---------- DARPA ----------

77 Phase I Selections from the 02.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
KAPTEYN-MURNANE LABORATORIES LLC
4699 Nautilus Court South, Unit 205
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-9068
Dr. Kendall L. Read
DARPA 02-022      Awarded: 21OCT02
Title:Induced Local EMP and Secondary THz Radiation in Sensor Window Materials from Intense Femtosecond Pulses at Long Range
Abstract:This project seeks to study the potential use of high-frequency RF pulses generated by an ultrashort-pulse laser-produced plasma, as a means of disrupting the sensors of an aircraft or missile. Femtosecond laser plasmas can propagate over extended distances at very high intensity in the form of self-trapped filaments. This high intensity radiation can disrupt sensors and guidance systems both by direct damage, and by creating a short-lived plasma on the sensor window. This plasma emits broadband radiation, ranging from the RF into the x-ray region of the spectrum. In phase I, we plan to evaluate through modeling the possible field strength of the emission in the RF to terahertz range, in order to estimate the potential of this emission to disrupt sensors. We will also plan a series of experiments that can thoroughly characterize and parameterize this emission. The result, after phase II, will be a better understanding of the capabilities of this process for countermeasures applications. The result of this work will be a better understanding of the potential for high intensity femtosecond lasers to serve in countermeasures applications. Phase I will serve to evaluate this process, based on modeling and a compilation of current understanding of the physics of laser-plasma interactions, and will help to determine fruitful directions for further experimentation. Phase II will serve as experimental confirmation of the physical understandings developed in phase I. The development of such a laser-based countermeasure capability will be valuable for defense applications, including homeland defense. Other potential commercial/defense benefits of this work are in applications such as laser ablation and micromachining, in developing "hard" laser optics, and in developing new types of light sources for scientific and industrial applications.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9229
Dr. Neset Aközbek
DARPA 02-022      Awarded: 15OCT02
Title:Induced Local EMP and Secondary THz Radiation in Sensor Window Materials from Intense Femtosecond Pulses at Long Range
Abstract:Time Domain Corporation (TDC) proposes to provide the military with a detailed physical understanding of EMP generation in air induced by intense femtosecond laser pulses under self-focusing conditions. Theoretical models developed will include the full spatio-temporal dynamics of laser pulse-plasma interaction. The physical mechanism that lead to the charge separation and the subsequent EMP generation will be described in detail and its dependence on the initial laser pulse conditions will be investigated. Other, methods to generate intense THz radiation via nonlinear frequency mixing in air and materials will be studied. Particularly, the propagation of two laser pulses under self-focusing and plasma generation will be studied. An important part of our effort will concentrate on the design of detection techniques and design of experiments using high peak power femtosecond laser pulses in air. All of the required instrumentation will be identified as well as experimental setup for performing the measurements. Detection techniques for the measurement of the absolute radiometric intensity of the EMP radiation, its temporal profile, polarization and emission patterns will be addressed. In this proposal, TDC presents an approach, based on sound scientific research principles, that will lead to a prototype femtosecond laser system using focused geometry on a laboratoryscale to induce and measure plasma generated EMP. The result will be a well developed design that will provide both military and commercial applications in remote sensing, novel broadband laser imaging detection and ranging (LIDAR) for remote detection and discrimination of atmospheric pollutants, etc.

PIEZO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2525 Shader Road
Orlando, FL 32804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 298-2000
Mr. M. D. Howard
DARPA 02-023      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:Reducing/Eliminating Tuning of Microwave LC Filters
Abstract:Electrical filters are critical elements in communications, navigation and radar systems. The steadily increasing use of bandwidth in communications systems and consequent increased usage of microwave frequencies has created a need for small, selective filters above 1 GHz. Conventional lumped element filters can be obtained up to several GHz, but are costly, requiring tedious individual alignment by highly skilled technicians. Planar structures offer the potential to eliminate or reduce alignment, and hence to reduce cost. The proposed program will develop methods for the design and manufacture of planar, or microstrip, filters requiring no tuning or which can be tuned automatically. A key element will be the development of accurate methods of circuit modeling. The work will include the development of algorithms for evaluation of internal filter component values from external measurements. Design studies will identify filter configurations most amenable to automatic tuning. Methods of tuning, which may include removal or addition of material, will be developed. This program will result in more cost-effective production of filters at microwave frequencies. Filters are often one the more expensive components in microwave systems. Lower cost filters will be a factor in the deployment of higher frequency systems such as LMDS, Direct Broadcast Satellite, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, radar systems and guided smart weapons. The techniques to be developed will be applicable to volume production.

SAN DIEGO RESEARCH CENTER, INC.
PO Box 99746
San Diego, CA 92169
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 252-6882
Dr. Martha Steenstrup
DARPA 02-024      Awarded: 07OCT02
Title:Design of Mobile, Wireless (Ad Hoc) Networks Using Smart Antennas
Abstract:In the future, smart antennas will become commonplace in military communications due to strong performance advantages on the one hand, and the cost leverage provided by advances in digital signal processing and Moore's Law on the other hand. We propose to design, simulate, and analyze distributed algorithms for efficient management of transmission resources in multihop mobile wireless networks with smart antennas. Building on our prior work on multibeam transmission and reception through sub-band beamforming, blind techniques for neighbor discovery that have a low probability of detection, and directional TDMA-based medium access control, we will demonstrate the potentially large performance improvements to be achieved in networks equipped with smart antennas and algorithms that select, schedule, and reserve transmission resources so as to achieve the desired network characteristics as well as the requested quality of service for individual applications. We anticipate that our work will demonstrate that networking with multiple-beam smart antennas has major benefits relative to networking with single-beam antennas, in both efficiency and ability of the network to provide the quality of service desired by mission-critical point-to-point and multicast applications. We expect our technology to be a strong enabler of spectral reuse in both the defense and commercial sectors. The strong data-rate, LPD/AJ, and service provision benefits of harnessing the transmission resources provided by smart antennas make this technology particularly suited for use in military progams.

AETION TECHNOLOGIES LLC
1275 Kinnear Road
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 340-1835
Dr. John Josephson
DARPA 02-025      Awarded: 01NOV02
Title:Sensor fusion for situation awareness in littoral environments
Abstract:To maximize situational awareness, while minimizing cognitive overload, automated abductive inference (best-explanation reasoning) will be used to create a changing, "best interpretation" representation of the situation from incoming data. Modeling and simulation will be used by the abductive inference software for automatic generation of predictions from hypotheses, enabling the continual generation of predictions to support: hypothesis evaluation, sensor tasking, planning, and detection of anomalies that may be valuable indications of deception, modeling errors, or sensor failure. Abductive inference will work tightly with predictive infererence to to provide a reliable, self-correcting representation of the situation, based on current evidence from sensor data, using domain knowledge encoded as causal-model fragments. Aetion proposes to extend its current technology base to create software for building and composing sensor-fusion applications that are modular and extensible as new types of sensors are integrated, and as new knowledge is available about object types, sensor characteristics, and causal processes that mediate the effects of objects on sensors. If this is feasible, the resulting software should be cost effective and highly valuable for multiple sensor fusion applications, resulting in systems able to squeeze more usable information from less data than systems not using causal relationships and domain models. Our automated inference technology is broadly applicable because it is based on a ubiquitous form of reasoning that is very human. So, development that benefits one particular application will tend to also expand our capabilities for others. As well as there being multiple customers with a need for advanced solutions in sensor fusion, our best-explanation approach shows exceptional promise for intelligence analysis, systems and situation monitoring, and diagnosis in engineering and medicine. Aetion's technology offers significant benefits for multiple aspects of the military's transformation over the coming decade, and we aim to realize that potential, by proving general and specific capabilities to the Department of Defense, then transitioning those products to address related commercial applications.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 535-9680
Dr. Jeffrey Ridgway
DARPA 02-026      Awarded: 06NOV02
Title:Forward Looking Collision Avoidance and Sub-Bottom Sensor for Conceptual High Speed Submersibles
Abstract:To meet the submarine threat in the littoral, high-speed submersibles will require additional information from target electric (E) fields to improve Detection Probability, reduce False Alarm Rate, and provide tracking information, in a turbulent regime where acoustic sensors encounter difficulty. Recent advances in processing E-field signatures of submarines will help mitigate active silencing measures and provide the potential to track and avoid them. New electrode designs and low-noise amplifiers can be configured into candidate E-field sensors for evaluation on high-speed submersibles. During Phase I, threat submarine E-field signatures will be investigated and background noise, as seen from high-speed submersibles, will be modeled to provide signal-to-noise ratios for candidate sensor performance estimates. The effects of turbulence on E-field signature detection during high-speed operations will be approximated. Current Fourier processing techniques will be compared with the new Hilbert-Huang Transform and Empirical Mode Decomposition methods. E-field sensors will be designed that are compatible with high-speed submersible configurations and their primary sensor concepts. During Phase II, an E-field sensor, based on designs from Phase I, will be fabricated and sea-tested at speed against a calibrated submarine target. During Phase III, development and integration of the sensor into high-speed submersible designs will take place. Given a successful outcome of the Phase II research, the technology proposed here can be readily commercialized leading to a real-time target electric field detection and tracking sensor and software package suitable for a variety of DoD and surveillance applications. Marine technology where targets are found in media and situations that have limited potential for acoustic and optical sensors (shallow and murky coastal regions) will be the most direct application area. Since low-level, low frequency electromagnetic energy may be emitted around human activity in river and estuary jungle environments, an E-field sensor aboard a UUV may be practical for surveillance in those areas. The nonlinear data processing methods developed for E-field detection will also find applications for other sensor technologies.

MECHMATH LLC
2109 Windsong
Edmond, OK 73034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 844-2284
Dr. Eduard Amromin
DARPA 02-027      Awarded: 02OCT02
Title:Hubrid Hull Forms for Conceptual High Speed Submersibles
Abstract:DoD is interested in small underwater fighter-like vehicles. These submersibles will start from submarines and must carry sensors and/or weapons at a high speed. A part of their route will be passed over the water surface in littoral environment. Drag reduction is the key issue in design of such vehicles because submerged missiles add significant hydrodynamic drag. For surface operations, hydrofoils can both significantly reduce friction and pull missiles out of water. The missiles will be suspended under upper a foil/frame of a hydrofoil-biplane. This biplane is located between side hulls of the submersible. For underwater motions, the missiles are hidden within a vented partial cavity under the frame. The frame special design makes it possible the existence of stable partial cavities with negligible drag. Variation of appendage shapes and pressure in the cavity allows stabilization of this low drag in varying conditions. Phase I work includes elaboration of hybrid hull concepts (including propulsor selection, analysis of seakeeping and possible employment of polymer for additional drag reduction), experimental validation of frame drag reduction by cavitation in a water tunnel, and selection of CFD tools for future detailed design during Phase II. Commercialization will be mainly based on applications of drag reduction by partial cavities to both warships and fast commercial ships.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
DARPA 02-027      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:Morphing hulls
Abstract:Midé is proposing to investigate the use of morphing structures to achieve hull forms that can perform optimally underwater and on the surface. Using our extensive experience with large strain materials, Midé will examine in Phase I the feasibility of hull structures to morph from symmetric shapes for underwater operations and non-symmetric shaped hulls for surface operations. The symmetric underwater shapes will minimize drag and depth control requirements while the non-symmetric surface shapes will allow the submersible to operate at high speed and low drag on the surface.The primary focus of Phase I will be the morphing of the hull structure while considering the need to house/contain a suite of sensors in the hull structure. CFD codes and structural finite element codes will be used to determine the amount of morphing that can be achieved and the performance that it will provide. In Phase II prototypes will be built to demonstrate the feasibility of the innovation. The most significant benefits are increase in range, reduced fuel consumption and stealth. Morphing structures also have aerospace applications. UAVs, aircraft launched missiles and gun launched projectiles can benefit from the technology. Structures that can achieve large shape changes can create a profitable line of toys.

REMCOM, INC.
315 S. Allen St., Suite 222
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-1299
Mr. Joseph Schuster
DARPA 02-028      Awarded: 02OCT02
Title:Radio Propagation Prediction Software for Complex Mixed Path Physical Channels
Abstract:Predicting the radio signal levels and coverage areas for Information Warfare System communication channels between base stations, vehicles and warfighters is a challenging problem. The channel may involve radio frequency interactions with hills, foliage, and buildings. The paths may involve long distances over hilly terrain or shorter distances involving interaction with urban building features. Many propagation paths may simultaneously involve hills, foliage, and urban areas. For example, a warfighter sheltered in a doorway in an urban area may need to communicate with a command station located in a rural forested area outside of the city. These mixed path links involving both urban (including indoor) features and rural (including foliage) terrain are beyond the capability of any existing physics-based propagation model. Currently available models, including those developed by Remcom Inc., are applicable to paths where both the transmitting and receiving antennas are located in an outdoor urban environment, or indoors, or in rural areas. Development of fast and reliable mixed-path models valid over a wide range of communication frequencies will be the focus of the proposed SBIR effort The ultimate goal will be a very general propagation prediction tool for mixed propagation paths including terrain, indoor and outdoor urban features, foliage, and atmospheric effects. The tool will also include effects of structures near the transmitting and receiving antennas including urban features, vehicles, and even the warfighter's own body and equipment. The software will make use of high frequency methods such as Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, specialized methods such as Parabolic Equation, and full wave methods such as Finite Difference Time Domain and Moving Window FDTD. The propagation model to be developed under Phase II will integrate the ability to read in terrain, foliage, features, and atmospheric data, any available measurements, apply powerful RF coverage models to general mixed propagation paths, tune them with the available measured data, and provide coverage prediction displays. The proposed propagation model development will result in an important propagation prediction tool with general application in both DoD and commercial areas. Remcom launched its commercial version of Wireless InSite radio propagation prediction software nearly two years ago. This software is intended for customers who require fast and accurate predictions of radio propagation in urban environments. The proposed extensions to allow more accurate propagation prediction over mixed paths including irregular terrain, foliage, urban features and atmospheric effects will greatly enhance the power of Wireless InSite. Adding the ability to tune predictions with available measurements will be another important extension that will make Wireless InSite more useful to both commercial and DoD users. At present there is no commercial propagation software that will accurately predict radio propagation over mixed propagation paths. The market for such a software product is large, including both commercial and DoD applications.

TECH-KNOWLEDGE ADVANCEMENT, INC.
P.O. Box 2022
Camarillo, CA 93011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 388-9115
Dr. Chong L. Yu
DARPA 02-028      Awarded: 02OCT02
Title:Radio Propagation Prediction Software for Complex Mixed Path Physical Channels
Abstract:Modern and future wireless communication and information warfare systems composed of structured and ad hoc networks are required to function in extremely diverse environments across a wide range of frequency bands. These systems face challenges of operating within dense urban settings, rural or desert conditions, across rapidly varying terrain, within and amongst buildings, through foliage, and combinations of the above environments. Maintaining effective communication links and information warfare operations in such diverse geometrical and electrical conditions presents a serious challenge to the warfighter, network planner, and system designer. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of creating a single propagation prediction tool of revolutionary capabilities that can accurately analyze RF propagation scenarios of arbitrary complexity with rapid turnaround. This tool will be able to characterize RF propagation over a wide frequency band (50MHz - 100GHz) and through diverse environments including urban, rural, foliage, and building interiors. The propagation model will be fully three dimensional with regards to the high fidelity scene models representing various geometric structures and the physics employed. The physics-based model developed will incorporate high- and low-frequency effects such as rough-surface diffusive scattering and ground waves, as well as an accuracy `tuning' capability. The resulting RF propagation tool will revolutionize the warfighter's ability to maintain effective communication links and to perform tasks of information warfare in extremely diverse environments with multiple systems over a wide frequency range. Additionally, the analyst and the system designer will be able to use this tool to assess and guide the development of new RF systems with orders of magnitude in reduction of cost, production and testing. The diverse channel propagation model will also have application to law enforcement communication planning and to a wide variety of wireless communication systems.

