control system development proposed here will be licensed or otherwise used as part of a VTOL UAV program, with the goal of providing the military with a very stable yet maneuverable aerial sensor platform. If this is achieved, many vehicle units will be bought by the military and other law enforcement groups. The commercial potential for UAVs in general has been demonstrated by the interest generated recently by the Predator and Global Hawk UAVs operating in the Afgan theatre. If these aircraft can be made reliable, easily controlled, and inexpensive, other markets will open up. These potential customers include local police and fire departments, urban news centers, aerial inspection and surveying services, and real estate firms.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N Bethlehem Pike, Ste 300
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Mr. William Weiland
ARMY 02-080      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Automated Wingman
Abstract:Modeling and Simulation (M&S) plays a major role in the development of new technologies for both military and civilian applications. The Army uses M&S to improve effectiveness and efficiency in developing tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs); development and design; testing and evaluating technology, concepts, and systems; training; and numerous other applications. With the development of the RAH-66 Comanche and the AH-64D Long Bow Apache, new tactics have been developed to optimize the employment of the advanced capabilities of these platforms. These tactics focus on an own-ship and wingman team concept and all but eliminate the concept of single aircraft missions. This change in tactics presents a problem for the R&D community in that the single aircraft representation supported by the current simulations does not represent the new operational environment of the own-ship/wingman team concept. For this Phase I effort, CHI Systems proposes to use iGEN, its proprietary integrated development environment (IDE) for developing intelligent agents, to implement a pilot Synther with capabilities to fly Comanche-type missions. Communication and battlespace infrastructure will be designed to enhance the interoperability of the human pilot and the pilot Synther and to integrate the Synthetic Wingman, or SyWing, simulator within a SAF. SyWing will provide a capability to embed synthetic wingmen within existing and future Army rotorcraft simulators. By eliminating the need to provide facilities to utilize human pilots for this role (requiring moderate- to high-fidelity flight simulators with full displays and controls, as well as radio communications infrastructure), this will reduce the cost and footprint of flight simulation facilities where there is a need to test or evaluate teamwork behaviors in realistic mission contexts. The technology, once developed, has applicability to related domains. In addition to its use in testing contexts, SyWing will be useful for training applications. Owing to the low footprint of iGEN models in general, we expect that SyWing will be highly useful for low-fidelity part-task trainers where teamwork plays a role. Clearly, the concept is extensible to fixed wing flight, and can be used in constructive and virtual simulators across a wide range of DoD applications. Apart from defense applications, SyWing could be extended to civilian aviation (whether rotorcraft or fixed wing), to serve in training and testing roles (such as the FAA's ongoing experimentation with air traffic control displays and concepts). In addition, entertainment and commercial shrink-wrapped flight simulators/desktop trainers are future candidate applications.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court, Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Randolph Jones
ARMY 02-080      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Wingman
Abstract:An intelligent, synthetic behavior model that simulates the behavior of Army wingmen has the potential to increase flexibility in training FWA and RWA pilots, while reducing the manpower expense necessary to deliver such training. Soar Technology has extensive experience developing and deploying the types of knowledge-rich intelligent agents that are necessary for such an application, as well as experience deploying such systems as automated wingmen in simulation environments for the US Air Force and US Navy. MK Technologies has developed a robust architecture for simulating realistic training environments, and populating them with vehicle platforms and computer-generated entities. As a team, we propose to create a new integration of these two technologies to support an automated wingman and simulation environment to train Army FWA and RWA pilots. The resulting system will provide a usable and useful application, as well as a more general, component-oriented framework that will decrease development costs of similar training applications in the future. Soar Technology, Inc. will apply the most current work on human cognition and hierarchical control to the problem of creating automated wingman models to train Army FWA and RWA pilots. Soar Technology, Inc. is uniquely qualified to perform the research required to create autonomous synthetic wingmen because of our expertise in cognitive model development, autonomous control of air vehicles, and simulation interface capability. The benefit to the Army will be team training, force magnification, radio protocol, and coordinated tactics training. The resulting research will be applicable to the immediate military need for interactive training, and also in such commercial tasks as law enforcement, drug traffic control, security, forestry, environmental impact assessment, emergency, and crisis response.

ORMOND, LLC
1505 Central Avenue, South
Kent, WA 98032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 852-1298
Mr. Tom Butler
ARMY 02-081      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Cavitation Peening to Enhance Turbine Engine Component High Cycle Fatigue Life
Abstract:Cavitation peening is a novel method of inducing deep residual compressive stresses in components by sweeping an ultra-high pressure waterjet across the surface. The process is fast, very inexpensive and can be readily applied to a wide variety of geometries, including difficult to access surfaces such as intregrally bladed rotors (Blisks) and gears. It is estimated that this new process will be less than 2% the cost of laser shock peening while achieving identical residual stress profiles. It is also expected to achieve similar fatigue life improvements of 3X and damage tolerance improvement of 15X. The proposed work will demonstrate the ability of cavitation peening to impart residual compressive stresses on titanium and nickel alloys for small engine components. Fatigue benefits will be quantified and an economic analysis conducted to demonstrate benefits over alternate processes. In addition to greatly enhancing fatigue life and damage tolerance of turbine engine components, the process can also be applied to automotive gears, bearing races, engine components, airframes, springs, railroad tracks, and other fatigue critical components. The market is expected to be as least as large as the $200M conventional peening business. Longer fatigue life and greater damage tolerance will result in fewer aircraft lost from engine failure and reduced maintenance costs and longer component life. Because the beneficial induced stresses are ten times deeper than conventional shot peening, the benefits to fatigue life will be dramatically improved. This feasibility of this process has been demonstrated in a nuclear power application and the proposed work will broaden the applications to turbine engines and power train components.

SKY+ LTD.
1098 Jordan Lane
Napa, CA 94559
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 265-0300
Dr. M. Eric Schlienger
ARMY 02-082      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Advanced Manufacturing Technique for Casting SX/DX Turbine Components
Abstract:We propose a new method of casting turbine blades to achieve directional solidification (DS) or single crystal solidification (SX) without withdrawl, which is currently the only manufacturing technique in use to make DS or SX castings. This new manufacturing process will significantly improve the throughput from a casting furnace and quality of cast parts, hence reducing the manufacturing costs and improving the quality of cast turbine blades (airfoils) and integrally bladed disks (blisks). The throughput and qualilty will be improved because the new process does not rely on moving the parts through a baffled hot/cold zone to control the temperature gradient in the part during solidification. We anticipate that this technique will also allow complex geometries to be successfully cast in DS or SX orientation, which can significantly extend the life of the cast parts, compared to equiaxed castings.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Dr. Jason R. Babcock
ARMY 02-082      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite Blisks from Near-Net Shape Preforms
Abstract:No timely and cost-effective methods now exist for the fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) of complex geometries. Application of such CMCs can potentially enhance the efficiency and performance, reduce the weight, improve the durability, and lower the cost of aerospace propulsion systems, particularly those used in high temperature, high-stress environments. Achieving these benefits requires development of fiber preform production and matrix infiltration techniques capable of efficiently producing net or near-net shape parts to eliminate the need for costly and time-consuming machining in the final production step. The quality of such parts will also depend on implementation of improved fiber/matrix interfaces and interface deposition techniques. For many projected applications, carbon fibers are of particular interest as CMC reinforcements because they are relatively inexpensive, have higher strength and stiffness and lower density than oxide or non-oxide ceramic fibers, and retain their mechanical properties at very high temperatures. The main drawback of carbon fibers, however, is their low oxidation resistance, which has prevented their extensive use in high temperature oxidizing environments. Oxide interfaces can potentially impart sufficient protection, as well as provide other essential interface functions. In previous work, Ultramet demonstrated a unique and innovative process for depositing oxide interfaces, specifically ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (UVCVD). Ultramet has also successfully achieved rapid infiltration of carbide matrices within thin (<0.125") and thick (1") fiber preforms using an innovative melt infiltration process. In this project, Ultramet will combine UVCVD of oxide interface coatings with a modified, innovative variation of the melt infiltration process for the densification of blisk-shaped preforms to demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and cost-effectively producing near net-shape carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite blisks suited for selected aerospace applications such as manned and unmanned air vehicle turbomachinery components. The composite materials to be developed in this project combine innovative interface materials, interface deposition, and rapid infiltration of refractory matrices into novel fiber preforms. These components will have broad commercial applicability to a range of products, including rocket and aircraft engine turbomachinery components, recuperators, ducts, and other hot gas path components, process industry parts requiring high temperature capability and corrosive environment resistance (e.g. hot gas and liquid handling equipment) for extended periods, furnace structures, and high temperature filter elements.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. Todd R. Quackenbush
ARMY 02-083      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Full-Vehicle Hierarchical Design Model for VTOL UAVs and Manned Rotorcraft
Abstract:To fulfill the mission performance requirements for the coming generation of Army VTOL UAVs and manned rotorcraft, design tools are required that can encompass both the wide range of possible multirotor configurations and the technical challenges of analyzing realistic, integrated airframes. In addition to design issues shared with full scale rotorcraft, small rotary wing UAVs are constrained by rotor performance limitations inherent in operating at low Reynolds numbers and subsonic Mach number, as well as complex effects such as multiple rotor aerodynamics, duct interaction, sidewinds, and rotor/empennage interaction. The effort proposed here will address these problems by exploiting the established full-airframe modeling capabilities of the CHARM comprehensive model while introducing enhancements and innovations tailored to the environment of low Reynold number rotorcraft. In particular, the fast boundary element and vortex modeling in CHARM will be supplemented by state of the art finite volume methods to capture challenging real flow effects arising from turbulent and viscous mechanisms. The effort will include validation studies for isolated rotors, multiple rotors, and representative ducted systems, and will lay the groundwork for eventual development of an integrated model incorporating improved viscous modeling capabilities as part of a hierarchy of full-vehicle design tools. The recent rapid expansion of unmanned rotorcraft roles in Army and other DOD applications (e.g., the UCAR and OAV programs) will offer a range of opportunities for use of this design software in supporting prime contractors. Strong growth is also evident in civil rotary wing/UAV concepts, including surveillance, imaging, and inspection roles, and the design and analysis capabilities to be developed here can directly support these new initiatives.

DISCRETE TIME COMMUNICATIONS
17438 gibraltar ct
san diego, CA 92128
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 714-1184
Dr. Roberto Aiello
ARMY 02-084      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Low Power Distributed UWB Network
Abstract:The technology described in this proposal is optimizes to sensor networks. The low power, low cost UWB receiver with anti-jamming capabilities will be integrated in CMOS to deliver optimum performance. The efficient, scalable modulation scheme will allow systems to co-exist at low bit rate and very high bit rate. The modulation scheme also allows a common receiver architecture both for low bit rate and high bit rate systems Low profile antennas are a critical part of the system, and are integrated with the sensors. Specific development will be completed to realize low cost, small antennas The communications requirements for the systems lead to a network protocol design based on priorities in the channel access mechanism together with a distributed control protocol for identification, route determination and network management. The overall system is optimized for low power, anti-jamming sensor networks, that combines the unique attributes of UWB technology with a distributed, multi-hop network architecture. There is a great interest in industry to develop low power sensor networks for a large variety of applications. Commercial applications for sensor networks include industrial automation, infrastructure stress assessments, controls and instrumentation, operation and monitoring for industrial applications, asset tracking for factories, proximity detection and authentication, hospitals and retail, telemetry and non-intrusive monitoring in the medical field, environmental sensors for climate control, fire detection, and condition assessment. Consumer applications are also envisioned by industry groups like Zigbee, that will lead to very large volume opportunities in the home market, for automatic control of sensor, actuators and appliances. All these applications require very low power consumption, small form factor, light overall weight, interference robustness, multipath immunity, and low cost. In order to perform detection and communications for sensor applications, the system must also be scalable because of the variety of bit rates and traffic types that must be supported. UWB technologies are very promising because of the low power, multipath robust and anti-jamming characteristics. Successful products will combine high level of integration, advanced power management capabilities and efficient network architectures.

IDRIS COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
1100 South McCaslin Blvd, Suite 110
Superior, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 890-5031
Mr. Steve Shattil
ARMY 02-084      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Ultra Wideband Technology for Sensor Network Communications
Abstract:The application of advanced networking and wireless communication technologies to current micro-sensor applications can better exploit the combined sensing capabilities of a distributed sensor network. For example, sensor capabilities may include geospatial visualization for warfighter situational awareness and synthesis of large-aperture antennas for narrow-beam communications. However, when networks need to be set up quickly and the number of users in the network is highly variable, conventional multiple-access protocols provide poor bandwidth efficiency and unacceptable levels of multiple access interference. A new, well-documented signal processing technique known as Carrier Interferometry provides Ultra-Wideband signals having unsurpassed performance (i.e., range, low-power transmission requirements, low probability of error), throughput, and LPI/LPD benefits. Development under this proposal will also provide substantial benefits to consumer markets, including home networks and personal area networks. CI Ultra-wideband is a wireless technology that transmits an extremely low power signal over a wide swath of radio spectrum. Unlike conventional radio systems that operate within a relatively narrow bandwidth, i.e. Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11a, CI operates across a wide range of frequency spectrum by transmitting a series of very narrow and low power pulses. The combination of broader spectrum, lower power and pulsed data means that ultra-wideband causes less interference than conventional narrowband radio solutions, and delivers wire-like performance in an indoor wireless environment. This makes CI-based ultra-wideband technology ideal for consumer electronics applications such as camcorders, laptops, DVDs, digital cameras, etc.

INNOVATIVE WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1047 Vista Park Drive, Suite A
Forest, VA 24551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 316-5230
Mr. Kent Colling
ARMY 02-084      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Ultra Wideband Technology for Sensor Network Communications
Abstract:Situational awareness is critical to the transformation of the Army into an Objective Force. The Objective Force soldier will be operating in extreme conditions and must possess a secure and reliable means to assess his environment and initiate combat on his terms. Ultra-wideband communication networks can provide the Objective Force with a vehicle to see, understand, and act first resulting in ultimate victory on the field of battle. The UWB sensor network will provide rapidly deployed, LPI/LPD access to an integrated picture of the Objective Force area of operation. The network will have reach-back capabilities such that decisions and command flow can be achieved seamlessly and quickly to the units in the field. Innovative Wireless Technologies has partnered with Time Domain Corporation to provide the Objective Force with a UWB sensor network communications platform it requires for the next generation battlefield. Our team will offer an innovative system solution to the UWB Sensor Network via advanced propagation simulation, verification, and novel random walk based routing algorithms. Commercial applications of IWT and Time Domain's research can be applied to a wide variety of sensor network needs such as surveillance for much needed Homeland Defense initiatives, law enforcement, and asset protection.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Joseph Tesar
ARMY 02-085      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:A Haptics Probe for Mine Detection
Abstract:Cybernet proposes to automate certain aspects of the manual search technique for landmines using robotics and haptics. There are many situations where manual clearing is the most reliable method for demining; however, this technique unfortunately puts the human very close to the explosive. Our goal in this project is to automate the human-based technique of inserting a probe (often a sharp bayonet) into the earth and carefully probing for mines in the soil. Rather than placing a human mere inches from the explosive, we will teleoperate the probe, relaying the "touch and feel" of the bayonet to a human operator standing at a safe distance. The advantage of the human approach is that it retains the proven sense of touch as a detection mechanism, but removes the human from close proximity to the mine. Automating this process will speed the search process and decrease the probability of error due to human fatigue and stress. Commercial applications include humanitarian demining and teleoperation of robotics.

IMPLANT SCIENCES CORP.
107 Audubon Road, #5
Wakefield, MA 01880
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 246-0700
Dr. Leonid Krasnobaev
ARMY 02-085      Awarded: 01DEC02
Title:Fast Response Chemical Sensor for Landmine Multi-Detector Device
Abstract:After initially being located by a separate landmine detector system, such as a metal detector or ground penetrating radar, a buried object can be analyzed by a fast response chemical-sensing detector to confirm or reject the presence of explosives with a high degree of a confidence. The lack of such a desirable confirmatory device is due to the absence of a portable, fast response chemical sensor capable of detecting molecules of energetic materials at pg/cm2 or ng/cm3 (in soil) concentrations. Implant Sciences Corporation has developed an advanced sensor capable of detecting vapors of the major explosives TNT, RDX, PETN, etc. within 0.2-3 seconds. The portable sensor has a sensitivity enough to detect the buried mine, and even trace its location from a moderate distance, if the vapors can be delivered to the sensor. Explosives material particle/vapor extraction from the media surrounding the landmine, transportation to the chemical detector, and injection into the sampling port will be accomplished using a cyclone system. In Phase I an explosives vapor/particle sampling module will be developed, interfaced with a chemical vapor detector, and prepared for field testing. In Phase II the chemical detector prototype will become a component of a Landmine Multi-Detector Device Confirmation of the detection of explosives is essential due to the high rate of false positives from most devices now in use. Land mines are a special application in that remote sensing and confirmation are desirable. Existing portable chemical sensors are not capable of remote sensing and have limited sensitivity. The proposed cyclone vapor/particle sampling module accomplishes these goals and can create a chemical confirmatory system for a landmine with significant reduction in the false-positive response.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Mr. Chuck Shipley
ARMY 02-085      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Mine Detection
Abstract:In this effort, Technology Service Corporation (TSC) will develop and demonstrate a radar-based technique to enhance the rapid detection and location of buried land mines. An acoustic signal energizes resonant modes in buried mines, and those sympathetic vibrations are detected by the radar. The innovation proposed is to use modern beamforming technology to simultaneously observe signals over a wide ground area. The system concept has a radar array antenna suspended in front of a vehicle, with the aperture pointing downward. The system forms multiple simultaneous beams on receive, with a wide "flooding" beam on transmit. Scanning in the forward and aft plane will be used to achieve the necessary coverage rate and integration time. Considerable flexibility and speed in beam forming and switching will be needed to exceed coverage requirements. Phase I will include a trade study to determine the best implementation of the technology. TSC has previously demonstrated radar systems that detect acoustic movement of nearby surfaces, such as a person talking in another room, which is very similar to this mine detection problem. Adaptive beamforming technology has been used in military radar systems for several years, and TSC is an expert in this area. There are an estimated 25,000 deaths and injuries every year due to land mines. Rapid mine detection is a dual use technology needed worldwide. Many government and civilian humanitarian organizations are looking for efficient ways to clear large areas of unexploded land mines.

DE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3620 Horizon Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 832-7570
Mr. Mark Majerus
ARMY 02-086      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Munitions for Standoff Mine Neutralization
Abstract:We propose to develop a shaped-charge warhead for a standoff mine-neutralization system. The mine will be neutralized by the shaped-charge jet projected by the warhead, which will initiate the mine's explosive fill in a detonation or deflagration reaction to rapidly destroy its integrity. The ability of the jet, projected by only a small-diameter warhead, to consistently initiate such a reaction will be aided by several previously demonstrated technologies. Warheads will be designed and fabricated, then delivered to the Government for testing. Mine neutralization technology has obvious military benefits however the technology can readily be adapted for use in humanitarian demining efforts throughout the world. In humanitarian demining operations, a large percentage of the mines have been dispersed in populated areas near critical areas such as roads, schools, hospitals, cultural centers, etc. The neutralization technologies must be adapted in order to prevent or limit high order detonations in those cases where collateral damage is to be avoided. In addition, any adaptation of the technology must be developed for indigenous personnel where simplicity of use and limitation of nefarious applications are paramount.

EQUINOX CORP.
9 West 57th Street, Suite 1650
New York, NY 10019
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 421-2999
Dr. Lawrence B. Wolff
ARMY 02-087      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Image Fusion of Intensified and Thermal IR for Night Vision
Abstract:This effort will explore algorithmic approaches to image fusion of intensified and thermal IR imagery, and efficient implementation of these algorithms in low-power electronics. Sitatuation awareness for ground soldiers, Driver Vision Enhancement, search and rescue

REVEO, INC.
85 Executive Blvd
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-6076
Dr. Zhan He
ARMY 02-088      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Variable Optical Transmission Lens Element (for Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) Applications)
Abstract:Helmet mounted displays (HMDs) present valuable information to pilots by superposing artificial images over the pilots' normal field of vision. However, this kind of HMD must be able to operate in daylight, twilight and nighttime conditions. If the image from the projection system is not bright enough, the viewer may be very difficult to read the data information from a bright background. To solve such problems, the only method in current HMD technologies is to adjust the brightness of the display panel. However, the daylight display readability requirement coupled with the twilight ambient scene visibility requirement sometimes forces display sources to exceed 5000 ft-L brightness at the display source, which causes huge power consumption and also reduces the lifetime of the miniature display devices used in HMDs. In this program, Reveo proposes to develop an innovative LC based transreflective film to solve the above difficulties. The developed film can have double enhancement effect: attenuating the ambient light while increasing reflectivity for display light, which can tremendously improve the readability of HMDs under all conditions. Since the necessary adjustable range could be smaller, the whole system could be much simpler and robust, and the power consumption could be much lower. Reveo's variable transreflective film technology is extremely flexible and broadly applicable, it will have many dual-use applications as HMDs for military and civilian vehicles, home entertainment, advanced video games, dazzle or glare protection in night-time flying and driving and other applications related to specialty goggles and glasses.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Jon Nebo
ARMY 02-088      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:Self-Regulating Variable Transmission Device for HMD's
Abstract:Triton will develop flexible, self-regulating variable transmission optical element to reduce the high brightness requirements for current helmet mounted displays (HMD). The device will automatically regulate the transmission level to provide adequate darkening in intense sunlight and high transmission in low light and twilight. The variable transmission element will have low power consumption and will be fabricated from low cost commercially available components. We will incorporate state of the art electrochromic materials into the system to meet the transmission requirements and provide stable and spectrally neutral transmission across the visible range. This work will culminate in a preliminary design of variable transmission element in Phase I and the development of a working prototype in Phase II. The resulting reductions in the brightness for HMD's will reduce their power requirements, reduce the weight and heat generation associated with HMD systems, and dramatically improve the reliability of HMD systems. These variable tint devices will enhance the reliability of HMD's and increase the rate of their introduction into the field for mounted and unmounted soldiers. These devices will also be useful for displays and devices that will be viewed outdoors or in uneven light such as laptop computers, ATM display screens, etc. The materials may also be applied in commercial applications such as self-dimming rear view mirrors, auto sunroofs, or smart windows for office buildings.

E-OIR MEASUREMENTS, INC.
P.O.Box 1240
Spotsylvania, VA 22553
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 899-2045
Mrs. Mary Williams
ARMY 02-090      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Adaptive Analysis for Chemical Recognition and Identification Using Remote Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy
Abstract:E-OIR Technologies proposes the design and development of an automated, adaptive chemical exploitation systems (AACES) to support the passive detection and identification of chemical effluents. AACES will leverage proven remote sensing algorithms and adapt them to the passive Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) problem. This research effort will investigate advanced background discrimination techniques, atmospheric compensation requirements, and adaptive methods for remote detection and identification of chemicals. The Phase I research will culminate in the development of an algorithm testbed for performance evaluation and a feasibility study. In subsequent phases a prototype hardware-based system will be implemented and tested The outcome of this research will culminate in a basic algorithm to provide improved detection and identification of chemical gases. The initial product line will be a complete processing and exploitation tool for spectral analysis of gases using imaging and non-imaging hyperspectral sensor data. This tool will integrate spectral libraries and processing algorithms into a user-friendly gui interface to support gas detection and identification for both intelligence and industrial monitoring applications. The second product will be an outcome of Phase II research in which the improved detection algorithm will be implemented in a hardware process and link to a commercial FTIR system. This system will support Homeland Defense and Physical Security Applications.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Raman K. Mehra/ Dr. Ssu-Hsin Yu
ARMY 02-091      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Robust Feature Extraction and Sensor Fusion for Land Mine Detection
Abstract:The overall goal of this effort is to develop an automatic mine detection algorithm based on fusion of information from multiple sensors. The sensor data requirement for the fusion process can be achieved under realistic operating conditions. Under Phase I, we will focus our algorithm development on the GPSAR and acoustic data. The algorithm will be extended to incorporate other sensor platforms under Phase II. The fusion procedure differs from other decision level fusion methods in one important aspect. Under the new procedure, the individual classifiers are fused dependent on other classifiers during the training phase, whereas other methods combine the classifiers independently of one another. The end product of the Phase I effort will be software code that implements the algorithms. The project team consists of SSCI, Planning Systems Inc. (PSI) and the University of Mississippi. SSCI brings to the team expertise in developing ATR capabilities for landmine detection technologies. PSI and the University of Mississippi will assist in the ATR development through their insight into the workings of the sensors. The participation of PSI and the University of Mississippi also ensures a smooth transition of the techniques developed under this project. Immediate benefits arising from the research are in the improvement of mine detection performance and speed of advancement for the future mine detection systems. The automatic nature of the detection process also help lower training cost and facilitate wide spread use of the new systems. Commercial applications for the developed technology can be realized on any products that require automatic object recognition such as surveillance, land-use surveys, and resource management.

