---------- MDA ----------

192 Phase I Selections from the 02.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. John Shaw
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 24DEC02
Title:Agile Engagement Planning: Integrating Decision Graphs with Stochastic Dynamic Programming Solvers
Abstract:Missile Defense Engagement Planning systems are highly automated. It is the system developers, not the commanders of those systems, who are formulating the engagement planning problem and thereby deciding how engagements will be planned and executed. In the history of warfare system developers have never trumped commanders in deciding how a system will carry out orders, and this reversal of affairs for Missile Defense gives rise to two problems that are apparent today. First, commanders invariably discover that they do not actually command the system, and they demand work-around options in response. This is euphemistically called `management by exception', but it is simply a patchwork of ad-hoc controls to get the system to do what users want. Second, Engagement Planning systems are hard-coded to the specific defense architectures that their developers had in mind, and they require extensive overhauls when those architectures change. The breakthrough we require is an Engagement Planning system where commanders can formulate Engagement Planning problems at will and align them with their concept of operations. We call this Agile Engagement Planning. Our innovation blends the agile problem formulation capabilities of Decision Graphs with the computational efficiency of Stochastic Dynamic Programming solvers. Our innovation has the potential to dramatically improve human-in-control direction of Missile Defense engagements. On the one hand, system developers will continue to determine how the constituent elements of a Missile Defense system should work (as they should), but they will no longer determine how missile defense engagements should be planned and executed. That authority will now reside (as it should) with the Missile Defense Commanders who, after all, bear the responsibility for defending assets from missile attack.

C & P TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
317 Harrington Avenue, Suites 9 & 10
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
Dr. S. Radhakrishnan Pillai
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 21JAN03
Title:Advanced Algorithm Development
Abstract:A new method for classification, identification and discrimination of warhead versus decoy based on combined transmit waveforms and radar receiver design is proposed as part of the Phase-I effort. Fully geared for software implementation, this new methodology is based on jointly optimizing transmit waveform and receiver filter for automatic target recognition and identification of multiple targets. The proposed technique is applied and illustrated for a three as well as a four target problem. The resulting probability of correct classification is significantly better than that achieved by a conventional chirp or any other waveform. As part of the Phase-I effort an implementable prototype MATLAB package for missile identification and better classification using the proposed approach for MDA personal use will be developed and delivered. The transmitter-receiver waveform pairs proposed here are optimal in the sense that 'no other' pair generates a greater target separation in the received signal subspace for better target classification. Phase I efforts will concentrate on quantifying the improvement in performance by the proposed methods and will be supported by analytical study as well as simulation results. A wide range of wireless communication systems may benefit from optimal trans-receiver design, including high-mobility cellular systems, low-mobility short-range systems, wireless local loop applications, satellite communications, and wireless LAN. By employing the optimal trans-receiver design along with an array of sensors, it is possible to multiplex channels in the spatial dimension just as in the frequency and time dimensions. The optimal trans-receiver design technology proposed here can significantly improve wireless system performance and economics for a range of potential users. It enables operators of PCS, cellular, and wireless local loop (WLL) networks to realize significant increases in signal quality, capacity, and coverage. Operators often require different combinations of these advantages at different times. As a result, those systems offering the most flexibility in terms of configuration and upgradeability are often the most cost-effective long-term solutions. The flexibility of optimal Tx-Rx technology allows for the creation of new value-added products and services that give operators a significant competitive advantage.

CARDINAL SYSTEMS & ANALYSIS, INC.
4000 Cathedral Ave, NW, Suite 121B
Washington, DC 20016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 257-0690
Dr. C. Tucker Battle
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:A Framework for an Optimal and Adaptive BMDS Firing Doctrine
Abstract:The BMD program has been redirected to develop fully integrated, layered defenses capable of defending against all ranges of threats. A critical aspect of this development is an integrated firing doctrine; i.e., that part of the battle management system that allocates interceptors to attackers across all the layers. Optimal firing doctrine is a function of both offense and defense capabilities. Therefore, optimization is potentially an important feature of evolutionary, capabilities-based defenses. The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a framework for an optimal and adaptive BMDS firing doctrine. The framework is based on an adaptive structure in which the defense starts with a set of planning assumptions and then, as the attack unfolds, real-time estimates of system parameters are used to determine the allocation to the known attackers and planning assumptions are updated to determine the reserve for possible future attackers. Implementation is by an innovative combination of non-linear resource allocation techniques, Bayesian analysis, and decision theory. Phase I will focus on a preliminary definition of that part of the framework associated with the coordination of firing doctrine across the boost and midcourse layers. An optimal and adaptive firing doctrine is required for evolving, capability based defenses. The anticipated results will set the stage for detailed development at the overall BMDS level as well as at the segment and component system level. In addition, there will be commercialization opportunities associated with system operations (e.g., simulations for training and exercises).

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
714 Bond Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Boost Phase Guidance and Control Using Motion Energy
Abstract:During Phase I, Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) will develop algorithms for estimat-ing boost-phase target characteristics using motion energy analysis of the target plume. Boost phase intercepts have an extremely compressed time line. Guidance and control systems must react to target maneuvers swiftly and accurately. Current systems can only react to deviations from the target track after the target has maneuvered. In this project, CSC proposes using a mo-tion energy analysis of the target plume to enhance guidance and control. Parts of the plume change during target maneuvers, before the target has had time to significantly deviate from its previous trajectory. By estimating target characteristics from the plume motion energy, there exists the potential for increasing the interceptor's responsiveness to maneuvers. CSC will de-velop new motion energy-based algorithms to detect target maneuvers and anticipate changes in the target track. A motion energy approach leverages the natural ability of existing massively parallel analog hardware to perform computationally intensive image processing tasks in real-time. Limited hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing will be conducted throughout Phase I. In Phase II, we plan to fully implement the most promising algorithms and perform complete HWIL testing at missile system test beds, such as the KHILS facility. Target analysis capabilities using nonlinear motion energy image processing techniques integrated in analog image processors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military imaging applications. The company's primary goal is to move this core technology into the military market with products using this technology initially being sold for missile defense applications. Analog image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas includ-ing automatic inspection, biometric identification, security, surveillance, and other machine vision applications. To date, non-linear motion energy image processing technology using Tin Film Analog Image Processor (TAIP) chip technology developed under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract in conjunction with temporal filtering capability developed under ARMY Space & Missile Defense Command (ARMY-SMDC) contract has demonstrated significant utility in detection, track-before-detect capability when coupled with dynamic programming, and discrimina-tion of low flying missile targets in moving background clutter. CSC is fulfilling current DARPA and ARMY-SMDC sponsored contracts while aggressively pursuing potential commercial opportunities for analog VLSI image processing applications. The unique and powerful capability to perform mas-sive convolution functions in real-time, in a small package and with low power requirements will en-able a new generation of intelligent systems not previously considered vi-able by system and product designers systems for performing sophisticated imaging tasks including automatic target recognition, target tracking, feature extraction, 3D reconstruction, image classification, and image understanding are critical for the building of compact, low powered deployable missile defense systems.

ENERGID TECHNOLOGIES
258 Belmont St
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 924-6735
Dr. James English
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Advanced Tracking through Remote Supervision
Abstract:Target recognition and tracking requires the solution of several hard problems. A target signature must be identified in sensor data, this data must be associated with prior information on the target, and the association must be used to gain understanding of the target. In the presence of countermeasures and clutter, each of these components is computationally onerous even when using suboptimal algorithms. To improve tracking, our approach offloads computationally expensive decisions to remote supervisors. These supervisors could be large terrestrial computers or humans. Our primary focus is on the latter. The goal is to compensate for the shortcomings in fielded hardware by incorporating human intelligence into the tracking process. We will use a new certainty-based scoring mechanism, model-based tracking, and a new method to propagate supervisory information through the track tree. To support these algorithmic techniques, we will also create a software architecture for data selection, data transfer, data presentation, and feedback capture. For fail safety, the system we propose will always be able to continue operation without remote assistance. Energid will extend the software components developed under this effort into a commercial software toolkit. Though the newly developed source code will be provided to the DoD, other potential customers will purchase the toolkit as software libraries and header files. By linking these libraries into their code, developers will have full access to all the capability provided by the toolkit. This toolkit will have application to many military domains. However, we envision additional application for networked robotic systems, where supervisors can be widely distributed and communicate over the Internet. Our commercial vision for this project is to use the toolkit to transition algorithms developed for target tracking and sensing to the terrestrial domain, with application to entertainment, manufacturing, and agriculture.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 725-1112
Dr. Shozo Mori
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Advanced Algorithm Development
Abstract:Information Extraction & Transport (IET), Inc., proposes a new approach to multiple-object tracking and discrimination: Hybrid Stochastic Clustering (HSC) for ballistic missile defense (BMD) exo- and endo-atmospheric object tracking and discrimination in high object density, time-varying sensor resolution, and object spawning environments. The hybrid stochastic clustering concept is a direct extension of the clustering method on which Reid's multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithm is based, and was developed as part of the Project Hercules FY01 efforts. As an MDA Phase I SBIR effort, we propose to conduct feasibility studies and concept-proving demonstrations using prototype software. A stochastic cluster is an a posteriori independent component of a probability distribution of the finite random set of the states of the objects being tracked. A stochastic clustering method maintains the probability distribution in terms of as many clusters as possible so that the overall efficiency of computation resource usage is maximized. We propose a distributed hybrid stochastic clustering approach using a different tracking and discrimination algorithm for each stochastic cluster based on its complexity. The set of applicable algorithms includes multiple hypothesis tracking, Janossy density function (JDF), and Poisson point process approximation (P3A) algorithms, all based on the theory of random finite sets. The result of this Phase I effort will be a Hybrid Stochastic Clustering (HSC) algorithm architecture that provides very effective and robust BMD object tracking and discrimination methods. Moreover, the proposed HSC algorithm architecture is capable of integrating any desirable tracking and discrimination algorithm, established or newly developed, as its component. The resulting technology will be applicable to markets that deal with large-scale diagnostics in uncertain environments (e.g., aircraft maintenance, remote facilities management, factory maintenance, and real-time component monitoring), object recognition tasks in uncertain environments (e.g., data fusion, entity discrimination, and site monitoring), and event predictions in complex and uncertain environments (e.g., identification of potential terrorist events and control of system inputs).

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Dr. Suzanne Mahoney
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Advanced Algorithm Development
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency's (MDA) Decision Architecture (DA) supports algorithm research and development by providing an environment to simulate future threat behavior in response to deployed BMD systems. These excursionary analyses are critical to achieving a tolerable leak rate for deployed national and theater defense systems because emerging long-range ballistic missile powers are not utilizing robust test programs to insure threat system accuracy and reliability, and thus timely intelligence of potential enemy capabilities cannot always be expected to inform key architectural decisions. Thus, MDA faces a highly uncertain future countermeasures environment. No amount of "live fire" tests can anticipate and evaluate such a large and uncertain counter-measure space. For this Phase I effort, Information Extraction and Transport, Inc. (IET) proposes to develop a dual wave/particle filter (DW/PF) algorithm for the DA. As in a particle filter, we begin with a sample of a large number of "particles." The dual wave/particle algorithm operates in a manner analogous to quantum systems, in which epochs of deterministic evolution according to a unitary transformation are punctuated by probabilistic "collapses" in which the system makes "quantum jumps" according to a probabilistic transition rule. IET proposes using such an algorithm to support efficient and effective inference for dynamic Bayesian network generated within the DA environment. The result of this Phase I effort will be a dual wave/particle filter algorithm to support the optimization of dynamic BN generation in the Missile Defense Agency's (MDA) Decision Architecture (DA). The resulting technology will be applicable to markets that deal with large-scale diagnostics in uncertain environments (e.g., aircraft maintenance, remote facilities management, factory maintenance, and real-time component monitoring), object recognition tasks in uncertain environments (e.g., data fusion, entity discrimination, and site monitoring), and event predictions in complex and uncertain environments (e.g., identification of potential terrorist events and control of system inputs).

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Dr. Suzanne Mahoney
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Advanced Algorithm Development
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency's (MDA) Decision Architecture (DA) supports algorithm research and development by providing an environment to simulate future threat behavior in response to deployed BMD systems. These excursionary analyses are critical to achieving a tolerable leak rate for deployed national and theater defense systems because emerging long-range ballistic missile powers are not utilizing robust test programs to insure threat system accuracy and reliability, and thus timely intelligence of potential enemy capabilities cannot always be expected to inform key architectural decisions. Thus, MDA faces a highly uncertain future countermeasures environment. No amount of "live fire" tests can anticipate and evaluate such a large and uncertain counter-measure space. For this Phase I effort, Information Extraction and Transport, Inc. (IET) proposes to develop a Learned Mixture Approximation (LMA) algorithm for the DA. The proposed LMA algorithm would approximate the original Bayesian network with a small set of tractable approximate networks using the population Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. IET proposes using such an algorithm to support efficient and effective inference for dynamic Bayesian Network generated within the DA environment. The result of this Phase I effort will be Learned Mixture Approximation (LMA) algorithm to support the optimization of dynamic BN generation in the Missile Defense Agency's (MDA) Decision Architecture (DA). The resulting technology will be applicable to markets that deal with large-scale diagnostics in uncertain environments (e.g., aircraft maintenance, remote facilities management, factory maintenance, and real-time component monitoring), object recognition tasks in uncertain environments (e.g., data fusion, entity discrimination, and site monitoring), and event predictions in complex and uncertain environments (e.g., identification of potential terrorist events and control of system inputs).

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Aubrey Poore
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 28JAN03
Title:Multiple Sensor Tracking for SBIRS Low in Cooperation with Signal Processing
Abstract:Tracking midcourse objects for SBIRS Low is a truly significant and difficult scientific problem that must be solved to provide a consistent set of tracks to discrimination. For the space based IR sensors, the resolution is limited due to the geometry and distance from the satellite to the targets. Viewed on the focal plane for a single IR sensor, the threats appear to transition from an unresolved phase involving pixel clusters into a mostly resolved phase through a possibly long partially unresolved phase. What is more, threats can appear in different resolution phases at the same time for different sensors. These resolution problems make multi-sensor tracking most difficult. A key observation in the proposed solution is that what may appear to be a large cluster from one sensor's view may be multiple resolved objects or small clusters from another's sensor's view. Thus, the proposed approach to supplying discrimination with a set of tracks consisting of resolved objects or small clusters is to use the fusion node information to assist signal processing with breaking larger clusters into a number of smaller clusters or resolved objects consistent with the need of multi-sensor tracking. State-of-the-art multi-sensor missile tracking system for SBIRS-Low and other IR tracking systems. Advance methodologies to integrate tracking and signal processing to improve overall performance of developed missile defense systems. High potential to modernize the tracking system used on SBIRS Low satellites.

RYAN ASSOC., INC.
2 Blackburn Center
Gloucester, MA 01930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 283-3144
Mr. Richard L. Ryan
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 11JAN03
Title:MSSS/GBR-P EO/Radar Data Fusion
Abstract:The technical objectives of Phase I are to: (1) demonstrate potential EKV TOM (Target Object Map) metric and IR/visible discriminants available from simultaneously collected multi-spectral data, and (2) demonstrate the feasibility of improving TOM metric and discrimination algorithm performance attributable to the simultaneous collection of GBR-P and AMOS AEOS IR and visible observations. Ryan Associates proposes to use simulated IFT-8 target complex IR observations in combination with actual GBR-P collected data to demonstrate potential metric improvements to the TOM, as well as improvements in IR discriminants in the EKV sensor bands. We are doing this by using the Ryan Associates SIMTAS (Space-based Infrared Missile Track Analysis Software) tool to combine the metric observations potentially available from the two sensors. We propose to use our EROS (Emitted and Reflected Optical Signatures) tool to simulate the IFT-8 target complex signature histories available during the data overlap period to provide in-band thermal features potentially available to the EKV sensor during intercept homing. We anticipate that the combined EO angle information and the radar range information will provide improved metric position data in the EKV TOMs, that the LWIR signature and feature data provided by the EO sensor will assist discrimination when integrated with the GBR-P data, and that the end user of the modified SIMTAS software, data fusion algorithms and techniques will be the full range of system/kill vehicle suppliers, and government agencies involved in all phases of U.S. and foreign missile defense.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. R.K.Mehra/Adel El-Fallah
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 03FEB03
Title:Unified Bayesian Multisensor-Multitarget Sensor Management for BMD
Abstract:Multisensor-multitarget sensor management presents a major theoretical and practical challenge for ballistic missile detection, tracking, and discrimination. A common approach is to assemble a patchwork of heuristic "bottom up'' techniques---e.g., loosely integrating many distinct algorithms, each of which addresses some specific part of the problem (detection, tracking, sensor cueing, allocating and scheduling sensor dwells, allocating and scheduling platform flight paths, etc.). Scientific Systems Co., Inc. (SSCI) and its subcontractor Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems (LMTS) believe that a theoretically rigorous approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management for ballistic missile defense is now feasible. Sensor management is inherently a problem in nonlinear adaptive control theory in which the observations, the data sources being controlled, and the targets being tracked by the control process are all randomly-varying multi-object systems. We use a Bayesian approach, meaning in particular that any control-theoretic objective function must be some statistical moment of the time-evolving multitarget posterior distribution. We propose the use of these objective functions in conjunction with Multi-Hypothesis Correlator (MHC) algorithms, in which case they become potentially computationally tractable. Detection and tracking are some of the key technologies for global surveillance, precision strike, air superiority and defense, which are three of the seven science and technology thrust areas identified by the Director of Defense Research and Engineering. The current limitations are due to poor understanding of how to model, fuse, and filter data from multiple sources. The proposed R&D addresses all of these problems.

SHARPE ENGINEERING, INC.
3 Copper Lane, PO Box 5310
Mt Crested Butte, CO 81225
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 349-0442
Mr. Jim Sharpe
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Advanced Algorithm Development
Abstract:Traditional software processing techniques can quite adequately address problems where the input data is accurate, and there is only one possible result for each situation. However, there are numerous problems related to missile defense that do not map easily to these traditional techniques. Individual AI technologies, such as expert systems, are most effective when sufficient knowledge is initially available and can be effective at high-level reasoning and explaining their results. Conversely, neural networks can be very effective at low-level reasoning and dealing with learned information, but are weak at explaining their results. A hybrid system approach, which combines a high-level reasoning capability with low-level techniques, can operate input data that would not be suitable for these technologies if used in isolation. Although existing techniques can sufficiently address small parts of the overall problem space, substantial value can be provided by a cohesive system that can effectively reason about the entire problem space from low-level sensor data scrubbing, through mid-level classification, and high-level decision support. A system that is capable of not only addressing one kind of problem, but that can additionally adapt how it solves the problem to produce an optimal response would be a significant advance over existing systems. An integrated system capable of applying multiple levels of reasoning technologies and techniques to complex problems could be applied to many challenging situations where current techniques are only effective against parts of the problem. It's ability to deal with uncertain or ambiguous input data while still being able to apply higher forms of intelligent analysis would be valuable for multiple defense related systems. Additionally, it could be applied in commercial applications such as industrial process and operational monitoring and control, man machine interfaces, battle management systems, mining and mineral exploration, medical monitoring and financial analysis and fraud detection.

TESLA LABORATORIES, INC.
3524 S Street NW
Washington, DC 20007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(414) 807-0006
Dr. George Stejic
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Development Of An Advanced Weapons Simulation Computer Model
Abstract:This proposal will develop a new computer model to predict the effects of alternative interception strategies under consideration for incorporation into the emerging weapon systems tasked to neutralize enemy threat clouds in the event of a hostile missile attack. Traditional U.S. countermeasures focus on hit-to-kill methodology as a result of treaty limitations. The hit-to-kill approach requires extreme precision coupled with flawless target discrimination and thus presents an extreme technical challenge subject to defeat through relatively low-tech countermeasures. However, recent geopolitical shifts have prompted the U.S to extradite its self from these restrictions. This will allow exploration of a wider range of defenses. The proposed program to be developed will model interactions between candidate new defenses and threat clouds in trial scenarios in a manner analogous to the presently employed PEELS (Parametric Endo/Exo Atmospheric Lethality Simulation) program used for 2-body hit-to-kill simulations. The program will be anchored to presently utilized simulation programs so as to provide seamless defensive strategy development. This will allow rapid screening and development of potential alternative defenses and deployment tactics not covered by existing simulations models such as PEELS, KIDD, and PEGEM to enhance National security. The objective of this proposal is to develop a computer model, called the Volume-Engaging Weapons Simulation (VEWS). This model will predict the effects of alternative interception strategies under consideration for incorporation into the emerging Volume-Engaging (VE) weapon systems tasked to neutralize enemy threat clouds in the event of a small/moderate scale hostile missile attack.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Craig S. Agate
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 22JAN03
Title:Particle Filtering for the Joint Tracking and Identification of Objects
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a system to track and identify ballistic objects. The system will use radar measurements containing kinematic information (e.g., range, range rate, azimuth) as well as feature information (e.g., HRR profiles, RCS, electrical length). We propose to develop a particle filtering algorithm which directly estimates the joint PDF of an object's state and class type given a scan of radar measurements. The particle filter has many benefits including the ability to handle nonlinear measurement and dynamic models, non-Gaussian statistics, a mixed continuous/discrete state and constrained dynamic problems. The particle filter's unique attributes allow the maximum extraction of information from the sensor measurements and transfer of information across the different phases of the missile trajectory. The short time frame for a successful missile engagement demands that an algorithm fully utilize all available sensor measurements to locate and identify potential threats. The particle filter has the potential to achieve this goal. We will implement our algorithm in Phase I and demonstrate its performance in non-real-time operation on a simple problem of interest to the MDA. We will investigate the possibility for real-time operation in Phase II. The successful completion of this research will provide the Missile Defense Agency with a system capable of tracking and identifying ballistic objects using high-resolution radar measurements. Applicable to any problems in which locating and identifying objects is important, this technology could, for example, be used to track and identify vessels in the littoral environment for counter-drug operations.

XONTECH, INC.
6862 Hayvenhurst Avenue
Van Nuys, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 947-3208
Dr. Alan Marcus
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Advanced Algorithm Development
Abstract:XonTech, Inc. proposes to conduct a SBIR Phase I program to determine the effectiveness of XonTech's Bayesian Detection Processing (BDP) algorithms in improving missile detection and tracking performance. BDP is a method for enhancing signals that are too weak to be used by a conventional tracker (ones that are below the detection threshold), due to either low radar cross-section (RCS) or obscuration by noise. We show that BDP has been applied with success by XonTech to detect a low-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) aircraft in ground clutter about 5 dB below the first threshold normally employed in UHF radar data. In this Phase I program, we propose to demonstrate that BDP achieves enhanced missile detectability over conventional processing techniques, using data cases of interest to the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) program. Specifically, we will demonstrate and quantify BDP's increased detection capability in one or more of the following configurations: at greater range than current techniques, during passage behind rain clouds, and to enable simultaneous detections of low RCS base and tip returns from the Re-entry Vehicle (RV) to aid in length estimates. Successful implementation of BDP tracking in BMD systems could provide major improvements in detection performance and in overall system effectiveness. As stated in the abstract, the potential benefit of employing BDP in BMD systems is that it could provide major improvements in detection performance and overall system effectiveness. In addition, we surmise that the BDP algorithms can be adapted for a wide variety of Defense programs that require an enhanced detection capability to meet their objectives.

XONTECH, INC.
6862 Hayvenhurst Avenue
Van Nuys, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 229-9500
Mr. Doug Burgess
MDA 02-017      Awarded: 09JAN03
Title:Sensor Resource Mgmt Using a Genetic Algorithm Appoarch
Abstract:Missile defense is moving toward a 'system of systems' approach, and the level of autonomy within individual sensing components becomes more challenging. The battle management segment must manage the available sensor resources for engagement planning and utilization of interceptor inventories. Battle management tasking is more goal-oriented forcing the sensors to determine the best approach for meeting mission goals. A sophisticated sensor management processing scheme, which performs high-level intelligent resource scheduling based on genetic algorithms (GA) is proposed. The sensor management process determines a viable solution for scheduling resources, including specifying parameters for the sensor activities of surveillance, search, track, and discrimination. These activities are scheduled in accordance within the sensor constraints and limits. The GA is a population-based model using selection and recombination operators to generate new sample points. The GA challenge is generating an encoding scheme that represents the possible scheduling solutions into the chromosome-like structures, and utilizing the recombining and mutating operators. This project proposes developing the encoding scheme representing the scheduling solution typified by a sensor performing the fire-control functionality needed for defending against ICBM threats. Future efforts will generalize the approach for other assets such as overhead surveillance and seeker sensors. The key benefits from this technology are the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into sophisticated sensor and battle management systems. The management of resources challenge and application of this technology extends beyond missile defense and into a host of other areas such as aviation terminal surveillance and satellite resource allocation.

ATHENA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 331-1068
Dr. Ben Motazed
MDA 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Miniature Flight Control System
Abstract:Athena Technologies, Incorporated (Athena) proposes to develop an affordable, lightweight and low power, INS/GPS integrated flight control system (FCS) capable of performing guidance, navigation and control functions for small launch vehicles. The proposed approach leverages Athena's expertise in design, fabrication and operational qualification of our family of miniaturized GuideStar flight control hardware and our patented and flight demonstrated Feedback LTI'zation control algorithms. Unlike conventional gain scheduling techniques that require design and testing of tens or hundreds of control design points and switching among each, Feedback LTI'zation uniquely achieves this with the design of only a few design points, valid and stable over the entire flight envelope. This design formulation elegantly rapidly produces robust and very small footprint control algorithms and control gains, resulting in efficient software maintenance, moderate computational requirements, and overall reduction in software life cycle cost. We believe Athena's expertise in highly integrated hardware design in combination with the elegance of our flight control algorithms, afford a powerful and innovative solution in producing a new generation of miniaturized and very affordable advanced avionics applicable to Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKV) and a myriad of other launch vehicles. Athena foresees a large potential market in the application of flight control systems to both military unmanned air vehicles and the commercial R/C market. The military arena is poised for the introduction of miniaturized digital control systems for both terrestrial and airborne applications. The trends toward "more digital" systems, increased use of information technology, and the increased use of unmanned systems, both expendable and reusable all favor the use of Athena's form of low cost "insurance policy" to assure reliability of inherently low cost single string control systems. The emergence of the next generation uninhabited combat air vehicle (UCAV) and the Organic Air Vehicle as an augmented asset to the Army's Future Combat System all indicate the large potential for small and expendable systems is occurring, in part, to keep human life from harm.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
23 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Dr. Triveni Upadhyay
MDA 02-018      Awarded: 03JAN03
Title:Guidance, Navigation, and Control for Small Boost-Phase Interceptors
Abstract:This Phase I study proposes to address the objective of configuring a Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system suitable for missile defense interceptors which realizes order-of-magnitude reductions in mass, volume and cost relative to current GN&C systems. These improvements will be sought through a combination of conceptual advances and use of components which benefit from cost reductions due to their application to high volume commercial markets. A new concept is proposed for a guidance law tailored specifically to the interception of ballistic missiles in their boost phase. This concept incorporates a booster classification function which provides access to a priori information about the fly-out characteristics of the booster types which are likely to be used in a given theater of operations. This system is to be implemented with COTS components to perform the functions of target sensing and inertial navigation aided by GPS and magnetometer data. The system also is dependent on high capacity, low cost digital data processing. There is a clear national need for an affordable approach to defense against ballistic missile attack. This program will study an innovative concept for guiding hit-to-kill interceptors against missiles in boost phase. The system will be implemented using COTS components resulting in order-of-magnitude reductions in mass, volume and cost relative to existing GN&C systems.

THE SPACE LAUNCH CORP.
575 Anton Blvd., Suite 300
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 432-6410
Mr. George Whittinghill
MDA 02-018      Selected for Award
Title:A Fully Integrated, Low-Cost, Light-Weight, Multi-Mission Capable GNC and RF System
Abstract:The Space Launch Corporation is proposing to design a low-cost, lightweight flight control system (FCS) for small launch vehicles and interceptors with COTS components. The FCS architecture will focus on the GNC and RF systems as they provide a high degree of commonality for SLV and KKV missions. This GNC/RF suite, known as the NavCom block will be designed to provide complete functionality to the launch vehicle and to the payload through a unique mission-configurable Head-End-Module (HEM). The design approach of the HEM's common avionics suite will be validated through a 6DOF simulation of a typical KKV mission from launch to intercept. The proposed approach will eliminate costly SLV to payload integration effort, will result in more net payload to orbit, and will enable rapid initialization of spacecraft systems in orbit thus reducing mission cost. The components developed in Phase II can be used in Space Launch's low cost, on-demand and dedicated microsatellite launch vehicle, the SLC-1.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Dr. Mark Rigali
MDA 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Nozzle Materials and Concepts for High Mass Flux Boost Motors
Abstract:On this Phase I program, Advanced Ceramics Research Inc. (ACR) will develop and commercialize technology to fabricate boost motor nozzles using TaC-based Fibrous Monolith composites. These materials may also have application for other high temperature propulsion-related composite components such as gas divert tubes, valves, and hot gas ducts. On the commercial side, ACR is exploring and evaluating applications for the thermally insulating refractory composites. Examples of these potential applications include high temperature furnace hardware and precision insulators. ACR and the Tohono O'odham Reservation of Tucson, AZ, have teamed together to form a new $3.9 million dollar joint venture business called Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing LLC (ACM). The purpose of this new venture is to scale-up the high-temperature consolidation process of fibrous monolith materials to large production volumes. The venture will specifically focus on commercial production of technology developed on this and other government programs. The industrial applications of the materials and components developed under this Phase II program are applicable to both the defense and commercial sectors. Our discussions with defense contractors have led to expressions of interest from Alliant TechSystems as well as Raytheon Missile Systems, and Aerojet. For the US government and BMDO, the potential applications are in (a) rocket nozzles (b) combustor and hot gas duct liners and (c) thruster housings. ACR has already established close supplier and development relationships with a number of relevant rocket motor manufacturers. Potential commercial applications to be explored during the course of Phase II include items such as furnace supports, liners and furniture, where insulating refractory materials are desired. Based on past experience with the development of the FM coated drill bit inserts with Smith International and the development of metal cutting tools with Kyocera Industrial Ceramics via funding from the DOE and the considerable interest has expressed in our technology for high temperature applications we expect this program to move us immediately into a position of obtaining private sector support.

HYPER-THERM HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES, INC.
18411 Gothard Street, Unit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Dr. Robert J. Shinavski
MDA 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:High Strength, Nano-Grained Tungsten for Zero-Erosion Nozzle Throat Inserts
Abstract:Boost phase intercept missiles must be capable of rapidly and accurately intercepting a target. The solid rocket motors needed to achieve intercept during the boost phase require aluminized propellants operating at very high pressures to obtain the necessary high thrust levels. This requirement presents a severe operational environment with nozzle throat temperatures exceeding 5000F. Throat inserts capable of operating in such an environment must aslo be non-eroding such that the thrust vector of the interceptor missile is very predictable, and thus more accurate. This Phase I program will demonstrate a nanograined tungsten material fabricated by chemical vapor deposition that exhibits very high strengths and ultra-high temperature stability, and thus is capable of operating under the extreme thermal stresses imposed during firing. Mechanical and thermal properties will be measured at both ambient and elevated temperatures such that a low cost/low risk fabrication approach can be determined. High strength, nano-grained tungsten has been identified as a potential candidate material for non-eroding throat inserts in solid rocket motors. Performance and/or cost benefits from such material insertion can be realized across a range of boost and tactical missile systems. A zero erosion nozzle throat insert has been recognized as one of the necessary technological advances to meet the goals of the DoD Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
1024 E. Lancaster Ave.
Rosemont, PA 19010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 526-9540
Mr. Kent Buesking
MDA 02-019      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Nozzle Materials and Concepts for High Mass Flux Boost Motors
Abstract:Aluminized rocket motors impose a severe environment on nozzle materials, with pressures of 3000 psi and temperatures of 6300øF. Thermodynamic calculations, supported by experimental data, indicate that only tungsten (W) and tantalum carbide (TaC) can provide a non-eroding surface. Recent motor firings show that these materials can survive if the nozzle employs a thin liner over a high temperature sup-port. Unfortunately, not all designs are successful and their behavior is not well understood. For example, when a successful W nozzle is analyzed with today's tools, the stresses exceed the measured strengths indicating that the nozzle should have failed. Furthermore, if the models are revised to reflect the successful behavior and then applied to a somewhat different W liner design, the models indicate that the new design should survive when, in fact, it failed. These events indicate that the design tools, which were developed to analyze thick throats made primarily with ablative materials, are not directly applicable to non-eroding refractory materials used as thin, thermal stress-resistant liners. Review of the existing design tools shows that they can be improved in three specific areas: 1) thermal boundary conditions and heat transfer analysis, 2) material models and structural analysis, and 3) failure criteria for brittle/ductile materials. The proposed program will systematically examine and improve the design methods used in present nozzles. The program will focus on the assumptions and tools used for 1) heat transfer analysis, 2) stress analysis, and 3) failure prediction. The improved design methodology will be integrated and verified by comparison with data from recent tests. The improved tools will then be exercised to design a TaC nozzle for an aluminized motor. Selected materials will be purchased and provided for characterization. The program will be performed by Materials Research & Design, Inc. (MR&D). Thermal Technologies, Inc. (TTI) will serve as a consultant in aerothermal behavior. The proposed design methods are directly applicable to improved boost motors, which will increase the capability of commercial communication satellites. Additionally, the technology is appropriate for a variety of high temperature structures including hypersonic airframes, ramjet engines, and divert and altitude control systems.

COMBUSTION PROPULSION & BALLISTIC TECHNOLOGY CORP.
1217 Smithfield Street
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-6989
Dr. Kenneth K. Kuo
MDA 02-020      Selected for Award
Title:Safe and Flexible Propulsion Technologies for Kinetic Energy Boost Phase Intercept Applications
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is the development of a candidate bi-propellant system consisting of a fuel-rich component gelled with energetic nano-sized particles coupled with a highly energetic storable liquid oxidizer for kinetic energy interceptor applications. Theoretical calculations indicate this innovative combination can meet MDA's propulsion requirements for both upper stage and DACS applications. Bi-propellant components will be chosen to yield "green" propellants of low toxicity. Liquid/gel bi-propellant systems have a number of advantages over solid propellant or liquid monopropellant systems, including safety, flexibility, thrust controllability, high performance, etc. To increase the energy density of a liquid propellant over that of nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine combination, an energetic additive such as a fine powder (e.g. boron, boron carbide, and aluminum) will be used as a gelling agent for the fuel-rich propellant. Recent advances in nano-sized energetic material synthesis and gel propellant technology provide a new dimension in propellant formulation. Densification of the propellant through the addition of energetic powders also allows for higher thrust levels (and hence high-g divert capability) in volume-limited propulsion systems. Alternative oxidizers including high concentration hydrogen peroxide, hydroxylammonium perchlorate, and others will be evaluated. Combustion performance of selected candidates will be experimentally verified in rocket engine tests. After the demonstration and verification of the superior performance of the preliminarily formulated high-energy bi-propellants with nano-sized energetic powders by the Phase I study, development of more complete families of energetic bi-propellants will be conducted in subsequent phases. Also, a larger scale rocket engine will be designed and fabricated for bi-propellant combustion tests for the KE interceptor application. In Phase II, detailed characterization of density impulses, combustion efficiencies, ignition behavior, and combustion stability of selected energetic bi-propellants will be conducted using state-of-the-art diagnostic instruments and facilities. The mechanical and safety behavior of these newly formulated propellants will also be characterized. When these newly formulated bi-propellants are brought to the commercially usable state at the end of Phase II, there will be broad applications in other combustion and propulsion systems. Once the high performance of these energetic materials are demonstrated, the proposer will use his broad contacts with numerous industrial companies involved in bi-propellant manufacturing, space propulsion, and safety device design and fabrication. Dr. Kuo has many former students and colleagues who work at these companies. These companies include: ATK-Thiokol Propulsion., Alliant TechSystem, Inc., United Technology - CSD, Atlantic Research Corporation, Talley Defense Systems, Lockheed Martin, Boeing Aerospace, North American Rocketdyne, General Dynamics, etc. Many of these companies will be interested in using high-performance bi-propellants for various commercial applications besides the military usage, for example: - airbag inflators for automobiles, - emergency escape systems for aircrafts, - underwater propulsion, - high-pressure water jet for cutting explosives, cheeses, steel pipes, - demolition of unwanted structures such as buildings, bridges, towers, etc., and - high-performance space propulsion rockets for space exploration. The information to be obtained and the technology to be developed from this project will be transferred to Navy and other military entities and to the commercial market. In Phase III, CPBT Corporation plans to market several potentially useful bi-propellants for both commercial and military applications. The major parts of technical obstacles to be overcome in order to bring the new technology to later phase commercialization are addressed in the feasibility study to be demonstrated in Phase I. In Phase II, besides technical development, collaborative agreements between the CPBT Corporation and several major industrial companies and government labs will be established in the utilization of the newly developed bi-propellants for KE interceptor design and fabrication. Technology transfer to government labs and industrial companies will be conducted not only at the end of the project, but also during the course of the Phase I study. The method for technology transfer will take a number of forms, including: interim progress reports and final report, presentations of research skills and results at the JANNAF combustion and propulsion meetings, AIAA Joint Propulsion Meetings, Aerospace Sciences Meetings, MRL Symposia, special workshops to be organized by the sponsor or the Principal Investigator of CPBT Corporation, and visits of DoD or industrial personnel to PSU and CPBT for discussion or testing.