VISUALEM CORP.
2019 Georgetown Blvd
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 222-4558
Dr. Tayfun Ozdemir
DARPA 02-028      Awarded: 28OCT02
Title:Radio Propagation Prediction Software for Complex Mixed Path Physical Channels
Abstract:The deployment of advance wireless communication systems requires detail knowledge of the propagation environment and its effect on the system's performance. Physics based propagation prediction models can provide an accurate assessment of the propagation channel without the need for an intrusive and costly set of field measurements. The proposed work envisions a fully functional computer-aided design software tool that wireless communication system designers and planners can use to simulate the phenomena that effect the propagation in the physical layer. The software will allow the user to investigate the coverage that can be provided by various base station locations and plan system deployment without doing drive tests. The software will allow users to include the effects of base station antenna patterns and diversity in their system plan, as well as propagation parameters that can be used to evaluate quality of service measures. Communication devices are entering more and more aspects of daily life. From cell-phones to automobiles, wireless technology, in particular, is setting the trend and creating the demand. Better devices and technologies that drive these devices will have to be developed. As the envelope is pushed and the competition gets stiff, having access to EDA tools based on accurate propagation models will prove to be the competitive edge. Currently, the capabilities of and access to comprehensive and sophisticated site-specific propagation tools is quite limited. In addition, there is a definite requirement within agencies of the federal government and in the wireless communication industry for a validated, accurate, comprehensive and robust propagation prediction tool.

CREATIVE SCIENCE & SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS, INC.
5302 Rymney Lane, Suite B
Burke, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 978-4483
Dr. Raymond M. Fitzgerald
DARPA 02-029      Awarded: 02OCT02
Title:Improved Information Extraction Using Prior Knowledge to Satisfy Multiple Objectives
Abstract: Abstract not available...

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N Bethlehem Pike, Ste 300
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 618-1060
Mr. James Hicinbothom
DARPA 02-030      Awarded: 23OCT02
Title:Real-Time Assessment of Student State
Abstract:An Automated Real-Time Instructional State Adaptive Network (ARTISAN) is proposed as both an instrument for real-time assessment of student knowledge state and as an integrative framework for combining and employing a variety of student state assessment instruments. ARTISAN will provide a real-time assessment of each student's knowledge elements and their ability to employ that knowledge, both individually and in teams, during training. Those elements include: the student's situation awareness (SA), procedural knowledge needed to build and maintain SA, knowledge of appropriate responses/heuristics and their applicability to situations, and detailed knowledge of how to perform the job(s) for which each student is being trained. The ARTISAN assessment technology is derived from an innovative integration of state-of-the-art instructional agent technology, situation awareness and other knowledge assessment techniques, and a novel framework for modeling the impact of physiological and psychological state on students' learning and practice. A cognitive model of instructional expertise in the fields to be trained will serve several central functions in ARTISAN. The cognitive model will provide indicators of how situational factors and information uncertainties influence workload, SA, and expert performance. It will also generate estimates and projections of workload, stress, situation awareness, and attentional flow of the student. The proposed technological innovations brought together to create ARTISAN are very marketable for transition to the commercial sector, as well as many other potential uses by DoD and foreign military organizations. The innovative capabilities that ARTISAN will provide can be applied to a wide range of training settings and jobs, including jobs where individual competence also requires competence at being a good team member. Potential applications abound in operation and supervision of control systems, production systems, and many other work environments. Typical industries in which applications might be found include aviation, defense, chemical processing and production, power production and distribution, transportation of hazardous waste, and many others.

NEUROTEK, LLC D/B/A PEAK ACHIEVEMENT TRAINING
1103 Hollendale Way
Goshen, KY 40026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(502) 228-0605
Dr. Jonathan Cowan
DARPA 02-030      Awarded: 29OCT02
Title:The Peak Achievement Training Method for Assessing a Student's Concentration and Alertness
Abstract:The Peak Achievement Trainer offers a real-time assessment of both concentration and alertness/arousal of the user derived by patented and trade secret algorithms from their EEG or electroencephalogram. These measurements can be adapted to provide very meaningful assessments of student state during any activity involving a computer, as described in Patent #5,983,129. NeuroTek seeks to develop a more portable, affordable, easy to use alternative to the present complete training system, which would be appropriate for both DOD use and further commercialization. The present generation of Peak Achievement Trainer equipment uses three salt-water sponge electrodes on the head, which are connected to a computer serial port via an electronic interface which we purchase from a third party. Advancing The Peak Achievement Trainer to this level will require further study of electrodes, their placement, EEG signal processing, and alternatives for transferring the EEG information into the computer. NeuroTek will build and test electrode alternatives, test amplifiers, and generate cost estimates of hard wired and wireless alternatives. In addition, we will do some initial pilot testing of humans interacting with the PC using the current trainer and develop a plan for more complete validation of the training model we will develop. The present Peak Achievement Trainer is a complete training package based on brainwave biofeedback (also known as EEG biofeedback or neurofeedback) methods developed and patented by NeuroTek's founder and CTO, Dr. Jonathan Cowan, the Principal Investigator of this project. The accuracy of the neurofeedback for concentration is a very significant improvement over previous efforts, due to the incorporation of information from the latest neuroimaging studies and Air Force/NASA research on peak-performing B2 bomber pilots. Over 90% of those who try the Trainer for the first time can recognize that the feedback (video and audio) accurately reflects their single-pointed concentration within the first three minutes. The Trainer is built around Dr. Cowan's synthesis of prior literature [] which demonstrates that many of the EEG rhythms (theta, alpha, beta and some delta) are actually indications that the underlying cortex is idling. In order to activate this part of the cortex, these rhythms are suppressed or inhibited by the patented InAll training protocol, thereby enhancing concentration. In essence, NeuroTek has created the first clearly accurate external interface between the human brain and a personal computer. We have recently improved upon it by adding two new measurements, Moderate Alertness and High Alertness, which respond to the varying degrees of arousal needed to create the effort to deal with challenges. The excellence of the Peak Achievement Trainer was recognized by The New York Times Magazine on June 11, 2000, when they included it in their special issue on new technology that would change our lives in the next decade, Tech 2010: A Catalogue of the Near Future. Based on their reporter's experience at the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, they called the Trainer: "The Winner Within: The Coach Who Will Put You in the Zone." The circle of users of the Peak Achievement Trainer has been expanding rapidly. It now includes a Super Bowl Champion team, several Olympic Training Centers, many universities, and the IMG Academies in Bradenton, Florida, comprising the David Leadbetter Golf Academy, Bollettieri Tennis Academy, and six other sports training academies. For more information, please see www.peakachievement.com, which is incorporated by reference into this application. Direct relevance to military training is evidenced by the fact that the U.S. Military Academy Performance Enhancement Center at West Point has added the Peak Achievement Trainer to its Attention Control Training protocols. They have recommended the Trainer to other Army units, including the Army Marksmanship Unit; unfortunately, their order has been caught up in endless bureaucracy. A retired Army Psychologist who spent many years designing training for the Army, Dr. Raymond Waldkoetter, has written a letter of recommendation outlining the potential benefits to the military. Cognitive effort to learn new tasks or hone old skills requires focus and concentration. Measuring this cognitive effort through electroencephalogram (EEG) or brain wave patterns has been well documented. Many neuroimaging studies now indicate that the parts of the brain that the Trainer preferentially targets, the anterior cingulate and the overlying prefrontal cortex, are particularly important in new learning and behavioral inhibition. The brainwave data enables the user or others to evaluate their cognitive state. This graphically displayed state is a measure of their ability to focus on a task and respond to outside stimuli. This real time state could be used by training software to evaluate the receptivity of the student to new learning or measure their ability to respond in combat gaming. Integration of these concentration/alertness protocols into the training program itself leads to some intriguing possibilities--a program that is designed to optimize the user's concentration and alertness as he learns, or suggest a microbreak when it is necessary. A collaborative learning environment with multiple students in a networked environment is also possible, as are innovative combinations with video and visualizations. There are additional possibilities for enhancing the ability of many types of Armed Forces personnel to learn new material. It is common knowledge that a very significant percentage of recruits have problems in paying attention. Several studies of the older, less accurate neurofeedback approaches in populations with Attention Deficit Disorder indicate that they can enhance performance on standardized tests, including IQ; grades; as well as result in better behavior. These effects have been shown to be quite long lasting, if not permanent. There are many potential uses for this new technology outside of the military--athletics, fitness, corporate training, schools, and by individuals who are seeking peak performance. We have a detailed marketing plan, which will be summarized later in the proposal.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-1177
Dr. Brian T. Mitchell
DARPA 02-030      Awarded: 23OCT02
Title:Real-Time Assessment of Student State
Abstract:This project will produce a low-cost, high-performance, minimally invasive eyetracker. This instrument will be relatively inexpensive, easy to use, produce very precise data, and be minimally invasive. It will work on subjects that wear glasses or contact lenses, and will be supported on conventional PC platforms. It is intended for use in developing advanced training methods which use the cognitive insight provided from eye tracking to construct training methods and procedures that measure student performance and prescribe optimal training experience. It is also intended for use in systems that adapt to user workload and cognitive awareness. Phase I of this project will demonstrate the feasibility of the approach through extensive modeling and analysis of the system. Experiments will be performed to quantify these relationships and to demonstrate key concepts. The results of these experiments will be used to produce a formal design for the eyetracker. Phase II of this project will produce a fully developed prototype. Phase III will integrate the eyetracker into mainstream training products. The result of this project will significantly benefit both military and commercial applications. For the military it will enable the development of routine training techniques that use the cognitive glimpses provided through eye tracking to systematically and optimally provide training which assures cognitive readiness. In the commercial market it will support the development of products in such areas as advanced training, telemedicine, remote machine operation, and video teleconferencing.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1810 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 378-6001
Dr. Michelle Sams
DARPA 02-030      Awarded: 25OCT02
Title:Real-Time Assessment of Student State
Abstract:Our proposed Hybrid Tutor provides a real-time assessment of student state that is richer than current approaches. It includes performance-based measures of actions and choices during a realistic simulation, as well as knowledge-based measures of student plans and explanations. It includes latency and self-assessment measures that provide information for an affect model of certainty and confidence. A Bayesian analysis takes these various measures and forms a student state model consisting of knowledge, skills, and affect. The student state model is continually updated, and influences the tutor's strategies so that it customizes interactions and instruction to the individual student. The ITS will be developed so that the main components (student model, domain knowledge, and tutor strategies) are reusable for other tutoring applications. The ITS will be plug-compatible with existing PC-based simulations through the use of software connectors. This will allow the tutor opportunities to gather input from the student and provide feedback and explanations. Evaluation of student actions in the simulation is performed by ontological reasoning. This reasoning is supported by a domain knowledge representation, a domain specific knowledge base backed by a standard upper ontology. Thus the tutor has an expert level active knowledge of domain concepts, rules and solutions. We expect that the proposed approach will provide improved training effectiveness and cost reduction. Improved training effectiveness is due to a richer student state model, more customized tutorial interactions, and more realistic training in simulations. This improved training can act as an adjunct to existing CTCs by providing advance training before rotation, and allowing refresher training after rotation when skills might otherwise deteriorate. Cost reductions will be due to reusable ITS components and knowledge for a variety of tutoring systems and plug-in connectors to existing and future simulations, thus leveraging millions of dollars of development cost.

THE VIRTUAL REALITY MEDICAL CENTER
6160 Cornerstone Court East
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 642-0267
Dr. Mark Wiederhold
DARPA 02-030      Awarded: 23OCT02
Title:Multi-Phased Student State Assessment Solution
Abstract:As advanced technologies continue to provide advantages to the warfighter, there will be an increasing need for training programs that prepare individuals to effectively adopt, understand, and perform maximally with new technology systems. Working with DARPA, we plan to provide a simple-to-use, inexpensive training assessment protocol and physiological monitoring device, which will not only assess the effectiveness of the training program, but provide predictive and eventually corrective actions for task performance. This assessment method will eventually provide real-time feedback to the simulation system, so that as an individual progresses through the training program, their level of interest, attention, and engagement are maximized to produce the most beneficial result. The system proposed by VRMC will be transferrable to a variety of tasks, beyond warfighter training and into all types of training protocols. The future of "smart machines" that can adapt to the physiological responses of the user is in small, portable, non-invasive monitors such as we propose.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Barnabas Takacs
DARPA 02-030      Awarded: 12NOV02
Title:Extracting the Emotional and Attentive State of Students Using a Real-Time Visual Sensor
Abstract:Waveband Corporation proposes to develop a low-cost camera-based active vision system combined with an MPEG-4 compatible facial tracking solution to extract and analyze a student's basic emotional state within the framework of established psychological principles. The system, called EmoCam (Emotion Camera) uses a web & communication camera platform as a convenient and readily available sensor on a multitude of training stations and processes the received visual information in real-time on a PC-based environment. In the computer-mediated training framework the EmoCam is being prototyped, emotional signals of a student are considered as aspects of response to the educational material. Unlike in other systems the student's internal state is represented with respect to the learning/cognitive process. The ability to extract such information in real-time is critical for a new generation of computer-based learning systems that can change their teaching behavior according to the student's internal state. Therefore the EmoCam once developed will serve as a basic interface between student and any computer-mediated training solution while establishing a highly personalized and adaptive learning environment. In addition to serving the interest of a computer-mediated teaching/training instrument, the EmoCam device will also fill other niches in the consumer market. This can be illustrated by the following examples: - Automotive and Airline Industry. The proposed system will be directly applicable to measuring the visual point of regard and alertness of drivers, commercial pilots, and flight controllers. - Human Machine Interface. The new device will open novel possibilities in human-machine interaction thus allowing users to be fully immersed in, and better concentrated on, the problems to be solved. - Video Conferencing. A Virtual Cameraman - based on the proposed technology - can be built that tracks and transmits images only of the head area, while allowing users to move freely in their work space. - Virtual reality. Virtual holographic displays could use a head/eye tracking system to control the viewpoint to a 3D object displayed on the screen. Such a system would find many applications in medical imaging, or in the advertisement industry.

ASEG, INC.
6867 NANCY RIDGE DR., SUITE A
SAN DIEGO, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 550-0500
Dr. David Wright
DARPA 02-031      Awarded: 25OCT02
Title:Ad Hoc Human Information Nets for Asymmetric Threat Surveillance
Abstract:There are human assets with the potential to produce focused information in every area of interest to the intelligence and other communities. The current communication technologies stand ready to provide the backbone upon which ad-hoc, human intelligence networks can be built. The challenge is to produce an implementation that does not introduce new infrastructure and allows "lay" members to utilize only their current wireless devices and methods. ASEG is confident that by building on the vision of fuselets and habitats developed at DARPA and AFRL, a communication interface based on a component repository can address this challenge. By composing dynamically executable software that is re-configurable "on the fly" according to target's communication interfaces, and seeding it with the content of an analyst's intelligence requests, a server-side solution promoting maximum "lay" participation can be achieved. This capability will be readily embraced by many sectors: the marketing agencies to advertise promotions, the polling agencies to solicit spontaneous feedback on issues, law enforcement agencies to solve crimes and issue advisories, private industry to promote productivity without the major expense of private networks. This technology will enable public and private sectors to realize the goal of "communicating with anybody, any time, over any device." The INET communication capability will be readily embraced by many sectors including marketing agencies for advertising and promotions, polling agencies to solicit spontaneous feedback on issues and events. During Phase I ASEG will begin a multi-pronged initiative to achieve the following: 1. Pursuit of grants, angel, or venture capital. For example, ASEG has contacted the San Diego Software Industry Council about an upcoming VC technology presentation conference. 2. Work with other companies to build strategic relationships around INET including its existing relationships with I2 Inc. and Saffron Technologies. 3. Conduct a market survey as a first step in creating a a marketing plan

MAYA DESIGN
2100 Wharton Street, Suite 702
Pittsburgh, PA 15203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 488-2900
Dr. Peter Lucas
DARPA 02-031      Awarded: 17OCT02
Title:Ad Hoc Human Information Nets for Asymmetric Threat Surveillance
Abstract:This proposal outlines a system that leverages the installed base of personal communications devices (cell phones, handhelds, two-way pagers) and adds a simple mechanism that lets people generate short structured reports of suspicious activity. We propose a method of supplying flexibly structured data objects ("u-forms") from the field by extending existing personal information systems to supply these objects. This enables the human intelligence network as well as other applications. U-forms facilitate machine-assisted analysis by providing a consistent information syntax. They support evolving information needs by being self-describing and schema-free. They can be generated in a distributed fashion without losing information consistency, but can be easily consolidated to support fusion into a single knowledge base. They are lightweight and independent of any particular hardware or software implementation, so they are applicable in a wide range of domains (including very small processor or bandwidth-limited devices). This project will result in a design and information architecture for an ad hoc human information network, as well as a small-scale prototype implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the approach. Such a network has immediate application in the detection and disruption of asymmetric threats, as well as numerous obvious commercial applications. One need only consider the popularity of existing personal communication systems (cell phones, SMS, instant messaging, email) to imagine possible commercial systems built on such a network. Such a network will also be useful in more traditional civil emergencies, providing, for instance, a way to implement highly effective natural disaster response coordination.