LMC INSTRUMENT CORP., D/B/A REVISE, INC.
79 Second Avenue, Northwest Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-9888
Dr. Michael J. Burns
ARMY 02-092      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Laser Chemical Etching of Longwave Spectrometer Gratings
Abstract:We plan to use Laser Chemical Etching (LCE), a "direct etch process" capable of true high resolution 3-D etching with micron resolution, almost arbitrary depth, and high aspect ratio, to produce convex longwave infrared gratings for use in Offner spectrometers. Laser Chemical Etching (LCE) is vastly superior to Excimer Laser Micromachining in essentially every aspect, from LCE's much higher control, uniformity of etch, and reproducibility to LCE's ultra-clean etching with only gaseous by-products (no derbis). We will demonstrate that laser chemical etching will allow the production of convex longwave infrared gratings without the fabrication limitations of e-beam/optical lithography and without the limitations of ion milling, conventional etching, excimer laser machining, mechanical ruling or conventional replication processes. Laser Chemical Etching will allow the production of convex longwave infrared gratings without the limitations of e-beam/optical lithography and the limitations of ion milling, conventional etching, excimer laser micromachining, mechanical ruling or conventional replication processes.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Joao B. D. Cabrera
ARMY 02-093      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Early Warning and Response for Computer Attacks Against Mobile Networks
Abstract:The overall objective of the effort (Phases I and II) is to develop and evaluate a methodology for the early detection and response of computer attacks against mobile networks. The key elements are: (1) Development of temporal attack models for mobile networks -- We follow the NEWS (Network Early Warning System) approach introduced by Northrop Grumman Information Technology (NGIT) characterizing computer attacks as a sequence of temporally evolving stages. Early warning is achieved through the ready identification of the early stages. SSCI's Proactive Intrusion Detection scheme will be used for the automatic extraction of features containing early precursors; (2) Fusion of features -- Attack stages will be characterized by the combination of features collected at multiple nodes and protocol levels; (3) Utilization of Network Management Systems (NMSs) -- COTS NMSs will be customized to gather relevant features; (4) Proposition of courses of action -- Courses of action will be proposed, following early detection. NGIT will serve as a subcontractor, supporting SSCI in the integration of NEWS with SSCI's Proactive Intrusion Detection technology. Aprisma Inc. (manufacturer of SPECTRUM) will provide consulting in network management. Prof. Wenke Lee from Georgia Tech will be a consultant in Computer Security. Phase I effort will support the development of a Mobile Network Protection Toolkit centered on COTS NMSs in Phase II. At the defense side, mobile technology is crucial for the Army in the 21st century. At the commercial side, the wireless LAN market alone is expected to be a 5 billion dollars market by 2005. The proposed technology provides a much needed early warning capability for computer attacks against mobile networks.

XPRT SOLUTIONS, INC.
615 HOPE ROAD, BUILDING 5B
EATONTOWN, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 460-9001
Dr. Jose Ucles
ARMY 02-093      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Early Warning Detection of Computer Network Attacks Against Mobile Networks
Abstract:The XPRT Solutions,Inc/New Jersey Institute of Technology /Network Security Solutions, Inc (XNN) team proposes to develop the concept of the PRIDE (PRedictive Intrusion DEtection) tool. PRIDE is an anomaly detection technology tool for network attacks prediction. Phase I is used to refine the concepts of PRIDE, whereas Phase II will develop a prototype for testing and evaluation. PRIDE consists of far and near time-horizon components. Far-PRIDE operates with a far-time horizon. It uses a combined anomaly and signature intrusion platform along with the alert fusion mechanism to construct representative alert scenarios and models that include Discovery, Probing/Scanning and Stealth (DPSS) intrusions as they transition into Escalation of Privilege (EoP) and/or Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Thus, emerging attack scenarios are evaluated as to their similarity to the representative scenario models and ranked as to the severity of the threat they pose, thus setting the stage for early warning. Near-PRIDE will generate prediction of intrusion attacks, over the near time horizon, by estimating the probability of generalized threshold violations, based on probability density function similarity computations for specific times in the future. Near and Far-PRIDE operate in unison as to increase the detection rate while decreasing the false alarm rate. The proposed technology can be used in the commercial world to not only protect networks, but also to react to network attacks prior to their occurrence. This enhances the state of the art technology where typically only protection mechanisms are put in place.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 557-5890
Mr. Mark Radovich
ARMY 02-094      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Dual Function Radio for Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) and Bluetooth
Abstract:Secure wireless for combat support is ready for the battlefield. Current Army initiatives such at Land Warrior and Object Force Warrior show the need for light weight, low power data communications for the soldier for enhanced situational awareness, responsiveness, and lethality. Bluetooth, with its low power requirements, and WLAN (802.11b), with its bandwidth and range, both play a role in fulfilling the communications needs of the soldier. A dual function radio (DFR) design could act as a data transfer node between WLAN and Bluetooth networks, allowing for smaller, more power efficient, and thus lighter designs. Luna proposes to assess the capability and performance of dual function radios in military environments, design a proof-of-concept system, and identify military applications. Particular focus will be placed on determining the impact of collocation of the Bluetooth and WLAN radios and system level solutions to meet the communications needs of the soldier on the battlefield. This analysis would pave the way for Phase II future integration of DFR's in military applications such as Land Warrior and Object Force Warrior. In addition to the low-volume commercial production of DFR components in the Land Warrior and Object Force Warrior programs, Luna anticipates large non-defense markets in industrial instrumentation systems coupled with wireless transmission capability. Specific applications include shipboard, spacecraft, aircraft, and nuclear/conventional power plant health monitoring, transportation vehicle design and testing, and industrial rotating machine monitoring. DFR technology would result in significant product improvements in Luna's existing wireless sensor product line, resulting in increased sales and revenue.

FASTVDO LLC
7150 Riverwood Dr.
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 442-6063
Dr. Pankaj Topiwala
ARMY 02-095      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Helmet-Mounted Sensor-Fusion ATR
Abstract:Situation awareness at the dismounted small-unit level requires innovation and agility in sensors and signal processing. Information fusion from a field of region-based sensors is an important but challenging proposition. The placement of sensors, their activation and coordination, charging and monitoring, and fusing and interpreting, are open-ended topics. A significant DARPA focus in recent years has been on deploying an army of "sensorlets" which can virtually march out, position, and coordinate themselves (sensor "nets"). While this vision remains forward-looking, to realistically assist the dismounted small unit near-term, we propose a novel helmet-mounted sensor-fusion ATR system, lightweight and portable, yet powerful enough to assist a soldier not only to see and hear, but determine enemy vehicle, personnel or structure presence -- without detection. Soldier wearable ATR system; night vision; commercial applications in security, auto safety.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6785 Hollister Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 277-8396
Mr. Gary Key
ARMY 02-096      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Automatic Target Detection and Tracking (ATD&T) Algorithms for Small Autonomous Projectiles
Abstract:Given smooth motion of a projectile with an onboard imaging device, the displacement between focal plane centroid and desired aimpoint can be estimated via motion models customarily employed in video compres-sion. This supports target detection and measurement within a small predicted area of each image frame. Sensor output compression using an MPEG hardware codec would obviate potentially costly computation of a motion model, because motion vectors could be obtained from the MPEG data. This approach, expected to yield significant computational sav-ings, would be based on the research team's highly successful research in still and video image compression. We have developed sophisticated, highly efficient algorithms for fast, accurate target detection. This requires no special hardware, and can be interposed in channels trans-mitting compressed or uncompressed imagery. Phase I will design and develop a joint hardware/software solution to maximally exploit imagery acquired from spinning projectiles, while minimizing power/space requirements. We propose to enhance and adapt our existing algorithms and software for early prototype demonstra-tion, and performance analysis of the proposed hardware/software given GFI models of the projectile imaging system and ballistic response. Phase-II will develop: (1) advanced motion-directed ATR software, to run on (2) low volume, low power hardware (COTS components) that sup-port real-time computation. Techniques developed under this topic are applicable to border protection, military target detection and image or video compression as well as domestic applications such as telecommunications. The commercial benefits for telecommunications are considerable. Other uses include faster detection of moving targets in law enforcement, and security applications.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Raman K. Mehra/ Dr. Ssu-Hsin Yu
ARMY 02-097      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Multi-level Information Fusion for Robust Detection of Scatterable Minefields
Abstract:The proposed approach is focused on relating, on the signal level, the interrogated data after being dynamically adjusted by local background information, with multiple mine features stored in feature libraries, and then with "higher" level spatial information between mines. By taking into account not only the static mine features but also the dynamic background variation and clues from the higher level, it is expected that the performance can be greatly enhanced. The Phase I effort will focus on developing the individual algorithms needed to implement the process. The prototype process will be tested for the effectiveness of individual algorithms and the performance of the combined system on the acquired sensor data. In order to ensure the success of the proposed effort, a strong team of researchers at SSCI, University of Florida, and University of Missouri has been assembled. The team has unique experience in mine detection, pattern recognition, sensor fusion, and signal processing. SSCI and the researchers from the two universities have made significant contribution to Army's existing mine detection. We believe the team not only has the theoretical background to accomplish the goal but also the understanding of practical challenges faced by the mine detection community. Immediate benefits arising from the research are in the development of airborne mine detection systems for efficient localization of minefields and de-mining. Commercial applications for the developed technology can be realized on any products that require automatic object recognition such as surveillance, land-use surveys, and resource management.

SPACE COMPUTER CORP.
12121 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 910
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
Dr. Scott G. Beaven
ARMY 02-097      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Robust Detection of Scatterable Minefields
Abstract:The problem addressed in this proposal is the design and development of robust multi-sensor processing methods for detecting surface scatterable minefields from unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs). Space Computer Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a methodology for joint exploitation and fusion of minefield discriminants available from multiple image observables or features, and also from multiple wavebands or sensors. Phase I will emphasize the use of existing multi-band MidWave Infrared (MWIR) and LWIR sensor data with a proven algorithm fusion technique to exploit spatial and spectral detection features within each individual waveband. SCC will apply band-to-band registration methods to the MWIR sensor data so that it may be fully exploited for automated minefield detection. This effort will use an extensive set of processing tools and techniques, developed under DARPA funding for exploiting multispectral and multi-sensor image data. The Phase I Option will extend this concept by cross-registration of MWIR and LWIR sensor imagery to enable joint fusion of discrimination features between multiple sensors. In Phase II this general fusion framework could be expanded to accommodate other maturing sensor technologies for mine detection including scanned lasers, pulse compression lasers (LADARs), and hyperspectral sensors operating in the reflective EO and thermal bands. The processing developed in this phase I effort, as well as the proposed Phase I option will establish a methodology and framework for the application of multi-algorithm, multi-sensor processing to the detection of scatterable minefields. This will advance the state-of-the-art in automated detection of scatterable minefields using existing sensor technology. The processing methods developed will be useful across both DoD applications for tactical demining as well as humanitarian demining efforts. Commercial applications would include surveying previously war-torn regions for humanitarian demining purposes. Also, since many of the current and previously war-torn regions are also significant sources of natural resources we anticipate that there will be commercial interest in cost-effective surveying of regions for residual minefields.

MEMS OPTICAL, INC.
205 Import Circle
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 859-1886
Dr. Zhili Hao
ARMY 02-098      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:MicroElectro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Cryo-coolers
Abstract:Many advanced space-based electronic systems critical to national security employ infrared detectors and optoelectronics that require very low temperature in order for them to achieve optimal performance. There are several methods that are currently being pursed as MEMS cryo-coolers but none of which achieve the desired requirements. Thermoelectric cryo-coolers are reliable but have a very low efficiency, while a vapor-compression cycle is simply not reliable. A miniature Stirling cycle has a high heat removal density but imposes a high control complexity, which reduces the system reliability. The objective of the Phase I study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a thermoacoustic refrigerator based on MEMS technology. The cryo-cooler system will be highly leveraged off components currently under development: a vertical comb-drive acoustic driver, and a low-loss curved resonant tube using gray-scale technology. This cooler's operational capabilities include significant advantages over the previously mentioned devices: direct integration with low-temperature electronics, high reliability, long lifetime, high efficiency, and low vibration levels. These features and capabilities will significantly reduce the satellite power requirements, decrease overall weight, and greatly simplify cooling system integration. Efficient, integrated cooling of focal plane arrays and other spaced-based electronics, cooling of advanced electronics

STAR-H CORP.
1853 William Penn Way, PO Box 10368
Lancaster, PA 17605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 360-4794
Mr. Michael W. Jacobs
ARMY 02-099      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Developing Spectrum Sharing Technique and Demonstrating its Application
Abstract:STAR-H Corporation will apply its extensive experience in RF propagation and analysis to the problem of developing more efficient uses of the RF spectrum. The ultimate goal is to mine the ambient RF spectrum for idle frequencies with sufficient bandwidth to utilize for short-duration transmissions. Longer duration connectivity is achieved by stitching together idle bandwidth in real time using a Software Defined Radio. To develop the background to enable this technology, in Phase I we will develop models for the statistical analysis and testing of spectrum sharing methodologies. From the information gained by this modeling, concepts for spectrum sharing will be more completely developed. The benefits of such a system are enormous. The ability to move away from rigid frequency allocations and adapt to immediate communications needs in the ambient RF environment will benefit both military and civilian users alike. Military users will gain more flexibility in deploying wireless networks in support of the warfighter and the Objective Force. Such systems will be highly secure and jam resistant and can expand their bandwidth to accommodate almost any desired data rate. Civilian users will more efficiently use the limited RF spectrum with reduced interference.

THINKOM SOLUTIONS, INC.
3825 Del Amo Blvd., Suite 200
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-5486
Mr. William W. Milroy
ARMY 02-100      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:High Gain Antenna for Wireless Local Area Network (LAN)
Abstract:Trade off and select either a broadband (capable of being tuned from 1.8 to 6 GHz) or stacked multi-band (capable of supporting multiple [at least two] sub-bands within the 1.8 to 6 GHz range) version of coaxial continuous transverse stub (CTS) antenna technology. The selected antenna element will be arrayed (initially a 1X4 array prototype for Phase II evaluation) over a wideband photonic bandgap (PBG) ground plane providing consistent performance across the 1.8 to 6 GHz frequency range, and controlled by ferroelectric devices and phase shifters to select the operating band, and/or shape and steer the beam across at least a +/- 90 degree angular range. Making use of these components and features (selected with customer concurrence), design and project antenna performance and concept feasibility using electromagnetic modeling, such a wideband or multi-band array. The resulting array prototype is intended for fabrication and evaluation during Phase II to demonstrate the feasibility and performance capability of a high data rate, dynamic Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) set up and maintained amongst a number of mobile (such as air and ground vehicles) nodes which may be in constant motion and/or which may periodically enter and/or leave the network. Mobile WLAN concepts are being pursued for commercial applications under the umbrella of Intelligent Transportation Systems (Department of Transportation sponsored investigations) as well as under the broader category of Telematics for cars, trucks, etc. In addition, the telecommunication industry, as part of the development of 3G and associated mobile wireless data communications, have been investigating how to seamlessly integrate mobile wireless networks (cellular and PCS networks) with the existing and growing number of WLAN (802.11 based) "hot spots". As an adjunct to these telecommunication industry efforts, the WLAN community has been pushing to increase data rate (e.g. 802.11a & g) as well as improve the capabilities of such WLAN with mobile users (e.g. commercial vehicles). The main reason for these investigations by the telecommunications and adjunct industry members is that the planned for 3G networks are severely limited in their data rates with users in motion (significantly faster than walking speed). Mobile WLAN capable of high data rate communications with nodes (users) that are traveling at highway speeds are presently in development by a number of commercial companies and agencies (e.g. joint industry/academic project by ThinKom and University of California at Santa Barbara [UCSB] to demonstrate multi-band WLAN capability between vehicles [even in opposing directions] and vehicles to highway infrastructure while the vehicles are traveling at highway speeds). As part of this ThinKom/UCSB Mobile WLAN project the WLAN waveforms are being modified to reduce the impact of interference (multi-path, etc) and the Doppler effects of vehicle motion. In addition, the need for nulling and directive antenna capabilities will be investigated within this project. The ThinKom supplied antennas (using ThinKom's proprietary WaveTrap antenna technology), for the Mobile WLAN project, are capable of supporting the two bands of interest (802.11a & b or 5 to 6 & 2.4 GHz - in fact the antenna covers at least 2-6 GHz contiguously) and capable of forming directive azimuth beams in addition to a hemispherical beam. Subsequent WaveTrap prototypes are planned to cover the 0.5 to 6 GHz band, and to provide the selectable directive azimuth beams, as well as to provide a modest filter multiplexing capability to offer isolation between designated sub-bands. With this market background on Mobile WLAN, the proposed R&D project has the potential for significantly enhancing Mobile WLAN communications by helping to further reduce interference by increasing beam directivity and/or forming nulls in other directions, and improve communications (also with increased directivity) between selected points (nodes) within the dynamic node environment of the Mobile WLAN as described above. Since coaxial CTS can also provide near omnidirectional coverage in addition to providing steerable and controllable (beam shaped) directive beams when arrayed together, this R&D shows promise of further enhancing the performance (and therefore feasibility) of such Mobile WLAN. In addition, coaxial CTS can be a relatively low profile antenna element, making it potentially suitable for installation on both commercial as well as military vehicles. Even further, the low cost nature of coaxial CTS and the ferroelectric devices and phase shifters needed for control and steering of the directive beams, shows promise of achieving the needed directivity and control at a commercially affordable price. To assure a realistic cost-benefit analysis of the coaxial CTS array, it will be compared against the ThinKom WaveTrap antenna which is not capable of being arrayed, but offers similarly near omnidirectional and steerable directional beams, very low profile installation, and a very affordable commercial product price.

FANTASTIC DATA LLC
207 Prospect Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 643-9555
Mr. Thomas Hammel
ARMY 02-101      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Design of a Protocol Suite for VLSI Implementation
Abstract:Fantastic Data proposes to develop an integrated medium access control and routing protocol suite for a very large wireless network of simple sensors. The protocol suite is designed for low power uses and for implemenation in VLSI. The protocol suite is designed, simulated and tested on a large network during Phase 1 of the project. The proposed project results in protocols specifically designed for VLSI implementation in support of very large sensor network. A VLSI implementation of network protocols will allow the proliferation of data networks in much the same way that low-cost microcontrollers have been incorporated into consumer electronics. Network communications embedded into very large sensor networks will enable advance in sensor fusion.

VEROS SYSTEMS, INC.
2533 Crosstimers Dr.
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 575-0071
Dr. Alexander G. Parlos
ARMY 02-102      Awarded: 24DEC02
Title:Forecasting Application-level Quality of Service (QoS) Metrics for Real-time Multimedia in Best-effort Networks
Abstract:Internet performance is far from being satisfactory while transporting continuous media or multimedia, such as video and audio, requiring extensive use of caching and buffering. The case is worse for real-time multimedia content generated by videoconferencing and Internet telephony applications, where extensive buffering is not feasible. Persistent and uncertain end-to-end delays, delay variations (jitter), packet losses and throughput result in unsatisfactory end-user experience. Several alternatives have been proposed for efficient transport of real-time multimedia. Most require network infrastructure modifications to support the proposed multimedia-related protocols. This project will address forecasting application-level Quality-of-Service (QoS) metrics for real-time multimedia applications in best-effort networks, such as the Internet, using the recently developed Active Content Control (ACC) technology. This adaptive flow control technology embedded in RTSwitch, a content switch for real-time applications residing at the network edges, uses forecasts of application-level QoS metrics to enhance the performance of best effort networks in transporting real-time multimedia, without any core network infrastructure modifications. In Phase I of this SBIR project the feasibility of forecasting application-level QoS metrics for real-time multimedia in best-effort networks will be demonstrated through comparisons with network measurements. Based on our recent success in forecasting application-level QoS metrics for non-real-time multimedia applications, the proposed project will extend the ACC technology to real-time multimedia applications. The commercial potential of an application-level QoS forecasting technology for real-time multimedia applications transported over best-effort networks, such as the Internet, is enormous. Its immediate use will be in application-level QoS control of real-time multimedia applications. Every segment of the Nation's economy, including the defense establishment, can greatly and immediately benefit from such a technological development. From videoconferencing and telephony applications for distance learning and training, to remote surveillance for national security purposes, to remotely operated medical equipment and instruments, to remotely controller factory automation equipment, networked real-time multimedia applications are countless. The worldwide videoconferencing market alone is currently estimated at $3 billion in product and service revenues. Besides its commercial potential, the proposed technology will have a significant societal impact for offering to the public-at-large a cost-effective medium for real-time multimedia communications.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. Deepnarayan Gupta
ARMY 02-103      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Superconducting Bandpass ADC Technology for Digitization at RF
Abstract:HYPRES proposes to develop a superconducting digital-RF receiver with very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spur-free dynamic range (SFDR) to meet the requirements of future software radios for both military and commercial wireless communications. This requires direct digitization of the RF signal, followed by down-conversion in the digital domain, replacing the nonlinear analog mixer in a conventional receiver. Superconducting ADCs, sampled up to 20 GHz rates, have already demonstrated superior performance in low-pass architectures. New circuit designs are needed to translate them to the bandpass architecture and to enhance performance. Our objective is to achieve at least 100 dB (16 effective bits) of SNR and SFDR over a 10-100 MHz bandwidth at frequencies up to 2 GHz, which is not achievable by conventional electronics. During Phase I, several alternative circuit architectures will be investigated and a plan for progressive development will be established. In Phase II, starting with a Phase I Option, ADC circuits will be fabricated and integrated with programmable digital mixer and decimation filters. This complete receiver will be tested and compared to simulated performance. An improved bandpass analog-to-digital converter is an essential enabling component for next generation software radio. Elimination of frequency and protocol-specific analog components by broadband digitization, followed by digital processing, enables agile, inter-operable, reconfigurable communication transceivers as required by the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). While the performance demands of commercial wireless communications systems lag well behind those of the military, software radio will pervade the commercial world in the next few years. Finally, in addition to communication systems, superconductive digital-RF technology will improve other military RF systems, such as radar and electronic warfare.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. Oleg A. Mukhanov
ARMY 02-104      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Direct Digital Synthesizer for JTRS-compliant Communication Systems
Abstract:HYPRES is pleased to propose the development of an ultra-low spur, high-bandwidth, low-power direct digital synthesizer (DDS). The proposed fully digital DDS will directly synthesize RF signals with spectrally-pure center frequencies up to 2 GHz and modulate them with instantaneous bandwidth exceeding 200 MHz with various modulations including FSK, PSK, QPSK, linear FM. The DDS will be compatible with an open-system architecture to ensure seamless integration into conventional electronics environment using a modular superconductor/semiconductor interface. We will analyze and optimize two possible DAC architectures based on segmented and sigma-delta approaches. Both of these approaches utilize unique features of ultra-fast, ultra-low power, and fundamentally-linear superconductive single flux quantum technology. Our designs will take advantage of already developed low-speed, quantum-accurate DAC for metrology applications. In this project, we will extend operation to a GHz-range while preserving excellent linearity and noise performance. In Phase I program, we will perform the design, feasibility analysis, and parameter optimization for high-linearity DAC technology to ensure meeting the 2-2000 MHz objective with at least 16 effective bits and 100 dBc spurious free dynamic range over 200 MHz instantaneous bandwidth. In Phase II, we will build the DAC, and then assemble and evaluate a complete DDS system. This project will lead to the development of ultra-high performance direct digital synthesizers enabling Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) communication, advanced radar systems, any communication systems for Homeland Security as well as commercial wireless communication systems.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7768
Mr. Scott Thomas
ARMY 02-105      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Location-Aware QoS-enabled Wireless Reliable Communication for Sensor-Equipped Munition Networks
Abstract:The Army's FCS and MOSAIC initiatives seek to develop the concepts and prototypes for a lightweight, multi-mission combat system, which includes sensor networks and deployable munition fields. These sensor networks and munition fields rely on collected information and remote commands from a manned control unit. Sophisticated protocols are needed to address the military requirements for these mobile tactical networks, and to incorporate enough intelligence to enable reliable and secure node routing and addressing based on nodal location information, such as provided from GPS. Trident Systems has developed a reliable multicast protocol, intended for the Army's tactical networks. The Wireless Reliable Multicast (WiReM) provides reliable multicast transfer, utilizing a dynamic self-configuring routing capability that works well in ad hoc environments. Additionally, Trident has defined Quality of Service (QoS) extensions to support QoS criteria. We propose to build upon the successful implementation of WiReM to develop a scalable, location-aware QoS reliable multicast protocol. The Location-Aware QoS-enabled WiReM (LA-QWiReM) protocol is a logical evolution of our reliable multicast research. Trident will research and develop different approaches for implementing geographic-awareness in the WiReM protocol. For the Phase I Option, we propose to develop a simulation model to validate the feasibility of the LA-QWiReM design. Reliable multicast transport is a common problem to many industries and government agencies alike and many will be able to capitalize on location-aware routing applications ranging from personal navigation to tracking systems A geographically aware, reliable multicast protocol will provide guaranteed and efficient dissemination of critical information. Geographic awareness will enable power-efficient operation, thereby conserving valuable battery life for sensor and smart munition networks. Potential commercial applications include transit and tracking systems such as a package delivery service, or an inventory control program for locating items in a warehouse.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. Maher N. Kaddoura
ARMY 02-106      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Scalable and Robust End-to-End Header Compression Techniques for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:Wireless ad hoc networks are gaining increasing popularity because of their ease of deployment. They can be installed without the need of fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. In this type of networks, bandwidth is limited due to properties of the physical medium. By utilizing end-to-end header compression, the bandwidth that is consumed by multimedia flows could be reduced significantly. Thus, End-to-end header compression provides a mechanism for increasing the utilization and efficiency of wireless ad hoc networks. Existing header compression algorithms are targeted towards directly connected nodes (e.g., base station to mobile terminal). Architecture Technology Corporation will leverage its extensive expertise in wireless network technology to develop and design scalable and robust techniques that will enable end-to-end compression over wireless ad hoc networks. The end product of this effort is a set of end-to-end header compression algorithms, which can be plugged into existing routing algorithms (wireless and wireline). The resulting algorithms would increase the efficiency and utilization of wireless and wireline networks. Thus reducing the cost of implementing and deploying commercial networks.

PROCITO, INC.
8611 E. Calle Bogota
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 360-7142
Mr. David Jon Larson
ARMY 02-106      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:Header Compression for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks in a Military Environment
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to select and develop header compression techniques suitable for ad-hoc networks, and demonstrate their viability by analysis and simulation.. Recent header compression technology has been shown to be able to reduce overall packet sizes substantially, e.g., from 76 bytes (IPv6/UDP/RTP/payload) down to around 17 bytes (1 byte/payload). This reduction of 78 per cent has been achieved for voice traffic over mobile phone links. If similar gains can be realized across ad-hoc networks, a significant increase in available bandwidth, a reduction of packet loss rates, and a reduction of delay variance would follow. This will make voice and video transmission more efficient across wireless ad-hoc networks. The developed techniques will be applicable to any tunnels across the Internet, including encrypted tunnels for businesses.

