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280 Phase I Selections from the 02.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
D-STAR ENGINEERING CORP.
4 Armstrong Road
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 925-7630
Mr. S. Paul Dev
NAVY 02-115      Selected for Award
Title:Stealthy, Efficient, Light-Weight, JP-8 Fueled Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for UGVs
Abstract:During successful development of small diesel engines and generator sets for the Army, DARPA, NASA and others, D-STAR has developed useful experience and technologies for small, compact, light-weight, high-speed diesel engines and power systems. During Phase I of the proposed effort, D-STAR will explore development of a JP-8 fueled hybrid diesel electric propulsion system for use on small Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). Proposed Phase I objectives include : Discussions with the Navy project sponsors, and possibly with UGV design study contractors (such as GD-RS, SAIC); Assessment of the state of the art of hybrid drive systems and components; Design trade studies of suitable heavy-fuel-powered hybrid drive systems for the intended family of UGVs; Exploration of applicable technologies for suppression of noise, smoke and IR emissions; Evaluation of feasibility of development and manufacture of the hybrid drive system; and Development of a Phase II plan and a Risk Management Plan for the system and its elements. A heavy-fuel, low-noise hybrid power system would be an ideal enabler of vehicle designs that are unconstrained by conventional engine designs and drive-train layouts. It would also be usable as the prime power for small UAVs, as an Auxiliary Power Unit for larger UGVs, and as a battery charger for squads and other teams of soldiers. Potential commercial applications include use as an Auxiliary Power Unit for small hybrid-electric road vehicles, and use as portable generator sets for use by emergency response and construction crews.

MESA ASSOC., INC.
9238 Madison Boulevard, Building 2, Suite 116
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 772-7025
Don W. Jones
NAVY 02-115      Selected for Award
Title:Affordable Hybrid Drive System for Small to Medium Sized Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)
Abstract:Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Technology has been in use in large vehicles for some time. This HEV Technology has yet to be adapted to unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) - especially in the smaller, 1,000 lb. class of UGVs. The objective of this effort is to develop an affordable diesel fueled, Hybrid Electric drive system that powers a 1300 lb. (590kg) GVW. UGV but scaleable to fit in 100 - 5000 lb. UGVs. The hybrid system and vehicle are capable of operating in extremely rough terrain, high and low temperature extremes, and steep slopes. It is also capable of speeds up to 35 kph and silent movement at reduced speed. Additionally the system will operate for 16 hours of RSTA observant silent watch, and 8 hours of 15 kph movement on rough terrain to complete a minimum 24hour mission. This Hybrid Electric Drive system is well suited for industrial and commercial vehicles weighing 1000 -5000 lbs. such as, commercial movers, small forklifts, Ground Support Equipment, Utility vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, lightweight construction equipment.

UQM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
425 Corporate Circle
Golden, CO 80401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 278-2002
Mr. Darin Denton
NAVY 02-115      Selected for Award
Title:Affordable Hybrid Drive System for Small to Medium Sized Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)
Abstract:There has been a recent increase in efforts to develop small/medium robots for military use. These robots, or UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), are sophisticated pieces of equipment that are beginning to represent many of the technological advancements found in future/prototype vehicles. One such technology that offers many benefits, but not yet implemented, is the HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) drive system. These drive systems have proven to be effective for lowering fuel consumption, emissions, and acoustic signatures in other applications. UQM Technologies, Inc. is proposing to design an HE drive system for the UGV applications that offers the mentioned benefits and is affordable as compared to a conventional drive system. The Phase I work will conclude with the delivery of a final report that shows the system design concept with the feasibility of manufacturing the design. The design will consist of an IC engine, a modular permanent magnet motor/generator design, a patented phase advance control scheme, and a battery pack/management unit. The system design will meet all of the minimum threshold parameters, while achieving many of the objective parameters, for overall operation effectiveness. The Phase I Option will concentrate on purchasing, characterizing, and detail integration of the heavy fuel IC engine. Although the drive system is directly related to military UGVs, there is an anticipated use in the commercial sector. Several types of vehicles can benefit from the reduced emissions and battery operation mode offered by the HEV drive system. Some examples of these applications include warehouse vehicles, man-lifts, and general utility vehicles. In addition, the intended motor/generator design will be modular in nature and will be configurable for many applications outside this HEV drive. This will increase part production quantity and lower unit cost for all applications.

CREATIVE APPLIED TECHNICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
7200B Fullerton Road, Suite 200
Springfield, VA 22150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 913-3200
Dr. Judith F. Kitchens
NAVY 02-116      Awarded: 06NOV02
Title:Canine Explosive Scent Kit Inert Replacements
Abstract:This project will develop inert replacements for the canine explosives scent kit. These inert replacements will have the same scent signatures as the explosive materials in the kit, however, they will not contain explosives. Three to six pound quantities of the inert replacements for C-4, Semtex and TNT will be produced in Phase I for testing in Phase II. The methodology will also be developed to generate simulated scent signatures for varying quantities of explosive materials. The canine explosive scent kit is used to train dogs to locate illegal explosive materials. The ability of the dog to locate the explosive materials is a trained response that must be periodically reinforced. Periodic retraining is best accomplished in the dog's normal working environment. The deployment of explosive containing scent kits for this retraining results in security, safety and logistical problems. An inert scent kit will overcome these problems. It will also provide better training for the dogs since the inert materials can be used in any environment. Commercial applications for an inert canine explosive scent kit include worldwide government law enforcement agencies and many private security and protection organizations.

GMA INDUSTRIES, INC.
20 Ridgely Avenue, Suite 301
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 267-6600
Dr. David B. Adebimpe
NAVY 02-116      Awarded: 05NOV02
Title:Inert Analogues of Demolition Explosives
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for the Navy to develop inert explosives that comprise the canine explosive scent kit. We propose a multidisciplinary investigational approach that involves the identification of the constituents of the headspace vapor of sample explosives, followed by the systematic development of odoriferously-similar but non-detonable analogues, using our knowledge of structure-odor relationships. In Phase 1, specific explosive scent signatures, and the viability of producing inert analogues from such signatures will be demonstrated. Phase II will involve the further development, optimization and production of these analogues. This technology can reduce the risk and increase the availability of materials for the training of canines for explosive detection. Commercial application of the research can be extend beyond explosives detection, to drug interdiction and crime scene forensics.

AGENTASE LLC
3636 Boulevard of the Allies, Suite B-17
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 209-7298
Dr. Keith LeJeune
NAVY 02-117      Awarded: 04NOV02
Title:Disposable Chemical Detection
Abstract:Agentase has previously developed a nerve agent sensor based upon its proprietary techniques for enzyme-polymer synthesis and their use in a variety of sensing applications. This sensor has many advantages over conventional sensors for chemical weapons including fast responses, simple use protocols, and a great resistance to chemical and environmental interference. This sensor is presently being marketed to end-users. More recently a collaborative development effort has shown that nerve agent-sensitive polymers can be adapted to a wearable badge device capable of detecting trace concentrations of nerve agents in the environment. Agentase presently seeks SBIR funding to expand these platform technology concepts toward the development of a battery of enzyme-polymer based sensors for the detection of a variety of chemical weapons and toxic industrial chemicals. Utilizing those enzymes known (scientific literature) to be particularly susceptible to inhibition by hazardous chemicals, Agentase will utilize its acquired expertise in enzyme polymerization and sensor development to rapidly formulate several chemical sensors. These sensors will be shown to monitor air quality in real time for chemical hazards within a simple wearable badge device. This effort will result in the development of a battery of prototype sensor systemss for the detection of hazardous chemicals, including chemical weapons and toxic industrial chemicals. Agentase will package newly developed point-detection sensors with its existing nerve agent sensor within a simple-to-use "pencil box" for chemical identification. Further developemnt in the Phase II effort of this project will result in a wearable badge that can be used to detect a variety of CW and TIC agents.

K&M ENVIRONMENTAL, INC.
2557 Production Rd.
Virginia Beach, VA 23454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 431-2260
Dr. Luke Xue
NAVY 02-117      Awarded: 05NOV02
Title:Disposable Chemical Detection
Abstract:Since the end of the Gulf War significant concern regarding the health and safety of the soldiers and sailors has been raised. It is clear that the potential for exposure to hazardous chemicals due to chronic and acute environmental threats from the poor environmental practices of host nations as well as collateral damage from warfare and terrorism is faced by deployed soldiers and sailors every day. The absence of an early warning mechanism for the detection of these threats, can be hazardous if not fatal to the service member. The ideal solution for the service member is a sensitve, selective, durable and lightweight badge with no external power requirement to provide an immediate visual indication of the presence of a hazard. Using proprietary K&M technology, colorimetric chemistries will be developed and tested for the detection of toxic industrial contaminants primarily targeting the high priority chemicals listed in the USACHPPM TG 230A. Additionally, the badge design, along with the colorimetric sensors, will be developed in such a way as to reduce or eliminate the effects of face velocity, temperature and humidity on the performance of the badge. Commercialization of this multisensor badge will reduce occupational disease by providing an early warning mechanism to the end user of the presence of the hazards in the environment. This device will be sensitive and each sensor will be selective to the targeted contaminant. Durability will also be achieved with this design.

SENSERA, INC.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 606-2600
Dr. Senerath Palamakumbura
NAVY 02-117      Awarded: 06NOV02
Title:Personal Multi Analyte Sensor Badge for Toxic Industrial Chemicals
Abstract:Sensera, Inc. proposes to develop a passive TIC multi analyte sensor badge. The badge is based on a detailed investigation of the properties of the analyte vapors and can be made in several configurations to suit the intended analytes. It can also be made to have dual transduction capability. The badge will give a rapid general alarm with provision for further on site characterization of the threat. During Phase I, we will develop a promising library of reagents suitable for different sensor badge configurations. We will also conduct preliminary studies on various transduction modes. For the Phase I option, we will study in detail the use of liquid crystals for visual indication and the design of the circuit for electronic monitoring. During Phase II, the design of the sensor badges will be optimized and actual units will be fabricated and tested. The proposed TIC detection badge has commercial applications in both the industrial and civilian sectors. They include: hazardous material emergency response units, environmental pollution monitoring and cleanup, firefighter applications, hazardous gas detection in commercial and residential applications, and industrial monitoring of chemical plant operations.

TESLA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 31378
Knoxville, TN 37930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 531-9150
Dr. W.R. Lawrence
NAVY 02-117      Awarded: 12NOV02
Title:Disposable MEMS Single-Chip Chemical and Biological Sensor
Abstract:We propose to develop and demonstrate an innovative, real-time sensor technology capable of detecting and identifying a variety of chemicals and biologicals. Our goal is to develop a recently demonstrated photothermal micro-spectroscopy technique into a single chip architecture. The technique has previously been successful for demonstrations on a bench-top scale in detecting various chemicals (chem warfare simulants, explosives, etc) and very recently in the detection of biologicals (anthrax simulant bacterial spores and DNA bases). There are no insurmountable fundamental principal or technological hurdle in miniaturizing this technique to the chip scale. In fact some aspect of the approach will actually be enhanced at these scales. In this approach we use microcantilever thermal detectors that has a detection sensitivity of ~10-15 J for heat energy. This unprecedented sensitivity can be utilized to detect the presence of target species with a very high sensitivity and selectivity. Thus the source, thermal detector array, IR waveguide and associated readout and signal processing electronics will all be collocated on the same chip. This approach can produce an extremely low cost (disposable) sensor if produces in large quantities that is highly capable since it is modeled on a recently developed laboratory instrument. Military and commercial employment of rapid chemical and biological sensing has distinct advantages over conventional technology in terms of speed, size, performance and cost. There are numerous application were the fast detection times are desirable. The development of efficient, reliable and cost effective devices will enhance DOD mission capability and have vast commercial spin-offs.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4871
Dr. Kapil Pant
NAVY 02-118      Selected for Award
Title:A Novel, Microfabricated, Electro-Immuno, Integrated Sensor-Sampler for Bioagent Collection and Detection
Abstract:Current technologies for biodetection employ typically large, cumbersome, power-guzzling and expensive devices. Integration of separate sampler and detection units often poses problems. They are not flexible enough for adapting to different threat scenarios, and are not capable of monitoring for a variety of possible agents. CFDRC proposes to develop and demonstrate a Microfabricated, Electro-immuno Integrated Sampler-Sensor (MEISS) designed to be a compact, low-cost, tuneable, multiplexed, high-sensitivity, high-selectivity sampling and sensing device. Our novel approach will feature (a) micromachined systems (MEMS) design (b) dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces for collection of bioagents, and (c) antigen-antibody micro-immunoassays on microsphere platforms for detection. MEMS-based systems have yielded dramatic improvement in efficiencies along with reduction in size. DEP-based separation offers orders of magnitude improvement in separation, tuneability and bioefficiencies over conventional inertial samplers. Microsphere-based homogeneous assays provide unprecedented sensitivity and flexibility for detecting low concentration samples in comparison with traditional heterogeneous assay formats. In Phase I, we will design, fabricate and test a DEP-based sample collector and a microsphere-based immunoassay platform. Phase II will involve overall system integration, fabrication and testing with CBW simulants. Further ensuring success, CFDRC has assembled a multidisciplinary team, which includes experts in collector/sampler design, MEMS/microfabrication, system integration, biosensing and chem-bio warfare. An integrated, microfabricated biosensor sampler will allow for monitoring of aerosolized biological particles coupled with high selectivity, high sensitivity assays for detection of toxic bioagents. A portable, low-cost device that can be used on a routine basis, will beneficially impact several existing and emerging global markets encompassing areas of national security, public health care, HVAC, food processing, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, etc.

CONNECTICUT ANALYTICAL CORP.
696 Amity Road
Bethany, CT 06524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 393-9666
Joseph J. Bango, Jr.
NAVY 02-118      Awarded: 04DEC02
Title:Individual Bio Sensor / Sampler
Abstract:An Electrospray Collector of Aerosol Contaminants or ECAC is proposed. The ability of electrospray ionization to perform as a getter of airborne contaminants offers a new means of CBW agent collection for widespread battlefield use. Sampler is capable of collecting all polar species, including spores and viruses, while ignoring background air. Concept offers an inexpensive, lightweight, small, and virtually silent means of personal CBW agent exposure collection that is compatible with military MOPP gear. Aerosol collector offers means of sampling airborne contaminats, allergens, and particulate media in buildings. Concept may be employed to allow long term exposure evaluation of personnel to toxic agents by DoD, USPO, and for individual use.

ECHO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5250 Cherokee Avenue
Alexandria, VA 22313
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 443-0066
Dr. Mary Beth Tabacco
NAVY 02-118      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:Development of an Integrated Personal BioDetector
Abstract:Presently, there is no way to rapidly detect exposure to sub-clinical levels of biological pathogens or chemical toxins until effects are seen in the victim. Echo Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop an integrated biosampler/biosensor device that it can be used to monitor personal exposure to biological material. ETI is developing optical sensors for detection of Biological Warfare Agents and other pathogens. These generic sensors distinguish and quantify classes of biological material, and can discriminate live/dead bacteria. ETI proposes to team with MesoSystems, Inc., a leader in development of bioaerosol samplers for collection of biological organisms. In Phase I the enabling technology will be developed to integrate the sensors with collection disks used in the biosampler. This involves sensor formulation and deposition changes. Sensor robustness will be tested using a Rotating Arm Collector. Designs for an integrated system incorporating biosampling, biosensing, and real-time detection will be developed. Preliminary specifications for system capability will also be presented as a deliverable for Phase I. In Phase II a prototype Integrated Personal BioDetector (IPBD) will be fabricated and evaluated in the laboratory and at an extramural test facility. The prototype IPBD will be configured for use on an individual's backpack or similar location. The proposed biodetection device can be used by military personnel, first responders and civilian law enforcement personnel internationally. The fundamental technology can be extended to include biosensors designed to identify specific pathogens, and to detect a host of target contaminants such as Toxic Industrial Chemicals and Materials, and organic and inorganic particulates. This suggests more general application in indoor air quality monitoring, and for ensuring worker safety in industrial settings.

GREENSTAR TECHNOLOGIES
P.O. Box 8967
The Woodlands, TX 77387
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(936) 321-8048
Mr. John J. Vasselli
NAVY 02-118      Awarded: 06DEC02
Title:Individual Bio Sensor / Sampler
Abstract:The proposed SBIR project will determine the technical feasibility of developing a new generation of biochemcial aerosol sensor systems capable of field deployable detection and analyses of very low levels of harmful toxin agents of concern to the Department of Defense. The core enabling technology to be employed in this design is a new micro-engineered, biochip sensor-head detection technology developed by GreenStar Technologies. This biochip will be capable of performing automated, "lab-on-a-chip" competitive direct, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) testing simultaneously for multiple biotoxin agents. This new sensor head will be integrated into a hand-held Extractor/Sensor device that is capable of rapid, accurate, in-the-field detection, identification and exposure/dose analysis of air samples collected using conventional polyurethane foam (PUF) tube technology. Sample collection will be performed using a new Air Sampler device that will also be designed in this project. Both the Air Sampler and Extractor/Sensor devices will be rugged and weatherproof, will weigh under five pounds each, and will each physically be about the size of a standard 12 ounce soda can. This system will meet or exceed all performance requirements defined in the N02-118 Topic Description. The successful development of the biochemical aerosol sensor defined in this SBIR proposal will result in a field-deployable system capable of air sampling at a minimum rate of 15 liters per minute with an average collection efficiency in excess of 50% over a 1-10 micron particle size range. Samples will be extractable into 1 ml of buffer solution or can be read directly using the portable Extractor/Sensor to be designed in this project. The sampler device will be quiet (less than 70db), self-powered (battery or AC/DC power sources), and capable of sample collection in any orientation. Both the Air Sampler and Extractor/Sensor devices will be rugged and weatherproof, will each weigh under five pounds, and will each be about the size of a standard 12 ounce soda can. The total system performance goals of the project include: (1) the detection of multiple biochemical agents simultaneously; (2) at detection levels of parts per billion (ppb); (3) within minutes of sample testing; and (4) at low-cost, under five thousand dollars per unit. The GreenStar sensor/sampler system proposed offers a sensor technology to the Department of Defense that is new and important to protecting deployed U.S. Military Forced from even low levels of dangerous biochemical toxin agents. The sensor system to be developed possess a large "dual use" commercial potential as well. There is a significant need and commercial market for such sensing and analysis devices within the commercial indoor air quality (IAQ), animal feed/grain, and food quality testing/safety industries where exposure to naturally occurring biological agents is a real and constant concern. Such testing within just the U.S. IAQ marketplace, is estimated to be a 5 Billion dollar industry annually. It is in fact this commercial opportunity that first drove GreenStar Technologies to begin research into the development of the "Waffle BioChip". This new biochemical toxin detection sensing biochip is the central enabling technology upon which this SBIR project will be based.

INNOVATEK, INC.
350 Hills Street, Suite 104
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1093
Dr. Patricia M. Irving
NAVY 02-118      Selected for Award
Title:Personal Bio-Aerosol Sensor
Abstract:Fieldable technologies that detect toxic biological particles in the air will provide the ability to warn and treat for exposure to harmful aerosolized agents. Current national military strategy specifies a worldwide force protection capability that requires detection, identification, and vaccination in order to protect U.S. forces against potential biowarfare threats. InnovaTek will develop a wearable bio-sensor that will sound a warning to the user within 10 minutes when approximately 10 CFU's of biological material is present per liter of air. The sample will be preserved for further analysis if biological material is detected. InnovaTek's novel approach integrates several proprietary components to collect, concentrate, process, and detect biological material in the air. These include: 1) a pre-separator that removes large particles from the incoming air-stream, 2) a cyclone collector that concentrates 1-10 mm particles into a small volume of liquid buffer, 3) a micro-fluidics platform for sample processing, 4) reagents for biological detection, and 5) a sensor to convert the chemical signal to an electronic warning signal. The system will produce only 42 db sound, weigh about 3 pounds, and use <0.35 amps of power, which makes it feasible as a battery-powered, wearable device. The development of a personal bio-aerosol sensor will allow monitoring and evaluation of threats from microorganisms in the air as a result of natural phenomena or human-induced activities such as terrorism. In addition to its military and homeland defense applications the proposed device is expected to be of great interest for a variety of global scale markets, including first responder markets and emerging commercial markets such as public health, food production, agricultural, and pharmaceutical/medical applications.

MICROENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2007 E. Fourth Plain Blvd.
Vancouver, WA 98661
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 694-3704
Mr. Joseph Birmingham
NAVY 02-118      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:Miniature BioBadge for Biological Material Identification
Abstract:MicroEnergy Technologies goal is to develop miniaturized, ultra-quiet, highly efficient biological collectors that can be interfaced with several aerosol detection approaches. The focus of this project is to develop the front end system for sampling and concentration of hazardous bioaerosols for subsequent detection using various downstream analytical procedures such as the many optical and wet chemical analysis techniques. The proposed miniaturized geometry provides a number of advantages, including, (1) ordered microstructures provide much lower pressure drop than randomly ordered fibers, (2) can be easily and effectively combined with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) driven flow to pull air through the system for extremely quite operation, (3) high collection and concentration efficiency of aerosols, and (4) high surface area for application of functionalized coatings to provide selective collection of both bioaerosols and chemical compounds of interest. The low-cost plug-and-play miniature sampling coupons are unplugged from the power and control module after sampling in the field, catalogued, analyzed in the laboratory, and properly disposed of (or archived) without the need to regenerate or clean the system. A low-cost miniature detection system will be integrated into the sampler unit for an autonomous remote sensing and data transmission unit. The development of man-portable noninvasive bioaerosol detection device will enable personnel to detect biological contamination for emergency response, law enforcement and military applications.

AGENTAI, INC.
14944 Culley Court, Suite 3
Victorville, CA 92392
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 843-8182
Mr. Kevin E. Mahaffy
NAVY 02-119      Awarded: 04DEC02
Title:Rocket Assisted Safe Projectile (RASP)
Abstract:The overall objective of the project described in this proposal is to design and develop the technology for a non-lethal munition for area denial to personnel. This projectile delivers relatively the same quantity and quality of force to targets that range from just in front of the muzzle of a M203 grenade launcher to a target as far away as 500 meters. This is achieved by a carefully engineered projectile that flies at a nearly constant velocity and then changes its shape just prior to impacting the target. This project is also designed to deliver secondary payloads as it performs its primary kinetic impact function. Secondary payloads will include chemical agents that can further incapacitate or maintain the incapacitation of the targeted individual. The proposed technology is a new application of existing civilian technology and hence can be manufactured at low cost. Eventually, the non-lethal weapon will be deployed from robotic platforms in order to automate the area denial to personnel mission. The proposed project will demonstrate the feasibility of the solution theoretically through computer modeling and then experimentally by a flight vehicle demonstration that will strike a simulated human target. The technology resulting from this project will benefit the US Navy and the US Marine Corps by creating a new tool to enforce area denial to personnel without doing extensive bodily harm of he targeted individual. Spin-offs from this research effort are expected to be fielded widely in the law enforcement community.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Dr. Ned Patton
NAVY 02-119      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:MultiSensory Grenade with Stingballs for Area Denial
Abstract:Building on development of a Multi-Sensory Grenade (MSG) for USMC MarCorSysCom's Clear Facilities program, the proposed technology will incorporate a sound source at the maximum OSHA safe level of 140dB, a light source at ANSI levels and stingballs. (Other additional sensory elements can be added such as malodors, lachrymators, marker dyes, taggants, etc. based on Warfare Conventions and specific applications). The multisensory overwhelm of the technology will deny, delay, disrupt and repel adversaries. The concept is extremely flexible and the components can be resized to fit into a variety of existing delivery systems including 40 mm, 12 ga. (current MG design), 81 mm, non-lethal mines, 155 mm, etc. The larger the payload volume, the more distractionary elements delivered on target. The proposed technology has numerous civilian law enforcement and military applications. The following markets have been identified: US Military, Civilian Law Enforcement, Dept. of Corrections, Drug Enforcement Agency, Homeland Security, International Military, International Law Enforcement, Multinational Corporations, FBI, Secret Service and foreign and domestic protection.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Ms. Lexi Donne
NAVY 02-119      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Jumping Multiball System for Area Denial
Abstract:The ability to non-lethally delay or deny access to personnel is an ongoing problem that encompasses perimeters, facilities, ports, and staging areas. For every military scenario, there is a comparable problem in civilian law enforcement, at Department of Energy facilities and within the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's charter. SARA proposes a novel and unique approach to deal with this challenging problem, a single device, randomly delivering an intrusive, distracting, and annoying non-lethal effect, for many seconds. The proposed non-lethal device will fit many existing payloads and delivery systems thereby eliminating the need for another new system, shortening the development cycle and speeding up the time between research and to end use. The proposed technology has numerous civilian law enforcement and military applications. The following markets have been identified: US Military, Civilian Law Enforcement, Dept. of Corrections, Drug Enforcement Agency, Homeland Security, International Military, International Law Enforcement, Multinational Corporations, FBI, Secret Service, and foreign and domestic protection.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
NAVY 02-120      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:A Visible/Infrared Omnidirectional Sensor Module for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA)/Mobilit
Abstract:The primary objective of the SBIR effort proposed herein is to develop and test the feasibility of two designs of novel omnidirectional day/night optical sensors that are able to provide 360-degree simultaneous RSTA capability with compact package size, light weight, and minimum moving parts. . The first module we proposed, dubbed the OmniEye, is an omnidirectional sensor that is able to acquire 360-degree and -45 to +90 degree visible/IR video images simultaneously with no moving parts; it can not only be used for surveillance and reconnaissance but for vehicle navigation and obstacle avoidance as well. . The second module, dubbed the OmniScan, employs a pair of optically aligned visible/IR sensors and a two-degree-of-freedom pan/tilt mirror to provide high-resolution remote target acquisition capability at long distance. It is able to resolve and detect HMMWV sized vehicles at 5,700 meters under daylight conditions and at 1,000 meters during nighttimes. The only moving part in the OmniScan module is the pan/tilt mirror, which in weight does not exceed more than a few ounces. The two sensor modules will be designed to have the same mechanical and electronic interface as its hosting vehicle has, and may be used separately for different mission requirements. However, we also propose a new capability that combines both modules together as a Master-Slave configuration, such that the OmniEye-MultiCam sensor demonstrates "global" RSTA functions with its wide FOV. Once a "hot spot" (potential target) is detected, it will send a motion control command to direct the OmniScan sensor to look closely at the target with a significantly higher image resolution. This intelligent control technology would bring the functionality of the proposed Omni-vision system for the RSTA to a new level of sophistication. The proposed Omni-vision systems can be used to enhance security for many types of military and civilian vehicles, or stationary facilities. In addition, such technology can be used in other security applications, including warehouses, train-stations, airports, government and commercial facilities, sporting events, and schools. The tragic events of 9/11 have triggered tremendous interest in security enhancements in both public and private sectors. We see great potential for commercial applications of the technology developed under this SBIR project.

INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC MACHINES
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 449-5504
Mr. Zack Mian
NAVY 02-120      Awarded: 04NOV02
Title:Omni-Vision System for Day/Night Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA)/Mobility
Abstract:The tactical unmanned ground vehicles (TUGV) are envisioned to be the force multiplier of the future. A reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) system is a key component for a TUGV. International Electronic Machines (IEM), a leader in rugged multimedia systems, proposes the development of an innovative imaging system which will meet all of the requirements of this solicitation. The proposed multi-spectral imaging system will be based on an nnovative image scanning approach which will use unique multi-spectral optics to deliver the recognition requirements, 135 degree FOV, virtual pan-tilt-zoom feature, day/night operation, high frame rate, innovative user interface, and a scalable approach. In Phase I of this proposal, IEM will produce a feasible design and demonstrate the feasibility of the key components of the imaging system. Optional tasks include image processing development for image quality enhancement, image processing algorithm development and environmental hardening. The technology resulting from this program will find additional applications in security systems, telemaintenance, telemedicine and virtual reality training tools both in the military and the civilian sectors

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Info Tech Div., 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Andrew Kostrzewski
NAVY 02-120      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:Panoramic Video Monitoring System for UGVs
Abstract:UGV platforms such as Gladiator and Man-Portable Robotic Systems need a new type of omni-vision system for full range viewing: 360 degrees horizontally and -45 to +90 degrees vertically. To address this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new high quality, real-time, ultra-wide-field-of-view, low-bandwidth, panoramic video monitoring (PANVIM) system for reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA). POC will for the first time bring panoramic imaging to real-time video. The PANVIM system uniquely combines the following subsystems for UGV RSTA and driving: innovative optics for ultra-wide-field-of-view acquisition through wide-angle reflectors or fisheye lenses with a 360x270 degree field-of-view; high-resolution pick-up device (CCD or CMOS), preferably with a resolution of 5,000x2000 pixels and real-time cylindrical-to-Cartesian coordinate transformation in hardware; small IR sensor for night operation, video signal transfer subsystem for high resolution, and full motion video at 30 frames per second. The high bandwidth video will be compressed by POC proprietary hardware at up to 8000:1. At the control center, an operator will observe the panoramic view from the UGV on a high-aspect-ratio screen, which can be three or more plasma displays, or a multi-projector system for seamless display. Several smaller monitors can display electronically zoomed areas of interest. The proposed PANVIM system will find broad applications in security and surveillance, remote monitoring, robotics, and object tracking. It will also be very useful in telemedicine and entertainment.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4306
Mr. Michael Farinella
NAVY 02-121      Awarded: 16NOV02
Title:Stingray
Abstract:Foster-Miller's Stingray system is a low risk approach to the Marine Corp's long-range incapacitation need. A derivative of Foster-Miller's Sting Net design, Stingray is 40mm compatible fire and forget, optically fuzed, ballistic delivered High Voltage Pulse (HVP) system. The `Stinger' has been shown to be effective up to 60 minutes and within human health effects guidelines. Stingray is not `soft'. The Stingray aggressively delivers High Voltage Pulse (HVP) tasers designed to incapacitate. Stingray is launched at velocities amenable to `flat fire' targeting then pyrotechnically deploys a series of low drag tendrils capable of delivering a paralyzing shock. The Stingray `bullet' remains in closed form to the last possible instant thereby minimizing stability and fuze challenges. The Stingray is designed to significantly increase range potential. Key features of the Stingray system are lower drag, reduced mass, and tendrils that deploy in all directions. Lower drag means longer flight to engage a target. Reduced mass mean higher muzzle velocities and ranges are achievable. Three-dimensional deployment means the tendrils reach in all direction during deployment. Three-dimensional deployment capability relaxes the demand for projectile stability. For example, projectile `yawing' would not diminish Stingray engagement mechanics. (P-020644) In addition to advancing the State of the Art for providing a viable extended range incapacitation capability to the Marine Corp, Stingray development effort would result in significant advancement of several component technologies. The integration approaches and system architectural features that would contribute significantly to on-going technical R&D across DOD, other USG agencies and the private sector, include: . Miniaturized electronics. . Miniaturized mechanical components (MEMS and `conventional'). . Frangible `fly apart' designs. . Integrated pyrotechnics and electronics (shock load management). . Novel sensor elements.

XTREME ADS (ALTERNATIVE DEFENSE SYSTEMS)
1508 E. 7th St.
Anderson, IN 46012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 724-2226
Mr. Pete Bitar
NAVY 02-121      Awarded: 25NOV02
Title:Personnel Neuromuscular Disruptor Incapacitation System
Abstract:The STUNBEAM will effectively be proven to be the world's first available "wireless Taser", using electromagnetic energy to create ion "streams" which conduct a static charge which can disrupt neuromuscular control of any human or comparable animal target, at an output of between 25,000 and 100,000 volts with extremely low amperage. The weapon can also be used to disrupt electronic devices. Current technology already has proven results at very short, point-blank ranges of between five and ten feet. This Phase 1 work will deal with the ion streams themselves in the areas of columniation, tracking, limiting scattering effects, and static pulse conductivity in order to increase the range and controllability of a larger-scale device to between 50 and 300 feet. Since work has already been done in this area by Xtreme, one of the final results of the Option portion of this Phase 1 SBIR will be to build and deliver a working proof of concept device with a range of at least 10 feet, which will be useful in close-quarter scenarios as are common with the use of "Tasers". Xtreme has the technical ability, facility, and willingness to forge ahead in taking this technology to the incredible potential it has. The benefits of this system are unlimited. The unit will stun, not kill, its target, allowing for hostages to be rescued easily from almost any hostage situation, and criminals or enemy combatants to be captured, not killed, in a variety of military and law enforcement scenarios. This system will be easy to use and will be portable. Units can be sold commercially to police as well as to homeowners for effective, non-lethal self defense. Other applications of the massive ion generation of related devices can be used, among other things, in air purification and medical sterilization.

AGENTAI, INC.
14944 Culley Court, Suite 3
Victorville, CA 92392
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 843-8182
Mr. Kevin E. Mahaffy
NAVY 02-122      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Smart Non-Lethal Bullets
Abstract:Guns and rifles have been the traditional modern weapon for protection and police or security force intervention. However, the bullets utilized are prevalently lethal. The technology described in this Proposal converts the standard gun and rifle bullets to "smart non-lethal bullets." These novel bullet types are non-lethal over their entire range, from muzzle to max range (100 m). This contrasts with present-day non-lethal ammunition, which can severely injure or even kill an individual if the target is at close range or if a bystander accidentally comes in the close line of fire. Furthermore, no customization of the firearms is necessary. The design of these bullets includes tailored explosives and propellants and a booster/projectile design with miniaturized mechanical components, where the energetic part or booster drops off on emergence from the gun, and a soft nose persists in its trajectory with high kinetic energy to impinge on the target with a strong blow or punch effect. The nose can be automatically deflated on target impingement, releasing malodorants, irritants, laughing gas or other chemical agents. Essentially this non-lethal weapon will allow the military to "punch," slap and hit an individual repetitively from a distance and in a manner, which provides no injuries. The conversion of standard bullets to non-lethal bullets has a great potential for rapid progress of non-lethal weapons by adaptation of standard bullets using the same guns and rifles already in the hands of the police forces, security forces, military etc. and requiring no alteration or customization of the standard weaponry. Such a technology will provide great benefits to the Security Forces since during their interventions incapacitation of individuals will be induced with no injury or body damage. Furthermore no new weaponry is required providing for a simple and smooth transition from lethal to non-lethal. Once the action/ idea of this new technology is widely presented, demonstrated and accepted by the Police Forces, Security Personnel and Security Forces, a vast ammunition market will open up. This provides for a great commercial opportunity, which can later extend to the entire ammunition world market. Different designs and optimizations can be developed to produce a new line of non-lethal bullets serving all needs and scopes.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4283
Mr. Robert Lee Cardenas
NAVY 02-122      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Fire and Forget Non-Lethal Kinetic Energy Munition
Abstract:The military requires a range-variable, non-lethal kinetic energy munition that is non-lethal over their entire engagement range from muzzle to a maximum range of 100m. An ideal munition would incorporate a highly accurate fuse and proximity sensor that would sense the target range and /or some other system that programs their time to function. On signal, the munitions would adjust their configurations to be non-lethal based upon the sensed range to target by increasing their surface area or by using some braking technology. The system needs to be near 100 percent reliable so that a full velocity projectile that has not reconfigured its shape to be non-lethal never hits the target. A Phase I effort is proposed to develop an optical fused non-lethal munition that can be fired at muzzle velocity that will put the munition 100m down range but can be decelerated to non-lethal impact velocities within several meters. The proposed munitions will be 40 mm and 20 mm and will be designed to fit existing weapons. The proposed work will also review non-lethal impacts and strive to define guidelines for safe but effective non-lethal impacts. (P-020583) The successful development of the Fire and Forget Non-Lethal munition will provide military and civilian user communities with a variable range munition that is non-lethal throughout the munition's entire operational range. The successful development of a 40 mm and a 20 mm optical fuse will make this technology available for a wider range of munitions other than mortar rounds. A non-lethal munition that is effective and accurate to 100m will provide real asset to the non-lethal community and would promote a wider use of non-lethal alternative munitions. The data generated during Phase II evaluation testing will add to the overall knowledge and acceptable levels of blunt trauma impacts.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Sergey Sandomirsky
NAVY 02-122      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Optical Proximity Sensor
Abstract:Although there are currently no range-variable kinetic-energy non-lethal munitions for personal weapons in development, any future model will require a proximity sensor to activate a mechanism that controls the kinetic energy of the projectile. This sensor should be inexpensive, reliable, lightweight, efficient, and easily assembled with any future non-lethal projectile. To meet these Navy requirements, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to design, develop and test an Optical Proximity Sensor (OPS) for variable-range kinetic energy non-lethal munitions. The OPS matches all these requirements and also has advantages over radio and acoustic sensors. The OPS is based on the principle that optical triangulation sensors will react quickly and precisely to any target that appears at a preprogrammed distance. The OPS will be built from commercially available, off-the-shelf, low-cost components. The prototype OPS will be fabricated and tested in Phase I, then fully developed and adapted to a prospective model of a non-lethal projectile in Phase II. The proposed Optical Proximity Sensor will precisely meet the requirements of the Joint Non-Lethal Weapon Directorate (JNLWD) for developing the means of incapaciting enemy personnel. Any future variable range kinetic energy projectile will require a proximity fuse or sensor. Because of its market-attractive performance parameters, POC's OPS will have diverse civil applications such as vehicle collision avoidance systems, law enforcement, and personal weapons for self-protection.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
700 King Farm Boulevard, Suite 600
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6779
Mr. Thurston Brooks
NAVY 02-123      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Integrated System Design and Maintenance Modeling Tools for CBM
Abstract:As in human medicine, prescriptive based health monitoring (PBHMS) can focus on the symptoms or can be targeted to cure the problem depending on the need and resulting prognostic outcome. The key difference between the more advanced Prescriptive Maintenance concept and existing Predictive, Preventative and Run-to-Failure Maintenance schemes is that PBHMS optimizes operational capability. The PBHMS described in this proposal can process information from various "health" management information sources such as prognostic/predictive monitors, observations, trends, experience, and diagnostic outcomes. The PBHMS will be able to recommend appropriate operations and maintenance actions according to best Navy practices, as well as schedule treatment, not only on parts that have already failed, but also those which are impending failure or are still healthy. The PBHMS prescriptive maintenance actions shall take into consideration urgency, priority, capability, capacity, and cost. Our approach is to leverage technology and extensive knowledge developed in existing Navy programs by (1) Evolving the existing Prognostics Framework as a foundation for the overall prescriptive architecture, (2) Using insights acquired in the Total Ship Monitoring and Battle Group-Automated Maintenance Environment programs, and (3) Augmenting our TSM/BG-AME developments to support the comprehensive information and decision support system required of a PBHMS concept. The PBHMS will be able to recommend appropriate operations and maintenance actions according to best Navy practices, as well as schedule treatment not only on parts that have already failed, but more importantly on those which are impending failure or are still healthy. The PBHMS prescriptive maintenance actions shall take into consideration and optimize urgency, priority, capability, capacity, and cost.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4382
Mr. Stephen Chen
NAVY 02-123      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Automated Maintenance Prescription Generation for Shipboard Systems
Abstract:Foster-Miller, Inc. proposes to develop new tools and integrate existing Foster-Miller Machinery Health Management tools into the design of an automated prescription based health maintenance system (PBHMS). The proposed PBHMS will: Generate prescriptions that are dynamically updated and priority ranked by information provided from run-time integrated diagnostic/prognostic software modules. Incorporate battle damage response capability. Easily accept new diagnostic/prognostic modules. Interface with Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS), current diagnostic/prognostic and planning/scheduling modules via middleware using Open System Architecture Condition Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM) standards. Provide "What if" analysis allowing onboard and shore-based maintainers to link system failure modes and particular maintenance tasks with operational and mission requirements. Provides simulation capability allowing user to forward project, examine simulated failure consequences, and select alternatives as part of future automated mission emergency and contingency management systems. Provide ship-wide restoration projections, individual machine downtime projections, and battle damage repair planning. In Phase I, a PBHMS design will document functional details needed to design the prototype PBHMS software package for a selected shipboard system in a Phase II. The design will include sample prescriptions, middleware architecture and middleware interface designs. This foundation will provide the basis. (P-020665) The tools and standards developed under this research project could be used by both military and commercial automation system designers to incorporate equipment condition assessment, diagnostic/prognostic, and maintenance treatment software modules into CBM systems used in shipboard or municipal power generation, pharmaceutical processing, and electronic module manufacturing.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
NAVY 02-123      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:An Integrated System Design and Maintenance Modeling Tool
Abstract:Impact Technologies proposes an Integrated System Design and Maintenance Modeling Tool (ISDMMT) for automating and optimizing the prescription element associated with prognostic information used to facilitate condition based maintenance (CBM). The ISDMMT consists of a core real-time distributed computing substrate, wrapped with a Health Management API (Application Programming Interface) layer that provides abstractions that bridge the gap between the health management system domain and the core distribution substrate. The proposed system uses innovative software agents and distributed computing tools to enable the efficient use of emerging prognostic-based health management system technologies. As part of the Phase I demonstration, intelligent sensor validation and prognostic algorithms will be developed for integration into the maintenance modeling system. Genetic algorithms will be used for optimization of the health management system in the functions of reliability, technical risk, complexity and overall life cycle costs. APIs will be developed for supporting the progressive integration of specialized prescription algorithms. An innovative software platform, ConstellationTM from Real Time Innovation, Inc will be used for the development of ISDMMT. ConstellationTM integrates tools and standards like UML, CORBA, Simulink, and graphical programming into one end-to-end development environment. It will speed up the coding process, decrease the development time and costs, and allow for software reusability. The developed Integrated System Design and Maintenance Modeling Tool will reduce overall operation and support costs of shipboard systems, and enable future transition of CBM and PHM (prognostic & health management) information systems to automated maintenance management systems. The successful completion of the proposed work will lead to significant benefits in a wide variety of areas, with a very substantial potential for commercial impact. Examples of key industrial customers that could benefit through use of the developed fault diagnostic technologies include commercial airlines, electric power producers, oil and gas transmission companies, and marine propulsion applications.

FOSTER-MILLER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
431 New Karner Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 456-9919
Dr. Hsiang Ming Chen
NAVY 02-124      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Power Harvesting for Shipboard Health Monitoring Sensors
Abstract:This project will provide the basis for development of a new family of inductive power harvesters that use machine vibration and mechanical resonance to amplify oscillatory motion at the magnetic juncture. The Phase I base program involves the design, manufacture and test an initial power harvester, designed to produce 0.01 W. The practicality of the device will be demonstrated by powering an accelerometer that will measure the vibration of a target machine or structure. A parallel analytical study will lead to the development of a design methodology for a range of generators utilizing this concept. The Phase I option will involve building and testing two additional engineering models, one each rated at 0.1 and 1.0 W. In Phase II we will refine the design, assess the inclusion of electronic control for additional performance and automatic resonance adjustment, and build and test integrated prototypes that includes wireless data transmission. This device represents the crucial enabling technology for a broad range of industrial and military Condition Based Maintenance applications. Wireless, self-powered sensors will enable users to more cost-effectively equip plant and shipboard equipment. The resulting market will be essentially limitless.

HI-Z TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Suite 7400, 7606 Miramar Road
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 695-6660
Mr. Velimir Jovanovic
NAVY 02-124      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Power Harvesting for Shipboard Health Monitoring Sensors
Abstract:Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) proposes to use thermoelectric devices in developing a miniature energy harvesting system for shipboard health monitoring sensors. Thermoelectric devices convert heat directly to electricity in compact solid-state modules. Hi-Z has been in the business of converting environmental and waste energy directly into electricity (energy harvesting) since 1988. Hi-Z has developed thermoelectric module technology that is well suited for this Navy application. This technology is based on the use of thermal-to-electric conversion in the temperature ranges from room temperature to 300øC. Hi-Z proposes to apply its newly developed multilayer Quantum Well thermoelectric material technology, which has even higher power conversion efficiency and smaller volume that will help in satisfying the small design volume requirement. A number of these applications confirm the concept that energy can be harvested, particularly the recently completed design for the Navy where a thermoelectric generator was designed, fabricated and installed to harvest energy freely available on board ships using the 5øC differences between the temperature of the space inside the ship and the ship's hull. The current proposal is a logical extension of this work applied to a smaller design volume of one cubic inch. The benefits and potential commercial applications of this development are in use of these energy-harvesting modules to power sensors in health monitoring of the ship and submarine engines and structures. These sensors can be used to detect cracks, corrosion, impact damage and temperature excursions as part of the Condition Based Maintenance. These power harvesting modules can be used to replace or augment batteries as electrical power sources.

MICROSTRAIN, INC.
310 Hurricane Lane, Suite 4
Williston, VT 05495
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 862-6629
Mr. Steven W. Arms
NAVY 02-124      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Power Harvesting for Shipboard Health Monitoring Sensors
Abstract:This Phase I Navy SBIR proposal is aimed at the development of a new class of wireless sensing devices. These sensors do not require batteries or external magnetic fields in order to send data, instead, they rely on harvesting vibration energy in order to sense information and to wirelessly transmit that information to a central host. MicroStain, Inc. currently produces a range of wireless sensing instruments, including microprocessor based, multichannel, programmable transmitters that are compatible with a wide range of sensors, including thermocouples, strain gauges, accelerometers, displacement sensors, and capacitive sensors. Furthermore, we have designed and demonstrated prototype energy harvesting systems that employ piezoelectric materials. These wireless sensing systems use digital RF communications, node addressing, and time division multiple access to allow networks of sensing nodes to communicate to a central (web-enabled) receiver. The Phase I effort will include: improvements in the piezoelectric energy harvesting circuit, optimization of the proposed sensing systems for various applications to minimize power consumption, and, development of mathematical models to facilitate piezoelectric energy harvesting from a straining structural element and from a vibratory environment. This will result in improved energy harvesting systems, including the modeling required for application to shipboard health monitoring. These systems have the potential to fundamentally change the way sensors are used. A major barrier to the use of sensors is the cost of wiring. Wireless sensors are now being employed for a range of monitoring applications, including: machine-to-machine health, structural integrity, security systems, agricultural, environmental, medical, and automotive. However, the maintenance of primary batteries represents a major barrier to the wide acceptance of wireless sensing networks. For vibrating systems, harvesting energy using advanced piezoelectric materials would eliminate battery maintenance, allowing wireless sensing networks to be deployed for the entire life of the structure or machine.

WILCOXON RESEARCH, INC.
21 Firstfield Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 947-7973
Mr. Wayne Zavis
NAVY 02-124      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Power Harvesting for Shipboard Health Monitoring Sensors
Abstract:The objective of the research presented in this SBIR proposal is the development of the technology needed for power generation from harvesting vibrations from shipboard machinery. The generator should produce sufficient power to energize low-power sensors and a transmitter that communicates on a network and can be easily integrated into a shipboard environment. Wilcoxon Research has extensive experience in the design, manufacturing, and customer support of vibration sensors and related equipment. This proposal would permit the company to explore a novel configuration for power sources that generate and/or scavenge power from the shipboard environment. New packaging requirements and materials, along with a study for improved energy storage systems, are presented. Such a wireless system not only reduces the need for cabling, but also drastically lowers installation costs, permitting more comprehensive instrumentation. The effective deployment of wireless, self-powered, condition-based maintenance sensors requires that are low in cost, but also cost effective for installation. The wiring associated with sensor systems can easily exceed the cost of the sensor, transmitter, and receiver system. It is foreseen that wireless sensors will be used in collecting vibration and other machinery data for processes where either the installed machines or their downtime is costly, such as naval applications. In addition to department of Defense applications, Wilcoxon sees good opportunity to improve productivity and output quality of the $5B (annual) machine tool market.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Narasimha S. Prasad
NAVY 02-125      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:High Bandwidth, spatial tracking, free-space communication link for low visibility conditions
Abstract:Coherent Technologies Inc. (CTI) proposes to develop a laser communication system (LCS) coupled with a high-speed pointing and tracking scheme for greater than 100 Mb/s data rate, for optimal conditions, and 64kbits/sec, for poor atmospheric conditions, applications for short range (1km) multiple node optical communications. The LCS will provide eyesafe operation with an engagement range greater than 1 km among moving aerial vehicles (including VTUAVs), ships and individual personnel nodes. The dual mode AMCW and pulsed (high peak power), high repetition rate laser transmitter optimally coupled to a compact pointing and tracking unit will be designed to reduce the probability of data link breakdown due to low visibility conditions (i.e. fog). The approach will capitalize upon innovative transceiver and scanner designs developed by CTI for laser radar systems and the advancing scanner technologies such as Micro-Opto-Electrical-Mechanical Systems. The baseline architecture uses a 1.5-mm transmitter optimally coupled to micro-mirror assembly. Three potential configurations for tracking in a highly dynamic environment are envisaged. The Phase I effort will generate system level signal-to-noise ratio assessments for data link performance under various environmental conditions, (2) establish closed-loop pointing and tracking scheme for maximum link performance, and (3) develop a proof-of-principle prototype and execute risk reduction measurements to ensure technical and cost feasibility for Phase II field-worthy hardware implementation. Potential applications include ground-to-ground, ground-to-air, sea-to-air mobile communication systems for video broadcast, telecommunication applications, and other data intensive applications that do not rely on two fixed locations. The proposed system is anticipated to enhance troop communications and battlefield awareness and support search and rescue operations.

HOOD TECHNOLOGY CORP.
1750 Country Club Road
Hood River, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 387-2288
Dr. A. von Flotow
NAVY 02-125      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Low-Cost Lasercomm from Moving Platforms
Abstract:This proposal addresses development of close-range lasercomm from moving platforms. The anticipated range of applications includes ship-to-aircraft, ship-to-boat, ship-to-person, UAV-to-ground, UAV-to-UGV, person-to-person, etc. The product of this research will be a user friendly, lightweight, laser communication terminal with full acquisition, pointing, and tracking capability for rapidly moving platforms.

INNOVATIVE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1100 Alakea Plaza, 23d Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 441-3608
Dr. John Sender
NAVY 02-125      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Passive Optical Data Port
Abstract:NOVASOL proposes a feasibility study for a Passive Optical Data Port (PODP). Together with optical interrogators NOVASOL is developing for NRL, PODP will provide a lightweight, low-power download or full-duplex link for broadband communication with manned and unmanned remote stations. PODP is based on modulating retroreflector technology, making it entirely passive. Its lack of an active transmitter yields a light-weight, low-power design, and gives the PODP inherently low probability of detection/interception. PODP is a flexible unit that can serve purposes as diverse as unattended operation on buoys and sensor emplacements, small unit reconnaissance and special operations teams, and operations on moving vehicles. Both the PODP and its interrogating unit may be based on land, at sea, or in an aircraft. Free space optical communications will play an increasing role as the military theater of operations becomes more automated and sensor-rich. NovaSol's POPD program will provide an important component whose light-weight, low-power, and covertness will expand the range of tactical optical communications deployment to support links between moving units. Civilian users will also welcome this technology for applications such as monitoring volcanos or marine environments, where emplacement of fixed nodes would be impractical.

LSA
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Mr. Dale R. Tyczka
NAVY 02-125      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Free Space Optics Near-ship Low Probability of Detection Communication Capability
Abstract:Free-space optical (FSO) communication's inherently low probability of intercept, resistance to jamming, lack of licensing requirements, ease of use, high-speed capability, and compact size make it an ideal addition to the array of equipment that can be used to form a near-ship network backbone. We propose to develop a littoral and near-ship communication (LANSCOM) network to satisfy the modern military's need for robust high-data-rate communication between ships and shore-based platforms. We will accomplish the goals of this program by integrating sophisticated optical tracking techniques, COTS network electronics, GPS equipment, and miniature protocol-independent FSO transceivers that can be mounted on small vehicles or carried and operated by individual personnel. This system will be designed for compatibility with future communication needs, as well, and will extend high-data-rate communication to support craft, UAVs and manned aircraft. Our considerable equipment experience and proven expertise in FSO communication systems place us in a unique position to develop a system that addresses all of the relevant issues, from link availability to marketing strategies. Robust, high-speed wireless computer networks have numerous applications in military, commercial and industrial settings. They are characterized by fast setup, upgrade and reconfiguration, and thus can benefit mobile tactical operations that are heavily dependent on access to up-to-the minute information. In military scenarios, the ability to covertly extend the network will prevent any segments of the battle group from being cut off. Extensions of the LANSCOM technology will enable individual warfighters to have access to the entire information content of the battlefield or on-ship network for the ultimate in situational awareness. The telecommunications industry and, in fact, the population as a whole, will benefit greatly through the addition of mobile high-speed wireless networks in business campuses and neighborhoods. Farming and land maintenance will become more automated and self-coordinating. FASTCOM will aid in improving homeland, harbor and military base security through enhanced surveillance data transmission capabilities. Disaster relief and recovery crews will be able to quickly set up emergency networks and more-effectively communicate throughout rescue operations, enabling them to quickly reunite missing persons with their families. Analogous applications can be found throughout the Government, commercial and industrial markets.

TALKING LIGHTS LLC
28 Constitution Road
Boston, MA 02129
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 242-0050
Mr. Al-Thaddeus Avestruz
NAVY 02-125      Selected for Award
Title:Optical Communication Near Ships
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I program is to develop a new method of communication to enable ships, personnel and small boats to create a tactical network. The Phase I program will develop a prototype Free Space Optical Network (FSON) including a Ship Optical Communications Array and a Personal Communicator. Particular attention will be paid to range, bandwidth, reliability and ease of use. FSON capabilities will be evaluated and demonstrated. In Phase II, a full size Ship Optical Communicator Array and minaturized Personal Communicators and Small Boat Transceivers will be designed and built and the FSON network will be demonstrated and evaluated in the field and on vessels. Phase III will involve the commercial manufacture and sale of FSON devices for operational use. Transceivers developed in this project will be installed on operational vessels and provided to personnel to provide enhance functional communication capability. The FSON should also be of commercial value in other short range military communications and for civilian communication under emergency circumstances and under conditions where RF cannot be used.

AOPTIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
580 Division St.
Campbell, CA 95008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 583-1143
Mr. J. Elon (Buzz) Graves
NAVY 02-126      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Ship-to-Ship High-Bandwidth, Secure Free-Space Optical Communications Using Adaptive Optics
Abstract:The objective of the project is to develop a small, very-high bandwidth optical communications link for the Navy ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore applications. AOptix Technologies has developed a novel Free Space Optical communication system that uses Adaptive Optics to dynamically correct atmospheric aberrations that result from turbulence and scintillation. By correcting these optical distortions, AOptix is able to build multi-gigabit, all-optical, long-range FSO systems. These FSO systems are inherently secure because the light beam is precisely controlled and collimated to fill the receiver aperture. AOptix Technologies will adapt its terrestrial FSO system to meet the Navy's requirements for a long-range, high-speed, secure, compact communications technology. Multi-gigabit, multi-wavelength Free Space Optical Communications capability will break the information access bottleneck. AOptix's highly collimated beam assures the highest degree of security for optical through-air data transmissions. Other military applications exist in ground-to-air, ground-to-space and air-to-space. Commercial applications exist in areas that require long-distance, high-capacity telecommunications links such as cellular phone traffic backhaul.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Narasimha S. Prasad
NAVY 02-126      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Long range, high bandwidth, fast tracking, free-space communication link
Abstract:Coherent Technologies Inc. (CTI) proposes to develop a laser communication system (LCS) coupled with a high-speed pointing and tracking scheme for greater than 100 Mb/s data rate, for optimal conditions, and 64kbits/sec, for poor atmospheric conditions, applications for long range (>50km) optical communications. The LCS will provide eyesafe operation with an engagement range greater than 50 km among moving aerial vehicles (including VTUAVs) and ships. The dual mode AMCW and pulsed (high peak power), high repetition rate laser transmitter optimally coupled to a compact pointing and tracking unit will be designed to reduce the probability of data link breakdown due to low visibility conditions (i.e. fog). The approach will capitalize upon innovative transceiver and scanner designs developed by CTI for laser radar systems and the advancing scanner technologies such as Micro-Opto-Electrical-Mechanical Systems. The baseline architecture uses a mid/near transmitter optimally coupled to micro-mirror assembly. Three potential configurations for tracking in a highly dynamic environment are envisaged. The Phase I effort will generate system level signal-to-noise ratio assessments for data link performance under various environmental conditions, (2) establish closed-loop pointing and tracking scheme for maximum link performance, and (3) develop a proof-of-principle prototype and execute risk reduction measurements to ensure technical and cost feasibility for Phase II field-worthy hardware implementation. Potential applications include ground-to-ground, ground-to-air, sea-to-air mobile communication systems for video broadcast, telecommunication applications, and other data intensive applications that do not rely on two fixed locations. The proposed system is anticipated to enhance troop communications and battlefield awareness and support search and rescue operations.

LSA
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Mr. John G. Lehman, Jr.
NAVY 02-126      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Free Space Optics Ship to Ship Network Communication Capability
Abstract:Theater logistics, security, and Command and Control all require communication of huge amounts of tactical information and sensor data in order to locate the enemy and his assets, identify vulnerable targets, and prevent friendly casualties by neutralizing threats before they can inflict damage. Moderate range ship-to-ship communications can use free space optics (FSO) to take advantage of the unregulated infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to minimize or eliminate RF emissions. We propose to investigate the feasibility of developing a Free Space Optics (FSO) Ship to Ship Network Communication system that can be used to form a nominally 50 km range, variable data rate, non line-of-sight connection to facilitate secure and interference free communications between moving ships. The FSO system is based on a novel building-block transceiver implementation to integrate all of the necessary features into a small, rugged package suitable for ship and small UAV installation. As envisioned, the system would provide: ship-to-ship line-of-slight (LOS) communications, ship to aircraft and ashore communications (Non-LOS), accommodate a variable-speed data rate to operate reliably in all kinds of weather (from 100 Mbps to 64Kbps), and operate in the eye-safe 1550nm wavelength region of the spectrum. Relevant near-term applications are present in both military and commercial markets. They include: High bandwidth data communications between ships and from ship to shore, Mine and buoy status communications, Data communications and relay links between aircraft and automobiles, Underwater harbor surveillance and communication system, Voice and data communications for divers and undersea rescue workers, Remote ocean measurement and monitoring capability, Wideband metropolitan area networks, Airport emergency crews (FAA), Federal surveillance efforts, including multichannel (CIA, NSA, DISA), Law and drug enforcement surveillance relay system (DEA, BATF, FBI), Battlefield or other mobile military communications, special operations (DoD).

ADVANCED ROTORCRAFT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1685 Plymouth Street, Suite 250
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-1464
Dr. Chengjian He
NAVY 02-127      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Ship Dynamics/Ship Air Wake Interface
Abstract:Safe and effective shipboard aircraft operation is a challenging task for both pilot and ship deck operators. The launch and recovery of manned and autonomous aircraft are strongly affected by ship motion in the ocean wind and wave environment, the ship induced air wake, and aircraft interaction with the ship dynamics and the ship air wake. A simulation tool is needed to model pilot/aircraft/ship/air wake interaction for purpose of design, operational analysis, and training. We propose to 1. Perform a comprehensive parametric study to investigate the effects of important ship air wake and turbulence parameters (e.g., intensity, spatial grid and time scale, etc.) on the aircraft response. The study will identify the essential characteristics of the ship air wake for accurate simulation of shipboard aircraft launch and recovery operations. 2. Develop an interface between the ship dynamics and ship air wake models to address the effect of ship dynamic motion (e.g., pitch and roll) in addition to the current wind over deck speed and angle variation. 3. Develop an intelligent pilot interface model to address the pilot/aircraft interaction to simulate Mission Task Elements of shipboard aircraft launch and recovery. The tool developed will benefit military autonomous and manned rotary wing or fixed wing aircraft launch and recovery from ship and support the process of design, training, and planning. It will also benefit commercial airlines for take-off and landing safety and improvement of operation efficiency.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. Robert M. McKillip, Jr.
NAVY 02-127      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:A Coupled Ship Motion/Airwake Model for Naval Aircraft Simulation Applications
Abstract:Proper simulation-based assessment of aircraft launch and recovery operations from Navy vessels is critically dependent upon the availability of accurate models of the airwake environment surrounding the ship. Current airwake models in use, however, are limited to simulating only steady ship headings relative to a uniform flow field, and do not include any dynamic ship motion responses to surface waves. Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (CDI) proposes the development of a new ship airwake/ship motion/aircraft motion software interface that will provide a range of code modules with scalable fidelity that can properly simulate the airwake environment around ships for aircraft flight simulation. The resulting software can support ship designers, dynamic interface (DI) test planners, aircrew training and flight planning, UAV operator interface design, and sailor training exercises. The Phase I/Phase II program will leverage: (1) previous corporate experience in unsteady flow analysis and software development; (2) an in-house first-principles, time-accurate free wake analysis for rotorcraft flight dynamics; (3) a fast panel-based code for computing wakes and airloads from aircraft and lifting surfaces in arbitrary relative motion; and (4) recent research into supporting real-time simulation of the DI test environment. Accurate prediction of airwake effects on Naval aircraft would support enhanced safety of air operations from a range of surface vessels. Use of the software by ship designers would provide a rapid assessment of the effects of ship modifications on aircraft launch and recovery effectiveness. Components of the software can enhance the fidelity of real-time simulation of both manned and unmanned aircraft operations from Navy ships.

SUKRA HELITEK, INC.
3146, Greenwood road
Ames, IA 50014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 292-9646
Mr. David Schaller
NAVY 02-127      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Ship Dynamics/Ship Air Wake Interface
Abstract:Shipboard landings of V/STOL aircraft have identified both unique dynamic interface issues and the need for an accurate simulation module for practicing shipboard operations. The unsteady, unpredictable air wake generated by large ships presents problems to rotorcraft pilots because it can cause the vehicle to become unstable. A flight simulator for shipboard operations would be invaluable to rotorcraft pilots by providing a safe environment to experience ship air wake phenomena. It is proposed that the flow field for a ship and aircraft be solved using a coupled viscous computational fluid dynamics(CFD) flow solver for various wind speeds and directions. The matrix solutions, created by CFD solver, Rot3dc,will be stored in a database laying the foundation for a real time simulation module. In phase I, the ship's motion is limited to translation and yaw. During the Option period, a turbulance model will be added and the ship's motion will be extended to include pitch and roll. During Phase II, improvements to the simulation module and graphical user interface will be added. The simulation module develpoed under this initiative will find wide usage in the Navy rotorcraft organization and rotorcraft industry. This proposal offers a simulation tool that will lay the foundation for load and wake calculations of rotorcraft during shipboard operations. Sukra Helitek's flagship Rot3DC is used currently for several flight regimes including vortex ring state. The proposed research has resulted from the needs of the U.S. defense industry and is an extention to the well tested Rot3DC. The enhanced capabilities of Rot3DC will further increase its marketability and usefulness.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5513
Mr. Derek Fox
NAVY 02-128      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Shielding Solutions for Composite Ship Structures
Abstract:Composite structures can provide major weight savings and performance improvements over metallic structures. Their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance and compatibility with low radar cross-section designs have led to their increasing use in ship construction. However since these structures provide no inherent EM shielding it must be specifically designed-in for ship topside applications. The Foster-Miller team will develop innovative methods for providing effective and durable EM shielding. Our team includes a major shipbuilder, Northrop-Grumman Ship Systems, to assist us with ship design and construction practices. Our technical approach addresses integration of a ground-plane within the composite structure and the connection of this groundplane to the hull of the vessel. Our approach also addresses the needs for grounding the shields for systems and equipment during outfitting. (P-020621) Providing durable and effective shielding of composite structures is required for safety of personnel and equipment in ship topside applications. Proven shielding techniques will enable future ship systems will benefit from the reduced weight and vulnerability of composite ship structures. The Foster-Miller approach is to identify techniques for integrating the shielding provisions during fabrication of the composite structure, rather than adding them as an afterthought. We believe this provides for a more cost-effective and robust approach.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Donald M. Bigg
NAVY 02-128      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Highly Effective EM Shielding Technique for Ship Composite Structures
Abstract:METSS proposes to develop low radar cross section structural composites that reliably produce a minimum of 60 dB of attenuation in the 100 kHz to 1 GHz range, when used as standalone structures or joined to metals in complex structures. The key to accomplishing this goal is to ensure electrical connectivity across the composite-metal boundary regardless of the joining technique used. METSS will address this service requirement by rendering the matrix resin electrically conductive to such a degree that inter-material resistivity is dramatically reduced. METSS also intends to do this without significantly altering the basic mechanical properties of the composite. Rendering the matrix resin conductive will also reduce the internal electrical resistance between adjacent conductive carbon fibers. Carbon fibers are highly conductive along the fiber direction, but less so in the cross-fiber direction. Consequently, reducing fiber to fiber resistance is important in increasing the overall level of uniformity of conductivity throughout the composite. METSS intends to render the matrix resins electrically conductive by the incorporation of either inherently conductive polymers, conductive nano-materials, or a combination of both technologies. Because of the nature of the electrical conductivity of these two materials, corrosion at joints should be minimized. The benefits of this program are extensive. EMI shielding has been a very active field of study for 25 years, and is important, not only in military applications, but in the commercial sector, as well. Protection of military computers, computer driven devices, and communications requires excellent EMI shielding. Stealth systems rely on the ability to control impinging electromagnetic waves. A constant concern of composite aircraft is their ability to withstand a lightening strike. Lightning strikes can also be dangerous to ground based structures. Making composites electrically conductive composites will allow them to enter markets where dissipation of electrical charges is required.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Mr. Randy A. Handley
NAVY 02-128      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Carbon Foam Composite Material Systems for Ship EM Shielding
Abstract:The Navy is planning to integrate composite structures into the new CV(X) and DD(X) ship class designs. The structures and components will provide an inherent weight savings and are more corrosion-resistant than current steel structures. Currently, composite structures do not provide the same electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness without being designed into the structure as steel or aluminum. EM shielding effectiveness of 60 dB and greater for 1 GHz and above has been achieved with composite materials; shielding effectiveness in the 100 kHz to 1 GHz ranges are much less. In the proposed effort, Touchstone Research Laboratory (TRL) will work with the University of Delaware (UD), whose previous work with the Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock (NSWCC) has shown that Touchstone's coal-based carbon foam material, labeled CFOAM , can be tailored to be a high-performance absorber and perfect electrical conductor (PEC) of wide-band frequency and wide-angle incidence for electromagnetic shielding structures. Touchstone will also work with Newport News Ships Systems and ATK to develop techniques for joining composite-to-composite and composite-to-metal structures and components using carbon foam. The radar-absorbing and EM shielding material system concepts created by this research will be lighter, stronger and more absorptive than those currently available. Structures, whether on land, sea, or that fly requiring weight reduction though using composites and effective RCS and EM shielding, will benefit.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3250
Mr. Nilesh Gunda
NAVY 02-129      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:Ultra Low Friction Hard Carbon Coatings for Naval Applications
Abstract:Naval ships contain many systems that have rotating, sliding or otherwise wearing surfaces. Many of these systems require significant maintenance for lubrication and wear related adjustments. Navy has identified the potential use of near frictionless carbon coatings for improving the performance of such systems. Surmet proposes the use of ultra low carbon coatings to improve the efficiency and performance of these systems. Surmet's amorphous carbon coating, is extremely hard, lubricious, wear and corrosion resistant. In Phase I, Surmet will determine th eperformance characteristics of its hard carbon coating in marine environment, including salt air, sea spray and submergence in seawater. In Phase II, potential applications will be identified and tested with the use of the hard carbon coating. A Phase III commercialization plan will be developed for rapid insertion of the technology in operating aircraft. Hard carbon DLC coatings are finding increasing use in the biomedical, aerospace and semiconductor industry. The Navy has identified a few marine applications for the use of low friction hard carbon coatings. The success of this project will lead to significant maintenance and cost savings for the navy.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 261-8373
Dr. David Palaith
NAVY 02-129      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings for Marine Applications
Abstract:Corrosion costs the Navy 26 man-years per year per ship in maintenance, or about 6500 man years per year ($975 million) for its entire 221 surface ship battle force. This includes maintaining coatings of superstructures and catwalks, interior bulkheads and decks, flightdecks and topside decks, bilge wet spaces, tanks and voids, topside camouflage and freeboard, and machinery space passageways. Cathodic protection is used for underwater hull corrosion protection. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a new thin film lubricant, known as Near Frictionless Carbon (NFC), that may offer a solution to many of these corrosion problems. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposed solution, Technology Assessment & Transfer (TA&T) will measure tribological, wear, and corrosion properties of NFC films in sea water spray/fog and compare the results with similar measurements of materials currently used by the fleet. TA&T also will subject these films to accelerated corrosion exposure in order to assess long-term behavior. The Center for Corrosion Science and Engineering (Code 6130) at NRL will perform these accelerated corrosion exposures. During the Phase II effort, the Corrosion Control Group (05M) in NAVSEA will review and recommend testing. Since NFC films also perform well in a dry, low pressure environment, an additional applications may be in the space industry especially to lubricate attitude control systems. Other lubricating applications (currently under investigation) include internal combustion engines - piston rings, valve stems/seats, fuel injectors, etc.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Rabi S. Bhattacharya
NAVY 02-129      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Development and Evaluation of Near Frictionless Carbon for Shipboard Applications
Abstract:Near frictionless carbon (NFC) coating, a form of amorphous carbon that has a friction coefficient of less than 0.001 when measured in dry nitrogen, has been developed at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This coating has potentials for many applications including that of naval shipboard. Naval ships contain many systems such as pumps, fans, windlasses, winches, steering gear, reduction gears, door and hatch hinges, elevators and gun mounts, that have rotating and sliding wear surfaces. Currently used lubricants and coatings do not provide long lasting protection against wear and corrosion in marine environment. UES, Inc. and ANL have teamed up for the development of NFC coating using a large area filtered cathodic arc plasma technique and evaluate the coating for performance under simulated marine environment. Near frictionless carbon coating has potential in numerous commercial applications. Examples are: piston rings, gears and bearing components, cams and cam-roller followers, fuel injectors, air conditioning compressors, etc.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Michael McFarland
NAVY 02-130      Selected for Award
Title:Barrel Coating and Liners for Extended Barrel Life
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase I effort is to investigate the effectiveness of using coatings to extend the life of gun barrels. The coatings will be deposited using Alameda Applied Sciences' proprietary Coaxial Energetic Deposition (CED) process, which is capable of depositing virtually any metal or alloy and many types of ceramics to the insides of tubes, while using no moving parts. One of the major benefits of the CED process is that the deposition ions are much more energetic than those of other deposition methods, for example sputtering or CVD. Because of these more energetic ions, CED deposited coatings tend to be denser, with fewer voids and cracks, and to adhere better to the substrate. As a first step in this Phase I, a determination will be made of the most promising material for coating the tubes. Several tube sections will be coated and an analysis will be performed to assess the ability of the coatings to extend the life of gun barrels. This novel technology provides a means to inexpensively apply high-quality metal or ceramic coatings to the inside surface of gun barrels and other tubes. These coatings have already demonstrated that they extend the lifetime of ethylene cracking tubes used in olefin manufacturing. These coatings have the potential to extend the life of tubes or cylinders when mechanical wear, caustic chemicals or elevated temperatures are contributing factors to the failure of the system, leading to cost savings in operation and maintenance.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James C. Withers
NAVY 02-130      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:The Development of Refractory Materials as Gun Barrel Liners
Abstract:State-of-the-art gun barrels limit the munition and propellant that can be utilized due to excessive erosion that limits the life and performance capabilities and adversely affects the operating cost and required force levels. In order to increase barrel life, as well as accommodating the use of higher energy and temperature propellants for firing advance projectiles, the refractorness of gun barrels must be substantially enhanced. This program proposes to investigate the use of refractory metal alloys and cermets applied by solid free form fabrication (SFFF) using a plasma transferred arc (PTA) energy source. A variety of refractory alloys and cermets will be produced and screen tested utilizing a vented bomb and heat checking. Forcing cones will be produced in the most promising compositions and delivered to the Navy which after testing will provide a basis for Phase II optimization, additional forcing cone testing and fabricating barrels for live fire test. Gun barrels with refractory metal alloy lings have application in all military branches in all caliber weapons as well as commercial applications requiring reduced thermomechanical erosion.

NORTH STAR RESEARCH CORP.
4421 McLeod, NE, Ste. A
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 888-4908
Dr. Richard J. Adler
NAVY 02-130      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Chromium Nitride Barrel Implant/Coating for Extended Barrel Life
Abstract:In our phase I work we propose to develop and test a mulilayer, ion implanted chrome nitride coating with unique applicability to gun barrel lifetime improvement. We will create an ion implanted CrN coating on top of the present chrome coating of the gun barrel. This coating will have low friction, good hardness and excellent resistance to cracking. Ion implanted coatings have excellent practical life typically 10X chromium by itself in wear situations), and we will build up a multilayer ion implanted coating. This coating is expected to significantly increase the life of the gun barrel. The coating equipment is also uniquely compatible with the cylindrical shape of gun barrel interior, and we expect it to create a coating which conforms to the barrel's rifling. The ultimate cost of the coating will be as low as $500/barrel using this technique. Initial tests of the new surface using a laser heat pulse from a cutting laser will tell is whether the surface is improved. Cross-sectional SEM will also be used to study this problem. Automotive tooling will benefit greatly from this type of coating. Severe high temperature corrosion/wear situations such as aircraft engine parts will also benefit.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4445
Mr. Robert F. Lowey
NAVY 02-130      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Barrel Coating and Liners for Extended Barrel Life
Abstract:Gun barrel erosion is due to thermo-chemical reactions. Modern propellants are highly corrosive and burn at ever-higher temperatures. Refractory metals have been demonstrated to resist thermo-chemical reactions better than any other available coating or liner. The problem has been in keeping the material in place under extreme firing conditions. TPL successfully demonstrated explosively clad, tantalum-lined gun barrels under live-fire conditions in 2001, using the extremely hot burning M919 ammunition. In a smoothbore barrel, over 1300 rounds were successfully fired, compared to the baseline test, <300 rounds, when the barrel was condemned. These liners were made from pure tantalum, which is a relatively soft metal, which may have problems resisting projectile spin up or the balloting experienced with large bore gun tubes. TPL proposes to characterize alternative refractory metals and alloys for use in large caliber rifled gun tubes. TPL will fabricate tubing of the selected materials for cladding in short simulated gun tube sections. These sections will be cut into specimens for evaluation of bond quality, bond strength, and fabricated into conforming parts for small-scale erosion tests. Through this effort TPL will identify a material that has both erosion and wear resistance, and one that is available in sufficient quantities for use in gun barrel manufacturing. TPL and the principle investigator have unique expertise in explosive cladding of gun barrels and the development of the necessary explosive formulations. Adoption of this technology by the military for gun systems across the board will not only extend barrel life but will allow higher performance ammunition to be employed. This technology will enable the cladding of tubing with thermo-chemical resistant refractory metals to thin-walled tubing for use in the chemical and nuclear industries. The work effort suggested within this proposal will further enhance that capability by identifying mechanical wear resistant materials that can withstand degrees of abrasion, etc., from detritus within the fluids flowing through the tubing, thereby expanding the industries of interest.

VERITAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4845 Millersport Highway, P.O. Box 305
East Amherst, NY 14051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 689-0177
Mr. Randy Salizzoni
NAVY 02-131      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:In-Bore Dynamic Instrumentation for Navy Gun Barrels
Abstract: Abstract not available...

FOSTER-MILLER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
431 New Karner Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 456-9919
Mr. Gordon B. Hirschman
NAVY 02-132      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Autonomous Prescription of Maintenance Requirements
Abstract:Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) has become the Navy's overriding operating philosophy aimed at reducing life-cycle costs while maintaining operational readiness by decreasing maintenance requirements and operating with reduced manpower. To support the CBM philosophy, the Navy needs to be able to deploy appropriate tools for equipment health assessment, diagnostics and prognostics. This requires an integrated framework for the development and evaluation of monitoring, diagnostic and prognostic approaches against actual or proposed shipboard system designs. To address this need, Foster-Miller Technologies (FMT) proposes to create a model based software framework we call the Integrated Design Evaluation Architecture for Condition Based Maintenance (IDEA/CBM) that will provide a tool for the system designer or maintenance manager to pull various measurement, diagnostic, and prognostic approaches together and then assess the overall effectiveness of the approaches to provide an integrated assessment of the system's health. The IDEA/CBM supports creation of a model of a shipboard system against which the effectiveness of an approach can be tested. Once an appropriate set of condition assessment tools has been integrated it can be exported to a shipboard CBM system based on the OSA/CBM open system architecture for implementation. The IDEA/CBM framework will facilitate the integration of monitoring, diagnostic and prognostic capabilities to support CBM in a wide range of systems. The framework could be used by any systems manufacturer or system design or maintenance engineering organization (either commercial or military) to select an optimum set of condition assessment tools to match the needs of new or retrofit systems. The resulting CBM practices can reduce maintenance costs, avoid unplanned system outages, and prevent system failures. Potential commercial applications are widespread in the power generation, petrochemical, food processing, transportation, mining, aerospace, electronics and building industries.

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY CONNECTION, INC.
2839 Paces Ferry Rd. Suite 1160
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 803-3001
Dr. A. B. Thakker
NAVY 02-132      Awarded: 23DEC02
Title:Autonomous Prescription of Maintenance Requirements
Abstract:Global Technology Connection, Inc. in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology and its industrial partners (General Electric, Lockheed and others,) proposes to conceptualize, define and demonstrate key features of an integrated model-based software framework whose product will assist eventually the maintenance manager and the systems designer to select the "best" prescription for assessing the effectiveness and fault coverage of available models but also to utilize the accumulated knowledge towards continuously improving the design or re-design of critical military or industrial assets. The enabling technologies for this automated prescription-targeted software architecture include novel intelligent agent based information management and decision support logic tools, a hybrid object-oriented modeling methodology, diagnostic and prognostic algorithms already developed by this research team, a case-based reasoning paradigm to assess the accumulated evidence and support the decision making, and an open systems architecture compatible with OSA CBM levels for implementation purposes. A typical shipboard system will be selected as the testbed for proof-of-concept purposes. An aggressive productization/commercialization and tech transfer agenda will be drafted to facilitate Phase II and III work. The results of this project will assist the U.S. Navy initially and other government and industry sectors actively engaged in CBM practices for legacy and new platforms, such as the JSF, UCAV and AAAV, to optimize maintenance and system design or re-design tasks through an intelligent and automated prescription-targeted architecture. This model-based software framework promises to advance significantly the state-of-the-art of CBM/PHM systems and extend their coverage to a variety of multiple platforms. It will lead to improved techno-economic performance of these new technologies and increase the availability and reliability of critical assets in the execution of a mission. Finally, it will make viable PHM systems accessible to a variety of industry sector including the aerospace and transportation industries, the power generation and utility industries, chemical process industries, among others.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Akhilesh Maewal
NAVY 02-132      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:A Tool for Design of Automated CBM Systems
Abstract:An Opens System Architecture (OSA) for Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) is being developed through a cooperative development between industry and the Department of Defense. This OSA-CBM standard defines critical software interfaces at various architecture levels including Data Manipulation, Condition Monitoring, Health Assessment, Prognostics and Decision Support. Intelligent Automation Corporation has developed an open architecture Intelligent Machinery Diagnostic System (iMDS) toolbox based on the Mathworks Simulink software environment. The iMDS toolbox provides proven CBM software modules at various levels of the OSA-CBM architecture including Data Manipulation, Condition Monitoring, Health Assessment, Prognostics and Decision Support. IAC proposes adding a OSA-CBM compliant set of input and output tools to the iMDS toolbox that would provide an extremely powerful yet open software architecture for CBM system development. The enhanced iMDS toolset can easily be applied to aviation, vehicle and shipboard CBM applications by third parties. Using a Mathworks/Simulink software environment allows the applications to be generated and tested quickly in an easy-to-use graphical environment. Code generation features of the Mathworks Simulink system provide a mechanism to generate C code that could be used in a variety of CBM acquisition and processing systems. The Department of Defense is interested in having this software architecture support emerging CBM open architecture standards developed as part of the Open System Architecture (OSA) for Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) initiative. The OSA-CBM team is creating information sharing standards with the objective driving suppliers to produce interchangeable hardware and software components based on the standard. The benefits of an open standard for the Department of Defense and industry are simplified system upgrades, more technology and supplier choices, rapid technology development and reduced prices

ELECTRO STANDARDS LABORATORIES
36 western Industrial Drive
Cranston, RI 02921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 943-1164
Dr. Raymond B. Sepe Jr
NAVY 02-133      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Sensorless Control of Linear Motors
Abstract:Closed-loop control techniques such as those based on inner loop vector current control are well suited to meeting these performance criteria. However, they require flux or armature position knowledge which is usually based on the use of mechanical feedback sensors. Mechanical feedback sensors for position or velocity are the most unreliable link in the control system when subjected to harsh conditions such as those found in EMALS. Sensorless control techniques seek to remove the mechanical feedback sensors while still maintaining the same level of control performance. This work will extend the state-of-the-art in sensorless control to linear motor system, and in particular to the demanding transient requirements of EMALS. Signal Injection methods, meausrement based methods, and advanced state estimators will be assessed and new hybrid sensorless controller for linear motors will be developed to meet or exceed the EMALS requirements. Development of a robust hybrid sensorless controller will have immediate benefits for both linear motor and rotational motor systems. Servo grade performance without mechanical sensors improves reliability, survivability, and reduces the cost for closed loop control, making it applicable to a wide variety of industrial, commercial, and military applications. Prime candidates for this technology include linear motor aircraft launch and arrest systems, linear motor conveyor belt and transport systems for moving factory goods through a production or storage facility, linear or rotary vehicle and craft propulsion systems, hybrid electric vehicles, fly-by-wire systems, more-electric aircraft, vehicles, and ships, electrification of mining and drilling equipment, and the machine tool and general automation industry.