NIMKATHANA CORP.
655 W. Irving Park Rd. Suite 2
Chicago, IL 60613
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(773) 525-7426
Dr. George K. Thiruvathukal
DARPA 02-031      Awarded: 23OCT02
Title:Ad Hoc Human Information Nets for Asymmetric Threat Surveillance
Abstract:Ad Hoc Human Information Nets (hereafter Humint Nets), consisting of humans, mobile computing technology such as laptops and PDAs, and possibly disposable sensors, present a significant opportunity for conducting asymmetric threat surveillance. The PDA hardware is gaining in maturity, and the economies of scale are already well-established. Therefore, the ability to deploy Humint Nets on a large scale can be achieved from both economic and technological perspectives. While the economics and hardware to make Humint Nets work are both well-developed, the same cannot be said of the software on PDAs. In this proposal, we address the system software needs that must be addressed in order to make the vision of Humint Networks a realistic possibility. At the core of the proposal are four areas we will explore as part of a feasibility study: distributed micro-databases; distributed query processing and power optimization; distributed services; and managing ad hoc information with XML on small devices. To determine feasibility, some lightweight prototyping will be done in each of the four areas, toward the ultimate goal of producing a report and set of requirements for a more comprehensive product development effort. The availability of lightweight database implementations will be a major boon to application development on handhelds. Environments such as the Palm presently provide limited support for databases. The use of distributed computing techniques is in infancy on handhelds. For handheld computing to be taken seriously, intelligent network-aware software must become available, similar to the state of computing on desktop computers. The use of XML is becoming prevalent in desktop and server-side computing. Its adoption in the handheld space has been limited due to significant resource requirements. The exploration of lightweight techniques for XML processing will benefit application development across the board. We see potential to improve greatly the state of data synchronization and provide more flexible data modeling. The resounding theme of this project is the exploration of advanced computing techniques and an emphasis on lightweightness with the hope of building more powerful applications than notepads, address books, and calendars.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
DARPA 02-032      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:A Novel Single View Passive 3D Face Camera for 3D Face Image Acquisition and Facial Recognition
Abstract: Due to the lack of low-cost 3D biometric imaging sensors and effective 3D facial recognition (FR) algorithms, almost all existing FR systems use 2D face images. The result is that they are inherently vulnerable to changes in pose, lighting and expression. Error rates for existing 2D FR systems in real-world applications are very high when forced to deal with large variations in pose, lighting and expression, as evidenced in the latest Facial Recognition Vendor Tests (FRVT). The primary objective of the SBIR effort proposed herein is to investigate the feasibility of a novel single view passive 3D facial camera. The proposed approach to 3D facial image acquisition eliminates the need of bulky and complex 3D imaging equipment, and simplifies the 3D facial image acquisition procedure. The resulting 3D face models have sufficient quality for tasks of pose/light/expression correction. Furthermore, the approach is coherently integrated with the 3D facial recognition mechanism. Single view acquisition of 3D facial images represents breakthrough technology with respect to ease of application within existing security infrastructures and the potential to significantly enhance face recognition performance. The ultimate goal of our research is to build 3D face camera hardware and software with embedded processing ability that is able to acquire real-time 3D face image in practical FR application scenario. The tragic events of 9/11 have triggered tremendous interest in security enhancements in both public and private sectors. An effective single view 3D face camera and 3D FR technology developed under this SBIR project will appeal to a wide range of security applications. Examples are briefly discussed here. In the public sector, this would include three applications: 1. The screening of individuals entering the country or applying for some kind of documentation (drivers license, student visa, etc.) where a security check is in order to make certain they are not on any kind of wanted or watch list. This would include the INS for border crossings and foreign entry points or the DOT for airport screening. 2. The confirmation of individual ID using biometric data encoded on a card. This would include such things as a drivers license, a hazardous materials handler card, or a preferred traveler pass. 3. The selection of authorized individuals desiring access to a secure environment. This would include everything from the US Senate Office Buildings to NSA top-secret buildings. In the private sector, there would be two primary uses. 1. The monitoring of sensitive installations such as power plants, chemical plants, or water treatment plants where the presence of suspected terrorists or wanted criminals would be of primary importance. This surveillance cameras could be used to match "one to many" to see if such individuals are visiting those locations or traveling nearby. 2. The confirmation of employees authorized to enter a particular building or room. This would be a biometric upgrade of the current card system in wide use among private employers, the major drawback of which is that it only confirms that the card is valid, not that the individual using the card is valid. Each of these markets is significant and measured in the hundreds of millions if not billions of dollars. The impact this technology could have on these markets is that we would vastly increase the probability of correctly identifying someone on a key watch or wanted list if they were observed by a surveillance camera hooked into the system. This is something that is just not achievable with today's technology.

GEOMETRIX, INC.
1590 The Alameda #200
San Jose, CA 95126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 999-7497
Mr. Roman Waupotitsch
DARPA 02-032      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:Passive Imaging for Acquisition of Facial Shape (PIAFS)
Abstract:The proposed research aims to extract 3D facial models for recognition applications using passive imaging sensors and computer vision techniques. We propose exploiting image pairs acquired simultaneously using a stereo camera rig, as well as short image sequences from single cameras. We currently provide commercial stereo products that perform well under cooperative, controlled enrollment conditions, and seek to extend the technique to dynamic illumination, longer ranges, and near-real-time performance for probe imaging. Using single-camera sequences, we have demonstrated initial 3D acquisition capability, and we now seek to achieve robustness and performance envelope improvements sufficient to support operation in realistic deployment scenarios. In Phase I of the proposed effort we seek to 1) implement initial robustness and processing time enhancements to support characterization work, 2) establish and archive a database of subjects acquired using both methods, 3) characterize baseline performance envelopes and accuracy compared to laser scanner data, 4) validate use of acquired 3D shapes in a 3D recognizer, and 5) document potential designs for Phase II development. The ultimate technical goal is to acquire facial shapes rapidly and robustly under realistic operational conditions and process them in 3D facial recognition systems that discriminate reliably despite varying pose and illumination. The proposed effort will develop enabling technology that should ultimately yield sensors capable of recognizing people in a manner similar to the way their friends do - extremely accurately, non-intrusively, and immediately. Such sensors could be used to control access to facilities, continuously monitor operator workstations, confirm identity at border crossings, match air travelers against wanted lists, and otherwise support a wide range of military operations, force protection, and homeland security applications. Revenue potential is in the hundreds of millions of dollars.

TYZX, INC.
241 Scotia Court
Fremont, CA 94539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 324-2066
Dr. John Woodfill
DARPA 02-032      Awarded: 25OCT02
Title:Single View 3D Face Recognition Technology Development
Abstract:We propose to use 3D stereo-based sensors to provide passive, fast, compact, 3D capture of the human face. During Phase 1 we investigate the feasibility and performance of this method with an experimental capture rig for cooperative subjects. The device consists of one to three pre-calibrated stereo camera heads installed in a compact rig, about the size of a briefcase. Depth sensing will be performed by the Tyzx DeepSea stereo-vision ASIC. Depth sensing results will be merged into a3D model for validation against reference objects. These results will be used to specify a deployable stand-alone, single view sensor unit with small footprint, low power, capable of providing real time results. We will also investigate the utility of using this system to capture 3D image sequences which can be of value to recognizers and include this data with a 3D image database acquired with the capture rig. In Phase 2, the standalone unit will be constructed and evaluated under a wider set of operating conditions. Face recognition and identification capabilities are severely limited by variations in pose. Emerging research indicates that using special techniques combined with 3D data of subjects may significantly enhance face recognition performance. Contemporary 3D facial image acquisition, however, is cumbersome and time consuming, requiring multiple sensors, complex apparatus, and cooperative subjects. Frequently, these techniques make use of active sensors (laser scanning or structured light) which is objectionable to subjects. These factors render the collection and use of such imagery unsuitable for most military and civilian real-world applications which require a low cost, compact, self-contained sensor unit with minimal or no setup process. The ability to use a single sensor unit to take a 3D "snap-shot" of the face represents a breakthrough with respect to ease of application within existing security infrastructures and the opportunity to significantly enhance face recognition performance. With inexpensive acquisition of 3D data available, recognizer performance will be enhanced and 3D enrollment and recognition systems will become used in port of entry applications, access control, customer relationship management and potentially for credit and bank cards.

IMAGECORP, INC.
6411 Ivy Lane #106
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Dr. Qinfen Zheng
DARPA 02-033      Selected for Award
Title:Personnel and Vehicular Monitoring and Tracking at a Distance
Abstract:Autonomous monitoring of human and vehicle activities in a wide area is very important for military and civilian applications. Using distributed sensors, one can generate 3D information and enable reliable monitoring of human and vehicle movements over a wide area in dynamic environments. Critical issues to be addressed for the design and development of a distributed sensor based monitoring system include: cross sensor self-calibration, long range target detection and tracking, target 3D feature extraction, and 3D information based human/vehicle tracking and verification. In this project, we will develop a PC system that uses a proprietary temporal/spatial variance analysis for high accuracy moving target detection at a distance, an efficient template matching technique for moving target tracking and cross platform/sensor object matching, a novel 3D motion trajectory analysis based cross sensor self-calibration, sensor fusion techniques for reliable human and vehicle detection and tracking, and techniques for 3D articulation-robust human tracking and verification. In Phase I, we will evaluate the usefulness of these algorithms for wide area personnel and vehicular monitoring and tracking, and develop a prototype design of the monitoring system. In Phase II, we will build a PC based prototype monitoring system and perform extensive real scenario tests. The primary military applications for the proposed work are for long range wide area monitoring to support early warning, force and sensitive area protection. Civilian applications include airport security monitoring, 24/7 facility protection, and bank and home security systems.

TYZX, INC.
241 Scotia Court
Fremont, CA 94539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 947-0717
Dr. Gaile Gordon
DARPA 02-033      Awarded: 25OCT02
Title:Personnel and Vehicular Monitoring and Tracking at a Distance
Abstract:We propose a robust tracking and monitoring system based on a high frame rate, stereo vision 3D sensor combined with color video data. The envisioned system is capable of detecting people or vehicles moving in a large facility - indoors or outdoors, and keeping track of each target individually in real time as they pass from one monitored view to another despite crowds, partial occlusions or lighting changes. A prototype tracking system will be demonstrated, extended and evaluated for performance using existing high-performance stereo correspondence hardware. The envisioned system will be structured to serve as a platform for acquiring 3D data to be integrated with other biometric methods for identification and threat classification. Finally, issues regarding practical field use such as cost, installation and maintenance will be identified and addressed. The Department of Defense (DoD) is at a heightened state of awareness since the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. Military and civilian facilities need technology that will help them monitor and track potential terrorists before an attack takes place. Existing identification technology and security systems, based on single image sensors or basic motion sensors, are not sufficient to fulfill this need because they are not robust with respect to real world environments. 3D technology though recognized as a invaluable tool for surveillance tracking and identification has been too slow, expensive and cumbersome to incorporate into commercially practical security systems. The results of this SBIR topic will enable practical security systems using this critical 3D modality. When completed, the result will be an entirely new paradigm for visual surveillance cameras and capabilities - away from simple video capture and towards security automation, real time threat analysis and intelligence gathering.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry Marcus
DARPA 02-034      Selected for Award
Title:Scalable Heterogeneous Social Network Analysis
Abstract:21st Century Technologies and Mr. Valdis Krebs, a social network expert , will (1) combine multiple social network patterns to provide visibility and situational awareness of anomalous and potentially terrorist behaviors (2) implement these combined patterns into an social network pattern library and (3) integrate the library into TMODS. 21st Century Technologies', TMODS, (Terrorist Modus Operandi Detection System) ,currently being developed for DARPA under the EELD program, shall be used as a framework for the development of the library. The integrated social network pattern library shall be an add-on capability to TMODS. This approach provides intelligence analysts, who may not have social network or other types of expertise, the capability to identify threats based on a robust library of integrated social network pattern data. The integrated social network library can be easily integrated into the DARPA Total Information Awareness infrastructure using TMODS as a platform. Commercial applications are in computer security and pricing of financial instruments

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Connie G. Fournelle
DARPA 02-034      Selected for Award
Title:INSIGHT: Interpreting Network Structures to Obtain Intelligence on Groups of Hidden Terrorists
Abstract:Detecting and disrupting a terrorist network requires the ability to: link disparate (noisy, deceptive) data and recognize patterns in the underlying networks, estimate where further intelligence would be useful, and predict the network's response to possible attacks. We propose to combine state-of-the-art social network analysis (meta-networks) and statistical inferencing (probabilistic relational models) techniques to develop mathematical models for characterizing terrorist organizations, and implement those models in a software tool that can be used to detect terrorist organizations and analyze their structural vulnerabilities. Meta-networks capture the connections between people, skills, events, and locations, and generate more effective representations of organizations than do traditional person-to-person social networks. PRMs capture the variability and uncertainty in these connections in a compact representation and provide efficient inferencing mechanisms. By combining both, we can represent varied terrorist organization structures and facilitate updates and modifications to those structures, while maintaining the level of detail needed for accurate detection/exploitation. In Phase I we will develop and demonstrate models and software to characterize terrorist networks, and evaluate their sensitivity to varying levels of data quality and completeness. Phase II will extend the models and software, to detect terrorist organizations and perform exploitable structure analysis for disrupting terrorist networks. Benefits of this effort include increased utilization of intelligence data, earlier detection of terrorist organizations, and decision support tools to support efforts to disrupt terrorist networks. Tools from this effort will also support structural characterization and exploitation for other domains, such as criminal investigation, corporate structure analysis, and diplomatic assessment.

ORION'S BELT, INC.
P.O. Box 90, 116 Ford Rd.
Sudbury, MA 01776
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 276-0410
Mr. John McGeachie
DARPA 02-034      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:Scalable Heterogeneous Social Network Analysis
Abstract:Driven by the nature of terrorist groups, the objective of this project is to develop robust and scalable algorithms and associated data structures for the analysis of complex social networks consisting of large numbers of individuals affiliated with multiple, overlapping, structured organizations and linked by multiple types of interactions. Orion's Belt has already developed technology that successfully applies elements of social network analysis (SNA) to a database comprised of over 100,000 people and 30,000 organizations. In Phase I, we will extend this technology by developing new algorithms and data structures related to: . Management of hierarchical entities (multi-level organizations, morphing) . Recognition of special nodes (bridgers and connectors) . Computation of network metrics (connectivity, strength, density, centrality) . Mechanisms for accommodating time (time-stamps for networks, changes over time) In Phase II, we will develop a full-functionality prototype implementing these new capabilities into our software package, and will add new functionality such as enhanced visualization. Greatly enhanced features and value for current and potential customers. Improved effectiveness and efficiency for users. Significant advances in several key areas of social network analysis and other potential applications.