SCIPERIO, INC.
112 E. Richmond Rd.
Stillwater, OK 74075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 624-5751
Dr. Kenneth H. Church
ARMY 02-107      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Low Profile Confomal Designs for the VHF/UHF Laminated Antenna
Abstract:Conventional antennas are often not suitable for military applications due to shape and size constraints imposed by the competing demands for good radio-frequency-specific electromagnetic resonance with high durability and low visibility. Consequently, numerous varieties of antennas have been created over the years to help solve these electrical and mechanical constraints. Sciperio has developed a Genetic Algorithm method of designing size-reduced and conformal antennas that solves many of the problems associated with practical antenna design and implementation. Additionally, Sciperio's method can design high-impedance surfaces that preserve antenna performance in the proximity of metal surfaces, which often render nearby antennas inoperative. The combination of size-reduced, conformal antennas with high-impedance surfaces allows the creation of rugged, low-profile, conformal antennas optimized for implementation on a wide variety of vehicles. The ability to place conformal antennas of onto various surfaces has several distinct market applications in both military and commercial markets, two of which include vehicle implementation and the identification industry.

STAR-H CORP.
1853 William Penn Way, PO Box 10368
Lancaster, PA 17605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 349-1981
Mr. G. Yale Eastman
ARMY 02-107      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:VHF/UHF Laminated Antenna
Abstract:STAR-H Corporation has extensive experience designing, building and testing VHF and UHF laminated antennas. For this Phase I effort we will produce a set of innovative concepts for ultra-lightweight, low-cost laminated antennas (a) for adhesion (appliquing) to air and ground vehicles, to tentage and to other structures, and (b) for integration into textiles worn by dismounted soldiers, as well as for tentage. From this initial set of concepts candidate designs will be down-selected for prototyping, evaluation and delivery, leading to development in a Phase II effort. From previous work done by the Company, we are confident that the laminated antennas we produce will perform as well as or better than legacy antennas and, in addition, these laminated antennas will be significantly lighter in weight, lower in cost and totally covert. Acting as subcontractors to STAR-H will be Penn State University, with its world-class antenna design software, who will carry out electrical design work and Philadelphia University, with its leading-edge textile engineering capabilities, who will carry out the textile design and integration work. The commercial benefits of this work will be the replacement of heavy, unwieldy and expensive legacy antennas with ultra-lightweight, low-cost and simple laminated designs. Applications include body-borne antennas for firefighters, emergency workers and workers in hazardous situations. Additional applications include vehicles ground and air vehicles and structures of various sorts (e.g., mountaineers' tents) where protruding, unwieldy and potentially hazardous antennas can be replaced with appliqud antennas or antennas that protrude very little above the surface.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Vladimir Litvinov
ARMY 02-107      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Low Cost Laminated Fractal Antenna
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation proposes to develop a new type of reduced-size flexible or rigid antennas that can be used as stand-alones or be mounted on the web gear or the vest of a tactical user. The antenna will cover the whole frequency range of (30-450) MHz, thus removing the need for a separate antenna for each sub-band. Antennas are of low profile, easy to manufacture, therefore low in cost. The requirements of high efficiency and of multi-band operation will be satisfied by using a fractal or other self-similar design approach. Low cost reduced-size antennas have a large number of civilian and dual-use applications in the realm of RF and microwave antennas, devices, and systems for communications and signal collection needed in the broadband communications market.

UNIVERSAL DISPLAY CORP.
375 Phillips Blvd
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 671-0980
Dr. Michael Hack
ARMY 02-108      Selected for Award
Title:Application of Color Flexible Displays
Abstract:The goal of this U.S. Army CECOM SBIR Program is to design, develop, and demonstrate an Active Matrix Flexible Color Display for use in a variety of military applications, providing a significant size and weight reduction over traditional displays. Universal Display Corporation (UDC) is developing advanced organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology based on their proprietary high-efficiency phosphorescent devices, in addition to transparent and flexible OLED displays. The novel integration of UDC's low power consumption top emitting phosphorescent OLED technology, and a poly-Si backplane deposited on a thin flexible stainless steel foil substrate is the best solution to meeting the Army's flexible display requirements. In Phase I we propose to collaborate with the Army to define the high level mechanical, electrical and system display requirements. This will be followed by a detailed display design, a feasibility analysis and mechanical mock-up, and a proposed fabrication process flow highlighting areas requiring technology development. Finally we will propose a test plan to be used to assess the performance of the Phase II display deliverable. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed strategy to demonstrate a flexible AMOLED display will represent the first display demonstration of these novel technologies. The successful outcome of this Program will create myriad benefits in a variety of potential military and commercial applications. It will provide the U.S Army with a clearly demonstrated technology path for flexible displays for a range applications for use in vehicles, command centers, and being carried by soldiers. Beyond current U.S. Army application, flexible displays are increasingly being considered for in a range of industrial, medical and consumer applications. For example, these include avionic and automotive applications for conformed instrument panel displays, and consumer cell phones with roll-out high information content OLED displays. Moreover, replacing glass with steel foil substrates improves safety, ruggedness and reduces weight, all extremely attractive features for these applications. Display Search now projects a $4.2 billion market for OLEDs in 2007. By developing all the key technology components necessary to fabricate these displays, the UDC team, through the work under this Program, expects to commercialize these technologies for military and commercial applications through joint ventures and licensing partnerships with established flat panel display manufacturers.

ELECTRO-RADIATION, INC.
39 Plymouth Street
Fairfield, NJ 07004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 808-9033
Mr. Murray W. Rosen
ARMY 02-109      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Return-Path Guidance System
Abstract:Phase 1 develops an innovative approach for 3D course navigation utilizing LPI RF transponder tags with a direction finding and location coupled to a low-cost MEMS IMU and digital compass. The ERI personal navigation system can be integrated in a small handheld unit with graphic display and user controls to guide a Future Combat Scout/Objective Force Warrior soldier, robot or unmanned ground vehicle. The system will trace/retrace a path through caves, forests, minefield, tunnels and urban areas. The ERI personal navigation system can supplement GPS referencing by integrating an inertial navigator, and a dead reckoning waypoint relative navigation system with electronic breadcrumb reference markers to blaze a trail. The markers and stored data can be used by any number of soldiers to find and follow the path or retrace the path in reverse. The project develops an alternate navigation solution to GPS to increase performance, effectiveness and survivability for the soldier, and return him to home base.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7780
Mr. Dan Bindbeutel
ARMY 02-109      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Return-Path Guidance System
Abstract:The military has incorporated an increasing amount of information technology into battlefield systems, and has grown to increasingly rely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for key tasks including navigation, targeting, and situational awareness (SA). Many situations, however, require the use of this battlefield technology when GPS reception is poor-MOUT operations, in caves & tunnel networks, or due to combinations of tree cover, weather, and local geography. The resulting loss of navigation ability can have a serious impact on mission success for both manned and unmanned missions. An alternative system would allow the extension of navigation capabilities into these areas, relying on range estimation between stationary ground transponders, placed by hand by a user along a path, and used as a return-path guidance system. Implementation using emerging low-power communications technologies, along with advanced miniature packaging techniques, could potentially make these transponders very small and inexpensive. A small handheld device would be used to communicate with the transponders, calculating the user's position based on signals received. Trident Systems will leverage its extensive work with tactical communications, map-based software tool development, signal processing, and embedded system integration and design, to develop a practical system solution. The successful completion of this project will provide the Army with a powerful battlefield navigation tool for GPS-free navigation and mapping of enclosed areas. The system can also help mitigate the effects of poor communications connectivity, and enhance operational effectiveness. It would also provide a valuable tool for UGV navigation in enclosed areas, greatly increasing range on surveillance, ordinance disposal, mine detection, and rescue missions. The resulting system would be immediately applicable to other military services (USMC, SOCOM), and has direct application for a variety of commercial markets, including perimeter security, search and rescue, underground exploration, and autonomous mobile robotic navigation.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry E. Marcus
ARMY 02-110      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:GREAT: Graph-based Rapid Extraction and Analysis Tool
Abstract:GREAT, Graph-based Extraction and Analytical Tool will enable teams of subject matter experts (SMEs) to author knowledge bases directly and easily without knowledge engineers serving as intermediaries. 21st Century Technologies and BBN Technologies shall demonstrate rapid knowledge formation of complex problem solving patterns and concepts using graph pattern matching technology to increase the speed, agility, and precision of military information systems. Leveraging from 21st Century Technologies TMODS (Terrorist Modus Operandi Detection System) developed under the DARPA EELD program and from BBN's experience in Active Templates and HPKB, analysts can rapidly build complex queries represented as a graph. These graphs are then matched using the graph pattern matching capability of TMODs to automatically detect threat situations. 21st Century Technologies is a team member of the Darpa EELD and Ultra*Log efforts and the ARDA NIMD effort; BBN is a team member of the Darpa HPKB. CoABS, and Active Template programs. These two firms can leverage the full capabilities of these combined programs to support development in this effort. benefits include applications to computer security and homeland defense.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1613
Dr. Russell Beech
ARMY 02-111      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Lightweight Smart Battery Charger
Abstract:The Objective Force soldier is going to depend heavily on electronic systems, such as the Medium Weight Thermal Weapon Sight and the Land Warrior System, that require rechargeable batteries to supply the necessary power. To support the soldier's charging needs, a lightweight, compact, versatile charger is needed. The current Army charger is large and heavy, weighing 11 pounds at a volume of 973 cubic inches. This charger can only charge 2 identical batteries at a time, and it requires different adapters for each type of battery that is to be charged. The tremendous chasm between this charger's capability and the needs of the Objective Force soldier provides the opportunity for the development of a compact and versatile charger. The proposed development program will result in an SMBus compliant smart charger that will weigh less than 1.5 pounds in a volume of less than 50 cubic inches, will operate from either a 24 VDC source or a 100-250 VAC source, will function from -30 to 55 degrees Celsius, will be modular and scalable up to charging 10 batteries at once, will provide a battery status monitor, and will be able to charge a Land Warrior lithium-ion battery in under 3 hours. The smart charger provides a lighweight, versatile, quick charging capability that is suitable for both military and commercial applications. Both the Medium Weight Thermal Weapon Sight and the Land Warrior System will benefit from the charger's capabilities. In the commercial markets, the smart charger could find application with portable computers (laptops) and battery operated tools.

SPACE HARDWARE OPTIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-9591
Mr. Mark Heimerdinger
ARMY 02-111      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Smart Chargers for Smart Batteries
Abstract:This proposal addresses the SHOT design concept and development path for a highly innovative, "ultra-lightweight, compact, rapid charging, SMBusT compliant battery charger for the individual soldier." Our unique charger is designed to be a small, lightweight, and portable battery charger hardened to operate in harsh environments, from a variety of voltage sources, while charging any battery chemistry that complies with the System Management Bus (SMBusT) Specification. The SHOT Smart Charger is simple to operate with little operator intervention. Our Phase I concept is designed to maximize battery performance in the field, and thus greatly improving the effectiveness of the individual solder. SHOT is confident that its smart charger will meet and exceed the requirements identified in the SBIR. Our smart charger Phase I and Phase I Option proposal illustrates a clear design path that addresses all goals, activities and objectives of the solicitation which include, design feasibility, material/component selection, and the development and test of a prototype unit. A final report will describe the activities and results of the Phase I and Phase I Option efforts and will provide justification for further Phase II and III funding. Modern industry continues to produce hi-tech tools that enhance the future warriors ability to successfully meet battlefield mission objectives. There remains one constant factor that continues to impede the advancement of the future warriors mission - power - electrical power in formats and speeds necessary to continue the mission in a timely fashion. Battery technology has evolved; however, supporting battery charger equipment continues to remain low-tech, cumbersome, and extremely slow. The SHOT Smart Charger could ultimately result in a production contract with the Army. Outside of the Army's immediate need of a Smart Charger for the Objective Force Warrior program, our ultra-lightweight, rugged, portable Smart Charger will have a myriad of applications within other DoD agencies. Besides defense applications, the SHOT Smart Charger will be useful in a vast array of industries and consumer products whenever a lightweight, rugged battery charger is required. New products such as laptop computers, digital assistants, cellular phones, radio communicators, video games, stereos, and power tools continue to be smaller and more portable. To provide longer lasting and higher performing battery power, manufacturers must improve battery charging systems to meet the consumer demand. SHOT's Smart Charger is `universal' - charging any battery chemistry from a variety of power sources, home or car, - a consumer need only have one battery charger to recharge all of their battery operated products.

MULTISPECTRAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
20300 Century Blvd., Suite 175
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 528-1745
Dr. Robert J. Fontana
ARMY 02-112      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:Urban Positioning, Ranging and Identification (ID)
Abstract:The goal of the proposed effort is to develop a small, lightweight, covert and anti-jam system capable of determining range, location and identification of a squad member for improved situation awareness. The system design will be based upon the use of a novel frequency- and bandwidth-adaptive short pulse, or ultra wideband (UWB) waveform. Adaptivity permits operation in a variety of electromagnetically complex environments, including buildings, tunnels, caves and within and urban canyon. The proposed effort will leverage the results from several MSSI UWB efforts in communications and precision geolocation. Precise measurement of range and position, combined with secure identification, has immediate application to both commercial and military systems. On the commercial side, applications include child "locator", factory automation, hospital and warehouse inventory control; while the military/government applications include counter-terrorism tagging of suspect vehicles, firefighter localization and rescue, and suspended driver vehicle tagging.

GESTALT, LLC
1040 First Avenue, Suite 302
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 768-0800
Mr. Robert Pollack
ARMY 02-113      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Habitat Search Product: Intelligent Node Architecture for Meaning-based, Context-sensitive Searching
Abstract:Gestalt, LLC will define the technical feasibility, benefits, and market merit of meaning-based searches using orthogonal hierarchies of information managed by intelligent nodes simulating human behaviors and intuitions, integrated with current state-of-the-art web-based searching. The intelligent nodes will augment existing legacy search technology, creating a hierarchy of managed search information layers (creating meaning), which we believe can achieve significant improvements in search results producing extremely accurate, timely results of value to the user. The intelligent nodes will also allow the introduction of non-web based information resources (such as databases, command and control systems, attack plans, intelligence reports, competitive business reports, enterprise resource planning systems, etc.). In addition, the intelligent nodes can be used to selectively present the findings in order to ensure to maximize learning of the user. Unique to our approach is the integration of legacy and future internet search engines (which allow vasts amounts of information to be reached) with an intelligence technology that scales significantly beyond today's intelligent agent-based technology. Our approach we believe is applicable to the problems faced by supporting network-centric warfare, such as Future Combat Systems (FCS), as well as Fortune 500 enterprises. There is significant commercial opportunity to improve the presenting, locating, and using of information that is now readily available within local intranets, local and distributed databases, and the Internet. Many companies are establishing Enterprise Information Portals (EIPs) that support searches in appropriate context for those companies. Significant commercial opportunity exists to extend EIPs and internet searching in general with automated and intelligent technology in this market sector. While the commercial benefits to Fortune 500 companies and the like cannot be underestimated, the benefit to the government could be even more revolutionary. Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) is the embodiment of an Information Age transformation of the Department of Defense (DoD). It involves a new way of thinking about how we accomplish our missions, how we organize and interrelate, and how we acquire and field the systems that support us. NCW moves the DoD to the next level of Jointness as envisioned in Joint Vision 2020. This SBIR will use a DARPA idea of habitats (i.e., self organizing entities around a mission or task) applied to searching information. It will leverage current and future internet searching engines because of the shear volume of data available, while incorporating scalable intelligent technology to support human-like intuition and abilities. Together this synergistic approach can product in a timely manner relevant information to a task or mission. We believe there is significant commercial application of this technology to the field of Enterprise Information Portals, and to government needs supporting network-centric warfare (such as the needs of Objective Force). We also believe that a demonstration of intelligent technology that scales to significant size and can process the amount of data as needed by this SBIR is of general interest in the research and development community to numerous areas, such as modeling and simulation, training, mission rehearsal, situation analysis, data fusion, command and control, etc.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5442
Dr. Azad M. Madni
ARMY 02-113      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:FastFindT: A Meaning-based Context-sensitive Search Engine for Electronic Performance Support Knowledge Portal
Abstract:The ability to rapidly locate and use the right information is a key to success in time-stressed decision-making. However, search engines today suffer from poor precision (i.e., retrieve too many irrelevant items) or poor recall (i.e., not enough of the Web is covered by well-categorized directories or taxonomies). Meaning-based, context-sensitive (MBCS) search engines are seen as a promising direction to overcome these problems. At the heart of a MBCS search engine is an effective characterization of context. To demonstrate the efficacy and effectiveness of the MBCS search engine, we propose incorporating it in a knowledge access portal for collaborative C2 planning and execution. The primary role of the MBCS search engine is in "reachback" to past cases (e.g., missions, engagements lessons learned) and relevant soldier records to enable and facilitate informed decision-making under severe time stress. Phase I of this effort will produce the design and concept prototype of the MBCS search engine. Characterization of context to improve search is a generic capability needed by a variety of enterprise applications including CRM, SFA, SCM, Business Intelligence, and ERP Systems.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Sid Kudige
ARMY 02-115      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:System Architecture for Efficient Location Specific Mobile Information Access for the Warfighter (SELMA)
Abstract:To address the mission critical information needs of mobile warfighters on the battlefield, Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) will design the components for a novel middleware service called System Architecture for Efficient Location specific Mobile information Access for the warfighter (SELMA). SELMA mechanisms will sense warfighter location and enable secure and intelligent dissemination of information to warfighters at critical locations on the battlefield, hence enhancing the decision making capability of the warfighter. SELMA is an innovative technology that provides many new capabilities enhancing the situational awareness of the mobile warfighter. SELMA services will support optimized delivery of heterogeneous information over low-bandwidth, high-latency, error-prone wireless links. In addition to this, SELMA will provide novel location based information push mechanisms that poll data from heterogeneous servers and disseminate critical data such as real-time battlefield alerts to warfighters based on their geographic location. Included in SELMA are novel mechanisms for disseminating map based geospatial information to handheld devices on the battlefield. SELMA also includes mechanisms to provide services like voice enabled browsing and text to speech conversion for mobile devices. In short, SELMA will provide a foundation to build efficient decision making systems for the warfighter. SELMA mechanisms will address the needs of army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) by providing a powerful capability for the dissemination of situational awareness data to on-the-move warfighters. We also envision the location based information delivery mechanisms provided by SELMA to be particularly useful in building homeland defense applications. Civilian applications for this technology are in the areas of Law enforcement as well as in disaster management/response to calamities.

INTELLIGENT RECOGNITION SYSTEMS
31300 Via Colinas, Suite 108
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 889-6056
Mr. Jerry A. Burman
ARMY 02-115      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Decision Making Systems Using Wireless Handheld Location Specific Applications
Abstract:The US Army is seeking an innovative solution to a web-enabled location-specific decision and information system using push/pull techniques with long-range wireless handheld devices. The primary focus is to develop location-specific military software applications that run on a handheld device that can retrieve relevant information from remote sources at ranges that exceed 800 kilometers based on the end user's location. In addition, the end user should have a capability to achieve situation awareness through information requests/queries and to obtain automated status and alerts on their current location. Currently, no systems exist with these unique capabilities. The Phase I program will establish the requirements for a military solution based on extrapolating current capabilities, conducting community end user surveys and by incorporating new and innovative hardware/software technologies using an incremental approach to minimize development risk. A solution to the decision-making system problem will have broad application to a number of DoD and commercial programs. The project will evolve new technologies and capabilities that can be integrated with commercial handheld devices and SATCOM systems. Commercial application areas include portable traffic monitoring and route planning, emergency management, vehicle fleet control, improved communication and upgraded software and hardware subsystems for PDA's.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0520
Dr. Badawi Dweik
ARMY 02-116      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Integrated Hybrid Fuel Cell Powerpack
Abstract:Small, lightweight portable electric power devices are in great demand for many military and civilian applications. Giner, Inc. proposes to combine its Proton-Exchange Membrane advanced electrochemical capacitor and fuel cell technologies with a rechargeable lithium-ion battery to develop a novel, long-lived, and safe Hybrid Power System (HPS) for portable electronic devices. The primary purpose is to realize a working hybrid system that takes advantage of the energy density of the fuel cell and the power density of the lithium-ion battery and the electrochemical capacitor. The proposed 400-Watt-hr integrated PowerPack system would provide the Army with an advanced power source for mobile electronics, which has significant weight, cost and energy density advantages over primary and rechargeable batteries over extended use. HPS offers great commercial promise for portable devices and backup power devices where reliable, extended and at near ambient temperature operation is required. Our proposed approach offers the following advantages: 1) all components can be reused, 2) system is reliable over a wide range of operating temperatures and duty cycles, 3) the hybrid combination provides a high-energy-density portable power supply, 4) the system can be refueled in less than 1 minute, and 5) has a low thermal and acoustic signature. As a result of the unique combination of the three different technologies (electrochemical capacitor, fuel cell and lithium-ion battery), a small, lightweight, portable power supply can be realized. This system is attractive for portable electronics in both military and commercial applications due to the potentially high specific energy and energy-power density. Many communication applications have power requirements that fit this load profile perfectly. We anticipate that HPS will fill a need in the growing market for portable consumer products and backup power supplies where extended operating times are critical. Virtually any design calling for a mixture of high and low power loads can take advantage of the benefits of HPS; Remote power needs, such as, Global Positioning Satellite devices, video and photographic equipment, portable electronic devices, such as laptop computers, cellular phones, electronic notebooks would all benefit from the commercialization of a Hybrid Power System.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Craig Andrews
ARMY 02-116      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:A Self Regulating Hydrogen Fueled Monopolar Fuel Cell/Li-ion Hybrid Power Source for the Objective Force Warrior
Abstract: Lynntech will develop a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell, Li-ion hybrid power system, utilizing Lynntech's patented monopolar fuel cell technology. In parallel with component (e.g. hydride storage, fans) evaluations, power control schemes will also be tested using real hardware, not simulations, to evaluate designs based on their efficiency, robustness, and cost. Based on the component and power control evaluations, a bread board system will be built, verifying the system architecture for the prototype systems to be further developed and tested during the Phase I option and built in Phase II. With ever increasing power demands from portable electronics and as wireless technology is implemented with higher and higher bandwidth requirements, longer lasting power supplies with higher power output are needed. There is considerable interest in Lynntech's monopolar fuel cell technology and hybrid power technology to supply higher energy and power density than currently available batteries, while keeping costs down.

COBRA DESIGN & ENGINEERING, INC.
700 Central Avenue, Suite 406
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 550-9000
Mr. C Brian Rennick
ARMY 02-117      Awarded: 31DEC02
Title:Thermal Management System for Cooling and Heating of Transit Cases
Abstract:The military forces are relying heavily on transit cases to safeguard their sensitive equipment. However, extreme temperatures have caused equipment to fail during mission critical operations, especially with today's battlefields taking place in extreme climatic conditions such as the sands of Middle East or the fuselage of an aircraft at 10000 feet making it necessary to maintain constant working temperatures during operating times. We are proposing a Transit Case Thermal Management System (TCTMS) designed to fit standard transit cases with shock mounted chassis capable of supporting COTS equipment ranging from 3U to 15U high. This TCTMS will also be compact, light weight and will not use harmful refrigerants. The key to the TCTMS is the use of thermoelectric coolers (TEC). By placing TEC's between two heatsinks we are able to cool or heat the internal air of the transit case with the use of circulating fans. A simple control circuit will be integrated within the unit to regulate current flow and minimize operator interface. A feasibility analysis will be performed to balance variables such as equipment power dissipation, maximum ambient temperature, minimum ambient temperature and power consumption for an optimal thermal management system. This TCTMS will allow the objective force to operate more effectively on the battlefield by expanding the areas in which transit case equipment can operate. Transit cases are not just for protecting military equipment. Other typical applications include High Reliability Commercial, railways, aircraft, trucks, ships, mobile, fielded equipment exposed to hostile environments. Transport housings are designed to carry and protect 19" chassis and associated equipment. The TCTMS will allow the user to operate more effectively on the chosen platform by expanding the areas in which transit case equipment can operate.

THINKOM SOLUTIONS, INC.
3825 Del Amo Blvd., Suite 200
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-5486
Mr. William W. Milroy
ARMY 02-118      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Global Positioning System (GPS) Pseudolite Transmit Antenna
Abstract:ThinKom, with > 10 years experience developing lightweight, low-cost and high efficiency antennas (some with cosecant squared beam shaping) using Continuous Transverse Stub (CTS) antenna technology (and a license to CTS from Raytheon), and using two years of commercial antenna technology development, including an innovative antenna technology called WaveTrap offering wideband, beam shaping and beam steering capabilities, will investigate and recommend a GPS pseudolite transmit antenna technology and design. Recommended antennas will exhibit these features (like ThinKom's WaveTrap antenna technology): 1) total radiation efficiency > 70% (< 0.2dB ohmic loss between power amplifier and free space), 2) offer low (about 10 ohms) match to power amplifier (e.g. HPA or SSPA) to achieve high amplifier power added efficiency, 3) be physically low profile (< 1 inch thick), small (about 6 inches in diameter) and light weight (< 1 lb), 4) allow ease in shaping elevation beam (i.e. achieve cosecant squared beam shape with no physical impact), 5) provide ease in dynamically selecting azimuth coverage to maximize gain (& EIRP) over a desired ground area, 6) be of robust physical construction to withstand both airborne and ground vehicle environments, and 7) use low cost commercial materials and processes to achieve affordability. An antenna exhibiting all the features described in the technical abstract, plus supporting a wide operating bandwidth (which WaveTrap does), would also have many applications for mobile high data rate communications, such as Mobile WLANs. When the operating bandwidth spans from 0.5 to 6 GHz (which WaveTrap does), then the antenna can support communication functions such as WLAN as well as other functions such as satellite based navigation using GPS (and other low frequency satellite functions such as satellite telephony and radio). The automotive and telecommunication industries are seeking (together, for Telematics and separately for Mobile WLAN) multi-band and wideband, low profile, high efficiency (high data rate) antennas that support multiple functions. Mobile WLAN concepts are being pursued for commercial applications under the umbrella of Intelligent Transportation Systems (Department of Transportation sponsored investigations) as well as under the broader category of Telematics for cars, trucks, etc. In addition, the telecommunication industry, as part of the development of 3G and associated mobile wireless data communications, have been investigating how to seamlessly integrate mobile wireless networks (cellular and PCS networks) with the existing and growing number of WLAN (802.11 based) "hot spots". As an adjunct to these telecommunication industry efforts, the WLAN community has been pushing to increase data rate (e.g. 802.11a & g) as well as improve the capabilities of such WLAN with mobile users (e.g. commercial vehicles). The main reason for these investigations by the telecommunications and adjunct industry members is that the planned for 3G networks are severely limited in their data rates with users in motion (significantly faster than walking speed). Mobile WLAN capable of high data rate communications with nodes (users) that are traveling at highway speeds are presently in development by a number of commercial companies and agencies (e.g. joint industry/academic project by ThinKom and University of California at Santa Barbara [UCSB] to demonstrate multi-band WLAN capability between vehicles [even in opposing directions] and vehicles to highway infrastructure while the vehicles are traveling at highway speeds). As part of this ThinKom/UCSB Mobile WLAN project the WLAN waveforms are being modified to reduce the impact of interference (multi-path, etc) and the Doppler effects of vehicle motion. In addition, the need for nulling and directive antenna capabilities will be investigated within this project. The ThinKom supplied antennas (using ThinKom's proprietary WaveTrap antenna technology), for the Mobile WLAN project, are capable of supporting the two bands of interest (802.11a & b or 5 to 6 & 2.4 GHz - in fact the antenna covers at least 2-6 GHz contiguously) and capable of forming directive azimuth beams in addition to a hemispherical beam. Subsequent WaveTrap prototypes are planned to cover the 0.5 to 6 GHz band, and to provide the selectable directive azimuth beams, as well as to provide a modest filter multiplexing capability to offer isolation between designated sub-bands.