NDI ENGINEERING CO.
100 Grove Road, P.O. Box 518
Thorofare, NJ 08086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 848-0033
Mr. Ted M. Heinrich
NAVY 02-133      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Sensorless Control of Linear Motors
Abstract:Develop a sensorless control scheme, including hardware and algorithms that can effectively and accurately control a long linear motor. Eliminate the need for sensors to control operation, since sensors are the most failure prone components in the system.This would have direct and immediate benefits for all types of commercial rotary and linear motors.

MAGTUBE, INC.
5735-B Hollister Ave.
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-9659
Mr. Jim Fiske
NAVY 02-134      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:High Density Electric Energy Storage
Abstract:Magtube proposes to develop a new class of inertial energy storage unit capable of very high energy capacity and power output in a far smaller package than is possible with any currently available technology. We have developed a novel concept that eliminates the primary failure modes of composite flywheels and allows nearly unlimited scalability. We will survey Navy operational requirements to develop target specifications for a prototype unit. We will then develop a design for the prototype, analyze critical components, build a test device to verify computed characteristics, estimate the size, weight, performance and cost of the prototype, and produce a solid model drawing with all components in place. Preliminary estimates suggest the possibility of constructing a 1 GJ, 100 MW unit with a total volume of less than 4 cubic meters. Electrical energy storage has many applications in both military and civilian systems. For the Navy, our units will provide compact, light weight energy storage for aircraft catapults, pulsed power weapons and sensors, and general back-up power for "all-electric" ships. Integrated all-electric designs are expected to significantly improve efficiency,effectiveness, and survivability while simultaneously increasing design flexibility, reducing costs, and enhancing quality of service. In civilian use our units will be safe, efficient, and will have no adverse environmental effects. Low-end units will be suitable for applications such as power quality, small facility UPS systems, and transportation. High-end units could be a viable alternative to pumped hydro. Large units will decrease the need for utility investments in new transmission and distribution systems, with a potential national saving exceeding $3 billion per year in this application alone. They could also reduce the cost of electricity to all consumers, create higher grid reliability and energy security, and result in a very large export market for this technology.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4442
Mr. Eric P. Luther,Ph.D
NAVY 02-134      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:High Energy Density Capacitive Power Source for Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch Systems
Abstract:There is an increasing need for energy storage devices with greater energy density capabilities. While major advances are being made in dielectric polymers in this regard, demands are outrunning improvements. Composite dielectrics have shown little promise with the ceramic phase having only a second order effect on dielectric constant but a negative first order effect on breakdown strength. TPL proposes a major advance in composite dielectrics through use of its 50 nm barium titanate particles and high performance siloxane dielectric polymer. To this will be added means of substantially increasing dielectric constant and mitigating breakdown strength effects. An order of magnitude increase in energy density could result. In Phase I, films of modified BaTiO3/siloxane composite materials will be cast. Dielectric constant, breakdown strength, and loss tangent will be measured and compared with baseline materials. Evaluations of improvements will be made. TPL has one of the most comprehensive programs in advanced dielectric materials. As winner of the MILCAP Program, TPL's siloxane polymer is state-of-the-art. The Principal Investigator is a leader in composite dielectric materials. TPL will produce novel barium titanate/siloxane nanocomposites to explore the structure property relations of these materials. The properties of ordered nanocomposites have the potential to greatly exceed those of unordered composites. Nanocomposites with enhanced properties will find use in high energy storage density capacitors and embedded capacitance applications for a variety of military applications. Potential commercial applications include lasers, pulsed lightning and defibrillators.

STEALTH INDUSTRIES US LLC
P.O. Box 75323
Tampa, FL 33675
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(813) 645-7702
Mr. Dana Neer
NAVY 02-135      Selected for Award
Title:Aircraft Carrier Environmental Maintenance Enclosure
Abstract:Fleet commands have an immediate need for an enclosure that will enhance the work performance in aircraft carriers specifically on the flight decks during schedueled upkeep and maintenance periods. The enclosure should be portable, modular, high wind capable and permit establishment of an environmentally controlled work area that will allow the required maintenance to be conducted without ambient temperature and humidity challenges. With a controlled environment the quality of work will be significatly enhanced and consistent. Delays in preparation and actual maintenance associated with weather changes will be reduced. Commercial application in part will be optimized in commercial ship deck work such as for pipe and pipe manifold installation and repairs, other time consuming deck work where weather may be a costly problem in time and man hours. Also, for pipe line contractors and and exterior fabrication such as industrial plants where temporary fabrication on site is required.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. David Powell
NAVY 02-135      Selected for Award
Title:Modular Aircraft Carrier Environmental Enclosure (MACEE
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. (TSI) proposes to develop a Modular Aircraft Carrier Environmental Enclosure (MACEE) that is portable, lightweight, easy to erect, capable of withstanding heavy winds and can be produced at a competitive cost. The core technology is based upon Triton's integrated team effort approach to create an enclosure design with environmental controls and appropriate materials that will enhance the removal and application of non-skid systems. Triton's team has extensive knowledge of existing shelter systems and has the experience and ability to retrofit these systems for use on Aircraft Carriers. These lightweight low cost rigid shelters will include full HVAC and filtration control of the enclosed environment. Triton's MACEE provides the required environmental protection for the working sailors on the carrier's deck. The specific retrofitting and upgrading of existing systems with appropriate military HVAC requirements will be the focus of the Triton's team effort. At the conclusion of the proposed program, the feasibility of fabricating an MACEE capable of generating temperature, humidity, ventilation and filtration requirements necessary for the application of non-skid will be demonstrated. The proposed environmental enclosure will be able to be used with non-skid coating systems on commercial ships, overland transportation roadways and recreational areas such as swimming pool decks, tennis courts, theme parks, etc. Additionally, the proposed enclosure could be used to control the application of non-skid materials on marine and offshore drilling platforms with aircraft capabilities as well as for airport landing strips and runways.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Mark Bowers
NAVY 02-136      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Compact, High Power Midwave Infrared Lasers
Abstract:The Navy requires high power laser sources that can provide multi-Watt output power levels in the mid-infrared for optical countermeasures of anti-ship missiles. Current state of art laser transmitters, consisting of diode-pumped solid-state lasers and optical parametric oscillators, have demonstrated the required optical power and wavelength in the mid-infrared spectral region. However, these laser systems are unreliable, requiring constant maintenance due to component failure or optical misalignment. To improve the performance of next generation countermeasures systems, Aculight Corporation proposes a novel laser source based on emerging fiber-optic technology coupled with an innovative wavelength shifter to provide high power, broad bandwidth radiation in the mid-infrared. In the Phase I, experiments will be performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed novel wavelength shifter. A preliminary design of the mid-infrared laser to be built in the Phase II will also be developed. Results from the Phase I will be used in the option task to perform a detailed design of the laser module that will be built in the Phase II. The market targeted for the proposed compact, high-power mid-infrared laser source is the military production of such lasers for Army, Air Force and Navy infrared countermeasures systems.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Mr. Glen Rines
NAVY 02-136      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Midwave infrared OPO pumped by a compact, efficient Tm laser
Abstract:We propose the development of a MWIR system comprised of a diode-pumped, Q-switched, Tm laser pumping an OPO, which yields signal and idler waves that are both in-band to the atmospheric windows of interest (3.5 to 4.1 and 4.4 to 5.0 microns). The primary improvement over previous work, in our view, is that we have provided the necessary 2-micron pump laser for the OPO by directly Q-switching a Tm laser rather than using the Tm laser as an optical pump for a separate Ho laser. This eliminates one conversion step and substantially reduces the optical complexity of the system. The all-Brewster, side-pumped-slab gain module and its concomitant benefits will allow us to obtain efficient, reliable, Q-switched, TEM00 operation in a configuration that is less costly, more compact, and more robust laser than previously demonstrated MWIR sources. Specifically, we believe that our single-slab gain module, configured in the proposed all-Brewster, Tm:YALO geometry, pumped by two 60-W diode bars will yield 40 W of Q-switched, 2-micron output at 20 kHz. This pump source will, in turn, generate a total OPO output of 20 W, ~10 W in each of the two desired atmospheric windows. The development of a MWIR OPO-based source would add a new and strongly desired capability to existing remote-sensing technologies, by providing an alternative to the FTIR technology that has been well accepted in the commercial (rather than research) market for remote sensing. Given success in the overall proposed SBIR effort, Q-Peak would attempt to develop a commercial OPO-based instrument for gas concentration monitoring. We believe customer acceptance of such systems will occur given their similarity but clear advantages over installed FTIR devices. In addition, the OPO source would provide a path for Q-Peak to enter the industrial process control market, a large and growing business.

BRANDES ASSOC., INC.
1417 Crestline Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(231) 719-1396
Mr. Joseph Gattuso
NAVY 02-137      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Integrated Information Architecture for Crisis Management and Response
Abstract:This project proposes research directed toward the rapid design, development, construction, and deployment of a prototype Heterogeneous Asymmetric Warfare Crisis Management System (HAWCMS). The HAWCMS will integrate extant data sources, chemical, biological, nuclear, radiation, explosive, and environmental sensor and systems outputs via wireless, internet, SIPRNET, Ethernet, 802.11b, free-space optical, and voice/data switching technologies into an open, plug-and-play, secure, distributed, web-based, client/server architecture, employ intuitive GUIs customized for each system client, and then distribute doctrinally-based actions in response to crises and appropriate recommendations regarding courses of action (COA) based upon real-time or trend-analyzed data. The system will additionally provide mission, action, or event planning capabilities, predictive WMD analysis, and a simulation capability for crisis response rehearsal or COA analysis. Benefits: Improved Asymmetric Warfare Defensive systems, improved crisis response, reduction in damage caused by asymmetric warfare or disaster events, reduction in required manpower for increased levels of security for military assets, geographic locations, or strategic entities. Commercial Applications: Naval vessel/port/pier security, commercial shipping security, first-responder training, rehearsal, and crisis simulation capability, emergency response systems capability.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Ms. Teresa Petrescu
NAVY 02-137      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Crisis Response Management Network (CRMNet)
Abstract:Crisis responders face challenges that can be reduced by substantially improved monitoring, up-to-date situational awareness, and timely dissemination of data to responders. Information technology advancements will be leveraged to provide COTs driven solutions that greatly improve the monitoring and decision-making processes required for rapid response. Conversion of the vast amounts of data to knowledge is key to the scalable crisis management system architecture to be developed under Phase I. Components in sensor monitoring, situational awareness, and knowledge dissemination to facilitate rapid response under challenging conditions are addressed. ORINCON will develop a rapidly deployable, scaleable, crisis management system architecture using commercial technologies for shipboard, pierside, and land-based monitoring, and data dissemination to responders. This architecture will provide interoperability, integration with legacy systems, and built in reliability, performance and security. Users will benefit from context sensitive procedural reasoning and flexible displays that combine the vast amounts of data stored in data warehouses into information required by the response team. A sensor Interface Design Language will facilitate extensibility while knowledge dissemination, via a web-based architecture, will achieve a flexible system that provides coordination with multiple levels of responders at military, national, and local levels. ORINCON's system will contribute to homeland security objectives. Effective knowledge management techniques, employed with efficient, coordinated crisis response processes are needed at numerous locations, including high security facilities, such as military sites, hazardous material sites, such as nuclear and chemical production, handling, and storage facilities, and transportation and public sites, including air and sea transportation centers, and public works facilities. A flexible architecture that can be readily scaled to meet the demands of each facility is required. Components of the crisis response system architecture can be applied to reasoning systems for medical, health, and related applications. A notional system architecture built around commercial technologies, open interfaces, and plug-and-play components can be easily extended to the specific user's needs. Domain specific response, which can be easily modified by subject matter experts for dissemination during high-stress crisis situations, can dramatically increase the effectiveness of the first responders, and provide improved information to subsequent crisis response personnel. Users are guided through interactive, context sensitive doctrine based on subject matter expertise that best matches the crisis situation, provides improved effectiveness, and reduced risk to personnel. The cost of the system is offset by reduced training and manpower costs.

MICROENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2007 E. Fourth Plain Blvd.
Vancouver, WA 98661
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 694-3704
Mr. Joseph Birmingham
NAVY 02-138      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Miniature CBR Sensor with Combined Sampler and Terahertz Spectroscopy
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to evaluate the efficacy of the novel combination of microstructured aerosol and gas collector and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy techniques to non-invasively collect and detect hazardous chemical vapors, biological pathogens and toxins, and nuclear materials of interest. MicroEnergy Technologies, Inc. in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin-Madison will perform the joint research during Phase I in combining their technologies for the development of a unique, advanced sampling and sensing system. We have substantial experience in every aspect of the novel combination of filtration and detection, including air sampling for CBR agents, surface sampling, and optical spectroscopy. We will integrate a miniaturized terahertz spectroscopy system with microstructures to develop a state-of-the-art high signal-to-noise ratio chemical, biological, and nuclear agent detection system. During Phase I of this project, we will perform the feasibility of development of this system and demonstrate the approach with simulants, while during Phase I option and Phase II we`ll focus on development of a prototype for demonstration with real agents in a certified agent lab. The development of portable, noninvasive NBC detection device will enable personnel to detect chemical, biological, and nuclear contamination for emergency response, law enforcement and military applications. This system can also be used for border patrol and other agencies for homeland security.

PICOTRONIX, INC.
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 864-5639
Dr. David Zimdars
NAVY 02-138      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Automatic, Non-Intrusive Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Threat Detection
Abstract:We propose to develop the design for a terahertz imaging and spectroscopy test bed system for the non -intrusive detection of chemical, biological, and radiological threats. Terahertz imaging has the potential to reveal concealed explosives, flammables, biological agents, chemical weapons, metallic and non-metallic weapons, and other threats delivered to the Navy on personnel or packages. Because terahertz imaging employs safe non-ionizing radiation that penetrates clothing, people may be routinely scanned as well as packages. Images can have sub-millimeter resolution, superior to longer wavelength techniques. Explosives may posses a spectral fingerprint in the terahertz regime. In phase I, a commercially available terahertz imager will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting concealed threats and discriminating against harmless objects. A test bed based on commercial components will be designed. High speed image scanners will be designed to overcome the limitations of the conventional terahertz image technique which raster scans by moving the object. In particular, designs with no moving parts analogous to pulsed MRI and ultrasound will be evaluated theoretically and experimentally. The design approach will be evaluated for projected capabilities, the impact on shipboard use, and lifecycle costs. A successful Phase II will result in a terahertz spectroscopic imaging test bed of the appropriate configuration (portal scanner, portable or hand held scanners) with the capability of detecting chemical, biological, or radiological threats. The high speed terahertz imagers, algorithms and associated hardware developed will add to the list of recently commercialized transmitters, receivers, and signal processors. In addition to DOD applications, terahertz security scanners for aviation and law enforcement could be commercialized, as well as OEM applications including, manufacturing, medical, and environmental diagnostics.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Andrew Brown
NAVY 02-139      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:High Energy Solid State Laser (SSL) for Ship Self-Defense
Abstract:Megawatt power lasers are required for military weapons applications. In order to allow such lasers to have unlimited time of operation in the field, they should be electrically driven. The power output of current solid-state lasers meeting this requirement is limited to kilowatt levels due to thermal issues and problems of degraded beam quality. Aculight proposes in this work to demonstrate the feasibility of scaling the power level of solid state laser technology orders of magnitude beyond the current state-of-the-art. The technical innovations involved are: ú the use of a novel beam combination scheme which allows straightforward combination of beams from hundreds of individual lasers ú a new technique for scaling of output power from individual fiber lasers while maintaining beam quality These two innovations allow high power generation to go beyond the limitations imposed by the complexity of coherent beam combination and the thermal limitations of conventional solid state lasers. In this work we intend to demonstrate that beam-combined fibers could be scaled to the 100kW power level. Many industrial applications exist for lasers generating kilowatt output power. These include marking, cutting, micro-processing, welding and drilling. It is estimated that the worldwide market for industrial lasers was ~$1bn in 2001.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Iain McKinnie
NAVY 02-139      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:High Brightness Directed Energy Laser for Ship Defense
Abstract:Ship defense requires 10kW-100kW near diffraction-limited lasers with optimal wavelength and temporal format, taking into account laser efficiency and beam quality, atmospheric transmission, thermal-blooming, and target interactions. Solid-state laser technology is most mature at 1mm wavelength, but 1.6mm lasers typically provide better atmospheric transmission in the marine environment. CW and high peak power laser lasers are each likely to be optimal for different targets and different thermomechanical interactions. With current solid-state slab laser technology, 1-5kW average output power can be achieved in pulsed or CW mode at 1 micron, but typically with modest efficiency and >2x diffraction limited beam quality from a bulky system. Heat capacity lasers can achieve > 10kW power, but only for very low duty cycles. CTI proposes a breakthrough laser architecture (validated in proof-of-concept demonstrations) to enable development of compact, power-scalable MOPA systems. The architecture implements a proprietary technology for achieving higher efficiencies than rod or slab architectures, with near diffraction-limited beam quality and minimal thermo-optic aberrations. Modeling indicates that using this technology, a single MOPA system can reach 1-10kW-class power levels. Higher powers can be achieved using a phased array of these MOPAs. Phase 1 provides laser and system modeling and design trades for different gain media, wavelengths, and Navy tactical scenarios. This will ensure a low risk Phase 2 program that focuses on developing a 0.5-1kW (wavelength-dependent) MOPA system, and generates designs for a >10kW system. The program will leverage CTI's experience in kW-class lasers and in flight qualified laser systems. In addition to DoD directed energy applications, high brightness, high average power solid state lasers are required for applications in materials processing in semiconductor manufacturing and in automotive and aircraft industries, and for destruction of used surface ordnance.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro & Holography, 20600 Gramercy Place Bldg100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Russell Kurtz
NAVY 02-139      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Maritime Advanced Ship-Defense Thermally-Managed Intensely Focused Laser
Abstract:For ship self-defense, the Navy requires a rugged, effective, maintainable, efficient solid state laser that can be scaled to generate 100 kW in a high-quality beam. To address this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Maritime Advanced Ship-defense Thermally-managed Intensely Focused laser (MASTIFF), a two-stage phased array of laser elements with dynamic cavity correction in both covert and overt modes. MASTIFF will employ diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser modules in POC's proprietary laser-pumped laser cavity, which will reduce heat removal requirements and greatly improve both system scalability and performance over current laser systems. Specifically, the laser beam power will be increased by up to four orders of magnitude over that produced by Nd:YAG lasers and cost per effective shot will be reduced from the current $10,000 to under $10. Injection locking will ensure that light from all modules is combined into a single, powerful output beam, so that each module, and consequently the entire system, maintains high beam quality. In Phase I we will develop a complete design of the MASTIFF system and build a proof-of-concept device to demonstrate the feasibility of the MASTIFF concept. In Phase II a functional MASTIFF prototype will be developed. POC's proposed MASTIFF is a truly modular, efficient, scalable laser system. It is more efficient and easier to install than current devices. Such a laser system will be exceptionally useful in both the government and commercial sectors. Since it is so easily scalable, it can be operated in lower power mode as a large area illuminator (government) or even for graffiti removal (civil). At medium power it can be used for distant target designation (military) or for typical welding tasks (industrial). The possibility of choice of covert or overt modes enhances its usefulness as an illuminator or target designator. At high power the MASTIFF can be used as a directed energy weapon (military) or for cutting and deep welding (industrial). The commercial applications for this technology are excellent. There is a large market for superior, scalable welding and cutting tools.

ASI TECHNOLOGY CORP.
980 American Pacific Drive, Suite 111
Henderson, NV 89014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 734-1888
Dr. Theodore Anderson
NAVY 02-140      Selected for Award
Title:Plasma Phased Array Radar Antenna Architecture
Abstract:To reach the objectives of new and innovative technologies and architectures for phased array radar system development, ionized gas plasma antennas (GPA) and waveguides may be effective. GPA approaches such as windowing to reduce back and side lobes, increase radiation efficiency and provide rapid reconfigurability would support new revolutionary radar designs. Plasma waveguides would decrease the size, weight and cost of these systems. A larger electrical aperture for a given volume provided by plasma would give greater power, flexibility, efficiency and directivity. Replacement of metal elements with plasma in frequency selective surfaces design would allow selective bandwidth and filtering for a given frequency. When the GPA is deionized the antenna electrically disappears. Plasma barriers could be developed by selecting proper plasma skin depths, ion and electron densities and gas pressure. Any and all of these plasma attributes could be applied to evolutionary as well as revolutionary phased array radar architectural designs. ASI Technology is the pioneer in plasma research. Innovations include plasma antennas, plasma waveguides, plasma frequency selective surfaces, plasma shields and reflectors, plasma jet engine noise reduction and plasma decontamination. ASI's staff includes Dr. Ted Anderson and Dr. Igor Alexeff, leaders in the field of plasma science. Gas plasma could have applications in many commercial areas. Replacing smart antennas with gas plasma in wireless communication operations would reduce multipath problems. By increasing the number of antenna elements, the number of directional lobes can be increased thereby increasing the SNR. ASI Technology is working with Rennsalaer Polytechnic Institute to address this problem. DC discharge plasma could be used to develop a volumetric device capable of destroying bacteria in forward-deployed areas. ASI recently received a STTR award to study this problem in partnership with Eastern Virginia Medical School. Plasma could be created and activated in jet engines to reduce noise pollution. ASI is working with the National Center for Physical Acoustics (NCPA) to determine the feasibility of this technology for commercial application.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Paul Shnitser
NAVY 02-140      Selected for Award
Title:Magnetic Prism Array Scanning Antenna
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new X-band scanning Magnetic Prism Array Scanning (MAPASA) antenna that utilizes magnetically induced variation of the refractive index in the composite material containing previously oriented hematite nanoparticles. Because of the strong response of this material to the external magnetic field, the proposed antenna can be compact and lightweight while providing a large scanning angle. This Hematite Composite Material (HECOM) offers an extremely high phase shifting dynamic range within microseconds. In Phase I, POC will optimize parameters of the composite material and the technology of its fabrication. The antenna design will be prepared for the full-scale prototype development in Phase II of this project. In addition to the initially targeted X-band frequency range, the proposed material and antenna concept can be used at larger frequencies in the Ku, K, and Ka bands and in the millimeter-wave bands. In Phase II, POC will prepare a prototype antenna and test its performance. The proposed technology offers significant cost and weight reductions while providing flexibility in the beam forming and beam scanning. It also allows for fitting the antenna shape to the various radoms and envelopes. The resulting scanning antenna can be used in a variety of military platforms and will have numerous applications in civilian radars.

TLC PRECISION WAFER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1411 West River Road North
Minneapolis, MN 55411
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 341-2795
Dr. Timothy T. Childs
NAVY 02-140      Selected for Award
Title:Demonstration of an Antenna Integrated MMIC Mix-mode Transceiver
Abstract:TLC will develop a wire-bond free wide band (X-band to Ka-band) miniature low cost high trhoughput radar transceiver technology that integrates a circular polarized antenna array with a mix-mode (digital& RF) MMIC transceiver chip. This will be developed by systematically utilizing TLC's proven capabilities of mix-mode lattice engineered material development, RF and digital circuit development, innovative MMIC & digital fabrication capbilities, antenna design and module integration experiences. In phase I the antenna design and test will be performed along with the building blocks. In phase II, integrtion methods will be established for the transceiver MMIC and the antenna, and a prototype unit will be delivered. Revolutionized Radar systems for both military and commercial by reduction of size, weight, and cost with simplified assembly and better performance.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Vladimir Manasson
NAVY 02-140      Selected for Award
Title:Electronically Controlled Beamformer Based on Reconfigurable Hologram Aperture
Abstract:WaveBand Corporation (WaveBand) is developing a novel approach to electronic beam forming. The new approach radically differs from the existing phased array technology. It promises dramatic cost and weight reduction, while providing: digital beam forming for steering, tracking, and nulling; individually controlled simultaneous multiple beams; and extremely flexible reconfigurability. The new approach is based on a pixelized aperture representing a quasi-optical reconfigurable hologram. In this Phase I project, WaveBand proposes to explore the applicability of the new approach to the frequency band of 5 GHz through 18 GHz (C-band through Ku-band). New beamforming antennas will benefit various military applications as well as commercial products, like surveillance and security systems, wireless communications, and broadcast.

ANDRO CONSULTING SERVICES
Beeches Tech Campus, Bldg 3, Ste 4, Rt 26N, Turin
Rome, NY 13440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 334-1163
Mr. Andrew L. Drozd
NAVY 02-141      Awarded: 16SEP02
Title:Advanced Antenna Evaluation and Design Software with Radomes and Frequency Selective Surfaces
Abstract:This effort is to develop, optimize, and demonstrate a suite of physics formalisms, codes, and novel techniques for designing complex antennas such as multi-function arrays recessed in airframe surfaces and shipboard composite masts that may incorporate radomes and Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) with complex materials. A unique and innovative approach is proposed allowing for the concurrent near field analysis of antennas in the presence of radome structures or the coupling of such antennas with other nearby airframe devices and the host platform. Of particular interest is the effect of the radome structures and mutual coupling with other devices on the substructure. The focus is on geometrical and material adaptability, as well as on reducing design time. Computational speed and the development of a practical toolset will be addressed. The toolset will incorporate constrained tradeoff optimization routines (e.g., Pareto or genetic algorithms) that will automatically drive the process to a desirable design. The Optima-FSS concept design includes provisions for an array geometry generator, pre/post-processing capabilities, and a user-friendly GUI. This R&D will result in a revolutionary approach for efficiently designing and analyzing complex antenna arrays as a function of geometry, materials, EM properties, and logistical factors to a level that has not been previously demonstrated. The knowledge gained from this research will be applied toward the development of robust, high-fidelity antenna analysis techniques that can be used to streamline the antenna design process to achieve optimal performance. It will facilitate tradeoff analyses for various antenna types, installations, and configurations involving a variety of FSS radome and complex materials covering the frequency bands for VHF, UHF, GPS, PCS, commercial satellite broadcast radio, ISM, and surveillance radar. The approach will draw upon the theory and knowledge of the phenomenology associated with multi-functional antenna array technologies and measured radiation benchmarks. A study will also be performed to investigate ways of optimizing the human computer interaction (HCI) and human machine interface (HMI) to exploit the power of the OpTIMA-FSS toolset based on antenna designer feedback. This R&D directly supports the goals of the ACAT II, PMA 290 - Maritime Surveillance Aircraft (MSA) Leadership Program and addresses the DoD's Key Technology Areas, in particular, the advancement and application of Sensors, Electronics and the Battlespace Environment. This technology will also address the needs of combat surface ships that employ composite mast and multi-function, multi-band array technologies and future weapons systems (e.g., Joint Strike Fighter). As a result of the universal need for wireless communication and information collection, there is an increasing need for new and complex antenna designs in both the commercial and government sectors. The proposed product would be useful to any electronics firm, the communications industry, automotive industry, computer industry, or security and surveillance firms. Companies involved in geo-sensing and enviro-sensing applications are also potential users of this technology.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Kin Sze
NAVY 02-141      Awarded: 19SEP02
Title:Advanced Antenna Evaluation and Design Software with Radomes and Frequency Selective Surfaces
Abstract:The purpose of this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project is to develop a computer aided design tool for large phased arrays including radomes and frequency selective surfaces. For this purpose, we will use the hybrid finite element (FEM) and method of moments (MoM) simulator that was developed at EMAG Technologies as part of our RECAP project. The simulation engine can handle both periodic and non-periodic structures. In order to analyze large phased arrays efficiently, a decompose-solve-recompose (DSR) technique is proposed that subdivides the entire array into interior and edge groups. The former is treated as a periodic structure, while the latter is solved as a regular non-periodic structure. The two solutions are then recombined in a systematic way to provide a fast but accurate overall solution. A visual software environment with design utilities such as parameter sweep and optimization will be developed to facilitate the usage of the code. The resulting software from this SBIR project will enable antenna designers to design very complex phased array systems including radomes and FSS. It will save time and cost in the design cycle by including the radome and FSS effects in the virtual prototyping.