AXIMETRIC, INC.
1763 Prairie View Ln
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 277-3724
Dr. Guru Prasad
DARPA 02-035      Awarded: 09OCT02
Title:High Efficiency, Scalable, Parallel Processing Approaches for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:Aximetric and the Cornell Theory Center (CTC) strongly backed by Microsoft High Performance Computing (HPC) lab proposes a portable parallel computing model for windows platform called Java based Bulk Synchronous Parallel System (JBSP) that is implemented using the .net clustering technology developed by Microsoft. The uniqueness of this approach is to provide portable model called JBSP.Net using the BSP cost model along with Java like visual environment provided by Microsoft. Current approaches for portable parallel computing will be studied and proposed in light of the Sensory fusion problem, and new approaches for load balancing using the proposed model will be presented. A graph-based load balancing system (GPSys) will be developed to assist in load balancing and performance mapping. The Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model (Valient, 90) is a very portable model that uses simple programming parameters for building the parallel programming model. These models can be built on uniprocessor machines and the same can be easily transferred to parallel/distributed processors using the BSP library for those platforms. The compile once run anywhere concept of Java, the BSP parallel model and the newly developed .Net architecture (Microsoft, 02) developed by microsoft to network servers, form the crux of our approach towards portability and scalability using low cost windows workstations. Aximetric team is proposing a unique graph based architecture to assist in building the portable parallel model. The BSP model similar to LogP model is portable, yet lacks tools to provide measures of latency, blocked times and parallel slackness with respect to the problem modeled. Portablity has to balanced with efficiency of processors and interprocessor communications. It is well known that in general optimal multiprocessor mapping problem is NP-hard. The processor allocation problem can be viewed as a weighted graph mapping, where the nodes of a source graph are mapped into those of a target graph. In the source graph the nodes represent computational tasks and the edges represent the inter-process communication. The target graph represents the parallel architecture. The objective function, which models the cost associated with the mapping, is to be minimized. We will use the agencys Sensory fusion applications for testing and benchmarking the proof of concept. Aximetric team will also use a unique tagging and segmenting approach for the data tree that can be used for storing sensory data. This approach brings design, development, testing, running and visualization for parallel programs in a common environment used in main stream computing. The application will be tested on CTC's 256 node Dell Windows 2K cluster. The objectives of the Phase I effort are to define the user requirements, identify and define the critical design attributes, and demonstrate the feasibility of the portable parallel model concept for sensory problems and alike using the .Net cluster. During Phase II, a full-scale prototype will be developed. This prototype will be subjected to a comprehensive field test at a predefined DoD center and revised as appropriate. A marketing plan will be developed so that the software can be commercialized and introduced to the marketplace during Phase III. As more techniques to load balance, characterize the cost model, meta-tag data and partition data are developed, the concept can be leveraged to any intelligent data mining needs throughout the intelligence and business community, Environmental Modeling for real-time simulation and visualization, in the government and industry regardless of subject matter content.

MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL, INC.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 550
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 522-7177
Mr. Christopher B. Robbins
DARPA 02-035      Awarded: 09OCT02
Title:High Efficiency, Scalable, Parallel Processing Approaches for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:Management Communications and Control, Inc. (MCCI) proposes specification of applications for high performance scalable, distributed computing systems as "virtual circuits", data flow graph based software architectures. The mathematical properties of data flow, which are similar to physical current flow, enable application of circuit theory based synthesis and design methods to create highly efficient applications for parallel architectures. Proposed methodology innovations will exploit data flow graph properties of equivalency and hierarchy. Equivalent parallel graph segments will be generated for specified architecture partitions creating parallel architectures that readily translate to highly efficient designs. Hierarchical decomposition of architectures design's matching communications loading with hierarchical network capacity will produce application designs with balanced processing and communications loads that is required for high efficiency. The company will demonstrate the capability of its computer aided design and automatic code generation technology, the Autocoding ToolsetT, to support the innovations explored. Extensions and new capabilities that are required to establish full CAD support for developing highly efficient, scalable processing applications will be identified. The methodology innovations we will develop will be incorporated in the company's commercial product, the Autocoding ToolsetT. Extensions we identify will be implemented in our tools. Application developers for large, scalable, distributed parallel systems will enjoy a CAD environment for application development that supports creation of applications that efficiently utilize the next generation of super computing architectures and reduced software costs by an order of magnitude or more.

MASSIVELY PARALLEL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1812 Boxelder Street
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 915-4608
Mr. Kevin D. Howard
DARPA 02-035      Awarded: 17OCT02
Title:High Efficiency, Scalable, Parallel Processing Approaches for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:As the number and power of imaging resources grow there is an increasing need to automate the analysis of those images. With the advent of multi, hyper, and ultra-spectral image data the need to fuse this data into an automated single composite view for analysis purposes also increases. Massively Parallel Technology, Inc. has a unique COTS computer clustering technology that has already shown 100x or better performance (compared to single workstation technologies) for a wide variety of image processing algorithms using only 127 processors. This technology will be used to prove that sensor fusion algorithms can show similar speed increases. 1) Define a new hardware/software solution to provide object identification from a mixture of sensors using COTS equipment. 2) Show a 100x or better performance gain in object identification over current workstation solutions. 3) Show that this arbitrary rotation angle object identification is non-intrusive to existing systems, as well as lending itself to near real-time data processing. 4) Show an automated figure of merit generation for each object found 5) Show that tactically important information can be automatically extracted from an image.

PREDICTION SYSTEMS, INC.
309 Morris Avenue, Suite G
Spring Lake, NJ 07762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 449-6800
Mr. William C. Cave
DARPA 02-035      Awarded: 08OCT02
Title:High Efficiency, Scalable, Parallel Processing Approaches for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:PSI's CAD approach to simulation/software development cuts large system life cycle costs by an order of magnitude. A visual representation of software architecture that provides a one-to-one mapping to the code, it's based upon separation of data from instructions, affording separation of architecture from language, and providing ease of control and reuse of complex modules. This paradigm shift for software brakes barriers to building complex systems, makes significant upgrades easy, and cuts support costs dramatically, by achieving module independence through visually enforced architectural design rules. Its success has resulted in huge simulations that meet customer validity constraints but now exceed single processor computer power by one to two orders of magnitude. Hardware designers produce parallel computers with speeds into teraflop ranges. However, their practical use on all but very special problems has been extremely limited due to software implementation problems. This research is to confirm hypotheses that graphical design rules that achieve software understandability and module independence also support allocation of processes to parallel processors. Fusion of this technology with parallel processors can result in an order of magnitude of speed improvement, yet making development easier on parallel machines than single processor machines due to concurrent memory access and management. Communication network equipment design, manufacturing plant design, process control system design, local, national, and international econometric modeling, business market modeling, world-wide commodity and currency stock and flow predictions, etc.

GENOMATICA, INC.
5405 Morehouse Drive, Suite 210
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 362-8562
Dr. Radhakrishnan Mahadevan
DARPA 02-036      Awarded: 16OCT02
Title:Development of Predictive Algorithms for In Silico Drug Toxicity and Efficacy Assessment
Abstract:The need to screen drug candidates earlier in the discovery process to prevent costly failures during the clinical stages has motivated in the development of in silico tools for drug screening based on toxicity. Most of the existing approaches do not consider the integrated nature of the metabolic network. In the current proposal, we intend to use approaches from a systems biology perspective to develop tools for toxicity prediction. The feasibility of the use of constraints-based models of cellular metabolism for the prediction of toxicity would be evaluated in the Phase I proposal. Upon the completion of this SBIR project, we expect to have successfully developed technologies that can be used for evaluating the toxicity od specific drugs. The scope of the toxicity assessment can be expanded by considering functional groups of several drugs along with the associated effects on the human metabolic network. Protein-drug interaction data along with gene expression data can be incorporated into the analysis to further widen the scope for toxicity evaluation. The proposed research will ultimately result in a novel computational tool for toxicity prediction based on the genome scale analysis of metabolic networks. This tool can also be used to identify new drug targets, provide alternatives to intractable drug targets, prioritize candidate drug targets to establish optimal points for therapeutic intervention, and to develop assays for the identification of disease states or the presence of toxic compounds. Collectively, it will improve the efficiency of the drug discovery and development process.

QUANTUM INTELLIGENCE, INC.
10610 Morengo Drive
Cupertino, CA 95014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 252-7746
Dr. Ying Zhao
DARPA 02-036      Awarded: 09OCT02
Title:Development of Predictive Algorithms for In Silico Drug Toxicity and Efficacy Assessment
Abstract:The aim and purpose of this proposal is to research and build a Quantum Intelligence System (QIS) and demonstrate its technical innovation and commercial feasibility for predicting in silico drug toxicity and efficacy. QIS integrates a collection of state-of-the-art data mining and optimization technologies. QIS first employs the best practices in database and data warehousing area to integrate the important information from diversified databases, then employs innovative data mining techniques which can are specially designed to handle large dimensional numeric and text data jointly to analyze, classify and predict the potential toxicity and efficacy of drug candidates. The effort is critical and significant because QIS technology make it possible to look at heterogeneous databases as a whole and study all the aspects of a drug discovery process jointly. So it is very likely that some previously unknown insight that could come out and lead to significant breakthrough. If successful, the resultant QIS can be applied to military defense interest of chemical and biological agents and pathogens. QIS should be also readily applicable to civil efforts of drug discovery. QIS would help drug candidates to "fail fast" before expensive later-phase trials, thus saving time and money. Making effective use of all of the existing, valuable data and literature is critical for a breakthrough in the area. Quantum Intelligence System, designed on the basis of large data warehousing and data mining, is able to look for patterns and build predictive models across multiple and heterogeneous databases. We believe that only by looking at all the data jointly, the patterns and actionable information that previously unknown will emerge and predictive accuracy can be greatly improved QIS has advantages over other data mining as follows ˙ QIS focuses on an integrated knowledge source for drug candidates. ˙ QIS predicts and classifies drug toxicity and efficacy from the multidimensional data by using our innovative Projection Pursuit Learning (PPLN), Knowledge Space Link Analysis (KPLA) and Structured Dynamic Programming (SDP) technologies. ˙ QIS Knowledge Space Link Analysis is able to analyze both numerical data and text data. Descriptive features can be extracted from science literature and used them for understanding relationship between drug candidates. Other Military Applications: Analyze terrorists' behavior, discover potential terror threats; automatically allocate operation workload for undersea warfare; data fusion and sensor management for adaptive flight control. Supply Chain: Inventory management, production planning and control, resource allocation, reliability, maintenance, material handling, logistics, distribution of a supply chain. Manufacturing: Parsing existing work-stream data for chip production flow and optimizing the microchips' yield while minimizing costs. Health Care: Discover clinical activity patterns for automatic early detection, prevention and best practice. Bioinformatics: Find genes that are most responsible for a biology process to answer how gene expression is switched on and off in the context of each other during the course of a biologic process. Business Intelligence: Generic tools for revenue and resource management, customer profiling, targeted marketing, optimizing store location and store layout, customer attrition, customer win-back and cross-channel customer migration, capital budget allocation and risk management.

DISCOVERY MACHINE, INC.
454 Pine Street
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 329-0251
Dr. Todd W. Griffith
DARPA 02-037      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:User-Defined Critics for Software Adaptation
Abstract:This proposal investigates using a knowledge acquisition system called The Discovery MachineT to allow subject matter experts to construct critics to evolve software. As storage, memory, and processing speeds increase there is a push to evolve more complex software systems. This push arises from the desire to utilize untapped computational potential. Complex software development, however, is constrained by a bottleneck facing the industry. The bottleneck is not a hardware bottleneck a la von Neumann, but rather a bottleneck of expertise. Software development requires skilled software engineers with experience designing and implementing large software systems. Unfortunately, the demand for these engineers far exceeds the supply, and the bottleneck will only narrow as demand increases. Our solution is to reduce the role of the software engineer in the development process. This means increasing the role of the SME, which also means increasing the role of tools for assisting the SME. Since development is evolutionary in nature, SMEs will need tools for not only new development, but also for the adaptation of software. Here we suggest using a combination of user-friendly knowledge acquisition tools, high-level formal languages (SBF-TMK) and meta-agent help systems to take automated software development to the next level. The most significant development within the target business sector is the explosion in amount and complexity of data and the subsequent need for computational power to utilize this data. Programmers, SMEs, and Decision Makers all need more effective tools for communicating to each other and for leveraging this information. The Discovery Machine provides both a vehicle for communicating, modeling, and analyzing complex processes and the information and objects flowing through that processes. The commercial market opportunity for more effective utilization of data and the scientists, researchers, and analysts who interpret and use that data is extraordinary, particularly given the explosion in data collection and warehousing and the scarcity of skilled experts who can make use of that data. The key target market for Discovery Machine is data-intensive segments in the defense and systems engineering/design and biotechnology sectors, and this has already been validated by over 50 interviews with potential customers and partners.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1107-C Lyons Road
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Mr. David L. Barton
DARPA 02-037      Awarded: 09OCT02
Title:User-Defined Critics for Software Adaptation
Abstract:EDAptive Computing, Inc. (ECI) and Dr. Perry Alexander of the University of Kansas presents a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem specifying and creating self-correcting systems of digital hardware and software. Our Capturing Error and Repair Strategies at a System Level (SystemCritics) program will apply: Rosetta, the SLDL; SyscapeT, the block diagram editor; and VectorGenT, the test vector generator, to provide the ability to enter system information, error conditions, and repair strategy; generate tests to detect when error conditions occur; and act to correct those error conditions. Specifically, we propose to use Rosetta, the Systems Level Design Language (SLDL), to describe the system state in its full functionality, error conditions, and repair strategies; Syscape, the systems level block diagram editor, to enter this information graphically; VectorGen, our test vector generator, to create tests to detect if a part of the system is not functioning properly and to identify what that part is; and the Rosetta Execution Engine (REE) to take the specifications in Rosetta and produce an execution of the system specifications and the error strategies. The result of this solution will provide a complete mechanism for defining critics that describe self-correcting systems and implementing them. This technology could enhance any software system that requires frequent updates or varied specializations. Initial focus will be on military and NASA high-integrity applications where a practical self-correcting system definition and implementation system is required. Potential Applications of SystemCritics are instances where high-integrity software is needed, but particularly in avionics software (especially UAVs), space probes, nuclear plants, and other high-integrity applications in medical systems, automotive applications, and commercial aircrafts.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Emilio Remolina
DARPA 02-037      Awarded: 08OCT02
Title:Reflective self-adaptive systems
Abstract:We propose a software development framework where the system under construction can reason about what its components do and how they do it. In order to satisfy end-user needs and design constraints, the system determines needed changes in its configuration by reasoning with the components' what-and-how knowledge. System re-configuration is triggered by changes in user constraints or changes in the system environment that make the system's behavior violate these constraints. The system monitors its behavior in order to signal constraint violations, diagnoses the cause of these violations, and triggers the corresponding repair adaptation. We proposed to use artificial intelligence model-based reasoning techniques for implementing these monitoring, diagnosis and re-configuration facilities. These techniques rely on domain knowledge provided by end-users and system designers. This knowledge includes repair heuristics, hierarchical component descriptions, probes and configuration transformations. An intelligent knowledge acquisition tool will guide end-users in order to define this domain knowledge without the assistance of programmers. The system's introspection facilities allow it to explain in user terms why its configuration is as it is, helping the user to detect weaknesses in the system domain knowledge. We will demonstrate the feasibility of our ideas through the development of a Phase I prototype. The proposed technology can be marketed as a tool for complex system's configuration and analysis in domain applications that require frequent requirement changes or are domain knowledge intensive (e.g., logistics, planning, simulation).