TIAX LLC
Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5818
Mr. John Dieckmann
ARMY 02-119      Selected for Award
Title:Refrigerant Expansion Energy Recovery System
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a scroll expansion device for energy recovery in a trans-critical CO2 vapor compression cycle, using conditions typical of Army Environmental Control units (ECUs). Implementation of a scroll expander in a CO2 vapor compression system such as an ECU has the potential to improve system performance so that it is comparable to or even surpasses that of conventional fluorocarbon-based systems. Scroll designs are used extensively in compressors for air conditioners and heat pumps and have also been used for expansion devices. The pressures and flow rates expected in a CO2 ECU are well-suited to a scroll device. Preliminary calculations suggest that bearing loads are manageable, and that the two scrolls can be manufactured to sufficient accuracy using conventional computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling techniques. Therefore, we would expect the device to maintain high volumetric and mechanical efficiencies, thus substantially improving the overall ECU efficiency. The use of a scroll expander in a CO2 vapor compression system can substantially improve system efficiency, thus enhancing the potential for commercialization of CO2- based air conditioners and heat pumps in a wide variety of applications.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
115 Airport Street, Quonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Dr. William H. Weedon
ARMY 02-120      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Digital Beamforming (DBF) Array Technology for Multi-Mission Radar and Communication Applications
Abstract:Digital Beamforming (DBF) technology offers several advantages to phased-array radar and communication systems over previous analog phase shifters including performance, versatility and cost. Previous array phase-shifter technology can be classified as either fixed delay, employing switched delay lines, or variable delay, using ferrite phase shifters. The fixed-delay systems suffer from lack of versatility, whereas the variable-delay systems suffer from performance variations, such as over temperature. DBF eliminates these performance variations and allows the beams to be optimized for the application. It is not unreasonable to expect 30dB or better sidelobes from a DBF system and deep nulls can be steered for jam suppression. One other major advantage to DBF is that multiple simultaneous beams can be formed to look in several directions simultaneously. Multiple functions such as communications and radar can also be integrated and multiplexed in the same aperture. This proposal addresses the development of low-cost DBF modules employing the integration of MMICs and digital hardware. Applied Radar Inc. has an on-going DBF antenna array development effort that may be used to enhance this project. This SBIR effort will leverage our previous DBF work and direct it towards the US Army's needs for multi-mission radar and communications. DBF technology will enable a low-cost phased-array radar with better performance than currently available analog phased-array systems. The US Army's Firefinder program will be the direct beneficiary. This proposed development effort will also benefit our on-going DBF program with other DoD customers in various applications including space-based radar and communication systems, UAV radars, and conformal aircraft antennas. There are also a number of commercial applications including cellular base station antennas, commercial satellite communications and ATC radars.

XCOM WIRELESS, INC.
1718 E. Ocean Blvd #4
Long Beach, CA 90802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 495-6090
Dr. Daniel Hyman
ARMY 02-121      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:RF MEMS for Tunable Noise-Limiting Filters
Abstract:XCom Wireless is a developer of RF MEMS relays, high-performance components that have been identified as a critical technology for the next generation of defense and commercial electronics. XCom Wireless RF MEMS provide direct alternatives to solid-state and lumped-element radio front-end sub-systems, so communications system manufacturers can easily upgrade to this technology, saving weight, space, power, and money. The proposed Phase I effort is to develop electronically tunable filters (bandpass and bandstop) with superior performance over COTS filters in the 30 MHz to 1,000 MHz frequency range. XCom Wireless will employ a low loss, low cost, small size and weight RF MEMS relay to enable the design of compact, high-performance electronically-reconfigurable filters. The proposed Phase I effort will accomplish this goal by applying the lessons learned from previous MEMS sub-system technology development programs to this specific filter design in preparation for Phase II fabrication and testing. The design strategy of stacked assembly of RF MEMS with integrated passive components promises both low-cost and rapid manufacturing potential for specialized, high-performance defense applications from VHF to the mm-wave regime. The direct benefits to the Department of Defense from supporting this effort include applications of a novel integration scheme for RF MEMS relay-enabled filters and other high-performance agile RF front-end hardware. The leveraging of XCom Wireless expertise and an Air Force dual-band MEMS-enabled antenna program allows this program to further the development of a highly adaptable, high-performance, low-cost radio filter with defense and commercial interest. The filter technologies to be designed, combined, and arrayed in this program are specifically designed to handle radio and PCS requirements, and the design architecture is equally well-suited to the needs of RF systems extending from WLAN to mm-wave broadband. The benefit to the critical civilian radio industry is significant, in that the markets for high-performance RF components and subsystems is large and growing at 35% yearly. The test and instrumentation community, the aerospace communications and radar community, and defense wireless system developers have been identified as the first adopters of RF MEMS technology, with relevant MEMS-enabled sales expected to grow to over $200 million in 2005. Consumer markets for RF MEMS include fixed broadband equipment, wireless LAN hardware, and civilian handsets, and are projected to reach $1.5 billion in 2005.

HERSH ACOUSTICAL ENGINEERING, INC.
780 Lakefield Road, Unit G
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 373-8533
Dr. Bruce E. Walker
ARMY 02-122      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Air Vehicle Sound Suppression Technology
Abstract:Unmanned surveillance aircraft, particularly rotorcraft, radiate noise that significantly impacts their detection range. The Phase I research project will identify and quantify noise radiation and propagation factors that affect detection range, and suggest strategies for improving this range. The primary focus of the research will toward determining the feasibility of applying active noise control technologies to reducing the detectability of unmanned rotorcraft, either by suppressing radiated noise or by rendering the noise and its source direction less recognizable. A successful research result would make possible unmanned surveillance at closer range, improving the accuracy and reliability of information. It would also reduce the probability of equipment loss in hostility situations. The technology could also be studied for migration to larger scale manned aircraft or even land vehicles.

MAXION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 523
Hyattsville, MD 20782
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 394-5740
Dr. John D. Bruno
ARMY 02-123      Awarded: 10DEC02
Title:Epi-Side-Down-Mounted Interband Cascade Laser with Improved Top Cladding Layer
Abstract:In this Phase I program, we will assess semiconductor diode laser technology to determine which semiconductor lasers are the best candidates for meeting infrared countermeasure (IRCM) requirements in each of the three IRCM wavelength bands. A central focus of the effort will be to test the feasibility and merits of a new design for type-II interband cascade (IC) lasers and a new method for their fabrication. These mid-IR IC lasers, based on cascaded type-II InAs/GaInSb/AlSb quantum wells, have recently demonstrated pulsed operation at 300K in an epi-side-up geometry, but cw operation has been severely limited by heat accumulation in the device active regions. The new IC laser design also has a top cladding layer composed of AlAsSb, replacing the InAs/AlSb strained layer superlattice cladding layer used in earlier designs. This new cladding material combined with the novel epi-side-down fabrication method is intended to conduct heat more efficiently from the active region to the heat sink enabling cw operation at high temperatures. The success of this project would have a far-reaching impact. First, the successful development of adequate sources for all IRCM bands would enable all-semiconductor-laser-based IRCM source modules. These could then lead to a significant improvement of IRCM systems. IR guided missiles are credited with up to 80% of total air losses throughout the 1970's and 80's. Seven of 16 allied losses during the Gulf War were directly attributed to this threat. It presently represents a tremendous threat to large transport aircraft, which must rely on effective IRCM. The potential to enhance military survivability is quite an adequate dividend in itself. Nevertheless, other application areas would also be positively impacted. These include sources for free-space communications (for both civilian and military applications) and sources for local and remote chemical sensing systems serving the needs of several industries (e.g., industrial process controls, pollution monitoring, medical diagnostics, explosives detection, etc.).

QUINTESSENCE PHOTONICS CORP.
15632 Roxford St.
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-4664
Dr. Jeffrey E. Ungar
ARMY 02-123      Awarded: 06DEC02
Title:Small, Low Cost Infrared Semiconductor Laser System, for Military Platform Protection and Free Space Communications
Abstract:There exist important military requirements for low cost, high power mid-infrared radiation. Protection of aircraft and armored vehicles from heat-seeking missiles requires strong sources at wavelengths beyond 4 m. Free space optical communications can also benefit from mid-infrared sources that are much less affected by atmospheric conditions. There are currently no sources of high power mid-infrared radiation that are practical for battlefield use. We are proposing an innovative laser diode design that will generate high CW powers without requiring cryogenic operating temperatures. These devices will generate high brightness beams at 4 m and beyond with good efficiency. Besides infrared countermeasures for defense of aircraft and armor, mid-infrared sources have applications including spectroscopic detection of chemical warfare agents and free space optical communications. Civilian applications include free-space optical communications for high bandwidth access and environmental monitoring of pollutants.

GREEN MOUNTAIN RADIO RESEARCH CO.
50 Vermont Avenue, Fort Ethan Allen
Colchester, VT 05446
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 655-9670
Dr. Frederick H. Raab
ARMY 02-124      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Light-Weight, High-efficient, Wideband Compact Power Amplifier
Abstract:The military makes extensive use of high-power signals at frequencies from 1.5 MHz to 3 GHz for communication, jamming, and other applications. The proposed ultra-wideband high-efficiency power amplifier is based upon a combination of a high-efficiency RF power amplifier (PA) and electronic tuning. The high-efficiency PA provides maximum power output and minimum power consumption, thus allowing increases in battery life and reductions in size, weight, and prime power. Electronic tuning ensures that the PA maintains high-efficiency operation over a wide band of frequencies and in the presence of variable load impedance. Basic power modules with outputs of 200 to 500 W are envisioned. This technology will enable small, light-weight military radios capable of operating over a wide range of frequency and for a long time from a single battery. Examples include an airborne jammer and a manpack communication transceiver. Similar benefits are possible in a variety of commercial applications. Cellular base stations have similar output power and frequency range, but the average efficiency of current transmitters is no more than 10 percent. Application of this technology can increase the output power by 20 percent and reduce the power consumption by a factor of 4 to 6. The resultant transmitter will not only cost less to buy, but also less to operate. Broadcast transmitters and a variety of communication radios can also benefit from this technology.

I.D.E.A.L. TECHNOLOGY CORP.
12151 Science Drive, Suite 102
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 999-9870
Mr. R. Anthony Kolstee
ARMY 02-125      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Forward Area Portable Forensics System
Abstract:I.D.E.A.L. Technology Corporation (IDEAL) intends to design a Portable Analyzer for Data Storage (PADS). The PADS will adapt methods used in forensic science but will be optimized to field use for identification of strategic data. This process may precede a laboratory follow-up analysis. The PADS shall allow analysis of several data storage devices, including hard disks, compact discs, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), flash media, etc. In addition, the PADS shall be designed for use by tactical officers rather than forensic scientists. The PADS will be assembled from Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware which is designed for field operations. The operating system and software shall be adapted from Open-Source Software (OSS) components to better meet the objectives of this proposal, lending modularity and reduced development time to the design. The PADS will be optimized for speed and reduction of irrelevant data rather than the data preservation and authentication common to forensic science. I.D.E.A.L. Technology Corporation's previous experience with forensic applications and methods includes preliminary work on both a Linux forensic toolkit and on a training system engine for forensic investigators. I.D.E.A.L.'s numerous contacts within various levels of law enforcement and the justice system have also facilitated several information exchanges concerning the area of digital forensics. Phase I of the project shall culminate in a design specification that encompasses the COTS components of the PADS system, and the specifications and functional operation of the software which is to be developed or modified as part of this project. A working prototype incorporating the complete hardware system and a rudimentary prototype of the software to be used on the PADS will be built and demonstrated during Phase I. This phase will be considered completed when it is shown that the PADS hardware is able to perform an analysis of both a computer hard disk drive and a PDA flash memory device while operating in a standalone condition. Phase II, if pursued, shall bring the PADS into fruition based upon the design and methodologies used in Phase I.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. C. Douglas Harper
ARMY 02-126      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:NetScout: Network Scanner of Capabilities and Organization via Unobvious Techniques
Abstract:Our nation's infrastructure is under increasing threat of criminal and terrorist cyber attacks, which can come without warning and cause great harm. There are numerous countermeasures we can take once we detect an attack, but as long as our responses are defensive and reactionary in character, we are at a great disadvantage. We would be much better served to take the offensive against our cyber adversaries. The essential first step in doing so is to gather intelligence. We need a low-profile, effective tool for government, law enforcement, and corporate security organizations to use to discover and display the structure and services of suspicious networks attached to the Internet. ATC-NY proposes to develop NetScout - a Java-driven web-based tool with three basic functional components: network discovery, information correlation, and network display. The network discovery component will use stealthy scans to probe targeted networks. The correlation component will aggregate, assess, and interpret the scan results to form a coherent model of the network. The display component will be user-directed, navigating the network model to show its organization, capabilities, and vulnerabilities. NetScout will assist government, as well as corporate network security administrators and law enforcement agencies, in providing better security to our nation's digital infrastructure against hackers and terrorists.

ARGON ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
12701 Fair Lakes Circle
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 995-5645
Mr. Scott Bierly
ARMY 02-127      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Digital Direction Finding
Abstract:Argon Engineering Associates presents an innovative approach to Direction Finding (DF), replacing analog Butler Matrix beamforming with an all-digital adaptive beam former. Argon proposes to implement FFT channelization before beamforming using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This allows both beamforming and advanced signal detection algorithms performed in general purpose processors to use the same underlying correlation matrix formed by multiplying pair-wise antenna inputs. Signal digital direction finding can be implemented on detected signals by Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) multipath immune MODE or other array DF algorithms. This digital architecture is investigated for aircraft DF implementation where the receivers are located with their antennas, passing digital data to FPGA and processors using Fiber Optic (FO) paths to eliminate bulky and variable RF cables that cause phase errors and path loss. One of the SBIR goals is to investigate the feasibility of implementing advanced adaptive digital beamforming with a forward digitization architecture using FO digital signal routing. One of the key objectives of this SBIR is to reduce size, weight and power for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), where the weight must be less than 200 pounds and power less than 200 watts. Employing our business model, Argon Engineering Associates plans to incorporate the primary innovative technology of digital adaptive beam-forming into the product line for integration into future LIGHTHOUSE based systems. It is fully expected that this technologies will have a direct impact to several Army, Navy and foreign programs - Aerial Common Sensor (ACS), PROPHET (Air and Ground), Ship's Signal Exploitation Equipment (SSEE) and the British Soothsayer programs.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 642-3000
Mr. Michael Geile
ARMY 02-127      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Digital Direction Finding
Abstract:The Digital Direction Finding (DDF) Project will specify, design, and demonstrate a high throughput digital DF processor. We will implement a digital receiver integrated with each antenna element. The task of maintaining synchronization of all A/Ds across the antenna array is accomplished by a novel method proposed herein. Direct RF sampling is specified and will provide the requisite signals for broadband instantaneous DF processing, which can either implement a digital Butler matrix or implement a digital adaptive beamformer. Since digital technology relies on a reconfigurable digital implementation, it is very flexible. The resulting digital DF system will be more reliable for the harsh military environment, more flexible for use in different RF channels, and easier to set up and to tune compared to the analog DF systems. A digital direction finding system will provide more reliable performance when compared to their analog RF counterparts. The DDF relies on a reconfigurable logic implementation realized on a combination of DSPs and FPGA and is thus very flexible. The design allows adaptation to different RF bands by adjusting one parameter in the digital receiver, thus the same DF accuracy can be maintained across all RF channels. This improvement makes this technology a prime candidate for a Phase III program given the numerous DF systems in the marketplace today. The developed DF system may also be applied by commercial ships for information gathering.

INTERACTIVE INTELLIGENT IMAGERY CORP.
1027 E. San Carlos Ave
San Carlos, CA 94070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 654-0174
Dr. Paul E. Condon
ARMY 02-128      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Beyond Line-of-Sight Combat Identification System
Abstract: Over the horizon reconnaissance is an early-warning and anti-fratracide capability needed by all forward area operations. The I3C BLOS SA/CID system provides real-time reporting and identification of visual imagery, communications and radar signals intercepted by an airborne platform equipped with light weight sensors and interrogation devices in addition to navigation and platform controls and data link. The innovative approach proposed by I3C will is to consider two options for low cost yet high confidence QAF. One option is a dedicated low power narrowbeam microwave system while the second is a VHF interrogator that covers a wide area of interest and uses existing vehicle systems (e.g., SINGARS)for response. The use of a simple 'applique unit' to be attached to friendly vehicles to utilize their existing SINCGARS radios for QAF response would reduce procurement costs to implement this portion of the BLOS system. However, the development of a dedicated microwave transponder would eliminate any integration requirements on the ground vehicle. We will model the use of a unique transponder concept that simply modulates the interrogation RF pulse train which is manually set for the "code of the day" and is repeated back to the interrogator to be recognized for indication of status to be relayed to the ground controller station that the target is either "friend" or "unknown". Our concept for the dedicated microwave QAF would result in a transponder not much larger than a hockey puck (not including antenna and prime power source) Trade studies will address type of aerial platform, sensor suite and QAF waveforms to determine optimum configuration considering ease of launch and recovery, payload weight vs endurance, confidence levels of QAF transponder returns and minimum cost of procurement. New vs. existing sub-systems will be studied and compared. Critical segments of the recommended "strawman" system will be modeled in preparation for subsequent demonstration in Phase II program. Forward area operational units (Company and below) will have SA capabilities never before available. Low operational costs of early warning system will protect lives from both enemy and friendly fires. Commercial applications will also benefit Homeland Security and Border Patrol organizations.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. Duane Cline
ARMY 02-128      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:CID Scout UAV
Abstract:The rapidly changing conditions on the modern non-linear battlefield, combined with the increasing use of long-range weapons and emerging capabilities such as armed UAVs, are driving the need for improved beyond line of sight (BLOS) situational awareness and advanced combat ID (CID) systems. Scout UAVs that integrate airborne acoustics and imaging sensors with cooperative CID systems and robust datalinks will allow maximum use of long-range weapons against targets in mixed, fast moving battlefield environments. The Phase I effort will leverage recent Army investments in SARA's proprietary LOSAS airborne acoustics technology, imaging sensor cueing and Scout UAV scenario simulation to develop and assess CID Scout UAV integrated system concepts. Candidate system architectures will balance integration issues (size, weight, power) and performance (coverage area, day/night all weather operation, datalink bandwidth, interoperability) with cost. SARA will identify preferred system architectures and a suitable UAV platform for Phase II flight demonstrations. The CID Scout UAV system will enhance the operational effectiveness of US Army and US Marine Special Operations, Artillery Forward Observer, and infantry units; as well as US Navy and US Air Force deep fires and close air support missions. Civilian agencies involved in search and rescue and forest firefighting activities may also benefit from the improved situational awareness provided by CID Scout UAVs.

LANGUAGE SYSTEMS, INC.
5959 Topanga Canyon Blvd. Ste 340
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 703-5034
Dr. Christine A. Montgomery
ARMY 02-129      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Tactical Human Intelligence Interview Device
Abstract:The Phase I effort will provide a significant step toward the goal of developing a tactical HUMINT interview translator that will enable real time interrogation of captured combatants and prevent the loss of perishable tactical information. To achieve this, we will identify key interrogation scenarios in cooperation with the Army, analyze the linguistic and domain content of these scenarios, and develop within the first three months an initial expectation-based, speaker-independent two-way translation prototype using the content of the selected interrogation scenarios. This rapid prototyping effort is made possible using LSI's existing spoken translation software, and is based on our extensive experience in conversational dialogue development, as well as our background in military intelligence. The second half of the Phase I effort will focus on the development of the linguistic knowledge bases for the initial spontaneous dialogue prototype, evaluating the computational linguistic design of LSI's advanced engine, and finally, providing an initial demonstration of the prototype for handling spontaneous dialogues/conversations using this engine. Thus, at Phase I completion, we will have designed, developed, and demonstrated an initial capability for a tactical HUMINT interview translator, which will allow us to "jump start" the Phase II development during the Phase I Option period. There are numerous commercial uses for this technology in law enforcement, fire/paramedic, and critical incident response operations. Language Systems Inc. (LSI) is especially interested in these areas, since the organizations involved are current clients for our PC Windows-based two-way voice-to-voice translation systems. (See our web site at www.lsi.com). In addition, there are broader markets of retail financial services, multinational business operations, tourism and many others.

ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS KNOWLEDGE
41 Madison Street
Belmont, MA 02478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 320-0200
Dr. Jerome M. Shapiro
ARMY 02-130      Selected for Award
Title:Real-Time Multi-Sensors Architecture of Blind Detection for Asynchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) System.
Abstract:Advanced Communications Knowledge (ACK), in collaboration with BAE Systems Information and Electronic Warfare Systems (IEWS) and Professor Gregory Wornell of MIT, will develop a theoretical and practical approach to solving adaptive, blind detection, channel identification and equalization for asynchronous code-division multiple access (CDMA) systems where there is little or no a priori knowledge of the signature waveforms. A multiuser, multiple-antenna architecture model will be developed in MATLAB and will be used to evaluate the performance achieved by this new approach. Key to this approach will be the application of iterative decision-directed multiuser decoding algorithms developed at MIT which will be adapted to the case where there is no training signal and the signature waveforms are unknown. A key benefit of our technique is that it is of sufficiently low complexity to enable a real-time FPGA implementation that will scale with improving technology. Development of this technology will enable a greatly enhanced signal intelligence capability to the warfighter. Advanced real-time, low complexity eavesdropping of asynchronous CDMA provides enhanced SIGINT capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH, INC.
16 Wildhedge Lane
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 817-9299
Mr. Benjamin Tirabassi
ARMY 02-131      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Automated Extraction of Counter-Terrorism Intelligence
Abstract: The intelligence community is interested in extracting tactical situation knowledge of current planned enemy activities from the automated monitoring of communications signal traffic by isolating and tracking a speakers voice and linguistic context. The limiting factor in the successful application of these emerging language based interpreters is the poor quality of the speech captured from these intercepted transmissions. NLU, language identification, language patterns, speaker identification, keyword spotting, gisting, language parsing and context interpretation are emerging technologies to be matured to achieve this automated intelligence processing. Unique to this approach is the advanced research of innovative wide-band signal recovery techniques for accurate extraction of speech from the severely degraded transmission intercepts, using natural language information extraction methods that target terrorist activities. Unique to this research opportunity is the ability for us to merge our recent technology breakthroughs for identifying and tracking individual speakers and automated filtering to search for specific semantic and language style constructs. We have demonstrated highly accurate speech extraction algorithms in the presence of very high noise environments with a SNR of minus 10dB. These previously developed signal recovery and speech extraction algorithms are designed to work as a front-end processor for speaker identity, recognition and interpretation algorithms. We are currently developing and integrating a superior NLU interpretation and understanding system for information extraction and activity gisting using syntactic, semantic and patterned dialogue context understanding algorithms. The goal of this research is to investigate and develop novel techniques for the deconvolution of specific communication channels from the total spectrum based upon learned terrorist characteristic feature content. Maximum likelihood statistics, neural network and signal separation technologies have progressed sufficiently to support the development of algorithms for the extraction of these signals of interest. This research will result in software algorithms, suitable for execution in future Army tactical and strategic based communication assets, which perform the intelligence gathering functions. Developed software modules will be portable and reusable as well as compatible with the Joint Technical Architecture-Army tactical and commercial wireless architectures. This technology has commercial application to law enforcement investigations in which the exploitation of cell phone and other wireless transmissions become necessary, as in cases where threatening phone calls are being made or in surveillance missions. Automated natural language interpretation and understanding processing represents the preferred next generation interface between humans and their supporting electronic devices. Improved speech and language intelligibility processing will provide wider user acceptability of the automated natural language technology in a wide range of consumer products and services, including personal data assistants, computers, controls and an intuitive interface for appliances, radios, cell-phones, vendor kiosks, web-site browsers, information fusion and decision aids.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
11350 Random Hills Rd., Suite 710
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7717
Dr. Suman Ganguly
ARMY 02-132      Awarded: 31DEC02
Title:Direct P(Y) Aquisition
Abstract:CRS has developed software based simulation and development tools, for advanced GPS systems. These tools (in conjunction with associated hardware) allow rapid design, test, validation and prototyping using a single platform. We propose to use this toolset (and associated hardware) for the simulation and design of Network Assisted GPS Receiver with direct P(Y) acquisition capability. The software tools will also be used to generate degraded signal conditions (jamming, weak signals, multipath), which can be used with hardware Digital Storage Unit to replay the signal at GPS frequencies. Direct P/Y code acquisition under degraded condition involves external aiding in terms of precise time, ephemeris or other relevant data in order to facilitate the search process and also for long integration needed with data wipe-off. The toolset available with CRS will allow simulation of variety of conditions as well as rapid prototyping and live demonstration. During Phase I, we provide a simulation and initial test results along with plans for hardware receiver implementation for Phase II. The proposed technology will have both Government and commercial applications. Precision GPS operation under weak signal conditions will be needed by a variety of Govt. agencies. Application range from detection of GPS inside building, underground or inside tunnels, valleys, submarines, in space (for satellite based navigation at large distances), etc. These are unlimited civilian applications involving underground positioning in caves, mines, urban areas, and so on.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison Brown
ARMY 02-132      Selected for Award
Title:Network Assisted Global Positioning System (GPS) Direct Y Acquisition
Abstract:Our proposed approach is to use network assistance to improve the robustness of the GPS P(Y) acquisition and tracking functions. This capability will greatly bolster GPS reception in low signal and degraded signal environments (e.g., tunnels, buildings, under tree canopy, and within proximity to RF transmissions). The proposed architecture is based on a Software GPS Receiver (SGR) approach, which can ultimately be embedded within a Software Defined Radio (SDR), such as the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). This will provide a combined communication and navigation capability that will leverage the data link capabilities of the SDR to provide network assistance to enhance the acquisition, tracking and navigation capability of the SGR through advanced signal processing techniques leveraging the military GPS signal structure (FCTRACK). Under this Phase I effort we plan to develop a network assisted SGR system specification and evaluate the performance of the network assisted GPS low power signal tracking capability using our in-house SGR test-bed. The results of this Phase I effort will provide the basis as the basis for the SGR prototype to be developed and delivered under the Phase II effort Since only the DoD has access to the P(Y) code signals, the commercialization strategy for this product is for military programs only. Several transition opportunities have been identified including the Joint Tactical Radio System and the One Tactical Engagement Simulation System (One TESS). The network assisted Software GPS Receiver is an ideal candidate to transition into the JTRS as a software application to enhance the GPS acquisition and tracking performance and also provide a small, lightweight, low power, low cost positioning device suitable for use in future training systems such as OneTESS.