VISUALEM CORP.
2019 Georgetown Blvd
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 222-4558
Dr. Tayfun Ozdemir
NAVY 02-141      Awarded: 23SEP02
Title:Advanced Evaluation and Design Software for Antennas with Radome and FSS Structures
Abstract:This proposed work envisions a software suite for modeling antennas with radomes and frequency selective surfaces. Infinite as well as finite arrays will be modeled efficiently. Phase I work will involve a feasibility study of the proposed computational algorithms and their capabilities for various antenna structures (periodic or finite in size) as well as structure which incorporates a radome. Nearby structures will also be considered by integration of the associated tools as they evolve. Design optimization tools will be an integral part of the software suite and will be incorporated with the user in mind. Graphical interfaces that offer stand-alone geometry/grid generation will be developed. Additionally, the interface will allow for importing of external CAD files in standard formats as well as use of various external gridding tools. The importance of antennas to commercial and governmental organizations can hardly be overstated. They are ubiquitous structures in every military and commercial vehicle, and thus there is a continuous and growing need for antenna design methods to develop a variety of new antennas which combine a variety of competing needs. Access to capable EDA tools will become the key competitive advantage for high-technology companies for the next 10 to 15 years. Thus, there is an increasing emphasis on design methods for designing sophisticated multifunctional antennas.

JP INNOVATIONS, LLC
101 East Main St., Suite 207
Monroe, WA 98272
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 459-2805
Mr. Jeffrey W. Pierce
NAVY 02-142      Awarded: 01NOV02
Title:Advanced Diode Laser Packaging
Abstract:Diode pumped solid state lasers are starting to be used in many military vehicles, including, missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and aircraft platforms. The military applications include laser radar systems, laser designators, and optical countermeasures. All of these systems require high power, very efficient, rugged, and low cost laser diodes to pump the solid state lasers. While laser diode bars with output power up to 80 W cw have been produced, commercial 50 W and higher cw laser diode bars have not demonstrated good reliability or long lifetimes. This is likely caused by the additional heat load and temperature rise suffered by these diode bars when mounted with conventional "copper block" techniques. Clearly the limits of conventional diode bar mounting technology are being approached. What is needed is a new packaging technology for high power laser diode bars. Materials should be used that have higher thermal conductivity than copper, and a coefficient of thermal expansion that is more closely matched to Gallium Arsenide. In addition, mechanical registration of the laser diode would reduce labor time for packaging, further reducing unit cost. After development of advanced packages, these new, high power laser diode bars will be used in many military applications, as well as commercial applications including materials processing, laser projection display systems, and in next generation photolighograpy light sources.

QUINTESSENCE PHOTONICS CORP.
15632 Roxford St.
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-4664
Dr. Jeffrey E. Ungar
NAVY 02-142      Awarded: 24OCT02
Title:Low-Cost Laser Diodes for Navy Applications
Abstract:High power solid state lasers using different active media have emerged as critical components in a variety of military systems. These lasers are efficiently and reliably pumped by diode laser arrays, but the very high cost per watt of arrays poses a serious impediment to wide application, particularly where very high total powers are required. There is little prospect that conventional approaches to laser design can result in cost reduction of the required magnitude. We propose to fabricate arrays based on an entirely new design. The resulting arrays will be much cheaper to manufacture, test and assemble than conventional arrays. Our new approach offers, we believe, the only realistic pathway to prices in the single $/watt range. The radical reduction in cost of pump power will enable applications that are now economically impractical. Diode pumped solid state lasers for directed energy weapons and other military applications are currently impractical because of high pump cost. For similar reasons, the use of diode pumped lasers in important applications such as projection displays and machining has been limited. By dramatically changing the cost structure of pumps, these applications will be made economically practical

B&C ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
411 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Suite 104
Akron, OH 44311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 375-1632
Mr. Dennis Townsend
NAVY 02-143      Awarded: 21NOV02
Title:Techniques and Models to Relate Useful Life Remaining Predictions to Detectable Fault Conditions in Mechanical Systems
Abstract:Maintenance costs, depending on the specific industry, can represent a large percentage of the costs of the manufactured product. In the aerospace/aeronautic industry, the reduction of maintenance costs, safety and long-life operations in engine and power equipment has been the top priorities. Accurate component life prognostic methodologies are sought to effectively schedule the maintenance downtime as well as to insure accomplishments of long-range missions. This proposal aimed at the development of an innovative machine health and prognosis system for gear transmission and the bearing support systems. Gear damage monitoring will be conducted using a joint time-frequency analysis on rotor vibration signatures. The damage level will be quantified using an optimal tracker on the vibration data. Wear/damage in the bearing will be detected and quantify using bearing housing vibration signals with a chaotic distribution scheme. Analytically, a cohesive constitute model will be established using finite element approach to predict the growth of the cracks in both gear and bearing components. Using the damage parameter developed through the cohesive crack model and the existing damage quantified by the signal processing procedures, the remaining life of the damaged component will be prognosticated by a recently developed nonlinear regression procedure. The fault detection techniques, the damage quantification schemes, and the remaining life prognostication procedures will be integrated into a pre-prototype system to provide an overall health diagnosis and prognosis for gear and bearing components. Commercial application of the developed product will be two folded: (1) a machine life prognosis system that can be used to predict remaining life of mechanical components on military rotorcraft and jet engine transmission systems, and (2) a smart prognostication system that can be used for on-line machine diagnostics to schedule maintenance downtime for petrochemical/production industries.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Gregory J. Kacprzynski
NAVY 02-143      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:Techniques and Models to Enhance RUL Prognostics and Fault Detection in Mechanical Systems
Abstract:Impact Technologies proposes to develop a suite of Statistical Influence Models (SIMs) and fusion techniques for enhancing physics-based prognostic models and calibrating them in the presence of various forms of fault detection or state awareness in aircraft mechanical systems. While the robustness and accuracy of physics-based Remaining Useful Life (RUL) Prognostic models and incipient fault detection tools have been improving, the improvements have thus far been largely independent of each other. Through state-of-the-art knowledge fusion of various Statistical Influence Models (SIMs) focused on usage profiles, manufacturing defects, random damage events, build tolerances, material condition and inspection capability, the integration of state awareness and predictive prognostics promises to be significantly improved. The enhancement capabilities of the statistical models and fusion techniques will be demonstrated with simulations in a Prognostics Testbench focused on the STOVL lift fan transmission on the F-35 aircraft. The Prognostics Testbench architecture will be such that generic bearing, shaft and clutch prognostic models will be simulated with pre-defined usage profiles. Statistical Influence Models (SIMs) addressing fault detection updates, damage and defect likelihoods, and manufacturing and maintenance induced conditions will be "plugged" into the Testbench to investigate their influence on the RUL predictions and associated confidence bounds. In turn, the Testbench will help identify where various state awareness enhancements should be focused and how they should be implemented with respect to PHM. The proposed generic Prognostics Testbench will enable Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) system developers to objectively evaluate the benefits provided from various fusion techniques and statistical models to core RUL predictions of mechanical systems and critical subcomponents. The robust and comprehensive PHM capability enabled by this tool will provide military commanders with the ability to adaptively manage and deploy air vehicle assets to the limit of their current and future capability and reduce the risk of safety or system availability related failures. More accurate time-to-failure predictions can also reduce costly inspection routines and premature component replacements by using a risk-based, maintenance optimization techniques. The utility of such a tool is not limited to military aircraft mechanical systems and can be applied to other military and commercial assets such as ground vehicles, power plants, or commercial aircraft.

SYSTEMS PLANNING & ANALYSIS, INC.
2000 N. Beauregard, Suite 400
Alexandria, VA 22311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 474-1310
Dr. Jason S. Kiddy
NAVY 02-143      Awarded: 25NOV02
Title:Techniques and Models to Relate Useful Life Remaining Predictions to Detectable Fault Conditions in Mechanical Systems
Abstract:Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) proposes to expand upon our Remaining Useful Life Estimation (RULE) algorithm as a means of predicting the remaining useful life of fatigue limited components on the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). By accurately predicting the remaining useful life of a component, the U.S. Navy will be able to keep parts in service longer, thereby saving substantial operating costs without sacrificing safety. The RULE algorithm uses regime recognition or usage monitoring data as an input into a Monte Carlo simulation based technique that allows for the prediction of the remaining useful life of a particular component with a known reliability. Standard Navy practices dictate that a component operates for a set number of hours before retiring that component. Based on the predicted aircraft usage, test flight measured load data, and experimentally measured fatigue data, the fatigue life is set such that the part has a known reliability. Using the RULE methodology, the component can be flown until a certain percentage of the fatigue life is consumed, while retaining the desired reliability of the current technique. SPA's Phase I SBIR program focuses on using the RULE methodology on the JSF and experimental validation of the technique. The RULE methodology has applicability in any application where critical components are replaced on a regular basis becuase of fatigue. The most direct application of the technology would be to helicopters and other rotorcraft, which contain a large number of fatigue limited rotor system components. However, the methodology may be applied to aerospace, naval, and civil structures.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-6273
Mr. Carl S. Byington
NAVY 02-144      Awarded: 22NOV02
Title:Prognostic Models and Remaining Life Predictions for Flight Control Actuators
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Boeing Phantom Works and Moog Inc., proposes to develop and demonstrate a prognostic modeling paradigm for use with actuator fault detection to failure progression. Actuators are complex mechanisms utilized in various aircraft systems from flight control surfaces to landing gear, cargo doors and weapon systems. Impact has previously developed PHM techniques applicable to hydraulic pumps and engine control system components. These proven approaches along with novel tracking methods will be pursued in this research, using system models, failure mode diagnostics, advanced knowledge fusion, and failure mode progression (prognostic) algorithms in a probabilistic framework. Utilizing available real-time command/response data from actual flight control actuators and this model-based framework, Impact will demonstrate prognostic algorithms that provide an assessment of the current actuator health state and provide a prognosis of the actuator's useful life remaining. The adaptation of these methods and architecture to hydraulic, hydro-electrical, and electrical actuator systems will also be addressed. BenefitsThe deployed actuator diagnostic/prognostic techniques and associated reasoning architecture generated under this program will improve aircraft control system safety and reliability, allow for optimized maintenance/logistics planning, reduce ownership costs, and increase operational availability. The elements of this prognostic approach include the ability to assess actuator health through sensor observables, apply performance and damage models to identify evolving problems, use statistical correlation and fusion to minimize uncertainties in measurements and properties, and predict fault evolution with confidence bounds in real-time. More accurate time-to-failure predictions can reduce costly inspection routines and premature component replacements by using a risk-based, maintenance optimization technique. The actuator prognostic modeling approaches, techniques, and specific algorithms could be implemented in a wide range of military as well as commercial applications in the civilian aviation community (passenger aircraft, cargo transports, business jets, private aircraft, etc.). The developed technologies could also be applied to land and water vehicle drive systems, industrial actuation systems, fluid power transmission, and robotic applications.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
100 Great Meadow Rd., Suite 501
Wethersfield, CT 06109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 257-8014
Dr. Somnath Deb
NAVY 02-144      Awarded: 02DEC02
Title:Early Detection, Isolation and Residual life prediction techniques for F/A-18 C/D actuator subsystem
Abstract:QSI and HR Textron, Inc. (HR) team seeks to provide prognostic models and techniques for relating detected incipient fault conditions in actuators to accurate useful life remaining by focusing on F/A-18 C/D servoactuator subsystem for aileron control. This effort emphasizes a systematic approach to adding prognosis with a goal of improving mission reliability and aircraft availability, by carefully identifying the most significant failures, trading off different prognostic techniques to achieve a cost-effective solution. The end product of this effort is a complete diagnosis and prognosis solution that utilizes the sensors and capabilities that already exist to the greatest extent, while identifying new capabilities that can be easily added onboard or on ground support equipment, to achieve maximum mission reliability within reasonable cost. HR will provide: (a) high-fidelity nonlinear dynamic models of aileron servoactuator of F/A-18 C/D for normal and faulty conditions, (b) the domain knowledge on failure modes, reliability and maintainability data and sensors, while QSI will focus on a systemic processes needed to relate "useful life remaining" predictions to detectable fault conditions in actuators, viz., assess prognostic coverage, identify prognostic needs, sensing, design of tests for diagnosis and prognosis, inference and prediction. Prognosis and Health Management (PHM) Technology, as proposed by the QSI-HR team, should be implemented on all Commercial and Military Aircraft. Specifically, HR is applying PHM technology to Bell Textron Helicopter, CESSNA Textron Aircrafts, Boeing X-45B UCAV and Boeing CMUS Programs. In the X-45B UCAV Program, a module of reconfiguration is linked to the PHM Processes. In the CMUS Program, an additional link to a Real Time Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation is planned to communicate with the same sensors used for PHM data acquisition. Thus, QSI's partnership with HR provides for a clear commercialization path to a significant market.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
4801 S. Lakeshore Drive, Suite 103
Tempe, AZ 85282
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 752-7909
Dr. Link Jaw
NAVY 02-144      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:Techniques and Prognostic Models to Relate "Useful Life Remaining" and "Performance Life Remaining" Predictions to Detectable Fault Conditions in Flig
Abstract:The firm proposes to conduct a program of research on the design and validation of prognostic models for flight control actuators. Specifically, the research will focus on developing models that can predict the fault-to-failure progression process and estimate the remaining useful life of flight control actuators. In Phase I, the firm will conduct a feasibility study to prove the concept of the proposed technology. In Phase I Option, the firm will conduct a hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the concept to further assess the feasibility. If Phase I objectives are met, the firm will develop a prototype of the prognostic capability and test it in actual operating environment. The anticipated benefits of the proposed technology are: úMore accurate prediction of incipient failures and useful service life of systems. úIncreased availability and mission effectiveness from more accurate prognosis of failures. úReduced total cost of ownership (TCO) through optimized maintenance/logistic decisions.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Mr. Michael Kurnow
NAVY 02-145      Selected for Award
Title:Weapon System Operator Multimedia Tactical Operation Aids
Abstract:Relatively inexpensive human interface peripheral devices/software, such as natural speech recognition software, gesture recognition data gloves, wireless mice, head-mounted displays, and eye tracking systems, are now commercially available. Additionally, there is increasing interest in the development of future military command and control systems for human assistance by intelligent agents (in the form of agent associate surrogates) to make human operators more efficient and decrease the cognitive burden needed for real-time tactical decision making. ORINCON is a leader in advanced agent-based intelligent user interface prototype developments for future naval platforms such as DD-X. The integration of multiple human interface modalities with an advanced agent associate framework can provide a robust and flexible intelligent multimodal interface to increase efficiencies of weapon system operators working in a variety of command and control environments like the E2-C2. By using the existing workstation agent-based intelligent user interface automation framework being developed for the DD-X combat system, along with COTS multimodal interface devices as a starting point for this effort. The risk to accomplish program objectives is reduced while the immediate benefit to the Navy is maximized. This Phase I SBIR effort will provide a demonstrable foundation for a Phase II effort to develop a comprehensive intelligent user interface (IUI) workstation prototype. This prototype will integrate multiple human interface modalities with an agent associate architecture that can be applied as an agent-mediated intelligent multimedia interface to increase operator efficiencies in performing E-2C tactical command and control tasks. The resultant IUI workstation developed under Phase II will be tested and integrated in a Navy E-2C laboratory environment such as the E-2C System Test and Evaluation Laboratory (ESTEL). Tactical command and control scenarios relevant to E2C missions will be developed and measures of increased operator efficiencies will be determined. These MOEs will include E2C-specific mission effectiveness measures as well as generic operator effectiveness response measures currently being used to evaluate advanced operator workstation concepts for the DD-X platform. The development and integration of a domain-independent agent associate architecture with advanced COTS multimodal interface devices can be applied to numerous military and commercial domains that require an intelligent interactive control of complex systems by human operators. Examples are power plant operations, space station operations, and advanced military C4ISR systems.

TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH, INC.
16 Wildhedge Lane
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 817-9299
Mr. Benjamin Tirabassi
NAVY 02-145      Selected for Award
Title:Weapon System Operator Multi-Media Tactical Operation Aids
Abstract: TERI will develop and demonstrate the combined use of voice commands, audio response, hands-free pointing/clicking, Multi-Media Tactical Operation Aid (MTOA), and cueing as an effective and efficient multi-media interface. Innovative technologies have been developed and matured recently that can now support the implementation of a multi-media "smart" interface tactical aid in the typical tactical noisy, mobile, ship and airborne environments. The multi-media combined enhancements to the E-2C ACIS controlled weapon system have the potential to significantly reduce operator workload while increasing the Weapon System Operator (WSO)s ability to react and proact to potentially hazardous situations. Projective task analysis, driven by a decision support activity scenario, will be conducted for various combinations of interface technologies to derive an effective and feasible conceptual design MTOA integrated with natural language. Quantitative performance and qualitative human interaction analysis will be documented and provided with the conceptual design. A demonstration of the integrated technologies for typical combined speech and MTOA input activities is planned. Lightweight and low power commercially available eye-tracking sensors can be integrated with an E-2C ACIS simulator to study the combined benefit for interaction in a vibrating and motion environment. The Technology Engineering Research Inc (TERI) natural language speech and synthesis dialogue contextual software, previously developed for the E-2C high noise environment, will be combined with eye tracking and facial gesture detector (optical or neuromuscular) to improve upon the total hands-free control interface between the WSO and the E-2C ACIS platform display. The use of a multiple-controller approach enables the interaction to be tailored to the E-2C task and environmental constraints, as well as user preferences. A natural language software-based speech recognizer in combination with eye-tracking, facial gesture, brain wave and neuromuscular sensor technologies are to be configured in a variety of ways to provide the required functionality. Unique to this proposal is the development of an integrated set of human-computer control suite technologies using standard Application Program Interfaces (APIs) in the commercial Windows and Unix environment that are compatible with the platform legacy architectures for efficient hands-free operation of computer systems. Unique to this proposal is the visual gesture cue processing of a normal face contour model into a hierarchical probability based framework, which will operate in a vibration environment. This decomposes the complex head shape into two simple layers: the global shape with descriptors for the position, scale and rotation of local shapes (eyes, eyebrows, mouth, chin); and local shape with salient descriptors for the motion of these local shapes. Visual perception will be cooperative and mutually supported by these shapes and movements for independent interpretation of operator-desired point, click and selection commands. Numerous applications in air traffic control, unmanned vehicle command, industrial production monitoring, power plant control and distribution, entertainment, anti-terrorist screening, law enforcement and e-commerce vending. Hands-free control suites for computers have wide military and commercial applications in portable and mobile environments; and whenever it is prudent to replace the traditional keyboard, mouse and trackball because of an unstable or unsuitable workplace.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Dr. James Menders
NAVY 02-146      Awarded: 30OCT02
Title:Optical Wireless ICS for E2C Platforms
Abstract: Direct voice communications in military aircraft suffer from interfering ambient noise. Usually, an intercommunications system (ICS) gives relief by using interconnected headsets. The E2-C "Hawkeye" is equipped with a conventional copper cabled ICS. The cable has the disadvantages of "tethering" the crew members to the ICS jacks, of providing a limited data transmission rate, and is susceptible to radio frequency interference (RFI). We propose an optical ICS consisting of infrared wireless headset links to a fiberoptic backbone via an optical access point. The wireless link would free the crew members from the cable tether. In addition, the wide bandwidth available to the fiberoptic backbone may be exploited to provide a high data rate bus for the delivery of headup displays and data transmission between workstations. A fiberoptic local area network (LAN) could easily support the intercom function of the ICS while providing a capability for high speed data transmission. Installation of fiberoptic LANs for transmission of voice, video and sensor data are currently being for considered for several platforms such as E2-C, EA-6B, P-3 and JFS. A wireless ICS connected to such a LAN is a logical extension to increasing aircraft performance capability. The emergence of portable information terminals in work and living environments is accelerating the introduction of wireless digital links and local area networks (LANs). The use of diffuse infrared links for indoor wireless links has advantages over RF approaches. The infrared band is unregulated world wide so that no licensing is required. Separate, non-interfering IR links may be set up in adjacent rooms. Unlike RF wireless, infrared optical wireless is not subject to multipath fading. As a result, short range infrared wireless links are finding a ready commercial market.

LSA
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 416-4600
Mr. Robert E. Lee
NAVY 02-146      Awarded: 12NOV02
Title:Digital Wireless/Copper Data Bus Combination for Intercommunication System Applications
Abstract:In this proposal, we describe an innovative freespace optical (FSO) solution to provide a robust wireless, high-data rate 100Mbps digital Ethernet bus architecture for the E-2C Hawkeye carrier-based tactical airborne warning and control system platform Intercommunications System (ICS). Our approach leverages on current work we are conducting on development of mobile access to computing and visual display systems for Air Force Information Operations (IO) and Command and Control (C2) environments . The architecture is based on extensions to the IrDA and/or IEEE 802.11 standards and will be fully compliant with the Joint Tactical Architecture Version 4.0 and the Joint Tactical Radio System development. The optical solution we propose will provide complete, TEMPEST compliant, and secure untethered connection for the E-2C digital ICS via a wireless optical interface from Ethernet equipped ICS nodes to the aircraft ethernet server. Implementation of this solution will result in greatly reducing the complexity of wiring multiple ICS nodes within the aircraft and will improve ICS system reliablity and maintainability. Potential commercial applications include airport tower internal/external communciations and data transfer, implementation of wireless LANs in emergency response centers, and commercial airline cockpit-to-cabin intercom systems, and/or wireless connection of individual aircraft seat audio/visual systems.

MATHTECH, INC.
6402 Arlington Blvd., Suite 1200
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 294-5821
Mr. Jo Ellen Hayden
NAVY 02-146      Awarded: 25NOV02
Title:Digital Wireless/Copper Data Bus Combination for Intercommunication System Applications
Abstract:This study will address the possibility of using magnetics, laser, infrared, ultraviolet, or wireless ultra wideband for a wireless ICS application. The investigation will address the feasibility of conversion of Mathtech's Advanced Inter-communications System to a wireless technology. Wireless technology is a repidly expanding field that has wide commercial application. The technology being considered for this application is not yet militarized and could be used to provide bandwidth-intensive data services to military platforms.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. Milton E. Teske
NAVY 02-147      Awarded: 15OCT02
Title:Modeling Carried-Based Aircraft Hot Gas and Steam Ingestion
Abstract:The hot gas and steam environment during launch of a carrier-based aircraft can impact engine performance by forcing operation at off-design conditions and by introducing fluid dynamical instabilities. The development of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and the need to characterize carrier operating conditions at launch demand the development and validation of a model that will accurately predict the ingestion of hot gas and steam into the JSF engines, and provide the information needed to assess the influence of these effects on propulsion system operation and stability. The innovation proposed here is to adapt for this purpose a verified and validated particle tracking model, LDTRAN, previously developed for the U. S. Army, thereby immediately accomplishing one of the major objectives of this solicitation. This existing model will take as input the defined hot gas and steam environment on the carrier, and a pre-computed flow field around the launching aircraft, and predict the anticipated flow behavior and field deposition pattern anywhere near the aircraft and more specifically in the vicinity of its engine inlets. Thus, the Phase I effort can focus on describing the carrier environment prior to launch, and setting the groundwork for the anticipated full-scale surveys in Phase II. The successful modification of an existing, verified and validated particle tracking model will guarantee success in Phase I with regard to problem solution, and enable the Phase II effort to improve the description of the ambient carrier environment, possibly involving full-scale surveys of the steam environment at a land-based catapult facility. The final version of this model will be useful in the engine design process and in setting operational guidelines for JSF carrier operations.

SITE, L.L.C.
1111 Jefferson Davis Hwy, Suite 508
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 416-4930
Mr. Andy Britton
NAVY 02-147      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Hot Gas Ingestion and Steam Ingestion Characteristics for Aircraft Propulsion System Performance and Operability Assessment
Abstract:The proposed effort will develop a pair of new analytic techniques that will predict both the Hot Gas Ingestion characteristics for STOVL aircraft and the Steam ingestion characteristics for conventional Naval aircraft. The techniques will allow the design engineer to efficiently predict the anticipated magnitude of these two phenomena without the need for expensive and repetitive model or full scale testing, as is the current practice. The techniques capture the stochastic nature of these phenomena by combining flow dynamics with the development of a probability density distribution for the temperature near the aircraft. For the STOVL application this probabilistic approach will avoid the necessity for expensive and time consuming detailed modeling of the highly chaotic flow around the jet boundaries that lead to Hot Gas Ingestion. The method will also provide a high quality prediction of the velocity outwash from the landing aircraft that could be used to define safe zones for personnel and equipment. While for the Steam Ingestion application this approach will allow the catapult environment to be defined in an analytic design method. The computational efficiency of the proposed methods allows them to be developed as PC based applications leading to a highly portable design package. The methods that will be developed under this SBIR will provide software tools that will allow the government to reduce its current reliance on subscale and full scale testing. In particular, this effort will lead to timely identification of design shortfalls that, unless identified early in the design process, could be both time consuming and expensive to accommodate once the design configuration has become established. Additionally, the proposed method will be capable of accurately predicting the outwash from vertical landing aircraft or helicopters. With relatively minor modifications and some calibration the technique could readily be applied to predict the anticipated dust/sand ingestion characteristics for helicopters operating at austere sites.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4929
Mr. Daniel A. Nickolaus
NAVY 02-148      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Low Emissions, Affordable Fuel Injector for High Performance Military Gas Turbines
Abstract:CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) will develop an advanced low emissions fuel injector for military engines that is based on CFDRC's lean direct fuel injector technology. The design produces a unique flame pattern caused by a bifurcated flow pattern, in which the pilot airflow separates from the main airflow and a recirculation zone is created between the pilot and main airflows. This design has the potential of greatly reducing NOx, CO, and smoke at full power compared to current JSF designs. In addition, the proposed design is affordable, and provides good thermal protection of the fuel. In Phase I, CFDRC will show the feasibility of the proposed fuel injector. First, validated CFD analysis will be used to predict emissions at various power points provided by our selected subcontractor, Rolls-Royce, Indianapolis. Second, prototype hardware will be fabricated and tested at ambient pressure conditions, to establish the design's potential for meeting LBO goals. In Phase II, the fuel injector will be further developed and tested in a single injector high pressure rig at Georgia Tech. The complete thermal design will be completed and design prints finalized for an engine-quality fuel injector for JSF application. In Phase III, a full set of injectors will be fabricated and tested in an annular combustor rig at Rolls-Royce. If successful, the fuel injector will be used to reduce NOx, CO, UHC, and smoke emissions to levels on par with legacy aircraft, while maintaining performance, durability, and operability. It is anticipated that Rolls-Royce will utilize the CFDRC fuel injector in the F136 engine, and CFDRC will receive royalties for every production injector fabricated. Other engine applications, and corresponding royalties, are also possible.