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Dr. Kurt J. Linden
DARPA 02-038      Awarded: 11OCT02
Title:Portable Terahertz Imaging System
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal describes a development program aimed at designing and fabricating a semiconductor terahertz quantum cascade (QC) laser, and demonstrating its operation in a proof-of-concept system for biological imaging. QC lasers have demonstrated coherent emission at and above room-temperature at wavelengths beyond 10 microns, and have recently also demonstrated terahertz emission at cryogenic temperatures. This suggests the possibility of small and efficient terahertz laser sources. The potential for room-temperature terahertz emission makes this laser an excellent candidate for portable terahertz imaging applications. Phase I will deal with the design, fabrication, and testing of a terahertz laser, the selection and use of a terahertz imaging detector, and preliminary demonstration of general imaging capability using paper envelopes and grocery-purchased chicken organs. Spire will collaborate with the Optics and Quantum Electronics Group, Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT, which has a collaborative effort with Sandia National Laboratory on terahertz laser development. The QC laser will be fabricated and tested at MIT, and a pyroelectric detector imaging array will be specified and used in a proof-of-concept demonstration. During Phase II, Spire will develop and fabricate a prototype, portable biological imaging system and work towards commercialization of the technology. The commercial availability of a portable terahertz imaging system would greatly benefit the scientific, military, medical, veterinary, dental, agriculture, textile, law-enforcement, anti-terrorism, and industrial communities. This region of the electromagnetic spectrum has been largely unavailable due to a lack of small, affordable sources. The ability of terahertz electromagnetic fields to penetrate materials while being strongly absorbed by metals and polar molecules such as water, will make it possible to detect objects hidden beneath surfaces. This enabling technology both supplements and complements harmful x-ray techniques.

TECHNOLOGY & MEDICINE, INC.
504 Ironwood Way
Dresher, PA 19025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 816-0834
Dr. Kambiz Pourrezaei
DARPA 02-038      Awarded: 17OCT02
Title:The Development of TeraHertz Sources and Detectors for Sensing and Imaging Applications
Abstract:The team of Technology & Medicine, Inc. with the University of Delaware will design, fabricate and test commercial versions of THz sources and detectors using SiGe semiconductor technology that is compatible with Silicon Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (Si CMOS) circuitry. In this project the commercialization will focus on biological and medial products. We will demonstrate a source and detector proof-of-concept system that can be used for the imaging of biological and chemical systems. The involvement of small business will be to test approaches and techniques for using THz devices in commercial systems. Our plan is to create a new business for THz technology. Technology & Medicine will follow two tracks to commercialize THz technology. In the first track discrete THz source and detectors will be fabricated for the commercial market. Third party fabrication facilities will be used. In the second track imaging and sensing systems will be developed. In particular we will focus on biological imaging. Technology & Medicine will also look to form alliance with a major compatible manufacturing partner.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC.
6730 Mesa Ridge Road, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 373-0832
Dr. Robert Matthews
DARPA 02-039      Awarded: 15OCT02
Title:High Density Electric Vector Sensor Array for Non Contacting Measurement of EEG
Abstract:A breakthrough in free-space electric field sensing will be used as the basis of a hardware interface to brain neuropotentials. Free-space sensing has the ability to measure the electric potentials produced by the brain without contacting the head and so offers the ultimate solution for long term monitoring of cognitive processes. Furthermore, detection of free-space potentials enables measurement of the electric field normal to the scalp, thereby providing a new channel of information, that should improve the spatial resolution presently achieved by spline laplacian fits to surface electric potential data. In addition, the sensors have a sufficiently small size, low weight and low cost to be used in a future wearable system that integrates the cognitive state of an operator into a larger system. The Phase I program will investigate realizing these important capabilities in a practical high density sensor array for real time detection of cognitive state. A side by side comparison will be made between a set of the new sensors and a 64 element array of conventional electrodes. In Phase II, a dense array of the new free-space sensors will be constructed, and its ability to locate functional domains of cognitive processing will be studied. If successful, the proposed system will provide a critical advance in our ability to monitor and spatially resolve the electrical activity of the brain. The system would be an enabling technology for many possible applications of cognitive state monitoring. Commercial applications mirror those in the military. In addition, the new sensor array has significant potential application for electroencephalography and studies of brain dysfunction.

SAM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
425 Bush Street, Fifth Floor
San Francisco, CA 94108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 837-1600
Alan Gevins
DARPA 02-039      Awarded: 08OCT02
Title:MULTICOMPARTMENT NEUROFUNCTIONAL ACTIVATION MEASURE
Abstract:Many tasks in computerized work environments can exceed a person's capacity to attend to and analyze information. Although the cognitive workload of the user is thus a prime consideration in designing improved interfaces and advanced adaptive automation strategies, there is no good way to measure it. Accordingly, we have developed a method that uses scalp-recorded EEG signals for assessing functional brain activation during computer-mediated work. While promising, our current metric is implicitly based on a one-compartment ("central bottleneck") neurocognitive model that yields a unidimensional index of brain activation. Here we propose to extend this measure to a multicompartment model for simultaneously estimating the cognitive workload imposed on different brain regions. Feasibility will be assessed in Phase I by performing analyses on our extensive existing database of human EEG recordings. The resulting multidimensional metrics would be refined and validated during Phase II. Incorporating the metrics into our automated clinical neurocognitive function testing system will facilitate rapid transition into a commercial technology. The proposed project culminates a 16-year R&D program aimed at developing a breakthrough technology to routinely monitor cognitive brain functions in ordinary office and operational environments. The resulting metric and system will enable the first widespread use of neurocognitive workload measurements by computer interface researchers and human performance specialists. In addition to military and industrial research applications, the system will have commercial application in alertness monitoring, and in assessing and training attention in clinical neurological applications.

GCAS, INC.
1531 Grand Avenue, Suite A
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 591-4227
Mr. Maurizo Borsotto
DARPA 02-040      Awarded: 04NOV02
Title:Knowledge Acquisition for Level II/III Fusion
Abstract:This proposal focuses on the development of algorithms and methodologies for the acquisition of probabilistic relational knowledge from subject-matter experts with little or no training in knowledge representation and probability theory. The knowledge representation effort today follows two major threads of work. The first one involves the creation of tools for efficiently maintaining and manipulating large-scale Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. The second focuses on uncertainty handling in the knowledge representation. This latter thread involves the assertion of the Bayesian Networks paradigm. Traditionally, the Ontology and Knowledge Bases representation languages allow the encoding of complex relational knowledge but do not support an efficient and sound way of handling uncertainty issues. Conversely, Bayesian Networks do handle uncertainty in a proper way, but they lack of the powerful expressiveness of relational models. Recent advances in the Bayesian Networks paradigm, namely Probabilistic Relational Models, have built a bridge between the integration of the sound uncertainty handling techniques of Bayesian Networks into the Ontology and Knowledge Bases development systems. This integration will have a synergic effect, exploiting the complementary expressive power of both the systems. With this proposal we intend to analyze and solve the issues related to this integration effort. The Integrated Knowledge Development System will allow rapid devising, encoding and deploying of complex ESs. We are confident that such a system will increase the productivity and the complexity of the deployable ESs by at least an order of magnitude. This will open the door to the rapid inclusion of uncertainty in the development of extremely complex systems. Such systems encompass battlespace situation and threat assessment, military and business intelligence, early warning of terrorist activity, maintenance of complex machinery, control and monitoring of complex plants, medical diagnosis, business management, financial management and many other applications which currently have excluded uncertainty due to its complexity.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Mr. Michael Pool
DARPA 02-040      Awarded: 18NOV02
Title:Knowledge Acquisition for Level II/III Fusion
Abstract:We propose to build on IET's existing product line of probabilistic and relational knowledge representation and reasoning tools to develop a knowledge elicitation environment that can be used by subject matter experts (SMEs) to generate knowledge bases of probabilistic relations for tactical battlespace applications such as Level II/III information fusion systems. An agent-behavior based "tactical model language" will be developed to guide SMEs in self-elicitation of battlespace entities and relations. Biased by the causal directionality of the elicitation, weak prior probabilities for uncertain relations can be estimated automatically. These can be strengthened by automated data mining if data is available; a facility to elicit qualitative probability estimates directly from SMEs will also be provided. There is potential for adoption of a probabilistic relational elicitation tool in multiple multi-billion dollar marketplaces, including those concerned with customer relationship management, natural resource exploration, machine fault diagnosis and pharmaceutical discovery. This is correlated with the increasing awareness, on the part of both management and engineers concerned with large-scale systems development, of the need to engineer systems that can handle uncertain and incomplete inputs, support the acquisition of probabilistic relational knowledge from subject matter experts, and behave gracefully in the face of unexpected situations and unknown entities and events.

ERICA, INC.
100 2nd St. NW
Charlottesville, VA 22902
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 296-3846
Dr. Christopher P. Lankford
DARPA 02-041      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:Machine Detection of Operationally Significant Cognitive Events for C4ISR
Abstract:The interface between human and machine has classically been one-sided. Humans command machines with little assistance offered by the machine besides feedback regarding current status of the command execution. With recent advances in computational power and analytical techniques, a more collaborative relationship between the machine and its user can occur. This relationship would be particularly helpful in areas where vigilance and situational awareness of a human operator are necessary for successful task completion. A machine capable of detecting cognitively significant events would determine when military personnel are incapacitated or overloaded due to a high stress level associated with their duties. It would then take action when this situation occurs. This project will establish that these operationally significant cognitive events can be captured in an autonomous fashion through the use of an eye-tracking system. This will involve conducting a laboratory experiment closely analogous to a real-world military situation to show that cognitive events can be detected in a statistically significant fashion through eye movement variables, such as scan path, pupil dilation, and eye blink frequency measures. Completion of this SBIR would result in a device that represents one of the first examples of the successful application of ubiquitous computing technology in a real-world environment. This technology could readily be applied to many other areas. This includes any other situation where vigilance and attentiveness on the part of a human operator is essential to successful completion of a task. Examples include airport screening, x-ray examination, and performance assessment of pilots and intelligence analysts.

INNOVATIVE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1100 Alakea Plaza, 23d Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 441-3606
Dr. J. Hunter Downs III
DARPA 02-041      Awarded: 17OCT02
Title:Functional Near Infrared Imaging for Cognitive Event Detection during Target Discrimination in Military Imagery
Abstract:With an increase in highly mobile and unconventional military threats, real-time target detection from sensor based imagery has become correspondingly more important. At the same time, computers alone have not been able to mimic the capabilities of an expert analyst in making the visually complex decisions needed to perform high level target detection decisions. In this proposal we plan to merge human and machine capabilities to perform high-level target detections based on the monitoring of expert analysts' cognitive performance. Using two in-house technologies, we aim to integrate functional near-infrared (fNIR) imaging with a real-time spatial-spectral target analysis and reporting system (SSTARS) designed to analyze a stream of both panchromatic and hyperspectral imagery with a number of automatic anomaly and target identification algorithms . Not only does this integration revolutionize current target detection capabilities, it will allow computers to utilize cognitively significant events to make decisions an order of magnitude faster and more accurately than current technologies. This augmentation of both humans and computers will allow for a direct application and expansion of work already funded by DARPA's Augmented Cognition program to apply directly to a C4ISR environment. The proposed work will demonstrate, as a foundation for continued research, the feasibility of using cognitive event detection to improve false alarm rates in automated target recognition as well as improve an image analyst's throughput on target categorization tasks. The proposed work closely simulates an actual C4ISR task and represents a concrete step in attempting to enhance HCI interactions. The results of this proposal are directly marketable to the military as a method of improving false alarm rates in target discrimination. Given the military's dependence on accurate target discrimination, this is a large market. The ability to halt a perceived erroneous action just before it happens, as is afforded by the ERN signal and if successfully captured by a system based on the principles of the proposed experiment, has application whenever target destruction is eminent. Such a system could potentially be used to reduce "friendly fire" accidents. The experiment proposed answers the specific needs DARPA has expressed in the SB022-041 solicitation. Civilian applications of such technology are quite extensive. Virtually any visual discrimination task currently beyond the scope of computers has application for this technology as a method of improving human operator throughput. In the medical arena, diagnostic radiologists are required to read large numbers of films in a short period of time. The technology may also have application in airport screening and air traffic control. The potential application, however, extends far beyond this particular project leading to both military and civilian commercial applications.

ACUITY RESEARCH, INC.
3475 Edison Way, Bldg P
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 369-6782
Mr. Robert Clark
DARPA 02-042      Awarded: 17OCT02
Title:3-D Modeling from Video
Abstract:When humans move and observe, they combine information from the eyes and inner ears to form a mental world model using perception of linear and angular motion as well as visual images. We propose that recent advances in projective geometry, position estimates from inertial and magnetic sensors, and rigid body kinematics can be fused to provide a powerful new way of effectively generating complete 3D models from video. Combining video data with inertial data provides a computer with the information humans use for non-contact observation of the world. Inertial data and camera kinematics can be used with the principles of projective geometry and optical flow to increase the number of image points that can be related across multiple views, increase the accuracy with which the points can be related, identify views (video frames) that will efficiently produce a world model, allow software to combine world model fragments, and interpret and capture surfaces and regions as well as edges and vertices in a complete world model. The bottleneck in the availability of ubiquitous 3D presentation and interaction materials is the acquisition of the 3D models from real world spaces and objects. If accurate, complete renditions of real spaces and objects can be created with video sequences from one or more freely moving video cameras this bottleneck can be removed. Applications for these models can be found in the forest products industry for mapping timber resources and optimizing log yield, in forensics, in training and simulation, in modeling and exploring areas with remote cameras, in product presentation and evaluation, in databases for interactive part, pipe, or conduit location in factories, refineries, and chemical plants, in remote medical diagnostics and perhaps surgery.

IMAGECORP, INC.
6411 Ivy Lane #106
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Dr. Chandra Shekhar
DARPA 02-042      Awarded: 18OCT02
Title:3-D Modeling from Video
Abstract:Traditional methods for recovering 3D scene and object structure have suffered from a serious lack of robustness due to errors in computing optical flow or errors in tracking feature points or other tokens. In addition, due to computational complexity, fast algorithms for these applications are not known. We propose to commercialize a fast technique using FFT computations for dense scene and structure recovery using unconstrained video. Since the quality of structure estimates can be significantly improved by using more frames, we implement a fusion technology for integrating the two-frame based depth maps without significantly affecting the computational efficiency. The fusion technique uses the covariance matrix of the errors in two-frame based estimates and hence is statistically sound. In Phase I, we will integrate a suite of algorithms to demonstrate the utility of our approach for two commercial applications: face and terrain modeling. In the process of fusing two-frame depth estimates, we will be able to integrate a generic model of the object being recovered as well as generate a measure of quality of depth recovery. During Phase II, a prototype system will be built by integrating generic models and unconstrained videos. The primary military applications for the proposed work are in generating improved terrain models, and building target and scene models for simulation of battlefields. Commercial applications are in 3-D model building for facial animation, face recognition, real estate walkthroughs and virtual reality applications.