TERRASIM, INC.
One Gateway Cntr, Ste 2050, 420 Ft. Duquesne Blvd
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 232-3646
Dr. Jefferey A. Shufelt
ARMY 02-133      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Automated Fusion of Digital Elevation Models
Abstract:This project will design and prototype a system for the fusion of digital elevation models (DEM's) in various formats, coordinate systems, and resolutions. The system will automatically determine the relative translations between input DEM's, then produce a fused DEM at the specified resolution and in the specified coordinate system from the inputs, taking into account the relative precision of each DEM's. This tool will provide much-needed capabilities to the extremely large GIS user market, and also to the military visualization and simulation community.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 583-0220
Mr. Richard Carande
ARMY 02-133      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Automated Fusion of Digital Elevation Models
Abstract:There are a large variety of data sources used today in the generation of elevation information. However, each source has its own characteristics both in terms of its data quality and phenomenology, and also in terms of the CONOP under which the data collection and exploitation were designed to be carried out. These differences have profound effects on the characteristics of the elevation data. The Defense community, in particular, has essentially adopted IFSAR and LIDAR data, as "acceptable sources". This is clearly demonstrated by the worldwide mapping mission carried out by NIMA using interferometric SAR technology, and by the IFSAR/LIDAR Rapid Terrain Visualization program. These data sources however, have peculiarities and associated artifacts not necessarily present in other data sources. Being able to fuse these different measurements of the terrain will enable much more effective use of the data. Currently, there is no "accepted" or preferred technique for handling this merging challenge. Under this effort, Vexcel proposes to develop and quantify new techniques to advance the state-of-the-art in elevation generation, primarily through new fusion techniques that honor the best characteristics of each source. In so doing, we will generate a "best-of-best" elevation product. Development of DEM fusion techniques will be directly applicable to Vexcel's large-scale map production operations. Also, software modules for fusion can be licensed to various GIS and Remote Sensing software companies.

INSIGHTFUL, INC.
1700 Westlake Ave N, Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 283-8802
Dr. Selim Aksoy
ARMY 02-134      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Interactive Training of Advanced Classifiers for Remote Sensing Image Analysis
Abstract:Incorporating supplemental GIS information and human expert knowledge into digital image processing has been acknowledged as a necessity for improving remote sensing image analysis. However, no commercial image analysis system can currently translate expert knowledge automatically to a computer-usable format. The objective of this project is to develop a system for seamless and transparent integration of machine learning and a rule-based classifier. We are proposing to use decision tree-based classifiers to create rules for hierarchical scene analysis. Images will be modeled in pixel, region and scene levels. Spectral values, ancillary GIS layers and other image measurements like textural features will be used in decision tree learning. The learning process will include algorithms for handling missing data as well as methods for rule portability. These decision trees will then be automatically converted into rules. Easy-to-use interfaces will support user relevance feedback and enable rule generation and editing with a small amount of training data. The system will be evaluated using quantitative and qualitative criteria on independent training and test data. The final product will be a module that integrates the new decision tree classifier and rule generator, our powerful statistical analysis product S-PLUS, and the image analysis capabilities of ERDAS Imagine. The proposed research will significantly benefit the remote sensing community by providing an easy access to advanced statistical data analysis resources of our S-PLUS product from ERDAS Imagine image analysis software. Analysts will be able to train models interactively and see the results of the classification without going through the time consuming process of transferring data between software packages. We will also extend the application domain of our classification software to biomedical image analysis systems by providing tools for automatically transfering expert knowledge to medical knowledge bases.

VISUAL LEARNING SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 8226
Missoula, MT 59807
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 829-1384
Mr. Stuart Blundell
ARMY 02-134      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Developing a Seamless Integration Between Machine Learning Techniques and Rule-Based Classification of Remotely Sensed Imagery
Abstract:The Army has a critical need to accelerate and improve terrain analyses from remotely sensed imagery to support the increasingly mobile requirements of the Army Warfighter. Existing techniques for terrain analysis, topographic, and reproduction support are slow, labor intensive processes that do not meet the needs of the Force XXI digital battlefield. Previous research has shown that incorporating ancillary data, such as GIS thematic data layers or DEM derived rasters, into rule-based classifications can increase the accuracy and precision of land-cover and land-use classification. However, the process of rule generation from these data is a significant challenge without expert knowledge or sophisticated computer science programming skills. Artificial intelligence techniques, including machine learning and rule-based expert systems, are now emerging in COTS geoprocessing software for tasks such as feature extraction and image classification. Visual Learning Systems, Inc. (VLS) introduced the Feature AnalystT extension for ESRI's ArcGIS software in 2001. Widely recognized in the industry as the first viable machine learning application incorporating spatial context in the feature extraction process, the underlying Feature Analyst architecture will be used to automatically generate and refine a rule base using a novel approach called theory refinement. The proposed Phase I research strongly supports the Army's SBIR program goals of developing a seamless integration between machine learning techniques and rule-based classification of remotely sensed imagery. In addition to supporting the Army's terrain analysis needs the proposed system will also support scientific research, environmental modeling, local government planning, and federal government security programs. The connectionist theory refinement system proposed here has strong commercial potential for the GIS software industry as a means of lowering the costs of geospatial database maintenance using remotely sensed imagery.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. Leif W. Hendricks
ARMY 02-135      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Advancing Hyperspectral Signature Integration with Airborne and Ground-based Laser Technology
Abstract:Combining high spatial resolution data with high spectral resolution imagery to improve classification accuracy in remotely sensed data is the goal of this effort. This requires 1) an instrument or instruments capable of acquiring this data coincidentally, and 2) proper registration, pre-processing, classification and evaluation algorithms to determine the best way to combine the data to achieve the most significant improvement in classification accuracy. Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) will use its hyperspectral imager, the SOC-700, in conjunction with the I-Site 3D Laser Imager to collect spatial and spectral data from various regions, then use this data to explore the most effective means of combining the data to improve classification accuracy. This includes the use of derived measures from both the spatial and spectral data. Evaluation of effectiveness will be done with standard classification accuracy measures. The result of the study will be a ranking of the various techniques and data measures that were undertaken in the study in terms of their effectiveness, with the eventual goal being to incorporate them as part of a complete Lidar/Hyperspectral data acquisition system. Benefits of a Hyperspectral/Lidar imaging system would be broad based and dual-use, providing the capability for improved resource management for civil communities by constructing more detailed census of vegetation coverage and assisting in the environmental management of federal, state and local lands in sensitive habitats.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-4515
Mr. Matthew Palmer
ARMY 02-136      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Metallic, Thin-Film, Miniature Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors for Small Scale Explosives Characterization
Abstract:For explosives characterization, fiber optic sensors offer many advantages over equivalent electrical sensors: extreme thermal capability, immunity to electro-magnetic interference and grounding issues, ability to transmit data kilometers with minute signal degradation (less than 0.5dB/km), and only one connection per sensor. Luna Innovations proposes to research and develop technology to improve the performance of the Luna Innovations miniature fiber-optic temperature sensor for this application. The Luna sensor has already proven to be capable of measuring 400C temperature changes in 2 milliseconds before being destroyed at 800C, and has a theoretical response of less than 1 millisecond. The team members will apply linear and 2nd order algorithms developed from models of the transducer to remove the thermal inertia from the data. In addition, the team will define the manufacturing processes, materials, and configuration of the Luna sensor to achieve the design goals of 4000C and 1 millisecond rise times. The Phase I R&D effort will concentrate on extensive modeling of the existing transducer as well as investigation of processes and materials to improve the sensor and instrumentation capabilities. Phase II will continue the development of the most promising technology(ies) to achieve the design goals. Thermal measurement is a vast market with a myriad of environments. Thermocouples are by far the most prevalent technology for thermal measurement but are also limited in application environment. Thermocouples cannot typically be utilized in reacting, corrosive, or electrically noisy environments above 1800C. Miniature, inert, intrinsically safe, EMI proof, remote temperature sensors rugged enough for explosions would open the remaining markets not currently available to thermocouples such as gas turbine engine combustor monitoring, rocket engine combustion monitoring, and chemical process monitoring. Luna sees this technology rapidly taking the fringe markets of thermal measurement as well as those in heat flux measurements.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Dan L. Grecu
ARMY 02-138      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Adaptive Battlespace Analysis Toolset for Geospatial Information Management
Abstract:Satisfying the diverse geospatial information and intelligence needs of the tactical user calls for techniques that can rapidly infer user requirements and manage the information dissemination process. To address this challenge we propose the development of an Adaptive Battlespace Analysis Toolset for Geospatial Information Management. The toolset relies on an advanced GIS-based representation of the battlespace and on inferential GIS techniques to develop a knowledge-based description of the current tactical situation. An information requirements inferencing component combines this description with the decision-maker's profile to derive individualized information requirements. A scheduling component disseminates information from geospatial repositories and intelligence sources to the decision-makers, while optimizing the overall employment of resources. The toolset also includes an adaptive component for developing rules for inferring information requirements based on feedback elicited from decision-makers during training and simulation sessions. Any unmatched information requirements reported by the decision-makers are associated with the tactical context at the time of the request to develop new rules. The proposed toolset will be developed using robust COTS for GIS and learning, and will interface with existing US Army systems, such as the Combat Terrain Information System, and the Digital Topographic Support System. We see several potential commercial applications of the developed technology. The Situation Description Engine can be used to extract key features of a tactical situation in real-time into a knowledge-based format, and to enable decision-support tools to act in response to a changing operational environment. Such decision-support tools range from situation awareness and mission planning components, to information retrieval and dissemination. The developed core technology also has a high potential application in the development of the commercial version of our Military Activity Viewing Environment. Further applications extend from disaster relief and emergency management, to homeland security.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Amber Lo
ARMY 02-138      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Cognitive Battlespace Terrain and Intelligence Manager (CBTIM)
Abstract:We propose to research, design, and build an innovative Toolkit for INtelligent COmbat Planning and Simulation (TINCOPS). We propose a knowledge-based approach to manage knowledge collected from various sources including combat and geospatial experts and deploy such knowledge for complex combat decision support applications. Key innovations include: (1) a rigorous and comprehensive knowledge management methodology to serve as the foundation of the TINCOPS approach to combat mission planning, (2) the dynamic representation of diverse combat mission planning knowledge in TINCOPS, an intelligent Decision Support System (DSS) for knowledge-based planning with simulation, and (3) the combination of such combat knowledge with the conventional GIS-based system to aid a user in formulating a mission plan in an intelligent manner. The principal project benefits are: (1) a thorough understanding of the combat knowledge in the mind of a military expert, (2) significant improvement in future combat training and planning with the above knowledge elicited and formally represented for future reference, (3) significant intelligent support for combat mission planning to augment human cognition, and (4) strategically smarter combat decisions to be made with the aid of TINCOPS.

ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS, INC.
2020 Alameda Padre Serra, Suite 123
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-3331
Dr. Roger Stettner
ARMY 02-139      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Synthesis of Laser Altimeter Waveforms
Abstract:In Phase I we develop algorithms for extracting accurate reflective-surface information from 3-D flash ladar waveforms. These algorithms are then tested experimentally using existing 3-D flash ladar cameras available at ASC. In Phase II lessons learned in Phase I are used to fabricate a 3-D ladar camera for delivery to the Army, which can be used to generate 3-D mapping at high speed either from an airborne platform or from a terrestrial motor vehicle or from a static tripod. We call this 3-D camera the Combat Terrain Mapping Camera (CTMC). The CTMC laser is eye-safe. The CTMC generates a metrically accurate 3-D map of terrain and structures. The military benefits range from identification of targets through foliage to sensors for remotely piloted vehicles. The commercial benefits range from developing blue prints for as-built civil engineer structures to machine vision and non-contract measurement in manufacturing.

ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Mr. Thomas E. Broderick
ARMY 02-140      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Amended Silicate Sorbents for Removal of Heavy Metals from Flue Gases
Abstract:The Department of Defense uses specialized incinerators for the disposal of outdated munitions and agents. These units are subject to ever more stringent emissions regulations, especially with respect to lead, cadmium, and mercury. ADA Technologies with funding from the EPA and U.S. DOE, has developed a new family of specialized sorbents that have been shown to be effective in the capture of mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. Because of their chemical structure, these materials will be quite efficient in the removal of lead and cadmium as well. The sorbents use a commercial-commodity natural mineral substrate, making them low-cost to prepare and use. These materials work as a chemisorbent, binding the target metals more securely than the physisorption of activated carbon. In a Phase I SBIR project, ADA will quantify the ability of several formulations of sorbent from this new family to remove the target metals from a simulated incinerator gas stream, and prepare a conceptual design for a full-scale system to provide metals control in a military incinerator. In Phase II, a prototype system will be built and demonstrated on an operating unit. In addition to the removal of volatile metals from munition/agent incinerators, these sorbents can be used in thermal treatment units being built to process DOE wastes. They will also be effective in treating exhaust gas from commercial hazardous waste incinerators. ADA has an agreement with CH2M Hill, an environmental engineering company, to commercialize these sorbents for multiple applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Apoorva Shah
ARMY 02-140      Selected for Award
Title:In-situ capture of Pb, Cd and Hg using Nano-scale sorbents
Abstract:By June 14 2005, the US EPA is considering implementation of stringent regulations on the emission of toxic metals from Hazardous Waste Combustors. Triton Systems responds to the US Army's need for better sorbents for removal of lead, cadmium and mercury from their demilitarization incinerator plants. Triton's proposed approach is based on in-situ capture of the metal contaminants in the combustor zone of the incinerator using novel nano-scale sorbent particles. In lab scale experiments with simulated flue gases, these nano-scale sorbents have been proven to have very high capacities, greater than 2:1 mass ratios and stability even at temperatures greater than 1400 F. Moreover, capture of metal contaminants takes place through chemical reaction, resulting in a stable non-leachable reaction product that can be safely and easily disposed. The uniqueness of the approach is that the capture of metal contaminants take place in the combustion chamber itself, thereby eliminating the formation of hazardous sub-micron particles. The Phase I Research will focus on the development and optimization of nano-scale sorbents for the removal of toxic heavy metal contaminants. This technology will be used to create new sorbent materials with high removal efficiency for effective flue gas clean up. Fabrication of low cost, stable nano-structured sorbents with high capacity would have significant impact on flue gas treatment in coal based power plants, municipal and medical waste incinerators and coal fired boiler utility companies

HALEY & ALDRICH OF NEW YORK
200 Town Centre Drive, Suite 2
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 321-4238
Mr. Michael G. Nickelsen
ARMY 02-141      Selected for Award
Title:Protection From Terrorist Threat to Water Based Utility Systems
Abstract:The goal of the Phase I project is leverage prior work done at the academic level with chemical agents, simulants and biotoxins to develop an economically and technologically feasible advanced oxidation process for the destruction of chemical and biological agents and biotoxins that threaten water based utility systems such as a potable water supply. The theoretical basis for the advanced oxidation system presented in this proposal is the electron beam (E-beam) process. The key considerations are that the E-beam treatment system (1) uniquely creates strong oxidizing and reducing species in water, (2) it can destroy chemical and biological compounds in water to very low concentrations, (3) the reactions are completed in milliseconds allowing continuous treatment, (4) it does not generate a residue, sludge, or spent media that require further processing or disposal, (5) it is computer controlled and adjustable to meet a wide range of operating conditions, and (6) it can avoid the formation of unwanted chemical byproducts. The Phase I project will prove the concept of the electron beam process for destruction of chemical and biological agents in water based utility systems. Included in Phase I will be a theoretical kinetic model to predict threat agent destruction. Small scale (less than 40 gallons per minute) studies will be completed for selected threat agents using a mobile 20 kW E-beam system. These results will be used to verify the model calculations. Working with the DoD Project Officer (and others interested in this project), design changes will be developed for field-testing of the electron beam system and where possible advanced sensor concepts in Phase II. The Phase I design concepts will include any pre-filtering requirements or post chlorination for a continuously treated water supply. The successful completion of this project, with previous results obtained by our group, will continue to provide proof of the feasibility of an innovative process, high-energy electron injection (e-beam treatment), for water supplies. The studies will also show an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of the treatment process (better treatment performance at much lower energy consumption) with the advent of a newly developed water delivery system and even greater improvement with introduction of a simple chemical catalyst (ozone) in gas form. It is felt that with these improvements the cost of treatment will become even more competitive when compared to existing treatment technologies. It is also anticipated that the catalyzed E-beam treatment will be so cost effective that it will easily overcome the incremental capital costs associated with catalyst addition. (i.e., cost of the ozone injection equipment). The studies that will be conducted in a manner to also allow us to better understand the process sensitivities and how the technology may be best applied to waters contaminated with chemical and biological threat agents.

JCM ENVIRONMENTAL
47685 Pine Circle
Houghton, MI 49931
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 487-9419
Ms. Janet C. Metsa
ARMY 02-141      Selected for Award
Title:Destruction of Chemical and Biological Agents in Water by Hybrid Gas-Liquid High Voltage Electrical Discharge Reactors
Abstract:Liquid-phase Pulsed Corona Discharge (PCD) in water has recently demonstrated the potential to be an inexpensive and energy efficient method for removing chemical and biological contaminants that threaten drinking water. PCD effectiveness originates from the multiple mechanisms present in the reactor including the production of reactive chemical species; strong UV radiation directly in the aqueous phase; and a shock wave from the strong applied electrical field pulse which may breakdown the cell membrane thus inactivating viruses, bacteria, and other water borne microorganisms. These multiple mechanisms make it superior in decontamination to electron beam processes, ozonation, and other advance oxidation processes; and at a much lower cost and energy input. The goals of the proposed work are to extend the existing batch studies of PCD to additional chemistries and biological agents; build prototype continuous flow reactor for drinking water systems and develop a theoretical reactor model to be used in scale up studies in a Phase II effort. The proposed effort is to be accomplished using patent pending technology, and by a team with a proven record for developing cost-effective continuous flow reactor systems for water treatment problems. The advanced oxidation system will also include ATR-IR detection equipment for real-time monitoring of key chemical fragments associated with harmful chemical. This detection approach is suitable for computer data acquisition and the process system control. If successful, this technology can be applied to small drinking water treatment systems for the safe drinking water. The technology is simple to operate with low operating costs.

REALTRONICS
PO Box 228, 25 N Heartland Express; Battle Creek S
Hermosa, SD 57744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(605) 255-5309
Mr. Alf Riisnaes
ARMY 02-142      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Detection of Occupied Caves
Abstract:This phase I SBIR project will investigate the feasibility of developing an unattended ground sensor for the detection of occupied caves. The proposed work is an extension of a technology that was developed and used by the applicant to detect human and other targets through building and cave walls and to map tunnels of ore that are several thousand feet below the surface. Accordingly, this alternative approach to thermal detection of occupied caves was encouraged by the TPOC for this topic. A phase II aspiration of this work is to develop a portable flexible or fabric array that is responsive to the need for unattended underground facility and occupied cave detection cited in PE 06063762E (CUGF). The phase I study will focus on human and subsurface utility detection in caves, subsurface cave mapping, and methods to deploy the sensor as an unattended unit. This effort will conclude with design recommendations for wireless communications, sensor and receiver hardware composition, and target anomaly extraction techniques. Component and algorithm selection will reflect a scoring system based on phase I experiments. This technology, which is capable of both through wall and subsurface cave imaging, will enhance safety for law enforcement, search and rescue, fire, and military personnel by providing effective hands-free situational awareness. The technology is also well suited for subsurface mapping applications such as occupied cave, underground facility, and buried target detection; and for commercial security.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Nestor Voronka
ARMY 02-143      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Enhanced GPS/INS Tracking and Vehicle Dynamics Monitoring System
Abstract:There is a need to develop a system that will track the location and dynamics of ground vehicles for the purposes of determining their impact on the environment. We propose to use a combination of GPS and inertial sensors to determine the vehicle's location, accelerations, and rotations and capture this dynamics information. In addition to providing the user with dynamic information, the inertial data can be used to provide a navigation solution when GPS is unavailable due to occlusion of buildings, cliffs, or dense canopies. The use of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) allows one to construct this system with direct sensing of the desired environmental impact sensors at a reasonable cost without sacrificing performance. This type of system can be used to enhance the data available for collection in existing commercial fleet tracking systems as well as provide tracking data when GPS is unavailable.

POINT RESEARCH CORP.
17150 Newhope Street, Suite 709
Fountain Valley, CA 92708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 557-6180
Mr. Robert W. Levi
ARMY 02-143      Selected for Award
Title:Tracking System To Monitor Vehicle Dynamic Properties and Environmental Impacts
Abstract:Military vehicles operating in a training environment will frequently be used in off-road conditions. Deep ruts created in training exercises by heavy vehicles can contribute to soil erosion and damage native vegetation. We propose to design a low cost vehicle monitoring system that will measure vehicle dynamics and position so that potential environmental damage can be assessed and located easily for repair when the exercises are completed. The system will be based on an existing vehicle navigation unit and integrated with a satellite-based data link for near real-time tracking capabilities. Other alternatives for data links using terrestrial radios will be investigated. A new approach to measuring vehicle loss of control and slippage will be evaluated. A unique non-contact soil condition monitoring device will be designed and tested. Data measured may be stored in the vehicle electronics or transmitted over the wireless data link. User interface software will be designed for data reduction and monitoring of vehicle parameters such as position. Resultant data files may be interfaced with industry standard Geographic Information Systems (GIS) programs. Damage to the environment can be assessed as to severity and the geographic position located over areas ranging from a few to hundreds of square miles. The system can also be used by training personnel to monitor mechanized training exercises in near-real time.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Ms. Chrysa Theodore
ARMY 02-144      Selected for Award
Title:Polymer Bonded Rolling Diaphragms (BRD)
Abstract:In this Phase I effort, CRG will conduct a survey on several classes of elastomeric materials to identify promising candidates for use in composite tanks for gelled propellants. The promising elastomeric materials will be evaluated and screened with respect to their thermal and mechanical properties and their chemical resistance to the gelled propellants, Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid (IRFNA) and MonoMethyl Hydrazine (MMH). We will also develop the processing techniques to bond the selected elastomeric liners onto fiber-reinforced organic matrix composites and characterize the effectiveness of the adhesion bonding. In addition, we will address scale-up design issues and concerns for the liner manufacturing process in Phase I. The materials and process technology proposed have a very limited commercial market. There are very few extreme compatibility requirements that are not being met by Teflon and Viton materials in the commercial market. Teflon and Viton have established a very strong commercial market share and achieved reduce costs due to mass production. The key marketable feature of the technology to be developed is the processing capability. Success will be a manufacturing line able to produce large, single-component, engineered parts with extreme chemical resistance to specification rather than sheet stock.

MICROPHASE COATINGS, INC.
170 Donmoor Court
Garner, NC 27529
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 779-7679
Dr. Trey Simendinger
ARMY 02-144      Selected for Award
Title:Polymer Liners for Lightweight Gel Propulsion Storage Tanks
Abstract:MicroPhase Coatings, Inc (MPCI) proposes to develop polymer liners for lightweight gel propulsion storage tanks in response to Army SBIR Phase I Solicitation A02-144. Current gel propulsion technology is handicapped by the weight of metal storage tanks required to store Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid (IRFNA) and Mono Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) gels for long term. The SBIR development approach innovatively modifies and combines existing materials to form coated liners that can be manufactured into storage bladders. The approach examines a number of heavily fluorinated materials to meet requirements of chemical resistance, flexibility, durability, processability, and service life. MPCI first develops a foundation liner that is IRFNA/MMH resistant, then develops a coating for further protection and extended operational service life. As an option, properties for long term storage, handling, shock and engine operational firing are determined. MPCI's core business is development of high performance polymer barrier coatings, and the approach builds on previous successful developments of barrier coatings used for chemical storage tanks. MPCI assembled a team of missile propulsion experts including Alliant Techsystems, TRW Space Systems, and others who contribute operational and manufacturing expertise and test facilities. North Carolina State University conducts electron microscopy and other sophisticated testing. A successful Phase I establishes the technical feasibility of developing heavily fluorinated polymer liners for long term storage of highly corrosive gel fuels including Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid (IRFNA) and Mono Methyl Hydrazine (MMH). If successful, the liners will provide longer service life than current metal containers and will significantly reduce the weight and cost of current systems. The technology is immediately transferable to: (1) Army Common Missile and other gel-fuel missile developments; (2) new rocket propulsion systems for NASA and others; and (3) chemical processing equipment and storage tanks. This project will yield a barrier coating/liner that can withstand the highly corrosive effects of IRFNA/MMH, temperature, shock, vibration, and environmental rigors of tactical missile propulsion systems. Such a product will likely withstand the environmental requirements for chemical transfer and storage in a large number of applications including the chemical processing industry, ship and railcar shipping, and manufacturing industries that employ acids.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Anping Liu
ARMY 02-145      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Technology Development for Laser Radar (LADAR)
Abstract:We propose to build a novel eyesafe fiber laser source capable of operating over the 20-100 kHz repetition rate range. Using a combination of COTS technology from the telecom industry and amplifier designs based upon recent developments at Naval Research Labs, the source will deliver 7-10 Watts while maintaining pulse duration <1 ns, and beam quality <1.8 x D.L. We show designs using available commercial components packaged into a 6 x 8 x 17 cm volume. The laser will be much more efficient and far more rugged than conventional Q-switched crystal lasers using nonlinear converters to reach the eyesafe range. The proposed laser has potential for use sensing chemical leaks or chemical and biological weapons releases (homeland defense), and in materials processing applications.