PRECISION COMBUSTION, INC.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 287-3700
Dr. Hasan Karim
NAVY 02-148      Awarded: 04DEC02
Title:Low NOx Catalytic Combustor for Military Aircraft Engines
Abstract:Precision Combustion Inc. (PCI) proposes a novel gas turbine engine fuel injector design that combines catalytic combustion, direct injection and higher airflows through the injector for reducing NOx emission from military aircraft engines without deterioration of the Lean Blow Out (LBO) limit and relight stability and avoiding flashback or early autoignition. This design builds upon PCI's Rich Catalytic/Lean burn technology, now in advanced development for ground power generation gas turbines with substantial support from the U.S. Department of Energy and gas turbine manufacturers. The design provides a basis, discussed in the proposal, for expecting NOx emissions reductions of 80%. Phase I will achieve proof of concept through a combination of atmospheric pressure prototype testing and full condition CFD and other modeling. Phase II will optimize the design through injector testing at engine conditions in collaboration with a major aircraft engine manufacturer, as well as further modeling and durability testing. Success offers a new fuel injector design for achieving very low NOx emissions for both military and commercial engine application. The proposed technology targets gas turbine engine fuel nozzle design combining catalytic combustion and direct injection concepts for reducing NOx from military aircraft engines. The system offers breakthrough technology for achieving lowered Nox emissions (<8 g Nox/kg jet fuel) for aircraft engines with low costs and high levels of reliability. The primary markets for the specific injector technology proposed herein will be for military and commercial aircraft engines driven by pollution regulations and policies to have continued high performance with low emissions. The commercial potential is favorable for the application of this technology and the market size is substantial. Outfitting the Joint Strike Fighter fleet with the CC / LDI injector technology is worth in excess of $1 billion. There is a potential to spin-off this technology for application in both heavy commercial jet and regional jet engine businesses, with substantial market sizes of $2.4 billion and $2.2 billion respectively. PCI seeks to commercially supply the core injector technology while working with aircraft turbine manufacturers for engine integration requirements. Following a Phase I award, a manufacturing alliance or joint venture with specific engine manufacturers will be explored.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4874
Dr. David L. Black
NAVY 02-149      Awarded: 16OCT02
Title:Improved Turbulent-Combustion CFD Modeling for High Fuel-Air Ratio Combustor Analysis
Abstract:Current CFD combustion codes are not capable of predicting CO and H2 emissions in high performance military combustors with high-power operating conditions approaching stoichiometric. To provide this important capability, advanced turbulent-combustion models with multi-step chemistry are required. Accurate combustor modeling also requires extended calculation domains (from compressor discharge through turbine inlet guide vane) and improved mixing models. In Phase I of this SBIR, the feasibility of modeling advanced military combustors will be demonstrated. Two innovative models will be implemented into CFD-ACE+, the starting code for this project: 1) a dynamic Schmidt number model and 2) a joint PDF turbulence combustion interaction model for multi-step chemistry. The software will be used to model the Rolls-Royce AE3007 combustor at full-power conditions. Predictions will be compared to measurements of exit temperature and averaged emissions. The calculation will be repeated at high overall fuel-air ratios to assess the code's capabilities of capturing the nonlinear behavior of CO emissions and other important combustor operating parameters. In Phase II, more advanced turbulence-combustion models will be implemented into the code, including the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model. Analysis will be performed of the Rolls-Royce JSF F136 combustor, and predictions compared to measurements. Various combustor design modifications will be investigated. The modeling capability developed in this SBIR program will allow for accurate simulations of high performance, near-stoichiometric combustors. Innovative techniques for improved predictions of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions will be integrated into an existing commercial CFD software, CFD-ACE+. The advanced turbulent-combustion models will be useful for application to various combustion challenges, and will help increase our software market share in the combustion community.

COMBUSTION SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, INC.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Dr. Richard J. Roby
NAVY 02-149      Awarded: 09OCT02
Title:High Fuel-Air Ratio (FAR) Combustor Modeling
Abstract:Advanced mission requirements for both military and civilian aircraft demand greater engine efficiency and increased thrust-to-weight ratios. These requirements have driven aircraft engine designers to increased pressure ratios and higher total temperatures for next generation engines. This increased performance relies, in part, on an increase in fuel-air ratio (FAR). However, as overall FARs reach levels of 0.040, some regions of the combustors will be operating at rich local fuel-air ratios. These regions can lead to burning in the turbine or along the combustor walls where cooling air is available. Since mixing and kinetics control these rich zones, current assessment tools that rely on equilibrium assumptions are not adequate for evaluating the performance of high FAR engines. Thus, the need exists for new kinetics-based modeling tools to assist engine builders in the design and development of high FAR engines. These tools must enable designers to make reasonable predictions of the effect of fuel-air ratio on temperature and species at the combustor exit and at other boundary areas of the combustors such as along film-cooled walls. Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop a flexible computational tool based on chemical reactor modeling for the initial stages of gas turbine combustor design. The chemical reactor modeling (CRM) tool to be developed will provide detailed information about the combustion chemistry while allowing gas turbine design engineers to investigate a wide range of combustor designs, by varying parameters such as residence times and flow splits. Important information about unburned fuel, flame blowout, heat release and pollutant formation will be determined with this tool. The market for this product includes gas turbine designers of both military and civilian aircraft engines. This tool will significantly reduce development costs by eliminating some iterations of hardware testing, which is expensive and time consuming.

ENGINEERING RESEARCH & ANALYSIS CO.
340 SENTINEL OAK DRIVE
DAYTON, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2007
Dr. Mohammed A. Mawid
NAVY 02-149      Awarded: 03OCT02
Title:High Fuel-Air Ratio (FAR) Combustor Modeling
Abstract:A high fuel-air ratio combustor/turbine computational model (computer code) is proposed for development in this SBIR project. The proposed computational model will address fuel-air ratio and temperature non-uniformities and fluctuations at the combustor and 1st stage high pressure turbine exit planes based upon actual JP-8 fuel chemical kinetics. A reduced chemical kinetic model will be developed using a detailed JP-8 chemistry mechanism and implemented into the combustor/turbine computational model. The proposed computational combustor/turbine model will also address secondary combustion in the high pressure turbine blades film cooling. Steady-state as well as transient operational effects upon high-fuel air ratio fluctuations, chemical species dissociation and recombination reactions, maximum temperature rise and fluctuations, pattern factor, and film-cooling reactivity will all be predicted in an efficient manner. The proposed combustor/turbine computational model will be capable of identifying the impact of various operating parameters through detailed parametric studies, which can not be accomplished by the conventional multi-dimensional CFD codes. It is therefore anticipated that the proposed combustor/turbine computational model will become, once validated, an integral part of the high-fuel air ratio combustor design cycle. It is anticipated that the proposed high fuel-air ratio combustor/turbine computational model for development in this SBIR will be an integral part of current and future high fuel-air ratio combustors and turbine film cooling design methodologies and databases. In addition, the proposed model will quickly identify the critical design and chemical parameters that impact the high fuel-air ratio combustor/turbine designs. These features will make the proposed combustor/turbine computational model highly marketable to both commercial and military gas turbine engines and ground-based turbine for power generation.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Gabriel Udomkesmalee
NAVY 02-150      Awarded: 30OCT02
Title:Data Fusion Unit for Mid-Air Collision Avoidance System (MCAS)
Abstract:The objective of this project is to investigate, evaluate, and demonstrate the feasibility of a Data Fusion Unit for Mid-Air Collision Avoidance System (MCAS) to merge numerous MCAS data sources. The proposed system will be developed based on AGNC products and advanced processing techniques providing a versatile high performance computation platform and robust data fusion algorithm. This data fusion unit can be integrated into the Mid-Air Collision Avoidance System (MCAS) to merge multiple data tracks of a single aircraft from numerous MCAS data sources, including Mode-S, Link-16, Mode-5, and traffic information service B (TIS B), into one accurate single track for MCAS phases 2 and 3. In Phase I, efforts are focused on assessing needs, identifying requirements, processing implementation, and conducting analytical/experimental simulation tests for results to establish performance criteria and design specifications for subsequent prototype development in Phase II. This project leads to a Data Fusion Unit for Mid-Air Collision Avoidance System (MCAS), which is of great military and commercial potential, such as, Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems, general aviation, spacecraft, and cargo airlines.

ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1700 Kraft Drive, Suite 2350
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-1284
Dr. Michael A. Vaudrey
NAVY 02-151      Awarded: 25SEP02
Title:A Finite Element-Based Acoustic Engineering Design Program for Advancements in Passive Noise Reduction Performance of Helmet Mounted Noise Defenders
Abstract:Adequate hearing protection for U.S. Navy crew personnel is mandatory and may be achieved through the use of earcups, earplugs, or both. Donning only the earcups or only the earplugs is referred to as single hearing protection (SHP), while the use of earplugs under earcups is called double hearing protection (DHP). This Phase I program offers a comprehensive engineering study and design strategy that relies on Acoustic Finite Element Analyses (AFEA) and correlated test-based models to prioritize all specific acoustic phenomena that affect SHP noise transmission to the ear across the entire audible frequency bandwidth. This prioritization of controlling noise mechanisms will then form a much-needed framework for exploitation of new design principles in both SHP and DHP applications. The Phase I Option and Phase II will continue the evolution of the model to address further problems in the DHP application. Finally, comparisons between the DHP FEA results to measured DHP system performance measurements, will help to identify the absolute best possible noise attenuation that can be achieved in the occluded space, not accounting for bone conduction paths. The most significant benefit of the Phase I program will be the contribution of a detailed acoustic engineering study that prioritizes all noise propagation mechanisms participating in the noise attenuation/transmission paths created by helmet mounted hearing defenders. Commercially, the FEA models developed under this Phase I program will be made available to both Navy engineers and sold to other noise control designers who wish to upgrade their design methods. The FEA models will have to be evaluated using the ANSYS software but the specific earcup FEA models can be provided easily as a commercial product provided that the recipient has purchased ANSYS software.

COMMUNICATIONS & EAR PROTECTION, INC.
PO Box 311174, 101 Development Ave
Enterprise, AL 36331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 347-1688
Mr. Ben T. Mozo
NAVY 02-151      Awarded: 03OCT02
Title:Passive Noise Reduction Technology to Improve Speech Intelligibility and Reduce Noise for Pilot and Deck Crew Helmet Mounted Systems
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I research will examine methods to provide the Navy aviator with a device that will enhance communications and hearing protection performance that can be used in conjunction with the Navy helmet system. The U.S. Army currently uses an insert device that significantly improves the sound attenuation and voice communications of their helmet system. There was an attempt with a small sample of Navy aviators to use this technology in the Navy HGU-68 helmet. The attempt was classified as unsuccessful because of discomfort and poor user acceptance. The problems are suspected to be caused by inadequate space within the helmet/earcup and external ear. We will examine the geometry of the external ear and ear canal for a better understanding of the space that is available for adequate location of an earphone transducer in the external ear. The geometry assessment will lead directly to improved designs of the housing that contains the earphone transducer. The second goal of the research is to develop improved foam compositions and configurations that will increase sound attenuation for the user while maximizing comfort. Performance of the device will meet the sound attenuation requirements per DODI 6055.12 for all Navy aircraft and flight conditions. Reduce hearing loss and increase communications performance of aviators.

RED TAIL HAWK CORP.
135 Storm Rd.
Groton, NY 13073
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-1288
Dr. John W. Parkins
NAVY 02-151      Awarded: 26SEP02
Title:Passive Noise Reduction Technology to Improve Speech Intelligibility and Reduce Noise for Pilot and Deck Crew Helmet Mounted Systems
Abstract:RTH proposes the development of a new passive communications earplug that will provide 12 dB of additional attenuation compared to traditional devices. The earplug makes use of a novel attenuation concept that RTH is in the process of patenting. When worn in conjunction with earmuffs or helmets, the total attenuation provided will be over 45 dBA. The communications earplug, named the "EOV-Plug," will provide a universal fit. Therefore, expensive and time-consuming ear canal impressions will not be needed. Due to the unique design of the EOV-Plug, the device will be safer to use than custom-molded earplugs. The EOV-Plug mitigates the occlusion effect and may improve attenuation limitations of hearing protectors due to bone conduction. The EOV-Plug is compatible with standard earcups, and will be available with and without communications capability. The use of the EOV-Plug with earmuffs or helmets will provide superior passive attenuation to any system on the market. The system will have applications in: civilian and military aircraft environments, manufacturing plants, construction sites, mining environments, and other environments where noise protection is desired. The improved attenuation results in superior protection from hearing trauma and improved speech intelligibility.

APPLIED HYDRO-ACOUSTICS RESEARCH, INC.
15825 Shady Grove Rd., Suite 135
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 218-3249
Mr. Brian Samuels
NAVY 02-152      Awarded: 21NOV02
Title:Environmental Mission Planner - The Total Solution
Abstract:The objective of this research is to research alternatives of a total planning system solution for use of environmental sensor data for the tactical ASW warfighter. The software will plan an integrated deployment strategy for both environmental and tactical sensors prior to takeoff. It will run rapidly and take into account trade-offs of using environmental sensors. During the flight the software will provide for processing and assimilation of the measured data, recalculation of the pattern based upon environmental inputs, and use of the inputs to improve performance. Finally, post-mission reconstruction and data archiving and dissemination will be provided. The software will interact with existing models, equipment, and databases without interference. It will easily ingest environmental data from a variety of sources as well as output to similar databases. It will be cross-platform compatible, web-enabled, and employ efficient code development/reuse by being written in JavaBeans and using CORBA. Designs of GUIs will include forethought to allow the operator to understand the reasoning behind recommendations. The prediction of reduction in uncertainty of environmental measurements can benefit not only the Navy but also any organization that wants to better measure the ocean environment. The system level design of the tactical ASW environmental mission planner could also benefit coastal weather prediction. As part of the Coastal Storm Initiative (CSI), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is currently developing tools to integrate real time ocean measurements with web-enabled applications that will provide risk and vulnerability assessments. The overall software architecture involved in linking ocean sensors, decision/planning aids, and database/data assimilation tools might be valuable to the NOAA in establishing a total system solution to coastal storm prediction and hazard prevention.

RDA, INC.
P.O. Box 49
Doylestown, PA 18901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 349-8083
Mr. Jon E. Dionne
NAVY 02-152      Awarded: 21NOV02
Title:Environmental Mission Planner - The Total Solution
Abstract:ASW tactical missions require accurate knowledge of the environment to plan and conduct operations, especially in littoral environments. In concert with the planned deployment of the TAM environmental sensor, the Navy needs a Tactical Decision Aid to assist Navy war-fighters on-board aircraft and at ground stations to optimally position these sensors. The TDA will support pre-flight planning, and post-flight analysis and training. It will also support in-flight near real-time updates as measured by the sonobuoy or retrieved from established environmental databases. The design must investigate cross-platform compatibility and networking, web-enablement, and efficient code development and reuse. This Phase I effort proposes to develop an Environmental Mission Planner that addresses each of these issues. The proposal consists of four key components. The first is the development of an efficient and robust optimal sensor-positioning algorithm. The second is the development of a technique for making the algorithm environmentally robust and viable, especially in information-poor op-areas. The third is the development of an intuitive, easy-to-use web-like GUI providing functionality and a look-and-feel with which today's Navy operator would feel at home. The fourth is the development of a robust data server capable of providing historical environmental data. A number of benefits are anticipated from the work and efforts of this SBIR. First is a powerful and environmentally robust algorithm for identifying the optimal placement of environmental sensors during op-area characterization. The algorithm will address information-rich and information-poor environments. Next is integration of assets and platforms via web-like architectures, allowing operators from any location to access the tool suite. The final benefit is access to remote data servers providing historical environmental data services and archiving of data acquired in-situ.

PHOENIX SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
27 Industrial Avenue
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 367-0232
Dr. Raymond B. Schaefer
NAVY 02-153      Awarded: 05NOV02
Title:High Source Level Sparker for Navy Applications
Abstract:This proposal is to develop a conceptual design of a sonobuoy with the potential to exceed the source level goal for Navy applications. Phase I will demonstrate sparker technology enhancements that, when combined with previous sparker innovations, will increase the source level and lead to a low cost sonobuoy in a form factor of 1/3 A size. Phase I will demonstrate both the feasibility of a low cost capacitor technology not yet available commercially that can store three times more energy than current commercial capacitors and a new discharge initiation technique to increase electrical-to-acoustic energy conversion efficiency. These Phase I developments will be synergistic with our development of a smaller high voltage switch and transformer and collectively enhance the potential to exceed source level goals and reduce sonobuoy cost and size. Phase I includes a conceptual design and the development of a technology roadmap to achieve Navy cost objectives. Thus this Phase I is expected to have a major impact towards providing a sparker source that meets/exceeds NavAir application requirements. Anticipated Benefits A successful project will lead to the development of a new low cost sparker module that meets NavAir source level and cost goals. Developments in the proposed Phase I also may provide benefits for other Navy applications, including countermeasures and mine sweeping. Commercially, the new sparker will have use in our ongoing work to use sparkers for controlling zebra mussels, for inactivating pathogens in water and preventing the growth of slime in heat exchanger pipes.

DOGSTAR, INC.
2416 Salisbury Lane
Alvin, TX 77511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 538-7702
Dr. Tad D. Shelfer
NAVY 02-154      Awarded: 02DEC02
Title:Water Column Sound Velocity Sensor Package
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR proposal is to investigate the feasibility of using an optical time-domain reflectometer to perform distributed temperature sensing using a single fiberoptic cable. This technique will provide nearly simultaneous water-column temperature measurements down to 300 meters, in one meter increments. In addition to the innovative sensor system described in this proposal, we will evaluate the cost versus measurement capability of key components to identify the best solution for use in the Phase II prototype-development opportunity. The distributed temperature-sensor system described in this effort would enhance bathythermograph measurements and improve anti-submarine warfare capabilities. The potential commercial benefits and applications of this system to drilling companies, the civil engineering community, and the fiberoptic telecommunication industry are tremendous. The potential commercial benefits and applications of this system to drilling companies, the civil engineering community, and the fiberoptic telecommunication industry are tremendous.

INVOCON, INC.
19221 IH-45 South; Ste. 530
Conroe, TX 77385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 292-9903
Mr. Aaron Trott
NAVY 02-154      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Un-tethered Velocity of Sound Profiling Sensor (UVOSPS)
Abstract:Accurate knowledge of the Sound Velocity Profile (SVP) is necessary to interpret SONAR signals correctly. The Navy requires sensors, for wide deployment in existing sonobuoys, capable of determining the SVP. Surpassing the limitations and costs of tethered solutions, IVC proposes the Un-tethered Velocity of Sound Profiling Sensor (UVOSPS). This system is a stack of miniature probes that are periodically released to sink and transmit temperature and corresponding depth to the buoy using ultrasonic communications. The simplicity of the system is the release mechanism-a harmless crystalline structure (with a predictable dissolving rate) erodes and releases a wired receiver and then periodically the un-tethered probes. As a probe sinks, it begins transmitting the real-time SVP information to the ultrasonic receiving transducer. The probe continues to transmit until all battery power is consumed-at least a depth of 300m. The crystal material dissolution properties will allow a "factory programmable" acquisition rate. The initial UVOSPS units will contain 24 probes to be released evenly over 72 hours. The advantage of this method is the incredibly simple and inexpensive sensor system. There are no moving components and no long tethers, yet it is capable of gathering data for a very detailed and accurate SVP. Sonobuoys are used throughout the waters of the world for measurement of ocean currents, temperatures, pollution, waves, depths, aquatic life, and weather. The UVOSPS sensor structure has an innate flexibility in the sensor selection that will give ability of the un-tethered probes to measure an unlimited number of ocean parameters. The temperature sensor can easily be augmented or replaced by salinity, alkalinity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrate, or visible light. These sensors can determine the health of the ocean's inhabitants. Any variation of these parameters can severely affect all forms of aquatic life. The visible light sensor could measure the transmission of sunlight through the water to measure pollution or suspended particles. Additional probes could be designed to float after deployment; these could measure acceleration at the surface that indicates the wave action. Three neighboring sonobuoys with GPS could monitor the Doppler shift in the ultrasonic received signals from a sinking probe to determine deep ocean currents accurately. Most of these potential applications are also useful in freshwater bodies or rivers-as a sonobuoy travels downstream, it drops probes at different locations to measure the water health and quality.

CERANOVA CORPORATIOIN
P. O. Box 278
Hopkinton, MA 01748
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 520-7600
Dr. Mark V. Parish
NAVY 02-155      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:Low Cost Polycrystalline Alumina for Infrared Windows
Abstract:Polycrystalline alumina has great potential for providing the same or better aerothermal performance than sapphire yet offers the opportunity for low cost powder based manufacturing. Heretofore, such material was translucent in the visible wavelengths due to birefringent scattering. This program is aimed at mitigating birefringence, and providing excellent transparency throughout all wavelengths through a unique powder processing approach. Such a material can be fabricated to near net shape by a process compatible with conventional mass production techniques, offering the potential to markedly lower costs over sapphire domes. Successful completion of this project will result in the development of a low-cost, near-net-shape processing methodology for producing transparent polycrystalline alumina (PCA). The process will be scaleable and will utilize conventional mass production techniques. The resulting PCA material will have high transparency over a broad range of wavelengths and high thermal shock resistance. In addition to military markets for infrared windows, transparent PCA has potential commercial application in lighting products, watch crystals, and supermarket scanner plates. Also, the processing technology proposed in this Phase I could be applied to other ceramic systems to produce high density, high strength, near net shape components, with complex shapes. CeraNova has identified a number of markets/applications where the technology could be more broadly utilized.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
543 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Dr. Richard Gentilman
NAVY 02-155      Awarded: 18NOV02
Title:Nano-Grain Partially-Stabilized Zirconia IR Windows
Abstract:MSI will develop nano-grain partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) as an extremely durable MWIR window and dome material. PSZ has 3 times the fracture strength and 2 times the fracture toughness of sapphire, the most durable current IR window material, and its intrinsic IR absorption edge extends nearly 1 micron beyond that of spinel. PSZ is noncubic and therefore must be fabricated with a submicron grain size in order to reduce MWIR scattering to acceptable levels. During Phase I, fully dense PSZ samples will be fabricated using high purity nano-size powders and readily-scaleable densification methods that prevent significant grain growth. The fabricated samples will be optically, mechanically, and microstructurally characterized. This program will produce fundamentally stronger MWIR windows and domes for use in extreme environments. Other applications include transparent armor and sensor windows for high temperature and erosive/abrasive environments.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Matthias Savage-Leuchs
NAVY 02-156      Selected for Award
Title:Compact, High-Efficiency, Eye-Safe, Fiber Laser for LADAR Applications
Abstract:We propose to build a novel eyesafe fiber laser source capable of operating over the 20-100 kHz repetition rate range. Using a combination of COTS technology from the telecom industry and amplifier designs based upon recent developments at Naval Research Labs, the source will deliver 7-10 Watts while maintaining pulse duration <10 ns, and beam quality <1.8 x D.L. We show designs using available commercial components packaged into a 6 x 8 x 17 cm volume. The laser will be much more efficient and far more rugged than conventional Q-switched crystal lasers using nonlinear converters to reach the eyesafe range. The proposed laser has potential for use in sensing of chemical leaks or chemical weapons (homeland defense), and in materials processing applications.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
655 Aspen Ridge Drive
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Iain McKinnie
NAVY 02-156      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Compact, Efficient, Robust Eyesafe Ladar Transmitter
Abstract:The Navy has identified a need for an eyesafe pulsed laser transmitter for the CMRTR program, and for similar imaging and designator ladar systems. The transmitter cost, weight, footprint and performance ( >10W, 20-100kHz, 10ns, M2<1.2) requirements cannot be simultaneously met using current transmitter technology based on bulk Er, Ho, Tm lasers, OPOs, OPAs or Raman lasers. Additionally, conventional single-mode or large core fiber lasers are limited by damage and parasitic nonlinear processes to peak powers well below those required in this program. CTI proposes a breakthrough approach to meet the transmitter requirements. The proposed transmitter implements a proprietary self-imaging process in a large core fiber to retain the high efficiency, diffraction-limited beam quality, and excellent thermal handling of a single-mode fiber laser, while scaling the aperture to handle much higher peak power levels. A versatile MOPA architecture is adopted to meet the temporal format requirements without need for resonators or Q-switches. The self-imaging technique and MOPA architecture are leveraged by comprehensive demonstrations and by multiple other programs. A preliminary concept for the rugged prototype transmitter has been developed, leveraging off CTI's widespread experience with rugged flight-qualified laser systems. Phase I will conduct validation demonstrations of the ladar transmitter and develop a preliminary design for the prototype transmitter. Phase II will develop and test the prototype, and deliver it to the Navy for testing. Anticipated applications include (1) eyesafe laser radar systems for military markets including 3D-imaging, seeker/ targeting systems, and NCID as well as commercial applications including offshore and underground surveying, docking, robotic vision and bridge inspection; (2) laser range-finding for military and commercial markets; and (3) a new generation of compact, moderate peak-power eyesafe lasers for industrial, medical and scientific applications.

INFRAMAT CORP.
74 Batterson Park Road
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 678-7561
Dr. Yide Zhang
NAVY 02-157      Awarded: 30SEP02
Title:High-Permeability Magnetic Nanocomposite for High Power Applications
Abstract:The U.S. Navy seeks electrical means of launching aircraft, requiring cost effective magnetic materials with high saturation magnetization, high permeability and linear magnetizing behavior. Inframat proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting a FeCo/Al2O3 soft magnetic nanocomposite for improved magnetic performance to satisfy Navy's needs. High permeability FeCo/Al2O3 nanocomposite will be chemically synthesized using Inframat's economically viable aqueous solution method. The synthesized FeCo/Al2O3 nanocomposite will be consolidated into magnetic components, and tested. The design of this nanocomposite is based on the concept of exchange coupling, a quantum effect taking place between neighboring nanoparticles. Because of high resistivity, bulk sized FeCo/Al2O3 components can be manufactured without laminating, leading to significantly improved mechanical strength, compared with conventional components made by assembling metallic alloy strips. The proposed FeCo/Al2O3 nanocomposite is expected to possess higher saturation magnetization, higher permeability, higher electrical resistivity, higher Curie temperature, and lower power loss in the dynamic magnetization (such as pulsed magnetizing) process than the currently available Fe-Si alloys. Processing procedures involved in fabricating FeCo/Al2O3 cores will be simpler than the metallurgy processing in fabricating laminated metallic magnetic cores, leading to manufacturing cost savings. The proposed research is a collaboration between Inframat and the College of the Holy Cross. The proposed FeCo/Al2O3 nanocomposite will result in a novel soft magnetic material superior to the extensively used Fe-Si alloys in the magnetic and mechanical properties. Therefore, we expect this research to have a large impact in the electric and electronic industries. Commercial applications of the proposed technology include: high permeability magnetic components to launch electromagnetic aircraft, power converters, microwave antenna or rectennas, high frequency electronic parts made by ferrites, such as inductors, chokes, sensors, core-shape transformers, ultra high radio frequency telecommunications, planar transformers, and hybrid circuits. Other applications include telecommunications, industrial electronics, computers, Entertainment, automotive, and multimedia equipment.