AMERICAN SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
3100 S. Vista Ave., Suite 230
Boise, ID 83705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 336-2773
Mr. Douglas R. Hackler Sr.
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 11JAN03
Title:Foundry Flexfet(c)SOI, a Commercial Revolution in Rad-Hard Processing
Abstract:Low cost, high-frequency, radiation-tolerant wafer fabrication for next generation electronic circuits is limited by domestic manufacturing capability. General availability of inherently radiation tolerant silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process technology to the fabless design community is limited to only one viable domestic source. This proposal presents the opportunity to create U.S. foundry manufacturing of an advanced commercial radiation hardened SOI wafer fabrication process. FlexfetcSOI is a novel state of the art process that provides deep sub-micron, sub-lithographic minimum feature size, double gated MOSFETs and 4-terminal dynamic threshold metal oxide semiconductor (DTMOS) transistor configuration. The double gate characteristics facilitate a revolutionary Dynamic Radiation Compensationc circuit architecture that expands low cost reliability of the process beyond that of static, traditional, isolation techniques. Successful execution of this proposal and the follow-on Phase II effort can result in improvements in reliability, advanced materials, performance and cost for defense procurement of rad-hard, low power electronic circuits. A significant strategy for cost reduction is the commercialization opportunity from offering this advanced process in a foundry all defense circuit designers can access. Further, the foundry installation of FlexfetcSOI creates an inherently low cost fabrication base by consolidating multiple design organizations capacity requirements for economies of scale. Improved rad-hard performance for electronic circuits in components, sub-systems and systems. Low cost development and aquisition of new low power, rad-hard designs. Domestic US manufacturing capability to support defense electronics.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
Dr. Randolph E. Treece
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:PHOTO-ASSISTED EPITAXY OF WURTZITE GAN
Abstract:This work proposes to develop innovative methods to use photo-assisted epitaxial growth for GaN in order to reduce the defects that limit device performance. Light can interact with the surface of the substrate and nucleation layer to influence the growth toward greater perfection. Several mechanisms can be investigated where incident illumination has the potential to reduce the defect density. One mechanism is the enhancement of reactant surface mobility by increasing the jump frequency, or decreasing the potential barrier, and assisting in moving the reactant to the appropriate lattice site. Alternatively, monochromatic light can be resonant with the energy of the forming defects, changing their effective formation energy. A third mechanism to be investigated is the effect of using light to change the chemical potential at the surface, which, in turn, effects the energy of formation of charged defects. Astralux is proposing to develop a new GaN growth method that will lead to materials that will revolutionize discrete wide bandgap semiconductor device fabrication and integrated circuit production. The opportunity for the improved materials will apply to both the next generation of optoelectronic devices, as well as the specialized market niches for high-power microwave electronics.

BEAMTEK, INC.
3149 S. Chrysler Ave.,
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-0200
Dr. Philip Lam
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 15JAN03
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to design and manufacture a window glass material for high power transmission with approximately zero optical path difference (OPD) for MDA's Airborne Laser (ABL), a high power chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) at 1.315 æm. The ideal window glass material must exhibit a zero Optical Path Difference (OPD) across the window that is being heated unevenly by the high-energy laser, thus, producing very little distortion in the transmitted beam. We propose to use specially designed phosphate glasses which exhibiting a near zero or even negative optical path difference, extremely low absorption, relative low thermal expansion coefficient and high mechanical strength. In Phase I program, we will design, fabricate, and characterize glass samples with a variety of glass compositions which will exhibit a near zero optical path difference. This high quality glass material with near zero optical path difference can be used as the bulkhead window of Airborne and Space-based lasers for ballistic missile defense.

BELFORD RESEARCH, INC.
386 Spannish Wells Road, Building B, Suite 3
Hilton Head Island, SC 29926
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 681-7688
Dr. Rona E. Belford
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 01FEB03
Title:Germanium-Free Strained-SOI Wafers
Abstract:We propose to combine the technologies of SOI manufacture with strain-inducing wafer bonding to produce Strained-Si On Insulator (SSOI) wafers. Optimizing this new Strained-Silicon-on-Insulator will increase carrier mobilities by a factor of at least x3, lower the band gap by 20%, and reduce operating power of existing technologies by a factor of x4. The above performance enhancements are over and above the enhancements arising from the thin Si layer and the insulating substrates. Our method of fabrication enables treatment for radiation hardness. IBM has announced their commitment to straining silicon as a viable alternative to `scaling' in the quest for higher performance. Their method of obtaining strained silicon involves expensive techniques including Si/Ge heterostructures fabrication. The presence of Ge severely limits IC processing. By contrast our method would not require customized processing or new device architectures. Intel is now poised to go mainstream with SOI chips taking SOI chip production out of the niche market. Intel is showing interest in our technology. These major developments open great potential for the proposed combination. Ultra-fast, mainstream silicon-based electronics will be enabled using current technology. Speed increases of x3 will be made possible using existing processing technology. This increase in speed is accompanied by a decrease in operating voltage by a factor of x4. Power dissipation will also be reduced by a factor of x4. This essentially new host material will have the speed benefits more characteristic of materials such as GaAs and will be operational at very low power. Radiation hardness can be achieved by less damaging processes giving a final processing surface of far better quality than if the standard radiation hard implantation or diffusion steps had been carried out. Radiation hard treatments can be implemented prior to bonding. This method opens the way for many structures previously not possible. New optical devices will be feasible in Si. The frequency responses of these silicon devices will extend further into the IR than was previously possible. The absolute response frequency will be dependant on the degree of applied strain.

BELLWETHER TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
5938 Woodvine Road
Columbia, SC 29206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 240-3521
Dr. Jeffrey Bodycomb
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Improved Temperature Measurement for High Yield Manufacturing
Abstract:Bellwether proposed the development of an improved emissivity compensating pyrometer (ECP). This improved pyrometer will have advantages over conventional pyrometers including fewer measurement artifacts. Furthermore, the instrument will be initially developed for use with GaN processes, used for high power FET's and solar blind detectors. Improved process temperature measurement will lead to faster development through a better understanding of the process and higher manufacturing yields due to improved temperature control. Thus, such an instrument will reduce development and manufacturing costs for these critical materials. The group at Bellwether has experience developing and commercializing this technology for narrow bandgap materials. This technology is also transferable to other materials and processes. In the phase I program, we will explore the feasability of a modified ECP design by "breadboarding" such a pyrometer and using a GaN reactor as a test bed. In the phase II program, a prototype unit will be built and fully tested. These instruments will have advantages over other temperature measurement instruments including being noncontact, able to be used with moving targets, and useful for targets with varying surface properties (such as those undergoing processing). It will be a true in-situ, real-time device appropriate for use in process control and yield optimization. Immediate commercial applications will be in the semiconductor industry, where temperature measurement is a an issue directly impacting manufacturing yield. Midterm/future applications will be in other industries where process temperature is critical, such as metal processing and the chemical process industries.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
714 Bond Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Parameter Reduction, Selection, and Control of Motion Energy Processing for Missile Defense
Abstract:Computational Sensors Corp. (CSC) proposes a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) operational testing and analysis program to develop a framework designed to efficiently control our spatio-temporal image processing hardware. In previous work, CSC developed a massively parallel, real-time video processing system capable of bulk spatial and temporal filtering in the analog domain. The system is capable of agile, spatial and temporal filtering using low-power, analog silicon retinas in a programmable multi-chip architecture. Subsequent work has demonstrated the utility of spatio-temporal filtering in a number of critical MDA programs. The dramatic system versatility, enabling full intra-frame filtering parameter adaptation, necessitates the development of an efficient control methodology for governing the many system parameters so that the system can responsively interact with interceptor sensor systems for a variety of missile defense engagement scenarios. This effort will develop and optimize the system control methodology needed to program and control the existing S-T filtering hardware to enable guidance and control and/or target tracking systems to effectively operate the motion energy processor in real time. The spatio-temporal motion energy system previously developed by CSC has the potential to provide sophisticated wavelet discrimination of subtle target discrimination both spatially and temporally with an extremely large computational capability that addresses the bulk filtering problem of mid course discrimination and boost phase intercept. The power of this approach is, however, dependant on the real time control of the filtering parameters addressed in this proposal. The determination of the proper control strategy can only be cost effectively and properly accomplished by extensive HWIL testing in scene simulators by realistic missile defense engagement target sets. Target analysis capabilities using non-linear motion energy image processing techniques integrated in Analog VLSI image processors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military applications. The spatio-temporal (S-T) motion flow processor being developed is enabling to Missile Defense Agency (MDA) program algorithms that flow down to major missile defense systems. The company's primary goal is to move this core technology into the military market with products using this technology marketed to military laboratories and aerospace corporations for missile defense applications. Analog VLSI image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas including automatic inspection, biometric identification, security, surveillance, and other machine vision applications. To date, non-linear motion energy image processing technology using TAIP chip technology developed under Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract in conjunction with temporal filtering capability developed under MDA and Army Space & Missile Defense Command (ARMY-SMDC) contract has demonstrated significant utility in detection, track-before-detect capability when coupled with dynamic programming, and discrimination of low flying missile targets in moving background clutter. CSC is fulfilling current DARPA and MDA/ARMY-SMDC sponsored contracts while aggressively pursuing potential commercial opportunities for analog VLSI image processing applications. The unique and powerful capability to perform massive convolution functions in real-time, in a small package and with low power requirements will enable a new generation of intelligent systems not previously considered viable by system and product designers for performing sophisticated imaging tasks including automatic target recognition, target tracking, feature extraction, 3D reconstruction, image classification, and image understanding are critical for the building of compact, low powered deployable missile defense systems.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Nabil A. Elkouh
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Lithium Compound Powder Production
Abstract:Battery customers increasingly require higher power density because of new demanding applications and missions. Higher power density is also required because of the severe space limitations imposed on battery placement. Lithium compound powders used to form the active electrodes are often the most expensive component in a battery. During current powder production practices that are energy intensive, lack of production flexibility results in much waste, driving up the cost and forcing battery designers to adapt battery design to the available powder and its associated properties instead of using powders that are optimal for the designer's purposes. As a result, current powder quality severely limits the ability of battery designers to form low cost higher power density active electrodes. Our program is focused on the development of powder production techniques to form lithium compound powders that will enable the formation of active electrodes that have more repeatable mass and chemical activity, better strength, and higher energy density. The extreme reactive nature of the compounds complicates the design of a production system and imposes special design considerations. During Phase I, a comprehensive detailed design for the prototype system will be developed. In Phase II, a prototype apparatus will be constructed and tested. Creare's powder production approach will allow battery designers flexibility that heretofore has not been available. Optimized powder size, shape, and distributions will result in increased power density and reduced cost. Our approach will also allow the flexible production of other highly reactive air-sensitive materials including rare earth metals, titanium, and tungsten. Powder quality control is important to processes ranging from hot isostatic pressing to thermal spraying.

DIODETEC
400 Industrial Blvd
New Kensington, PA 15068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(708) 472-1857
Dr. Keng H. Leong
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 24DEC02
Title:Improved High Power Diode Array Manufacturing
Abstract:Diode pumping of solid state lasers compared to conventional lamp pumping offers higher overall efficiency, lower maintenance, and lower heat generation that are desirable for compact and robust lasers. The demand for this technology from both the commercial and defense sectors has been rapidly growing. This growth has pushed the need for increasingly higher power and lower cost diode arrays.Recent innovations in diode packaging technology has resulted in the development of high performance Silicon Monolithic Microchannel (SiMM) cooled diode arrays. These arrays use microchannel cooling and high precision placement of the diode bars to achieve the highest performance in both power output and diode light collimation. This Phase I proposal is to transition the technology to efficient low cost manufacturing by improving the assembly processes. Components will be redesigned to decrease labor cost in assembly and to enhance the performance of the SiMM arrays in both pulse and CW operations. Four prototype arrays will be delivered for performance characterization. In addition, the requirements for robotic placement of the diode bars and microlenses will be identified and specified for low cost high volume manufacturing of the SiMM diode arrays. The success of the Phase I effort will incrementally lower the cost of manufacturing the SiMM arrays, improve its capability for both high power pulse and CW operations, and allow DIODETEC to produce the arrays (for 1000 array orders) at a price of <$3/peak watt or <$10/CW watt. A survey of the marketplace has indicated that the above price breakpoint is required for high volume orders that are expected of several defense related programs. The above pricing will also lower the resistance threshold for potential commercial developments of high power solid state lasers for materials processing.

ESSEX CORP.
9150 Guilford Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 953-7875
Mr. Keith Frampton
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 27NOV02
Title:Ultra-High Density Data Links
Abstract:Advances in radar processing technology have greatly increased the need for ultra wideband data links from the transmit/receive arrays to the processing centers. RF cabling is expensive, bulky and heavy for data distribution. The size and cost of the transceivers is also an issue for increased capability. Leveraging developments from the optical telecommunications market can provide orders of magnitude increase in capabilities for these desired data transfer requirements with simpler data interconnects and less supporting electronics. Essex Corporation has developed a revolutionary technology, called Hyperfine, for the fiber-optics telecommunications industry that channelizes ultra wideband signals up to 4,000 GHz in bandwidth. This technology can provide the capability to distribute data in a radar network leveraging cost effective, compact and passive technology. This data distribution technique will allow increased data capacity with less hardware and will also have substantial room for future growth. Essex plans to study the requirements for Missile Defense Agency (MDA) radar distribution needs, present architectures based on commercial hardware, and model the network for the desired performance. Essex currently has a variety of laboratory prototype units that could also be used to measure or demonstrate this conversion technique during Phase II. The benefit of this successful technology would greatly increase the data received from a radar array, which would permit improved radar imaging and jammer rejection. This technology also will reduce the size and number of cables required while increasing the data throughput, thus reducing the life-cycle costs. This proposed technology has significant capacity for future growth. The commercial use of developing a Hyperfine based data link for radar applications will extend the capabilities of the technology for telecommunication applications. Advances in the Hyperfine technology for telecommunications will also improved the product for radar applications.

ESSEX CORP.
9150 Guilford Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 953-8872
Dr. Fred F. Froehlich
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 27NOV02
Title:Optical Processor Architectures for Increasing the Range Extent and Range Bins in Range-compressed Radar Images
Abstract:The missile defense mission will require wideband radars to perform target imaging, discrimination, and kill assessment of incoming vehicles. Such radars generally produce range-compressed images with fine range resolution (< 1m), a small range extent, and a relatively small number of range bins (1000 to 2000). However, there are applications within the missile defense mission that may require a much wider range extent while retaining fine resolution, and thus a correspondingly larger number of range bins (e.g., 10,000 to 100,000), to enhance the discrimination of targets in complex RF environments containing strong scatterers, clutter, chaff, decoys, etc. The requirement to generate a large number of range bins from a wideband radar pulse places extreme demands on the return pulse processor. It would be very difficult and expensive to construct an all-digital processor to perform the real-time, wide-bandwidth, high-resolution spectral analysis of return pulses that is needed to create range-compressed images. Alternatively, analog optical processing techniques may offer an attractive means to perform this function. The objective of this investigation is to assess the technical feasibility of optical processor architectures that can perform such spectral analysis, and thus can provide a large number, or even a variable number, of range bins. The benefit of this successful technology would allow the use of wideband, arbitrary waveforms for missile defense radars. The proposed program builds on the current MDA work on the Advanced Optical Processor, which currently uses advanced waveforms. The proposed optical processor will offer the same benefit while extending the range imaging space by up to 100' larger range gates, which means that more potential targets can be imaged with the same radar pulse and hardware. These benefits will reduce the hardware and life-cycle costs of the radar while resulting in a higher probability of destroying the current and emerging missile threats. The commercial use of this product could be of benefit to the optical instrumentation test equipment manufacturers such as Agilent, Tektronix, and Burleigh. Essex currently is discussing the use of related optical techniques for spectral channelization with these companies, and the architecture(s) developed under this Phase I program could be another resource for their equipment.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Leslie A. Cohen
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Carbon-Carbon (C-C) materials required for aerospace and missile applications are presently limited by cost, excessive production cycle duration, and furnace size limitations. The ability to shorten the iterative carbon densification process by using very high char (carbon yield) resins will reduce or eliminate those current limitations by identifying and testing very high char yield resins for use in C-C production. The ability to utilize very high charring resins in the production of C-C will reduce the cost of the current generation of solid fueled launch vehicles and rocket motors and enable domestic U.S. manufacturing of the next generation of very large booster and launch vehicle motors. It may also improve the performance of tactical missiles by enabling the use of C-C as replacement for other less durable materials.

INTUITIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 240
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9300
Mr. Harold Brewer
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 15JAN03
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:The capability to produce a hardware item satisfying mission objectives is as essential as the ability to properly define and design it. For this reason, manufacturing analysis forms an integral part of the Systems Engineering process. Manufacturing analysis supports the development of manufacturing product and process requirements and solutions necessary to produce system end items. Manufacturing analysis encompasses producibility analysis, trade-off studies and life cycle cost analyses. These analyses help baseline the capabilities of existing manufacturing systems and aid in the evaluation of alternative designs. Due to current technological advancements Modeling and Simulation (M&S) has increasingly become a tool to help alleviate risk in a development program. The goal of this Phase I effort is to baseline current M&S activities within an existing Department of Defense (DoD) program and prudently apply M&S techniques and resources to selectively satisfy manufacturing requirements and propose the a fully integrated missile defense manufacturing simulation tool with the capabilities for secure geographically distributed collaboration among Government, prime contractors and suppliers. This tool will include a logistics analysis model, a production and factory model and a manufacturing and assembly model. Results of this Phase I effort will lay the groundwork to significantly improve the performance of the supply chain, optimize production and the facility layout, validate production rates and assist in trade studies of the selected DoD program. All of these improvements will serve to improve the Government's ability to produce hardware and significantly reduce life cycle cost and risk. - Proactive identification of efficiency and cost improvements - Provide look ahead reports of upcoming activities not yet on the critical path - Allow timely development of work-around solutions - Optimize missile / subsystem supply chain and manufacturing - Increased level of fidelity for simulation of complex electro-optic subsystems

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8715
Dr. Volkan Ozguz
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 02DEC02
Title:Ultra-thin-Layer Heterogeneous Stack Manufacturing Process
Abstract:Ballistic missile defense system components require cutting edge designs and technologies that are sometimes costly and time consuming to produce. Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) proposes to develop a low-cost, reliable process for manufacturing densely packaged ?systems in a stack? that dramatically reduce the weight and size of MDA electronics systems. This packaging approach is based on the Neo-Stack? technology, which has been developed and feasibility demonstrated at ISC. The goal is to produce heterogeneous miniature stacks containing diverse types of integrated circuits (ICs) in a design and fabrication environment that minimizes time to transition from the breadboard phase to a manufacturing environment adaptable to both defense and commercial applications. Produces heterogeneous miniature stacks containing diverse types of integrated circuits (ICs) in a design and fabrication environment that minimizes time to transition from the breadboard phase to a manufacturing environment that is adaptable to both defense and commercial products.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5103
Dr. Joseph H Armstrong
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Integration of Flexible CIGS Photovoltaics for High Altitude Airships
Abstract:A new generation of Lighter than Air (LTA) vehicles is being developed to provide continuous, geostationary presence at a sufficient altitude to negate interference from weather and other atmospheric interaction. Military applications for these vehicles include surveillance, communications, threat detection, and even as stationary platforms for missile and kinetic energy weapons. ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) has been working with Lockheed Martin in Akron, OH towards the development of a high-altitude, heavy lifting geostationary airship that is powered by lightweight, flexible copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics. While the initial vehicle will likely involve the attachment of self-contained flexible PV arrays to the hull, the proposed effort investigates direct integration of our flexible CIGS photovoltaics both onto and into the proposed hull fabric. Advantages of this approach are simplified construction and reduced weight over mechanical attachment of self-contained flexible PV arrays. Commercial applications of this approach include the non-military utilization of the high-altitude airship concept for high-speed Internet, wireless communications, surveillance, and wireless cable television. Direct extrapolation of this effort can also lead to direct integration of PV into fabric for tents and support structures for both commercial and military use. simplified construction, reduced weight, simplified maintenance; commercial applications include nonmilitary use of high-altitude airships for telecommunications, surveillance, high-speed Internet, wireless cable television; spin-offs include direct lamination of PV into fabric for tents and other fabric structures

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
500 Office Center Drive, Suite 250
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 628-8681
Mr. Mark J. Montesano
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Thermal Modules Cost Reduction Through Innovative Processing of Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite (kTC P 215)
Abstract:k Technology Corporation (kTC) produces high-conductivity (5x aluminum) thermal cores (k-CoreTM) for passive cooling of electronic packages. The cores are made by encapsulating annealed pyrolytic graphite (APG) in aluminum. They are currently being used in premium applications for programs including the F-35. Currently, the APG manufacturing process has about a 30% yield. By developing an innovative, targeted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process specifically for thermal cores, kTC's plans to increase the yield of APG to 90% and subsequently reduce the thermal core cost by 40%. The approach is to consider the total APG process (CVD, annealing, and machining) to develop the CVD parameters (flow rates, gas kinetics, mandrel design, gas flow paths, furnace run times) to produce high yields. Simplified gas dynamics and measured PG deposition data will be used to identify flow, mandrel shapes and deposition rates to produce uniform PG at optimum machinable thicknesses. A Preliminary Design of CVD Deposition process system for high yield APG manufacture will be completed. Selected tests will be conducted to verify critical design assumptions. In Phase II of the program, under a CRADA with Kirtland Air Force Base, the process would be developed, tested and demonstrated for full scale production. APG manufacturing processes costs, which amounts to about 50% of the thermal core cost, preclude the cost benefit of wide spread applications. Still in addition to specific applications for MDA high power Radar and RF components, there is a significant technology pull from DoD system primes. Current and anticipated programs for the F-35, the Comanche Helicopter, the F-16 upgrade, and DoD Phased arrays now consider thermal cores an enabling baseline technology for high performance applications. For just these programs the quantities of thermal cores run near 700,000 parts whose prices range from about $200 to $1000 a part. By reducing the APG cost of thermal cores, cost avoidance on these programs alone could amount to over $200M. As this proposal leads to cost reduction of thermal core, they will not only become pervasive in DoD applications, but will find uses in more cost sensitive commercial applications such as microwave towers and high power inverters for hybrid electric vehicles. As a result, broad based COTS applications will further reduce DOD cost.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Mr. N. Mark Williams
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Manufacturing Process for Growth of Gallium Nitride Crystals
Abstract:Gallium nitride crystal growth has gained more attention as the need for a homoepitaxial substrate for GaN devices has increased. Kyma Technologies proposes to develop an advanced manufacturing process capable of growing single crystal GaN at growth rates in excess of 1mm/hr. 50mm single crystal GaN substrates produced by Kyma Technologies will be used as the seed material to ensure thermal and lattice matching. Using this innovative crystal growth technique, production of GaN boules greater than 1cm in thickness will be made possible. Previous attempts to grow boules of GaN has had limited success due to the thermodynamic properties of the Ga-N system. Boule growth of GaN has the possibility to reduce the dislocation density in GaN wafers to below 10^4 per cm^2 in GaN substrates. GaN boule growth will also make it possible to produce wafers at low costs. The development of a low defect density GaN substrate will result in improved properties of epitaxial GaN films, and subsequently will improve the performance of GaN-based devices. The limiting factors in many high performance applications based on GaN and related materials can be attributed directly to material defects in epitaxially grown layers. A high rate crystal growth technique for GaN will increase commercialization and manufacturability of GaN substrates. Single crystal gallium nitride will be the future building block for many commercial devices. Low defect density gallium nitride films will benefit many microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. This material will lead to the commercialization of blue lasers in data storage and solid state white LED lighting. Homoepitaxial growth of gallium nitride on single crystal gallium nitride substrates will result in improved device performance such as increased lifetime and brightness in optoelectronics and increase power and frequency in microelectronic devices.

LASERDYNE LABS, LLC
4450-L Enterprise Court
Melbourne, FL 32934
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 757-3993
Mr. Andreas Gartner
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Laser Cleaving of Silicon on Insulator (SOI) Wafers to reduce Costof SOI Wafer Manufacturing through elimination of the Chemical Mechanical Processing
Abstract:Laserdyne Labs has developed several processes to apply laser technology to manufacturing tasks typically conducted by using mechanical equipment. In the emerging SOI (Silicon on Insulator) field, a present technology (Smart-Cutr) uses a layer of Hydrogen implanted in the silicon lattice to generate a splitting region between host and handle wafer. The current process is using thermal annealing in an oven. Based on our previous experience in this field we are suggesting utilizing localized laser heat instead of the broad overall heating of the bonded wafers in an oven. First tests have shown that the process is feasible and is not restricted by geometric boundaries. Cleave planes as produced by the laser can be pieced together without any shift in the definition of the cleavage plane. Furthermore, first principle calculations suggest that the higher energy flux rate of the laser can be utilized to reduce the necessary Hydrogen dose, as well as provides more flexibility in terms of various dopant levels. This proposed process would result in lowering the costs of SOI wafers through our simple, more cost-effective process flow. The cleaved wafer surface will be smooth and can be used directly without any post-cleave mechanical polishing or edge treatment. Our work in SOI processing technology is aimed at helping drive down the cost of SOI production so significantly that it will become a mainstream wafer technology. For many years the semiconductor industry has used SOI wafers for specialized applications such as chips used in military hardware and in equipment for use in space. Our invention will be directed to an improvement of the Smart-Cut T technology, which uses a high dose of Hydrogen implants to generate a splitting region on the bonded Silicon through formation of hydrogen bubbles during a thermal annealing cycle. The Smart-Cut T process uses high dose implantation of light ions (usually Hydrogen or Helium). In a thermal annealing cycle gas bubbles are formed, which grow together and eventually create sufficient local stress to break off the entire implanted layer at a depth close to the implant depth. The necessary Hydrogen dose stands in direct relation with the cost and number of implanter equipment. The Hydrogen diffusion throughout the lattice is the limiting step in the traditional approach. As the higher flux rate of the laser can drastically improve the timing in the diffusion step, a wider range of exfoliation agents can be utilized, in reduced concentrations. Furthermore, a side benefit of the high flux density is that the gas filled void is typically smaller than in the conventional approach, reducing the surface roughness. It might be that a further improvement here can eliminate or reduce the polishing step after exfoliation. "Smart Cut Process" Despite the cost reductions realized through utilization of the "Smart Cut Process", the process is still relatively expensive, with a high waste factor. Opportunities exist to generate value through further cost reductions and improvement in yields. One of the main cost drivers is still the machinery needed to perform the H+ implantation. If the H+ implant dose could be reduced below the current process minimum of 5 x 1016 ions/cm2, the throughput of the ion implantation devices could be increased proportionally, generating significant cost savings for SOI wafer manufacturers. Currently an ion implanter can process 20 wafers per hour at a dose of 5 x 1016. If Laserdyne Labs' process is able to reduce the required H+ dose to 1 e16, the throughput would increase by a factor of five per machine, reducing the number of implanters required to meet demand to roughly 60 from 290 in the year 2008. This would represent a capital equipment savings of about $920 million to the industry. A second possible benefit of applying laser technology to wafer cleaving may be in the improvement of the "as split" surface roughness, now approximately 100 angstroms. This surface roughness is too great and must be reduced before the wafer can be used. The wafer requires chemical mechanical processing (CMP, which smoothes the wafer to approximately five angstroms of surface roughness. Although this is a simple process, it does reduce the overall yield. Eliminating the CMP step would reduce the cost of manufacturing an SOI wafer. A leading micro-chip manufacturer* is interested in funding Laserdyne Labs for research and development if the Phase I feasibility is approved. In preparation for Phase II, Laserdyne Labs will utilize funds from Fast Track matching corporate investments. The commitment for Fast Track investment from Central Florida Innovation Corporation (CFIC) and Capital Partners of Brevard are contingent upon Phase II award.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. Jonathan Masere
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Organic Electrolytes for Re-Usable, High Performance Thermal Batteries
Abstract:Electrochemically, thermally and chemically stable lithium bis[a,a-dialkyl malonato] borate salts that melt between 100 oC and 150 oC (lower than the melting point of Li-metal), have high boiling point (above 200 oC) and have high decomposition point (above 300 oC) are proposed as candidates for lithium-metal batteries. When molten, these salts are expected to have high ionic conductivities (between 1 and 10 S m-1 c.a. 0.5 S m-1 typical of Li-ion electrolytes) sans organic solvents and large electrochemical stability windows beyond 0-5 V. The preclusion of organic solvents will improve battery safety, lower capacity loss and increase shelf life. The proposed electrolytes are expected to be thermodynamically stable with lithium metal thereby eliminating the use of excess lithium in the battery normally incorporated to compensate for the lithium consumption during discharge. Thus, the use of this class of electrolytes in lithium-metal batteries will increase the energy density, the operational life, and reduce cost. Thinner separators can be used with these electrolytes to give higher power. They will be used as pristine electrolytes and the preclusion of volatile organic solvents that are flammable will make lithium-metal batteries safer.

M CUBED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
921 Main St
Monroe, CT 06468
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 454-8600
Dr. Prashant Karandikar
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:A rapid processing method for large, low-expansion, light-weight mirrors
Abstract:M Cubed has conducted preliminary work to fabricate near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) fiber reinforced ceramic composites. These composites have high specific stiffness and thermal stability (thermal conductivity/CTE). M Cubed has also developed ways to rapidly polish surfaces of various materials to Angstrom level surface finish. In the proposed program, these technologies will be combined to fabricate a 1m diameter light-weight space mirror. M Cubed has teamed with a leading prime contractor for several space-based initiatives. In the Phase I, first the composite manufacturing process will be refined through fabrication of coupons and extensive characterization. Next a prototype 1m diameter mirror will be designed and fabricated for technology demonstration. In the Phase II, the process will be further optimized, and even larger mirror components will be fabricated. These components will be tested by the prime contractor. The Phase I program will prove the feasibility of M Cubed's composite manufacturing process for fabricating large mirrors, and Phase II will optimize the component fabrication technology with respect to cost, fabrication time, polishing techniques etc.. At the end of Phase II, a scaled-up manufacturing processes will be available for the production of various commercial and military space based mirrors. In addition to applications for space mirrors, the composite material is expected to have applications in other markets such as automotive, semiconductor lithography equipment, etc.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Mr. Kenneth M. Kratsch
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:High Temperature Zero Erosion Ablative Combustion Liner
Abstract:In this proposed MDA Phase I SBIR program, HfCN fused fiber mat is to be synthesized from preceramic polymer derived HfCN fibers and then impregnated with polyethylene to form a novel high temperature ablative combustion liner insulation required for >4000oF combustion temperatures in solid rocket motor (SRM) applications to meet the demands of the new generation of kill vehicles. The MATECH/GSM concept eliminates "char" loss by directly designing the "char" layer prior to forming the ablator/insulator. This is accomplished by melt spinning and winding HfCN preceramic fiber and fusing the fibers at the fiber junctions to form a contiguous porous fiber mat. After winding on a mandrel, the green fiber structure is sintered to ceramic and inserted into the motor housing and impregnated with a thermoplastic, such as high-density polyethylene or polypropylene. The thermoplastic polymer is selected to produce no char, possess low thermal diffusivity, and pyrolyize into a high-energy capacity gas. We expect to achieve a section weight at the aft end of the motor of 1/2 to 2/3 of existing ablator designs. The active participation and support of Aerojet bodes well for a successful Phase I program, Phase II program, and Phase III Commercialization and manufacturing. Advances in materials performance and manufacturing cost reductions could lead to reduced cost per pound of payload to reach orbit. Reductions in this significant cost will result in expanded utilization of space for both military and non-military applications. Our proposed high temperature non-erosion/low-erosion SRM ablative combustion liner insulation material could improve SRM thrust by permitting higher temperature combustion temperatures and reduced recession of the ablative material during combustion. With increased US commitment to missile defense and anti-terrorist/rogue nation activities, the military market for our proposed high temperature non-erosion/low-erosion SRM ablative combustion liner insulation material is anticipated to be in excess of $50-100 million by CY 2010.

MEMTRONICS CORP.
3000 Custer Road Suite 270-400
Plano, TX 75075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 740-0795
Mr. David Forehand
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 24DEC02
Title:Innovative Manufacturing of Low-Cost RF MEMS
Abstract:Recent advances in electronic device technology, specifically microelectromechanical systems for RF frequencies (RF MEMS), have resulted in the development of near-ideal electronic switches for controlling and routing RF energy. These switches require negligible power consumption, have extremely low insertion loss, and extremely high linearity, which far exceeds that obtainable with pin diode or GaAs FET switch technology. The power reductions over pin diode technology, and size and weight reductions over ferrite phase shifters offer dramatic improvements in prime power consumption, size, and weight for future military missions, especially for airborne and space-based systems. Though RF MEMS have demonstrated world-class performance in phase shifters and filters, they still require further development. Currently, there are three major issues at the forefront of RF MEMS development: cost, reliability, and packaging. To ameliorate the cost and reliability issues, during Phase I MEMtronics will: 1) Investigate alternative, low-cost manufacturing approaches to fabricating RF MEMS devices; 2) Develop a process technology roadmap for implementing these potential low-cost manufacturing approaches; and 3) Develop a first order manufacturing cost model. During Phase II, MEMtronics will demonstrate manufacturing and design improvements which will lead to a 5-10X reduction in cost. Anticipated benefits of the proposed manufacturing techniques for RF MEMS are focused on significantly lower fabrication costs and improved device reliability. Commercial applications of RF MEMS utilizing this packaging include communications (RF MEMS enabled electronically scanned antennas for satellite communications, tunable filters for cellular mobile and base station telecommunications applications), sensors (scanning antennas for automotive radar), and imaging (millimeter-wave 2-D and 3-D imaging systems for airport security- baggage scanning and weapons detection).

MENTIS SCIENCES, INC.
150 Dow Street, Tower Two
Manchester, NH 03101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 624-9197
Mr. John J. Dignam
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:During the past 5 years, Mentis Sciences has developed advanced material processes to produce high performance composite radomes for missile interceptor applications. These unique and proprietary processes have enabled us to produce radome prototypes that have inherently low dielectric constants and loss tangents for Ka band applications through 1500øF, exceed the structural requirements and have exceeded single particle impact rain erosion tests -3mm nylon beads at 30ø incidence angle- at velocities exceeding 1500 m/s. The background for this technology has been developed under contract DASG60-98-C-0027. Future interceptor platforms have requirements for W-band seekers. Initial tests have shown that the dielectric constant and loss tangent increased by less than 0.5% at room temperature The work outlined in this proposal is to evaluate the electrical performance of MSI's PMC Radome for W-band applications such as the Term-KE and the Common Missile, as well as produce a prototype 4" diameter conical radome for these platforms. This is a low cost alternative approach to present radome manufacturing techniques and could prove beneficial as these platforms are adopted and placed into service. This technology could eliminate the lengthy and capital intensive materials development process for W-band radome applications and enable the LSI's to immediately integrate the radome onto their platforms.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Graphite Fiber Reinforced Mg EKV Sunshade for Be Replacement and Cost and Mass Reduction
Abstract:Mg alloys reinforced with high modulus graphite fibers have nearly 1.5 times the specific stiffness of beryllium. Since the EKV sunshade is a stiffness critical application, a sunshade manufactured from graphite fiber reinforced magnesium could weigh a third less than the current Be design. Using MMCC's net-shape Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting (APICT) process, the sunshade would cost half as much, resulting in an $8- $10 million savings in procurement cost. In addition, lower mass will lead to increased performance that could result in further cost savings and increased mission capability. This project, in collaboration with the EKV development contractor, will demonstrate the materials and environmental performance and cost effectiveness of EKV sunshades manufactured from magnesium reinforced with high modulus graphite fibers. Success on this project would bring into focus a large number of other Be components for cost and mass savings. Beyond the structural and cost enhancements, Mg/graphite is non toxic and has none of the environmental and occupational health liabilities associated with melting, machining and handling of beryllium. With ordinary and well understood standard foundry practices, magnesium alloys are as easy to melt and cast as aluminum. Complex parts for MDA and DoD applications will be net-shape cast for a fraction of the cost of machined parts. Beryllium and AlBe will be replaced by cast discontinuous as well as continuously reinforced magnesium parts at a fraction of the cost, no employee health and negligible environmental impact issues. The EKV development contractor estimates an $80,000 per sunshade savings using Mg/Gr replacement of Be. As a beryllium replacement material, graphite fiber reinforced Mg can actually save mass in addition to being less expensive and non-toxic. Commercial applications based upon the technology developed in this project include engine parts for high performance automotive, motorcycle parts, sporting goods as well as military, commercial and general aviation airframe structures.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-5557
Mr. Bryan Hughes
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Diamond Thin Films as a Gate Insulator in MOS Transistors
Abstract:Ongoing efforts in device physics research have been aimed at creating small, high frequency, and high power structures to meet demands of the current commercial and military markets. Military applications, such as high power radar and sensors, and commercial applications, such as cellular (or wireless) technology, laptops, and personal digital assistants, are in search of devices that will meet the needs of high speed and high power management, but in a small package. The proposed Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of applying Diamond-Gate-Insulator technology (DGI) developed by Vanderbilt University and members of the Mission Research Corporation team. Applying diamond film as a gate dielectric has many advantages in device performance. Diamond has a low electron affinity, chemically inert, and high thermal conductivity. Devices built with CVD diamond offer a rugged structure that will withstand and operate in or through harsh working environments. Additionally, diamond as a gate insulator offers a more robust structure in radiation environments over conventional gate material. DGI technology can be readily integrated into a MOS device foundry (or a compound semiconductor foundry). The advantages are advanced microelectronics that can be developed at a practical cost and are direct replacements to current devices. The speed and power dissipation of FETs are directly proportional to the properties of the gate dielectric. Diamond offers a high insulating and high dielectric strength material replacement for SiO2 gates in FETs. Integration of DGI into transistor design will have dramatic effects on the speed and power dissipation.