NANOPOWDER ENTERPRISES, INC.
Suite 106, 120 Centennial Ave.,
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-1088
Dr. Amit Singhal
ARMY 02-146      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Production of High Purity and Phase Pure Ultrafine Powders of MgAl2O4 Spinel
Abstract:We propose to use a novel synthesis process to produce ultrafine (0.1 - 0.4 microns) and highly sinterable powders of MgAl2O4 spinel. The synthesis process, which utilizes nanoparticles as starting material, overcomes the limitations posed by conventional powder synthesis processes on the chemical purity as well as the phase purity of the spinel compound. Furthermore, since the powder production process is scalable and low cost, it will enable the ultimate objective of replacing sapphire with alternative polycrystalline materials that perform as well as sapphire but at a fraction of the cost. Accordingly, as part of the Phase I work, we will produce test batches of ultrafine powders of MgAl2O4, and characterize the structure and composition. In particular, advanced characterization tools will be used to characterize the compositional homogeneity in the powders. Furthermore, the sinterability of the powders will be demonstrated by hot pressing under different conditions and evaluating the microstructural evolution. MgAl2O4 spinel obtained from a commercial source will be used for purposes of comparison. The powder synthesis process demonstrated in Phase I will be scaled in Phase II with emphasis on reproducibility and cost. During the course of the Phase II program, several batches of powders will be provided to Army contractors to fabricate test components and provide feedback in order to further optimize the powder production process. The goal under this program is to eventually become a supplier of MgAl2O4 spinel powders for all of DoD needs. Transparent ceramics offer a number of different opportunities in both military and civilian applications, including infrared windows in heat seeking missiles and optical systems. The total market for such components is several tens of millions of dollars. A powder consolidation approach is an attractive low cost alternative to melt processing and vapor deposition processes that are used to produce single crystals. The dearth of ultrafine powders with exceptionally high compositional purity presents an opportunity. Accordingly, we propose to fill this market need using our synthesis process.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2302
Dr. Ronald L. Cook
ARMY 02-146      Selected for Award
Title:High Quality Spinel Powders for Missile Dome Applications
Abstract:Smart weapons are increasingly being used to improve targeting efficiency, minimize collateral damage and avoid civilian causalities. Whereas only about 10 percent of the bombs used in Operation Desert Storm were so-called "smart weapons," so far in Afghanistan about 90 percent have been precision-guided weapons. For optical target recognition and guidance, infrared, visible and laser frequencies are being used. This requires the use of transparent missile domes. The domes must transmit infrared and visible light with high resolution and low signal loss while exposed to extreme conditions. Sapphire is one of the few materials that meets both the mechanical and optical operational constraints. Unfortunately due to the excessive diamond grinding that is needed to produce a dome shape, sapphire domes are very expensive. Spinel has been qualified for domes in several missile systems and can be hot-pressed to near net shape, greatly reducing the grinding needed and thereby greatly reducing cost. Unfortunately, impurities in the starting materials adversely affect the yields and quality of the transparent spinel domes. Using TDA's patented metal-exchange process, we will produce high quality spinel powders from boehmite sols. The precursor materials are expected to yield higher quality spinel domes with better final product yields. A high quality spinel powder with good densification characteristics will provide a lower-cost route for fabrication of transparent spinel domes. The availability of spinel domes will allow the Department of Defense to use spinel domes in place of the more expensive sapphire domes. The availability of lower-cost high quality transparent spinel will also allow fabrication of transparent armor and allow commercial users to replace sapphire with spinel in industrial applications.

QED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1040 University Ave.
Rochester, NY 14607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 256-6540
Mr. Paul Dumas
ARMY 02-147      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Metrology for Atypical Optical Surfaces
Abstract:Atypical optical surfaces such as conformal optics cannot be tested by current flexible metrology systems because of their problematically large numerical apertures and/or clear apertures (often convex) and/or their large deviations from a best-fit reference (either spherical or cylindrical). Subaperture stitching addresses these challenges while retaining flexibility. We propose the development of a metrology system based on stitching that is engineered with an emphasis on testing surfaces of extreme aspheric (or acylindrical) departure. The project will focus on surfaces that are rotationally symmetric, or off-axis sections of such surfaces, as well as cylinders and toroids. Sub-millimeter lateral resolution and high precision are also important goals that will be used in the Phase I assessment of a variety of core metrology devices that could be incorporated into our existing stitching platform. For each device, a variety of specialized developments will be considered to extend the measurable aspheric departure slopes and allow thorough calibration in order to maximize the system's accuracy. The resulting system will deliver unprecedented abilities for the flexible, cost-effective metrology of atypical optical surfaces. Developing a metrology tool for measuring atypical optical surfaces is important for many applications. Ogive domes and other conformal shapes are immediately needed by the Department of Defense for surveillance, target acquisition and guidance systems. Additional applications include precision optics for consumer, scientific, and semiconductor products.

INNOVATIVE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1100 Alakea Plaza, 23d Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 441-3608
Dr. John Sender
ARMY 02-148      Selected for Award
Title:Tactical Optical Data Relay
Abstract:NOVASOL proposes a feasibility study for a Tactical Optical Data Relay (TODR). TODR will provide a data link enabling teleoperation of a Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle (TUGV) from a remote Operator Control Unit (OCU). TODR will support realtime video transmission from the TUGV, together with a realtime control channel to the TUGV, via Free Space Optical (FSO) communications through an airborne relay. NOVASOL's innovative approach incorporates modulating retroreflector technology, yielding a light-weight and low-power UAV package. Precision pointing techniques maintain the data link in the presence of vehicle motion at all three nodes (TUGV, UAV, OCU). The proposed system has inherently low probability of interception/detection (LPI/LPD), and the flexibility to meet a wide range of tactical needs. Free space optical communications holds great promise for solving bandwidth and covertness problems in military applications. But to adapt this technology for tactical deployment, inexpensive, light-weight, low-power links capable of operating between moving platforms separated by large distances are crucial. NovaSol's TODR innovation asnwers this need. Our technology can be expanded to fill a range of dynamic communications link needs, both military and civilian.

MORGAN RESEARCH CORP.
4811A Bradford Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 533-3233
Mr. Michael Kranz
ARMY 02-149      Selected for Award
Title:Skew Symmetric Orthogonal Mount for MEMS Inertial Sensors
Abstract:A large portion of the inertial MEMS research community is focused on reducing the cost and size of inertial MEMS devices and MEMS-based inertial measurement units (IMU's). Many of these efforts apply a chip-scale integration approach. However, this type of integration results in performance compromises, which directly impact DoD systems and applications. Therefore, companies developing extremely high performance devices for demanding applications tend to create single-axis devices in a fabrication process that can be optimized for that axis. However, this forces an IMU designer to create an accurate method of sensor mounting, alignment, and interconnect. This Phase I SBIR effort will develop and validate a design and fabrication concept for a skew-symmetric orthogonal mount with integrated conductors, and validate it with critical experimental activities. This mount will allow the integration of inertial MEMS and supporting electronics in an orthogonal orientation for inertial measurement units using standard assembly and integration processes. In turn, the mounted unit can then be assembled and aligned to structures available current and future IMU's and guidance systems. The MEMS mounting technologies developed in this effort have many potential inertial and noninertial applications in DoD systems, as well as NASA, DOT, and commercial applications. DoD and NASA applications include missile and unmanned robot inertial measurement and guidance units, as well as complex optical microsystems for guidance and sensing functions. Commercial applications may include such items inertial units for virtual reality input devices, guidance systems for high-end radio controlled equipment, and inertial units for both sport and commercial aircraft.

COMPOSITE OPTIMIZATION CO.
5199 E. PCH # 410
Long Beach, CA 90804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 424-9513
Dr. Myles Baker
ARMY 02-150      Selected for Award
Title:Optimizing Composite Rocket Motor Development Using Advanced Evolutionary Algorithms
Abstract:It is proposed to develop an integrated analysis/optimization toolset for the design and optimization of composite solid rocket motors for tactical weapons applications. The proposed process takes advantage of recent advances in publicly available integration/optimization environments to provide the most capable, robust, and supportable/ maintainable system possible. A flexible optimization approach is used, in which various optimization techniques will be available, and can be selected by the user to allow tailoring to the specific problem at hand. The methods available will include Evolutionary Algorithms as well as gradient based methods, and facilities will be provided to combine methods in sequential or hierarchical combinations to obtain the best optimization results possible with limited computational resources. Through development of a standardized Application Programming Interface (API) for each Module, the proposed process is inherently flexible (i.e. the optimization goals, constraints, and algorithms can easily be modified), extensible (i.e. additional modules can be easily added), and maintainable (i.e. modules can be updated or replaced with minimal impact). A variable fidelity approach to the analysis/optimization approach is proposed in which simplified models are used for preliminary design space screening to limit computational requirements, and higher fidelity models are used for location of the final optimum. The proposed process will directly result in higher performance propulsion systems for tactical weapons systems, including reduced structural weight, increased range and payload, increased durability and reliability, and reduced acquisition cost. Through applying advanced analysis and optimization techniques and inter-disciplinary interactions earlier in the design cycle, the inevitable "surprises" that often occur during acquisition programs can be reduced, or at least discovered earlier, avoiding costly and time-consuming redesign efforts. In addition, the capability to rapidly evaluate many design alternatives with little cost makes it possible to identify and evaluate more promising design candidates, resulting in further enhanced performance. With minor modifications, the proposed process can be applied to other composite design processes including airframe structures, high temperature structures, space structures, composite piping, structures in the energy industry such as windmills and oil rigs, and civil structures. The beneficiaries of the proposed process are: 1) Tactical Weapons Designers, 2) Strategic Weapons and Space Launch System Designers, 3) The aerospace industry (Airframers), 4) The automobile industry, and 5) The alternative energy industry. In addition, the overall integration/optimization process proposed can be applied (with different analysis Modules) to numerous engineering disciplines.

D.N. AMERICAN
1000 Technology Drive, Suite 3220
Fairmont, WV 26554
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 363-6757
Mr. Matthew T. McMahon
ARMY 02-150      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Advanced Multidisciplinary Algorithms for Genetic Evolution (DAMAGE)
Abstract:The D. N. American research team proposes a novel approach to improving the process of collaborative design optimization for composite rocket motors. In Phase I, we will investigate the feasibility of our Distributed Advanced Multidisciplinary Algorithms for Genetic Evolution (DAMAGE) approach to the problem. The proposed system leverages the team's experience--in composite rocket motor design, in developing parallel Genetic Algorithms for composite material design optimization, and in distributed Windows network programming--to design a state of the art web-enabled Windows 2000 distributed Genetic Algorithm system to facilitate the design process. The hallmark of our idea is an object-oriented design incorporating parallel Genetic Algorithm COM+ objects, facile network access to distributed CAD and analysis software via Web Services, and a means of accessing these functionalities via a robust Application Programming Interface (API). The Phase I work effort will yield a proposed design to be implemented in Phase II, with immediate benefits to the military in terms of creating optimal designs in the face of multiple participants and parameters. There are many potential commercial extension of the DAMAGE system. These include other organizations involved in design optimization, as well as commercial entities that will benefit from the underlying distributed GA technology. This tool is expected to have widespread use among entities that design and manufacture rocket motor cases as well as other composite structures. Beyond these applications, this tool can be used by any entity that needs to optimize an outcome in the face of numerous, conflicting constraints and variables. Thus, multidisciplinary teams can also use this tool to design aircraft, automobiles, buildings, consumer products, financial management products, etc. The beauty of D.N. American's tool is that it identifies optimum outcomes, independent of human bias, in the midst of numerous conflicting inputs.

AGILTRON CORP.
20 Arbor Lane
Winchester, MA 01890
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(718) 933-0513
Dr. Jing Zhao
ARMY 02-151      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Photonic Infrared Scene Generator
Abstract:This proposal addresses an unconventional photonic approach to the next generation IR scene generator. The revolutionary IR scene generator design intrinsically has advantages in speed, compactness, light intensity, temperature range, spatial resolution, background noise, reliability, and cost as compared with the competitive approaches. The device design overcomes all the major shortcomings of the current devices. The proposed miniaturized and liquid cooled IR projector design is compatible with a 5-axis motion simulator and cold background application. The program leverages recent progress on optical switching and materials technology. In Phase I, we will perform detailed concept design and fabricate a prototype high dynamic range advanced IR projector system to demonstrate the feasibility. It is anticipated that the proposed high performance IR scene generator will have commercial application for virtual prototyping of IR imaging sensors for communications and imaging systems development.

CHAN & ASSOC.
23520 Telo Avenue, #4
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 408-3225
Dr. William S. Chan
ARMY 02-151      Selected for Award
Title:High Dynamic Range Infrared Projector for HILS
Abstract:We propose to develop a high dynamic range IR scene projector using micromachined micro Fabry-Perot tunable filter (MFPTF) and a Carbon dioxide laser to achieve a dynamic range greater than a million to one. It consists of a 512x512 array of MFPTFs processed by MEMS technology with on-chip control circuits. By tunable the wavelength within the laser band different intensities are transmitted and then projected onto the missile under test. Phase 1 will design with array and fabricate a sample MFPTF to evaluate its tunability. Optical communications, remote sensing and medical imaging applications.

OPTICAL SCIENCES CORP.
P.O. Box 8291
Huntsville, AL 35808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 721-9521
Mr. David B. Beasley
ARMY 02-151      Selected for Award
Title:High Dynamic Range Advanced Infrared Projector for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations
Abstract:This document presents Optical Sciences Corporation's proposal for the design of a high dynamic range advanced infrared projector for Hardware-in-the-Loop simulations. The advanced IR projector is designed to generate dynamic scenes with high spatial resolution, high intensity, and large temperature ranges. The projector will be capable of generating complex IR target and backgound signatures necessary for simulating missile defense scenarios from acquisition to terminal homing. The projector is also designed to be compact and light weight to support operation on a flight motion simulator. The advanced IR projector developed under this effort will be used in government and contractor HWIL facilities for the simulation and testing of advanced IR missile seekers. The technology developed under this effort may also be used in production line and depot level testing of fielded weapon systems, resulting in improved reliability and reduced operating costs. Other commercial applications include testing of imaging IR sensors used in the medical imaging, police surveillance, fire fighting, and collision avoidance systems.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Mr. Brian J. York
ARMY 02-152      Selected for Award
Title:Hypervelocity Missile Stage Separation
Abstract:Hypervelocity kinetic energy missiles such as the CKEM are being designed utilizing multistage Booster-Sustainer configurations. Concepts entail different methods to separate booster and sustainer stages including passive drag, pyrotechnically-assisted, and, sustainer-motor-ignition-assisted separation. Stage separation is a highly transient process whose simulation requires utilizing 3D, transient CFD and modeling multiphase (particulate) effects as well as afterburning chemistry. Aerodynamic forces and moments on each body must be accurately accounted for and frictional and normal contact forces between the embedded stages must be determined. This problem is significantly more complex than ?traditional? separation problems where only aerodynamic forces and moments are considered. A 6DOF analysis is required which predicts the resulting motion of these two stages which must be coupled to the CFD analysis in a time accurate manner, while accounting for the complex physical processes present. The innovation is the extension of current, advanced CFD methodology to deal with the many additional intricacies of this complex separation problem. Phase I will serve to scope out the overall problem and demonstrate the ability to analyze the CKEM separation scenario for a simplified geometry. In addition to paving the path for supporting design/development activities for tactical systems and relevant separation events, this activity will lead to our ability to simulate very complex stage separation events for other types of systems with fully coupled CFD/6DOF and plume chemistry and multi-phase effects. This has significant commercial potential as related to a variety of design and systems studies which include: (1) Separation analysis of the X-37 Space Shuttle; (2) Separation analysis of the X-43 Hyper-X scramjet research vehicle; (3) TBM separation event simulations supporting IR detection (IR spike); and, (4) Launcher analyses and flyout with application to both Army and Naval missile launcher designs. This effort will expand the types of problems we can support and will enhance the commercialization of the specialized CFD codes we now license.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4818
Mr. Matthew E. Thomas
ARMY 02-153      Selected for Award
Title:Design of a Rheometer for Time-Dependent Gel Rheology
Abstract:The key to the successful dissemination of gel propulsion is a comprehensive understanding of the gel rheological flow properties that affect atomization, combustion, and throttling performance. Time-dependent non-Newtonian phenomenological models will be examined and compared with existing AMCOM/TRW gel data and available literature on gel rheology to identify the most suitable candidate models. The models selected from this analysis will be implemented as a user subroutine in the CFD-ACE+ code. This modeling effort will be critical in supporting a first principles examination of the measurement process associated with unsteady gel flow. A first principles characterization must be made to guarantee that the relationships between the time-dependent rheological properties at shear rate from to 5,000 s-1 to 200,000 s-1are fully understood and applicable. In order to fully quantify these time-dependent properties, a pressure drop/flow rate rheometer capable of thorough experimental examination of various flow fixtures will be conceptualized during Phase I. The most promising fixtures, identified as those that will accurately measure the time dependent characteristics of gel propellants within a propulsion system flow passage will be identified. A detailed set of rheometer prints will be prepared during the option program. During Phase II, the rheometer and test fixtures will be fabricated and the models validated for gel flows between -40 C and 70 C and shear rates from 5000 sec 1 to 200,000 sec 1. Commercial applications include production and quality control in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries where ointments, creams, and lotions actually exploit thixotropic behavior in their very use. In addition, the food industry is a prime target, where mixing of batters, jellies, spreads, and innumerable other products necessitate understanding of non-Newtonian Rheology to maintain quality control and high production rates. Increased understanding of hematic rheological properties could have far reaching implications for renal patients.

EERGC CORP.
18A Mason
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 768-3756
Mr. Mark Sheldon
ARMY 02-153      Selected for Award
Title:Device and Method for Time Dependent Rheometry
Abstract:EERGC Corporation proposes to develop a rheometer capable of determining the time-dependent rheology of gel propellants and use it to determine their pressure drop vs. flow rate characteristics as a function of both time and temperature. To do this, EERGC will utilize the knowledge it has gained in developing particulate gel propellant formulations for AMCOM, and the facilities and vast experience of its subcontractor TRW, the leader in gel propulsion technology. The rheometer will be a modification of an already established capillary rheometer, with an upgraded design to characterize time-dependent rheology with emphasis on the time scales of concern in missile applications. The project will further define a model and characterization method for analyzing the resulting data in a form that can be used in analysis both of the experimental results and in design applications. Engines that burn gelled propellants are the application of specific interest and focus for the rheometer developed in this project, but the approach can be generalized to other types of non-newtonian fluids and other applications with compatible time scales, thus allowing the development of a generalized rheological device with broad commercialization potential.

LITE CYCLES, INC.
2301 N. Forbes Blvd., Suite 111
Tucson, AZ 85745
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 798-0652
Dr. James T. Murray
ARMY 02-154      Selected for Award
Title:Compact and Efficient Ladar Transmitter Utilizing Novel Cooling Techniques
Abstract:Lite Cycles, Inc. (LCI) proposes to develop a compact and efficient, conduction-cooled, solid-state ladar transmitter system that utilizes innovative active and passive cooling techniques. The product of this R&D effort will help facilitate the production of low-cost, high-volume, compact and efficient ladar systems for both military and commercial applications. Commercial sector applications currently being pursued by LCI that directly benefit from this effort include atmospheric monitoring, airborne imaging laser altimetry, and rapid 3D industrial facility profiling.

MARLOW INDUSTRIES, INC.
10451 Vista Park Road
Dallas, TX 75238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 503-3379
Mr. David K. Finfrock
ARMY 02-154      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Laser with Active/Passive Cooling for LADAR Applications
Abstract:Marlow Industries (MI) proposes a hybrid thermoelectric cooler and phase change material assembly to provide a self-contained, compact cooling system that will provide limited duty cycle temperature stabilization as an integral part of a high repetition rate, solid-state laser transmitter. Teaming with Coherent Technologies (CTI) for their laser system expertise, MI will provide a unique, innovative solution for a self-contained cooling system for a 5 to 15 watt solid state, diode pumped laser transmitter operating at 1.5 micron nominal wavelength. The planned duty cycles addressed in the SBIR will be 3 minutes and 30 minutes. This cooling system will be required to maintain the laser assembly at a predefined temperature within 0.2C over the required duty cycle. A significant focus in this effort will be a thorough evaluation of the thermal inputs to the cooling system and an investigation of energy reservoir systems. Alternative technologies to be investigated include hybrid solutions of compressed gas and heater assemblies and endothermic reactions. In addition, MI proposes to evaluate a thermoelectric cooler assembly with a flexible link to ambient. Working closely with CTI, MI will develop a cooling system design concept for a baseline laser transmitter utilizing the data gathered during the Phase I SBIR. This cooling system design will be used in the Phase II SBIR for hardware fabrication. compact cooling system, lower cost, and eyesafe laser, increase potential LADAR applications

ALPHA OMEGA ELECTROMAGNETICS, LLC
24 Cascade Road
Arnold, MD 21012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 750-0190
Dr. Eric W. Lucas
ARMY 02-155      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Simulation for the Design of Radar Absorbing Material (RAM)
Abstract:Radar absorbing material (RAM) is a critical technology component that significantly impacts the strategic military capability of virtually all branches of the United States armed forces. It is used for anechoic chamber design as well as for the electromagnetic radar cross-section (RCS) reduction of diverse vehicular platforms as well as for the stealthy integration of strategic antenna apertures for communications, weapons guidance, radar and diverse electronic warfare functionalities. The advancing development of this technology is clearly important for maintaining the military superiority of the U.S. forces. Powerful electromagnetic simulation is a principal enabling technology to this end. Assessing the technical viability of an EM-simulation capability with sufficient computational power, geometric material modeling generality and application interface robustness to propel the development of new and innovative RAM technologies for next generation anechoic chamber design is the principle program goal of this proposed SBIR research. AOE presents a unique and innovative EM simulation-based software application concept that addresses this issue from several key perspectives, including formulation selection, computational scope, efficiency, application software and 'use model' design. The design of a powerful EM simulation application that enables the design development of both standard as well as advanced technology radar absorbing materials useful for anechoic chamber design. This same basic concept will lay the groundwork for a revolutionary general purpose, commercial EM simulation application offering unprecedented computational power at a fraction of the currently imposed cost.

APPLIED EM, INC.
24 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Dr. C. J. Reddy
ARMY 02-155      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Simulation for the Design of Radar Absorbing Material (RAM)
Abstract:To avoid detection by enemy radar, military platforms are often coated with Radar Absorbing Material (RAM). RAM is intended to operate over a wide range of frequencies with a minimum amount of angular dependence to increase platform survivability. We propose the development of a framework for designing broadband RAM by integrating expertise into very efficient computational electromagnetics and design optimization methods. The proposed full wave computational tools are fast and general in terms of material generality and geometry. They will be adapted and enhanced for RAM design applications and will be further integrated with Pareto genetic algorithms and new design methods best suited for graded composite materials. The proposed design methods will allow novel material designs, which offer much greater variability in performance than those found in nature. Designs based on multilayered cascaded RLC configurations and new artificial, but manufacturable, materials designs will be considered. The proposed design methods will be automated to allow for the specification of material properties subject to specific design guidelines on geometry, material and electrical requirements. The proposed computer simulation tool will be integrated with a user-friendly graphical interface for ease of use. The proposed computational tools are not only applicable to RAM designs, but they are also applicable for designing new materials for a variety of RF applications. These applications include frequency selective surfaces, microwave filters and a large class of grated materials for antenna design.

CG2, INC.
6000 Technology Drive,, Bldg. 1, Suite A
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 217-2703
Mr. Patrick Lyles
ARMY 02-156      Selected for Award
Title:PC-Based Real-Time Infrared/Millimeter Wave Scene Generator
Abstract:In order to eliminate costly redesign and re-development of digital and HWIL simulations for IR sensors, the U.S Army has recognized the need for a commonality between IR Scene generators for these domains. Currently, digital (non-real-time) and HWIL (real-time) simulations for IR sensor development and testing are custom designed by vendors. Algorithms and performance are then verified, validated and accredited by both vendor and government in simulation-based acquisition. However, as each vendor is involved in the vv&a of the algorithms, unique high-resolution targets and background models are often used to exercise the seeker models. In the interest of competition fairness, a need for commonality in these models has been identified. Additional efficiencies and fairness are realized by assuring commonality between the digital and HWIL simulation IR SGs. To date, no single SG technology exists to allow both scene stimulation of digital simulation and HWIL simulation at the required speeds, resolution, and dynamic viewpoint. CG2 will research the use of existing and future hardware, software, and interface techniques to provide an unprecedented SG capability on a PC for this Phase I effort. CG2 will work to insure that the Scene generation for both the digital and HWIL scenes will operate from a core structure. This technology would fit within the OSCR by drastically reducing the cost of developing simulations for testing systems under design in a simulation based acquisition environment. Savings will result from reduction of simulation developments. The use of a PC IR scene generator will eliminate the need for costly platforms and maintenance to clone and verify disparate simulations and provide an unprecedented performance capability.