MATERIALS PROCESSING, INC.
5069 Martin Luther King Freeway
Fort Worth, TX 76119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 492-4446
Dr. Animesh Bose
NAVY 02-158      Awarded: 11OCT02
Title:Corrosion Resistant, Ultra-High Strength, High Toughness Steel
Abstract:Current state-of-the-art ferrous products do not provide the desirable combination of ultra-high strength, high toughness as well as good corrosion resistance. For the carrier-based aircraft components, there is the urgent need for such an alloy. Currently that need is met by very-high strength steel with good fracture toughness that is chromium electroplated for good corrosion resistance. However, the process of chromium electroplating is expensive and it uses chemicals that are known human carcinogens. The current project aims at developing a novel ferrous alloy (using powder metallurgy approach) that would exhibit ultra-high strength, good toughness, and good corrosion resistance without electroplating. The new alloy will develop the desired property combination through the application of several metallurgical principles such as ultra-fine precipitation of intermetallic compounds, use of chromium to impart corrosion resistance and produce a carbon-free Fe-Ni-Cr type martensitic structure, ausaging and maraging-type heat treatments to improve strength, solid solution strengthening, and additional strengthening though the inclusion of a small volume of ultra-high hardness precipitates. The success in the project will provide DoD with a novel stainless steel having ultra-high strength, good toughness, and corrosion resistance properties, with applications in numerous defense and commercial sectors. The successful completion of this project will provide DoD with a new alloy that will have a unique combination of ultra-high strength, high toughness as well as good corrosion resistance. The newly developed material will replace state-of-the-art ferrous high strength, high toughness alloys, that rely on chromium electroplating (expensive, human carcinogen, pollutes the environment) for corrosion resistance. The primary beneficiary of this new alloy will be DoD, and especially Navy, which has a need for such material in their carrier-based aircraft components (landing gear, nose gear, various pins and fastners, etc.) that have to withstand extremely aggressive environments (saltwater spray, salt laden air, and sulfur dioxide). However, this material will have extensive use also in the commercial arena. Some applications include dies and tooling for the aluminum industry, forging tools, plastic molding dies, numerous commercial aircraft components, golf club heads, chemical equipments, etc. Thus, the success in Phase I will open up a new horizon in the area of ferrous stainless, ultra-high strength, and high toughness alloys.

QUESTEK INNOVATIONS LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 425-8222
Dr. Charles J. Kuehmann
NAVY 02-158      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:Computational Design of High-Strength, High-Toughness Stainless Steels for Carrier-Based Aircraft Components
Abstract:A novel computational materials design approach will be applied to demonstrate the feasibility for the development of a nanostructured high-strength, high-toughness stainless steel that meets the stringent mechanical properties for carrier-based aircraft components. Currently, 300M and the higher performance AerMet 100 are used for critical aerospace components. Both alloys, however, are nonstainless and highly susceptible to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. As a result, a number of aircraft components, such as landing gear, require a costly cadmium coating process to protect against corrosion. Cadmium, a known carcinogen, represents significant environmental risks in both primary manufacture and at DoD overhaul and repair facilities. A well-developed set of computational design tools has already been applied to the design of new stainless steel for land-based aerospace applications that match the mechanical properties of 300M. Under this proposed Phase I SBIR, a series of microstructural toughening strategies will be theoretically assessed to devise stainless steel compositions matching the more rigid mechanical strength and toughness properties of AerMet 100 steel, currently used for carrier-based aircraft components. A new high strength, high toughness stainless alloy would benefit the environment and have dual-use application potential for commercial aircraft and other commercial markets such as marine equipment. The primary anticipated benefit of developing a unique structural stainless alloy for carrier-based aircraft components would be environmental. AerMet 100, the steel currently used for carrier-based aircraft components, is nonstainless and requires a costly cadmium coating process to protect against corrosion. Cadmium is a known carcinogen and represents significant environmental risks in both primary manufacture and at DoD overhaul and repair facilities. Eliminating this coating process has a tremendous potential for reducing long-term maintenance costs and eliminating environmentally hazardous processes. Furthermore, many of the major items that are cadmium plated, such as landing gear, are damage tolerant and sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement during maintenance and stress corrosion cracking during use. This sensitivity makes stress corrosion cracking the primary failure mechanism for landing gear - a failure that often causes significant collateral damage to the aircraft, even thought the failure usually takes place while it is parked. The Boeing Company has also provided a letter of support for this proposed initiative as the development of a high-strength, high-toughness stainless equivalent to AerMet 100 would have significant commercial aerospace potential.

CARDINAL PEAK, LLC
1017 S. Boulder Road, Suite H-1
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 665-3962
Dr. Mike Perkins
NAVY 02-159      Awarded: 23DEC02
Title:Digital Motion Imagery (MI) Manipulation for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a software-only prototype system for simultaneous low-latency display, indexing and recording of MPEG-2 motion imagery delivered by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Low-latency display is critical to minimize the control problem of "oversteering" the UAV that results if the UAV operator relies on out-of-date imagery to make control decisions. The prototype will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a deployable software package meeting the Navy's UAV requirements and compatible with the TCS operating environment. In this document, we outline: a set of technical objectives for the Phase I prototype; a software architectural design of the prototype; and a project plan to achieve the objectives. We also outline a Phase I Option that addresses the prototyping of features not directly related to the fundamental issue of low-latency display, indexing and recording. Innovations in this system include: (i) a deterministic, low-latency data pathway for video decoding, and (ii) a powerful and flexible motion imagery data storage schema that allows diverse metadata to be indexed at receive-time while video is being decoded with low latency. The commercial market for the technologies to be developed under this proposal is sizable. It includes: (i) the market for video from military and scientific UAVs; (ii) the civilian market for MPEG-based video surveillance recording systems for banks, casinos, airports, and public transit; and (iii) searchable MPEG-based video databases of highlight films for professional, college, and high-school sports teams.

HARY & PARTRIDGE CONSULTING LLC
842 Coleman Avenue Suite 15
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 462-9534
Mr. Mark Hary
NAVY 02-159      Awarded: 30DEC02
Title:A Software Tool for Improved Digital MI Handling
Abstract:HPC will develop a software tool that uses software-only decoding to display digital MI to screen from a 8Mbit MPEG-2 TS from a UDP source. HPC will use their MPEG-2 decoding technology, which offers decoding rates exceeding 50 fps (less than 20ms) and no-buffering of I-frame only images. Additionally, this software package will use an ODBC connection to talk to a DIICOE approved RDBMS to store and retrieve motion imagery. A user will be able to annotate digital MI as it is displayed on screen, retrieve the digital MI with the annotation, and will be able to auto-generate mosaics using state-of-the-art mosaicking technology developed by HPC. This Phase I investigation will culminate in a prototype software tool and a Software Requirement Specification that will drive the Phase II development effort. The resultant software will have great commercial potential for branches of the DoD, for local and state law enforcement agencies, and for private surveillance firms who need to store, retrieve, and manipulage digital MI.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Steven P. Rogers
NAVY 02-160      Awarded: 06NOV02
Title:Intelligent Advisor for Multi-Modal Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Design
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I effort is to design an Intelligent Advisor for Human-Computer Interface Design (IAHCID) in preparation for demonstration of a prototype system in Phase II. IAHCID will provide the HCI design team with rapid accessibility to the enormous array of existing design data, including recommendations for the recent multi-modal HCI techniques, filtered and tailored for the design project at hand. One IACID component will assist HCI designers' analysis of the future system, defining the nature of the required tasks and information elements. Another component will allow the user to constrain the intelligent advisor solutions in accordance with hardware acquisition requirements and likely operational conditions. Both rule-based and case-based reasoning systems and databases will support the Design Recommendations Component, which provides guidelines for optimal control/display techniques for each information element identified in the task analysis. Recommendation references and examples will be provided on demand. The IACID Interactive System Prototype Decision Aid will assist the HCI designer in specific HCI element selection and layout, interactively leading the user through the logical steps of the design process, ensuring that all of the required information elements are represented, and offering suggestions based upon proven design principles. The commercial success of IAHCID is nearly assured because it will greatly reduce the HCI design time and costs, improve product safety and usability, and support HCI design for all types of computer-based products. With the commercialization of IAHCID, high-quality HCI design expertise will become available to all manufacturers, leading to an improved HCI on thousands of types of products. The resulting reduction in errors and times for training and system operation will yield enormous cost savings to military and private sector system users.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2439
Dr. Gabriel Spitz
NAVY 02-160      Awarded: 04NOV02
Title:Case-Based HCI Design Advisor
Abstract:As the number and range of interface technologies increases, the personal experience and expertise of human computer interaction (HCI) designers is often insufficient to ensure that wide ranges of innovative interface options are considered during design. This limited experience could slow down the interface design process and result in interfaces that are sufficient, but not optimal. Aptima proposes an intelligent advisor that will help capture the experiences of a broad range of HCI designers in the form of user interface design cases and provide an indexing schema for effectively searching and retrieving user interface design (UID) cases from a case database. The retrieved UID cases will aid the HCI designer in generating an initial set of viable and innovative user interface design options to use as a starting point for a UI design effort. Each UID case in the proposed case database will contain: 1) a dialog representation (e.g., a dialog box image, a description for gesture based dialog, a transcription of speech dialogs, etc.); 2) a depiction of the functional, operational, and usability requirements the dialog supports; and 3) links to related dialogs used to characterize and index the UID case. The anticipated benefits are as follows. The case-based HCI design advisor will enable the HCI designers and/or the systems design team to: ú Expand the type and number user interface design options/ideas considered when designing an interface, thereby increasing the suitability of the interface to its functional, operational and usability requirements. ú Reduce the user interface design life cycle by jump-starting the creative aspects of the design with an initial set of ideas. ú Reduce the user-interface design life cycle by providing HCI designers with actual designs that can be used as is or with simple modification. ú Increase the functional completeness of the user interface design by suggesting functionalities that were included by other HCI designers in similar situations.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Mr. Brett Walters
NAVY 02-160      Awarded: 04NOV02
Title:Intelligent Advisor for Multi-Modal Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Design
Abstract:Recent advances in multi-modal technologies are now sufficiently mature to be embedded in future multi-modal interfaces. The question remains as to how designers can use this technology to provide a more intuitive interface that will allow users to process information more quickly, build a better state of situation awareness, and make better decisions. A large amount of research has been conducted to understand human thought and information processing capabilities in order to design effective displays that are engaging and easy to use. However, it is ultimately the responsibility of designers to be aware of and understand the implications of this research. The primary objective for Phase I is to develop an innovative approach for providing interface design support. Our first task will be to examine methods (e.g., task analysis, simulation modeling, artificial intelligence) to include in the Multi-modal Interface Design Advisor (MIDA). The second task will be to research theories regarding human-computer interaction (HCI). Then we will review different display technologies and collect interface guidance information with a deliberate focus on multi-modal interactions. The fourth task will be to understand the issues involved in developing MIDA. Finally, we will design sample prototype interfaces that demonstrate our approach. This project will provide the Navy with an approach for developing a tool that can support upgrades to the Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control System. However, the principal benefit of this tool will be its potential for increasing the awareness and use of multi-modal user-interface technology across a wide variety of platforms for both government and commercial interests. Virtually any interface, from head-up displays to personal digital assistants, can be designed with the help of this tool. It will save users time by removing the requirement of having to review guidance information and standards. This tool can also ensure that interface design will be done right the first time, preventing the need for multiple iterations of design and testing, saving time and money in the process. Finally, this tool can serve as a learning device. Simply by using the tool, users can become aware of research, guidelines and theories on HCI.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison Brown
NAVY 02-161      Awarded: 29OCT02
Title:Hybrid Integrity for Precision Guidance and Landing
Abstract:Under this Phase I effort it is proposed to develop a design for a hybrid integrity solution solution for precision approach and landing in a GPS jamming environment. The proposed integrity solution leverages the capabilities of next generation digital spatial processing and ultra-tightly-coupled (UTC) GPS/inertial integrated military User Equipment (UE). Under this effort we will assess the failure modes inherent in the GPS system and UE and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed GPS/Inertial Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (GI-RAIM) algorithms in assuring the integrity, availability and continuity of the GPS observations during the challenging precision approach and landing phase of operation. The GI-RAIM algorithm will use the spatial diversity provided by the digital spatial processing algorithms to detect GPS and UE failure modes and will embed failure detection and isolation algorithms within the UTC signal processing algorithms. An analysis will also be included of an algorithm designed to perform carrier phase tracking integrity monitoring embedded within the Kinematic Carrier Phase Tracking (KCPT) positioning algorithms. This multi-level integrity monitoring approach will be evaluated first through simulation. Under Phase II, test data will be collected to demonstrate the GI-RAIM algorithm performance in an UTC GPS/inertial digital spatial processing test-bed The modular nature of the GI-RAIM GPS/inertial integrity monitoring algorithm will allow it to be embedded within other manufacturers' existing architectures providing additional signal integrity for military and commercial integrated systems. The algorithms are designed to be synergistic with existing approaches for integrity monitoring (e.g. AIME) and KCPT precise positioning. Applications exist for the JPALS and SRGPS precision approach and landing systems and for GPS/inertial guided munitions. Commercial applications also exist for the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS).

SYSENSE CORP.
3660 West Temple Avenue, Suite 2200
Pomona, CA 91768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 869-3278
Dr. Jason L. Speyer
NAVY 02-161      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid Integrity for Precision Guidance and Landing
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a methodology for the improved integrity and continuity of absolute and relative GPS/IMU systems based on the architecture of the fault-tolerant estimator. This scheme is based on new results in analytic redundancy management methodologies. This methodology combines new robust fault detection filters with residual processor and fault magnitude reconstruction to develop fault-tolerant estimators, which operate at high level of integrity with lower level integrity hardware components. This system is applicable to all levels of coupling between the GPS receiver and the IMU, but is most critical for ultra-tight coupling of GPS/IMU since the replica signals generated from the INS is fed back to the receiver correlators. The fault-tolerant estimator is proposed to ensure that the replica signals are to a very high probability not corrupted by GPS and IMU faults. This work can be applied anywhere where GPS/INS navigation is used as an enhancement to safety and integrity of operations. Specifically, this work may be applied to autonomous carrier landing, autonomous aerial refueling, formation flight for drag reduction, and relative navigation for munitions guidance.

ANALYTICAL SERVICES & MATERIALS, INC.
107 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 865-7283
Mr. Karl E.Wiedemann
NAVY 02-162      Awarded: 06NOV02
Title:Innovative Erosion-Resistant Coating Materials/Concepts for Leading Edges on Composite Rotor Blades
Abstract:The Navy operates its helicopters and other aircraft in dust, salt, and water-laden environments. The impact of sand and water droplets on the rotor blades at high velocities causes rotor life to drop drastically. The cost of replacing and maintaining rotor blades is a significant factor. The current solution is to use metallic abrasion strips that offer limited protection; however, the strips limit the fatigue life of composite rotors. AS&M has developed a coating that provides superior erosion protection without reducing fatigue life. AS&M's coating is comprised of a fine dispersion of very hard particles in a resilient matrix. The coating partly absorbs the energy and reflects back the impacting particles without deformation or cratering. In Phase I, we propose to demonstrate the applicability of AS&M's coating on composite material for adhesion, uniformity, smoothness, erosion, and cavitation properties. In the Phase I option, we propose to establish a field repair kit for maintenance and extending the coating life. In Phase II, we propose to coat airfoil shapes for simulated erosion test and also to carry out a full-fledged fatigue test on a coated rotor. In Phase III, we will work with a rotor blade manufacturer and transition the technology to a rotary-wing platform. Helicopters, vertical/short take-off and landing aircraft, fighter jets, general aviation aircraft and helicopters, gas turbine engines and power plants, wind turbines, and mining machinery will benefit from the effective and economical protection afforded by the proposed coating. We are currently interacting with several customers to develop and apply coatings for specific products.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4114
Dr. Robert Kovar
NAVY 02-162      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Gradient Functionality, Nanocomposite Elastomer Sheath System for Composite Rotor
Abstract:Metal protective sheaths currently used on the V-22 rotor blade leading edge to protect against sand and rain erosion are heavy, rigid and expensive. Elastomeric sheaths are being considered as replacements for metal sheaths, since they are lightweight, flexible and abrasion-resistant. However, elastomeric sheaths tested to date have exhibited delamination and creep failure caused by sand and rain droplet impact damage coupled with high centrifugal loads. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a gradient functionality, nanocomposite elastomer sheath system, called NESS, that addresses each of these issues. The NESS design provides for the highest sand and rain erosion-resistance, reinforcement against centrifugal shear forces and protection against rain droplet impact damage. NESS can be manufactured using a low-cost, automated Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process, is lightweight, non-conductive and durable enough to resist the environments that currently cause premature sheath failure. In Phase I, we will apply computer modeling to identify candidate NESS materials, produce NESS test specimens and evaluate NESS specimens for key properties; such as, adhesion, sand and rain erosion-resistance and creep-resistance. The Phase I Foster-Miller team includes experts in computer modeling, nanocomposites, abrasion-resistant elastomers and helicopter rotor blade design, as well as a commercial helicopter manufacturer and a polyurethane supplier. (P-020535) Successful development of the proposed Nanocomposite Elastomer Sheath System will increase the reliability, survivability and mission lifetime of military aircraft, such as the V-22 Osprey in severe environments. Commercial helicopters will benefit from this low-cost, enhanced performance abrasion-resistant sheath for composite rotor blades by realizing longer leading edge lifetime. The market for such improved performance at an economical cost includes all commercial and military rotary wing aircraft.

HONTEK CORP.
161 South Satellite Road
South Windsor, CT 06074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 282-1776
Mr. Shek C. Hong
NAVY 02-162      Selected for Award
Title:Molded Erosion Protection Systems for Composite Rotor Blades
Abstract:Naval aircraft operate in hostile environments that include sandy or dusty landing zones and/or severe sand/rain storms. Helicopters and other vertical/short takeoff and landing (VTOL/ STOL) aircraft such as the V-22 Osprey are expected to endure these severe environments without rapid erosion to the leading edge of their rotor blade. The U.S. Navy is interested in removing the metallic leading edge strip and replacing it with innovative erosion-resistant coating materials/concepts directly over the composite leading edge of the rotor blade. Hontek has developed extremely rain and sand erosion resistant polyurethane elastomers under prior SBIR contracts. Hontek proposes to mold these highly erosion resistant elastomers directly onto the composite leading edge, or mold them into individual boots for installation later onto the composite leading edge. In addition, this proposal will investigate the adhesive bonding, the removal and repair of the erosion protection systems. Fast and easy removal and repair techniques will be developed. Another task will investigate the use of nanoparticles to increase the erosion resistance of the elastomers. The proposed molded erosion protection systems have universal applications to all types of composite rotor blades, propeller blades and radomes. It is anticipated that this effort will provide a light weight and conformable erosion protection system for the composite leading edge on current and emerging VTOL/STOL aircraft such as V-22 Osprey. This effort will eliminate the need for frequent inspection to detect incipient fatigue cracks in the metal leading edge, reduce acquisition and operating costs, enhance blade fatigue life, improve mission safety, reduce need for spares, simplify field serviceability and reduce total ownership cost (TOC).

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Ms. Julia Rentz
NAVY 02-163      Awarded: 15OCT02
Title:In-Line IR Particle Analyzer for Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:OPTRA proposes the development of a compact, ruggedized in-line IR particle analyzer for in situ, open-path, particulate matter quantification for gas turbine engines. We offer a novel approach to the in-line particle sizer, employing an IR laser diode and IR optics that allow for 200x reduction in overall volume relative to systems traditionally operating in the visible. We have incorporated an inexpensive uncooled microbolometer focal plane array in place of the standard annular silicon detector array. This in-line system records the far-field diffraction pattern for all particles present in the laser beam at the focal plane of the imaging optics; concentrations of particle sizes are deduced from the distribution of the diffraction pattern over the detector focal plane array. In addition, we employ a spectroscopic absorption technique by tuning the IR laser on and off the 3 micron H-C stretch resonance band characteristic of essentially all hydrocarbons. The change in the diffraction pattern in the far-field provides discrimination between condensable hydrocarbons forming PM and all other scattering particulates. This system holds commercial potential in areas of jet engine PM measurement, vehicle emissions measurement, and industrial and process monitoring.

PROCESS METRIX
2110 Omega Rd., Ste D
San Ramon, CA 94583
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 837-1330
Dr. Donald J. Holve
NAVY 02-163      Awarded: 16OCT02
Title:Gas Turbine Engine Particulate Matter Measurement
Abstract:The primary method of particle mass measurement for industrial processes uses sampling via extraction and filtration. Long sample times are specifically a problem for measurements of industrial gas turbine engines, and as stated in the solicitation, are virtually impractical for short term operation of military gas turbine engines. The Navy would like to find a fast and accurate substitute measurement technique for the conventional mass sampling EPA Method 5. PMC and its predecessor company, Insitec have worked to develop in-situ real time particulate instruments for the power industry for more than 15 years. Process Metrix (PMC) is currently developing an optical instrument known as the PPC (Process Particle Counter) that is ultimately directed at precisely the application described above. Indeed a prototype instrument has obtained quantitative size and mass concentrations in a variety of harsh environments, including pulp and paper recovery boilers, expanders (turbines without compressors) in the petroleum industry, and industrial gas turbines for power generation. The goal of the proposed work is to incorporate additional improvements to the PPC, demonstrating that this sensor can produce fast real-time size and mass quantitative measurements comparable to EPA method 5 in military gas turbine engine environments. PM10/PM2.5 Measurement of Particulate Matter. This optical technique can supplement or replace standard EPA method 5 measurement of particulate emissions for a wide range of industries.

INNOVATIONS & PROTOTYPE ENGINEERING
4029 Bristol Road
Clinton, NY 13323
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 853-6868
Mr. Edwin E. Morris
NAVY 02-164      Awarded: 25OCT02
Title:Precision Geo-Location for Turreted Electro-Optic Sensors
Abstract:Innovations & Prototype Engineering has developed a concept for transfer aligning two coordinate frames using what can be described as delta-quaternions. These delta-quaternions can be generated using vectors of almost any quantity that can be characterized in each of the two coordinate frames. Examples of these vector quantities are inertial linear acceleration, inertial angular rate, and inertial line of sight. These delta-quaternions can be filtered to find a transformation matrix so that any vector defined in one of the two coordinate frames can be readily expressed in the other. There are existing military systems that use slave inertial measurement units with a full set of navigation equations and a Kalman filter to transfer align the slave to a master inertial navigation system. The phase I effort will focus on characterizing the current absolute pointing error of representative EO/IR systems. The performance improvements of the low impact method using the delta-quaternions will be compared to the more complicated method using the full navigation solution. Locate surface targets from airborne law enforcement vehicles. Counter drug enforcement.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court St., Suite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
Mr. Larry Nelson
NAVY 02-164      Awarded: 25OCT02
Title:Precision Geo-Location for Turreted Electro-Optic Sensors
Abstract:A novel method for improving the geo-location of ground and marine targets using current and next generation airborne, turreted, Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) sensors is proposed. The approach generates the target's position on the surface of the earth directly and thus includes all error sources and attempts to minimize total location error. The quality of the geo-location information is expected to sufficiently high enough to support precision strike capability. The solution proposed here is also characterized by 1) Refinement of the target's geo-location by observing the behavior of the line of sight (LOS) to the target over time using passive ranging like algorithms 2) Automated procedures for alignment of the FLIR coordinate system to the own-ship's targeting (i.e. weapons) coordinate system are included 3)Automated procedures for measuring and compensating optical system distortions and image plane mis-alignment are provided 4) Novel stationary surface target tracking techniques are proposed that work well the low contrast FLIR environment 5)The system works with or without an IMU located on the turret's stabilized platform 6) The system works with or without target range being known and 7)The method proposed below can also be applied to electro-optical systems as well as Infra-Red systems. Placing ground targets at risk to a wide variety of today's highly precise weapons first requires precision geo-location of the target. Providing the capability to accurately geo-locate high-value targets will greatly improve the Navy's capability for precision strike. Current and next generation turreted, Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) systems offer the potential to precisely geo-locate high value and time critical targets in a cost effective manner. However before this potential can be realized, a number of technical issues must be successfully addressed. These technical issues are discussed below.

MISSISSIPPI POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13233 Webre Road
Bay Saint Louis, MS 39520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(228) 533-0825
Dr. Robert M. Springfield
NAVY 02-165      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:LOW-COST RAMJET COMBUSTOR INSULATORS
Abstract:Mississippi Polymer Technologies, Inc. (MPT), in cooperation with Atlantic Research Corporation, proposes to develop ultra-high performance Parmaxr Self-Reinforcing Polymers (SRPs) for ramjet combustor applications. Parmaxr SRPs, which offer strengths comparable to mild steels and specific strengths comparable to titanium alloys, are thermoplastic polyparaphenylenes with superior ablative properties. This combination of low-cost thermoplastic processing and high char-yield makes Parmaxr SRPs ideal insulators. Parmaxr SRPs provide a rigid char that will withstand the combustor flow field shear forces without degrading the produced energy; offering lighter weight and higher performance (thermal diffusivity, conductivity, and ablative performance) than existing silica-filled silicone rubber materials. Additionally, Parmaxr SRPs will offer enhanced bondability and minimized off-gassing at the case bondline. In fact, because of their great strength, Parmaxr SRPs may offer the capability to fabricate ramjet or integrated rocket/ramjet engines without the use of an insulated steel case. This will provide tremendous system performance increases, including increased range/payload, reduced logistical cost, and potentially reduced lifecycle cost as a result of reduced corrosion concerns. Parmaxr SRPs are able to offer this unparalleled capability because of their unique chemistry - no other material in existence is comparable to these amorphous thermoplastic rigid-rod polyparaphenylenes. Successful completion of Phase I R&D will provide an excellent foundation for replacing heavy glass fiber and high fabrication cost carbon fiber insulation in not only ramjets but also integral rocket/ramjet and pure rocket designs. Parmaxr SRPs will offer the convenience of thermoplastic processing in place of traditional tape-wrapping, fiber placement, and weaving/impregnation fabrication technologies. Parmaxr SRPs are melt processible allowing use of injection molding, compression molding, and extrusion. Parmaxr SRPs with specific gravities in the range of 1.2 will weight less than present insulations offering system performance enhancements as well. Additionally, the results from this Phase I effort will also provide sufficient data to allow placement of Parmaxr SRPs into both DoD and commercial aircraft structures. Parmaxr SRPs do not contain sulfur or nitrogen so in fire situations there are no hydrogen sulfides or cyanides produced. Parmaxr SRPs are also lightweight and strong so these materials are ideally suited for use in manned aircraft or spacecraft.

SYSTEMS & MATERIALS RESERACH CONSULTANCY
19300 Crosswind Circle
Spicewood, TX 78669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-0822
Dr. Alan V. Bray
NAVY 02-165      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:Lightweight Ablating Insulation for Ramjet Combustion Chambers
Abstract:To reduce ablating insulation weight in a ramjet interceptor the ablative performance per pound of material must be proportionally improved. SMRC/SWT proposes an innovative nanocomposite ablative technology similar to that demonstrated in our Air Force fiber reinforced nanocomposite rocket ablative material (NRAM) project. The approach involves the intercalation of a nanoclay by an elastomeric (epoxy) resin. The nanoclay surface preparation will be varied for optimal nanoclay exfoliation and ablative properties. Chemical and particle reinforcement for char formation and physical property improvement are also proposed. A pre-proposal experiment with two off-the-shelf nanoclays and the current Dow Corning 93-104 ablating insulation material showed 20 - 30% improvement in char formation and insulating properties for one of the clays, but the other failed to improve 93-104. This illustrates the importance of tailoring nanocomposite ablatives to optimize insulation performance. A detailed 3-round project plan is proposed that examines resin choice, nanoclay surface preparation, and reinforcement strategies in detail. A full Linde torch ablation test facility will be used to conduct over 80 test firings on candidate materials in Phase I. Ramjet combustor and trowelable ablatives that FAR outperform current products on the market - and that can be processed with current manufacturing techniques - are an assured result. The SMRC commercialization approach includes qualifying an OEM toll blender for interim production to support ongoing Navy ramjet programs immediately after Phase II. In addition it includes development of a trowelable ablative based on the ramjet combustor material that can be sold in the larger launch asset protection market. The trowelable ablative market includes land- and sea-based missile launch pads and is estimated at roughly $50 million a year worldwide. The cost of SMRC's ramjet combustor ablative will be very competitive, and probably lower, than current trowelables while performing better, and should be able to capture a significant market share.