NOVA PHASE, INC.
435 Route 206
Newton, NJ 07860
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 300-3065
Dr. Michael Scripsick
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Solution Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride
Abstract:The primary impediment to large deployment of GaN has been the lack of suitable substrates on which to grow and fabricate optimum structures and devices. While GaN films are commonly grown on sapphire or silicon carbide substrates, the lattice mismatch of these materials with GaN results in a large number of defects and dislocations. Many of these problems would be eliminated if large bulk GaN crystals could be grown from which substrates could be fabricated for thin film growth. Accordingly, it is the objective of this proposed research effort to investigate the solution growth of GaN at or near atmospheric pressure. This will be accomplished by identification of one or more suitable solvents in Phase I followed by controlled nucleation and large crystal growth in Phase II. A perfectly lattice matched substrate will allow for nearly defect free semiconductor devices which will increase the lifetime, speed, and power handling capabilities of GaN devices. Commercial products include low cost, high efficiency, high brightness, long lifetime lighting and flat panel displays. High speed modulators and laser diode sources could rapidly enable the next generation of optical telecommunications technology. Solar blind uv detectors based on GaN are highly desirable for rapid detection of missile launches and high power microwave devices allow for more powerful radar and wireless communications.

OMEGA PIEZO TECHNOLOGIES
470 Upper Georges Valley Road
Spring Mills, PA 16875
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-3055
Dr. David Pickrell
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Silicon carbide is attractive for high temperature, high power, high voltage and high frequency devices because of its extreme properties. However, there are still processing issues that must be resolved if these applications are to ever be fully realized. One of the major obstacles to SiC device production is the occurance of micropipe defects in bulk single crystals and homoepitaxial films. This program will demonstrate that microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD)is a superior manufacturing process, to those currently used, for the production of high quality, defect free, homoepitaxial SiC films. The program will involve depositing homoepitaxial SiC films from SiH4, C3H8, H2 precursors using a 2.45 GHz tubular MPACVD system. A step flow growth process will be utilized, in the presence of atomic hydrogen generated by dissociation of H2 in the microwave plasma, which will minimize the formation of defects in the growing films. This approach for depositing SiC homoepitaxial films has not been previously reported in the literature. Parametric studies will be conducted to optimize the growth conditions. Films will be thoroughly characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microfocus Raman spectroscopy. Silicon carbide is being developed for high power high voltage switching applications, high temperature electronics, and high power microwave applications in the 1 - 10 GHz range. Power electronic systems that could utilize SiC include applications in aircraft, automobiles, heating and lighting, motor controls and drives, telecommunications, space exploration and many others. High temperature electronic applications that could utilize SiC include electronic modules for automobiles, trucks, and aircraft among others.

PICODYNE, INC.
1918 Forest Drive, Suite 2A
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 990-1890
Mr. Brian Smith
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory
Abstract:PicoDyne proposes development of CMOS Radiation Tolerant Memory Blocks for use in Missile System ASICs. We have developed and demonstrated devices using our standard cell library using a commercial design flow. In addition, our process has core operating Voltages much lower than that of most CMOS ASIC processes (0.5V), greatly reducing both the power consumed, and heat generated by our circuits. This library and Radiation Tolerant/Ultra Low Power design methods have been demonstrated in several different digital devices. The availability of RT memory cells will allow the development of cache memory for general purpose processors, dual-port RAMs for Digital Signal Processors or communication chips, and large register files for any application. These cells will be developed on a new Ultra Low Power silicon CMOS foundry process, which results in a great reduction in power while maintaining speed, and providing Total Dose Radiation Tolerance. Our own design Hardening techniques are used to achieve latchup immunity and SEU tolerance. The result of this research will be to allow rapid development of complex Ultra Low Power Radiation Tolerant digital microelectronics. This technology is applicable for use in Missile Systems, Civil and Military Space systems, and Nuclear Industry electronics. Once the combination of Radiation Tolerant Memory and our Standard Cell Library is proven effective, other military electronics providers will also be able to design and develop parts using this technology. Additionally, with the increased susceptibility of commercial CMOS devices as feature sizes shrink, this technology will lead the way for mitigating terrestrial radiation upsets in commercial CMOS devices, especially dense memories.

RAPT INDUSTRIES
6252 Preston Ave.
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 787-0591
Dr. Jeffrey Carr
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:RAPT Industries has developed Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) processing, a novel plasma-based processed for rapidly shaping and polishing optical and semiconductor materials. The process is deterministic, highly controllable, uses low-cost consumables, and produces easily-scrubbed gaseous waste products. Unlike other contact-based methods for material removal, the RAP process does not produce any subsurface damage. Unlike other plasma and ion-based material removal methods, the RAP process operates at atmospheric pressure. We propose to apply RAP processing to the manufacture of hard-to-machine materials of critical interest to the DOD. These include high-damage threshold laser optics made from oxy-fluoride glass, mirror substrates made of silicon carbide, and CVD diamond. If successful we will develop a revolutionary manufacturing process for rapidly and precisely making precision optical and mechanical components in a fraction of the time of current methods. The RAP process would find application in the manufacture of commercial optic and semiconductor components.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES
731 Avalon Court
San Diego, CA 92109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 488-4450
Mr. Gary Wonacott
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Polymeric Materials and Processes for Reducing Missile Component Costs
Abstract:The use of high temperature polymers and out-of-the-autoclave manufacturing processes offer the potential to enhance structural performance and reduce cost in Standard Missile aerodynamic control surfaces. Success in the Standard Missile can likely be leveraged in other MDA and DOD missile system airframe components. The Phase I program will develop lightweight high temperature polymer, carbon foam sandwich design concepts that will be analytically validated based on requirements and a design envelope for the Standard Missile. Flat panels sandwich test articles will be fabricated and tested to confirm projected mechanical properties. A successful Phase I will lead to a Phase II program that will fabricate and qualify prototype composite control surfaces. The Phase I program will introduce the following innovations: demonstration of high temperature polymer composites, development of a control surface design methodology for composites, demonstration of composite sandwich structures for high temperature applications, and demonstration of out-of-the-autoclave manufacturing of high temperature polymers. Metallic control surfaces such as inconel and titanium are heavy, are expensive to machine, and typically are flutter critical near the end of flight when aerodynamic heating has reduced the modulus properties substantially. Sandwich with polymer composites such as carbon fiber reinforced phthalonitriles facesheets carbon foam cores will weigh less than 50 percent of the baseline metals, can be net shape fabricated at eighty percent of the metal parts, and can be tailored to substantially enhance the flutter performance compared to metals. In addition, the lighter weight compositese will enable lower cost control surface hinges to be used in the airframe. The lighter weight control surfaces aft of the missile center of gravity will have a profound beneficial influence on the aerodynamic performance of the missile and reduce the need for ballast.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES
731 Avalon Court
San Diego, CA 92109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 488-4450
Mr. Gary Wonacott
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 13JAN03
Title:Low Cost, Precision Composite Mirrors for Exoatmospheric Interceptor Seekers
Abstract:Subsystem costs need to be reduced to make the GMD EKV more affordable. The seeker mirrors are fabricated from beryllium, coated, precision machined, and plated to achieve the required prescription. While the cost of coating and alignment represents the largest part of the total seeker cost, substantial savings can be achieved by changing from beryllium to a carbon fiber reinforced composite for the mirror substructure. Recent developments in composite mirror technology now make this a distinct possibility. The first step proposed is to provide a drop in composite replacement for the beryllium mirror that meets all of the fit and function requirements and has the same dimensions and tolerances as the beryllium baseline. The Phase I program will development the composite mirror substructure design, will model and analytically verify the dimensional stability and stiffness of the composite substructure, and will evaluate candidate coatings to ensure the potential to achieve the same optical prescription as for the beryllium baseline. The project will culminate with a recommended mirror concept with a supporting manufacturing plan and cost estimate that can be compared with the beryllium baseline mirror. Replacing the beryllium with composite materials is projected to reduce EKV mirror substructure manufacturing costs by a factor of 5 to 10 times. If the Phase I program, which will focus on mirrors is successful, then Phase II will develop and qualify by test materials not only for the mirrors, but also for the mirror supports and the rest of the telescope structures made from beryllium, thereby achieving even greater cost reductions. Successful demonstration of composite mirrors in this program will build on the existing database confirming the use of composite materials for both large and small telescope mirrors and structures. New more efficient space power development that is focusing on the use of Cassegrain telescope configurations will also benefit from the design and manufacturing database developed in this program.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES
731 Avalon Court
San Diego, CA 92109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 488-4450
Mr. Gary Wonacott
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Development of Thermal Management Systems for High Power, Wide Band Gap Radar
Abstract:The DOD is currently investmenting in the development of high power, wide band gap phased array radar. The Army's objective is to increase interceptor kill probability by using higher power radars that decrease the interceptor handover error. Gallium Nitride (GaN) is an emerging technology that potentially can enhance radar power by a factor of five to ten; however, there are several enabling technologies, including thermal management, which must be developed in support of GaN. It is likely that GaN technology development and insertion will be time phased, that is, initial deployment will use lower power GaN devices and higher power devices will be deployed as they are demonstrated. Similarly, a thermal management system comprised of technologies that spread heat from the device, move heat to an extraction point, extract the heat, and package the various technologies with minimal thermal barriers, will also be phased into the systems. This proposed program will identify candidate thermal management technologies, develop concepts for three device power levels, analytically evaluate the concepts parametrically, and select the best concepts for each of the three power levels evaluated. Each of the concepts will be evaluated on the basis of thermal performance and manufacturability. This program will develop a design methodology for assessing combinations of thermal management approaches required to maintain GaN devices at their limiting temperature as a function of power level. It will provide a database for system analysts to compare alternative technological approaches for GaN device thermal management. And it will be a conduit for the latest thermal management technologies from academia and industry to be evaluated. Ultimately, it will provide thermal management solution sets, with associated manufacturing plans, to the MDA and Army that will enable the use of GaN devices in ground based phased array radars.

SEMISOUTH LABORATORIES
One Research Blvd., Suite 201B
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 324-7607
Ms. Janna B. Dufrene
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Insertion of an L-band SiC Static Induction Transistor into Missile Defense Radars
Abstract: The goal of this proposal is to lay the ground work for the insertion of SiC static induction transistors (SIT) in missle defense radars. The insertion of SiC SIT's would increase system reliability and power while lowering repair/logistics costs of these critical systems, therefore paying back the cost of development. Phase two of this effort if funded, would supply sample quantities of devices to the system contractor for adaptation and design prototyping, while phase three would carry out the actual quantity manufacturing and system insertion. SemiSouth Laboratories has patent pending technology developed for new device structures and processes needed for high-performance SiC discrete devices. From phase one into phase two, specific device parameter issues relating to an optimized device insertion will be addressed. Fabrication/processing issues to be examined include economical and high-performance SiC epitaxy growth, 75 mm wafer processing, in-situ process metrology for some self-aligned steps, and statistical process control for key unit process steps. These potential improvements will be analyzed from a manufacturing standpoint, and plans will be developed to improve the most important steps to ready the device for pilot production and system insertion in Phases II and III. Potential commercial applications of this technology include high-voltage oscillators for compact lighting ballasts, cellular phone base station transmitters, and high definition television broadcast transmitters. General anticipated benefits are also derived from increasing the industrial base of SiC discrete device and epitaxy suppliers, which will provide market infrastructure to help support DoD and commercial system insertion.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 260-9589
Mr. Joe Cuchiaro
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Utilizing the Threshold Voltage Hysteresis of a Cerium Manganese Non-Linear Dielectric to Achieve a Radiation Hardened 16M SRAM
Abstract:A new non-linear dielectric (CMd) was recently discovered and deposited via MOCVD by Structured Materials, Inc. (www.structuredmaterials.com). The CM thin film properties potentially make it an excellent choice for commercial and radiation hardened electronics. Specifically, in radiation environments the CM can be implemented in a radiation hardened (total dose, SEE, and prompt dose) static random access memory (SRAM). Existing results indicate that the SMI process and film may be used to replace the two n-channel and two p-channel transistors in a 4-T SRAM latch cell with two n-channel and two p-channel non-linear dielectric field effect transistors (NLDFETs). The increased capacitance of the NLDFETs combined with design hardening techniques should achieve a minimum of 300krad(Si) of total dose radiation hardness, 1E9rad(Si)/s and 1E11rad(Si)/s of operation through and prompt dose latch-up immunity, respectively and >100MeV-cm2/mg of single event latch-up (SEL) immunity. The threshold voltage hysteresis effect of the NLDFET should achieve Single Event Upset (SEU) immunity to at least 80MeV-cm2/mg, while utilizing a standard 6-transistor SRAM cell structure. This proposed Phase I effort will demonstrate a CM NLDFET SRAM proof of concept cell and in Phase II build the prototype device, which in Phase III be commercialized with our collaboration partners in military and commercial products. The NLDFET SRAM STRUCTURE DESCRIBED IN THIS PROPOSAL OFFERS A MUCH SIMPLER CELL FOR INCREASING RADIATION HARD MEMORY DENSIT

SYNCRODYNE SYSTEMS CORP.
9250 Bendix Road North
Columbia, MD 21044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 964-3326
Dr. Scott T. Hayes
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:The focus of this effort is digital signal processing (DSP) of communication waveforms using analog methods, specifically addressing the subtopic in the solicitation concerning the "wide instantaneous bandwidth processing of multiple waveforms (Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) codes, chaotic waveforms)." Analog processes can be fast and implemented in simple circuit architectures with low power requirements. As bandwidth and data rates increase, DSP-based solutions become prohibitive. (In personal wireless devices, for example, as data rates increase, the battery power used for DSP tasks begins to exceed even the power waste of the rf power amplifiers.) In most cases however, it is difficult to imagine an analog process that could replace even the simplest DSP-based solutions, such as fading mitigation, demultiplexing, and maximum-likelihood detection. There is, however, a description of waveform encoding based on the theory of dynamical systems, whereby signals are viewed as the output of deterministic systems. (Sometimes called chaotic signals. To a limited extent concepts from dynamics are already in use in fielded communication systems, see section c in the proposal.) We propose a novel signaling approach using dynamics-based modulation called deterministic digital signaling (DDS), where pulse amplitudes are related in time by a deterministic mapping. This relationship suggests the use of new fast signal processing techniques based on analog recursive structures that greatly reduce ccircuit complexity, storage requirements, and system power requirements. The military and commercial potential for an rf signal processing technology that reduces cost and complexity, while having increased power efficiency and reduced size and weight is enormous. We anticipate that these benefits are within reach, and believe that the application of dynamics-based methods is critical to achieve them. There is also a need for new modulation techniques that increase flexibility in transmission and reduce receiver complexity. This is of primary concern in multiuser systems. Our proposed modulation technique allows flexibility at a pulse by pulse level, and greatly reduces receiver complexity. The goal is an increase in overall system capacity and spectral efficiency. The commercial implications of these improvements are considerable.

TERAVICTA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2535 Brockton Drive, Suite 500
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 908-1488
Mr. Claude Hilbert
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Teravicta Technologies proposes innovative solutions to greatly improve RF MEMS manufacturing technology, thereby enabling cost-effective production of high performance, high reliability, and low cost X-band phase shifters for next generation large MDA fire control radars. The objective of this Phase I proposal is to perform trade studies, supported by RF modeling and experimental measurements, that validate and prioritize new design and manufacturing process extensions for the scaling of today's commercial-grade RF MEMS switch technology, to meet MDA X-band radar system performance, reliability, and cost requirements. The outcome of the effort will be both a manufacturing technology roadmap and an RF-simulated design of a robust, low-cost packaged three-bit X-band phase shifter employing ultra-low loss ohmic contact RF MEMS switches. Teravicta will work with its manufacturing partners to validate cost projections. The market opportunity for RF MEMS switches alone will be greater than $3B annually in 2004. There is a high degree of synergy between the RF switch needs for commercial markets (e.g., cell phones, wireless LANS, and set top boxes) and those for military and aerospace markets. There exist near term applications in both of these markets for low loss RF switches. Looking further down the road, more advanced products can build upon the extraordinary advances of the low loss RF MEMS switch: for example, steerable antennas and tunable filters for wireless LAN and broadband wireless access. Some of these markets can readily take advantage of low loss phase shifters. Teravicta, upon achieving success in this MDA SBIR program, will commercialize phase shifter components for both commercial and military markets. Our focus on high-volume, low-cost manufacturing will enable the cost-effective deployment of large fire-control radar systems for missile defense.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Mr. Rick D. Lucas
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Carbon Foam Innovative Processing
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency has a need for innovative processes that will improve manufacturing capabilities, product quality and reliability, reduce unit costs and enhance manufacturing yields and subsystems and component performance. Carbon foam has demonstrated numerous properties that make it a candidate material for several MDA-sponsored programs including: space-based mirrors, lightweight structural foam for space platforms, and thermal protection systems for space applications. Several other technology areas have been identified and will likely be investigated in the near future. CFOAMr, developed by Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd., is a next-generation structural material which is inexpensive, lightweight, fire-resistant, impact-absorbing, thermally insulating or conducting. Electrical conductivity can be varied over seven orders of magnitude. CFOAMr can be fabricated in a variety of shapes, sizes, and densities to meet the property requirements of specific applications. Because of the recent emergence of this technology, processes - although reliable - have not been optimized for product quality, reliability and cost. The process enhancement proposed will have significant effects on all the technologies currently being investigated, resulting in improved technology readiness for all the CFOAMr programs currently being developed and supported by MDA. By making processes used to make carbon foam robust and cost-effective, Touchstone makes available to DoD an enabling technology whose benefits are now just beginning to be explored. CFOAMr is the technology for a host of next-generation material systems and components, replacing those currently based on more conventional materials. Each of these baseline materials has a variety of limitations including: high cost, inadequate structural strength, fire hazards, foreign sourcing, undesirable radar cross-section, corrosion susceptibility and weight.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Dr. Arthur J. Fortini
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 07JAN03
Title:High-Throughput Manufacturing of Rhenium SDACS Components
Abstract:A large number of the rhenium components used in the MDA/Navy solid divert and attitude control system (SDACS) kinetic kill vehicle are fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). While CVD offers the most cost-effective manufacturing approach for these components, further improvements in production throughput and cost are desired. In this project, Ultramet will focus on the production of main thruster assembly (MTA) thrusters and increase the throughput of both the rhenium deposition process and the subsequent machining process by a minimum of 500%. Improvements in the CVD processing will be achieved by using spin-on technology and applying proven CVD techniques, which were developed in other work and are currently in use at Ultramet. Increases in the machining rate and throughput will also be based on technologies that have been demonstrated in other production projects. The net result will be a dramatic increase in process throughput and production capacity, a decrease in the number of CVD reactors required for a given job, and a commensurate decrease in the unit production cost. While the market for SDACS hardware is strictly limited to DoD applications, there are other applications where the technologies developed under this project can be applied, including Ultramet's 100-lbf production iridium/rhenium (Ir/Re) liquid apogee engines (LAEs), as well as the smaller chambers being manufactured under various related R&D projects. The process efficiency improvements demonstrated in this project may also be implemented to enhance CVD production of other materials.

V SYSTEM COMPOSITES, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 938-7077
Mr. Michael Louderback
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 10DEC02
Title:Low Cost VARTM Composite Manufacturing Process for Missile Launch Canisters
Abstract:Missile defense system components, such as THAAD and PAC-3, use mobile missile launchers that transport, erect, and launch the missiles from canisters. The function of the canister is to protect the missile from damage during storage, transport, and installation on the launcher, transportation on the launcher in field environments, and missile launch. Key design requirements for the canister include lightweighting for mobility and transportability, severe acceleration loads, thermal loads, ballistic impact resistance to small arms fire, corrosion-resistance, and low cost production and system life cycle cost. The lightweighting and corrosion-resistant design requirements suggest composite materials and low cost composite manufacturing processes as the design solution. Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) structural materials, consisting typically of glass or carbon fiber reinforcements in a polymer matrix resin, provide the desired performance attributes for this missile launch canister design solution. V System Composites, Inc. will use its high performance vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (HyPerVARTM) composite structure manufacturing process and its high performance sandwich core construction (HyPerCore) structural design concepts to provide low cost, lightweight PMC structures with the attributes necessary to meet the missile launch canister design requirements. A program is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the HyPerVARTM and HyPerCore composite technologies to provide low cost manufacturing for lightweight, ballistic-impact resistant, large unitized-construction composite missile launch canisters for THAAD and other similar missile defense system components. The HyPerVARTM and HyPerCore composite technologies will provide low production manufacturing costs for lightweight, ballistic-impact resistant, large unitized-construction composite missile launch canisters for THAAD and other similar missile launch canisters.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Mr. Dean Szwabowski
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Producible Composite Mirror and Sensor Support Structures for Exoatmospheric Interceptors
Abstract:Exoatmospheric interceptors such as EKV use beryllium extensively in the optical sensor to provide a lightweight, high performance solution. However, beryllium presents cost and producibility issues for future interceptor production programs and alternatives are needed. High modulus carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix (plastic) composites (CFRP) for sensor support structures in conjunction with Carbon/Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) composites for mirror substrates are proposed for exoatmospheric interceptor kill vehicle optical sensors. The proposed materials and design concepts will provide lightweight, lower cost, and more producible alternatives to beryllium. Optical system performance is a function of the dimensional stability of the optical elements, their attachment, and the structure connecting the optical elements in addition to optical design. Both C/SiC and CFRP materials have a long heritage for dimensionally stable space structures such as telescopes, reflectors, and relay mirrors. The use of these materials in EKV sensors will improve performance by providing key attributes of lighter weight, higher strength, high stiffness, optical performance, and nuclear hardness. The proposed combination of CFRP and C/SiC materials and design concepts is unique for application to missile defense exoatmospheric interceptor kill vehicle optical sensors. Although there is an existing technology base and heritage for space applications, this combination of materials has been rarely used for space applications due to the long-standing heritage and difficulty in replacing glass mirrors. The proposed attachment method of the optical elements, which directly affects optical system performance, is also unique and the proposed team is experienced in the attachment of C/SiC mirrors to a CFRP structure. A program is proposed to develop and demonstrate CFRP and C/SiC materials and design concepts for EKV optical sensor applications. The CFRP sensor support structure and lightweight C/SiC mirrors will provide a lightweight, low cost, and more producible alternative to current beryllium mirrors and support structures used on current and planned EKV exoatmospheric interceptors, and a technology base for other optical sensor applications such as advanced EKV configurations, endo-atmospheric interceptor sensors, and miniature KV sensors.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Mr. Robert Kolozs
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 08JAN03
Title:Integrated Active-Cooling and RTM Composites Manufacturing Processes for Ground Based Radar Transmit/Receive Modules and Housings for High Power Elect
Abstract:Ground Based Radar (GBR) Transmit/Receive (T/R) Modules and Housings, using high power electronics GaAs, SiC, and GaN materials, must be designed to accommodate large amounts of waste heat generated in relatively small areas of the T/R Module. This heat must be thermally managed to reduce T/R Module operating temperatures and increase reliability and life of electronic components. Integration of active-cooling and composite materials technologies is necessary to meet current and future thermal management requirements and provide lightweight and low cost design solutions for the projected high volume production for GBR T/R Modules and Housings. This can be accomplished using our unique Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) composite manufacturing process that allows incorporation of integral cooling channels during the composite fabrication as well as tailoring of high thermal conductivity composite materials to optimize thermal management and provide light weight components. Our RTM process will provide aerospace quality parts with reproducible properties at significantly lower cost compared to competing processes for high volume production. GBR T/R Modules and Housings design concepts will be developed based on design requirements provided by MDA and GBR system prime contractors to assure our product compatibility with future missile defense GBR requirements. The Phase I program will demonstrate concept feasibility through analytical studies and fabrication and test of subscale components. The Phase II program will scale-up the technology, develop detailed design concepts, fabricate full-scale test articles, and demonstrate the performance of the concept in full-scale ground tests. The GBR sensor tracking performance capabilities can be significantly increased using T/R Modules and Housings using high power electronics with GaAs, SiC, and GaN materials, in conjunction with thermal management concepts that remove the higher electronics waste heat. Lightweight composites and lower cost manufacturing processes will reduce GBR system weight and cost for the projected large volume production of GBR T/R Modules and Housings.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Mr. Matthew Thompson
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Tough, Impact-Resistant Composite Structures for Lightweight Airborne Laser Subsystem
Abstract:The Airborne Laser (ABL) system is being developed using a Boeing 747 aircraft platform for use in missile defense systems. Improved missile defense effectiveness and ABL system performance such as range are improved if the platform and ABL system weight can be reduced. Current ABL technology demonstration systems and subsystems, such as the ABL-Pressure Recovery Subsystem (ABL-PRS) use heavier materials such as titanium. Weight reductions using advanced composite materials can be substantial, with estimates of 5,000 pounds savings for the ABL-PRS alone. A key problem in the wide-spread insertion of composites in the man-rated ABL system platform is the lack of data base and thus very conservative design knockdown factors used for composites to ensure positive design margins are achieved on these components for uncertainties such as impact resistance due to mechanical abuse during installation and maintenance of composite components. A unique composite concept is proposed for tough, impact resistant and lightweight ABL composite components. The concept uses high strain-to-failure carbon fiber reinforced composites as surface laminates, to provide impact resistance, in conjunction with higher modulus and higher temperature resins, such as M40J/epoxy and M40J/bismaleimide material systems, to provide high stiffness and strength. This concept will decrease the design knockdown factors associated with impact damage during installation and maintenance for ABL structural components, and provide light weight composite solutions. A program is proposed to develop and demonstrate tough, impact resistant composite concepts and databases for ABL subsystem components to ensure widespread use of composites in the ABL system and associated weight reduction. The proposed tough, impact resistant composite concepts and associated databases will provide a technology base for insertion of composites into ABL subsystem components. The projected ABL platform weight reduction due to use of composites weights will provide lower take-off weight and longer range for ABL systems to improve missile defense system effectiveness.

WAVEFRONT RESEARCH, INC.
616 West Broad Street
Bethlehem, PA 18018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 694-9778
Dr. Thomas W. Stone
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:HIGH PERFORMANCE ALIGNMENT TOLERANT OPTICAL FEED-THRU TECHNOLOGY FOR DEWARS AND OPTOELECTRONICS
Abstract:A novel optical FEED-THRU technology is developed in this Phase I SBIR effort. This advanced FEED-THRU technology replaces conventional wires and their issues including thermal conductivity, radiation and electromagnetic susceptibility, and connector reliability with a dense, wireless, non thermally conductive, alignment tolerant technology that is low cost, highly reliable, and has a greatly reduced electromagnetic interference cross-section. This FEED-THRU technology has the potential to be radiation hardened and leverages an existing optical interconnect technology developed under prior DoD support. The resulting high performance electro-optic dewars and related devices are a technology that has the potential to increase system performance and lower costs. Advantages provided by this technology include dramatically high thermal isolation, low electromagnetic interference susceptibility, high interconnect density, high interconnect bandwidth, low cost, electrical isolation, redundancy, radiation tolerance, and power reduction. The anticipated benefits of this technology include improved system reliability and lower costs through high thermal isolation, low electromagnetic interference susceptibility, high interconnect density, high interconnect bandwidth, low cost, electrical isolation, redundancy, radiation tolerance, and power reduction. High performance electro-optic dewars resulting from this technology will find potential applications in DoD and commercial sensors including astronomical imaging, IR, multi-spectral, and hyperspectral imaging applications for DoD, commercial, and medical markets.

WIZDOM SYSTEMS, INC.
1300 Iroquois Avenue, Suite 140
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 357-3000
Mr. Dennis Wisnosky
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:"Rockwell Scientific fully supports Wizdom's proposal submitted to the Missile Defense Agency, in response to the proposal titled/Innovative Manufacturing Processes MBE HgCdTe growth optimization. Rockwell Scientific is seeking innovative approaches with technologies that facilitate processes that improve manufacturing capabilities, product quality and reliability, reduce cost and enhance manufacturing yields and sub-systems and component performance. Specifically, we will be looking for Wizdom and their team to focus on the improving the yield of the Focal Plane Array (FPA) currently of most interest to MDA. A primary key to improving the overall process yield lies in the first two processing steps. These first two steps involve the inspection of incoming material and the HgCdTe materials growth process. We will collaborate with Wizdom to examine the use of mathematical methods such as Neural Nets to deduce properties and parameters necessary and sufficient for in situ monitoring of: 1) uniform substrate temperature during MBE growth, OR 2) uniform flux distribution, OR 3) any other characteristics which might affect ultimate FPA yield as determined in the study. The ultimate results would lead to significantly lower costs in production of the FPAs. Future applications will be in two different directions: 1) Analyze and extract critical business knowledge from data - unveiling significant factors, causes and changes that influence business success - and use them to predict future outcomes to achieve desired business effect. 2) Design and deliver an entirely new concept in industrial controllers able to perform in situ monitoring of the controlled process and automatically adapt to changes in materials, temperatures and more. Wizdom's results from this SBIR could make this critical knowledge available to intelligent applications across the enterprise, delivering real-time monitoring, detection, and predictions to drive dynamic individualized service to customers, partners, suppliers, and employees. By delivering critical business insights and predictive knowledge Wizdom solutions could help businesses increase business profitability, enhance user satisfaction, reduce cost and sustain competitive advantages. Wizdom could target vertical industries other than semiconductor manufacturing such as telecommunications, insurance, retail, financial services and banking.

WIZDOM SYSTEMS, INC.
1300 Iroquois Avenue, Suite 140
Naperville, IL 60126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 357-3000
Mr. Dennis Wisnosky
MDA 02-021      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:"Rockwell Scientific fully endorses Wizdom's proposal submitted to the Missile Defense Agency, in response to the proposal titled Innovative Manufacturing Processes/Yield enhancement of MBE HgCdTe FPA Production. Rockwell Scientific is seeking innovative process improvements that can meet our needs including, where appropriate, a process technology roadmap for implementing promising approaches for near term insertion into the overall production of Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). This will entail the development of a methodology, or series of methods, necessary and sufficient to radically improve the yield of existing FPAs by enabling the online assessment of the overall FPA production process and specifically which variables predominate in affecting FPA production yield at RSC. This proposed effort will serve as the basis for: 1) Identifying key variables which affect the producibility of FPAs, 2) Enabling a day-to-day operations model which will used to monitor changes to the production processes which an acceptable yield. The effort will determine the need, the feasibility, and expected outcomes. It will serve as an approach to improving production capabilities, improve product quality and reliability with minimal impact to the production operation in terms of time and cost of transitioning prototypes into production." Wizdom's results from this SBIR could make this critical knowledge available to intelligent applications across the enterprise, delivering real-time monitoring, detection, and predictions to drive dynamic individualized service to customers, partners, suppliers, and employees. By delivering critical business insights and predictive knowledge Wizdom solutions could help businesses increase business profitability, enhance user satisfaction, reduce cost and sustain competitive advantages. Wizdom could target vertical industries other than semiconductor manufacturing such as telecommunications, insurance, retail, financial services and banking.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Rob Gitzendanner
MDA 02-021      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Yardney, Inc. proposes a program to develop, test and deliver high-performance, prismatic Lithium-ion batteries, to demonstrate the manufacturing capability and reliability of such batteries for space applications. The proposed battery will include a sophisticated microprocessor-based intelligent battery management system. The electronics will provide full cell monitoring and balancing during charge, protection circuitry against over or under voltage, current and temperature, and Battery State of Charge and State of Health calculation, monitoring and reporting. The modular design of the proposed electronics package makes it easily adaptable to multiple battery configurations, adding and removing capabilities as dictated by the program and able to easily support much larger and higher voltage battery systems. Further, the proprietary control algorithm within the system efficiently charges the battery using any suitable current-limited power source, thereby allowing the seamless integration of the Lithium-ion battery into most existing applications without costly electronics redesign. The 28V, 30Ah battery proposed mimics that already successfully developed and qualified for the MSP01 Mars Lander Program, as well as the battery intended for use in the XSS-11 satellite system. This cross-utilization of the proven cell technology will allow for side-by-side comparisons of performance parameters measured on the ground with those found in launched systems. Manufacturability, reproducibility, reliability and affordability of space-rated Lithium-ion batteries will be demonstrated through this program. Demonstrate manufacturability, reliability and affordability of Lithium-ion battery systems for commercial and military aerospace applications. Enhancement of battery service and performance utilizing adaptable, modular electronics control system.

AETION TECHNOLOGIES LLC
1275 Kinnear Road
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 340-1835
Mr. Mark Carroll
MDA 02-022      Awarded: 11FEB03
Title:Design-space search to find manufacturable prototypes and best manufacturing processes
Abstract:Aetion will leverage proprietary multi-criterial decision-making technology, SFVM, that can be used for generating and evaluating a very large number and range of manufacturing alternatives in parallel, efficiently finding the best options from among them, and presenting the results to the user so that they can understand how the design of prototypes impacts their manufacturability, and to navigate the tradeoffs and choose the best. During phase I we will identify a simple prototype-transitioning problem, and work on models and our SFVM technology to use them to solve that problem. This is by way of a demonstration that applied SFVM should be the foundation of a valuable new capability for the MDA. This simple problem will be chosen with the larger picture in mind: that the veracity and scope of the models can be expanded, and SFVM further customized, in expectation of delivery of a uniquely potent advanced prototype at the end of phase II. The SFVM technology is broadly applicable because multi-criterial optimization problems are ubiquitous. So, development that benefits one particular application will tend to also expand our capabilities for others. As well as there being multiple customers with a need for advanced solutions in prototyping and manufacturing, SFVM shows exceptional promise for effects-based comprehensive military planning, infrastructure vulnerability and hardening analysis, drug design, bioinformatics, microarray techniques, and financial instrument and portfolio selection. Aetion's technology offers significant benefits for multiple aspects of the military's transformation over the coming decade, and we aim to realize that potential, by proving general and specific capabilities to the Department of Defense, then transitioning those products to address related commercial applications.

EMBEDDED RESEARCH SOLUTIONS, LLC
201 Defense Highway, Suite 202
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 571-7950
Dr. David B. Stewart
MDA 02-022      Awarded: 15JAN03
Title:Innovations in Component-Based Scalable Real-Time Operating Systems
Abstract:Embedded Research Solutions is developing an open architecture innovative real-time operating system (iRTOS) for embedded systems. The iRTOS uses a component model for user tasks instead of the more traditional process or thread model. Components are designed as objects, using either object-oriented software development for larger systems, or object-based design (i.e. without inheritance) for smaller systems. The scalable iRTOS incorporates many research innovations into a single package. More specifically, some of the key features include limited preemption scheduling that guarantees better performance than fully preemptive kernels; precise mixed-priority real-time scheduling algorithms that combines advantages of fixed and dynamic priority algorithms; efficient implementation of aperiodic servers; models for reusable real-time device driver components, configurable real-time inter-object communication that enables transparent communication across embedded networks, and error detection with priority handling for both timing and non-timing errors. Components enable the use of modern software engineering technology for efficiently developing quality software, such as visual and model-based design tools, aspect-oriented software design, and use of automated analysis and synthesis tools. The commercial benefits of creating the open RTOS would lie primarily in a set of precision tools that would be co-developed with the RTOS to synthesize applications from building blocks and maximize the functionality give the new flexibility offered by a configurable component-based RTOS. While the tools wouldn't be necessary to use the RTOS (to maintain the open nature of the RTOS),their use can greatly improve the productivity of the designers and quality of the applications. Additional revenue would be expected from offering retainer contracts and training to users. The business models of several Linux companies will be studied to establish the best approach to growing revenues while offering an open operating system as a product.