PERCEPTEK
9892 Titan Park Circle, Unit # 7
Littleton, CO 80125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 344-1037
Dr. William Klarquist
DARPA 02-042      Awarded: 18OCT02
Title:3-D Modeling from Video
Abstract:Three-dimensional (3D) models of buildings, objects, and terrain are in high demand for a wide variety of military and commercial applications. Unfortunately, the availability of these models is limited and generating them takes considerable effort both in time and expense. Our goal on this project is to develop the additional techniques required to make such a capability both inexpensive and ubiquitous. The most successful recent approaches for recovering 3D geometric models from image sequences are based on the use of the fundamental matrix and the trifocal tensor. These methods however rely on feature tracking algorithms that typically cannot track features over a wide range of viewing directions, limiting the accuracy of the recovered structure. In addition, the tracked features are generally sparse, resulting in a sparse 3D model inadequate for most modeling applications. The first issue will be addressed with a tracking algorithm that takes into account the local 3D structure around feature points. The second issue will be addressed by incorporating a second pass of the structure estimation to recover the complete structure using a stereo matching approach. The 3D structure will be represented using a 3D modeling and structure integration approach developed at the Colorado School of Mines for stereo image sequences. The proposed approach will provide a solution to the remaining practical problems in the development of a 3D modeling from videotape system, and will provide tracking capabilities critical to many other computer vision applications. The convergence of this technology with low cost, small form factor video acquisition and storage, and profound increases in general purpose processor speed has great potential for application both as a tool for cost effective modeling of high fidelity simulated environments and in augmented real time applications. Simulation applications include accurate modeling of interior and exterior environments for military rehearsal, virtual walk-through capability for remote evaluation of sites such as real estate, and the generation of interior models for renovation or restoration efforts. Real time applications such as autonomous mobility for mobile robotic platforms can incorporate the Local Structure Tracking (LST) approach as a means to enhance existing obstacle detection and avoidance techniques by exploiting the video stream in conjunction with known platform motion. This Phase I effort will lay the groundwork for building this core technology into a robust component of this application set.

MAGELLUS CORP.
c/o For-e-tel, 1406 Camp Craft Road, Suite 80
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 947-4623
Dr. Russell D. Dupuis
DARPA 02-043      Awarded: 25NOV02
Title:ADVANCED III-NITRIDE-BASED STRUCTURES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET LASERS
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of practical designs for semiconductor injection lasers fabricated from III-V nitride materials operating in the ultraviolet spectral regions with potential for high efficiency operation for use in chemical and biological warfare agent sensor and secure communication system applications. Many biological molecules of interest fluoresce in the UV spectral region and can be detected by using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. LIF typically employs illumination of the bio-molecules of interest with a high-intensity UV photon pulse in the 260-290 nm spectral range that causes the bioagent to fluoresce in the l~300-400 nm wavelength regime. Furthermore, UV emitters in the 280nm spectral range can be used as sources in secure communications systems to be developed for a variety of applications. The major tasks of this program involve the analysis and modeling of InAlGaN/GaN heterojunction structures and the development of improved injection laser devices operating in the UV. We propose to design (Phase I) and produce (Phase II) small, efficient UV sources for these important systems. This work is closely synergistic with the existing DARPA-sponsored UV emitter work being carried out in Dupuis? Group at UT-Austin under the SUVOS program. Improvements in the performance of nitride-based optoelectronic devices, especially injection lasers, will have a immediate broad impact in many important defense and commercial applications, including medical applications, biochemical identification and detection, secure communication systems, gas and liquid purification systems, ultra light-weight UV sources for space-based optical communications, and high-efficiency illumination. All of these applications can be developed in the future based upon the work described in this proposal

PHOTON SYSTEMS
1512 Industrial Park St.
Covina, CA 91722
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 967-6431
Dr. William F. Hug
DARPA 02-043      Awarded: 02OCT02
Title:Deep Ultraviolet Laser Diode for UV-Resonance Enhanced Raman Identification of Biological Agents
Abstract: This proposal addresses the need for deep UV semiconductor lasers for use in UV resonance enhanced Raman spectroscopic identification of biological agents. The proposed approach avoids the problems of p-doping and ohmic contacts by using subminiature direct electron injection excitation of an InAlGaN heterostructure. We have demonstrated 238nm emission using this concept from AlGaN bulk material with 64% aluminum. High levels of chemical specificity can be obtained using Raman spectroscopy without sample preparation, contact, or destruction. When Raman excitation occurs within the electronic resonance band of a material the scatter cross-sections can improve as much as eight orders of magnitude. For organic molecules such as nucleic and amino acids and other biochemicals these absorption bands are very strong in the deep UV between about 220nm and 280nm. In addition, when Raman excitation below about 250nm is employed, there is a fluorescence-free region extending > 4000 wavenumbers above the excitation wavelength providing very high detection sensitivities and low background noise. It is the goal of this proposed program to demonstrate deep UV LED and laser emission from a semiconductor device and the ability to obtain deep UV resonance Raman spectra of analogs of hazardous biological agents. The electron beam semiconductor ultraviolet optical source (ESUVOS) being developed here will enable a revolutionary reduction in size, weight and power consumption for UV resonance Raman and laser induced native fluorescence instruments for the detection and classification of biological agents on surfaces, in water and in the air. In addition, there is a broad existing market need for deep UV sources that are small and efficient. The largest of these market is likely in optical memory systems where the aerial data density is inversely proportional to the square of the source emission wavelength. However, other markets, while potentially smaller in quantity of demand, may have greater overall commercial impact, being the enabling technology for a wide array of analytical instruments. These instrument include biotechnology instruments used in clinical diagnostics, pharmaceutical research and product testing; environmental monitoring such as water, air and food quality; in semiconductor development and processing, and a myriad of other applications where small spot sizes or photon-energy-specific excitation is needed or enabling.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Remis Gaska
DARPA 02-043      Awarded: 03OCT02
Title:AlInGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Laser Diode Over Bulk AlN Substrates
Abstract:We propose to develop technology for manufacturing deep ultraviolet (DUV) semiconductor Laser Diode (LDs) emitting in the spectral range of 250 nm. Blue and near UV (wavelength > 370 nm) light emitters are based on GaN/InGaN material system. In Phase I, we will demonstrate LD structures with dislocation density below 107 cm-2, electroluminescence peak at 250 nm and stimulated emission at 250 nm under optical pumping. The obtained results will be used in the developing of the plan for Phase II.

MAXION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 523
Hyattsville, MD 20782
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 394-5740
Dr. John D. Bruno
DARPA 02-044      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:Thermal Modeling, Design, and Testing of Epi-Side-Up-Mounted Interband Cascade Lasers
Abstract:In this Phase I program, we will assess the feasibility and merits of a new method/design for fabricating epi-side-up-mounted type-II interband cascade (IC) lasers. These mid-IR IC lasers, based on cascaded type-II InAs/Ga(In)Sb/AlSb quantum wells, have recently demonstrated pulsed operation at 300K, but cw operation has been severely limited by heat accumulation in the device active regions. The new method is intended to conduct heat more efficiently from the active region to the heat sink than occurs in present designs. A thermal model of the device/heat sink will be developed and used to guide and refine the modified designs and experimental work so that the objective of cw operation at high temperatures (T>220K) is achieved. We will also assess the manufacturing process flow for IC lasers, identifying the various steps in their commercial manufacture. The costs will be estimated, and the viability of high-volume production of IC SDLs will be assessed. A solution to this problem would have a far-reaching impact. IC lasers fabricated using standard techniques have much in common with the fabrication of near-IR III-V semiconductor diode laser products. Room temperature or thermoelectrically cooled, cw, mid-IR IC lasers that are mounted epi-side-up would be cost-effective to manufacture, and their relatively low per-device cost would motivate product development in several areas. These include sources for free-space communications (for both civilian and military applications), sources for local and remote chemical sensing systems serving the needs of several industries (e.g., industrial process controls, pollution monitoring, medical diagnostics, explosives detection, etc.), and sources for infrared countermeasures. This research should considerably accelerate the realization and commercialization of efficient semiconductor mid-infrared lasers to meet the demand for defense and commercial applications.

MP TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1801 Maple Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7251
Dr. Steven Slivken
DARPA 02-044      Awarded: 09OCT02
Title:High Operating Temperature Quantum Cascade Laser Diodes for Free Space Optical Communication
Abstract:This proposal will demonstrate the feasibility and design of quantum cascade lasers for uncooled free-space communication in the mid- and far-infrared (3 < l < 14 um). The primary advantage of the quantum cascade technology is its proven high temperature (>425 K) operation and multiwatt room temperature peak output power. Removing the cooling subsystems necessary for other mid-infrared diode lasers significantly reduces the overall power consumption and system size. However, long range, high bit rate communications in adverse weather conditions requires a higher power source at higher duty cycles than is currently available. In Phase I, determination of laser design and package requirements suitable for free-space communication will be investigated. This program will also demonstrate a room temperature, high average power (>10 mW), high duty cycle (>50 %) QCL laser and a compact (< 500 cm3), uncooled, high peak power (>1 W) laser pointer as a basis for a mid- or far-infrared transceiver. Current free space optical systems are hindered by scattering elements (such as fog or smoke) and scintillation effects. Both act to shorten or completely sever a free space optical link. As predicted by scattering and scintillation theory, a mid- or far-infrared laser source should have superior transmission through a non-ideal atmosphere as compared to a commercially available near-infrared source. This significant performance boost is especially noticeable in a somewhat dense smoke or fog condition, which is one of many likely atmospheric conditions on a battlefield. As it is most important to maintain contact in precisely these conditions, the development of a longer wavelength optical link can potentially save many lives due to uninterrupted intelligence. A secondary benefit of this work is the development of a high power mid- and far-infrared laser module for incorporation in other systems, such as for remote chemical sensing or infrared countermeasures, both of which are extremely important in the commercial and/or military arena.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. David Guaspari
DARPA 02-045      Selected for Award
Title:A Complete Design Environment for Asynchronous Circuits
Abstract:Theoretical research on asynchronous circuits has provided top﷓down methods that start from an operational description of a circuit. Top-down methods avoid the difficulty of understanding (let alone verifying) the behavior of compositions of asynchronous components. In practice, however, design begins from a functional decomposition, often incorporating components previously designed. ATC-NY will develop a mathematically based, automated tool that allows asynchronous components and their behaviors to be designed and specified by compositional methods familiar to users of VHDL and Verilog. The tool will support an extensible design language, AHDL, that generalizes VHDL and can also incorporate components designed by other means. It will support both simulation (exploiting VHDL simulators) and formal verification of functional correctness. By integrating this tool with a suite of existing tools that perform top-down design, low-level synthesis, optimization, power estimation, and layout we support a complete design method that allows users to mix top-down and compositional steps, and to verify code either by simulation or by full formal proof. Asynchronous microprocessors offer the promise of high performance with low power consumption. The commercial development of asynchronous processors has been hindered by a lack of design tools. The introduction of powerful tools for asynchronous design opens up a vast market. Such tools will make possible the design of a new generation of asynchronous circuits with superior performance - circuits useful for high-performance sensing, communication, and processing for current and future military systems.

NORCA NETWORKS
1065 NORTHFALLS COURT
GREAT FALLS, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 798-7492
Dr. Tam-Anh Chu
DARPA 02-045      Selected for Award
Title:Design Tools for Integrated Asynchronous Electronic Circuits
Abstract:Through modern methodologies developed in the last decade, asynchronous self-timed logic has been demonstrated to be implementable in the large scale using VLSI CMOS technologies, while potentially providing significant advantages in terms of power consumption, high-performance, and ease of design and composition. Various research and academic institutions have put together the foundational works through research CAD tools and demonstration projects, ranging from microprocessors to application-specific VLSI systems. Despite these apparent progresses, there have been no perceived overwhelming advantages to asynchronous design to spur its widespread usage in addition to or in replacement of the well-honed synchronous methodologies. This Phase-I R&D proposal aims at putting together a development framework for asynchronous design, using a combination of existing industrial-standard language interfaces and CAD point tools, and synthesis packages for asynchronous logic developed by the asynchronous research community. The centerpiece of the present proposal is the use of a CMOS gate-array implementation substrate called Universal Logic Array (ULA). ULA allows the low-cost and fast-turnaround implementation of asynchronous logic in a robust and error-free way, unlike other approaches relying on ASIC or full custom designs. The key advantage of using a gate-array approach based on ULA is that it significant lowers the risks associated with designing using a new methodology, by providing inexpensive manufacturing capability and fast turnaround. The goal of this R&D project is to encourage more usage of asynchronous logic methodology in various applications by non-expert designers. Once this barrier to entry has been removed, the advantages of asynchronous logic in term of power consumption, high-performance and ease of design will be fully demonstrated and appreciated, thus providing further impetus for widespread adoption of the methodology.

ORORA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
17371 NE 67th Court, Suite 205
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 702-9196
Dr. Monte Mar
DARPA 02-045      Awarded: 03OCT02
Title:Design Tools for Integrated Asynchronous Electronic Circuits
Abstract:Asynchronous circuit design has the potential to offer orders of magnitude improvement in speed, power dissipation and EMI over synchronous circuit design. It is especially appealing to military electronics due to its extremely low EMI performance and its suitability as an enabling technology for heterogeneous system integration with high reliability and affordability. However, its real silicon success has been extremely limited due to lack of supporting CAD tools. In this SBIR project, we propose to develop CASTER (CMOS Asynchronous System Timing, Energy and Radiation): a CAD tool for silicon-accurate analysis and optimization of timing, power and EMI of asynchronous circuits. CASTER partitions a transistor-level asynchronous circuit into a graph of transistor-channel-connected blocks (TCCB) communicating through asynchronous handshaking signals. Each TCCB can be modeled in the same way as in a synchronous CMOS circuit, and can be analyzed by using parasitic-aware behavioral modeling from DARPA NeoCAD. We propose to study the feasibility of using CASTER for asynchronous performance metric study and design methodology evaluation. Further, we propose to demonstrate coupled optimization of asynchronous circuit density, speed, power and EMI noise by using CASTER to incorporate physical design and layout parameters, and then use our ARSYN optimizer for architecture exploration. The proposed CAD tools CASTER/ARSYN can reduce the design cycle time for asynchronous circuit design. More importantly, by working directly on the extracted parametric transistor netlist from layout, CASTER/ARSYN can deliver the best silicon performance in terms of density, throughput, power consumption and EMI noise, through simultaneous optimization of asynchronous circuit layouts and architectures. The ultimate goal is to enable the wide use of asynchronous circuit design for achieving faster and more reliable electronic circuits with less power consumption and EMI noise. As the first transistor-level analysis tool for asynchronous circuits, CASTER can be a foundation tool comparable to SPICE for analog circuits and PrimeTime for synchronous digital circuits.

SITUS LOGIC
1442 Lomita Drive
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 799-7830
Mr. Alain J. Martin
DARPA 02-045      Awarded: 24OCT02
Title:Design Tools for Integrated Asynchronous Electronic Circuits
Abstract:As progress in deep submicron technology exacerbates issues of clock distribution, power consumption, control and estimation of delays, and design complexity, asynchronous techniques are becoming more and more attractive. The single most severe impediment to the adoption of asynchronous technology by industry is the lack of an industrial-strength-level suite of CAD tools for asynchronous VLSI design. The design of an asynchronous MIPS R3000 microprocessor in 1998 and the current design of an asynchronous 8051 microprocessor (both developed at Caltech in the proposer's laboratory) have demonstrated that asynchronous techniques can indeed produce circuits with both high throughput and low power consumption, without sacrificing the robustness and reliability offered by a {\it quasi delay-insensitive approach\/}, i.e. without introducing delay assumptions. Both chips were designed using a top-down methodology that includes synthesis at both logical and physical levels, simulation at different levels of synthesis and in mixed-level mode, and performance analysis and optimization. The prototype suite of tools was called CAST. All chips designed at Caltech using CAST were found entirely correct on first silicon. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a suite of industrial CAD tools for asynchronous, quasi delay-insensitive, VLSI circuits, based on CAST and the Caltech methodology. It is expected that the availability of CAD tools specific to asynchronous design will open a flood-gate of commercial ventures. Semiconductors manufacturers, in particular fabless startups, will benefit immensely from the tools. And established CAD firms will also show interest, once enough asynchronous VLSI manufacturers have appeared and have created a viable market for CAD tools companies. Most likely, large semiconductors manufacturers will adopt the tools once they have been integrated in a tool suite from a traditional CAD firm.