INTERSPACE, INC.
7113 Copperwood Ct.
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 527-0606
Mr. Matthew Price
ARMY 02-156      Selected for Award
Title:PC-Based Real-Time Infrared/Millimeter Wave Scene Generator
Abstract:Modern scene generators perform complex, real-time rendering functions such as polygon fill, texture mapping, antialiasing, edge blending, and atmospheric and lighting effects. Unfortunately the advances available in the consumer graphics accelerator market do not translate into product applications for military scene generators required to test the next generation sensors. Video graphics cards are limited in frame rate-typically 30 Hz or at most 60 Hz-and are not likely to increase. Testing infrared (IR) sensors used in missile warning systems (MWS) require generating frame rates of 200 Hz or more. Modern IR emitter arrays are now able to project dynamic scenes at this higher rate, however PC based scene rendering systems cannot generate the real-time frames fast enough. InterSpace proposes to leverage its high-speed pixel processor technology to produce high-speed rendering based on PC commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices. The proposed technology will allow a significant cost savings for IR sensor and hardware-in-the-loop testing. This testing is required for most all branches of the military. Commercial applica-tions include flight simulators, digital cinema, and virtual reality environments.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
ARMY 02-157      Selected for Award
Title:Radiative Transfer Calculations on Hybrid Unstructured/Structured Flowfield Grids
Abstract:The field of CFD has witnessed dramatic maturation of unstructured, hybrid multi-element technology, along with implementation of such simulation methodology on large-scale multi-processor parallel, computational architecture. Absence of equivalent for radiative transfer simulations limits design or threat-oriented infra-red (IR) signature analyses to single CPU simulations on structured grids. The present proposal is focused on rectification of this limitation by undertaking he systematic development and validation of a novel unstructured grid technique for conducting radiative transfer simulations. The model will employ hybrid multi-element grids and operate in multi-CPU, parallel processor computational environment. The ability to perform localized mesh adaption is a key feature of the new unstructured grid IR methodology. The developmental activities of the SBIR program will be accompanied by systematic validation against industry-standard IR methodology, using identical physical models (band models, atmospheric transmission models and scattering models). The overall capabilities of the novel unstructured radiative transfer methodology will be demonstrated by performing IR signature predictions for a wide-range of scenarios, e.g. tactical missile, threat ballistic missiles (TBM), divert jets on hypersonic interceptors, etc. Application to aircraft and rotorcraft plume flowfields will also be conducted to assess geometrical versatility and overall fidelity of the new technique. The technology development proposed is of direct relevance to Boost Phase Intercept (BPI) and will aid in assessing the potential of innovative hardware technology developments proposed for space and sea-based kinetic energy BPI concepts. The IR capability development is also of direct relevance to other major DoD initiatives of current relevance, e.g. Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV), V-22 Opsrey, etc. For commercial dual-use applications, this technology is directly applicable to remote sensing of the atmosphere for weather modeling and prediction, environmental studies of the earth, pollution monitoring, ocean temperature, etc.

INVARIANT CORP.
4800 Whitesburg Dr #30-353
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 885-9794
Mr. David R. Anderson
ARMY 02-158      Selected for Award
Title:Infrared Seeker Performance Metrics
Abstract:Advances in imaging infrared (IIR) technology and demonstration of this technology as a capable means of target discrimination, automatic target recognition (ATR), and auto-tracking have led to the development of numerous IIR weapon systems. Although excellent analysis tools exist for describing the imaging sensors themselves, no adequate method or tools exist for characterizing the auto-detection and tracking performance capability of the sensors against targets in a variety of backgrounds. This is complicated by the fact that auto-detection and tracking techniques are difficult to characterize. It is impossible to generate a single generic metric that will accurately predict the performance of all imaging auto-trackers. Typically auto-trackers can be categorized based on their fundamental algorithm. With knowledge of the detection or tracking algorithm, an appropriate metric can be used to predict performance. This effort identifies the common detection algorithms and tracker routines and uses the fundamental algorithms as metrics. These metrics will be used to analyze real imagery from various IR sensors. A methodology for a performance metric will be developed that accurately predicts auto-detection and tracker performance and a validation plan will be developed comparing actual auto-detection and tracker systems to the metric results. As the U.S. Army moves forward in its use of IIR technology, development of a tool capable of predicting auto-detection and tracker performance is essential for optimizing algorithm development and setting seeker system parameters.

SUKRA HELITEK, INC.
3146, Greenwood Road
Ames, IA 50014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 292-9646
Mr. Nicholas Lovell
ARMY 02-159      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Generation of Viscous CFD Grids for Increased Productivity of High Fidelity Aerodynamic Analysis
Abstract:Viscous analysis is vital for a complete understanding of missle and UAV aerodynamic properties. This proposal offers a technique for generating grids suitable for viscous analysis on complex configurations. The principle idea is to divide the region closest to the body into a sequance of inter-connected zones and generate body-conforming grids in these zones.The body-conforming grids are restricted to a prescribed normal distance from the body. The near-surface grids, partitioned into a number of patches, allow the automatic generation of the grids with aspect ratios suitable for viscous flows. In the outer region, where convection dominates, unstructured cartesian or cartesian-like meshes can be generated quickly and easily. A transitional grid is used as a bridge between regions. The entire grid can be treated as one single-zoned unstructured grid with an unstructured solver or as a hybrid grid with multiple zones and multiple solvers. In the hybrid approach, viscous solvers are used for the near-body zone while the faster inviscid solvers can be used in the farfield. In Phase I a proof-of- concept grid generator will be demonstrated using candidate missle geometries. In the Option period, intial solver development will begin and be continued in Phase II. The software developed will be used for viscous calculations of shapes of interest to the US Army and defense contractors. The generation of grids can be automated completely facilitating fast turn-around.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Dr. John L. Papp
ARMY 02-160      Selected for Award
Title:Altitude Effects - Fluid Flow Transition and Continuum Breakdown
Abstract:The innovation entails the extension of newly developed hypersonic transitional models and hybrid continuum/DSMC methodology to analyze plume and divert jet interactions at altitudes above 45km where present predictive capabilities are deficient due to complexities in the physics. In the altitude regime of 45-60 km, the separation zone generated by the interaction of the plume or divert jet with the missile aerodynamic flow is very large and laminar to turbulent transition occurs within this zone. Extensions of 3D PDE?s for kL (laminar fluctuations) and for G (intermittency), now used in the CRAFT CFD Navier-Stokes code for transitional hypersonic aerodynamic flows, will be formulated for plume-induced separated zone transition. For altitudes above 60 km, continuum breakdown occurs and we will include slip regime boundary conditions into the CRAFT CFD continuum code as well as initiate formal one-way coupling of this code with the DAC DSMC code under assumptions of thermal equilibrium at the Bird breakdown surface. Exploratory computational studies of generic missile/plume interactive flows will be performed encompassing the 45-80 km altitude regime with an optional task addressing non-continuum effects for a higher altitude divert jet problem. CRAFT Tech has played a leading role in supporting systems and developmental studies related to missile plume interactive flows in the lower endo regime. Overall support to date from both DoD and industry for such studies has been significant. This effort will provide for the extension of such activities to the higher endo regime and the lower exo regime, permitting us to deal with a much broader array of problems. Particular areas where we see major commercialization potential include: (1) support of MDA/MSIC Boost Phase Intercept studies for detection, discrimination and plume to hardbody handover; (2) Liquid and Solid threat simulant booster design (for target usage) where we have been supporting a number of industrial groups; and (3) Army efforts related to interceptor missile technology where divert jet effects at higher altitudes are of major concern.

SAGE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1018 West Ninth Avenue, Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 354-9100
Mr. Robert A. Lee
ARMY 02-160      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid CFD-DSMC Model
Abstract:A unified hybrid DSMC-CFD model will be utilized to assess its applicability to analyze flow fields at all altitudes, from the continuum to the free molecular flow regime. Test cases will be selected to highlight its sound approach in terms of modeling the wall boundary condition as the flow regime changes with increasing altitude. Also, after the assessment of the hybrid method is complete, laminar to turbulent transition phenomenon will be subject to further research with the hybrid model. If the model proves to be an effective and useful tool, a continuing phase II effort will incorporate the DSMC model into an existing government approved aero-propulsive CFD code. A hybrid DSMC-CFD predictive capability will greatly enhance the current limitations experienced by the CFD codes. The fundamental continuum hypothesis embedded in the Navier-Stokes equations which limits the applicability of all CFD codes will be extended into the "slip" and the "transitional" flow regimes. The hybrid approach, if proven to be efficient and accurate, will be available as a module to existing CFD solvers to expand current capabilities.

RLW, INC.
1360 South Atherton Street
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 867-5122
Mr. Lewis Watt
ARMY 02-161      Selected for Award
Title:Health Monitoring for Condition Based Maintenance
Abstract:RLW, Inc. has formed a team with Materials Sciences Corporation (MSC) and IMES Group to execute the research and development described in SBIR solicitation A02-161: "Health Monitoring for Condition Based Maintenance". The team benefits from RLW Inc.'s expertise in and commercialization path for small, smart, wireless sensors; MSC's leadership in composite structure design, analysis, and testing; and IMES Group's proven and commercialized acoustic emission (AE) sensors and algorithms. Each of the three companies has demonstrated the ability to succeed in managing government projects, including SBIRs. The team will be lead by RLW. The team will focus on composite applications for AE sensors coupled to small, smart wireless devices. The project will include an array of tests on composite panels to assess algorithms, software, and hardware. Test results will be confirmed using both destructive and non-destructive methods. Project results will be used to define a commercialization path for wireless AE sensing for aircraft, missiles, and commercial applications. Project results will accelerate the use and commercialization of several technologies that will have positive effects on life cycle costs of DoD and commercial aircraft as well as other vehicles. AE (acoustic emission) sensing has shown great promise for health monitoring of a wide array of materials and components. High sampling rates, required for successful AE applications, are accommodated by recent improvements in electronics. Similarly, high speed processing is available on small chips, enhancing the ability to process the AE data into useful information at the monitored component or material, using devices such as RLW's S2NAPT. Small, affordable, RF technologies such as BluetoothT and 802.11 coupled with these processors render airworthy wireless health monitoring feasible. The S2NAPT will mate the AE transducer and with the processor and the RF card, resulting in wireless transmission of specific health information rather than volumes of data. The benefits of wireless systems are well-understood in helicopters and missiles where weight is critical and electrical interconnects and insulation are recognized maintenance drivers. Though this project will focus on aircraft applications, the research applies to other air and ground vehicles. The manufacturers and maintainers of such vehicles are potential clients for this technology, once commercialized.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Russell Austin
ARMY 02-161      Selected for Award
Title:Large Area Distributed Acoustic Emission Health Processor for Condition Based Maintenance, Diagnostics & Prognostics
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop a system for monitoring structures and equipment with an innovative, miniature, independent multi-channel acoustic emission (AE) system and wireless transmitters. Additionally, it will be shown that the data can be used with confidence for assessing component fitness-for-service and determining residual strength/lifetime. The Large Area Health Monitoring Processor (LAHMP) will perform AE acquisition, analysis, diagnostic, and prognostic functions so that a central health monitoring system (HMS) can simply read a small digital file containing fully analyzed diagnostics and prognostics. Analysis of AE data is a proven technology to make diagnostic and prognostic decisions fitness for service and remaining useful life (RUL). Software will be developed to automate these decisions so maintenance personnel do not have to interpret data. Phase I prognostics will address reinforced composites, e.g. PAC-3 casings, and aluminum corrosion. Future work will address more complex assemblies and geometries. LAHMP is a significant improvement over COTS AE equipment (large, heavy, extensive cabling, large amounts of raw data for operator interpretation), point measurement sensors, and sensors that monitor damage indirectly. LAHMP will initially be designed for Boeings Battery Operated Health Monitoring System (BOHMS). Future work will adapt LAHMP to other HUMS/RRAPDS systems. LAHMP will enable the strengths of acoustic emission monitoring to be used for large area monitoring of virtually any metallic or composite structure. It can be added to existing HMS/HUMS/RRAPDS systems. This will be applicable to rotocraft (RAH-66, MH-53J/M), fixed wing aircraft (JSF, F-18E/F), munitions (PAC-3, 2.75" rockets, THAAD) as well as permanent AE monitoring in commercial applications (pressure vessels, bridges, storage tanks).

DE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3620 Horizon Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 270-9700
Mr. Richard Foedinger
ARMY 02-162      Selected for Award
Title:Life Prediction of Composite Pressure Vessels
Abstract:Stress-rupture is a significant design issue for composite pressure vessels subjected to long term pressurization. The considerable scatter in stress-rupture life exhibited by fiber reinforced composites, coupled with the lack of reliable life prediction methods, has led to the requirement for low operating pressures in relation to the design burst pressure, resulting in overly conservative designs and/or limited service life. An improved methodology for predicting the stress-rupture life of composite pressure vessels, based on actual fiber and matrix stress history, is proposed. The methodology includes: (1) an analytical model for predicting the time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic polymer matrix composites; (2) accelerated testing using a time-temperature-stress superposition (TTSSP) principle; (3) statistical analysis to address data scatter and allow extrapolation of the model and test data; and (4) acoustic emission (AE) monitoring to provide a possible NDE tool for extending the life of existing pressure vessels and an improved understanding of the effect of damage. The focus of the proposed Phase I research will be on the analytical model development and feasibility demonstration. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and limited stress-rupture testing and AE monitoring of pressure vessels are also proposed to provide a preliminary assessment of the merits of the proposed approach. The proposed research has significant potential benefits for both military and commercial applications. The development and validation of an improved methodology and accelerated test procedure would result in reduced costs, extended service life and improved (i.e., lighter weight) pressure vessel designs for defense, aerospace, aircraft, marine and numerous commercial applications (e.g., spacecraft propellant tanks, natural gas vehicle tanks, compressed gas tanks for breathing apparatus, inflation systems on aircraft).

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Dr. Anthony A. Caiazzo
ARMY 02-162      Selected for Award
Title:Life Prediction of Composite Pressure Vessels (MSC P1T39-232)
Abstract:The Army and other Department of Defense (DoD) agencies make extensive use of composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPV); applications include missile sensor cooling containers to gas storage for life-support systems. The research program outlined by Materials Sciences Corporation (MSC) in this proposal focuses on defining tests and analyses required to enable one to reliably design future COPV to have a safe service life in excess of 30 years. The Phase I program will include development of test protocols for characterizing the stress-rupture behavior of composite strands and laminated architectures, demonstration of analysis procedures for relating the statistical variability of unidirectional composite strand failure data to the composite laminate level and ultimately the COPV level, and generation of a program-planning document (PPD) that outlines lead the fleet testing protocol needed to continuously update life extension recommendations. A recent study has concluded that if the service life of these pressure vessels can be extended to as much as 30 more years, the DoD could realize an acquisitions cost savings exceeding $500M. The research proposed by MSC is expected to yield the statistically based test and analysis protocol necessary to design COPV for extended service lifetimes. Once derived and validated, the lifetime certification methodology will be presented to government regulatory agencies such as the National Institute of Standards and Testing and the Compressed Gas Association for approval. Hence, the research program outlined in this proposal has the potential to impact virtually every COPV in the commercial market.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5412 Hilldale Court
Fort Collins, CO 80526
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 226-6706
Dr. K. Khorasani
ARMY 02-163      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Modeling and Control Techniques for Minimizing Latencies and Bandwidth Constraints in an Engagement Network
Abstract:The effective use of a network centric collaborative force to autonomously deliver precise long range indirect fire weapons system demand low latency and stringent bandwidth requirements for decision making and engagement processes. This is further compounded by the extensive information processing capability that is required in the sensor-decider-shooter operation. Specifically, substantial capabilities are required to analyze and evaluate sensor data and initiate a course of action in view of presence of multiple sensors, weapons, and tactical situations being involved. In view of the above, interest in modeling and control of large scale engagement networks is growing over the past several years. As design requirements and performance demands for minimization of network latencies and bandwidth constraints increase, the burden and responsibility for developing more suitable and advanced control strategies also increase. The conventional strategies that ignore the effects of dynamic coupling and interaction among the multi-decision makers, nonlinearities, parameter, noise and environmental variations as well as changes in the performance specifications, objectives and goals may generally fail to meet the very strict and stringent design specifications and requirements that are imposed on the network in terms of the data latencies and bandwidth constraints. The objectives of this proposal are to address the above issues by developing and characterizing a rigorous, formal, and a comprehensive mathematical model of the missile engagement network with application to a typical air defense system. Specifically, in this Phase I research, we intend to develop, analyze, implement, and evaluate algorithms for coordination and control of a large scale complex engagement network consisting of stationary as well as cooperative and autonomous decision makers. The proposed system is designed to support the utilization of optimal allocation and distribution of information in order to minimize the existing latencies and bandwidth constraints in the network. Bandwidth and latency problems have always been a concern for military command and control (C2) systems as the need to move very large volumes of data within the combat engagement network will present problems requiring real-time and expeditious remedies. These problems are particularly compounded when one has to provide a large volume of data to locations which are either mobile or have the potential for movement, where more advanced technological solution have to be employed. Anticipated outcomes of this research include new mathematical representation and models, as well as software tools for coordination and control of multi-decision making systems operating under uncertain and varying latencies and bandwidth limitations with potential for a variety of applications including: monitoring and control of distributed power, manufacturing and communication systems, and organizational decision support systems. These organizations have interest in the development of viable approaches for handling data latencies and bandwidth constraints in addressing the design, control, and performance requirements for these large scale complex systems.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-7892
Dr. Paul Schnitser
ARMY 02-164      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Arterial-Venous Eye Pulse Oximeter (AVEPOX)
Abstract:Hemorrhage is the primary cause of death on the battlefield. Army has a pressing need for a non-invasive device that can measure vital organ arterial and venous blood oxygen saturation to assess whether, and when, oxygen delivery and absorption is adequate. To meet this need Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Arterial-Venous Eye Pulse Oximeter (AVEPOX). AVEPOX will operate with a spatially modulated, multiwavelength, laser light. Packaged as a hand-held ophthalmoscope, it will allow separate, non-invasive, on?battlefield measurement of oxygen saturation of both arterial and venous blood and save in its memory or immediately transmit this information to a medical center. In Phase I, POC will develop a laboratory model and then test it using an optical model of human eye and on chicken embryo. In Phase II, a full-scale hand?held prototype will be fabricated and tested on small animal models. The proposed AVEPOX will become a state-of-the-art non-invasive optical oximetry device allowing simultaneous and independent measurement of arterial and venous blood oxygen saturation. This instrument will profoundly improve the diagnostics and treatment of numerous hypoxia-related diseases such as hemorrhage injures, diabetes, ulcers, and cardiovascular disorders.

KUMETRIX, INC.
29524 Union City Blvd.
Union City, CA 94587
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 476-0950
Dr. Brian Sullivan
ARMY 02-165      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:MEMS Devices for Cell Implantation
Abstract:Recent advances in cell implantation therapy promise a cure or mitigation of devastating neurological conditions such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases, and the repair of a stroke-damaged brain. Improvement in motor control and balance was observed in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease after receiving intracerebral implantation of retinal cells. Cell grafts are administered during stereotactic surgical procedures that allow placement of cells deep within the central nervous system. Guide cannulae are of the order of 2 millimeters in diameter. This proposal presents a revolutionary cellular (or drug) infusion devices fabricated from silicon by MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology. MEMS allows for the creation of complex structures such as micropumps, microneedles, and microfluidic networks on a scale commensurate with stereotactic surgical instrumentation. Pioneering MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) R&D in the proposer's laboratory has lead to a microsampling device, consisting of a hollow silicon microneedle comparable in cross-section to a human hair integrated with lab-on-a-chip microfluidics. This device is made by silicon microfabrication technology developed for the manufacture of electronic integrated circuits, and can be produced in high volume at low unit cost. This technology can also be adapted to the fabrication of microsurgical devices for the delivery of cells or drugs to deep within the central nervous system. The ability to fabricate microsurgical devices for accurate and reliable delivery of cells or drugs deep within the central nervous system will profoundly benefit the treatment and care of patients suffer from devastating neurological conditions. The commercial opportunities will primarily be in the health care industry. Other commercial markets include: veterinary medicine, laparoscopic surgery, dental surgery, and medical research.

EPITOMICS, INC.
1015 Grandview Drive
South San Francisco, CA 94080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 583-6688
Dr. Robert Pytela
ARMY 02-166      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Sandwich ELISA using rabbit monoclonal antibodies for liver-stage malaria detection
Abstract:Malaria is a major health problem worldwide, and its significance may be on the increase due to the rapid spread of parasite strains that are resistant to conventional anti-malaria drugs. Evidence suggests that during the inital phase of infection (liver-stage) the Plasmodium parasites may be susceptible to neutralization by drugs or vaccines. The infection of liver cells by plasmodium can be studied in vitro, using human hepatoma cell lines. This system could be used as a model to screen for neutralizing activity. However, this approach is hampered by the lack of a rapid quantitative assay for the number of plasmodium parasites that are present in a hepatoma cell culture. We propose to develop a novel sandwich ELISA assay that will facilitate the rapid high-throughput screening of anti-malaria drugs. To this end, we will first raise novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies to several major proteins that are present in liver-stage plasmodium parasites. We will use our proprietary rabbit hybridoma technology to develop antibodies to both synthetic peptides and recombinant proteins based on Plasmodium sequences. Pairs of antibodies recognizing independent epitopes on a given protein will be rapidly identified by using a novel sandwich screening approach. This research is designed to develop a rapid ELISA assay for quantifying malaria parasites present in infected liver cells. This novel assay will be substantailly more sensitive, specific, reliable, and easier to use than currently available assays. It will provide significant advantages to researchers developing novel approaches for the treatment of liver-stage malaria. On the basis of our novel assay, we will develop a test kit that will be marketed to research institutes, hospitals, and companies interested in quantifying infection by liver-stage plasmodium parasites. Furthermore, the novel monoclonal antibodies developed in the course of this project may have additional applications in malaria research and/or drug development.

MD BIOTECH, INC.
511 Burrough St.
Morgantown, WV 26505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 598-1134
Dr. Christopher J. Kolanko
ARMY 02-166      Selected for Award
Title:Rapid Method for the Quantification of Exo-Erythrocytic (Liver-stage) Malaria Parasites
Abstract:Manual quantification of the malaria parasite is time consuming, costly and inhibits vaccine and drug development. The objective of this Phase I SBIR is to develop and validate an image capture, documentation and quantification technology to score the invasion of malarial parasites in hepatoma cells. The quantitative image analysis software will be designed as to provide the basis of a fully automated microscopy technology. Technical innovations incorporated in this proposal include, 1) a digital imaging system for the capture and documentation of malarial parasites in hepatoma cells, 2) technology for the scoring of the number of malarial parasite invasion and 3) the transition to a fully automated microscopy system that eliminates user invervention and provides high-throughput screening capability. MD Biotech has experience in developing high-throughput automated microscopy systems for the pharmaceutical industry. The Automated Comet Assay System is an exapmle of MD Biotech's abilities. The proposed detection technology and transition to an automated microscopy system meets the critical need within the malarial vaccine and drug development programs to increase assay throughput, relieve technical personnel from hours of tedious microscope viewing, remove scoring bias and eliminate errors due to scorer fatigue or inconsistant application of scoring criteria. Commercial applications of this proposed research include improved imaging, scoring and automation of the envasion of parasites and infectious agents within various mammalian cells. This technology has direct applications in vaccine research, preclinical drug screening and other numerous cell based assays.

SIBTECH, INC.
705 North Mountain Road
Newington, CT 06111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 953-1753
Dr. Marina V. Backer
ARMY 02-167      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Development of Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapeutics for Treatment of Cancer
Abstract:Anti-cancer antibodies are potential molecular vehicles for targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents to tumors and metastatic lesions. Currently, "loading" of therapeutics and diagnostics therapeutic agents on antibodies relies on chemical conjugation of drugs, drug carriers, or adapters for drug carriers to targeting proteins. Chemical modifications of antibodies damage their ability to bind to cellular targets, require expensive custom development and yield heterogeneous preparations. These are the major obstacles to the use of antibodies for targeted drug delivery. SibTech, Inc. develops a new technology for modular assembly of vehicles for targeted drug delivery. This technology avoids chemical modification of targeting proteins by using a standardized docking system that includes two modules: a "docking" tag fused to a targeting protein, and a "payload" module containing an adapter protein for binding to the docking tag. Standardized payload modules are pre-made by linking an adapter protein to carriers for therapeutic or diagnostic agents. In Phase I, we propose to establish a feasibility of constructing a molecular targeting vehicle based on a single-chain recombinant antibody against VEGFR-2, a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor that is overexpressed in the tumor vasculature. The humanized system for converting recombinant antibodies into molecular vehicles for targeted drug delivery can be used by every group developing anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies. The reagent developed during Phase I will be immediately commercialized for use in research.

DIAMOND VISIONICS LLC
400 Plaza Drive, Suite-A, PO Box 1276
Vestal, NY 13851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-8526
Mr. Graham Upton
ARMY 02-168      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Medical Modeling & Simulation - Assessment Tools to Support Medical Readiness Training
Abstract:Medical Simulation Training industry is striving to achieve the same magnitude of commercial value as the Aviation Simulation Training Industry. Whereas the aviation simulation the industry is fast becoming mature, the medical simulation training industry is still in its early stages. Medical training systems have a long way to go in terms of attaining realism and fidelity optimum for training. An important step towards this goal is to validate the effectiveness of the current simulators in training the medical readiness programs. Military aviation simulation is the gold standard of simulation training applications. The lessons learned from this industry can be leveraged to the benefit of the medical simulation training industry. Many of the standards of the aviation simulation can be implemented with minor modifications to medical simulation. Diamond Visionics will provide useful solutions by devising the tool and methodology required to validate to the concept of validating Medical Readiness Simulators. Diamond Visionics will also explore the concept of simulator specific metrics and general metrics. Not all simulators are capable of training in all kinds of skills. The metrics and the validation methodology will take note of all these commonalities and differences and devise appropriate methodologies applicable to classes of simulators. Federal and non-federal markets for the results of this research include a wide spectrum of medical facilities and institutions. The simulator validation tool will help validate simulators and evaluate the performance of trainees at low cost. This means that these devices can be attainable for all medical schools and hospitals. Validation of the simulators and benchmarking with the best of military aviation simulators will ensure the widespread manufacturing and use of the medical simulators. Eventually the medical simulation training industry will achieve its objective of becoming a mature industry with a lot of revenue generation potential. Medical simulation technology has wide spread economic benefits for the nation. It has the potential of reducing various aspects of the nation's healthcare and training related costs. Eventually it may help in reducing the costs of heath insurance. Various studies by surgeons and academicians have time and again propagated the use of the simulation for training surgeons.