FLOWLYNX
3313 Bob Wallace Ave, Suite #202
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-7850
Mr. Luis Lopez
MDA 02-022      Selected for Award
Title:Expert CNC Tool Path Syntheses and Optimization
Abstract:The proposed technology offers new approaches towards knowledge capture and analysis that enables generation of optimal CNC tool path sequences. The CNC path sequences generated by our proposed expert knowledge base will be as optimal as those produced by human experts, but in significantly less time. The proposed approach is based on use of a process meta-language and visual tools for capturing a descriptive and accurate process model from one or more CNC experts. Using the captured process model, we will create a computer model of the expert and use it to generate a highly pruned game tree. The generated tree will represent all the acceptable tool selections and path strategies deemed `good' by the expert. Application of a min-max optimization algorithm to this game tree will then produce a near optimal CNC tool selection and path strategy. The tree must be highly pruned and each node should represent a particular tool and its associated path constraints. To determine the actual tree structure, variables, and pruning rules, we will rely on the process model extracted from the CNC expert. The primary commercial application will include new tools for capture and use of expert CNC knowledge. These tools will create and optimize tool paths for complex components using knowledge captured from CNC manufacturing experts. This will enable tools and methods that can optimize production of complex, three-dimensional, asymmetric machined components.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
MDA 02-022      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:A Refactoring Environment for Ada
Abstract:The problem of supporting millions of lines of Ada code is of critical importance to the DoD and the missile defense community. The decline in the use of Ada has led to a fall in the supply of trained personnel, and a reduction in vendor tool support. As migration to a new language is usually technically and economically infeasible, programs such as THAAD are left with a huge legacy code problem. A common problem with such systems is how to make modifications so as to adapt them to changing requirements in a way that poses little risk to the integrity of the code. We propose a tool based on refactoring --- the disciplined transformation of code to improve its design while retaining its essential semantics. The system will be based on our existing language-sensitive editing technology, integrated with ASIS --- a standard for retrieving semantic information about Ada programs. The prospects for commercial success are excellent, as our initial market research indicates demand. We will exploit our existing Ada tools customer base to market the proposed tool to DoD contractors and beyond. The software we propose to develop will reduce the cost of the development and support of legacy Ada code by helping to increase the productivity of programmers. The software will have application in many industries, including defense, aerospace, and for other security and safety-critical applications that use Ada.

REIFER CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 4046
Torrance, CA 90510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4493
Mr. Donald J. Reifer
MDA 02-022      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Mode-Based Refactoring Method for Real-Time Software
Abstract:This project investigates migration of real-time software written in Ada to new platforms whose architectures are new and novel (pipeline machines, vector processors, etc.) and who support other languages (C++, real-time Java, etc.). The approach being investigated refactors legacy programs to optimize their real-time performance under stressed operating conditions using mode segmentation concepts instead of object or functional recovery methods. The technique being explored consists of three parts. First, the recursive functions in the program are combined to create one big function. Then, this function is partitioned into Unix-like processes using cluster analysis such that each grouping performs a specific mode with predictable behavior. Third and finally, the segment's behavior is examined and optimized using factor analysis to address any architectural, operational and environmental constraints using a library of proven algorithms. Our approach offers significant advantages over the more classical approaches. Since the program is segmented into modes, it can be refactored easily to run on new architectures at minimal cost without any change in behavior and significant reduction in run-time performance. Firms concerned about real-time performance of legacy code can exploit this technique to migrate existing real-time applications at minimum cost to new platforms and languages. The need for such migration support is broad and there are many commercial applications in the telephone and control industries that would benefit from proven tools and techniques when introduced commercially.

SCHWALB CONSULTING
26 Valley View
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 856-0291
Dr. Edward M. Schwalb
MDA 02-022      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Innovative Operating Software
Abstract:In this project we aim at conversion of legacy codes into structures that facilitate software upgrades and improves life cycle costs. As a step towards restructuring, we propose to develop tools for automatically annotate code through embedding of markup content within comments. Once code has been annotated, it lends itself to automation of analysis and transformation using a wide range of XML tools, including some validation, stylesheet transformation, automatic documentation, code translation, and some degree of inference. Using DAML+OIL/OWL markup brings to bear the entire body of knowledge developed for the Semantic Web. Our approach is based on parsing the source code to automatically extract information without human intervention. For each group of source files, a group of XML files is generated, which may contain empty elements as place holders for transformation instructions. Once these elements are populated, code transformation engines execute those instructions to automatically generate revised code. The transformation may result in extraction of code subsets into system scripts, web scripts, Java or C++, or even new versions of the code which include helper functions and interface code. The transformation engine enables various levels of event logging and ensure complete traceability back to the source. The automated markup of source code enables a wide range of automated processes. It will spur a new generation of software development environments capable of automatically identifying issues and related code segments. It may be possible perform searches driven be natural language queries about issues.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
14230 Timberedge Lane
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 333-9029
Dr. Thomas L. Henshaw
MDA 02-023      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Singlet Delta Oxygen Generator Based on Optically Pumped Supercritical O2
Abstract:We propose a revolutionary approach to high power laser development offering the potential for compact table-top 100kW laser devices. Our approach is based on the direct electro-optical (diode) pumping of supercritical (SC) oxygen to efficiently generate high fluxes of O2(a1Delta) for advanced atomic iodine laser systems. The generator maintains all the advantages of single line, 1.315 micron laser transmission but without the heavy, aqueous based fuels found in COIL or the highly unstable azide fuels in AGIL. The generator simply uses supercritical oxygen as a fuel and electro-optical devices such as diode and fiber lasers to excite the O2(a1Delta). Using supercritical oxygen reduces the risk in electro-optical oxygen excitation systems by eliminating the requirement for rapid phase changes in liquid oxygen while still maintaining high density, broadband excitation, enhanced optical coupling and long SDO lifetimes. Near perfect beam quality is delivered by heat removal by optical medium flow across the resonator. Waste heat from diode thermal control and optical medium heating is rejected in a warm air effluent or recycled in a heat exchanger. With current state of the art fiber lasers, a 20 kW laser device is foreseeable in the immediate future, with scaling 100 kW and higher devices are possible. The high power, supercritical Singlet Delta Oxygen (SDO) generator technology developed from this effort could be delivered to the AFRL for testing in COIL test facilities if there was government interest in pursuing this technology for follow-on SBL, ABL, or tactical systems. The generator will offer significant advantages for use in commercial iodine laser applications in areas of femto-second machining, welding, and cutting. In addition, SDO has been shown to have significant commercial potential in a number of areas. These include chemical/biological agent, virus, fungus and bacteria and mold neutralization, combustion enhancement, and laser materials processing.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. David B. Oakes
MDA 02-023      Awarded: 31DEC02
Title:Advanced Chemical Iodine Lasers
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop and test a novel chemical atomic iodine laser based on vibrational to electronic (V-E) energy transfer. We will develop and exercise a detailed kinetic model to assist in the design of experiments that will also be part of the Phase I effort. We will develop a unique device that would couple a PSI 5 kW Microwave Driven Jet (MIDJet) to a chemical flowtube reactor. This unique facility will allow production of up to 10 mmole/s of fluorine atoms. Reactions with the F atom flow are expected to produce sufficient I* (2P1/2) and/or vibrationally excited HF to measure small signal gain near 1.3 æm. In the proposed Phase I program we will model candidate reactions paths to HF(v) and I*, assemble a flow reactor, and demonstrate the MIDJet's capability to drive a chemical laser via one or more of these reactions. The data obtained in Phase I will be used to design the portable chemical laser test-bed that will be built and tested in the Phase II program. This would be a versatile device that would enable researchers to examine new reaction schemes, test novel mixing nozzles and optical resonators, and/or produce measurable small signal gain and/or lasing for advanced iodine and chemical laser development. Successful completion of the proposed SBIR program will result in a new chemical laser system and a portable test-bed for researchers testing or developing novel chemical lasers. Such lasers may find applications in defense of the nation through either airborne and/or spaceborne lasers.

PLASMATRONICS
17 El Arco Drive
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 296-2705
Mr. Alan E. Hill
MDA 02-023      Awarded: 23DEC02
Title:Demonstration of an electrically-based oxygen singlet delta generator for iodine laser applications
Abstract:Plasmatronics has developed a unique oxygen singlet delta generator having the potential to replace the dangerous and bulky chemical "COIL" generator currently being used to power oxygen iodine lasers in military applications. Our process does not use any stored reactive chemicals - only oxygen plus inert gases, helium and argon. Oxygen activation is accomplished by a 50% efficient electrical process, which is fundamentally capable of producing fractional yields in the 30% to 40% range. The object of this Phase I Proposal is to complete necessary analytical studies, establish the credibility, and provide the base-line engineering data required to build and test a generator in Phase II. It is envisioned that in Phase II we could electrically produce 0.2 to 0.5 moles/sec oxygen singlet delta at sufficient pressure and yield fraction to power a 5-10 KW-class, supersonic, flowing, oxygen iodine laser. There have been many other attempts in response to the serious need to develop an electric oxgyen singlet delta generator, but all have failed to date due to fully understandable reasons that will be explained. However, our Controlled Avalanche Approach does meet all know theoretical requirements. This work could eliminate dangerous chemicals, while reducing the size and complexity of oxygen iodine lasers. There are numerous defense-related missions for these lasers, particular benefits arising for systems that are operated from moving vehicles or from space. Additionally, numerous commercial applications would arise, which include deep penetration cutting, welding, and in nuclear remediation applications. Furthermore, there are large (non-laser related) chemical processing markets for a practical oxygen singlet delta generator as a stand-alone device.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Iain McKinnie
MDA 02-024      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Architecture for High Power MOPA Phased Arrays
Abstract:Directed energy missile defense applications require a new generation of high power solid-state electrical lasers. Scalability of current state-of-the-art kW-class solid-state MOPA systems is limited by thermo-optic aberrations in the gain medium, and by heat transport and disposal. Beam-combining by multiplexing several 1-10kW class MOPAs provides a path for further power scaling to 100kW and MW levels, but present techniques using coherent phased arrays, diffractive couplers, spectral beam-combining or temporal multiplexing are currently limited by losses, damage to diffractive components at high average or peak powers, and system complexity. CTI proposes an innovative proprietary technology that can be applied to retain spatial and spectral coherence both in power-scaling of a MOPA and in coherent beam-combining. In a MOPA, the technology can maximize extraction efficiency and minimize thermo-optic aberrations. In a coherent beam-combiner, high power beams can be co-phased and combined with low loss, negligible aberrations and without using vulnerable components. Phase I will (1) demonstrate the beam combining technique in a low power prototype, (2) conduct design trades, and develop a detailed deign for a power-scaled Phase II demonstration of the MOPA systems and the beam-combining technique, and (3) extend this to develop a conceptual design for a MW laser. Phase II will develop the >200W class co-phased laser, and a detailed design of the MW laser. The designs will leverage CTI's experience in kW-class lasers and in flight qualified laser systems. In addition to DoD directed energy applications, high brightness, high average power solid state lasers are required for applications in materials processing in semiconductor manufacturing and in automotive and aircraft industries, and for destruction of unwanted ordnance.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
MDA 02-024      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Phase-Locked Array of Solid-State Lasers (PLASS-Laser)
Abstract:We propose to develop a scalable laser system based on a phased-locked array of solid-state lasers (PLASS Laser system). This proposed multiple channel phase-locked system uses optical phase conjugation to actively couple individual channels and to compensate for optical aberrations that are typical in high-power laser systems. The proposed approach has several advantages over conventional passive phased arrays such as a significant decrease in the output beam divergence (to diffraction limited quality) and a corresponding increase in the power density, as well as more efficient use of the gain media. It should allow the development of a laser system that combines at least four channels into a single output beam with beam quality M2 < 1.1 at an output power exceeding the kW level. The completed system will extend the use of solid-state lasers in applications such as industrial welding and cutting, medicine, commercial packaging and marking. In the Phase I program, design and analysis of a prototype system will be conducted along with sufficient laboratory measurements to demonstrate feasibility of the concept. In addition, a commercialization plan will be initiated to market the PLASS-Laser. During Phase II, a prototype system will be built, tested, and demonstrated. A scalable, high-power solid-state laser system composed of a variable number of phase-matched channels will find immediate application in industry (laser cutting, welding and cleaning), in the commercial sector (marking, packaging), in medicine and free-space communications. In addition, during Phase I a commercialization plan will be initiated to market such a system.

NP PHOTONICS, INC.
UA Science and Tech Park, 9030 S. Rita Road, #120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7459
Dr. Yushi Kaneda
MDA 02-024      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Phased Array of Solid-State Master Oscillator Power Amplifiers
Abstract:In this proposed Phase-I SBIR work, we will conduct the feasibility experiments on the phase locking technique to obtain higher power in diffraction-limited beam. One of the experiments is the locking of Mach-Zender interferometer with or without a delay-line that adds phase fluctuation relative to the other leg of the interferometer. This will assess the performance of the locking loop. Another experiment is the feasibility and performance assessment of the power booster. MOPA and injection-locked laser are both investigated in terms of the power and phase stability. Combination of these assessments will yield the information feasibility of the approach to scale up the power. We further extend the work to investigate into the design concept for the high power devices. This technique enables high brightness laser sources with good phase stability with relaxed thermal constraints. There are also opportunity for the application to the metrology.

SPECTRONIX SYSTEMS, INC.
24 Robin Hill Road
Scarsdale, NY 10583
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 912-4521
Mr. Shouhuan Zhou
MDA 02-024      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Phased Array of Annular Lasers
Abstract:The phase-locked solid-state laser array presented in this proposal utilizes an external cavity to enforce phase locking in annular laser arrays. Our preliminary study done in a four-element quasi-cw laser array has achieved a stable and diffraction-limited operation in the fundamental mode at all powers with high efficiency. The proposed technique is applicable to two-dimensional arrays of fibers, rods, and slabs. The use of multiple concentric annular structures may further increase the number of elements in the array. In phase I, we will use an existing setup to demonstrate phase locking in a cw-pumped six-element laser array. This will enable us to evaluate the effects of random phase differences among the arrays. We will also demonstrate phase locking in a 12-element quasi-cw laser array and analyze the configuration of multiple concentric annular laser arrays. We will then design the 200-W class laser to be implemented in Phase II. We will identify the technological issues, and work out the solutions. The proposed high-power laser will find wide applications in material processing and surface treatments. When the phase-locking technology is combined with our monolithic pulsed laser technology, a compact phase-locked Q-switched laser array will find further applications in lidar and remote sensing applications. The proposed high-power lasers will find wide applications in materials processing and surface treatments. When combined with our monolithic pulsed laser technology, a compact phase locked Q-switched laser array will find further applications in lidar and remote sensing applications.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1505 Coal Creek Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Mark S. Lake
MDA 02-025      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Magnetoelectroelastic Wireless Heater for EMC
Abstract:Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative method for providing wireless actuation energy to smart deployment and release devices incorporating CTDOs Elastic Memory Composite (EMC) material. In Phase I, CTD will demonstrate the feasibility of the wireless heating method and will develop the basic analyses for engineering such a device. In Phase II, CTD will design, fabricate and test EMC devices incorporating wireless heating, and demonstrate the practical application of such components in systems of interest to MDA. The proposed work will develop lightweight, highly reliable and cost-effective mechanisms for the deployment of solar arrays, antennas, radiators, and other appendages on future military, scientific and commercial spacecraft .

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
714 Bond Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
MDA 02-026      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Motion Energy Sensor Fusion with Guidance Laws for Seeker Discrimination
Abstract:Computational Sensors Corp. (CSC) will examine mid-course interceptor data fusion approaches for guidance divert direction with spatio-temporal motion energy filtering. The domain of validity of a motion energy approach must be determined through the sensor suite target state estimation accuracies required by the guidance laws. CSC proposes to accomplish this through the implementation of a Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) analysis of realistic simulated engagement scenarios in order to determine target state observability from the sensor data. In previous work, CSC developed a massively parallel, real-time video processing system capable of agile, wavelet-like spatial frequency filtering using low power analog silicon retinas in a programmable multi-chip architecture. Subsequent work has demonstrated the utility of spatio-temporal filtering in mid-course threat cloud RV/decoy and RV/clutter discrimination. In Phase II, a more thorough application of the FIM analysis developed in the proof-of-concept Phase I work will be performed in addition to applying S-T filtering to hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) scene simulator application of the interceptor guidance laws. Analog VLSI spatio-temporal filtering and motion energy analysis hardware has the potential to provide NMD interceptor sensing platforms with additional onboard sensor processing capability for improved RV/decoy discrimination, closely spaced object (CSO) resolution and threat cloud counter measure clutter mediation. Seeker guidance can be dramatically improved with highly accurate target information. Target state estimation can be better qualified by on-board full frame seeker sensor filtering for use by the guidance law. Advanced guidance techniques such as augmented proportional and predictive navigation rely heavily on the accuracy of the target state estimate and in fact can perform substantially worse than proportional navigation guidance systems when there are errors in the target information. A Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) analysis of interceptor sensor and divert capabilities, and the dependencies of target state prediction accuracy on data fusion approaches and spatio-temporal filtering provides a holistic approach to seeker design. For optimal interceptor design, seeker guidance, sensor fusion and sensor data analysis should be universally optimized. Nonlinear motion sensitive image processing techniques integrated in analog image processors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military imaging applications. Analog image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas including automatic inspection, biometric identification, security, surveillance, and other machine vision applications. To date, non-linear motion energy image processing technology using analog spatial filtering chip technology developed under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract in conjunction with temporal filtering capability developed under MDA and ARMY Space & Missile Defense Command (ARMY-SMDC) contracts has demonstrated significant utility in target detection, track-before-detect capability when coupled with dynamic programming, and discrimination of low flying missile targets in moving background clutter. CSC is fulfilling current DARPA, SMDC and Navy sponsored contracts while aggressively pursuing potential commercial opportunities for analog VLSI image processing applications. The unique and powerful capability to perform massive convolution functions in real-time, in a small package and with low power requirements will enable a new generation of intelligent systems not previously considered viable by system and product designers for performing sophisticated imaging tasks including automatic target recognition, target tracking, feature extraction, 3D reconstruction, image classification, and image interpretation .

FORELL ENTERPRISES, INC.
6061 Dale Street, Suite N
Buena Park, CA 90621
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 690-7720
Mr. Lary Smith
MDA 02-026      Awarded: 01FEB03
Title:Adaptive Agent Seeker Field Of View Management (AASFOVM)
Abstract:A technical approach is needed that is capable of integrating Infrared (IR) target discrimination with Field of View (FOV) management to produce divert instructions to the missile platform over time. For Kinetic Weapons, Divert means called-for-lateral acceleration relative to interceptor center-line (up-down and right-left). A successful approach should concurrently optimize fuel reserve while positioning the seeker to maintain best fit of target cloud objects in its FOV. FORELL proposes to address this problem to develop and test an algorithm utilizing an agent based approach that will optimize kinetic kill vehicle's divert resources while enhancing discrimination and end game kill results. To optimize divert and field of view management perspective in order to discriminate the target cloud correctly, the IR missile seeker must be capable of initial discovery and keeping the "right objects" in its field of view as it approaches the target cloud. The problem domain includes time constrained optimization of intercept and field of view geometry, IR seeker object discrimination and divert fuel conservation. FORELL will develop and demonstrate an algorithm that shows such optimization capability. For commercialization, the AASFOVMM approach is extremely flexible and lends itself very well to the areas of Network Centric Warfare and Distributed Robotics. The Adaptive Agent Seeker Field of View Management (AASFOVM) approach proposed by FORELL is sufficiently flexible to address needs in three areas of importance to the Missile Defense Agency community. These areas are (1) the ability to optimize fusion of data from an on-board suite of heterogeneous sensors, (2) in the area of sensor scheduling and sensor allocation where both on-board and off-board heterogeneous sensors are considered along with other sources of prior information and, (3) the ability to optimize performance adaptively, because anticipated engagements are now largely expected to come from threats where there is little or no measured data. Additionally, ASSFOVM lends itself very well to the areas of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) and Distributed Robotics (DR). Major NCW programs, such as Future Combat Systems (FCS) and NetFires, that rely heavily on the ability to fuse information from netted multiple heterogeneous sensors and organic real time data can benefit from AASFOVM. These netted sensors generates the need for fusion of measured data with greatly differing quality and timelines. AASFOVM will benefit distributed robots concepts that use hundreds or even thousands of low-power, low-capability sensors that interact locally. These networks will be extremely dynamic, with sensor nodes being added or deleted continually. Within the overall context of both NCW and DR the idea of sensor scheduling that will allocate resources to achieve a required level of performance given system constraints is becoming of great interest to the defense community. AASFOVM concept and technology will benefit these and many other areas of military and commercial application. Reasons that the AASFOVM agent-based approach potentially yields a solution to the integration of Missile Divert and Seeker FOV management r‚gimes are as follows: 1) The agents enable learning between the divert r‚gimes and IR Seeker discrimination regimes. 2) Agent based discrimination can contribute to optimal target set selection out of the target cloud. 3) The IR Seeker FOV management can be optimized to keep the optimal target set in the FOV. 4) The agent-based approach is easily adapted to changing threat characteristics and expandable to incorporate new sensor technology as it becomes available. 5) Agent based modeling can demonstrate performance of candidate approach and validate the AASFOVMM algorithm.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Harry F. Gilmore
MDA 02-026      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Seeker Guidance and Seeker Discrimination Information Fusion
Abstract:In an MDA interception of a threat complex there may be a number of objects, none of which has been identified positively as an RV. As the interception proceeds, discrimination provides for each object a probability that it is an RV, and these probabilities may change with time as more information is accumulated in the interceptor. An algorithm is presented which uses these probabilities to select the point in space towards which the interceptor should fly to maximize the probability of intercepting the RV. This algorithm attempts to look ahead in the interception to change this point in space when it is no longer possible for the interceptor to reach all the objects in the threat complex. A Phase I effort is proposed to investigate this algorithm, using realistic representations of threats, discrimination processes, and interceptors. Simulation of various situations will result in a modified algorithm which will be robust and have wide applicability. We anticipate that the proposed Phase I effort if successful will result in a robust algorithm which will use on-board discrimination to improve the kill probability of MDA interceptors. In addition, the conditions under which it is most effective will be determined, and possible modifications to interceptor software to take maximum advantage of the algorithm will be suggested. Potential Commercial Applications: The algorithm we propose is a particular example of a class of algorithms having wide importance in a variety of fields. These algorithms are aimed at always keeping the best set of options open when a series of decisions have to be made in the presence of a continually decreasing set of alternatives. The proposed work will yield insight into alternate ways of evaluating the decisions which have to be made, and methods for determining the optimal procedures in such cases. Therefore there is a significant commercial application for these developments. Applications are expected in many fields, among which are robotics, information processing, and computer search for vaguely specified items.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Mr. Claudio Marino
MDA 02-027      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Ultra-Wideband Discrimination from a New Fused Super-Resolution, Two-Channel, Two-Dimensional Linear Prediction Algorithm
Abstract:Combining S- and X-band radar data provides a means for enhancing radar imagery by joint spatial information fusion of the radar scene for two different radar frequencies, and provides an opportunity for achieving high-resolution ultra-wideband discrimination between warheads and decoys. Prior to combining the two bands, preprocessing is required to account for the different data rates, co-registration of the imagery from the two radar bands, and an algorithm that is robust to differences in target coherence times between the two bands must be developed. ORINCON proposes a new technique to combine S- and X-band radar after the data is preconditioned, interpolated and registration has been performed on the images. This technique involves a novel fused super-resolution two-channel, two-dimension linear prediction (FSRLP) algorithm, whose output is sharpened auto-spectral images of the two bands, and super resolved cross-spectral images of the fused bands. The super-resolution image is expected to provide the fidelity required to differentiate among warheads, cones, spheres, and cylinders. This proposal details the development of the FSRLP algorithm, which requires solving for the linear prediction coefficients, and generates the algorithm for the highly sharpened joint auto- and cross-spectral images. We believe that by adjustments in the FSRLP orders (coefficients), we can account for the target coherence times of the combined data. Combining S-band and X-band radar data provides an opportunity for enhancing radar imagery to a level that it could be used for target discrimination at a reasonable cost and schedule risk. If successful, the process would enhance BMD sensing capabilities for expanded Capability-1 ballistic threats and beyond, and greatly improve BMD surveillance (BMC4I) capabilities. This research is also directly applicable to commercial aviation, DEA and INS monitoring of US borders, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS), and other law enforcement applications that rely on radar-based tracking and identification systems.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
11400 West Olympic Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 565-2970
Dr. Robert Koda
MDA 02-027      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Ultra-Wideband RF Discrimination Techniques
Abstract:The objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing extracted Ballistic Missile threat feature data from S- and X- Band radars to improve the probability of correctly identifying the lethal object, compared to using data from either an S- or an X- Band radar alone. This effort will make use of high fidelity S- and X-Band RF polarimetric signature data for cones, spheres, and cyclinders which can be used to represent major objects in a TBM complex. Target RCS is measured by the radar using linearly processed waveforms which employ either non-coherent or coherent pulse-to-pulse integration. Typically non-coherent integration is used to extract narrowband RCS and coherent integration is used to extract wideband RCS. Variations in canonical object RF signature phenomenology at S- and X-Bands will be examined to identify differentiating features. Examples of differentiating signature phenomenology may include cavity interactions, creeping waves, and traveling waves. Phase I will provide the basis developing RF discrimination algorithms during the Phase II effort that will be tested against BM threat representative signature and trajectory data sets. The discrimination algorithms developed in Phase II will be available for potential insertion into land and sea-based radars to support BMD mission requirements. We anticipate three approaches to commercialization. The first is the incorporation of the algorithms developed in the US Missile Defense program. This approach could result in revenue from the Missile Defense prime contractors or directly from the Government program. The second thrust is to use the algorithms developed on this program to enhance our geologic feature extraction software implemented in our Automatic Terrain Classification code. The plan is to use the GeoSAR radar, a commercial radar that collects high resolution X-Band and P-Band imagery and generates accurate Digital Elevation Models. The intent is to find isolated structures under trees. A third thrust is to investigate the application of the algorithms to conventional commercial imaging applications such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) scans and digital X-ray images. The fusion of medical image data from multiple sources supports increased diagnosis accuracy and improves the overall efficiency of the medical image diagnosis process. We plan to investigate this option to determine whether the technology is applicable to the diagnostic imaging field.

XONTECH, INC.
6862 Hayvenhurst Avenue
Van Nuys, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9123
Ms. Sally Colocho
MDA 02-027      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Advanced Discrimination Concepts utilizing Short Pulse High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices
Abstract:This effort proposes a new and innovative approach to defeating discrimination countermeasures. The suggested approach utilizes High Power Microwave (HPM) devices to counter a variety of discrimination threats. The concept leverages the Multiple Miniature Kill Vehicle (MMKV) concept as a means of deployment for small High Power Microwave (HPM) short pulse (impulse) emitters. Traditionally, HPMs have been examined from a threat perspective. HPM device technology has advanced to such a point, that it is now feasible to examine using small HPM emitters as an integral part of a defense system. HPM devices support large peak powers and some devices now support multiple pulse operation. These advancements allow HPMs to be used as small impulse radars that can be deployed aboard or from the MMKVs. The primary objective of this SBIR will be to determine the feasibility of using these HPM device signals to perform the BMD Discrimination function. Techniques to be examined will include: 1) exploiting bi-static radar cross sections, 2) utilization of the impulse signal to generate multiple geometry wideband range profiles and 3) utilization of the impulse signal to generate multi-dimension range doppler images. Anticipated Benefits: This HPM impulse radar concept provides multiple viewing geometries with high range resolution signature profiles. This will provide a powerful discrimination capability as well as a hedge against closely spaced objects (in angle and range). Many of the current discrimination techniques for missile defense utilize wideband waveforms to get good range resolution along the radar line of sight. The extremely short pulsewidths of the HPMs will provide range resolution (in the time domain) on the order of centimeters from multiple viewing angles. Commercialization Strategy: The commercialization of this SBIR Phase I Program will likely be limited to Ballistic Missile Defense applications. It is quite possible that this work could be adopted in the future by any number of different potential customers including THAAD, the NMD Program, BMDO's Project Hercules or Advanced Concepts, SMDC's Joint Center for Technology Integration, SMDC's Advanced Concepts, SMDC's Systems group or the Navy Theater Wide Program.

F&H APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 853
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 235-6781
Mr. Roger Jones
MDA 02-028      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Generation of Ultra Low Jitter Optical Pulses for Digital Processing of Millimeter Wave Signals
Abstract:Digital signal processing of microwave and millimeter wave signals, particularly RADAR and electronic warfare signals, is a key element of future missile defense sensor systems. High-speed, high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion, is an enabling technology for the next generation of high performance millimeter wave systems (radar, electronic warfare, communications) and advanced digital beam forming array systems. The ability to directly digitize RF signals at the antenna element significantly reduces the complexity, size, and cost of multi-element array millimeter wave systems The specific goal of this proposed program is to develop a new generation of compact solid state lasers for low jitter clock signal generation to be used in high speed, high resolution analog to photonic digital converters (ADC) for microwave and millimeter wave signal processing. The use of these microchip lasers is expected to produce low jitter clock pulses with timing jitter as low as 0.01 picoseconds and rates as high as 100 GHz. The expected performance of this technology far exceeds that of anything currently available. As an ultra low jitter, high frequency clock, it will be a key component for the next generation of optical analog to digital converters for RADAR and electronic warfare. Both military and commercial companies will also benefit from the ultra low jitter, high frequency clock in testing and development of the next generation of ultra high-speed electronic and opto-electronic circuits. It will be used, not only as a master clock, but also to provide precision timing for crucial test points on integrated circuit.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. Steven B. Kaplan
MDA 02-028      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Direct Digitization at RF
Abstract:Analog components in RF receivers can add noise and distortion, thereby degrading system performance. Mismatching of analog components can contribute to spurious signals in I&Q receivers and beamforming arrays. Elimination of amplifiers and analog downconversion mixers can be accomplished by moving the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) up to the antenna. In such "digital-RF" systems, sampling is performed at higher rates than the carrier frequency, and downconversion is accomplished with digital mixers. HYPRES is pursuing digital-RF applications using high-resolution ADCs fabricated with Niobium superconducting chips operating with a conventional semiconductor interface. Our goal is to achieve a wideband digital receiver with a center frequency of ~2 GHz for application to commercial communications as well as military multifunction requirements. For Phase I, HYPRES will collaborate with V-Corp to develop a conceptual design for a digital-RF receiver with a 400-MHz input bandwidth. We will investigate how HYPRES' strengths in high-oversampling ADCs can be applied to V-Corp's methods of digital signal processing (DSP) to combine the output of multiple ADCs. Our goal in Phase II will be to apply the Phase I design to exceed MDA's 85-dB SFDR and 75-dB SNR specifications. Superconducting technology has already exceeded SFDR levels of -85 dBc at 10-MHz input bandwidth. The inherent linearity of superconducting front ends and the high-speed capability of superconducting DSP can increase the SFDR for larger bandwidths if the oversampling ratio can be substantially improved. Our project will estimate how this can be done in two ways: increasing the sampling rate for individual ADCs, and by combining the output of several ADCs. This will have benefits to the nation for military multipurpose receivers and threat-reduction systems as well as for commercial wireless communications.

OPEL
22 Quail Run Road
Storrs/Mansfield, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Jianhong Cai
MDA 02-028      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Optoelectronic ADC integrated circuit technology
Abstract:Direct detection radar requires both AD and DA conversion located essentially at the antenna or at the LNA output. The advantages are dramatic improvements in EMI interference and dynamic range and a reduction in power and complexity. For example with RF at 2 - 10 GHz, the down conversion process could be eliminated by direct digital conversion if sampling at 20GS/s were possible. In addition, an AD converter with digital optical output is ideal for coupling to fiber for remote connection to the processor. Similarly, D/A conversion with fiber input can carry digital routing information for an optical switch matrix to implement TTD as well as to carry RF optical energy. State-of-the-art electronic research-based converters provide GS/s but only with 4 - 6 bits of resolution whereas 10-12 bits are needed for digital radar. We propose an optoelectronic thyristor comparator combined with HFET differential amplifiers to form a compact AD quantizer. The thyristor comparator provides digital optical outputs. The thyristor also provides the unique opportunity to sample at very high speeds without clock feedthrough. The ADC has been demonstrated with discrete thyristors and COTs amplifiers. In this SBIR we will develop the integrated circuit technology to demonstrate high speed ADC operation. The thyristor/FET will enable practical very high speed O/E ADC suitable for the numerous sensing systems. The optical output and CCD compatibility can translate to a host of other applications including primarily a total digital radio product. This approach reduces component count dramatically compared to all electronic ADC's and the high speed/resolution will have a direct impact on a number of wireless products.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V. Zagarola
MDA 02-029      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Reliability of Space-Borne Turbo-Brayton Cryocoolers
Abstract:The Department of Defense (DoD) will require cryocoolers for future missions to cool space-based infrared sensor arrays, space-based lasers, and orbital transfer vehicles. Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are ideal candidates for these missions because they are efficient, lightweight, highly reliable, produce negligible vibration, and have an adaptable layout that allows them to be easily integrated with sensors and spacecraft systems. Several accelerated life tests have been used to demonstrate the reliability of the basic turbomachine technology. However, typical missions require maintenance-free cryocoolers that operate for more than 10 years without exhibiting significant performance degradation. Long-duration life tests (10+ years) using prototypical flight hardware are needed to demonstrate cooler reliability and lifetime. The objective of the proposed work is to develop the contamination control approach and demonstrate the reliability of a low-temperature turbo-Brayton cryocooler through a life test. The cooler baselined for the life test is an Engineering Model (EM) unit that has been optimized for cooling at 35 K. The successful completion of this project is critical for future DoD space programs such as SBIRS-Low. During Phase I, we will develop a contamination control plan. During Phase II, we will implement the plan and initiate the life test. This program will result in the development of a turbo-Brayton cryocooler that exhibits zero vibration, low mass, compact size, long maintenance-free life, high reliability, and high efficiency. Military applications for this cooling system will include space-based surveillance and missile detection systems, submarine-based high-temperature superconducting systems, and cryogenic cooling of fuels on orbiting platforms. Commercial applications include cooling for communication satellites, superconducting circuits and motors, low-temperature gas separators and liquefiers, and cryogenically cooled computers.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8715
Dr. Volkan Ozguz
MDA 02-029      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:An Improved, Manufacturable Position Sensor for Cryogenic Cooler's Moving Parts
Abstract:An optically encoded position sensor simplifies manufacturing and reduces cost relative to LVDT technology. Encoders use several readily available COTS or easily manufactured components, are easy to install and align in a cryocooler, and are compact, lightweight, and highly reliable. These elements lend themselves to low cost production. Furthermore, a single encoder design can be readily adapted to work in different cooler designs by simply changing one component - an easily manufactured light-modulating grid. This passive element modulates light intensity seen at a detector such that motion steps can be accurately counted. The remaining elements of the sensor, including light source, detectors, and electronics, are unaffected by changes in piston motion over the range of Stirling-class cooler designs planned for development over the next five to ten years. Optical encoders benefit cryocooler manufacturing and producibility in several ways: 1. Procurement and stocking of these sensors in production programs is simplified by their increased use of COTS parts compared to existing LVDT technology. 2. The high degree of parts commonality in encoders designed for different piston stroke ranges reduces design cycle cost for new coolers and cooler variants. 3. The simplicity of installing encoders reduces assembly labor cost. 1. The absolute-incremental encoder is a novel approach that allows, in certain applications, absolute position detection with a limited number of signal lines. Applications that need position detection with high precision (long digital word = many signal lines) shall benefit from this approach. These applications may include monitoring the position of moving automotive parts, industrial machinery, biomedical equipment etc. 2. The immediate commercialization opportunity for the proposed system is the replacement of LVDTs in every application in which they are being used. 3. The team up with Raytheon will benefit both sides by dividing the absolute-incremental encoder market to space applications which will be covered by Raytheon and all the other applications such as non-space military, industrial, automotive, medical and others, which will be handled by ISC. All applications other than space applications, will have lower cost by nature due to a reduced set of requirements (radiation hardness, outgassing and in most cases temperature range). This will result an easier to commercialize set of products.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark Zagarola
MDA 02-030      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Development of a High Capacity 35 K Multistage Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler
Abstract:We propose to develop an innovative high capacity multistage cryocooler for dual cooling loads at temperatures of 85 K and 35 K. The cooler is based on proven turbo-Brayton technology that has been flight demonstrated and qualified for use on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This technology will be adapted to the unique requirements of DoD infrared sensor applications at lower temperatures and at significantly increased cooling powers. The proposed system will be capable of simultaneously providing 2 W of refrigeration at 35 K and 20 W at 85 K within a single integrated assembly. The unique characteristics of the turbo-Brayton cycle permit distributed cooling at multiple sites with a single, multistage configuration with very high thermodynamic efficiency, resulting in low input power and reduced mass. In Phase I, system trade studies will be performed leading to a Preliminary Design Review of the optimized cycle. Phase II will produce a complete detailed design of the system, culminating in a Critical Design Review. The system relies on innovative high speed miniature turbomachines to provide long life with negligible vibration. A high capacity multistage turbo-Brayton cryocooler addresses a near-term DoD need for cooling space-based infrared surveillance sensors where multiple loads must be accommodated on a single platform. A multistage cooler eliminates the need for several separate coolers, reducing system mass, input power, and integration complexity. Military applications include space-based surveillance and missile-defense systems. Scientific applications include space-based infrared telescopes. Commercial applications include communication satellites and high temperature superconducting devices.