THESEUS LOGIC, INC.
485 North Keller Road, Suite 140
Maitland, FL 32751
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 551-4698
Mr. Lief Sorensen
DARPA 02-045      Awarded: 08OCT02
Title:Testing Methodology/Tools for Asynchronous Circuits
Abstract:Theseus Logic intends to develop a test and verification tool and methodology that will provide the means to automatically insert testability into clockless circuits. Success in this endeavor will eliminate one of the remaining obstacles that hinder widespread adoption of asynchronous design approaches for DoD and commercial applications. Such circuits have been demonstrated to have commercially valuable properties, including high performance, low noise/low EMI, low power and easy circuit composability. This Phase I proposal will involve the initial development of the algorithms and approaches for the methodology/tool. Emphasis will be placed on maintaining compatibility with existing commercial EDA tools. The potential benefits of clockless design are legion: increased performance, better power management, reduced power rail noise, reduced radiated EMI, robust operation, ease of integration, and increased design reuse are but a few of the potential benefits that have been demonstrated by companies and researchers working in the field. Yet industry has failed to adopt clockless techniques in more than an exploratory fashion. Why? Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tool support for clockless designs are the main stumbling block today. The clockless industry is caught in a chicken-and-egg scenario. Industry will not adopt clockless technology until commercial grade design tools become available; yet commercial EDA companies will not develop or support clockless tools until industry adopts the methodologies. This program will help remove one of the key barriers to widespread DoD/Commercial adoption of asynchronous design options.

GALAXY COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS, INC.
9922 E. Montgomery #7
Spokane, WA 99206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 892-1114
Mr. Daniel Bakken
DARPA 02-046      Awarded: 07OCT02
Title:Non-Contact Final Polish/Passivation Technology for the Production of Epi-Ready GaSb Wafers
Abstract:Special technology and circuit architecture is under investigation for implementation of low power electronics (LPE) that operate at low supply voltages without sacrificing performance. GaSb substrates have advantages that make it attractive for applications that require low power and high frequency. A significant aspect inhibiting commercial application of GaSb wafers is the inconsistency of the substrate surface for heterostructure growth and device applications. In particular, producing a damage free surface with a designed surface oxide is difficult in this soft material using standard chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) techniques. An opportunity exists to establish a production method for obtaining smooth GaSb surfaces with a controlled oxide. Gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) processing, a novel nanoscale surface modification technique, will be used to smooth and remove surface and sub-surface damage from polished two-inch (100) GaSb wafers. A GCIB matrix of as-received and smoothed GaSb surfaces will be examined using MBE desorption and heteroepitaxy growth. Structural and Electrical integrity of the substrates will be analyzed to determine feasibility. Commercialization of the GaSb substrate surface preparation process is regarded with high probability. The nation may expect to benefit from the success of the proposal to quickly establish a commercial source of epi-ready GaSb wafers for both industry and the government. Commercialization of GaSb substrates for low power applications will be greatly enhanced by the robotic, environmental friendly GCIB process with a United States manufacturing base for GCIB instrumentation and GaSb wafers.

SINMAT, INC.
2153 Hawthorne Road, GTEC Center, Suite 106
Gainesville, FL 32641
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 334-7237
Dr. Deepika Singh
DARPA 02-046      Awarded: 02OCT02
Title:Gentle and Non-Contact Slurries for Atomic Scale Chemical Mechanical Smoothening and Passivation of GaSb Substrates
Abstract:Gallium Antimonide based hetrostructures have attracted significant interest in recent years because of their applications ranging from 100 GHz high speed logic circuits. For rapid commercialization of these devices, it is necessary to obtain, high surface quality, surface passivated GaSb substrates, which do not exhibit surface quality variations from wafer to wafer, and vendor to vendor. This problem has been attributed to poor surface preparation techniques adopted by the vendors. Standard chemical etching/polishing, mechanical or chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has not led to optimal results, because of their inability to atomically smoothen the surface and form nanoscale passivation layers. In this project Sinmat Inc. proposes to use and further extend its proprietary chemical mechanical smoothening and passivation(CMSP) technique and non contact abrasive-free CMP(AFCMP) process to achieve atomic level smoothening and passivation on GaSB surfaces. The CMSP technique is based on pressure-dependent polishing to achieve atomic level smoothening and passivation whereas, in AFCMP process, the chemicals form a soft layer which can be removed by the polishing pad. No abrasives are present, which leads to a defect free process. Sinmat Inc. working with the University of Florida also proposes to develop a measurement protocol based on sophisticated X-Ray methods to characterize the surface quality and passivation in GaSB wafers. Sinmat Inc. is a spin-off company based on technologies developed at the University of Florida and has assembled a world class team to address issues related to R&D, manufacturing and commercialization. The development of high quality, reproducible and surface passivated GaSB electrodes is expected to lead to rapid commercialization of > 100 GHz high speed logic circuits, more sensitive IR detectors and powerful mid IR lasers for electronics and communications applications.

CALIENT NETWORKS, INC.
5853 Rue Ferrari
San Jose, CA 95138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 562-5503
Mr. Roger Helkey
DARPA 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:Large Phased-Array Antenna Multi-Beam Beamformers
Abstract:Wideband phased array radars are needed for accurate tracking and object classification. This will require the development of improved true time delay (TTD) technology scalable to thousands of elements and capable of multi-beam formation. Calient Networks proposes to develop 3D micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) to demonstrate a true time delay (TTD) unit with 7 bit accuracy supporting 36 antenna elements within a volume of 0.06 m3 and requiring less than 100 W of power. The switch is will be fasbricated from 2 silicon die containing all switching elements, and is a low cost VLSI technology. The nonblocking aspect of the switch allows multiple beams to be formed (up to 100 in the initial design). This TTD will operate in the L, S and X radar bands and will support 1500 MHz at X band. Two dimensional scanning can be supported by employing two switches in series. Photonic beam-forming allows the antenna to be remotely sited from the TTD unit and processing electronics with negligible degradation (0.4 dBe/km Calient Networks will design a true time delay unit optimized for phased array applications in Phase I. The scalability of the design for 100,000 elements will be addressed in Phase I. This approach could enable a new generation of high resolution, low cost, highly mobile, field deployable radars scalable to 100,000 elements. True time delay has been a major problem, and optical solutions have had too high of loss to be useful for most applications; however, that has now changed. Calient Networks has spent over $100 Million developing low loss 256 port photonic switches for the telecommunications market. A new approach to optical switching using 3D micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) integrated on a silicon VLSI chip has made this possible. With a modest investment in time and money, military systems can benefit from the innovations in commercial photonic switches. The research under this program could extend beyond military radars to commercial radars. Further, the effort here to reduce the size and weight even further gives a competitive advantage in the commercial telecommunications marketplace.

SARASWATI ASSOC.
2015 St Julien Ct
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 399-2808
Mr. James Coward
DARPA 02-047      Awarded: 01NOV02
Title:Large Phased-Array Antenna Multi-Beam Beamformers
Abstract:We are proposing assessing a novel approach towards forming beams using optical techniques. One advantage of our approach, which takes advantage of MEMS and detector arrays, is that the complexity of the beam forming circuitry scales as the square root of the size of the array. Another advantage is that we are leveraging the huge investment made in optics over the last few years by the telecommunications industry. Our ambition is to try to resolve all the problems presented in the RFP. Our preliminary analysis indicates that although DSP based beamforming has great value in applications with 10MHz bandwidths: technical risk, but also power and size issues would dominate a phased array design using those techniques when instantaneous bandwidths approach 1500 MHz. We are focusing on the recieve beamformer because our assessment is that it is the most challenging aspect of an optical phased array. Key constraints are the SNR, dynamic range and multiple beams requirements. Several government agencies are facing mission challengees where communications or radar systems require very large phased arrays. A limiting issue is very often the elaborate beamforming network necessary. Offering a low cost high performance optically based beamforming network could enable a number of projects where Saraswati Associates could participate. In addition the commercial direct broadcast satellite industry is grappling with the challenge of delivering cost effective personalized services to individual communities. The chief technical challenge is frequency reuse of limited spectrum. The only viable solutions require antennas capable of tens or hundreds of very well controlled beams covering the US. Once again, saraswati Associates could gain a role in these developments.

AEC-ABLE ENGINEERING CO., INC.
7200 Hollister Ave.
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 690-2496
Mr. Thomas Murphey
DARPA 02-048      Awarded: 19NOV02
Title:Innovative Space Materials and Structures
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase 1 R&D project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a new structural architecture for deployable space structures: Monolithic Elastically Deployable Lattice Structures (MEDLS). MEDLS has the potential to offer order-of-magnitude reductions in structural mass over current deployable technologies. The architecture incorporates two key features. First, higher than state-of-the-art orders of structural hierarchy are proposed. Preliminary analyses have shown that highly hierarchical structures are extremely efficient for a wide range of applications. Second, elastic strain energy deployment is used to eliminate the parasitic mass and complexity associated with other deployable systems (such as articulated, inflatable and shape memory systems). In MEDLS, the same material that provides for structural stiffness also provides the deployment motivation and latching strength. Further, the elimination of joints enhances dimensional stability and minimizes deadband in the deployed structure. Preliminary analyses indicate that many practical structures can be manufactured and packaged within the strain limits of existing continuous fiber polymer resin material systems. The specific commercial products resulting from the proposed program will be highly reliable, low cost, high performance deployable systems that have applications for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) structures, antennas, reflectors, sun shades, solar sails, and other deployable structures. By reducing the mass by up to an order-of-magnitude, this technology can be mission-enabling for the new class of large lightweight deployables being developed. The importance of the proposed MEDLS development program allows ABLE to create a strategic position as a leading supplier of large ultra-lightweight deployables to complement its already industry-leading position in standard deployable systems. ABLE views this program as an opportunity to develop a truly innovative deployable system that could be enabling for future large deployable space structures. ABLE sees the potential commercial application of the MEDLS in several primary areas: Large gossamer deployable sunshades, solar sails, baseline observatories, dish antennas, and very large deployable boom applications where mass and stowage volume are at a premium. The proposed MEDLS technology, with its simplicity and significant weight savings, will be strongly desired as enabling for future government and commercial missions currently relying on relatively mass inefficient (but heritage) solutions or risky inflatable / rigidizable concepts. ABLE has continually developed new and innovative deployable space structures that have enabled various space missions, and views the development of MEDLS as potentially enabling to a class of structures that until recently, have either been considered too complex, or too big and massive to be shown to reliably stow and deploy.

ECLIPSE ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 344-7300
Dr. Nikolai Kislov
DARPA 02-048      Awarded: 07NOV02
Title:Innovative Inorganic Electrochromic Thermal Control Systems
Abstract:Thermal control coatings are an important part of any spacecraft. Smaller light weight satellites are especially sensitive to radical changes in their thermal environment as they orbit the earth. An intelligent thermal management system is vital for these satellites. This program will develop a new design for an inorganic solid state electrochromic (EC) variable emittance coating with an emittance modulation range from 0.2 to 0.8. This is a substantial improvement in emittance modulation for EC coatings. Prototype coatings will be applied to substrates of silicon or germanium wafers, which also serve as infrared (IR) transparent windows, to create variable emittance devices (VEDs). These devices may be applied to satellite surfaces for thermal control. Sample devices will be subjected to 2000 equivalent sun hours of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order to demonstrate the feasibility of their use mid-earth to geosynchronous orbits. These designs will be optimized for range of emittance modulation and durability. The emittance modulation range will be further increased by adding one or more IR antireflective (AR) coatings to the substrates/IR windows. This EC technology will benefit the military and civilian aerospace industry by improving thermal stability of spacecraft and space structures for commercial and military applications. Successful completion of the Phase I program will produce a new design for an electrochromic variable emittance coating with an infrared emittance modulation range from 0.2 to 0.8. These coatings will exhibit a very low areal density. They may be applied to rigid and flexible substrates and operate with voltages as low as 1.5 volt. The technology will also find application in automotive and architectural glazing as well as improved contrast visible and infrared imaging sensor arrays.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4368
Dr. Peter Warren
DARPA 02-048      Awarded: 07NOV02
Title:Extremely High Expansion Deployed Structures
Abstract:Future space-based antenna and optical systems are required for global surveillance and identification of targets in areas denied to traditional airborne assets. To provide the resolution required for adequate discrimination, these systems must be of unprecedented size and stiffness. For a mission such as Airborne Moving Target Indicator, a 300-meter diameter dish is required. Existing technology is inadequate to meet the packaging, deployment, and stiffness needs of these revolutionary systems. Foster-Miller will develop a strain energy based, deployable structural system specifically designed to combine very high volumetric expansion during deployment and high specific stiffness of the deployed structure. Using strain energy and hierarchical structural architectures reduces the system mass through the elimination of mechanisms and through greatly increased structural efficiency. The packaging approach reduces complex, composite tubular trusses to a collapsed volume that approaches the bulk material density. Early prototypes have already shown over 150:1 linear expansion as compared to 30:1 for conventional booms. Unlike coiled longeron or inflatable systems, the proposed innovation will use the highest modulus carbon fibers, providing both high stiffness and thermal stability. The Foster-Miller team will develop this core technology and apply it to the needs of extremely large deployable space systems. (P-020481) Virtually all spacecraft deploy some form of structure, either for communication, sensing, power generation, or heat rejection. By developing a low cost, low mass, extremely high packaging efficiency, deployable structure, the Foster-Miller team will allow commercial spacecraft developers to reduce their launch costs and increase their design margins. The proposed innovation will be a commercially viable technology that can be applied to almost every current and future government and civilian spacecraft program. In addition to the wide range of space applications, Foster-Miller is actively involved in developing rapidly erected structures for terrestrial applications. These applications include emergency rescue structures, bridging and traversing structures and temporary shelters. The proposed innovation will reduce the packaged volume needs of these structures and thus reduce their transport and logistics burden.

LGARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Mr. David Lichodziejewski
DARPA 02-048      Awarded: 23OCT02
Title:Scalable High-Efficiency Inflatably Deployed Rigidizable Solar Array
Abstract:With today's high launch costs and tightening launch opportunities, low payload mass, cost, and packaged volume can determine mission feasibility. L'Garde has developed the Inflatable Torus Solar Array Technology (ITSAT) to supply power to the growing fleet of small satellites in the 1kW class making forays into the space market. The ITSAT configuration with low mass, stowage volume, and the inherent reliability of inflatably deployed structures is an excellent solution for these low power applications. However, new technologies have been developed at L'Garde that could significantly enhance the already competitive technology by addressing two key areas; scalability and deployment control. Using new Sub Tg rigidization material technologies and a novel new conical strut deployment technique we propose an enhanced configuration providing power densities in excess of 100 W/Kg, yet exhibiting improved deployment dynamics and allowing scale ups for more demanding mission applications. To this end, L'Garde proposes to team with TRW, using their new lightweight cell radiation protection technology to further enhance this exciting technology. The result will be an ultra low mass and high efficiency solar array design able to enhance the effectiveness and lower the cost of future spacecraft. The potential benefits of the high-efficiency inflatable rigidizable solar array are immense. Almost every satellite, present, and in the near future, utilizes a solar array for on-orbit space power generation. Currently the state-of-the-art Scarlet array utilized on NASA's DS1 mission generates only 44 W/kg. of on-orbit power. A solar array system capable of power densities greater than 100 W/kg. yet scalable to many missions can significantly reduce the mass of an array over older technologies, or generate considerably more power for the same mass. Further, the low packaged volume of an inflatable array allows greater flexibility in mission planning, and can even reduce the booster requirements while still achieving mission goals. Last but not least, inflatable rigidizable structures are uniquely qualified to provide deployment and support to the emerging photo-voltaic film technologies.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Joseph L. Robichaud
DARPA 02-048      Awarded: 24OCT02
Title:Rapid SiC Primary Mirror Fabrication Techniuqe Suitable for Reusable Launch Vehicle Application
Abstract:Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) and small low-cost launch platforms are a critical technology for future space based remote sensing applications. These platforms have been proposed for scenarios requiring rapid deployment of multiple space-based remote sensing systems. Development of these launch vehicles is underway, in parallel, technologies that will allow the fabrication of electro-optical sensors within stringent schedule constraints need to be identified and developed. When presented with the problem of producing a meter class telescope system in a month the first area which needs to be addressed is the production of the primary mirror. Conventional mirror fabrication techniques, at this size and requirement, can easily be in excess of a year. SSG proposes the combination of two low-cost, high speed, processing techniques to provide high quality Silicon Carbide (SiC) aspheric optics in a cost/time effective manner. A slip casting manufacturing process provides SiC mirror substrates in a low-cost fashion, optical finishing of these optics is done using a Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) process which has been developed by SSG's Tinsley subsidiary. We propose to modify these technologies in order to make meter class primary mirror development consistent with a just-in-time manufacturing mentality. During Phase I we will determine what needs to be done in order to make the processing times associated with these technologies consistent with these rapid telescope development schedules. In addition, we will assess the time advantages which may be possible with a segmented primary mirror approach. A segmented mirror approach provides the added advantage of allowing us to extend the technology to provide larger primary mirror apertures, within the same payload volume, by utilizing a segmented deployable EO sensor concept. The work proposed will significantly reduce the cost/time associated with SiC aspheric optics manufacturing, opening up a number of commercial applications. These include the manufacturing of high quality, thermally stable aspherics for EUV lithography tools.