ACTIVITY RESEARCH SERVICES
2608 Santa Maria Court
Chula Vista, CA 91914
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 216-7036
Dr. Timothy F. Elsmore
ARMY 02-172      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Cognitive Status Report Generator
Abstract:Data from original and archival sources will be used to compile normative values for both single and repeated administrations of selected ANAM test batteries. These norms will then be used to develop and evaluate strategies for creating cognitive status reports (CSRs) for use by clinicians, field commanders, and other decision makers. Predictive subsets of the data generated by the test batteries will be identified, and criteria for developing composite scores and reports from these data will be developed. Screening applications will require population norms for comparison, while therapeutic and operational applications (i.e., fitness for duty) may require comparison of a subject's current performance with past performance. Both types of applications will be addressed. Preliminary software for CSR creation will be developed. Testing systems providing point-of-use feedback on cognitive status will be available to clinicians, managers, and researchers. These systems will provide objective, data-based information to guide diagnostic, therapeutic, and operational decisions. Benefits of this system will include reduced health care costs and improved safety in the workplace.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George Hansen
ARMY 02-173      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-Compact, Lightweight Battlefield Splint
Abstract:Novel ultra-lightweight composite materials are proposed to serve as a cast/splint system for use in battlefield scenarios by combat medics on injured soldiers. Texas Research Institute-Austin's extremely low-density composite has a very high strength-to-weight ratio and possesses mechanical properties that far surpass those of currently used casting/splint systems. These composites will result in a weight and volume-savings of approximately 70% in comparison to air splints and plaster of paris bandages now in use. This new technology will be in a sealed pack and easy to use by the attending medic with no mess or disposable pieces. The composite is fast-curing in order to minimize delays in the mission. The construction of the cast/splint will be such that comfort for the wounded is maximized while the material is orthopedically supportive enough to allow the injured to proceed unaided by fellow soldiers. TRI/Austin's team for the Phase I effort will include experts in medical device development (including FDA approval) and commercialization, specialists in composite materials for structural applications, a biomechanical engineer, and an orthopedic surgeon to provide consultation on development. The marketplace for this innovative technology includes hospitals, EMS personnel, orthopedic physicians, and others who deal in emergency medical care. The lightweight composite casting/splinting system will find value with Army medical personnel by reducing the weight and volume of the currently used system while exhibiting a strength and flexibility of use that meets or exceeds the existing standard. Such a system will also find utility in the private sector, as a no-mess, lightweight cast/splint device will be easy to use by medical personnel and allow patients better mobility with greater comfort.

PARAVANT, INC.
3520 U.S. Highway 1
Palm Bay, FL 32905
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 727-3672
Mr. Lary Beaulieu
ARMY 02-174      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Secure Medic Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
Abstract:Medical personnel in Special Operations need the means by which to respond to medical challenges, in both the military and the civilian sector, that present themselves sometimes many miles and days from the nearest medical support. The secure rugged handheld computer should allow the user access to data contained in medical histories, physical examinations, reference books, and diagnostic and treatment aids. Additionally, the secure rugged handheld should have Internet access while possessing a way to store and transmit data in a secure manner. This device must meet the functional needs and requirements of the field medical first responder and be of a rugged nature sufficiently robust to withstand and operate in the severe environmental conditions operationally encountered. The unit should be capable of utilizing multiple operating systems to maximize compatibility with current and future software applications, and provide interoperability with Windows 2000 and Windows NT 4.0. Lastly, the unit should provide for expandability and adaptability, allowing the insertion of technologies to enhance capability, including wireless data transmission, FDA Approved diagnostic PCMCIA modules, data storage devices, commercial and military SASM GPS modules and co-processor capability to enhance Operating System compatibility and interoperability. Paravant expects a significant commercial market to exist for this effort both with the DOD and in the private sector marketplace. Within the DOD, it is noted that there are close to ten thousand US Army first responder medics that could utilize this advanced technology to better perform their jobs of saving and prolonging life until primary care can be reached. The Marines and Special Forces medics are an additional market able to benefit, adding several thousand more possible systems. The same need exists within the private sector. Harsh environmental conditions require a first responder computer system to meet many of the same environmental requirements as for military use. This market is estimated too much larger than the DOD market. Paravant expects to utilize distribution channels and Representative Organizations within the Public Health and Safety community to serve this marketplace. In summary, there is a tremendous unfilled need in both the DOD and Private Sector markets for such a device, and Paravant is well positioned to successfully serve both.

BIOARRAY SOLUTIONS
35 Technology Drive
Warren, NJ 07059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 226-8200
Dr. Ghazala Hashmi
ARMY 02-176      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Develop a Rapid and Sensitive Nucleic Acid-based Assay to Assess Human Responses to Threat Agent Exposure
Abstract:The implementation of quantitative expression profiling in a novel Random Encoded Array Detection (READ) format is proposed. READ, a proprietary custom bead array technology developed at BioArray Solutions, combines bead chemistry with semiconductor technology to provide a universal platform for quantitative, multiplexed DNA and protein analysis. This novel array format affords complete flexibility in the selection of constituent bead-displayed capture probes and permits "snapshot" imaging of assays using a fluorescence microscope. Here, a novel assay format is proposed that takes advantage of inherent detection sensitivity to eliminate PCR amplification while relaying on the high redundancy and adjustable array composition to accommodate the requisite four orders of magnitude in message expression levels. A compact, fieldable system implementation will be delivered. BioArray Solutions random encoded array detection format is in beta testing stages at leading medical diagnostics centers in the US, currently for multiplexed genotyping and carrier screening as well as quantitative protein profiling. The company intends to add quantitative expression profiling to this menu of capabilities and will focus on the commercial development of custom bead array for rapid quantative expression profiling for the presymptomatic diagnosis of cancer, especially leukemia and related hematologic disorders to guide selection of treatment options and monitor treatment response.

QUANTUM LOGIC DEVICES
7801 North Lamar Blvd., Suite B-161
Austin, TX 78752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 302-5030
Dr. Lous C. Brousseau III
ARMY 02-176      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Single Electron Transistor Array for the Diagnosis of Agent Exposure
Abstract:Differential display utilizing gene arrays is a diagnostic for biowarfare (BW) agent infection, but this technology has many steps and requires highly skilled personnel. Gene arrays are also usually resident in an array "core facility", which rarely exists in a hospital and is absent in smaller clinical settings. By implementing Quantum Logic Device's proprietary Single Electron Transistors (SETs) into an assay platform for detecting hybridization against BW agent-specific probes, a rapid, straightforward clinical system for BW agent exposure will result. The SET technology eliminates fluorophore labels and wash steps, and theoretically has single-molecule sensitivity. The extreme sensitivity further reduces or possibly even eliminates the need for amplification, enabling a truly compact, simple, fully-automated diagnostic system. For Phase I, assay feasibility studies will be conducted using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) apparatus, reconfigured to mimic the properties of an SET. The STM will determine SET sensitivity to hybridization using cDNA probes in various media, including PBMC lysates. Sensitivity results will determine amplification requirements, while various media will fully define the pre-hybridization steps that also have to be performed by a disposable SET cartridge. Phase I will result in a fully conceptualized system design to be fabricated and evaluated during Phase II. The diagnostic technique that results from the proposed work will enable the presently-cumbersome technology of gene arrays to become broadly applied to clinical diagnostics.

EPITOMICS, INC.
1015 Grandview Drive
South San Francisco, CA 94080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 583-6688
Dr. Dongxiao Zhang
ARMY 02-177      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Development of High Throughput Molecular Profiles for the Detection and Staging of Cancer
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project aims to develop a technology that employs polyclonal antibodies as a complex probe to discover tumor associated surface antigens, a process named Dual Immunostaining-mediated Subtractive Cloning (DISC). Antibodies have been the most powerful tools to dissect the expression and structure of proteins. Immune system has evolved to respond to foreign antigens by generating antibodies recognizing most, if not all, foreign epitopes. It is thus a powerful tool to search for structural and quantitative differences on cell surface proteins between a normal cell and a diseased cell. Disease-associated cell surface antigens are ideal markers for diagnostics and potential targets for therapeutic intervention. To discover novel disease-related cell surface molecules, we propose a novel technology that combines three proven techniques: whole cell immunization, flow cytometry and cDNA expression cloning, to identify surface antigens that quantitatively or structurally unique to diseased cells such as cancer cells. These tumor-associated antigens identified in this process will be used to generate monoclonal antibody microarrays for the detection and staging of cancer in Phase II of the project. DISC technology that Epitomics is attempting to develop in Phase I will lead to discovery of novel tumor associated antigens in a panel of human cancers (Phase II project). Rabbit monoclonal antibodies against these antigens will be produced from the cell lines generated in DISC process. Epitomics intends to develop and commercialize antibody microarrays for cancer detection and staging, using monoclonal antibodies for the existing and newly discovered tumor antigens.

REDPATH GENETICS
311 Marberry Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 784-9277
Dr. Sydney D. Finkelstein
ARMY 02-177      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:High Throughput Molecular Profiling of Human Cancer by Microdissection Genotyping
Abstract:Redpath Genetics will develop, during this Phase 1 proposal period, 5 novel microdissection based genotyping tests to address important clinical issues currently unanswered using conventional methods for analysis of fixative treated tissue specimens of human cancer. These 5 tests, utilizing patented topogrpahic genotyping technology (US 6,340,563 B1), will greatly improve the diagnosis and management of cancer patients and provide a strong initial portfolio of solid tissue molecular testing for commercialization. Three parallel strategies for commercialization will be initiated: 1)licensing of specific testing to major academic and private medical laboratories, 2)development of a specialty reference laboratory for referral testing and 3)formulation of Gene Tests kits for marketing to individual laboratories enabling in-house testing. Integration of high throughput mutational profiling with traditional histopathology analysis will greatly advance pathology practice. The opportunity provided by Redpath Genetic testing will serve as a platform for translation of new gene discovery into practical solid tissue cancer testing.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. G. Duncan Hitchens
ARMY 02-178      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:A Lightweight, Disposable Gas-Phase Sterilization System for Field Application
Abstract:A need exists to sterilize medical or dental instruments in environments where standard heat and pressure methods are not available. This Phase I SBIR proposal describes a method which produces a gas sterilant at the point of use with a simple and robust activation mechanism ideal for the combat environment. The project involves the packaging of lightweight stable powders into a vial that when activated, produce a broad-spectrum, high-level disinfectant/sporicidal agent. This EPA-approved gas sterilant is widely used in civilian applications with little or no toxicity, making it both user and environmentally friendly. Able to achieve sterilization in fifteen minutes, the agent leaves no residue, is non-corrosive, and due to its gaseous properties, efficiently sterilizes the most complicated of instruments such as those with small channels and lumens, making it superior to liquid or vapor sterilants. In Phase I, Lynntech will demonstrate an easy-to-carry sterilization package based on lightweight plastics and powders. The Phase I will focus on integrating the pre-packaged sterilant with quick activation, and ensuring that sterilized instruments remain in their aseptic environment until used. The Phase II will focus on the specific design parameters of the packages and demonstrating the technology to potential Phase III partners. Lynntech's sterilization kit would find dual use in both military and civilian applications. Other applications for this system would include situations in rural, disaster, or other scenarios where conventional sterilizing facilities are not available. These commercial applications greatly enhance the relevance of this project.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2355
Dr. William L. Bell
ARMY 02-178      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Ultra-lightweight Sterilizer
Abstract:A portable sterilizer for medical and dental instruments is needed to enhance far-forward medical capabilities. Such a system must be extremely lightweight, easy to use and must function without external power or other infrastructure. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop such an ultra-lightweight portable sterilizer. TDA has experience in two relevant areas for previous R&D efforts: decontamination of biological warfare agents and production of portable heaters for Army field rations. The first project has given us background in sterilization processes, and the second has given us background in field-activated chemical reactions and lightweight packaging for long-term stability. In Phase I TDA will determine conditions for effective sterilization at relevant temperatures and humidities. We will then design and assemble prototype sterilizers and demonstrate that they produce the design levels of sterilant. We will then test the ultra-lightweight sterilizers with samples inoculated with known levels of contaminants. In the Phase I Option TDA will develop the process to produce the sterilizer on automated equipment and will fabricate pre-production items for further testing. Preliminary estimates indicate that the production sterilizer will weigh roughly one-half ounce, thereby providing valuable capability at minimal weight. The ultra-lightweight sterilizer will enhance medical support to troops in the field at a minimal weight. It may also find use in civilian disaster relief and in less-developed countries where conventional autoclaves are unavailable or power supplies are unreliable.

APPLIED PERCEPTION, INC.
109 Gateway Avenue, Suite 201
Wexford, PA 15090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 934-8965
Dr. Patrick Rowe
ARMY 02-179      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Robotic Patient Recovery
Abstract:We propose to develop the conceptual and technical design for an autonomous vehicle that can seek, detect, localize, and retrieve wounded patients from hostile situations. We plan to concentrate on three core technical areas: 1) coverage planning and autonomous navigation; 2) patient detection and identification; and 3) vehicle design for patient retrieval. Critical navigation system technical areas that will be examined include ensuring the entire search area has been checked for patients, determining which areas of potentially rough wilderness terrain are passable and impassable, and searching and navigating without an a priori map. For the patient detection and localization task, issues we propose to investigate include attempting to identify a patient that is probably not moving, is close to the ground, and is partially occluded by natural vegetation or perhaps masked by the soldier's own camouflage. Once a wounded patient has been positively identified, the final task is to safely retrieve them. Our plan is to begin with an existing combat-ready outdoor vehicle platform and modify it to support this task. This effort will focus on the necessary additions to support grasping the patient and providing them with a sheltered, medically effective transport facility. The use of an autonomous vehicle to retrieve wounded personnel from hostile conditions not only reduces the risk of harm to those whose task it is to bring the wounded patient back, but also provides some measure of protection to the patient himself, increasing his or her own chances for survival. From a commerical perspective, we believe that there are significant spin-off technologies that could be applied sooner to existing robotics and related products. Specifically, we have identified three market areas - sensor assisted tele-operation, surveillance and monitoring, and hospital operations - where the component technology that is developed for the patient recovery task could be commercializable.

IROBOT CORP.
22 McGrath Hwy, Suite 6
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 629-0055
Dr. Brian Yamauchi
ARMY 02-179      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Valkyrie: A Patient Recovery Robot
Abstract:We propose to develop Valkyrie, a semi-autonomous mobile robot for the recovery of battlefield casualties. When a soldier is wounded in combat, Valkyrie will navigate to the casualty's location, and a remote medic will teleoperate the onboard manipulator to lift, drag, or roll the casualty onto the robot or a litter. Valkyrie will then autonomously transport the casualty to a safe location for treatment. Valkyrie will also be able to autonomously search for casualties using its onboard infrared vision system. During Phase I, our first task will be to determine the best way for the robot to acquire the casualty for transport. Based on the results of this task, we will select an appropriate robot platform for Valkyrie. We have a unique opportunity to leverage three iRobot R&D projects that offer robots ranging in size from a backpack-sized reconnaissance robot to a golf cart-sized off-road vehicle. Our third task will be to develop vision software for detecting casualties using an infrared camera. In the Phase I Option, we will develop a prototype end effector that can be mounted on a manipulator to acquire the casualty, and we will test our infrared vision system in urban and wilderness environments. When a soldier is wounded in combat, the number one priority is to protect that casualty from hostile fire and move the casualty to a location where he or she can be treated safely. The time required to evacuate the casualty is the single most important factor in determining whether the casualty will live or die. If the casualty is under heavy fire, a medic may not be able to safely reach the casualty within the "golden hour" immediately following injury. This presents a stark choice between allowing the casualty's condition to worsen, possibly leading to death, or placing the medic in grave danger in order to reach the casualty, potentially leading to the death of both soldier and medic. Patient recovery robots like Valkyrie will save soldiers and medics from this lethal dilemma. In addition, Valkyrie will have a wide range of commercial applications for civilian search and rescue in hazardous environments. These applications include rescuing casualties from burning buildings, wilderness fires, structures damaged by earthquakes or bombs, and areas contaminated by chemical, biological, or nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks.

ACTIVE SIGNAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13027A Beaver Dam Road
Cockeysville, MD 21030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 636-9350
Dr. Arthur Cooke
ARMY 02-180      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Wear-and-Forget Electrocardiogram and Ventilation Sensor Suitable for Multi-day Use in Physically-Active Warfighters
Abstract:Active Signal Technologies proposes a thoroughly planned systematic development effort to produce a system that will meet the requirements of rugged operational monitoring to provide continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) and ventilation data on actively deployed personnel. The program starts with a comprehensive literature survey across a broad range of life sciences, technology and government research disciplines to examine all applicable sensing technologies together with approaches to eliminating noise and artifact associated with ambulatory monitoring. Proof of principle experiments will be conducted on the most promising techniques uncovered by this review. Without prejudicing the outcome of the comprehensive review and planning process, Active Signal will be undertaking a parallel lab based effort to build brassboard prototypes of three products already under development with the aim of demonstrating capability under operational conditions. These "going-in" techniques are: simple arm band ECG leads worn with any normal shirt, a combined respiration/pulse sensor in a comfortable neck band with wireless connection to its processing electronics, and a wrist pulse sensor with novel motion rejection technology. Based on the literature analysis and experimental findings, an analysis will be presented of the likely compromises/trade-offs and the best path to a viable sensor/processing system in Phase II. Miniaturized and reliable ambulatory measurement of physiological signs will open commercial markets in performance monitoring of athletes, health conscious adults, home health care of the sick and elderly, and vital signs assessment of hospital inpatients, trauma victims and combat casualties.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4150
Mr. Brian Farrell
ARMY 02-180      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:A Wear-and-Forget Physiological Monitoring Sensor System
Abstract:The US Army needs suitable sensors for physiological monitoring of free-ranging soldiers engaged in a broad variety of physical activities. Foster-Miller, using its wearable electronic network technology, will develop a robust, wearable physiological sensor network that will be able to withstand the rigors of a combat situation. More specifically, this sensor system will monitor the EKG and ventilation of the warfighter. The sensor system will be based on a platform of gel-free textile-based sensors. These EKG and ventilation sensors will provide the reliability, comfort ,and durability required by the active warfighter. Initially, we are proposing to develop this sensor system as a stand alone wearable device that is not integral with other elements of the soldiers attire, such as the BDU. This will allow us to focus on the development of the sensor without adding cost and complexity to existing standard attire. Ultimately, should there be such a direction as part of the Army roadmap, the sensor system could be incorporated into a wearable, body conforming garment. (P-020525) The resulting technology will be directly useful to the US Army for physiological monitoring during combat and training. It will also benefit the rapidly expanding telemedicine market and be useful for health status monitoring in the area of hazardous and industrial occupations. At the commercial mass market level, physiological sensors are growing increasingly popular as people are becoming more proactive in exercise and wellness programs.

MINI MITTER CO., INC.
20300 Empire Avenue, Building B-3
Bend, OR 97701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 322-7272
Dr. Jack E. McKenzie
ARMY 02-180      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Wear-and-Forget Electrocardiogram and Ventilation Sensor Suitable for Multi-day Use in Physically-Active Warfighters
Abstract:The Mini Mitter Company, Inc. will utilize its proprietary technologies and experience to develop a miniature, low-cost, wear-and-forget, Integrated Telemetric Monitoring System (ITMS). The monitoring system design will integrate sensor technology for recording electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate (HR), and ventilation (including respiratory rate (RR) and blood oxygen level (SPO2) in fully ambulatory environments. Accurately monitoring individual physiologic status under real-time environmental conditions and stressors through miniaturized wireless technology is the core expertise of Mini Mitter. The deliverable is an integrated telemetric sensor and monitoring system that allows recording of vital statistics in a continuum of time sensitive recordings. The telemetric monitoring system will utilize existing unique integrated physiological monitoring technology to directly benefit soldiers who are deployed in extreme and hazardous environmental conditions where immediate medical resources are not readily available. The specific aims and design of this new proprietary technology incorporates: 1.Microprocessor-controlled digital sensors with periodic, time-multiplexed architecture, and uniquely encoded data transmissions to avoid cross talk between sensors in close proximity. 2.Sensors delivering accuracy and repeatability in a device requiring low power. 3.An electronic circuit to convert the data to a digital format. 4.A receiver that detects and interprets the digital signals from a collection of sensors. The complete system will consist of ECG, HR, and, ventilation (including RR and SPO2), sensors that receive, record and transmit these vital statistics in an integrated, time sensitive continuum to a user-worn field monitor that receives and temporarily stores the data. Mini Mitter's proven engineering ability and experience in miniaturized core body and dermal temperature sensors will facilitate rapid, low-cost expansion of new technology into a complete telemetric monitoring system. There are numerous applications for the Integrated Telemetric Monitoring System (ITMS) identified in medical research communities and clinical treatment settings especially in the inpatient, outpatient, and ambulatory care environments, where studies and actual monitoring and intervention may be provided for high risk populations in low-cost settings. The ITMS will be an essential and economical monitoring device designed to benefit women, children and minorities who may not have access to other means of healthcare or are limited in their ability to spend costly days in inpatient observation. A wear-and-forget, and easy-to-use wireless monitoring system for core body temperature (CBT), HR, ECG, ventilation, (including blood oxygen level (SPO2) and respiration (RR))and physical activity will provide a continuum of time sensitive, noise-free, accurate detection of these vital signs without the use of interconnecting wires. The ability to monitor these vital signs continuously in inpatient and ambulatory environments will enhance early detection and monitoring of chronic and acute medical conditions like infection, sepsis and arrhythmias with symptoms that include fever, palpitations, syncope, lightheadedness, dyspnea, transient ischemic attacks, vertigo, epilepsy and falls. This configuration allows for freedom of movement and minimal patient intervention while continuously monitoring pertinent vital signs. The sensors for the system are disposable, lightweight, easily attached and removed, and biocompatible. A small, user-worn field monitor is implemented to receive data telemetrically from the body sensors and is capable of recording integrated vital signs data for extended periods of time. Ideally, and with the cooperation of other industry partners, the data is re-transmitted to a central monitoring base station remotely located from the field or patient worn receiver/monitor allowing for expert analysis, diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Joel Tabb
ARMY 02-181      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Enabling Drug Discovery for Malaria
Abstract:Malaria is responsible for 300 million cases a year, resulting in 1 million deaths. From a military perspective, maintaining bases in regions where the disease is endemic puts troops at risk for infection. Whether for civilian or military populations, the fact remains that insecticide tolerant mosquitoes, drug resistant parasites and lack of effective vaccines necessitate new approaches to combating this scourge. Emerging information about the genetics of these organisms, primarily through advances in whole-genome and expression analysis, provides a knowledge base to investigate new opportunities for disease prevention. Genetic approaches are complemented by technological advances in high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry that, together, enable a means to synthesize and rapidly screen prospective drug leads. In this Phase I proposal, Agave BioSystems proposes to develop a validated protocol for the isolation of shikimate pathway genes from P. falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. The success of this approach will allow isolation of other metabolic genes of interest, extending the number of enzymes that can be targeted for drug discovery efforts to effectively combat this global disease. The worldwide market for drugs to combat malaria is significant. This program will establish the core technology to validate genes isolated from this particular group of organisms and express and isolate them in recombinant form to enable drug discovery. This process can then be used to develop drugs for other significant pathogens.

ARADIGM CORP.
3929, Point Eden Way
Hayward, CA 94545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 265-9104
Dr. Deepa Deshpande
ARMY 02-182      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Developing Human-Compatible Needleless Delivery Systems for Administering Bioscavengers
Abstract:The goals of this proposal are: 1) to identify a BChE formulation that will deliver the target systemic dose via the lungs; 2) to ensure that the integrity of the BChE protein is unaffected by the aerosolization process; and 3) to measure the efficiency of delivering BChE to the systemic circulation via inhalation using the AERx System. BChE is a drug candidate for detoxification of chemical warfare agents, including organophosphorus (OP). BChE has been shown to function as a biological scavenger to protect against the pharmacological and behavioral toxicity of OP poisons. The lung represents an attractive route for drug delivery to the systemic circulation due to its large surface area and intimate contact with the blood. The AERx System is a novel aerosol generating system that converts, at a pre-programmed moment during inspiration, a unit dose of liquid formulation into a fine aerosol in about 1 second, which is then drawn into the lungs using the patient?s inhalation air flow. In clinical trials, the AERx System has successfully delivered a variety of molecules, including insulin and morphine to the systemic circulation, and has the potential to deliver a wide range of other drugs and biologics. The current global environment mandates that the United States military be able to resist asymmetric warfare, including biological and chemical threats. The proposed project addresses the threat posed by organophosphorus nerve agents that could be used in chemical warfare. Specifically, this project aims to establish the feasibility of using the AERx Pulmonary Delivery System to deliver butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) via inhalation, which would provide convenient, non-invasive protection against nerve-agents. This approach could lead to commercialization of the AERx drug-device combination to deliver BChE and perhaps other bioscavengers by the military. Other commercial opportunities include treatment for cocaine intoxication and pesticide overdose for civilian populations. Furthermore, AERx technology has broad applications for a wide range of molecules and will likely be used to deliver emerging biopharmaceuticals derived from the genomic revolution. With the market for inhaled and intranasal drugs projected to reach $36 billion by 2005 at a 25% growth rate (Drug Delivery, Vol 3: The Market for Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems)Aradigm is uniquely positioned to offer a non-invasive approach to delivering a wide variety of compounds.

FELTON INTERNATIONAL, INC.
8210 Marshall Drive
Lenexa, KS 66214
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 599-1590
Mr. Niel Leon
ARMY 02-182      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Developing Human-Compatible Needleless D