SOUTH BAY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
7525 W. 81st St.,
Playa del Rey, CA 90293
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 647-9646
Dr. Carl S. Kirkconnell
MDA 02-030      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Multistage, High Capacity 35 Kelvin Cryogenic Cooling
Abstract:The cryogenic refrigeration requirements for many space-based infrared (IR) sensor systems are best met with a multistage cryocooler to simultaneously provide cooling at two distinct temperature levels. The requirement to cool a focal plane array to some very low operating temperature while simultaneously cooling the optical bench to some higher, though still cryogenic temperature is a typical example of a system need optimally met by a multistage cryocooler. Stirling-cycle mechanical cryocoolers have demonstrated the broadest applicability to date for space IR sensors in terms of performance, reliability, and packaging. The complexity of the multistage thermodynamic cycles and the challenge of comparing differently-sized cryocoolers with different operating temperatures has to date precluded a consensus agreement various approaches. Therefore, a program is proposed to systematically compare the competing configurations. Phase I will focus on developing mathematical models to determine thermodynamic losses through calculation of the cyclic entropy generation rate at both the component and system level comparing various cryocooler configurations. The results of Phase I will be used to guide the experimental phase of the program, Phase II, in which the models will be correlated and the hypotheses tested. The correlated models will guide the commercialization of the optimum multistage cryocooler. The models and optimization techniques developed will have relevance to the commercial multistage cryocoolers presently serving the low temperature refrigeration needs for gas liquefaction, magnetic resonance imaging, and various laboratory and university projects. The hardware to be developed may prove applicable as a replacement for many of the present large G-M type multistage systems, particularly if complimentary low temperature, high frequency regenerator development is successful at Raytheon or elsewhere. The market size for these types of systems is presently about 200 units per year; better efficiency and more compact size may enable new applications and grow the market size considerably.

MEZZO SYSTEMS
LBTC, Rm D-104, South Stadium Dr.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 334-6394
Mr. Dean Guidry
MDA 02-031      Awarded: 03DEC02
Title:Direct Casting of Er-Alloys for High-performance Cryocooler Regenerators
Abstract:This proposal considers the potential of direct casting of micro channel cryocooler regenerators. Currently, cryocoolers use regenereators made of packed spheres, which decrease the efficiency of the regenerator and, of course, the cryocooler itself. This is an important issue when considering placing cryocoolers on satellites and the cryocooler itself utilized almost half of the power supply. The proposed system promises to offer significantly higher performance than existing technology, resulting in lower weight and volume of the regenerator. The applications of this technology could potentially be far reaching with large market potential. This technology will benefit NASA, civil aeronautics, and the commercial sector for space based and airborne uses such as missile tracking, surveillance, astronomy, mapping, weather monitoring, and earth resource monitoring. The need for high reliability cryocoolers for terrestrial applications includes cellular bay station cooling and magnetic resonance imaging. Other potential applications include CMOS (complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor) cooling for workstations and personal computers.

TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
5445 Conestoga Court, #2A
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-2262
Mr. Steve Nieczkoski
MDA 02-031      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:MEMS Flow Controller for Cryocoolers
Abstract:There is a strong interest in pulse tube cryocoolers that is driven by the reliability inherent in cryocooler expander designs that eliminate moving parts. Pulse tube cryocooler performance is strongly dependent on accurate control of gas flow and effective phasing of the gas volumes. Present pulse-tube technology relies on flow control that is achieved using fixed geometry restrictions. This requires some degree of physical disassembly of the expander for access to the flow restrictor. It is highly desirable to control flow characteristics remotely with the flexibility to tailor flow into and out of the pulse tube. The primary objective of this proposed development effort is to determine the feasibility of incorporating miniature flow control assemblies into pulse tube refrigerator designs. For the past two years, TAI has under development a MEMS-based valve that is remotely operated through electrostatic force. This miniature valve has remote flow control capability at high frequency suitable for operation in the pulse tube cryocooler. Among the benefits this program offers in the area of cryocooler technology are engineering evaluation of flow restrictor designs, dynamic optimization of flow restrictor performance, and real time tunable flow control that enables active load shifting and maximizes dynamic and steady-state efficiencies. Benefits include adjustable flow restrictions to effectively tune pulse tube cryocooler performance remotely and in real time. Potential applications include cooling systems for advanced surveillance and communications for the military, commercial communications, and NASA science programs.

ELECTRO-RADIATION, INC.
39 Plymouth Street
Fairfield, NJ 07004
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 808-9033
Mr. Murray W. Rosen
MDA 02-032      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Electronically adaptive ballistic missile target signature
Abstract:Phase 1 develops an innovative approach for electronic target augmentation that artificially presents RF signature characteristics for a space object and allows alternative signature characteristics to be selected in multiple radar frequency bands. Phase 1 examines target augmentation requirements and verifies the feasibility of generating electronic signatures for a programmable missile defense space target vehicle. Phase 1 establishes a modular augmenter approach, develops alternative approaches, performs parameter trades and selects the best alternatives, defines a system for development and test, conducts simulation to verify the design and provides a plan for Phase 2 prototype demonstration. Documentation consists of a final report. The project defines a compact system for reentry vehicles or payloads that electronically adapts the RF signature of the space object to create threat like surrogates for radar sensor test and evaluation.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
23 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Dr. Triveni N. Upadhyay
MDA 02-033      Selected for Award
Title:Secure,Long Range,High Bandwidth Telemetry Solution Using COTS Wireless Technology for Range Extension
Abstract:Mayflower Communications' Phase I study proposal addresses the primary MDA need for extending the telemetry systems broadcasting distances to 300-500 km using small, secure wireless data transmission devices. According to the Solicitation, enhancements in current telemetry systems performance are needed in the areas of: longer range (up to 500 km) and more varied flight trajectories (encompassing higher altitudes and broad ocean areas including non line-of-sight flight scenarios); higher data rates (greater than 20 M bits/sec); and smaller size and lower cost of the mobile transmitter. To meet these demands ballistic missiles targets require telemetry broadcast components with innovative features to overcome the constraints on telemetry systems performance. We have proposed in Phase I to analyze the feasibility of a new overlay communication data link architecture, based on commercial wireless data technology, to meet the unique MDA telemetry requirements The proposed overlay architecture builds on the current telemetry system and provides the desired broadcast range extension as an overlay to the existing telemetry system. The Phase I study will address the feasibility of the overlay link architecture. In the Phase II program a portion of the overlay link will be prototyped and demonstrated for telemetry system performance enhancement. The need to extend the coverage and bandwidth of current range telemetry systems is obvious considering the pressing demand on extensive test and evaluation of advanced air platforms. The overlay link system developed under this MDA SBIR program will provide the telemetry performance enhancement at low cost by adding the capability incrementally, as required. The commercial market for this two-way high data rate wireless link is large since it is based on commercial wireless technology and can easily be adapted.

RADIO DESIGN GROUP, INC.
1829 Hubbard Lane
Grants Pass, OR 97527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 471-1100
Mr. Brecken H. Uhl
MDA 02-033      Awarded: 21NOV02
Title:Secure, high bandwidth telemetry
Abstract:MVSK provides the ability to realize enhanced data rates over a power-constrained channel at the same or greater distance as a lower-rate, narrowband link without the addition of extensive, signal processing or complex and expensive adaptive antenna capabilities. The benefits include practically jam-proof and interference-proof operation, resistance to many deleterious on-air propagation effects, extremely limited transmitter complexity, inherently error-correcting demodulation, and configurable band occupancy. The MVSK format achieves its many advantages through the unique integration of a number of advantageous RF techniques, including the use of fast and variable frequency-hopping, a dual-detection demodulation method, bare-carrier sense modulation, and intelligent baseband signal processing. In one example case, a 64-VSK link operating at 1.44 Mbps in the 4.4-4.9 GHz band with a 1E-5 BER would exhibit a worst-case 18 dB jamming margin. Compared to a traditional high-order modulation format like 64-QAM at the same data rate, MVSK shows a worst-case 34 dB jamming margin advantage and 5 dB transmitter power advantage, meaning longer range performance, especially in the congested real-world environment. These advantages are actually even much greater when the effects of intelligent MVSK baseband signal processing and the bare-carrier modulation approach are considered. The potential military applications for range telemetry, operational flight vehicle command and control, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) command and telemetry links, troop instrumentation, and covert operations are significant even if taken alone. No other existing modulation format offers the particular mix of advantages that MVSK brings to the table, thus providing huge incentives to potential MVSK adopters. Current active efforts in commercialization include the the use of MVSK as the core technology for wireless shipboard controls in advanced maritime applications. The commercial potential to apply the highly scalable MVSK technology to operations in the existing unlicensed FCC Part 15.249 bands under the frequency-hopping rules opens up a set of large market opportunities for users who need to be able to co-exist with the exploding 802.11 wireless local area network (LAN) market, expected proliferation of disruptive Bluetooth short-range links, and currently existing cordless phones and industrial, scientific, and medicine (ISM) devices. Licensed spectrum users can take advantage of the MVSK format to increase link reliability and throughput, reducing downtime and easing site planning and installation issues.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1801 Maple Avenue, Suite 5316
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 431-8026
Ms. Kimberly Steiner
MDA 02-034      Awarded: 29JAN03
Title:Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Resistant Cerablak Coatings
Abstract:A low-cost chemical solution derived material is being proposed as an environmentally-friendly corrosion resistant coating material to combat the corrosion problems faced by the MDA. The coating material is a newly discovered inorganic oxide, called Cerablak, which is amorphous, or glassy, in nature and can be deposited as a hermetic, dense, and pin-hole free film by a simple dip coating, painting or spraying process. The chemical precursor solution used to develop the coating material provides excellent wetting characteristics and yields a dense inorganic film after a brief curing step. It is a lightweight material that is thermally stable and chemically inert and has shown excellent resistance to corrosion on aluminum upon exposure to salt fog tests. The coating process is versatile and simple in design and operation and can be applied in the field very easily. Phase I work will involve development of Cerablak coatings of varying thickness and composition on aluminum and ferrous alloys, and other substrates. Extended corrosion testing will be done using a salt fog chamber on selected coupons. This low-cost environmentally-friendly coating technology can be implemented to combat corrosion for both military and commercial use and will provide significant cost and environmental benefits.

DACCO SCI, INC.
10260 Old Columbia Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 381-9475
Dr. Guy D. Davis
MDA 02-034      Awarded: 07JAN03
Title:Corrosion Protection using Appliqu‚s with Embedded Corrosion Sensors
Abstract:The MDA must maintain high-value missile defense test and evaluation facilities in Hawaii and the Marshall Islands, among other remote locations, where the tropical marine environment is very aggressive. Corrosion protection is a critical issue for reliability and performance and maintenance of that protection is difficult given the remoteness and corrosiveness of the sites. DACCO SCI and Integument Technologies propose an innovative sensored appliqu‚ that not only will provide outstanding corrosion protection, but will also allow health monitoring to de-tect degradation before it becomes serious. These appliqu‚s will incorporate in-situ corrosion sensors into the film structure so that appliqu‚ damage or deterioration and structure corrosion can be detected before such degradation becomes serious and adversely affects the reliability of the structure/system. Consequently, the sensored appliqu‚ will enable condition based maintenance and predictive assessment. In addition to the MDA's test and evaluation facilities, both military and civilian aircraft are prime candidates for this technology. Potential markets include those that benefit from non-fouling, anti-corrosive, coatings that may require one or more of the following properties: 1) high thermal stability, 2) high resistance to chemicals, and 3) good insulative electrical properties. Films can be directly bonded or wrapped onto metals, plastics, glass and other composite surfaces comprising vessels, land, sea and air vehicles, architectural structures, equipment, etc.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2302
Dr. Ronald L. Cook
MDA 02-034      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:On-Demand Releasable Corrosion Inhibitors
Abstract:Corrosion of military equipment and facilities is a significant and ongoing problem. This problem is exacerbated when equipment, buildings and test assets are located at coastal and/or remote island test sites Systems in these environments need constant maintenance to avoid irreplaceable loss of valuable assets. In addition, the impact of corrosion on mission readiness is growing, as the acquisition of new equipment is slowing down and the repair of aging systems and equipment is becoming more time consuming and expensive. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop corrosion maintenance programs that can carry the aging systems well into the 21st century. TDA will extend it's development of release on demand organic corrosion inhibitors that provide improved levels of corrosion protection for aluminum and steel. Although there are many excellent organic corrosion inhibitors, most contain functional groups that react with the protective polymer resin, locking them into the polymer chain and rendering them unavailable and ineffective. TDA's new materials allow highly effective organic corrosion inhibitors to be incorporated into a paint and released when needed to arrest corrosion. Corrosion is a costly drain on the U.S. economy and military preparedness. Corrosion is estimated to cost the U.S. ~$275 billion annually (of which $20 billion is borne by the Department of Defense). Chromates are the most widely used and effective corrosion inhibitors, but are toxic and heavily regulated. New more effective corrosion inhibitors offer commercial benefits and applications across all sectors of the U.S. economy.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. David Powell
MDA 02-034      Awarded: 27JAN03
Title:Affordable Composites for Corrosion Protection of High-Value Test and Evaluation Assets
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. (TSI) proposes to develop affordable, corrosion resistant (CR), composite structural materials to protect high-value assets at remote test facilities. The use of virtually corrosion-free polymer matrix composites to cost-effectively produce structures and structural components, shelters, radomes, and antenna support structures will greatly reduce life cycle maintenance costs currently associated with corrosion of ferrous and aluminum alloys. Personnel levels now required for corrosion maintenance could be reduced. Also, mission readiness is maintained at the highest level by reducing the frequent downtime spent stripping and painting conventional metallic structures based in marine island environments. Environmental impacts from corrosion-maintenance and painting waste streams would be ameliorated. The proposed Phase I program will develop the composite materials technology that will enable asset structures to be low cost, practically corrosion free, flame resistant, and to provide the necessary electromagnetic interference (EMI) protection required for test structures and enclosures. Use of composites for fabrication of replacement or new facilities, equipment and components at remote test sites will eliminate maintenance costs and reduce the life cycle costs for operating the test & evaluation facilities over the future decades of extensive missile defense testing. The proposed processes provide affordable composites fabrication and the potential for on-site manufacturing of large unitized structures to reduce costs of off-site manufacturing and shipping of large structures, and also provides high quality aerospace properties. The technology developed in this program is directly applicable to tactical shelter for the military and general-purpose shelters and containers markets.

E-PHOCUS, INC.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 875-2637
Dr. Michael Engelmann
MDA 02-035      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Multi-Spectral Sensors and Cameras for Test Applications
Abstract:The objective of the program is to develop a 30 Hz frame-rate, multi-megapixel image sensor that is capable of efficient light detection over the entire 290nm to 900nm wavelength range. All of the cost, size/weight and power efficiency advantages generally associated with CMOS-based sensors will be provided. To do this, the range of wavelength coverage of e-Phocus' existing Photoconductor On Active Pixel (POAP) visible sensor technology will be extended into both the ultraviolet and near infrared regions through innovative modifications of materials and heterostructure design. The Phase I program will set the stage for the Phase II effort by determining, through analysis, the lowest risk approaches for the required POAP technology enhancements and establishing, through a simple laboratory demonstration, that the most serious risk factor associated with the basic approach is not a "show stopper". Other major results of the Phase I effort will be the creation of a conceptual design for an operational and useful broadband multi-spectral sensor, and generation of a detailed Work Plan for developing and testing that sensor, as the principal focus of the Phase II effort. If successful, the program will demonstrate a baseline sensor approach that can satisfy a large subset of MDA and other military/government uv-NIR imaging requirements. It, also, will provide the basic building block for a multitude of diverse commercial sensor products. The MDA mission requires small, efficient, aircraft and satellite based multi-spectral sensors that provide high resolution, high frame-rate and very broad spectral coverage. The proposed program will provide the first such sensors with useful response from the uv through the near-IR. Production costs for the resulting broadband sensors should be no higher than those for conventional silicon-based sensors, with response that is limited to the visible region. The possibility of offering a "one size fits all" type product should eliminate the business disadvantages associated with supplying separate products for a multiplicity of "niche" IR and uv sensor markets. This should provide a significant competitive edge. Potential commercial markets include home and commercial video, LLL/NV surveillance, industrial inspection and scientific spectrophotometry, to name just a few. This wide marketability could be advantageous for the government, since it should result in a COTS source for devices that have manifold MDA/government applications.

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Mr. Nader M. Kalkhoran
MDA 02-035      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Filterless Multicolor Image Sensors on SOI Structures
Abstract:Spire proposes to develop high-efficiency filterless silicon-based multi-color photodiode arrays suitable for spectroscopy and imaging applications in the UV to near-IR bands. The innovation, patented by Spire, is the use of a thin film silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure in the active device region, which enables fabrication of wavelength-selective photodiodes. In these devices, the long cut-off wavelength is determined by the thickness of the active silicon layer on top. The film thickness can, for example, be tailored so that it absorbs and detects UV photons while remaining transparent to longer visible and IR wavelengths (i.e., a solar-blind photodiode). Spire has already demonstrated the most efficient Si-based single element UV-selective photodiodes using the proposed technology. Using a highly innovative design, we now propose to fabricate monolithically multicolor photodiode arrays on SOI wafers in the 280nm to 900nm wavelength range, to address MDA's need for such devices. In Phase I, Spire will demonstrate one dimensional filterless and gratingless photodiode arrays capable of sampling light at wavelengths of about 450nm, 650nm, and 900nm. Phase II will optimize process parameters for fabrication of photodiodes with the desired wavelength-selectivity, and Spire will build, test and deliver a three-color two-dimensional high-resolution camera prototype to MDA. Low-cost spectrometers, radiometers, and image sensors based on filterless multicolor SOI-based photodiode arrays have wide range of applications such as quality control for LEDs, lasers, and color displays. These device can be used for color scanning in industry assembly lines, plasma diagnostics, and absorption spectroscopy in medical instruments. Solar-blind SOI-based UV photodiodes, in particular, can be used for fire detection and flame monitoring for industrial, residential, as well as military applications.

TOWNSEND SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
1 Oak Hill Road
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 345-9090
Mr. Harry Clark
MDA 02-035      Awarded: 30DEC02
Title:Multi-Spectral Sensors and Cameras for Test Applications
Abstract:Silicon based charged couple devices (CCD) have been the workhorse of solid state imaging technology for use in the visible spectrum. Infrared systems are confined to exotic compound semiconductors that add an order of magnitude onto the cost. Solid state ultraviolet systems are still in their infancy. As the need for higher performance and need for hyperspectral response is ever increasing, these systems are being pushed beyond their limit. Townsend Science & Engineering will present a next generation hyperspectral imaging program in this Phase I proposal. In additionTS&E's hyperspectral imagers can take on any form factor, including curved surfaces to reduce optic complexities. The entire wing can become an imager. Townsend Science & Engineering intends to aggressively market our breakthough hyperspectral imaging devices. Applications ranging from machine vision to fire fighting will be enabled by this Phase I program. In additionTS&E's hyperspectral imagers can take on any form factor, including curved surfaces to reduce optic complexities.

AOPTIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
580 Division St.
Campbell, CA 95008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 583-1143
Mr. J. Elon (Buzz) Graves
MDA 02-036      Selected for Award
Title:High-Bandwidth, Compact Free-Space Optical Communications Using Adaptive Optics
Abstract:The objective of the project is to develop a small, very-high bandwidth optical communications link for the Missile Defense Agency for data telemetry during missile tests. AOptix Technologies has developed a novel Free Space Optical communication system that uses Adaptive Optics to dynamically correct atmospheric aberrations that result from turbulence and scintillation. By correcting these optical distortions, AOptix is able to build multi-gigabit performance, all-optical, long-range FSO systems. These FSO systems are inherently secure because the light beam is precisely controlled and collimated to fill the receiver aperture. AOptix Technologies will adapt its terrestrial FSO system to meet the MDA's requirements for a long-range, high-speed, secure, compact communications technology that can be flown on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles during test launches. Multi-gigabit, multi-wavelength Free Space Optical Communications capability will break the information access bottleneck. AOptix's highly collimated beam assures the highest degree of security for optical through-air data transmissions. Other military applications exist in ground-to-air, ground-to-space, air-to-space, ship-to-ship, ship-to-air and ship-to-shore. Commercial applications exist in areas that require long-distance, high-capacity telecommunications links such as cellular phone traffic backhaul.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Narasimha S. Prasad
MDA 02-036      Selected for Award
Title:High Bandwidth, Fast Tracking, Free-Space Communication Link for UAVs
Abstract:Coherent Technologies Inc. (CTI) proposes to develop a laser communication system (LCS) coupled with a high-speed pointing and tracking scheme for greater than 1 Gb/s data rate applications for missile defense flight tests. The LCS will provide eyesafe operation with an engagement range greater than 10 miles between an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and ground based platforms. The pointing and tracking unit will be designed to reduce the probability of data link breakdown due to low visibility conditions. The approach will capitalize upon innovative scanner designs developed by CTI for military laser radar systems and the advancing scanning mirror technologies such as Micro-Opto-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS). The baseline architecture uses a 1.55-mm transmitter optimally coupled to micro-mirror assembly. Three potential configurations for tracking in a highly dynamic environment are envisaged. For completeness, system-level performance analyses will assess the cost effectiveness and field worthiness of competing optical source technologies besides laser diodes. The Phase I effort will generate system level signal-to-noise ratio assessments for 1.5 micron wavelength data link under various environmental conditions, (2) establish closed-loop pointing and tracking scheme for maximum link performance, and (3) develop a proof-of-principle prototype and execute risk reduction measurements to ensure technical and cost feasibility for Phase II field-worthy hardware implementation. Potential applications include ground-to-ground, ground-to-air, sea-to-air mobile communication systems for video broadcast, telecommunication applications, and other data intensive applications that do not rely on two fixed locations. The proposed system is anticipated to enhance troop communications and battlefield awareness and support search and rescue operations.

AEROSPACE MASS PROPERTIES ANALYSIS, INC.
214 North Main Street
North Wales, PA 19454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 699-0622
Dr. Richard Billmers
MDA 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid-Lidar Radar Imaging Through Clouds and Fog for Missile Defense Applications
Abstract:Due to the success of the hybrid lidar-radar approach for improving the performance of underwater optical imaging systems, the approach of this project is to apply this technique to atmospheric laser ranging and identification systems, such as ballistic missile detection systems. AMPAC proposes to fully understand how to model the propagation of a laser beam through various types of adverse weather conditions. Specifically, the objective is to better understand the propagation of the laser radiation itself and the effect of the radar subcarrier under representative weather conditions such as clouds, rain and fog as well as background limiting conditions such as direct sunlight. The hybrid lidar-radar approach has several advantages that could be exploited in the ballistic missile defense scenario, such as: 1. Improve the detection and identification of missiles in adverse weather conditions, such as clouds fog and rain. 2. Enhance the range and doppler resolution capability of an optical imaging system to discriminate against false targets, such as decoys and other clutter. 3. There are potential biomedical applications for this technology that would involve high resolution non-invasive imaging with great potential for early diagnosis of tissue abnormalities. 4. There are potential commercial and military uses of this technology for image enhancement where fire and/or smoke cause aberrations making current image detection technologies ineffective.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
Dr. John Torvik
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:High power SiC transistors for superior X-band radar
Abstract:Astralux, Inc. proposes to develop a new high-power SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT) operating at ten times higher power density and five times higher efficiency compared to conventional power transistors. This new technology will enable true broadband (3-10GHz) ultra-linear power amplifiers and superior T/R modules for use in radar, satellite communication and other wireless systems. The BJTs will not only outperform existing high-power semiconductor components and vacuum tubes, but also be smaller and more robust. Furthermore, these powerful components will reduce overall systems costs by simplifying the amplifier architecture and facilitating waste heat rejection. The SiC BJT combines high power, high power density, high efficiency, low noise and high linearity, which will result in more powerful, compact, and less costly X-band BMD class radar systems with enhanced resolution and improved discrimination. The ultimate benefit is enhanced national security through early warning, target identification and tracking of hostile targets. SiC BJTs are identified as potential high-power RF devices and would greatly benefit the development of high-power amplifiers and T/R modules.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Mr. Charles Bjork
MDA 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptive Waveform Coherent Ladar Fusion for Long Range Tracking, Discrimination, and Kill Assessment
Abstract:MDA desires innovative and effective ways to acquire/ track ballistic missiles/ payloads, to improve and invigorate intercept prospects. Previous approaches have insufficient range or discrimination capability, are too expensive, or have unacceptable target leakage/false alarm rates. Passive systems, even with projected technology, lose too much discrimination performance and battlespace to evolving, increasingly sophisticated threats. Most ladar systems proposed to address these problems either have insufficient range and discrimination performance, include immature technologies which threaten reasonable deployment timeframes, or have unreasonable power or waste heat requirements to accompany their inadequate discrimination performance. CTI proposed a novel Coherent Advanced Waveform Ladar (AWL)/processing/tracking system, which makes possible acquisition in the boost phase and discrimination in the post-boost phase-before effective deployment of decoys and other countermeasures. Now we propose hardware and software techniques to improve the ladar and its application, by fusion via tracking algorithms, AWL with IR-based, tracking and layered discrimination, and to test the feasibility of this fusion. The approach includes precision updates after initial IR (plume) and active track, discrimination at injection into midcourse via target/ decoy track separation before the heavily-countermeasured midcourse. This is a joint venture between CTI and PRA. The preliminary, incredible separability between lethal targets and countermeasures, increases, and is made more credible, using PRA's decoy and other object-modeling code (COMET) for object motion and realism, and their discrete fourier transform (DFT) windowing techniques, and then adjusting CTI's IR/Ladar discrimination fusion conops and waveforms. Not only is there potential resilience against threat growth, but potential performance against the "dumb tumbler" threats which are not very precisely deployed and may not include spin-requiring near-microdoppler to discriminate. Finally, the IR/Ladar fused system is used to examine kill assessment volumes near interceptor impact to see how much improvement over the AWL-only technique is obtained. The proposed Phase I/II demonstrates the utility of a Fused IR/Coherent laser radar, applied to some of the most challenging sensor applications. The system is eminently scalable to smaller, shorter-range systems, to cover a wide range of tracking/discrimination problems, including commercial air transport, space monitoring and surveillance, the THEL weapons program, AFRL's Airborne Laser program. We have further identified diagnostic testing applications for crash and weapons effectiveness testing.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
174 North Main Street, P.O. Box 1150
Dublin, PA 18917
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 249-9780
Mr. Donald C. Kenzakowski
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 22JAN03
Title:High Fidelity Rocket Plume Model Validation Using New Data Sets to Support Boost-Phase Intercept Studies
Abstract:High-fidelity TBM rocket plume simulations performed using the CRAFT CFD code (under MDA, MSIC and AFRL support) for boost phase intercept studies, indicate the need to improve modeling capabilities in the 40-80 km altitude regime. At 40-60 km, modeling complexities entail predicting plume-induced separation in a laminar-turbulent transitional regime. At 60-80 km, non-continuum effects must be addressed. While advanced modeling techniques have been under development to address this complex physics, pertinent fluid dynamic data is not available for validation. This effort has as its overall goal the validation of rocket plume models at 40-80 km using new data sets to be obtained in the CUBRC LENS hypersonic shoot tunnel facility. Related work for divert jet interactions has been performed at 40-60 km altitudes in a collaborative effort performed by Dash et. al at CRAFT Tech and Holden et. al at CUBRC. Specific elements of our Phase I effort will include: (1) CFD studies of a generic TBM system at 40-60 km using engineering and advanced transitional methodology; (2) CFD studies of this same system at 60-80 km using ship-regime extensions and hybrid continuum/DSMC methodology; and (3) LENS experimental scope-out for TBM model tests including model blueprints and detailed test matrix. Experiments to obtain the new data for model validation will be performed in Phase II. CRAFT Tech has played a leading role in supporting varied TBM system studies for boost phase intercept applications. Overall support to date from both DoD and industry for such studies has been significant. This effort will provide for obtaining high-fidelity fluid dynamic data to validate the CFD codes utilized, and, the extension of such activities to the higher endo regime and the lower exo regime, permitting us to deal with a much broader array of problems. Particular areas where we see major commercialization potential include: (1) support of MDA/MSIC Boost Phase Intercept studies for detection, discrimination and plume to hardbody handover; (2) Liquid and Solid threat simulant booster design (for target usage) where we have been supporting a number of industrial groups; and (3) Army efforts related to interceptor missile technology where divert jet effects at higher altitudes are of major concern.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
14230 Timberedge Lane
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 333-7463
Dr. Jason K. Brasseur
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:High Power, Tunable, Electrically Driven 1580 nm Laser
Abstract:We propose a revolutionary approach to high power laser development offering the potential for compact table-top 100kW laser devices. Our approach includes an air driven, high power, tunable, electrically/optically pumped laser operating at a center frequency of 1580nm. A high pressure molecular oxygen/nitrogen mixture (air) is optically excited by efficient diode or fiber laser sources to a state of inversion on the singlet delta - triplet sigma transition in molecular oxygen at 1580 nm. Near perfect beam quality is delivered by heat removal by optical medium flow across the resonator. Waste heat from diode thermal control and optical medium heating is rejected in a warm air effluent or recycled in a heat exchanger. Research on the generation of the active medium has recently achieved a two order of magnitude increase of the excited state density of the active species, singlet delta oxygen (SDO). This density supports gain of 1 %/cm in the active medium. With current state of the art fiber lasers, a 20 kW laser device is foreseeable in the immediate future, with scaling 100 kW and higher devices are possible. The high power, eye-safe 1580 nm laser will find application in areas the folowing areas: femtosecond machining, welding, and cutting. Other defense oriented programs include ABL, and SBL. In addition, singlet Delta Oxygen (SDO) has been shown to have significant commercial potential in a number of areas. These include chemical/biological agent, virus, fungus and bacteria and mold neutralization, combustion enhancement, and laser materials processing.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-0990
Dr. James B. Kraiman
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 09JAN03
Title:Passive Millimeter Wave Radiometer (PMMR) for Earlier Missile Launch Detection
Abstract:Current and projected ballistic missile launch detection systems (DSP, SBIRS, ABL) depend on infrared detection of the hot rocket plume, which delays launch detection until the rocket rises above any cloud deck. Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) proposes to evaluate an airborne passive millimeter wave radiometer (PMMR) system that would be able to detect launches without having to wait for cloud break, thereby minimizing the time latency in launch detection, and improving the chances of boost phase intercept. Candidate platforms for the PMMR sensor include the Airborne Laser (ABL), JSTARS, AWACS, Global Hawk and high altitude airships. During Phase I, DTI will identify the operational requirements and CONOPS for the notional PMMR system, conduct a system design tradeoff study to define the system architecture and key system parameter values, assess the feasibility of deploying a PMMR system that meets the operational requirements on an airborne platform(s), and define a detailed Phase II plan for the further development of an airborne PMMR missile launch detection system. The airborne PMMR system will provide an all-weather, day/night capability to detect theater ballistic missile launches, and thus augment existing infrared sensing systems used for missile launch detection and tracking. The PMMR would detect the intense heat of the missile launch plume and alert a boost phase intercept system (e.g. ABL) of a launch, which would result in improved BPI. For example, an ABL would be in position to fire immediately on cloud break by the missile. Additionally, the earlier launch detection may assist JSTARS or other tactical aircraft in prosecuting the launcher for attrition.

F&H APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 853
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 235-6781
Mr. Roger Jones
MDA 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Frequency Agile Broadband Communications System
Abstract:The success of missile defense relies on state-of-the-art communications systems that can provide broad bandwidth, agility and security. The goal of this project is to develop a broadband, frequency agile, secure, wireless communications system suitable for aerial and space platforms. The unique aspect of our approach is to use microwave-photonic techniques that provide flexibility and performance, not currently achievable with conventional microwave and millimeter-wave based wireless systems. The enabling technology, developed by F&H, is an electro-optic microchip laser that generates an optical carrier with one or more millimeter wave subcarriers up to 100 GHz, with extremely low phase noise. A photodetector at the base station removes the optical carrier and recovers the millimeter wave subcarrier, which becomes the wireless carrier at the antenna. The input information and coding with, an aggregate bandwidth of 10 GHz, are placed on the wireless carrier in the optical domain. Therefore, the only function of the wireless base station has is to amplify and radiate the millimeter wave carrier with the information. Fast frequency hopping and sophisticate coding like OFDM, MSFK and MPSK are benefits. Preliminary experimentations have proved the viability of this approach. Our dynamically tunable electro-optic lasers will provide numerous benefits to advanced communications systems. The carrier frequency will be directly tunable from 10 to 100 GHz (currently photodiode limited to 60 GHz). Can be frequency hopped at durations of 1 ns. Optical wavelengths possible are 1.06, 1.34 and 1.55 microns with output powers of 100 mW to 1 Watt. The phase noise of the optical carrier is expected to be below -90 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz offset with time jitter below 0.01 picoseconds. This will enable insertion of this technology into varied military and commercial communication systems.

KINETICS, INC.
PO Box 1262, 100 SE Cascade
Stevenson, WA 98648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 427-3649
Mr. Dennis Crow
MDA 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost Real-Time IR Scene Generation
Abstract:This effort provides a physics-based, standardized, portable, low-cost, real-time Infrared (IR) Scene Generator capable of supporting advanced targeting algorithm development efforts being conducted for missile defense programs. The Missile Defense Agency is sponsoring many programs to develop acquisition, tracking, classification, and discrimination algorithms to target missiles while in flight. Physics-based synthetic scene generators play a critical role for these algorithm development activities by producing realistic imagery of the missile as it progresses along its flight path. Algorithm researchers utilize scene generators parametrically by varying sensor viewing parameters, engagement kinematics, missile operational conditions, and countermeasures to establish the accuracy, efficiency, and stability of the algorithm being studied. This innovative concept allows algorithm development and test facilities to generate IR images in real-time by using their own low-cost computational hardware (e.g. single-node PCs or multi-node Beowulf clusters). Standardization ensures consistency of the computed solution necessary for validation, regression testing, and site accreditation. Portability allows the scene generator to be linked directly into the algorithm test-bed to provide a seamless ability to generate images on demand. The product from this effort will foster ideas and concepts to disable inbound ballistic missiles since it will be available to a wide-array of missile defense researchers. The ability of missile defense organizations to generate their own radiometrically correct infrared scenes of threat missiles in real-time using low-cost computational hardware provides significant benefits to DoD industries that include: 1) capabilities to create custom closed-loop digital simulations to support detailed targeting algorithm development studies, 2) capabilities to support hardware-in-the-loop test facilities to thoroughly and efficiently examine the functionality of various flight hardware that includes hit-to-kill seeker systems, 3) substantial reductions in facility cost to support real-time IR scene generation, and 4) provisions for a standardized scene generation methodology to allow competing targeting algorithms or flight hardware to be consistently evaluated. A Low-Cost Real-Time IR Scene Generator would directly benefit the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) since considerable research and development is currently being sponsored to create robust acquisition, typing, tracking, and targeting algorithms to disable inbound ballistic missiles. All of these algorithm development efforts rely on synthetically generated scenes in one form or another to support the various engagement scenarios being considered. Currently, the algorithm developers must either rely on other organizations to generate the necessary imagery or utilize relativity slow traditional IR scene generation methods. These restrictions ultimately limit the algorithm developer's ability to quickly explore new concepts or to efficiently evaluate the algorithm's performance. This project would have wide appeal throughout the DoD since synthetic digital simulations are increasingly being utilized to test, evaluate, or derive new guided-munitions targeting algorithms. We anticipate this program has the potential to become a standard within the DoD industry that will be inserted into many large DoD digital simulations and hardware-in-the-loop test facilities. Its low cost will also make it a candidate to support field-testing and man-in-the-loop training applications. Our contracting team consisting of Kinetics, Inc. and Dynetics, Inc. has considerable knowledge with the ballistic missile threat and industry scene generation requirements necessary to support efforts to neutralize these threats. We also have extensive knowledge in simulations used for tactical training applications and would look to extend the findings of this effort to those areas as well.