AEROASTRO, INC.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 451-8630
Mr. Dan Cohen
DARPA 02-049      Awarded: 24OCT02
Title:Smart Escort Microsatellite: A Modular Solution for On-Orbit Rendezvous and Inspection
Abstract:AeroAstro proposes to develop a scaleable architecture for a low cost, rapid response Smart Escort Microsatellite inspection and servicing system that will support the needs of the United States military's current and planned space assets, while working within the constraints of the RASCAL program. Instead of competing with other, large infrastructure on orbit servicing programs, this effort will support them by adding an otherwise deficient service layer of functionality and capability to complement their own missions. The overall objective of this program is to design a candidate Smart Escort Microsatellite architecture that can be launched on the RASCAL system, can transfer from an initial to a target orbit, is capable of proximity maneuvers around space asset, and provide investigation, logistics, or potential counterintelligence and tactical capability to the United States military. Within these overarching goals, the program seeks to fill in the gaps of existing development by focusing on the launch vehicle compatibility and orbit transfer aspects of a logistics servicing mission, as well as the assessment of viable payloads and mission concepts that could be levied upon a SEM. Small Escort Microsatellite technology has a variety of potential customers, both government and commercial. Government customers could use the SEM for a number of different applications; satellite failure diagnostics, standoff SIGINT and ELINT analysis on uncooperative spacecraft, undetected by the target satellite and detection of foreign satellites entering into a sensitive designated area around an important government satellite. The commercial market for SEM can be divided into several addressable segments. Each of these commercial market segments represents players with different (and sometimes conflicting) interests. The manufactures of large, expensive commercial satellites need an inspection capability to mitigate risk and offer a more reliable satellite bus to their customers. Insures are especially interested in reducing the risk of loosing a satellite due to on-orbit malfunctions and in determining the causes of on-orbit failures to help prevent them in the future. The goal of operators is to maintain consistent, continuous operation of the satellite payload while minimizing overall costs. The Smart Escort Microsatellite will provide significant cost savings for manufactures, insurers, and operators by helping to diagnose and fix on-orbit failures and creating more reliable and robust systems for the future.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Prakash B. Joshi
DARPA 02-049      Awarded: 21OCT02
Title:Modular Micro-Satellite Bus
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and MicroSat Systems Inc. (MSI) propose concepts for revolutionary small spacecraft that are physically modular, technologically reconfigurable, and can be integrated with payloads within 24 hours. These capabilities will be achieved by (a) developing multifunctional subsystems that integrate newly emerging space technologies, (b) employing miniaturized spacecraft subsystems, (c) emulating PC-inspired architecture, inventory scheme for subsystems, and standard spacecraft configurations, and (d) using a Web-based methodology to facilitate rapid spacecraft/payload integration and test in the field. This approach, particularly (a) and (b), will yield lightweight and low-power microsatellites, maximizing payload mass fraction and power. Utilizing autonomous subsystems and onboard processing will free up spacecraft processor resources for payloads and minimize ground communications bandwidth. In Phase I, we will develop and analyze architecture concepts for modular, reconfigurable spacecraft and demonstrate the feasibility of an interface subsystem concept crucial to rapid payload integration. Detailed spacecraft design(s) will be developed, with two critical prototype subsystems built and qualification tested in Phase II. A complete spacecraft configuration will be built and space-qualified in Phase III. Our team synergistically complements PSI's expertise in multifunctional space technologies and MSI's expertise in microspacecraft systems for the development of a new generation of microsatellites. Recent conflicts and national security situations around the globe have emphasized the need to gather reconnaissance and surveillance intelligence within a matter of days to defuse crises and plan responses. This requires the capability to assemble and launch spacecraft outfitted with appropriate sensors within hours. Additionally, flexible mission capability is desired, e.g., the ability to change of spacecraft orbital plane/altitude for selective ground coverage and resolution. The proposed modular and reconfigurable microsatellite technology uniquely satisfies these rapid assembly and mission flexibility needs. Commercial applications of this technology include clusters of microsatellites for worldwide telecommunications and round-the-clock environmental monitoring of the earth. Single instrument-dedicated microsatellites for low-cost scientific missions is another important application.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Mr. Rich Moon
DARPA 02-050      Selected for Award
Title:Small, Heavy Fuel, Compression Ignition Small UAV Engines
Abstract:The goal of this proposed DARPA SBIR project is to design, build and test a high efficiency 2 cycle ceramic/polymer engine that will run on JP-8 fuel with a self-contained onboard starter generator. The engine system will ncorporate a ceramic piston, cylinder, and head with lightweight polymer engine casing. The use of high wear thermally insulating ceramics will greatly eliminate the need for lubricant additives and allow for a lightweight polymer casing thus reducing engine weight by as much as 40%. Commercial markets include application in small UAV;s, small gas powered landscaping tools, model airplane industry, go-carts and mini-bikes.

ADVANCED PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. Box 306
Carpinteria, CA 93014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 566-3482
Mr. Mark Kennedy
DARPA 02-050      Awarded: 04NOV02
Title:Small, Heavy Fuel, Compression Ignition Small UAV Engines
Abstract:The OPOC JP8 engines for OAV's planned as a standardized 1.2hp to 12hp family, are two-stroke Compression Ignition engines, consisting of opposed cylinders, each having two opposed pistons. All pistons are connected to a single crankshaft located between the two opposed cylinders by unconventional (long=low friction) connecting rods. Intake and Exhaust ports are located at the ends of the cylinder. These ports provide the necessary uniflow cylinder scavenging (there are no valves or camshafts). The crankshaft journals, which control the position of the pistons, are arranged asymmetrically such that for each cylinder, the exhaust ports open before the intake ports and close before the intake ports. This asymmetric timing is a must and provides for proper exhaust-blow-down and allows intake supercharging. The two-stroke engine has been eliminated by many as a viable future technology, despite its superior efficiency and power density, essentially because of its scavenging problems. The engineering community needs to see proof-of-concept with the OPOC technology to change their minds on the two-stroke engine. The OPOC engine will eliminate, current, unsolved two-cycle problems such as lack of precise scavenging, and improve upon two-cycle engine benefits in the areas of efficiency, size, very low vibration, and cost. This project will be the initial phase of a process leading to commercialization of the exceptional two-cycle OPOC engine. Through this project, we aim to make transparent the advantages of the OPOC engine technology over currently know four-cycle engines. The potential markets for the generic OPOC engine design are virtually all of the combustion engines for commercial or military sectors. The OPOC engine will reduce OEM costs since it has less than 60% engine parts compared to the short block and cylinder head of a conventional 4-cylinder in-line engine. Moreover, because of the OPOC engine's significantly smaller packaging dimensions and because the OPOC engine is vibration free, it has improved installation suitability, allowing further reduction in manufacturing costs. The application possibilities for the OPOC engine range from cars to off-road vehicles, unmanned vehicles and light aircraft. We at Advanced Propulsion Technologies, Inc. feel that military and commercial sources will use the OPOC engine in at least one application within five years. Once commercialized, other applications and successes will follow.

D-STAR ENGINEERING CORP.
4 Armstrong Road
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 925-7630
Mr. S. Paul Dev
DARPA 02-050      Awarded: 18NOV02
Title:Stealthy, Efficient, Light-Weight, JP-8 Fueled Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for UAVs
Abstract:During successful development of small diesel engines and generator sets for the Army, DARPA, NASA and others, D-STAR has developed useful experience and technologies for small, compact, light-weight, high-speed diesel engines and power systems. During Phase I of the proposed effort, D-STAR will explore development of a JP-8 fueled hybrid diesel electric propulsion system for use on small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), possibly using the DARPA-funded 1 kW Mini-Diesel Engine by D-STAR that is currently under development. Proposed Phase I objectives include : (i) Conceptual designs and trade studies for a hybrid diesel-electric propulsion system that may include a mini-diesel engine, a light-weight starter generator with power electronics, a combining method such as gears and clutches, and a storage battery; (ii) Feasibility evaluation of the hybrid diesel-electric propulsion system and its components; (iii) Definition and evaluation of growth versions of the hybrid diesel electric propulsion system, possibly using multi-cylinder engines; and (iv) Definition of a Phase II plan for development and demonstration of an advanced, optimized JP-8 fueled hybrid diesel electric propulsion system that can meet the size, weight, power, fuel consumption, life and cost objectives for the intended DARPA application. The mini-diesel engine and hybrid systems would be an ideal power source for stealthy small UAVs. It would also be usable as the prime power for small UGVs, as an Auxiliary Power Unit for larger UGVs, and as a battery charger for squads and other teams of soldiers. Potential commercial applications for the mini-diesel engine and the hybrid power system include use by hobbyists, sports equipment, miniature generator sets, and small personal hybrid-electric vehicles such as intra-city mopeds / scooters.

G & G TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1169 Harbor Hills Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 477-9741
Mr. Greg Graham
DARPA 02-050      Awarded: 30OCT02
Title:Small, Heavy Fuel, Compression Ignition Small UAV Engines
Abstract:The ThinGap TM Motors are brush and brushless ironless core, hollow stator / armature motors that exhibits extraordinary power output in a small package. The coils are constructed of non-magnetic, high temperature materials. No magnet wire or iron laminations are associated with the stator / armature. The freestanding structure of the motor coil has no supporting substrate and is virtually invisible to the magnetic field. Heat in the coil is readily dissipated with air moving over both the inside and outside of the coil. High electrical efficiency is achieved with the BLDC Stator Coil exhibiting over 90% efficiency. Cogging is eliminated. The back emf waveform is a sine wave. The thin wall of the Stator Coil allows a very narrow magnetic gap but with high copper packing density in the magnetic field. The coil has very low phase-to-phase resistance and inductance. The manufacturing precision creates an insignificant 0.3% variation of phase-to-phase resistance. Extremely high peak power is obtainable. The higher torque capability combined with the high inertia rotor offers the opportunity to eliminate expensive gearboxes. ThinGap rotor inertia is 5 to 10 times higher than competitive motors with rotor mass approximately 85% of total motor mass. Applications requiring a hollow motor, such as unmanned flying and land vehicles Any application requiring a lightweight ultra-efficient DC motor (e.g. RC airplanes, power hand tools, medical devises and instruments, robots.

GSE, INC.
219 East Enterprise St., P.O. Box 7743
Incline Village, NV 89450
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 831-3917
Mr. Greg Stevenson
DARPA 02-050      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:Small, Heavy Fuel, Compression Ignition Small UAV Engines
Abstract:Air Vehicles that are able to fly autonomously into confined spaces, land, shutdown, collect information, restart, and return to base, present an interesting propulsion challenge. Critical requirements of the propulsion system include: ˙ Extremely high power per unit weight and per unit volume, ˙ Extremely reliable, compact, and lightweight starting system ˙ High fuel efficiency ˙ Multi-Heavy Fuel Capable GSE has a scalable propulsion system that uniquely meets these challenges. Specifically, the GSE OAV propulsion system uniquely offers a system that: ˙ Will demonstrate scalability to all DARPA OAV program requirements ˙ Is an Innovative, self-injected, high speed, compression ignition, 2-cycle engine design capable of operation on logistically available multi-fuels (i.e.: JP-5, JP-8, DF-2) ˙ Utilizes counter-rotating propellers, eliminating torque and maximizing thrust efficiency, without the complexity of a gearbox. ˙ Employs an innovative variable compression mechanism. ˙ Incorporates high enrgy cartridge starting for extreme cold conditions. ˙ Specific weight ratio approaching 1.5lbs/hp and 75hp/cu. ft of engine volume. Scalable to FCS program requirements. Applicable to the following government and commercial tasks: - Bridge inspection - Border/security patrols - Hazardous spill inspection - Fire surveillance - Crowd security - Pipeline/Power line Inspection - Film

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 351-4440
Dr. Rodger Pudwill
DARPA 02-051      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:Dismounted Identification Friend or Foe (DIFF)
Abstract:The identification of dismounted infantry or paramilitary forces from nearby civilians is a task that currently requires direct human intervention to accomplish. With the increasing emphasis on use of UAVs as a force multiplier and the increasing desire to keep vital combat assets out of threat envelopes, a need exists for an autonomous method to discriminate between hostile and nonhostile individuals in a given area. ORINCON proposes to validate the ability of three critical technologies to support the differentiation of friendly from hostile individuals and quantify the degree of accuracy achieved in the discrimination of friends from foes. The elements that will be explored are: motion pattern analysis to separate groups of hostile targets based upon cooperate behavior patterns; signature analysis to isolate hostile individuals based upon equipment carried and individual motion cues; and techniques for accrual of evidence over time to discriminate friend versus foe from multiple clues. At the end of Phase I, we will show how each of these technologies support the identification mission and demonstrate the mutually supporting nature of these elements. This will lead to the development of a robust dismounted identification system prototype in Phase II. This research will lead to a capability to classify dismounted individuals as hostile or neutral. This ability will directly translate to improvements in force protection for small units, increased situational awareness, increases in the effectiveness of deployed munitions, and reduction in collateral damage. These improvements will be applicable to all military systems that require automatic surveillance, tracking, and identification. In addition to the military applications, civilian applications include, but are not limited to, border protection, counter-terrorism, drug enforcement, and security in industrial facilities.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Mr. Sanjay Kotha
DARPA 02-H08      Awarded: 24OCT02
Title:Novel Magnetic Homeostatic Agents to Arrest Hemorrhage
Abstract:The Phase 1 SBIR project aims at developing novel approaches for controlling the so-called "non-compressible hemorrhage." The approach would involve formulating a biocompatible magnetic fluid, which would undergo a reversible liquid-solid transition at the site of injury and seal off the broken blood vessel. This would improve the immediate management in the field of combat casualties with serious bleeding. Our initial goal is to develop means for controlling bleeding from sites located on the extremities and/or from lacerations involving the femoral or axillary vessels. Ultimately, our approach may be suitable for controlling bleeding from major vascular or visceral injuries in the body cavities, but this daunting problem will not be an immediate target for the proposed research during Phase 1. Commercial application for the technology exists in the pre-hospital care arena, including emergency vehicles at accidents and sports related injuries. Further application of the technology may include the cessation of bleeding associated with cardiac catheterization related to angioplasty and angiography, as well as in kidney dialysis