OMEGA OPTICS, INC.
13010 Research Blvd., Suite 216
Austin, TX 78750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 996-8833
Mrs. Yihong Chen
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 29JAN03
Title:Ultra-Compact Optical True-Time Delay Phased-Array Antenna Transmit/Receive System
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal offers an innovative approach for lightweight phased-array antenna transmit/receive architecture and all needed building blocks. A new ultra-wideband low- loss optical transmit/receive architecture will be developed to provide multiple simultaneous beams for a phased-array antenna operating in C, S, and X bands. The transmit/receive architecture employing 3-D polymer waveguide has great advantages in providing lightweight, low-loss, agile, accurate performance for missile defense applications to disable inbound ballistic missiles. The scalable architecture due to the integration of wavelength-division-multiplexing devices makes the approach suitable for very large arrays and able to provide tens of multiple simultaneous beams. Optical switch technique enables the transmit/receive system to operate in the C, S and X radar bands. To prove the feasibility of the proposed transmit/receive architecture, the simulation and experimental demonstration of low-loss polymer waveguides, polymer-based optical switches and RF signal generation will be performed. Furthermore, programmable true-time delay lines in one layer will be fabricated during the phase I program. Success of these tasks will lay a solid foundation for the phase II and phase III continuation. The market for the high performance phased-array antenna transmit/receive architectures is a rapidly growing area for military communications, as well as for commercial applications. Since the lightweight subsystems for large arrays must be developed for modern missile defense and radar search and track purposes, the effort of proposed approach is of great importance to the military applications. Design of a transmitter/receiver for communication applications suffers very similar challenges as in military applications. Therefore, the solutions developed for missile defense will be immediately applied to such communication systems as satellite-to-satellite communications, remote sensing and ground-based wireless communications. KEY WORDS: Radar systems, Phased-array antenna, Transmit/receive module, True-time delay, Polymer waveguide, Optical switch

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Dr. S. Lawrence Marple, Jr.
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:High-Detail and High Dynamic Range Micro-Doppler Processing for Enhanced Target Discrimination Features
Abstract:ORINCON has recently been successful with radar signal processing algorithms that extract micro-Doppler signatures from moving ground vehicles that uniquely characterize the vehicle. These algorithms utilize non-Fourier-based high-detail-sharpening algorithms to reveal and to enhance the signatures despite limited signal bandwidth and in the presence of extreme clutter and jammer environments. They have been successful due to the way the algorithms exploit certain radar phenomenology without modifying the radar itself. ORINCON proposes further innovations with these micro-Doppler techniques to (1) adapt the algorithms to the phenomenology sensed by missile defense radars (specifically X and C band), (2) extend the two-dimensional (2-D) representation of micro-Doppler signatures to a more exploitable three-dimensional (3-D) representation, and (3) develop faster computational algorithms to implement the techniques for real-time application. Features and enhancements developed under this SBIR will be usable by any Doppler sensitive radar, for example, that used in weather micro-Doppler bursts for aviation and severe storm prediction by NOAA. The algorithms will also have radar uses besides missile defense, to include ELINT characterization of new radar emitters for threat analysis.

PACIFIC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
P.O. Box 359, 1000 Edison St
Santa Ynez, CA 93460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 688-2088
Ms. Michele Hinnrichs
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Techniques for Missile Defense
Abstract:Several new innovative technologies in Focal Plane Array (FPA) and hyperspectral imaging provide powerful new tools for missile defense applications. For example, during boost phase engagements of a missile, the bright signal from the plume can mask the hard body. Use of a dual color focal plane array (FPA) can improve the aim point selection process allowing MWIR to view the plume, and LWIR to view the hard body. Adding hyperspectral imaging and adaptive tuned spectral filtering to the seeker can significantly improve the process. The smart use of spectral information can improve signal to noise and allow algorithms that more accurately target the warhead. During the engagement all phases including detect, track, aim point selection and kill assessment can be improved by looking in different portions of the infrared spectra. The "state-of-the-art" in focal plane array technology and diffractive optics now allows such an adaptive tunable spectral seeker to be made using a single dual band FPA and a single optical element. This technology lends itself to easy upgrade of exiting systems, and provides a powerful tool for application in new seekers and missile defense systems. This technology can be applied to DoD applications for improved missile systems, seekers and also sensors for chemical/biological agent detection. In the commercial market it can be used for law enforcement, gas leak detection, environmental emission monitoring.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-9741
Dr. George Beardsley
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 21JAN03
Title:Techniques for Missile Defense (Flexible-Body Dynamics for Off-Nominal Penaid Signature Simulation)
Abstract:Algorithm development for midcourse discrimination requires large libraries of signatures (i.e., time histories of reflected and/or radiated optical intensity or radar cross-section) accurately incorporating the properties of deployed objects, including low mass decoys erected or inflated from small-volume stowage. The dynamics of such objects plays a critical role in signature determination. Current signature codes model only rigid body motion, which may be inappropriate for decoys made of flexible materials, particularly after suffering an off-nominal deployment and concurrent shape distortion. Under a current Phase I SBIR contract PRA is installing the capability to automatically create ensembles of off-nominal decoy models for rapid generation of suites of signatures with appropriately varying properties. In this proposal we describe a parallel effort to develop a fully compatible non-rigid body motion (NRBM) simulation capability for PRA's VISIG signature code. When integrated with the other work, this will allow high-fidelity simultaneous modeling of both static and dynamic structural deformations, fully including effects of flexure on the rotational state of the object and vice-versa. Dynamic effects on signature through object shape changes are also included. The proposed development will add a unique, computationally efficient, non-rigid body motion (coupled flexure and rotation) capability to a set of tools used to generate suites of off-nominal target signatures. Potentially, the same techniques are applicable to simulating realistic motion of any moderately-flexible object, for commercial applications such as training systems, games, or entertainment.

STILMAN ADVANCED STRATEGIES
1623 Blake Street, #200
Denver, CO 80202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 717-2110
Dr. Boris Stilman
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Linguistic Geometry Techniques for Missile Defense
Abstract:We propose to research, develop, and investigate the feasibility of an innovative ballistic missile defense analytic methodology, LG-SHIELD (to be implemented in software on Phase II of this project). On Phase I, we will also develop operational specs for the LG-SHIELD necessary for its software implementation. Moreover, utilizing our proprietary software LG-FRAMEWORK as well as our existing prototypes for cruise missile defense, SEAD missions, and global space-based operations, we will develop a pilot software demo illustrating feasibility of LG-SHIELD. The fully-fledged LG-SHIELD will be based on the new type of game theory called Linguistic Geometry (LG) for solving higher-dimensional Abstract Board Games (ABG). With LG-SHIELD, a warfighter will be able, using convenient LG templates, to map the entire Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) battlespace into a BMD hypergame. Employing the BMD hypergame, LG-SHIELD will generate the best strategies to disable ballistic missiles in flight and to defend against increasingly sophisticated threats including, cruise missiles, satellites, enemy aircraft etc. It will plan the entire operation, allocate resources with minimal cost to achieve certain probability of success, assess possible courses of actions (COA) for all sides, select counteractions, control operation by re-planning in real time, and play and re-play various "what-if" scenarios. Revolutionary new decision support, management, and allocation of scarce resources for robust self-protecting ballistic missile defense structure; New comprehensive decision support, management, and allocation of scarce resources for air traffic management (ATM); New products for interactive entertainment software (IES) industry; New solutions for market economics models as well as new models; New models for political contests, etc.

STRATCOM INTERNATIONAL LLC
20112 Marble Quarry Road
Keedysville, MD 21756
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 432-8950
James Abrahamson LtGen USAF (ret.)
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 15JAN03
Title:Frilled-Neck Lizard Interception Technology.
Abstract:One of the most important Ballistic Missile Defense advances in recent years has been "hit to kill" technology. As vital as this technology has proven to be, there are still unanticipated phenomenon (i.e. Iraqi Scud breakup and flutter trajectories in Desert Storm) as well as offensive missile countermeasures which have the potential to reduce BMD kill vehicle effectiveness. One effective means of enhancing kill vehicle effectiveness is enlarging the destructive volume of the kill vehicle. This has been done via special devices(such as expanding wheel spring on the first exoatmospheric SDI intercept) and proposals such as expanding rod warheads or fragmenting warheads. Metal Storm is a well developed, flexible and fully patented and fully demonstrated technology which promises improved kill vehicle reliability against unanticipated phenomenon and countermeasures. This proposal is to accomplish exploratory development on this concept for enhanced kill vehicle performance and kill potential. Enhanced MDA BMD interceptor/kill vehicle reliability and effectiveness against unanticipated phenomenon and countermeasures. A second benefit is additional focused study of stratospheric airship platforms for deployment of these Metal Storm enhanced interceptors for Boost Phase Intercept and Mid-course Intercept of threat ballistic missiles. Both stratospheric airship platforms and Metal Storm technology are dual use technologies which have important civil applications. Stratospheric airships have vital civil telecommunications commercialization potential. And Metal Storm technologies have non-lethal civil capabilities as well as highly flexible and very lethal military capabilities.

STRATCOM INTERNATIONAL LLC
20112 Marble Quarry Road
Keedysville, MD 21756
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 432-8950
Mr. James Abrahamson LtGen [rtd]
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 15JAN03
Title:Stratospheric Missile-Intercept Launch System
Abstract:The Stratospheric Missile Intercept Launch System (SMILS) takes advantage of two unique capabilities. The StratCom Stratospheric Airship and Metal Storm electronic ballistics technology. The StratCom stratospheric airship provides the necessary wide-area early-detection, tracking and discrimination capability, with geo located 24 hour persistence in a local area., while Metal Storm technology provides lightweight compact cost-effective cruise missile defense vehicles, suited to be carried in useful numbers in a compact weapons bay in the airship. The Metal Storm ballistics system also provides the small defense vehicles with a new and effective means of delivering a disproportionately large kinetic mass onto a target. Vehicle configurations are detailed, one having potential advantage in an out-of-atmosphere airship self defense role, the other having a similar potential advantage when operating as an in-atmosphere airship self defense system, or as a cruise missile defense. The combination of StratCom and Metal Storm technology will provide not only a lightweight cost effective self defense capability for the airship, but will utilize the airship as a cruise missile defense platform, to launch innovative lightweight cruise missile interceptors.

SYSTIMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13110 NE 177th Pl. #234
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 672-1755
Mr. Randel L. Hoskins
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 24JAN03
Title:Miniature Kill Vehicle Dispense System
Abstract:The MKV ballistic missile interceptor system use large numbers of small MKV interceptors launched using a single booster. The MKV interceptors are deployed from the carrier vehicle to intercept and destroy multiple objects in the midcourse phase of a ballistics missile's trajectory. The MKV system provides a means to address countermeasures through multiple intercepts of all non-discriminated objects within a threat cluster. A critical aspect of MKV system concept is release of the individual MKVs from the carrier/launch vehicle. To avoid performance degradation or damage, the MKVs must be dispensed on controlled velocity vectors without inducing significant pitch, roll and yaw motions into the MKVs. Systima is proposing the development of an MKV dispenser. The dispenser would be capable of simultaneously dispensing a single tier of MKVs. The dispenser uses a pyrotechnically inflated metallic bag. The bag would be installed as a flattened toroid between the MKVs and the carrier vehicle. The location and geometry of the bag and the rate of bag inflation are used to dispense the MKVs on controlled vectors without imposing pitch, roll or yaw motions to the MKVs. A metallic bag is used to avoid any bag leakage or storage life concerns. This program will lead to the design and development of a lightweight, MKV (Miniature Kill Vehicle) carriage and dispensing system based upon inflatable metallic bags. The MKV dispenser would allow individual rings (tiers) of MKVs to be dispensed with very tightly controlled dispense velocities and radial directions. This same inflatable, metallic bag dispenser technology could be used for DoD submunition dispensing applications where precise dispensing control and no dispense bag leakage is required.

TECHFINITY, INC.
18345 Ventura Blvd., Suite 509
Tarzana, CA 91356
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 654-9701
Dr. Phillip W. Dennis
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 24JAN03
Title:Probabilistic BMC4I Algorithms for Modeling BMD Uncertainties
Abstract:A key component of any ballistic missile defense system is the BMC4I element that makes the decisions of what to intercept, where to intercept, when to intercept and how to intercept. The key pieces of information that drive the decision as to the "what", "where", and "when" are: 1) threat lethality and potential damage to defended assets, and 2) what is the probability of kill. However, it is well known that there are uncertainties and ambiguities in the knowledge, information and data used to plan a missile defense engagement. Such uncertainties include but are not limited to uncertainties in the threat state vector. Existing BMD systems base their engagement decisions primarily on mean parameter value (such as threat state vectors), without systematically taking into consideration the associated uncertainties. As a result, engagement decisions are being made based upon estimates of success that are not robust. Decisions that do not consistently handle the stochastic nature of the engagement can be overly optimistic or even overly pessimistic in their estimate of probability of kill. Any method that results in biased estimators result in both missile wastage and increased likelihood of damage to defended assets due to threat leakage and missed intercepts. While the many-on-many engagement problem is key to real-time Battle Management, the proper formulation and solution of the one-on-one-engagement problem is the core building block. This study focuses on the probabilistic formulation and solution of the one-on-one engagement problem, systematically taking into account uncertainties and errors. Our proposed solution is a rigorous probabilistic approach to the one-on-one engagement problem with universal applicability to BMD BMC4I, and is a robust, advanced alternative to replace the unnecessarily complex and brittle one-on-one engagement approaches of current implementations. MDA programs that could benefit from this approach include GMD/NMD, Sea-based Midcourse, THAAD, SBL, and ABL. Our approach has wide applicability and benefits to resource allocation and planning domains including DoD transportation and logistics planning, FAA air traffic flow management, Coast Guard Deepwater resource allocation, and allocation of resources to asymmetric threats.

TECHNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS
3160 - A Enterprise Street
Brea, CA 92821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 996-0104
Mr. Robert A. Fluehe
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Techniques for Missile Defense-Application Of Interferometry
Abstract:The objective of this proposed SBIR Phase I project is to evaluate applications of interferometric radar techniques to MDA missions. The applications are directed at improving target discrimination and identification; improving transportability for forward deployment and reducing the cost of MDA radars. The proposal is to assess the performance and feasibility of radar interferometry in three applications. The first application is as an augmentation to existing MDA radars, such as the GBR and THAAD to improve their angular accuracy and resolution. The second application is a stand alone radar architecture alternative to current monolithic aperture designs such as the Patriot radar. The third application is a high frequency track function embedded in lower frequency antennas. The proposal is to evaluate mission radar technical requirements for each application, predict the performance of radar interferometers configured for the application, and identify risks and risk mitigation to be addressed in an experimental program in Phase II. The intent is to leverage earlier SMDC activities in wide band radar interferometry to achieve a command guided hit-to-kill missile capability for defense against rockets and artillery. Radar interferometry offers the potential for greatly improved track accuracy and resolution. Improved accuracy can result in reduced missile seeker costs or the elimination of the requirement for a seeker altogether. Higher angular resolution offers the possibility of cross-range as well as down range imaging for improved target classification, identification, and discrimination. The distributed aperture of a radar interferometer offers improved radar performance for the same mobility or improved mobility for the same performance. Radar interferometry offers the possibility of embedding high frequency track functions into low frequency surveillance radars thus reducing total equipment costs.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 583-0220
Mr. Richard E. Carande
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 09JAN03
Title:Next Generation Missile Defense Algorithm Develoment
Abstract:Next-generation ballistic defense radar systems are likely to exploit large time-bandwidth waveforms for detecting, locating, imaging, discriminating and tracking targets of interest. In this proposal we present a preliminary analysis of potential performance degradataion due to such signals. We include a careful analysis of the resulting received signal that indicates that receiver and signal processor compensation must be applied in order to effectively utilize these types of radar echoes. Furthermore, we show that there are some artifacts, including localization artifacts, that will be severe enough so as to make accurate targeting a serious issue. The artifacts and compensation techniques are demonstrated in this proposal through simulation. The proposed effort will focus on fully developing the theory associated with these radar systems, as well as proposing and testing mitigating processes, and potential identification of new phenomenology associated with these next-generation systems, that may be eventually exploited to the advantage of the Missile Defense Agency. NOTE: I've notice in the PDF version you've created from my word document, terms such as "omega-dot" are mistyped as omega, with some other superscript-and-overwritten dotted variable on top of it. Sorry for this confusion. Application to future spaceborne MTI radar systems for both Government and Civilian purposes. New algorithms will be applicable to improving geolocation capabilties of these systems.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 583-0284
Mr. Don Coon
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Revolutionary AUTOFOCUS for High-Resolution Coherent Radar Imaging Systems
Abstract:Vexcel Corporation proposes the implementation of a recently invented AUTOFOCUS technique as a revolutionary new way to correct defocus and remove blurring from coherent two-dimensional (2D) radar imagery and as an enabling technology for emerging coherent three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems. High-resolution 2D coherent radar imaging is a critical component in existing ballistic and theater missile defense systems and provides data for advanced detection, tracking, and discrimination processing. Unavoidable aperture synthesis errors (e.g. inaccuracies in target location estimates, ionospheric propagation dynamics, etc.) lead to phase errors that cause defocusing in radar imagery. As these effects change during the aperture time, they cause a fully-coupled 2D phase error that cannot be corrected using conventional algorithms. Potential operation in a nuclear environment holds the possibility of very significant exaggeration of these types of effects. A recent Vexcel study to extend the established Phase Gradient Autofocus algorithm to 2D revealed theoretic limitations and lead to the discovery/invention of the proposed autofocus technique. Preliminary results show this technique to be a much more robust method for removing severe fully-coupled 2D errors from data, vastly improving image quality in many cases where the 2D PGA technique showed practically no improvement. Vexcel expects to realize commercial benefits directly and indirectly from this effort. This technique is new and, as yet, not fully validated. A Phase I & II effort will help verify and valid performance and determine operational characteristics. The indirect commercial benefits lie in the fact that Vexcel is one of the largest sellers of commercial satellite ground station hardware and SAR processing software in the world. During the development of such advanced processing systems new algorithms, methods, and techniques are always realized. As these capabilities become available, they are often incorporated into existing SAR processing products as improvements, forming a better, more capable product and increasing it?s marketability. As many of our SAR processing software packages generate value-added data products from coherent data, we expect that the experience gained from the implementation and study of 2D and 3D phase correction, where coherence is so critical, will provide benefits not yet foreseen to be incorporated and used in our commercial products.

XINETICS, INC.
2 Buena Vista
Devens, MA 01432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-0352
Dr. Thomas Price
MDA 02-037      Selected for Award
Title:High Gain Bandwidth Relay Mirror
Abstract:Current plans for high-power defense systems such as ABL and SBL, require adaptive mirrors that can handle high-power requirements, correct wavefront errors, and perform precise pointing and tracking. Normally separate devices that increase the complexity of the beam train handle these functions. Two problems must be addressed. First, high-power laser systems degrade the optical quality of their beam trains through heating of the optics, vibration, and relatively poor beam quality from the laser itself. Xinetics proposes a lightweight silicon carbide meniscus mirror that can perform low-order correction and low-amplitude precision pointing. The meniscus can perform low-order correction that depends on the number of cells. Tilt can be compensated using the individual cells and also by using actuators to bend a retaining ring. Such a device would have application within a space based laser system as a pointing device and within the turret of an airborne laser system as a corrector/pointer. The actuators used would be specially made to operate with full stroke at high frequencies thereby extending the usable range of the correction. The only limitation would be with the electronics used to driver the mirror. This correction device can have wide ranging applications in a variety of government and commercial programs. On the government side, the airborne laser and space based laser program must have precise, lightweight optics that can perform adaptive-optics correction. This will satisfy many of those needs by providing the stiff silicon carbide structure that can be lightweighted. The ABL and SBL programs have budget of $300 million and $70 million per year currently. Programs for these programs to build individual components of this design would be worth approximately $1.5 million from each of these programs to Xinetics. ABL has the potential for fielding 10 of these systems within the next 10 years. SBL would need spaced based systems that would require additional research to develop space-qualified versions. This qualification work would entire $8-10 million dollars. There are also applications within NASA programs for telescope systems that would need pointing and correction devices as part of space-based telescope systems. We would expect and immediate need for this technology as soon as the technology is developed.

XONTECH, INC.
6862 Hayvenhurst Avenue
Van Nuys, CA 91406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 837-9123
Mr. Mark Barnes
MDA 02-037      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:High Power Microwave Bistatic Radar Concept for Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:The project proposes to evaluate the feasibility of enhancing the technology level of the Multiple Miniature Kill Vehicles (MMKV's) that uses High Power Microwave (HPM) devices with a receiver system to collect bistatic radar data for object discrimination. The primary criticism of most missile defense systems has been their vulnerability to potential countermeasures. Many articles have been written highlighting this concern, some postulating that the National Missile Defense system could be defeated by several unclassified countermeasures. The proposed concept expands the potential functions of MMKV deployed HPM devices to include the innovative use of bistatic radar signature collection for object discrimination. The basic MMKV concept is to use multiple, small interceptors which might be packaged on a booster. The primary function of these interceptors would be to actively destroy countermeasures and re-entry vehicles (RV's). One of these concepts uses MMKV's to deploy HPM emitters to damage the electronics of jammers. The proposed concept uses the energy emitted by the HPM devices as transmitters and a receiver to form a bistatic radar. Preliminary review demonstrates that bistatic angles greater than 120ø provide substantially larger radar cross-section for RV's than backscattering and yields features that distinguish an RV from a decoy. Although there is a potential to apply a similar approach to geophysical exploration, it is envisioned that the commercialization aspect of this program will predominantly be limited to future "commercialized" sales of Ballistic Missile Defense Systems. There are a number of potential systems that would benefit from this capability including the National Missile Defense (NMD) System, THAAD, PATRIOT and Navy Theater Wide (NTW). It is also possible that other programs within BMDO may wish to pick this program up as a future funded effort. These potential future customers include BMDO's Project Hercules, BMDO's Advanced Technology, SMDC's Joint Center for Technology Integration and SMDC's Sensors Directorate.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 573-6300
Dr. Mark Rigali
MDA 02-038      Awarded: 14DEC02
Title:Advanced Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS)
Abstract:On this Phase I program, Advanced Ceramics Research Inc. (ACR) will develop and commercialize technology to fabricate structural components with increased thermal capacities at relatively low cost. This effort will have two major focus areas: (1) work on our Fibrous Monolith (FM) composite processing to develop a new generation of low-cost damage tolerant ceramic-matrix composites with improved properties, and (2) development of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques for in-service evaluation of ceramic composites, including a preliminary catalog of defect signatures that can be used as a basis for future efforts in this area. The FM composites have a variety of potential applications including rocket nozzles and thrusters, and divert attitude control valves. For defense applications, ACR will team with Alliant Techsystems to produce propulsion-related composite components such as gas divert tubes and tactical nozzles for use in high temperature propulsion applications. To develop commercial markets, ACR will be exploring and evaluating applications for thermally insulating refractory composites. Examples of these potential applications include high temperature furnace hardware and precision insulators. Defense Applications The industrial applications of the materials and components developed under this Phase I program are applicable to both the defense and commercial sectors. Our discussions with defense contractors have led to expressions of interest from Alliant TechSystems as well as Raytheon Missile Systems, and Aerojet. For the US government and BMDO, the potential applications are in (a) rocket nozzles (b) combustor and hot gas duct liners and (c) thruster housings. ACR has already established close supplier and development relationships with a number of relevant rocket motor manufacturers mentioned above. Commercial Applications For defense applications, the advanced materials being developed on this program are intended for use as propulsion components including those in the Navy's standard missile-3 (SM3) solid divert and attitude control (SDACS) system for sea-based missile defense (SMD), national missile defense (NMD), theater high altitude air defense (THAAD), integrated high performance rocket propulsion technology (IHPRPT) and missile control technology (MCT). Other high temperature applications include thrusters for satellite station keeping, high temperature jet engine and turbine engine components.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Leslie A. Cohen
MDA 02-038      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACs) Thruster Non-Destructive Examination
Abstract:This proposal recommends a program to evaluate non-destructive testing (NDE) methods for DACs ceramic composite thruster nozzles. The test methods are to be "go-no/go" tests to verify that the thruster condition prior to or immediately after installation is equal to that upon completion of fabrication and to detect any damage that may have occurred during handling, transportation or installation. Replacement of refractory metal thrusters with ceramic composite thrusters will result in significant cost and weight reductions. The NDE is required to verify that the thruster adequacy has not been degraded by handling, transportation, or installation damage.

HYPER-THERM HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES, INC.
18411 Gothard Street, Unit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Mr. Wayne S. Steffier
MDA 02-038      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:SiC Matrix Composite Rocket Thrust Chamber with Integrated SiC Foam Propellant Diffuser/Injector
Abstract:Liquid rocket engine systems currently in development or being considered for future development will require a variety of subsystems for axial, reaction control, target intercept, and auxiliary propulsion. Recent developments in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites and porous reticulated ceramics offer promise to increase performance, manufacturability and cost over currently available refractory metal propulsion components. The objective of this Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a lightweight SiC matrix composite rocket propulsion thrust chamber incorporating a fully integrated reticulated SiC foam propellant diffuser/injector. A previously developed intraply fiber preform hybridization technique will be utilized for the chamber to mitigate process-induced matrix microcracking and gaseous permeability inherent in C/SiC composites. Optimized hybrid fiber preforms of T300 and Hi-Nicalon will be braided over geometrically contoured mandrels and densified with a SiC matrix produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Following partial consolidation of the preform, a reticulated foam diffuser/injector element will be inserted into the forward end of the combustion chamber and CVI-SiC integrated with the composite thrust chamber during final matrix densification. Reticulated open-cell SiC foam specimens of various porosities and densities will be produced and experimentally evaluated to determine their respective pressure drop characteristics and suitability as a gas propellant diffuser/injector. A prototype C-SiC/SiC thrust chamber with an integrated SiC foam diffuser/injector will be fabricated and delivered to MDA for evaluation. Fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites are an enabling class of materials for a variety of high-temperature applications in chemical rocket engine throat inserts, combustion chambers and nozzles; aero-engine combustors, turbines and exhaust nozzles; hypersonic airframe hot structure and thermal protection systems; spacecraft re-entry heatshields and precision mounting platfoms; and a variety of industrial power generation components, radiant burner and heat exchanger tubes.

F&H APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 853
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 235-6781
Mr. Roger Jones
MDA 02-039      Awarded: 10JAN03
Title:Dynamically Tunable, High Power Electro-Optic Microchip Laser Development for Hybrid LIDAR-RADAR
Abstract:Detection and tracking of missiles in the boost and midcourse phase through clouds, and the discrimination between missiles and decoys is crucial to our nation's missile defense system. The goal of the proposed program is to develop a dynamically tunable, high power, electro-optic microchip laser that will enable a more sensitive detection method, a hybrid LIDAR-RADAR. This technique combines the most advantageous features of RADAR and LADAR by impressing a millimeter-wave modulation (RADAR) on an optical carrier (LIDAR). In a conventional LIDAR system the intense scattering from the surrounding environment (clutter) prevents the use of coherent optical detection schemes and masks the image. The modulation on the light in LIDAR-RADAR allows for more sensitive and coherent detection of the microwave envelope (RADAR). This method has proven successful in underwater optical imaging systems. This project will show that the same advantages may be applied to atmospheric LADAR and will develop a dynamically tunable, high power, electro-optic microchip laser for the implementation of a hybrid LIDAR-RADAR system, which is the central focus of this effort. The viability of the approach and the electro-optic microchip laser has been demonstrated through preliminary experimentation. The expected performance of this hybrid LIDAR-RADAR far exceeds currently available LADAR. The devices we propose will be of unique benefit to our nation's missile defense system and for underwater target detection of mines and submarines, as well as for medical imaging

INNOVATIVE BUSINESSS SOLUTIONS, INC.
301 Concourse Boulevard, Suite 120
Glen Allen, VA 23059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 812-5555
Mr. Gregory A. Sjoquist
MDA 02-039      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Readout Integrated Circuit for Advanced Interceptors
Abstract:Modern missile systems containing advanced seeker technologies will require significant improvements in capability and electronic integration. Part of the capability improvement for an advanced seeker is to make it multi-mode for target tracking based not only on passive infrared imaging but also fusing range information created by an active pulse laser system imaging LAser Detection And Ranging (LADAR). The proposal to develop an integrated readout IC that would allow LADARs of very large scale IR detector arrays (1024 by 1024 detectors) to be incorporated into an advanced active seeker is crucial to building a system that will meet performance parameters such as weight, size, power and target detection/tracking accuracy. The result of work performed on this proposal would provide a baseline for developing a critical part of a flight capable imaging LADAR useful in a dual mode seeker. Technology Need addressed The development of advanced missile interceptors addressing hit-to-kill against maneuvering threats poses significant challenges to on-board active dual mode seeker operation. Of significant importance to a dual mode seeker is the requirement for an advanced laser radar (LAser Detection And Ranging) used for range information. The fusing of the LADAR data set and Infrared focal plane array (FPA) image yields a 3 dimensional target detection/identification capability. In order to meet advanced threats it is desired to extend existing LADAR avalanche photo detector (APD) technology and capability to allow for much larger APD arrays. Present state of the art LADAR FPA systems use 32 by 32 detector arrays. The technology needs to address 1024 by 1024 detector array sizes for the LADAR FPA. Programs under Missile Defense Agency control like those managed by the US Army SMDC in Huntsville, Alabama have on-going contracts to perform and support bread-board demonstrations (Level 4 and Level 5) of advanced dual mode seeker technology. The present state of the art for the read-out IC associated with a APD array needs to be advanced to account for increased density of packaging, power and performance in order to support the APD 1 million pixel arrays being considered. Commercialization The present plan for commercialization is to make the technology available within the US DoD and associated contractors doing advanced multi-mode seekers incorporating LADAR. Upon a successful Phase II demonstration in prototypical hardware, the results, design approaches, simulation models, and control algorithms would be thoroughly documented and made available to DoD contractors as designated by government agencies. Included with the documented results of techniques to achieve an optimal performance/power/size ROIC system will be representative simulations and demonstration hardware including the following: ú Development system integrated with an APD array capable of supporting 1024 x 1024 array sizes. ú Analog and digital design simulations (Mentor Graphics ModelSim, PSPICE) ú Full timing analysis through selected silicon hardware implementation ú Final Report on all topics required to implement the developed technology in an application. ú Detailed fabrication drawings and manufacturing specifications.

SAGE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1018 West Ninth Avenue, Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 354-9100
Mr. Michael Wilson
MDA 02-039      Selected for Award
Title:Diffractively Structured Multi-Spectral GaP EO Seeker Windows for Kill Vehicles
Abstract:Strategic missile defense will benefit directly by increasing the operational IR bandwidth from the mid-wavelength to a multi-bandwidth capability. Increasing bandwidth performance will allow on-board processing (target acquisition and discrimination) to improve range performance, tracking, and hit-to-kill. Increasing bandwidth to include the near IR to the long wavelength IR also allows for incorporation of active sensing (LADAR) in addition to passive sensing. Sub-wavelength diffractive structures etched onto gallium phosphide (GaP) present tremendous performance enhancement potential for missile applications. Employing gray scale lithography to etch the sub-wavelength diffractive structures onto both surfaces of the GaP eliminates the need for anti-reflective coatings and allows for discreet sub-bandwidths of operation over a broadband operational window with very high performance, improved field-of-regard, and increased fracture toughness. Employing GaP as the bulk IR window opens the bandwidth from the mid-wavelength region (sapphire) to include the near IR to the far long wavelength IR. It also provides a cutoff temperature of nearly 400øC. GaP and the sub-wavelength diffractive structures present a significant opportunity to improve spectral performance of the THAAD system or any kill vehicle utilizing the IR part of the spectrum. It is anticipated that GaP as an IR window material which incorporates the sub-wavelength diffractive structures in place of conventional anti-reflection coatings will significantly reduce the cost of IR windows for tactical, strategic, and commercial systems, by as much as a factor 4. Additionally, using GaP with the sub-wavelength diffractive structures will increase the available field-of-regard of the optical system since the IR window will no longer be restricted to a relatively narrow instantaneous field-of-view due to the physics of the planar coating.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Jay Schwartz
MDA 02-039      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:SiC Optical Telescope for Next Generation Midcourse Interceptors
Abstract:Advanced seeker systems for endo- and exo-atmospheric applications will utilize infrared and visible signature of ballistic threats in addition to LADAR ranging and imaging information for improved identification, discrimination and tracking. This future capability requires diffraction limited near visible performance for the optical system, while still maintaining the low cost production capability of a bolt together assembly. Presently, optical telescopes for seekers utilize Be mirrors and structure for lightweight IR performance, however, these systems have limited use for future active/passive seekers because of the unstable anistropic performance of Be at visible quality levels. SSGPO proposes a highly innovative development of a low cost, thermally stable visible telescope system based on two key enabling technologies; (1) a SiC based telescope system providing very lightweight and stiff construction; inherent athermal operation over wide temperature ranges; superior thermal stability; and a very low cost, near net shape castable fabrication technique compatible with high rate production; (2) a set of automated finishing processes which are capable of direct mirror figuring to visible performance while maintaining control of optical parameters relative to mechanical fiducials to permit bolt-together alignment. In Phase I, SSGPO proposes to develop the advanced SiC telescope design and fabrication approach, which leverages off an internal Raytheon funded R&D program to develop a lightweight SiC visible quality mirror. SSGPO will be submitting a Phase 2 Fast Track proposal (with Raytheon Missile Systems committing $1M matching funding) for the development and test of a prototype "ADLT like" flight worthy SiC telescope system. Applications for bolt together SiC passive/active systems with performance in the visible and IR include next generation seeker systems critical to missile defense (e.g., ADLT, CEKV, MKV), laser-based defense like the space-based laser (SBL) and air-borne last (ABL) and advanced tactical systems using LADAR. Private sector applications include earth resource mapping, law enforcement, disaster relief, optical lithography, and other applications in which the improved situational awareness provided by combined active passive sensors is of value.

ASIER TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5068 West Plano Parkway, Suite 336
Plano, TX 75093
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 738-8579
Mr. Kevin Henson
MDA 02-040      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Integrated Data Compression and Security Algorithms
Abstract:Asier Technology is pleased to have the opportunity to propose a program to upgrade communications security with a proven encryption algorithm. High-speed, high-security encryption is Asier's core competency. Asier has developed a suite of highly advanced, processor-efficient encryption algorithms that are both faster and more secure than many current algorithms in use. In addition to high-speed encryption, Asier has obtained development rights to several high-efficiency compression algorithms. Integrating encryption and compression in challenging environments such as space/power constrained devices or wireless application is at the very core of Asier's business. Asier has already produced encryption/compression software that can protect voice and video over IP transitions in real-time environments. Asier routinely demonstrates software based encryption rates above 100 mega-bits per second running on low-end COTS Windows r platforms. Research and code modeling suggests that on a single Texas Instruments 64x series DSP chip, speeds of 1 to 1.6 giga-bit per second are achievable with Asier Large Key Streaming Encryption. Multiple DSP chipsets can be integrated to achieve multi-gigabit throughput. The market possibilities for strong fast encryption are virtually limitless in this security conscious market. Asier's entire business plan is built upon the principle of creating the best security tools possible and the licensing them to OEMS, solution providers and other vendors. Asier is pursuing an engineered solutions market in which Asier works with industry leading companies to develop next-generation solutions for secure communications, storage and transfer of sensitive to SECRET data. To this end Asier has aggressively sought implementation partners in the IT, Services and Telecommunications industries. Of particular interest to Asier is the cable, satellite and motion picture industries. If the integrated streaming compression/encryption technology works in the real world as well as projected, Asier might be in a position to solve many of the piracy issues surrounding the distribution of high value digital content. The movie/cable/satellite industry estimates that content theft is a $12 billion dollar a year problem.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Freddie Lin
MDA 02-040      Awarded: 09JAN03
Title:An Integrated Data Compression and Encryption Algorithm
Abstract:In order to improve and facilitate real-time coordination of Theater Missile Defense (TMD) weapon system elements, and provide seamlessly efficient processing of mission critical information over geographically separated TMD facilities and personnel, the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) requires new-generation, data compression and security algorithm development. This new algorithm must incorporate both encryption and compression features for highly-secure high-speed data flow to improve system responsiveness, while preventing critical information loss. To address this demand, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to develop a novel, high-speed, highly-secure, data marking technology (HiMARK). In contrast to the currently available protocol-layer encryption scheme, BCI's proposed HiMARK technology encrypts and compresses the transmitted data at the physical layer. HiMARK is based on the idea that raw data itself is well encrypted, maximizing the security of data flow in a network. Because of its use of physical layer processing, the HiMARK can simultaneously accommodate conventional, proven, protocol-layer encryption schemes. The combination of both physical-layer and protocol-layer encryption schemes make unauthorized decryption highly improbable. The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of the proposed technology for relevant TMD data sets. In addition to MDA's applications, this technology is also applicable to many real-time sensor data collection/processing operations and mission critical C3I network applications. The proposed technology is applicable to any commercial network applications that can benefit from fault-tolerant and highly-secure mission critical multimedia networks. Potential applications include, but are not limited to, business-to-business commerce, collaborative security networks, real-time network operations, and crisis management networks.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8920
Mr. John Leon
MDA 02-040      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:Integrated Data Compression and Security Algorithms
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) proposes to develop a reconfigurable processing hardware platform designed to process and improve various video compression algorithms that will meet the Theater Missile Defense need. Video information is transmitted and received into the hardware platform that can be encrypted and decrypted using commercially available algorithms such as NIST?s ?Rijndael AES-256-bit? encryption and NSA?s ?Skipjack?. The hardware platform integrates with existing video software that processes from one single field (1/2 frame) up to 3 full seconds of video to extract the desired image with very high resolution while maintaining security. The hardware platform incorporates the latest in FPGA technology that scales as the technology evolves as well as incorporating the latest memory chips stacked using Irvine Sensors patented stacking process. High bandwidth performance is achievable within the FPGA and memory for real-time algorithmic processing capabilities. The reconfigurability of the hardware platform ?learns? as the system matures and optimizes the level of performance thus disseminating any repeatable hostile threats as well as incorporating the latest algorithms for theater ready response. In addition the platform is difficult to reverse engineer with the stacked memory and reconfigurable processor logic. The hardware platform can be integrated with existing video capture and transmission devices. This technology integrates seamlessly into the video surveillance market.

THE ATHENA GROUP, INC.
3424 N.W. 31 Street
Gainesville, FL 32605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Dr. Jonathon D. Mellott
MDA 02-040      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Advanced Secure Compression and Processing
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will develop an innovative, high-performance, secure processing architecture for system-on-a-chip (SoC) devices used in defense electronics systems. Athena's security technology will integrate compression and encryption, and enable end-to-end secure processing in advanced defense systems, providing significantly improved tampering and reverse engineering resistance when compared to existing technologies. Athena's security technology will also make it possible to revoke specific defense systems in the event that they fall into the hands of an adversary. Athena will develop a solution that will allow all defense electronic systems designers to transparently include end-to-end security in their products. The commercial value of the developed technology is substantial since it will provide anti-cloning capabilities for products constructed from standard product electronic components. The end-to-end data security architecture proposed will also enable robust digital rights management (DRM), which is a critical technology requirement for information content providers.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURE & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr. Jeffrey Paine
MDA 02-041      Awarded: 22NOV02
Title:Fast-acting, Compact, Piezoelectric Actuator for Control of Mini-Interceptor
Abstract:Missile defense could benefit from miniature interceptor technology to handle difficult countermeasure problems and to be able to intercept multiple objects. Reduction in size, mass, and cost of the interceptor compels a new design for projectile steering components. DSM identified a potential steering actuator system for mini-interceptor platforms while working with ATK. The steering system is dependent on compact, lightweight, high bandwidth, actuators to control the divert thruster components. DSM proposes a novel control concept using solid-state actuator for controlling hot-gas valves that enable rapid trajectory manipulation. The configuration requires a novel piezoelectric actuator driven fast-acting valve. Able to fully open and close at over 500 Hz, the fast moving actuator enables rapid dithering of the hot-gas valves to adequately control the interceptor trajectory. DSM proposes to estimate and predict the actuator system's dynamic and transient impulse characteristics using finite element analysis techniques and modeling processes. Based on the estimated response and system requirements from ATK, the proposed concept will be designed. DSM will build Phase I prototypes of the actuator system and the hot-gas valve system for evaluation and testing at ATK in the Phase II program. The actuator technology that will result from the SBIR development will be valuable to the motion control market. DSM will advance the Phase II actuator technology to a new commercial actuator line to our current family of piezo-actuators. Precise and compact piezoelectric actuators are required in the semiconductor fabrication, medical instrumentation, medical research, nanotechnology, and materials processing and research fields.

ENIGMATICS, INC.
9215 51st Avenue, Unit No. 7
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 486-1725
Mr. David S. H. Chyung
MDA 02-041      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Development of Lightweight Low-Cost PDEs for MKV Applications
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal is aimed at developing lightweight low-cost miniature Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) to be used as divert engines for Miniature Kinetic Kill Vehicles (MKVs). The PDE is a very-small-scale propulsion system, with no moving parts in the power production section and producing higher specific impulse than conventional rockets because of its constant-volume, nonsteady operating cycle. Our approach is based on developing unique structural components that will take advantage of the properties of PDEs employed as divert motors in an MKV system. The prior experience of Enigmatics in the design and development of miniature PDE systems has led to the recent demonstration of a miniature PDE running at detonation frequencies up to 250 Hz. Our experimental and theoretical data point to the possibility of constructing small divert PDEs from unconventional materials. The proposed effort will systematically explore the use of lightweight materials for miniature divert PDEs that can be incorporated in MKVs. In Phase I we will study materials and manufacturing methods that can be used to construct small divert PDE motors. In Phase II we will design, fabricate, and test PDEs operating with high-power-density fuels and made of lightweight low-cost materials that are compatible with MKV requirements. Low-cost manufacturing of lightweight divert PDE systems will enable mass production of these systems and permit simple low-cost implementation of high-power-density high-frequency injection and initiation in both military and civilian applications of PDEs. Success in attaining this goal will pave the way to the development and demonstration of a low-cost prototype divert propulsion system that can be used for MKV systems and miniature satellites and can be adapted to future advanced programs.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8846
Dr. Suresh Subramanian
MDA 02-041      Awarded: 05NOV02
Title:Miniature UV Ladar for High Resolution Acquisition, Tracking, Discriminatiion and Aimpoint Determination (MUVL)
Abstract:A scanning laser-staring receiver approach to the miniature interceptor problem combines previously-developed MDA technologies for high resolution ultra-violet focal plane arrays and Silicon Brain tracking and discrimination with laser imaging to provide a complete miniature kill vehicle seeker solution. The high resolution focal place arrays use the POAP technology from TREX extended to the ultraviolet to enable high-resolution active imagery. The Silicon Brain technology uses the 3D artificial neural network (3DANN) cube for template matching at very high speeds (tera ops) to provide acquisition, tracking, discrimination, and aimpoint determination. The proposed innovation is the missing piece: an active imaging readout integrated circuit (ROIC) to provide the LADAR imaging interface between POAP receivers and Silicon Brain processors. The result will be 100 km acquisition and tracking, 30 km discrimination with centimeter resolution of the targets, and 10 km aimpoint determination. Anticipated Benefits. Very low power, low weight, small volume interceptor technology capable of discriminating replicating and enveloping balloon decoys. Commercial Applications: 3D imaging for robotic manufacturing, security systems and video entertainment systems.

QFLEX, INC.
1220 S. LYON ST.
SANTA ANA, CA 92705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 835-2868
Mr. H.K.Uka
MDA 02-041      Awarded: 05FEB03
Title:Miniature Interceptor Technology
Abstract:Multi Functional Structures primarily use flexible circuit technology which consist of a plane of insulating material with a plane of conductive metal usually made of copper. This plane of metal is further converted to plurality of conductors to accomplish interconnection functionality. MFS technology offers substantially lower mass and volume with higher functionality. The technology allows many options for termination. Flexible circuits simplify the design with improved reliability.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard, Mailstop 100
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Thomas J. Bartolac
MDA 02-041      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Mass Fabricated Technology Integration for use in Miniature Interceptor Applications
Abstract:Fully autonomous miniature interceptors, <10% the size of MMKV-type architectures, are feasible if component and subsystem integration is done by design during the fabrication process. Tanner Research, using highly evolved MEMS-based manufacturing techniques commonly used in their Class 1000 clean room, propose to radically reduce the need for costly integration of many component parts of a miniature interceptor front-end. For example, by integrating in a single manufacturing process an IR bolometer, tunable optical filtering and flash cooling. These are all critical optical subsystems that can be batch fabricated simultaneously to create low-cost multi-mode optical sensors. Similarly, the `integrated' optical front-end (bolometer, cooling and filters) can be further integrated with readout and signal processing microelectronics on or near the FPA. Conceptually, all MEMS-based components are fabricated simultaneously. This MEMS-based integration provides a mature, low-cost approach to achieve hyperspectral seeker functionality with reduced footprint, mass and power: critical features for low-risk miniature interceptors. Tanner Research proposes to reduce the overall system cost of implementing miniature interceptor technology by using MEMS fabrication techniques adapted from the microelectronics industry. Interceptor optical front-end fabrication, in MEMS, will be done in its entirety at Tanner Research, and will be facilitated by multiple ongoing projects, including fabricating tunable optical filters for NASA, digitally-controlled micro thruster arrays for MDA, and single substrate IMU under subcontract for an AFRL SBIR Phase II. Highly integrated optical systems, fabricated using MEMS-based techniques, provide a low risk methodology for developing low-cost miniature interceptor seekers with critical hyperspectral functionality.

RYDAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
1523 Noble Road
Rydal, PA 19046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 886-5678
Dr. Warren A. Rosen
MDA 02-042      Selected for Award
Title:A High-Performance Mezzanine Card for Missile Defense Applications
Abstract:Rydal Research proposes to research and demonstrate the feasibility of developing a high-performance modular mezzanine card that meets the stringent requirements of the missile environment. The card will be based on the RapidIO network protocol and will provide throughput in the 4-8 Gb/s range with latencies comparable to local memory access. The card will also be flexible in terms of future processor and memory upgrades. Feasibility will be demonstrated using advanced design, modeling, and simulation techniques as well as component test and evaluation of key elements of the system. The goal of the Phase I effort is to insure a low-risk insertion of the technology into the next generation of missile defense systems. The development and demonstration of this system will benefit missile defense in two ways. First, it will provide an order of magnitude improvement in network throughput and latency. This level of improvement may make possible near-linear parallel speedup in applications with increasingly fine-grain characteristics while substantially reducing cost, size, and weight. Second, by providing a low-cost means to implement high-performance parallel processing machines, this development will spur the growth of COTS components supporting these systems as well as research into operating systems, architectures, and algorithms based on them, further improving the performance and reducing the cost of future missile systems.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Dr. V. Nagarajan
MDA 02-042      Selected for Award
Title:Modular Micro Processor Assembly Utilizing RapidIO High Speed Interconnect
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation (SFC), the sister-company of Systran Corp., which is a Products Development and Marketing Company specializing in real-time, high-performance networking, has proposed to design and develop PMC-like Processor Cards and Carrier Cards with RapidIO switch-fabric connectivity. SFC has expertise in developing "switch fabrics" in general and "switch fabrics with RapidIO" in particular. Currently SFC is conducting a Phase II SBIR for the Air Force (F33615-01-C-1839) in which it is developing a board containing multiple RC-FPGAs (Reconfigurable Computing Field Programmable Gate Arrays) connected by RapidIO switch fabric. SFC and Systran have developed several Fibre Channel switch fabric based products. SFC developed a Fibre Channel based switch on a Phase II SBIR contract (F33615-94-C-1552) and commercialized it through Systran. SFC also has expertise for developing "PMC-like" cards. On a Phase II SBIR (F33615-94-C-3607), SFC developed a PMC card for Systran's shared-memory networking product SCRAMNetƒ. Both Systran and SFC have developed several electronic products (switch fabrics, backplanes, network interface cards, carrier cards, and various electronic cards) in many configurations and form factors. Thus, the expertise to design RapidIO-based PMC-like processor module for MDA exists at SFC. In addition, both SFC and Systran have a good track record of commercializing government-funded research. The PMC-like Processor Cards and the Carrier Cards will lead to the development high-performance and highly-scalable multiprocessor systems that would be vary valuable to MDA and commercial companies that face computation-intensive problems, which must be solved.

I TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
2663 Wayside Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 761-3174
Dr. Robert E Sampson
MDA 02-043      Awarded: 10DEC02
Title:Longwave Infrared Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of a fast imaging spectro-polarimeter for the measurement of spatial, spectral, and polarization signatures of both targets and backgrounds for improving target recognition and discrimination. The proposed innovative snapshot imaging sensor provides spatial, spectral, and polarization information on each pixel in the longwave infrared wavelength band at each frame time. This unique approach elimanates scanning through the spectrum as required by conventional approaches and provides for rapid construction of spatial, spectral, and polarization data sets including all four Stokes vectors for each pixel at each wavelength. The proposed instrument design is field portable and has no moving parts. The proposed project builds on developments at the University of Arizona's Optical Detection Laboratory and provides the most comprehensive and versatile sensor developed to date. Commercial applications of this technology are numerous because of the capability of the sensor to provide spatial, spectral, and polarization information simultaneously. The instrument can operate in any environment and is field portable and rugged. Applications include security, mineral and material identification, fire detection, medical applications, landmine detection, and military target detection and identification.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 536-2428
Mr. Kyle Zeringue
MDA 02-043      Awarded: 24JAN03
Title:Polarization Modeling of Targets & Environmental Backgrounds
Abstract:PRA will incorporate polarization signature modeling capability into their 3D Genesis code. Research will also investigate incorporating terrestrial and atmospheric polarization effects into the model. This will rely on PRA's extensive experience in programs such as SSGM. PRA will exercise and extend theoretical models to simulate emission of scattering polarization data where needed. A Fresnel model incorporating surface roughness and index of refraction will be employed. These data and existing material databases will be used to model the polarization signatures of objects. The goal is to have 3D Genesis running as a polarization target signature code by the end of Phase 1. Future extensions will include implementing the background polarization modeling. Phase 2 will involve comparisons of simulations to field measurements and exploitation of the polarization signatures for object identification, orientation and discrimination problems. For known object shapes, the polarization signatures determine orientation. For unknown objects, polarization signatures can help in identification of the object shape by referencing known signatures for objects such as cones, cylinders, spheres, or composite objects formed by the basic shapes. Time varying polarization signatures can greatly impact capability to separate targets from natural backgrounds and in discrimination of threat objects from those that are benign. The capability to model target and background polarization signatures allows improved capability to perform key target identification and discrimination functions. A valuable system design and system integration tool will result from this work. A future commercial software simulation product will result from this project. The same technology has application to industrial process monitoring where identification of material stresses can be discovered in the manufacturing process or in quality control of products such as metal and ceramic tubing, glass products such as building and automobile windows. There is a potential application of polarization technology to recognizing airborne hazards such as volcanic dust plumes, which have caused near catastrophic engine flameouts on commercial airliners. A monitoring system is potentially feasible at a cost level that would allow installation on individual aircraft.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9095
Dr. David B. Chenault
MDA 02-043      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Passive, Active Stokes Polarization Imaging System
Abstract:Seekers for BMD interceptors must acquire, track, discriminate, and determine aimpoints in the presence of difficult physical and countermeasure environments. Polarization imaging has the strong potential to provide additional information over conventional radiance imaging sensors. Polarized hardbodies can be discriminated from unpolarized plumes, debris, and wakes and RV's can be discriminated from decoys that have different materials and geometries. A number of instruments have been fabricated to take advantage of this phenomenology. Most of these instruments suffer from polarization channel IFOV misregistration either temporally or spatially that can lead to polarization artifacts. An architecture is required that eliminates the misregistration in a small, rugged, and cost-effective sensor package. In this SBIR, SY Technology proposes to develop a novel imaging polarimeter architecture. The architecture acquires multiple polarization channels simultaneously by projecting multiple images of the target onto a single focal plane array using division of aperture techniques. This approach produces multiple images that are co-boresighted and that eliminates relative movement of the polarization images due to thermal or vibration loads. Designs and performance evaluations will be developed for the UV, visible, and LWIR. A detailed design for one of the wavebands will enable rapid development of the sensor in Phase II. The development of the proposed architecture will allow light weight, real-time imaging polarimeters to be fabricated suitable for integration into missile seekers for all parts of the BMD mission. Additional military applications include tactical missile seekers, and airborne and space-based surveillance sensors, mine detection, and homeland security. Commercial applications include enhanced medical imaging, remote sensing (agricultural crop monitoring and drug detection), aerosol particle size determination, ice detection (aircraft and roads), and surface quality measurements in manufacturing.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-4529
Dr. J. Paige Stevenson
MDA 02-044      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Very Low Absorption ISAM Coatings
Abstract:The proposed research program will develop a high-reliability, cost-effective application technique for coating optical elements that are subject to intense laser fluences to control the reflectivity from the element surface. The coating technique is called Ionic Self-Assembly of Monolayers (ISAM) and has been an area of intense research and development at Luna Innovations. The original ISAM process was used to coat substrates with ionic polymers, but the technique can be used to deposit a mixture of ionic polymers and nanoparticles (or microparticles), or to deposit a mixture of two different nano/microparticles. This method of creating multifunctional thin-films monolayer by monolayer has been proven to yield self-assembled, homogeneous polymer thin films that can be deposited on any size and shape substrates, as well as on transparent flexible substrates. The ISAM technique allows for precise structural and thickness control at the nanometer level as well as for fabrication of thick multi-layer films. Luna Innovations and its research collaborators have previously demonstrated that the ISAM technique can be used to fabricate a variety of self-assembled, electronically and photonically- active polymeric thin films. The development of the very low absorption films is an important component in the development of highly reflective or anti-reflective coatings. Very low absorption coatings have commercial applications in the development of coatings that reduce solar loading, with applications in the automotive industry and various commercial coatings. The films can reduce the heating in buildings and automobiles due to infrared absorption, thus reducing their cooling costs. Another use for this technology is in the drilling and cutting industry.

SIGMA TECHNOLOGIES INTL, INC.
10960 N. Stallard Place
Tucson, AZ 85737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Dr. Michael G. Mikhael
MDA 02-044      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Multilayer Organic Polymer Optical Coatings
Abstract:Fabricating a multilayer optical coating for laser reflection is an expensive and complicated process. The accuracy and reproducibility of coating thickness and quality is major technical challenge. In order to extend the life and the durability of an optical coating it is necessary to address the design and production of a superior quality multilayer. This proposal addresses an innovative process for vacuum depositing multilayer organic structure in a very precise and consistent manner. Technology proposed for this program will play a key role in improving the performance, durability, and cost for optical coatings. Commercial applications include improved optical components for laser based drilling and cutting industries, low cost, large area optical coatings for solar reflectors, and high performance ultra-narrow notch transmission coatings (Rugate filters).

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-5909
Dr. Nick M. Sbrockey
MDA 02-044      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Very Low Absorption Interference Coatings for 1.0 to 1.3 Micron Laser Optics
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project will develop a novel thin film deposition technology to produce oxide thin films with very low optical absorption. In this Phase I effort, we will demonstrate proof of concept for the deposition technology, and that the resulting films have very low optical absorption in the spectral range of interest to the MDA. We will also demonstrate that the films are suitable for integration into high power laser optics, having predictable optical properties and very low residual stress. In Phase II, we will develop an integrated deposition system to deposit optical coatings on large substrates. We will demonstrate that the technology can produce optical coatings on large substrates, with precise control of film thickness and uniformity. We will also design and develop functional optical interference coatings using this technology. We will demonstrate that the coatings have low optical absorption and excellent performance in high power laser applications. In phase III of this effort, will commercialize this technology for MDA needs, as well as for other potential applications. The successful conclusion of this effort will meet specific needs for coating of high power laser optics for missile defense. We also anticipate that the resulting optical coating technology will be useful in other areas, such as laser optics for medical, scientific, spectroscopic and materials processing applications. The technology could also be useful in high temperature optical applications, such as for illumination and video projection. In addition, we anticipate that this novel deposition technology will also be applicable to other materials systems, such as carbide and nitride thin films. Coating systems for these materials could be marketed to the electronics, optics, data storage and hard coating industries.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. David Sheikh
MDA 02-044      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Extremely Uniform, Very Low Absorption Coatings for Large Aperature Optics
Abstract:Emerging laser weapon systems require extremely uniform, defect free, coatings applied to optics in excess of 1-meter in diameter. Multilayer dielectric coatings have been developed to provide high reflectivity and very low absorption for high power laser beams. However, many of the best theoretical coating designs currently cannot be effectively manufactured because of the inability to precisely control the thickness of individual coating layers. Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), in conjunction with Schafer Corporation, propose to demonstrate a very low absorption (VLA) coating process capable of achieving extreme uniformity (< 1% thickness variation) for mirrors up to 2.5 meters in diameter. The proposed innovation combines Surface Optics' 3.3-meter in-situ, motion-controlled coating chamber with Schafer's masking and thin film design capabilities. This innovation would create a unique capability in the United States, and would not require capital investment, as all of the manufacturing components are currently operational. Schafer Corporation is recognized for pioneering VLA coating technology for chemical lasers. By employing Schafer's mask design technology with SOC's motion controlled evaporation system, coating designs that require less than 1% film uniformity can be created on large substrates, for the most demanding high power laser applications. By improving the uniformity of optical coatings to better than 1% over large areas, SOC will be in a strong technical and cost competitive position to provide VLA coatings to the government for laser weapon systems. Improved uniformity of optical coatings will also allow immediate improvement to SOC's other multi-layer structures such as reflector thermal control coatings and multi-layer coatings for spacecraft sunshields.

BRIMROSE CORP.OF AMERICA
5024 Campbell Blvd.,, Suite E
Baltimore, MD 21236
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 668-5800
Dr. Chen Chia Wang
MDA 02-045      Awarded: 04DEC02
Title:Improve/develop metrology for VLA (very low absorption) Coatings: Interferometer-less Coherent Optical Topographic Mapping Technique With Sub-Nanomet
Abstract:We present in this proposal an interferometer-less optical topographic mapping technique capable of monitoring, for example, the surface quality of coatings on the optics to be deployed in the ABL program. Unlike crystal monitors that are displaced away from the optic under coating, our proposed remote-sensing technique can directly measure the coating characteristics on the substrate and during the coating/manufacturing processes without pausing and removing the optic out of the coating chamber. Two-dimensional photo-EMF sensor arrays can be developed to monitor the optics surface quality over a wide area, making them especially ideal for diagnosis purposes on large aperture optics used by ABL. Sub-nanosecond response times of the proposed photo-EMF sensors allow near-instantaneous determination of coating quality which can be used to provide real-time feedback to the coating processes. Successful execution of this proposed program will lead to novel technologies capable of high precision determination of coating thickness and surface flatness. Potential commercial applications range from semiconductor chip fabrication, magnetic disk quality control, mask-less photolithography, as well as optical fiber dispersion characterization for the telecomm industries.

METASTABLE INSTRUMENTS, INC.
5988 Mid Rivers Mall Drive - Suite 236
St. Charles, MO 63304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 447-9555
Dr. George Dube
MDA 02-045      Awarded: 06DEC02
Title:Improve/develop metrology for VLA (very low absorption) Coatings
Abstract:Minimizing the optical absorption of thin films is crucial to producing low loss, high laser damage threshold coatings for mirrors, windows and other optical components. Determining absorption by measuring the loss of power in a reflected or transmitted light beam is not practical because the single pass absorption is often only a few parts per million. Existing procedures illuminate the coating with a powerful light beam and use another light beam (mirage effect), photoacoutics or calorimetry to relate the observed thermal phenomena to the absorption of the film. We propose a 100-fold enhancement in the sensitivity of all techniques by changing the illumination from near normal incidence to internal reflection beyond the critical angle. The resulting attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) increases the absorption of most coatings by more than three times. An additional 10 to 100-fold increase is available if the internally reflected beam is routed to experience multiple internal reflections, as in commercially available (ATR) plates. In combination, these changes increase the sensitivity of absorption measurements by 100 times or more. The technique can be used on the actual substrate, as the coating is being applied in a vacuum chamber and/or on a separate monitoring plate. Real time monitoring of absorption as coatings are being deposited will allow coaters to optimize coating processes and designs to produce improved coatings. Higher yields of lower-loss coatings will save millions of dollars and improve the performance of laser weapons and a host of other optical systems

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
MDA 02-045      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Improve/Develop Metrology for VLA (Very Low Absorption) Coatings
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I Project will determine the feasibility of a novel instrument for measuring the quality of very low absorption (VLA) optical coatings. The instrument is based on the laser-induced surface thermal lens effect and will include a common-path interferometer to reduce sensitivity to alignment and mechanical vibrations. That will make this technique suitable for in-situ measurements during coating deposition. Detection sensitivity levels are similar to photothermal deflection and photo-acoustic techniques, for which absorbance levels of 0.1 ppm have been reported. The feasibility study will determine the optimal excitation and probe waveforms required for maximum signal-to-noise ratios. The proposed instrument allows determination of several optical, thermal and mechanical parameters, such as absorption, reflection, wavefront distortions, adhesion, and thin layer thermal conductivities. A compact fiber-optic design allows the proposed instrument to be easily retrofitted to existing coating chambers. Signal detection can be performed outside the chamber, while information retrieval will be based on demodulation techniques used in related products developed by MetroLaser, such as the Laser Doppler Vibrometer, VibroMet„, and a patented wavefront sensor, the PhaseCam„. High power lasers have become key devices in many industrial processes, and as a result, optical coatings are ever more becoming the critical components of such devices. The proposed device will therefore have valuable use as an ultra-sensitive inspection tool for high power lasers in a very broad range of applications.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. David Sheikh
MDA 02-045      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Optical Monitoring of VLA Coating Process Using HyperSpectral Imaging
Abstract:Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) proposes the use of an in-house developed real-time hyper-spectral imaging system, known as the SOC-700, for monitoring and controlling optical coating processes. Multi-layer coatings have been developed to provide very low absorption (VLA) for high power laser beams. Despite the progress made in the field of multilayer optical coatings, damage by the high power laser beams remains a problem because of the inability to precisely monitor and control the vacuum coating processes. The SOC-700 is comprised of a high-speed, low-noise visible/near-IR camera, high quality spectrometer and integrated scanning system and software. This system can obtain and process 100 megabyte hyperspectral data cubes in 6.4 seconds. The data cube contains spectral information on 120 different color bands per pixel over a wavelength range of 0.4 to 0.9 microns. By using this camera to record color changes of a growing optical film, information pertaining to the thickness of the growing film, and the film's refractive index, may be directly computed in real-time. Surface Optics Corporation also specializes in optical coating processes and will test this hyperspectral camera by integrating it with one of SOC's vacuum deposition chambers as part of this SBIR. Development of this real-time hyperspectral process monitoring technology for vacuum applied coatings, has a very great potential for use in the optical coating market. This technology offers a substantial break-through in the field of real-time optical coating measurement, and will lead to the production of higher performance coatings, such as the VLA coatings required for high power laser applications.

CASE ENGINEERING, INC.
5925 Imperial Pkwy, Suite 226
Mulberry, FL 33860
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(863) 701-2822
Mr. John L. McKelvey
MDA 02-046      Selected for Award
Title:Air-transportable, Rapid Production Mixed-base Hydrogen Peroxide System
Abstract:A batch mixing system that can operate in a semi-continuous mode best lends itself to our thermal management approach. We can demonstrate this approach allows for a rapid rate of MHP production with reduced complexity and levels of redundancy consistent with reliable operation. Since the final MHP product will be sensitive to heat and contamination, equipment selection will have to be made accordingly. Safety issues regarding the handling of alkali solutions, concentrated hydrogen peroxide and MHP will have to be addressed in system design. Provisions will have to be made to neutralize and dispose of system waste streams, as is practicable. Some solid wand liquid waste disposal will have to be addressed. In order for the system to be air-transportable and able to be rapidly assembled, it will have to be designed and fabricated as individual process modules. Each module will be pre-assembled, wired to electrical panels integral to the module and operationally tested before deployment. Interconnections for power and controls between modules would be properly sized and configured "plug-in" cables. Interconnecting piping will also be designed for a "quick-connect" configuration. The techniques developed for rapid cooling of high-viscosity, low heat transfer fluids could improve production efficiencies in the polymer and other chemical processing industries. The concept of transportable modular chemical processing plants (pilot-scale and/or full scale) could be applied to special situations in industry.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4181
Dr. Harris Gold
MDA 02-046      Selected for Award
Title:Development of an Air-Transportable, Rapid Production, Mixed Base Hydrogen Peroxide System
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency of the DoD needs to develop a system for the rapid production of mixed-base hydrogen peroxide (MHP). MHP, a key reagent used in chemical oxygen iodine lasers (COIL), is produced by blending two or more concentrated caustics solutions (LiOH, NaOH, and KOH) with hydrogen peroxide. The production system must be air-transportable, be configured for rapid setup on site, and be capable of producing 3000 kg MHP in a three-hour period. In addition, the components have to be cooled to around 0oC prior to blending, and the product maintained at -15oC. Challenges include provision of easily addressable automatic controls to blend the components in any desired sequence, and achieving a blend accuracy of 0.5 percent by weight. This latter requirement is complicated by variations in composition and temperature of the stored feedstock. Another challenge is to design the heat exchangers to meet the rapid cooling duty, especially for the concentrated caustic solutions that have poor heat transfer characteristics. Finally, all the solutions are hazardous and corrosive, so particular attention must be paid to the selection of materials of construction, provision of vented storage tanks with secondary containment, explosion-proof electromechanicals, redundant key equipment, and emergency facilities. (P-020647) The automatic controls and associated software system for achieving the high blend accuracy and the heat exchangers developed for viscous, low heat transfer liquids will find application in the polymer, petroleum, and organic synthesis industries.

MONTEC RESEARCH
1901 South Franklin
Butte, MT 59701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 723-2222
Mr. Joel Pierce
MDA 02-046      Selected for Award
Title:Acoustically Intensified Reactor-Driven Mixed-base Hydrogen Peroxide System
Abstract:This Phase I project will develop and demonstrate an advanced process that utilizes a novel, high-intensity, low-frequency acoustic mixing technology in a system to rapidly produce a specialty fuel for use in chemical oxygen iodine lasers. The fuel is a highly-reactive, mixed-base hydrogen peroxide (MHP). The MHP is used by a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), which is the central element for the Airborne Laser (ABL) weapons system. The proposed technology is flexible enough to provide for mixing of the components in any order. The compact size and compartmentalization of the system make it readily transportable by aircraft. The Phase I project will incorporate experimental work to generate mass and heat transfer data as it pertains to the reacting system, bound the stability of the process and develop control information. Results of the proposed work will be used to engineer the system. The Phase I deliverable is a preliminary process design package consisting of a process flow diagram, piping and instrumentation diagrams, a major equipment list, a preliminary layout and an electrical single line diagram. Phase II will result in the design, fabrication and delivery and operation of a fully operational prototype system. The proposed technology has direct application to processes where exothermic reactions in viscous fluids must be processed under carefully controlled conditions such as those in the polymer industry and to other chemical industrial processes where process intensification is sought, for example, to increase throughput of existing facilities or to minimize the amount of hazardous materials that must be processed at a given time.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2331
Dr. Bryan M. Smith
MDA 02-046      Selected for Award
Title:Portable, Modular System for MHP Production
Abstract:The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a promising new weapon system with potential to rapidly vaporize missile casings in flight. Advanced testing of the system requires relatively large quantities of the oxygen source, a mixed-base hydrogen peroxide (MHP). Unfortunately, the MHP is unstable at ambient temperatures and its preparation from the mixed alkali hydroxides and hydrogen peroxide is itself exothermic. The MHP must therefore be prepared on site at the COIL test facilities and, ultimately, at points of COIL deployment. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) therefore proposes to design a fully automated, versatile, robust, modular, and portable facility for the production of MHP. The preliminary design incorporates redundant cooling capacity and an uninterruptible power supply for safety, allows for the accurate preparation of an infinite range of MHP compositions, and allows continued operation even in the event of failure of or damage to any main component. At the end of the Phase I project, we propose to have a design ready for prototype construction in Phase II. COIL systems may also be used industrially for rapid cutting of large sheets of construction materials in, for example, shipbuilding and large aircraft manufacture. For these applications to be developed, on-site production of MHP will be required, and the same portable production facilities developed under this project would be perfectly suitable.

VITOK ENGINEERS, INC.
10720 PLANTSIDE DRIVE
LOUISVILLE, KY 40299
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(502) 426-7770
Mr. Phil N. Hambrick
MDA 02-046      Selected for Award
Title:Air-transportable, Rapid Production Mixed-base Hydrogen Peroxide System
Abstract:Mixed Base Hydrogen Peroxide (MHP) has been utilized and well documented in its application to Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) and Airborne Laser (ABL) systems. There is, however, a need to vary recipes of a variety of hydroxides with H2O2 and mix these in a system that is portable. Design of a small scale, air transportable unit, capable of mixing/blending a variety of (MHP) recipes will be completed in Phase I. This unit will be unique in its design in that the components, including instrumentation and controls, are sized/located in a novel manner to assure air transportability with simple and quick assembly/disassembly. VEI has significant experience (35 years) in development of chemical processes, and incorporating these process designs with equipment selection to assure conformance to predetermined size constraints. VEI has outlined a comprehensive Phase I plan for development of process and design of process system equipment to achieve air transportability. This system has the capability to easily be increased in size from 3000 kg per three (3) hours (Phase I parameters) to well over twenty (20) times this volume, which would apply to commercial production and applications. The development of a simple and quick setup, deployable MHP processing system will establish a system capable of being utilized at almost any location. The initial small-scale air transportable unit developed primarily for the military will be extremely useful and beneficial to commercial companies who desire to obtain a pilot (test) facility. This facility can be set up on companies' premises to test the concept of MHP and allow for long-term evaluation of the system and its product(s) to determine applicability for each commercial application. Based upon the initial design and success in prototype testing, commercial scale systems can be designed and developed. This system may be skid mounted (modularized) or, more likely, scaled up to much larger sizes, which would require larger scale, permanently mounted components. While the government applications related to COIL and ABL and propulsion are well known, it is likely that the final products could achieve a wide variety of commercial uses in areas such as textile, polymers, foods, minerals, petrochemicals, waste water applications, and the like.

CBL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1095 Eden Bower Lane
Redwood City, CA 94061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 725-6910
Dr. Glenn Solomon
MDA 02-047      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Development of low defect, thermally dissipative and capacitively isolated GaN semi-insulating platforms for power amplifier modules
Abstract:To provide increased power, bandwidth and power added efficiency to current transmit/receive (T/R) modules for X-Band radar systems, GaN-based high-power amplifiers are needed to replace current GaAs-based systems. To meet a target output of 30 watts per module at 10GHz proper thermal heat dissipation and capacitive isolation must be integrated into the GaN amplifier modules. Therefore, an appropriate buffer layer platform will be a critical issue in the development of these next generation modules. SiC substrate platforms offers good thermal dissipation, and at first glance appears like an appropriate choice. However, micropipes in SiC substrates compromise yields; more importantly, capacitive coupling, due to high background carrier concentration, remains a serious issue without a clear immediate solution. Thick GaN buffer layers are an alternative approach. The thermal conductivity of GaN is sufficient for thermal dissipation. While GaN is typically n-type in the low 1E17/cm3 range, CBL Technologies, Inc. has developed a semi-insulating GaN technology. A further benefit of the GaN buffer layer is the improved material quality and associated transistor lifetime performance. Based on thick GaN layers grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE), this platform will provide both the necessary thermal dissipation and capacitance isolation for GaN-based X-Band radar systems. modules. Therefore, an appropriate substrate or buffer layer platform will be a critical issue in the development of these next generation modules. SiC substrate platforms offers good thermal dissipation, and at first glance appears like an appropriate choice. However, micropipes in SiC substrates compromise yields; more importantly, capacitive coupling, due to high background carrier concentration, remains a serious issue without a clear immediate solution. GaN substrates and thick GaN buffer layers are an alternative approach. The thermal conductivity of GaN is sufficient for thermal dissipation. While GaN is typically n-type in the low 1E17/cm3 range, CBL Technologies, Inc. has developed a semi-insulating GaN technology. Based on thick GaN layers grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE), this platform will provide both the necessary thermal dissipation and capacitance isolation for GaN-based X-Band radar systems. Improved high-frequency device isolation for transistor components in T/R modules Thermal management of high-performance amplifiers Improved device material quality leading to improved lifetime performance

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
MDA 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Gallium Nitride Microelectronic Devices Produced on Gallium Nitride Substrates
Abstract:This program will demonstrate high-performance GaN microelectronic devices for X-band radar applications by using novel device designs and single crystal gallium nitride substrates. FETs for power amplifiers will benefit from lower defects resulting from growth on a native GaN substrate, improved device design, including features such as gate recess and passivation layers, and device cooling. The main goals of the Phase I research are to analyze technical issues and develop implementation plans for production of GaN devices with advanced device structures. Proof of concept efforts will include growth and fabrication of GaN FETs on GaN substrates. With these approaches and device improvements, advances in device efficiency, stability, and reliability will be achieved. Phase II work will focus on the further development of devices and integrated power amplifier modules. GaN-based FET technology with high device efficiency, stability, and reliability will benefit commercial electronic applications throughout several industries, including wireless communications infrastructure and mobile phones, commercial radar, and satellites. Demonstration of the applicability of GaN substrates in these applications will expand their implementation in other technological areas, such as improving the performance of GaN-based optoelectronic devices.

MAGELLUS CORP.
c/o For-e-tel, 1406 Camp Craft Road, Suite 80
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 471-0537
Dr. Russell D. Dupuis
MDA 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:ADVANCED DEVICE PROCESSING FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE,HIGH-RELIABILTY NITRIDE ELECTRONICS
Abstract:The primary objective of this SBIR program is the development of HIGH-RELIABILITY NITRIDE DEVICE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY?i.e., to establish the device fabrication processes required to realize a variety of novel devices having improved-performance for III-N based heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) [or high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs)] for the mid-to-high-frequency range (10-150GHz). Phase I will concentrate on novel device technologies and ?proof of concept? experiments and Phase II will further develop and transfer this technology into production at Magellus Corporation. These devices will be capable of operation at high frequencies (above 20GHz), high power densities (above 10W/mm), and high temperatures (above 300C). One important application for these devices will be the realization of high-performance transmit/receive RF circuits for high-efficiency radar. The theoretical performance of these devices is estimated to be at least a factor of three above the best values for nitride HFETs presently reported in the literature. By using novel AlGaN/GaN HFET device designs (developed in a companion MDA-sponsored STTR program recently awarded to Magellus) combined with the use of novel device passivation procedures and Ohmic contact designs, we will develop high-performance devices, which will be incorporated into RF circuits in Phase II of this SBIR. The impact of this work will be extremely broad and will provide improved performance, high-frequency, high-power RF and microwave sources for a variety of DoD and civilian applications, including wireless communications base stations, transmit/receive modules for X-band ballistic-missile-defense (BMD) radar and high-frequency secure communications applications.

OSEMI, INC.
OSEMI Incorporated, 300 First St. NE
Rochester, MN 55906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 285-4490
David Braddock & Rick Thompson
MDA 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:GaN Power MOSFET for Ka Band Power Amplifier
Abstract:We propose to take the next steps in demonstrating a highly linear GaN/AlGaN MOSFET-based power amplifier that will be have increased power, improved linearity, high bandwidth, and improved adjacent channel power ratio over that presently achieved in other GaAs and GaN power amplifiers through Ka band. In this work, OSEMI will use it improved Gate-Oxide technology to form the gate passivating and insulating layer upon high performance GaN/AlGaN HEMT structures by MBE. We will use this new MBE technology to (1) optimize the nucleation of oxide on GaN/AlGaN Power MOSFET Structures, (2) grow bulk oxide films with a bandgap in excess of 4.5eV, (3) and produce oxide films that possess good interface properties and a low residual conductivity (4) and Fabricate Power FETs in collaboration with the University of Michigan. Devices will characterized at DC and RF frequencies, and load pull measurements using the University of Michigan's unique load-pull capability will be utilized in Phase I. Devices will be modeled using G-PICES-IIB and in Phase II it is anticipated that the prototype GaN/AlGaN MOSFET power amplifier will be fabricated and tested at OSEMI utilizing newly acquired processing equipment. The development of a high quality gate oxide for GaN/AlGaN Power HEMTs will revolutionize the semiconductor industry by enabling a new class of highly linear lower noise power amplifiers that are compatible with the gate leakage levels of Si-LDMOS. We anticipate that the resulting FET technology would be able to operate at very high microwave and MM-wave frequencies and find use in DOD relevant missile, satellite, and land based applications. We also anticipate that this new GaN-MOS technology would find numerous applications in the commercial microwave electronics including enhancement mode power amplifiers for wireless base stations.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
500 Wynn Drive, Suite 504
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3415
Mr. W. Welman Gebhart
MDA 02-047      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Gallium Nitride (GaN) Device Technology Enhancements Leading to Advanced T/R Modules for
Abstract:Research, development, and experiment program that designs, develops, and conducts proof of concept demonstration for novel wideband powerline (PLN) technology to be integrated with Gallium Nitride Transmit/Receive (T/R) Module development. This initiative exploits and extends emerging PLN technologies that are commercially available. Approach replaces separate cables and wires with single multipurpose powerline that provides power, control signals, and RF signals to sub-array T/R modules. Low loss connectors inject and extract the signals from the cable; and, miniaturized power and signal adaptors are integrated to condition power to appropriate voltage levels for driving and demodulating T/R modules. Target objective enhancements for this wideband PLN technology initiative are: 1) increase bandwidth of powerline cables to Ghz's, 2) significantly reduce amount of cabling (cost and physical parameters), 3) improve overall system reliability, and 4) reduce the efficiency losses in cables, connections, and power adaptors. Tasks include: defining PLN requirements; surveying literature for optimum candidate supporting technologies; developing PLN phenomenology models; conducting proof-of-concept demonstration; and identifying technology transfer opportunities. Performance specifications will be developed for Phase II prototype that will replicate MDA component for comparison of performance, reliability, physical attributes, and life cycle cost. PLN technology has immediate application to all radar development and sustainment programs -easily inserted as supporting technology. Directly applies to as robotic instruments, weapons platforms, family of missiles, precision weaponry, medical and computer-aided applications. Benefits include: reduced manufacturing investment - tooling, components, and processes; increased system reliability with reduction of the multitude of piece parts, and increased throughput and speed due to elimination of many component sub-levels.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Ohalid Fareed
MDA 02-047      Awarded: 24JAN03
Title:High Precision in-situ Thickness Control for Growing AlN/GaN/InN-based High Power Transistor Structures
Abstract:We will develop commercially viable AlN/GaN/InN-based epitaxial wafer technology for manufacturing of reliable high microwave power transistors and amplifiers for new generation T/R modules. This technology is based on the development of a reproducible MOCVD epitaxial layer growth technology using novel high precision in-situ thickness control tools being developed by EMCORE Corp. We will combine our quaternary AlInGaN-based material growth expertise with the state-of-the-art MOCVD growth and characterization tools development at EMCORE. Recently, we demonstrated novel AlGaN/InGaN/GaN Double Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor design, which allowed us to suppress the current dispersion and dramatically increase the reliability of the devices. Despite impressive achievements, production of these devices is impossible without availability of commercial material supply, particularly, of large size epitaxial wafers with highly reproducible material properties. This project will allow us to precisely control the layer thickness of AlN/GaN/InN materials.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Ohalid Fareed
MDA 02-047      Awarded: 22JAN03
Title:Development of in-situ Temperature and Bowing Control Tools for AlInGaN-based High Power Transistor Structures
Abstract:We will develop commercially viable AlN/GaN/InN-based epitaxial wafer technology for manufacturing of reliable high microwave power transistors and amplifiers for new generation T/R modules. The technology will be based on the development of a reproducible MOCVD epitaxial layer growth technology using novel high precision in-situ surface temperature and substrate bowing control tools being developed by EMCORE Corp. Recently, we demonstrated novel AlGaN/InGaN/GaN Double Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor design, which allowed us to suppress the current dispersion and dramatically increase the reliability of the devices. Despite impressive achievements, production of these devices is impossible without availability of commercial material supply, particularly, of large size epitaxial wafers with highly reproducible material properties. This project will allow us to precisely control the layer thickness of AlN/GaN/InN materials.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Xuhong Hu
MDA 02-047      Awarded: 24JAN03
Title:High Power AlN/AlGaN/GaN Recessed Gate Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor
Abstract:We propose to develop a new approach to recessed gate/active passivation AlGaN/GaN FET technology for the development of high-power AlN/AlGaN/GaN recessed gate Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors (HFET) for microwave amplifiers. We will use our proprietary technology of the textured AlN thin film epitaxy by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on AlGaN or AlN. The etching rate of this material is at least two orders of magnitude higher that the etching rate of our regular AlN or AlGaN layer that can serve as an etch stop layer. Our preliminary capacitance voltage measurements demonstrate the increased sheet carrier densities and good pinch-off characteristics in the structures with such textured AlN layer. The thin textured AlN film can be easily wet etched by diluted KOH. The etching rate and etching pattern can be well controlled. Silicon nitride passivation will be used to prevent AlN oxidation. Our approach will help to increase the power levels and decrease the size microwave power amplifiers, which is a key for the Transmit/Receive (T/R) module.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Qhalid Fareed
MDA 02-047      Awarded: 24JAN03
Title: AlInGaN-based Epi for High Power Double Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors On Semi-insulating 6H-SiC Substrates
Abstract:We will develop commercially viable quaternary AlInGaN-based epitaxial wafer technology on semi-insulating 6H-SiC for manufacturing of reliable high microwave power transistors and amplifiers for new generation of radars and wireless communication systems. We will use our proprietary growth technology and unique buffer layer design to deposit quaternary AlInGaN-based Double Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (DHFET) structures with InGaN channels on semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates supplied by II-VI, Inc. This will allow us to combine the advantages of DHFET design (current collapse-free performance) with superior transport properties of epilayers grown over 6H-SiC substrates. We will perform detailed material/substrate interaction studies in order to optimize In-content in the InGaN channel and graded buffer design in order to achieve maximum RF output power combined with lowest RF power degradation. Increase in thermal conductivity of the substrate material is crucial for improved thermal management and, thus, increased microwave output and enhanced reliability of high-power devices. To date, most work in GaN-based high microwave power transistor development has been done using semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrates, which has less thermal conductivity than predicted value of 4.9 W/cm-K for 6H poly-type material. In Phase I, we will demonstrate DHFET epilayers with carrier sheet density time mobility in excess of 1.5 x 1016 V-1s-1 grown on semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates. In Phase II program, jointly with II-VI, Inc., we will scale-up the growth on 2" diameter (and up, contingent upon on substrate availability) AlInGaN-based DHFET epitaxial wafers. In Phase III program we will develop a large volume manufacturing technology for supply to DoD and commercial outfits.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Qhalid Fareed
MDA 02-047      Selected for Award
Title:High Temperature AlInGaN-based Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors Over Intrinsic Semi-insulating 6H-SiC Substrates
Abstract:We will develop commercially viable quaternary AlInGaN-based epitaxial wafer technology on semi-insulating 6H-SiC for manufacturing of reliable high microwave power, high operation temperature (300 oC and higher) transistors and amplifiers for new generation of T/R modules. We will use our proprietary MOCVD growth technology and unique buffer layer design to deposit quaternary AlInGaN-based Double Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (DHFET) structures with InGaN channels on intrinsically semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates under development at II-VI, Inc. This will allow us to combine the advantages of DHFET design (current collapse-free performance) with superior transport properties and high temperature performance of epilayers grown over 6H-SiC substrates. We will fabricate and test the device performance at elevated temperatures up to 350 oC in order to optimize epilayer design and suppress RF power degradation. We expect that these substrates will exhibit major improvements in performance of high power microwave devices at elevated temperatures. In Phase I, we will demonstrate DHFET epilayers with carrier sheet density time mobility in excess of 1016 V-1s-1 grown on intrinsic semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates. We will fabricate small periphery DHFETs grown over semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates with and without Vanadium doping. We will study high temperature RF characteristics of the devices deposited on both types of substrates under similar conditions (in a single growth run). In Phase II, jointly with II-VI, Inc. we will scale-up wafer growth technology on 2" diameter wafers for large volume supply to DoD and commercial outfits.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Andrew Wowchak
MDA 02-047      Awarded: 01FEB03
Title:Surfactant Enhanced Growth of High Quality Gallium Nitride (GaN) on Silicon for RF Power Amplifiers
Abstract:The wide bandgap material GaN is ideally suited for high power and high temperature electronics. Potential applications include high power devices such as amplifiers, mobile digital, point-to-point and satellite communications, wireless area networking (WAN), high temperature sensor and electronics for combustion control, and electronic actuators. An investigation into the feasibility of the growth of high quality GaN on surfactant treated silicon substrates is proposed. Unlike substrates currently used for the fabrication of GaN-based devices, large diameter silicon substrates are readily available. Since device throughput is proportional to the square of the wafer diameter this approach could significantly lower production costs. Such a silicon-based wafer platform could also provide the advanced architecture for integration of GaN-based devices into silicon circuits. Larger substrates will produce significantly less expensive devices such as HEMT and amplifiers for a variety of applications including radar systems and consumer electronics.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Brian Hertog
MDA 02-047      Awarded: 31JAN03
Title:Surface Passivation of Gallium Nitride (GaN) Based Devices and Circuits to Reduce Current Slump
Abstract:High power AlGa-nitride RF electronics are of great interest to various DoD applications. This proposal will utilize an advanced plasma deposition process to passivate surface traps on the devices, to dramatically reduce surface-related transient effects and improve the device performance. We will use this technique to produce high quality passivation layers, such that charge traps in the layer can be greatly reduced which have been found to be a source of the current slump in GaAs-based devices. During the Phase I of the project this deposition method will be investigated for the nitride material. HEMT devices with passivation layer will be fabricated and compared with our standard samples which has shown state-of-the technology high frequency performance. This process will be further optimized in the follow-on Phase II leading to significant improvement in the power capability of the nitride devices. The proposed passivation technique is expected to be scalable for commercial production and can be extended to a host of other device structures. Signifcant improvement in device performance for applications in high power, high frequency military and commercial systems.

F&H APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 853
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 235-6781
Mr. Roger Jones
MDA 02-048      Awarded: 10JAN03
Title:Dynamically Tunable, High Power Electro-Optic Microchip Laser Development for Hybrid LIDAR-RADAR
Abstract:Detection and tracking of missiles in the boost and midcourse phase through clouds, and the discrimination between missiles and decoys is crucial to our nation's missile defense system. The goal of the proposed program is to develop a dynamically tunable, high power, electro-optic microchip laser that will enable a more sensitive detection method, a hybrid LIDAR-RADAR. This technique combines the most advantageous features of RADAR and LADAR by impressing a millimeter-wave modulation (RADAR) on an optical carrier (LIDAR). In a conventional LIDAR system the intense scattering from the surrounding environment (clutter) prevents the use of coherent optical detection schemes and masks the image. The modulation on the light in LIDAR-RADAR allows for more sensitive and coherent detection of the microwave envelope (RADAR). This method has proven successful in underwater optical imaging systems. This project will show that the same advantages may be applied to atmospheric LADAR and will develop a dynamically tunable, high power, electro-optic microchip laser for the implementation of a hybrid LIDAR-RADAR system, which is the central focus of this effort. The viability of the approach and the electro-optic microchip laser has been demonstrated through preliminary experimentation. The expected performance of this hybrid LIDAR-RADAR far exceeds currently available LADAR. The devices we propose will be of unique benefit to our nation's missile defense system and for underwater target detection of mines and submarines, as well as for medical imaging.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 461-0235
Mr. Robert L. Bogusch
MDA 02-048      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Advanced Multi-Mode Seeker Technologies
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop an advanced in-flight interceptor communications system (IFICS) to support advanced seekers. Effective utilization of advanced multi-mode sensor technology to provide enhanced detection, discrimination, and guidance capabilities may involve increased information transfer between kill vehicles and ground segments or a reduced timeline for data transfer. This, in turn, will place additional stress on the data link between interceptor and ground terminal. The IFICS will therefore need to be upgraded to accommodate new requirements with adequate reliability in an operational environment. Amplitude fading and phase scintillation arising from signal propagation disturbances in the tactical environment impose a significant design challenge for this system. Consequently, emphasis in Phase I of this program will be placed on developing an advanced waveform for IFICS that will provide reliable communications in the presence of signal scintillation fading and vehicle dynamics. This will be accomplished using a combination of advanced modulation techniques and state-of-the-art error-correction coding technology. During Phase I, computer simulations will be used to evaluate design trade-offs and demonstrate the capability of advanced link designs. A prototype modem will be developed and tested in Phase II. The advanced IFICS will provide effective utilization of advanced seeker technology. It will enable the next generation of hit-to-kill vehicles to be tested and deployed. The advanced communications waveform can be adapted to a wide variety of non-military and commercial applications, including deep-space telemetry and terrestrial wireless communications.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
MDA 02-048      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Multi-Mode Dual Band Infrared FPA with Range Resolved LADAR Sensing
Abstract:This program will produce a sensor-fuzed ROIC design that combines three sensor types onto a single silicon die that will be fabricated in the Phase II effort. This proposal will detail the steps required to design a dual-band infrared/LADAR ROIC that offers many operational advantages including: - Single and Dual Color Operation - Independently adjustable integration times per color - Simultaneous photocharge integration and output sourcing for both colors - MWIR/MWIR, MWIR/LWIR or LWIR/LWIR operation with appropriate hybridized detector array - On-FPA temporal noise filtering and other mathematical operations - On-FPA 1 GHz phase-locked loop for LADAR timebase - On-FPA range resolution circuitry to produce 6 inch range resolution at ranges of up to 10 kilometers - High-speed analog front-end for LADAR stage using avalanche photodiodes. Recent designs provide the technical basis for this proposal, and a test chip will be fabricated in this Phase I to help verify the basis for a following Phase II design. Nova will significantly advance the state-of-the-art in mixed-mode FPA functionality with this technology development effort. This proposal demonstrates Nova's capability in designing, testing and integrating a new generation of innovative sensing technologies based on a variety of operational successes. The advanced capabilities provided by this new multi-mode infrared FPA device will allow seeker systems to be made with lower power, lower mass and a significantly higher level of data relevancy than can be produced with currently available sensor technology.

PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-8855
Dr. Maurice Pessot
MDA 02-048      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Random-Access Multi-Beam Oscillator (RAMBO)
Abstract:The past several decades have witnessed steady increases both in the number and the variety of optical sensors employed in guided weapons. As laser sources have become more efficient and cost-effective, this range of sensors has extended to target discrimination, over-the-horizon terminal guidance, end-game guidance for hit-to-kill, Doppler imaging LADAR, and proximity fusing. This has created a growing demand for lasers with outputs which can be steered within an extensive field. Responding to this need, we propose to develop a compact low-cost laser; the output of which can be switched internally so as to emerge from one of several exit ports in a random-access fashion. Electro-optic port-to-port switching occurs internal to the resonator; thereby eliminating the alignment and crosstalk issues which arise with separate source and switch configurations. Further features of the source include its high pulse rate and its ability to provide random-access switching in a time which is less than its interpulse period. Proof-of-concept experiments have separately demonstrated the accommodation of several tens of ports and the generation of 30-ns pulses at a pulse rate of 20 kHZ and an average power of several watts. The technology represented by the development of the RAMBO concept has direct application to a wide variety of commercial fields; prominent amongst which are precision machining, LADAR, telecommunications, and laser printing, to name but a few.

SMART PIXEL, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0206
Dr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 02-048      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Advanced Multi-Mode Seeker Technologies
Abstract:Avalanche photodetectors (APD) focal plane arrays (FPAs), with high sensitivity and large dynamic range are the most promising photodetectors for three dimensional imaging LADAR systems due to their low detectable powers and high performance. However, many present-day devices have poor bandwidths and noise properties because they exhibit comparable electron and hole impact ionization coefficients. We propose to fabricate two color APD FPA arrays for the detection of infrared wavelengths in the MWIR and LWIR ranges (3-5, 8-14 microns).The device architecture proposed here could easily be adapted for other wavelength combinations by adjusting the composition of the absorber layers. Planar device structures are used to assure full resolution. The improved detector properties result from the use of the semiconductor alloy Hg1-xCdxTe, which has substantially different electron and hole impact ionization coefficients and hence is uniquely suited to the task. The proposed work involves the use of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique to grow high quality HgCdTe layers on silicon substrates. Innovative separate absorption and multiplication APD device architectures will be optimized to increase the speed and reduce the noise. APD devices will be fabricated and tested to demonstrate their benefits. This effort will lay the groundwork for the production of multi-color APD FPAs suitable for enhanced target detection, on-board discrimination, and improved end-game guidance for hit-to-kill interceptors in the MWIR and LWIR range. The potential applications include military, space, communication, medical, optoelectronic and microelectronic applications. The proposed structures are expected to have a particular strength in the commercial marketplace due to the ability to tune the absorption wavelength in the SWIR and MWIR yet retain the high performance benefits of an optimized multiplication layer. The HgCdTe SAM-APDs could be incorporated into fast receiver modules, confocal microscopy and particle detection equipment. High efficiency LIDAR 3D imaging systems and DIAL receivers require photodetectors with high quantum efficiencies, high speed, low noise, and fast rise times. Free-space optical receiver systems for the direct detection of pulse position modulated signals need improved photodetectors to meet the requirement of a low bit error rate. APDs are unrivaled for all these applications in demonstrating low detectable power and high performance. HgCdTe-based APDs promise high performance in infrared spectral regions where present-day technology is unable to provide good operating characteristics.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard, Mailstop 100
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Ravi Verma
MDA 02-048      Awarded: 02JAN03
Title:Mass Fabricated Tunable Optical Filtering for Micro Miniature Multi-Mode and Hyperspectral Sensors
Abstract:Tunable MEMS-based optical filters, critical for use in multi-mode sensors, can be batch fabricated to develop hyperspectral compact lightweight optics for use in miniature kill vehicles. The MEMS-based tunable filter is an effective, low-cost approach to providing compact lightweight optics with hyperspectral functionality, particularly for use with miniature interceptor concepts with projectile diameters of 25-to-100mm and even smaller. Integrating by design, the MEMS-based tunable optical filtering with a MEMS-based IR bolometer, during fabrication, reduces system size and cost. More importantly, it may provide significantly higher mission performance because more very small, low-cost interceptors can be employed against a threat missile system protected by multiple countermeasures. Tanner Research proposes to dramatically reduce the cost to implement tunable optical filtering by using MEMS fabrication techniques adapted from the microelectronics industry. Tanner's MEMS-implementation will be based on the mature Fabry-Perot etalon filter technology used extensively in network optical switching. Tunable optical filter fabrication, and FPA integration in MEMS, will be done in its entirety at Tanner Research, facilitated by multiple ongoing projects, including fabricating similar tunable optical filters for NASA. Tanner Research will demonstrate batch fabrication of prototype tunable optical micro filters. In subsequent fabrication, Tanner will integrate a filter with a micro IR bolometer, or other FPA, and readout microelectronics, demonstrating a mature, low-cost manufacturing process. Furthermore, Tanner will demonstrate dynamic control of the tunable filter across multiple wave band gaps: e.g., from 3-to-5 micron; and, 8-to-12 micron. The tunable etalon design is multi-functional and can be used in other critical military applications like chemical-biological agent detection and identification using a specific wavelength absorption medium.

ADVANCED DEVICE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
8 Raymond Ave, Suite #4
Salem, NH 03079
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 894-1402
Dr. Peter J. Kannam
MDA 02-049      Awarded: 01FEB03
Title:Co-Located Dual Band (VLWIR1/VLWIR2) Focal Plane Arrays for Space Applications
Abstract:We propose to develop Co-Located Dual Band (VLWIR1/VLWIR2) Focal Plane Arrays on Strained Layer Superlattices (SLS) Material. We propose innovative Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/InAs SLS layers to produce detectors for very long wavelength (22 um). The key features are: 1) SLS Material Growth by Migration Enhanced Epitaxy (MEE) Technique. Type II SLS layers are grown with Migration Enhanced Epitaxy Technique by using a Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) reactor. 2) SLS Structures for VLWIR Waveband. Detailed analysis is conducted by using 8-band k.p. model to design SLS structures for Very-Long Wavelength (22um) detection. 3) Co-Located Dual Band (VLWIR1/VLWIR2) SLS Structures. Co-Located SLS Structures are grown for VLWIR1 (10-16um) and VLWIR2 (16-22um) waveband ranges with Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/InAs SLS layers. 4) Simultaneous Detection of Dual Band Signals. The readout circuitry and the interconnect scheme are designed to detect the two waveband signals in a simultaneous fashion during each frame. 5) Cross Talk Elimination. The design of the 2-color structure is such that the cross talk among the wave bands and also among the pixels are eliminated. High Performance Al(x)Ga(1-x) As/InAs dectors were already fabricated and tested for SWIR(1-3um) waveband. The results showed: Detectivity (cm-Hz(1/2)/W)=1.3E12 at 77K, 1.4E11 at 250K, 2E10 at 300K, and quantum efficiency (n) = 72% During Phase 1, the growth of Al(x)Ga(1-x)Sb/InAs SLS structures will be optimized and wafers will be grown of VLWIR1 (10-16um) and VLWIR2 (16-22um) wavebands. Also during Phase 1, p-i-n diode structures will be grown and single element detector fabrication will be initiated. During Phase 2, 4x4 element Co-Located Dual Band Detector Arrays will be fabricated and tested. Also during Phase 2, the fabrication of 320 x 256 element VLWIR focal Plane Arrays will be initiated. During Phase 3, IR Camera will be designed and built with VLWIR focal plane arrays to operate at 77K temperature levels. The proposed project will produce state-of-the-art VLWIR detectors for space applications. Additional military applications include: 1) threat warning reconnaissance, 2) automatic target recognition and discrimination and 3)clutter rejection. The commercial applications include: 1) remote airborne sensing, 2)medical imaging, 3)night vision equipment for navigation and law enforcement agencies, 4) environment monotoring, and 5) process control for manufacturing.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. Honnavalli R Vydyanath
MDA 02-049      Awarded: 03FEB03
Title:Multi-color HgCdTe Focal Plane Technology
Abstract:AVYD DEVICES proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an approach to fabricate multi-color HgCdTe detectors, utilizing group V dopant implants to form p-on-n junctions. Specifically, in Phase I, we intend to demonstrate a dual band detector and to extend it to additional spectral bands in Phase II. Geophysics, geology, remote/environmental IR sensing

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
714 Bond Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
MDA 02-049      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Multicolor VLWIR 3-D Stacked Integrated Focal Plane and Filtering Architectures
Abstract:Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) plans to seamlessly integrate analog sensor arrays and existing digital technology in a 3-D multi-chip (layer) configuration using massively parallel 3-D focal plane interconnection technologies that are now available. This will provide continuous dataflow between sensor arrays and image processing arrays, creating an entirely new paradigm for analog image processors. The proposed effort will examine the potential to incorporate multicolor processing into this new paradigm. Multi-color infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) processing can potentially exploit the phenomenology of an exo-atmospheric boosting target to provide a discriminant based on emissivity. The system is tuned to extract and track the range of emissivities corresponding to potential targets and to produce synthetic images for use in tracking algorithms. The Phase I effort will assess potential layered VLSI analog image processing architectures which will be used to apply emissivity-based synthetic imaging to multicolor IRFPA sensor data. It will provide candidate design concepts and performance specifications supporting the manufacture of hardware under an anticipated Phase II design effort. Multicolor processing provides a capability to use VLWIR sensing for cold body detection by providing a means to eliminate intensity variations due to emissivity variation with wavelength.. This is an especially important for the mid course detection of cold bodies against a cold sky background. The present proposal has the potential to allow a significant number of spectral bands (larger than the two or three provided by current technology) to be continuously and asynchronously detected while retaining a large responsive dynamic range in each band. Multicolor detection/processing in 3-D stacks can also potentially be used as a means to linearly, or nonlinearly, combine the operating characteristics of different colors as a means to improve overall performance. The combination of high quality multi-spectral detection supporting target analysis capabilities using non-linear motion energy image processing techniques integrated in analog VLSI image processors in compact, low power, military applications are ideally suited for lightweight interceptor technologies. The company's primary goal is to move this core technology into the military market with products using this technology initially be sold to military laboratories and aerospace corporations. Analog VLSI image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas including automatic inspection, biometric identification, security, surveillance, and other machine vision applications. To date, non-linear motion energy image processing technology using TAIP chip technology developed under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract in conjunction with temporal filtering capability developed under Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and ARMY Space & Missile Defense Command (ARMY-SMDC) contract has demonstrated significant utility in detection, track-before-detect capability when coupled with dynamic programming, and discrimination of low flying missile targets in moving background clutter. CSC is fulfilling current DARPA and Atmospheric Interceptor Technology (AIT) sponsored contracts while aggressively pursuing potential commercial opportunities for analog VLSI image processing applications. The unique and powerful capability to perform massive convolution functions in real-time, in a small package and with low power requirements will enable a new generation of intelligent systems not previously considered viable by system and product designers systems for performing sophisticated imaging tasks including automatic target recognition, target tracking, feature extraction, 3D reconstruction, image classification, and image understanding are critical for the building of compact, low powered deployable missile defense systems.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5830
Dr. Ayub Fathimulla
MDA 02-049      Awarded: 03FEB03
Title:Multi-color VLWIR Focal Plane Array for Space Applications
Abstract:The primary goal of the proposed Phase I SBIR project is to develop low dark current and high sensitivity detectors and FPAs operating at very long wavelengths. We will use innovative combinations of new materials and three-terminal detector concepts to produce detectors having room temperature responsivity greater than 1.0 A/W in the 12-20mm wavelengths range, one order of magnitude improvement over state-of-the-art room temperature, detectors in this wavelength band. In the Phase I project, we will investigate various material and device structures, select the most promising material structure and substrate for the VLWIR detectors and demonstrate a proof-of-the concept by fabricating simple devices. In the Phase II program, we will build upon the technology developed in Phase I to design, fabricate, and tests the prototype VLWIR two-color FPA and demonstrate detector arrays having, high uniformity and detectivities greater than 1E10 cmHz «/W. This project will result in two products: multi-color far infrared detector arrays and the materials for producing them. VLWIR focal plane arrays will be applicable in space-based imaging arrays and instrumentations such as for MDA?s SBIRS satellites, night vision imaging and battlefield surveillance and target acquisition. Commercial applications include law enforcement night vision imaging, environmental remote sensing and infrared spectroscopy.

FERMIONICS CORP.
4555 Runway St
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0155
Dr. Muren Chu
MDA 02-049      Awarded: 07JAN03
Title:Multi-color VLWIR Focal Plane Array for Space Applications
Abstract: The goal of this project is to use two innovative technologies to fabricate multi-color VLWIR HgCdTe FPAs for MDA's applications. In this program, the state-of-the-art ion implantation and double layer epitaxy techniques will be used for producing the VLWIR detectors and arrays. In Phase I, two types of devices will be fabricated and delivered to validate the technologies. The first is to fabricate and deliver discrete VLWIR HgCdTe diodes with a minimum wavelength of 17 mm and a target wavelength longer than 20 mm operating at 77K and/or 40K-60K. The second is to produce and deliver a 160x128, MWIR/LWIR (or MWIR/VLWIR) two-color HgCdTe FPA using a 320x256 readout circuit. In Phase II, the four-color HgCdTe VLWIR FPA technology will be fully developed. MWIR-MWIR-LWIR-VLWIR four-color HgCdTe FPAs using 640x512 readout circuits will be produced and delivered to the MDA for evaluation. In the meantime, relationships with US defense prime contractors will be established for marketing the FPAs. The militory space application is for missile tracking and imaging. The private sector applications include remote/environmental/agriculture/geophysics/geolog y IR sensing.

MP TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1801 Maple Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-7251
Dr. Steven Slivken
MDA 02-049      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Multi-Color VLWIR FPA Based on Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Nanostructures
Abstract:At present, the most promising technology for VLWIR focal plane array applications is III-V compound semiconductor superlattices based on arsenides and antimonides, such as type-II InAs/GaSb, because of their much larger area and bandgap uniformity, and higher operating temperatures than currently available technologies. It is here proposed to study the feasibility of innovative nanostructures in this material system to add arbitrary wavelength detection capability for multi-color VLWIR applications. The physical characteristics of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices and nanostructures will be modeled. Type-II materials will be grown and characterized, and nanostructures will be subsequently fabricated. Detectors based on this technology will be fabricated and tested in order to evaluate the viability of the proposed approach. Upon successful achievement of the proposed work, it is anticipated that a method of achieving multi-color VLWIR detectors using type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice material and nanostructures be demonstrated. Higher quality and uniformity material will be realized. This will in turn enhance the prospect of focal plane arrays exhibiting similar operational characteristics for space-based applications, including long range missile threat warning and astronomy. The developed material technology will also have a far reaching impact on the development of mid to very long wavelength infrared devices, such as uncooled infrared photon detectors and mid-infrared lasers.

NEW JERSEY MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
240 Martin Luther King Blvd.
Newark, NJ 07102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 297-1450
Dr. Donald E. Booth
MDA 02-049      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:VLWIR Radhard Focal Plane Array with Actuated Etalons
Abstract:The proposed VLWIR focal plane array is uncooled and frames images without temporal latency. The new imager technology proposed utilizes multiple MEMS image matrices and a rad hard semiconductor technology. Standard silicon imaging technology is coupled with MEMS etalons to produce a low cost, minimal weight, and NEDT levels fully comparable with LN-cooled HgCdTe arrays. Our proposed solution for MDA is based on US patents issued and pending that covers the rad hard, sensing, and systems aspects of the highly innovative imager. We propose 4 IR colors in the stated VLWIR range with simultaneous, frame-by-frame display readout. The New Jersey Microsystems multi-color imager permits separate sensors for acquisition, discrimination, and terminal guidance . During Phase I we will demonstrate a proof-of-concept to be further implemented with Phase II prototypes in partnership with a major DoD contractor. This multi-color VLWIR technology funded by MDA is a pioneering technology that can be tech transferred into commercial applications in years to come. The highly sophisticated MDA multi-color uncooled subsystem will eventually evolve to low cost multicolor systems for use by firefighters, ground security forces, surveillance, and guidance both in military and nonmilitary applications. The proposed is a generation beyond present day commercial application and will greatly extend the capability of single IR band systems currently available and make them available at low cost.

SMART PIXEL, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0206
Dr. Tae Seok Lee
MDA 02-049      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-color VLWIR Focal Plane Array for Space Applications
Abstract:We propose here a new generation of two color superlattice-based VLWIR detectors. The objective will be achieved by combining the advantages of the molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) crystal growth technique, and band gap engineering of a superlattice structure with reduced tunneling currents and accurate control of cut-off wavelengths. The proposed technology eliminates non-uniformity in the band gap of alloys that leads to high fixed pattern noise in the current technology. For improved space surveillance and threat warning capabilities, where the operability to permit tracking and discrimination at longer ranges for colder objects is absolutely necessary, a breakthrough sensor technology such as that proposed here is critical. Such systems are anticipated to have enormous potential not only in military, but also in commercial applications including remote/environmental IR sensing by NASA and civil airspace users.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 331-6322
Mr. Dave Weiss
MDA 02-050      Selected for Award
Title:Generalized TOM Handover Algorithm
Abstract:The success of the Missile Defense concept centers on the ability of the interceptor to correctly identify and hit the designated RV within the midcourse threat complex. Crucial in making the threat identification is the utilization of the Ground Based Radar tracking and classification information, which is provided in the TOM (Target Object Map). Because of the radar's relatively poor angular resolution, projection of the radar object's position and uncertainty ellipsoids into the interceptor's focal plane can provide a confusing situation when compared to what the interceptor is observing. In addition, the radar sees objects (e.g. radar balloons) not seen by the interceptor's IR sensor and vice versa. Hence the unambiguous threat designation is often not possible using metric information alone. PRA did some initial analysis on the LSI program to show the improvements possible when some radiometric and classification information were included in the handover. The radiometric information is the characteristic of the object's time signal which should be highly correlated between the radar and IR sensor since they are a result of the object's dynamics. The proposed SBIR is to develop an association algorithm that utilizes metric, radiometric and individual sensor classification information and is computationally feasible for implementation on the interceptor. The approach will be demonstrated against a single C3 scenario. The benefit of this algorithm development is a much higher probability of the interceptor correctly identifying and designating the RV threat amongst the midcourse cloud of objects. Thus the mission success probability can be increased dramatically. Commercially, the algorithms may have potential as a software module for set association with disparate pieces of evidence, fused from different sources (e.g. matching star catalogs).