SYS
9620 Chesapeake Drive, Suite 201
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 715-5500
Mr. Michael Welch
NAVY 02-166      Selected for Award
Title:Readiness Assessment and Training Evaluation System (RATES) for Aviation Maintenance
Abstract:Poor availability of training equipment for aviation maintenance training centers due to mock up malfunctions or out-of-date equipment can compromise Naval readiness. The purpose of this project is to devise an assessment methodology. The objective is to provide an assessment system and process that measures training technologies such as hardware, simulation, advanced distance learning, advanced technology approaches, etc. as they relate to aviation maintenance Naval training requirements and high-level training and readiness goals. A second objective of this project is to investigate the process of continually assessing all training technology implementation as an effective means of delivering training to the sailor while ashore or afloat. The process of establishing an assessment framework for aviation training technologies will prove effective. The assessment is based on a framework of Navy readiness and training goals. The entire assessment framework will be available to Naval training decision-makers on an interactive Web site in a client/server format that allows distributed and asynchronous assessment visualization into the future. Fundamental payoffs for training system performance measurement, that is using RATES, will be realized from quantifying impact to aviation maintenance readiness from training equipment non-availability or out-of-configuration status and assessment results that define levels of impact to readiness based on categories of training equipment, i.e. training devices for aviation electronic technicians, aviation ordnanceman, aviation boatswain's mate, etc. In addition RATES will Identify an effective training approaches, such as, the trade off of use of Technical Training Equipment (TTE) hardware verses advanced technology-based approaches to training aviation maintenance sailors. This will include an Instructional Media Matrix that cross-references the different training in terms of types of equipment, devices, and documents. Also, documented and perhaps most importantly, assessment that can be used as justification for funding of training devices development, spare parts, hardware/software updates and adequate levels of maintenance on these devices and the ability to prioritize scarce resources based on readiness contribution.

TECOLOTE RESEARCH, INC.
1 S. Los Carneros Rd, Ste 125
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-3290
Mr. William Humphrey
NAVY 02-166      Selected for Award
Title:Rule-Based Information System for Training Resource Planning and Fleet Readiness Assessments
Abstract:Measuring fleet readiness is a significant and critical challenge that faces the Navy today. The goal to maintain a force that is trained and knows how to apply their training effectively is crucial for the fleet's and the nation's preparedness. An effective maintenance training program not only trains under the best of circumstances, but needs to simulate what can and does go wrong as well. To measure readiness requires quick and seamless access to the information that contributes to a successful training program, not the least of which is availability specially engineered maintenance training devices and other training tools that simulate the behavior of malfunctioning weapon systems. Tecolote Research is proposing to develop a model that would integrate with the NAWCSTD's TEELTR (Training Effectiveness Link to Readiness) model, and provide a mechanism to measure maintenance training equipment availability on fleet readiness. The innovation in this approach will be in integrating the disparate data sources, developing the metrics for measuring readiness impact and providing for geographically dispersed information transfer as well as a contemporary web-services based software application to allow easy, secure access to the model. Government and industry are both concerned with managing the logistics of critical resources (training systems, weapon systems, facilities) and assessing how their availability impacts organizational goals. Being prepared comes at a cost, and the impact of essential resources (maintenance training equipment) "availability" needs be measured. Such a measurement coupled with cost estimates of various maintenance profiles and maintenance capital investment options would provide a sound basis for comparing alternative configurations.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-6273
Mr. Carl Byington
NAVY 02-167      Awarded: 22OCT02
Title:Intelligent Embedded Diagnostics and Open Architecture for Future Avionics Systems
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Honeywell Defense Avionics Systems, proposes to develop and demonstrate improved on-board embedded diagnostics for avionics as well as open communications architectures that enable information continuity between on-board and off-board systems or maintenance aids. Within this paradigm shift approach, embedded diagnostics improvements will be sought through the evaluation of improved sensed features, various artificial intelligence methods, and more detailed consideration of available data, such as from a data bus monitor. The application of avionics reliability and aging (usage) models to improve assessments or resolve ambiguity will also be addressed. In addition, an ambiguity group analysis that employs data fusion will be developed to assist the at-wing, automated test equipment, if necessary, to rank probable causes. The information continuity, however, will require implementation of suitable open architecture protocols such as AI-ESTATE or OSA-CBM, and it will allow the diagnostics results, symptoms evaluated, and operational/environmental conditions to be more easily captured in a database that will allow for further data mining, clustering, case-based reasoning and other knowledge discovery methods. This pathway and database integration of the diagnostics development ensures that continuous learning of new trends and diagnostics could be developed for future updates to the on-board system. The development and integration of embedded diagnostics and prognostics within avionics system and support test equipment will provide many benefits including: improved safety associated with system operations; reduced life cycle or total ownership costs; optimized maintenance intervals and prioritized task performance; and increased combat readiness/availability of military systems. We also anticipate a significant reduction in CND, RTOK, and NFF with the diagnostics/prognostics software modules and associated open architecture protocols generated under this program. In addition, the work will contain many generic elements that can be transitioned to a broad range of other applications. The embedded diagnostics approaches, techniques, and specific algorithms could also be implemented in a wide range of military as well as commercial applications in the civilian aviation community (passenger aircraft, cargo transports, business jets, private aircraft, etc.). The open system architecture development could also be applied across the armed forces and enable more effective asset management and autonomic logistics.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
2721 White Settlement Rd
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 335-1147
Mr. Kartik Moorthy
NAVY 02-167      Awarded: 29OCT02
Title:Intelligent Embedded Diagnostic System for Future Avionic Systems
Abstract:This proposal describes diagnostic reasoning approaches applicable to a variety of domains, specifically the design and development of an Intelligent Embedded Diagnostic System for Avionics. The need for this development is growing as compromises in algorithm and modeling paradigm complexity abound due to computational throughput and state-space explosion constraints. The algorithms proposed for development are highly scaleable and enable analyzing of the properties of the complex, dynamic systems. The proposed work includes developing diagnostic models to define outputs in a variety of system states. These outputs will be used in the final version: an object-oriented model with advanced fault trees and enhanced diagnostic inference. In addition, the proposed IEDSA will provide architectures for standardizing the information exchange between embedded diagnostic systems, automated test systems, and test services of reasoning systems. It will also provide guidance for test strategy services supporting the avionics infrastructure. And finally, this proposal addresses specific issues to consider during the analysis of aircraft data, specifically the identification in databases approach that will be developed to discover hidden information from this data. The ideal result will be clear, concise, complete descriptions of fault events, which unambiguously associate symptoms with appropriate repair actions from historical maintenance events. WPI will commercialize an Intelligent Embedded Diagnostic System for Avionic System (IEDSA) using a 5-part process. The first step in the process is a product demonstration for the U.S. Navy and Delta Airlines at WPI's in-house laboratory. Second, our system will undergo a field test on Navy. The third step involves the trial production of a small number of IEDSA. Fourth, WPI's marketing department will investigate alternative product applications. The final step is product launch. Once full production is underway, we will pursue partnerships with ship equipment or appliance manufacturers to allow their products to reach consumers pre-equipped with IEDSA. WPI anticipates capturing 5% of IEDSA's $486,418,520 predicted annual market. Enabled by our extensive facilities and experienced personnel, WPI will develop, market, and manufacture IEDSA in house. With more than 200 products on the market, WPI possesses the experience, expertise, and resources to drive this solution from concept to market. For example, we already have a costing system to facilitate progress recording and billing. Also, our strong business relationships with others like Boeing, Lockheed, General Dynamics, Northrop Grumman, Textron, United Technologies, and BAE allow us to develop products that meet the needs of the industries for which they are designed.

AMERICAS PHENIX
121 Tennessee Avenue, N.E.
Washington, DC 20002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 546-7442
Mr. Marcio Duffles
NAVY 02-168      Selected for Award
Title:High-Temperature (HT) Coatings for Turbine Blades and Vanes
Abstract:America's Phenix, Inc. (AP), MDS-PRAD Technologies Corporation (MPT) and Penn State University's Applied Research Laboratory (PSU-ARL) propose developing high-temperature coating systems for gas turbine engine blades and vanes. The coating composition will consist of an MPT developed base coating in combination with the PSU-ARL developed thermal barrier coating in order to sustain operation in the high temperature environment experienced by turbine blades and vanes. The application of the coating system offers the following advantages: - Adaptable process using one coating system; - Consistent and predictable application with 95 to 100 % success rate; - Low process cost; - Low coating cost with 100% utilization of raw materials; - Application on various manufactured parts; - Application on various types of cobalt and nickel based heat-resistive alloys; - Smooth coating surface; - Part life of 20,000 to 30,000 hours in typical industrial engines; - Part life of 8,000 to 10,000 hours in typical aircraft turbine engines; - Part service life increases between 200 to 400 % depending on operating conditions; - Increase engine performance (increased thrust and decreased fuel consumption) due to lower cooling airflow required; - Blade and coating can be repaired; and - Ecologically-friendly with minimum waste of materials and no use of harmful materials or chemicals. The U.S. Military Service's experience significant deterioration of turbine blades and vanes operating in high temperature environments. Turbine blades and vanes degrade due to melting, creep, oxidation, high-temperature corrosion and thermal distress of the base material. All military engine types from turbojets powering fighter and attack aircraft, turbojets used as propulsers and generators in shipboard applications, turbofans powering transport aircraft, turboprops powering transport and surveillance aircraft and turboshaft engines powering helicopters are adversely affected by the high temperature operating environments in the turbine sections. The component degradation typically occurs well before the design life of the turbine parts which result in overall decreased engine performance; unscheduled major repairs; decreased time-between-overhaul and engine time-on-wing; and increased operational costs. In addition, gas turbine engines used in commercial aviation and for industrial applications such as powerplants also experience high scrap rates of turbine blades and vanes. Protective coatings that can withstand high temperature operating environments and maintain the metal temperatures at sustainable levels will be critical to the improved performance, reliability and durability, operational and maintenance costs of aviation, sea-based and industrial gas turbine engines.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 145
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 259-7541
Dr. Jalees Ahmad
NAVY 02-168      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:High-Temperature (HT) Coatings for Turbine Blades and Vanes
Abstract:The goal is to develop and experimentally validate a marketable methodology for guiding component specific development of improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and for life prediction of TBCs. The approach will require innovative research and development (R&D) effort in Phase I to develop, validate and implement relevant oxidation, damage and deformation prediction models. Subsequently, these models will be used in defining a systematic development approach that would be implemented in Phase II and beyond. Phase I will directly build upon extensive research already performed by RAI and other organizations under various DoD, DOE and NASA funded programs, and by turbine engine manufacturers. Phase I deliverable will be validated mechanism based (mechanistic) modeling methods to describe TBC deformation and damage behavior under general thermomechanical loads, and thermal and environmental conditions relevant to jet engines. A systematic, modeling based approach will greatly facilitate development of reliable TBCs for specific jet engine and stationary gas turbine engine components. Because of large potential pay-off associated with the use of TBCs, in both existing and advanced engines, there is an existing and growing market for the proposed technology in military and commercial aerospace industry. There is also a potentially large market in the stationary gas turbine industry.

TURBINE COATINGS, INC.
453 Kinns Road
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 348-0551
Dr. Maggie Zheng
NAVY 02-168      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:High-Temperature (HT) Coatings for Turbine Blades and Vanes
Abstract:High temperature (HT) coatings are applied on hot-section components of gas turbines to prevent them from premature failure caused by oxidation, hot corrosion, and overheating. As the turbine firing temperature continually increases in the recent years with the introduction of more advanced turbine designs, the hot-section components in these turbines are running at increasingly high temperatures, and HT coatings applied on these hot-section components need provide better protection in order to meet the designed performance criteria. Phase I of this project will identify HT coating performance requirements and specifications for the F402 and T700 naval aircraft engines, define application techniques and characterize the coating system's composition, and select one or more coatings for further development in Phase II. Phase II will conduct laboratory hot gas and cascade tests of selected coating systems, and Phase III will carry out the accelerated simulated mission endurance test to determine the coating system performance in an integrated engine under realistic operational conditions. The optional portion of this project will also include selecting HT coatings for the advanced F414 and F119/F120 engines with higher turbine firing temperatures. HT coatings with better protectiveness can reduce unscheduled and costly inspections, repair, and overhauls of gas turbine hot sections. The success of this project and the subsequent transition and implementation of selected HT coatings and coating processes into naval aircraft gas turbine engines will result in significant economic savings and equate to an increase in flight safety and operational readiness. In addition to the application on the military aircraft engines, HT coatings can be applied on a wide variety of components to extend the life of these components, including those in industrial gas turbine engines and commercial aircraft engines, as well as in automotive and ship propulsion systems.

AGILIS ENGINEERING, INC.
3930 RCA Boulevard, Suite 3000
Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 626-8900
Mr. Paul M. Buxe
NAVY 02-169      Awarded: 03DEC02
Title:Innovative Gas Turbine Engine Propulsion
Abstract:The proposed program is focused on studying UAV critical technologies. Two technologies considered significant to meet the emerging UAV requirements include power extraction and the engine centrifugal compressor material. Therefore, two studies will be conducted in the proposed program: ú A detailed study will be conducted to evaluate secondary power extraction propulsion system optimization: Trading design integration of propulsion engine and electric power generator for efficiency, space and weight to provide an affordable, operable weapon system with adequate range. Primary focus will be on the design integration of said electric power generator with the aircraft engine Fan/LPC in order in order to minimize installed volume/weight, preserving engine performance, operability and fuel burn for range and providing an affordable systems solution. ú As an option, a second study with relatively lower amount of effort will be conducted to analyze the impeller design and its operating environment in order to be able to select a viable centrifugal compressor material to meet the emerging UAV engine operating life and reliability. Honeywell, the largest producer of small gas turbine engines, strongly supports this effort and will be assisting Agilis with the information required to successfully complete this study. With the need for increased power generation for aircraft/ propulsion secondary power, a study is needed that will provide an analysis of potential locations to place an electrical generator in the engine area. Proper selection and location of the generator will minimize installed volume/weight, preserving engine performance, operability and fuel burn for range and providing an affordable systems solution. A higher temperature material for turbine engine centrifugal compressor (impeller) will enable higher rotor speeds and increased engine thrust in addition to improving reliability, decreasing mission abort rates, reducing maintenance and repair costs and therefore reducing the cost of ownership of the aircraft. Propulsion contributes up to 45% of the Life Cycle Cost of the weapon system. Small increases in performance and durability have significant impacts on the overall weapon system cost. These material change benefits span military and commercial applications of turbine engines.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Mr. Kenneth M. Kratsch
NAVY 02-169      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:SiNC Ceramic Fibers for the IHPTET/VAATE Engine
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project seeks to demonstrate an innovative new UV curable preceramic polymer chemistry for the fabrication of high yield and high purity Si3N4 and Si3N4/SiC (SiNC) ceramic fibers for SiNC fiber/SiNC matrix CMCs. These fibers, when combined with MATECH/GSM's existing SiNC matrix technology, can be applied to NAVY engines by providing increased performance and improved affordability, both critical to the IHPTET and VAATE engine goals. Recent preliminary experiments at MATECH/GSM have demonstrated that Si3N4/SiC fibers can also be fabricated from high-viscosity, photocurable thermoplastic preceramic polymers. Numerous publications, by leading researchers in the field, indicate that Si3N4/SiC ceramics have 1/3rd the high temperature creep behavior of SiC. Furthermore, Si3N4/SiC has been shown to possess "low observable" properties critical for future "stealth" vehicle development. No commercially available Si3N4/SiC fibers currently exist, preventing the fabrication of woven SiNC fiber / SiNC matrix ceramic composites. This phase I effort seeks to optimize fiber production techniques in consultation with Clemson University's Center for Advanced Engineering Fibers and Films. Commercialization potential is high due to the participation and support of MATECH's commercialization partners, Pratt & Whitney and Goodrich Aerospace. High performance CMC turbine engine components made from MATECH/GSM's proposed SiNC ceramic fiber based CMCs can provide improved performance for both military and commercial gas turbine engines. These include IHPTET/VAATE, future generations of Pratt & Whitney's 119 engine, land-based turbines for electricity generation, and improved fuel economy in engines used in commercial aviation. The commercial and military jet engine market exceeds $337 billion per year, according a study commissioned by Rolls-Royce.

MEZZO SYSTEMS
LBTC, Rm D-104, South Stadium Dr.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 334-6394
Mr. Andrew McCandless
NAVY 02-169      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:A high temperature coating integrated with a high performance heat exchanger for turbine blade tip cooling
Abstract:Turbine blade tip failure is one of the most critical issues facing future development of gas turbine engines. This proposal describes an inexpensive method to deposit a highly effective micro heat exchanger made from a MCrAlY alloy on the tip of a blade. The combination of the very efffectively cooled tip and the excellent mechanical and oxidation resistant properties of MCrAlY alloys will allow the tip to better survive the harsh environment associated with the hot gas path of gas turbines. The process involves using the LIGA micromachining process to mass-produce disposable silicone masks that can be easily applied to a surface of interest. Proprietary electrodeposition techniques at PraxAir are then used to electroplate the M+CrAlY heat exchanger through the mask. After deposition, a heat treatment results in the desired MCrAlY properties, while the masking process provides the desired geometry associated with the intricate micro heat exchanger. The focus on improved tip, blade, and vane design to reduce associated heat load will lead to reduced coolant usage and thus provide higher overall efficiency. The mechanical integrity, life, efficiency, vibration, heat transfer, aerodynamic performance, and noise are all greatly influenced by the tip clearance. The trend towards higher loading, higher temperature, and lower aspect ratio intensifies the importance of the tip clearance effects to the turbine designer. The proposed technology has application in Navy, Army, and Air Force Platforms.

SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1027
Glen Burnie, MD 21060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 332-0633
Dr. Todd Schlesinger
NAVY 02-170      Awarded: 03DEC02
Title:Injecting Reactive Materials into Targets in Conjunction with Shaped Charge Warheads
Abstract:Surface Treatment Technologies (ST2) proposes the development of novel warhead devices formed as near-net-shaped hardware from a physical vapor depostion (PVD) process. Using magnetron sputtering and/or e-beam PVD technologies, liner materials will be developed that incorporate reactive materials as a functionally gradient addition to the liner body. Phase I will investigate the inclusion of reacive alloys on non-reactive substrates on subscale specimens. These specimens will then be evaluated for shock initiation through explosive testing. In addition, Phase I will also investigate novel methods to incorporate the reactive component into the non-reactive body through e-beam deposition of a multi-layered body. Successful products will enhabce military warhead needs, as well as offer benefits in well drilling markets.

TECH ENERGETICS, INC.
P.O. Box 394
Datil, NM 87821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 772-5663
Mr. Tom J. Schilling
NAVY 02-170      Awarded: 03DEC02
Title:Injecting Reactive Materials into Targets in Conjunction with Shaped Charge Warheads
Abstract:Shaped charge warheads using reactive-metal liners have potential for increased lethality. Reactive-metal liners are limited by low ductility, material incompatibilities, and poor penetration. Current designs for explosively formed projectiles (EFPs) lack significant capability for behind armor effects. Tech Energetics, Inc. (TEI) will develop metallurgically bonded, multi-layered shaped charge and EFP liners. The collapse of shaped charge liners will produce jets of reactive metals, jacketed by high penetrating jets; alternative designs will use a penetrating jet followed by a reactive material injection. Enhanced penetration EFPs will be designed with shear surfaces of reactive material, self-sharpening analogous to depleted uranium penetrators will be possible. Heat from shearing will initiate behind armor effects. The Phase I effort will develop a list of candidates for the reactive constituent of the proposed liners. Concept designs for the liners will be developed together with manufacturing methods. A prototype liner coupon and results of mechanical testing will be delivered. Feasibility of integration will be investigated; economic and performance benefits will be identified. The principal investigator previously developed techniques for explosively cladding gun barrels and utilized this technology in designs for lightweight mortar tubes. TEI has the resources for conducting the proposed development effort. The DoD will obtain shaped charge liners with enhanced lethality, and explosively formed projectiles (EFPs) with improved penetration, and capability for behind armor effects. The engineering methods developed under this SBIR will add design dimensions to shaped charge and EFP liners.

PROTOBOX LLC
1464 North Broad St.
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 879-2588
Mr. George J. Valentino
NAVY 02-171      Selected for Award
Title:A Closed-Loop System for Effective Spatial Disorientation Training
Abstract:Protobox LLC, Fairborn, OH, and HumanWise Inc., Bellbrook, OH, have teamed up in order to bring our complementary skills and capabilities together for this program. Our collective backgrounds in flight simulation design and development and human factors and physiology - including specific spatial disorientation research - allow us to approach this topic with a true systems approach. While traditional approaches to spatial disorientation training have emphasized the "demonstration" aspect of the phenomena (using various types of motion systems), our approach elevates recovery "training", via closed-loop control of the training device, to a higher level in the overall SDT curricula. We base our SDT (Spatial Disorientation Training) device requirements on a human factors and human physiological focused analysis of Navy operational mishap data. The results of such an analysis will directly support a requirements ranking and prioritization for the functions and features of the SDT training device. Such SDT training device requirements will be further refined via the initial development of a baseline training plan, that will lead to a detailed Phase II training plan and SDT training device prototype development. Preliminary Phase III planning will also be initiated, as this will become an important element of the overall program. Training conducted in accordance with a curriculum that is based upon actual Navy operational flight experiences. A training device optimized for this curriculum. A training device that will allow the subjects to both experience and overcome assorted spatial disorientation phenomena. A smooth transition from a Phase II prototype to one or more Phase III training facilities. Lower acquisition and life-cycle costs when compared to the existing Multistation Disorientation Demonstrator.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dr. Dutch Guckenberger
NAVY 02-171      Selected for Award
Title:Spatial Awareness Training System (SPATS)
Abstract:Spatial disorientation is a problem that costs the Navy $100M in lost aircraft and aircrew every year. This problem is service-wide, with the other services losing aircraft/aircrew at an alarming rate. To combat the onset of spatial disorientation, SDS International proposes a solution that allows a student to recognize the onset of spatial disorientation and practice recovery through a three-tiered approach. This approach consists of classroom multimedia CBT, using real-world study data coupled with simulated "stick time." Utilizing a flight simulation system, the pilot would experience real-world occurrences of spatial disorientation. The CBT approach consolidates individual incidents into a comprehensive plan that enables students to learn about root causes and types of spatial disorientation and possible preventative measures. The second part of this Phase I study would involve the development of scenarios that can be run in SDS International's LiteFlite flight simulator. These scenarios would present real-world situations to students and allow them to experience the effects of spatial disorientation. Each scenario would also include a post-mission briefing that describes what students saw, how they reacted, and why they reacted a certain way, as well as corrective actions that can be taken. The creation of the SPATS system will provide the Navy with a flexible, cost-effective means to educate student pilots on the dangers of spatial disorientation. It will also provide real-world examples of the different phenomena that they might experience while in the cockpit as well as the opportunity to practice procedures that will allow them to recover from any spatial disorientation experienced. By providing this type of training, it is anticipated that the pilots will be able to react properly when confronted with the situation in real life, without loss of aircraft or aircrew. The anticipated benefits of SPATS include: * Cost-effective, modular training * A reusable set of recommendations for spatial awareness training * Ability to quickly and easily generate spatial awareness scenarios * Potential to save aircraft * Potential to save aircrew Potential commercial applications include the continued enhancement of the system to the point where it can be used as is to train: * Branches of the Department of Defense * Commercial airline pilots that carry passengers (American, United, Delta, etc.) * Cargo pilots for other carriers (Federal Express, UPS, etc.) * Civilian pilots at local, regional airports It would be relatively straightforward to the benefits of the system to the other branches of the Department of Defense. The Army has an ongoing problem with spatial disorientation with helicopter pilots, as does the Marine Corps. The Air Force's branch dedicated to the study of spatial awareness points to the degree of seriousness with which it treats this problem. SPATS can help alleviate the training gap and save both lives and aircraft. Because of the low cost and availability of SPATS, it would be very cost-effective for organizations that employ commercial/cargo pilots organizations to purchase a copy to enhance pilots' spatial awareness. Due to the modular nature of the system, it would even be possible to integrate SPATS components into existing training and simulation curriculum already in place! With respect to civilian pilots, the spatial awareness training they currently receive consists of lecture only, without ever having to experience the relatively simple task of recovery from a spin. By enhancing their exposure to spatial awareness, perhaps some of the spatial disorientation accidents that do happen could be avoided.

HYPERSPECTIVES, REMOTE ENVIRON MEASUREMENT SERV
910 Technology Blvd. Suite A, P. O. Box 1563
Bozeman, MT 59771
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 302-1687
Dr. Andrew Marcus
NAVY 02-172      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Airborne Detection of Disturbed Soil Using Electro-Optic (EO), Hyperspectral, Infrared (IR), and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sensors
Abstract:Recent advances in remote sensing technologies through the availability of more sensitive instruments, and improvements in geo-location technologies and analysis software have resulted in significant strides in the successful application of high resolution remote sensing to feature identification such as soil disturbances. These strides have been achieved by field-oriented remote sensing experts, including researchers from HyPerspectives, who have demonstrated the capability to (1) precisely identify small discrete landscape features over large spatial areas and (2) detect changes in those features, both necessary requirements for accurate and precise soil disturbance detection. Hyperspectral sensors excel in discriminating subtle changes in landscape conditions. The second active technology is synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capable of measuring return rates from a host of different wavelengths. The weaknesses of SAR data are the strengths of hyperspectral imagery and analysis. Using enhanced high-resolution spectral analysis, and innovative spatial analysis; the two technologies can be combined to precisely discriminate small area landscape disturbances. The proposed project recognizes the complimentary strengths of hyperspectral and SAR imagery. The project identifies, tests fusion algorithms and demonstrates a new set of tools to more precisely identify soil disturbances at the pixel and sub-pixel level. The commercial use of high-resolution fused remote data to identify soil disturbances is directly applicable and will benefit measures to enhance homeland security, defense, environmental assessment and humanitarian related land mine detection and removal worldwide. The ability to detect soil disturbances remotely has direct application in numerous uses where changes in trafficability affect decision-making or where precise land area characteristics measured over large spatial areas is needed to detect and measure small landscape feature changes.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5200
Dr. Chiman Kwan
NAVY 02-172      Awarded: 12NOV02
Title:A Hybrid Approach to Disturbed Soil and Mine Detection
Abstract:IAI and Prof. Chang of the University of Maryland at Baltimore County (UMBC), jointly propose a new hybrid framework for disturbed soil and mine detection using airborne images from two perspectives: spatial and spectral. The first approach is a spatial approach, which mainly focuses on texture analysis. The idea is motivated by the fact that, the ground texture will be disturbed if mines are planted. By systematically looking the gray level changes in an airborne image, one can obtain texture patterns that are unusual. This approach is applicable to EO, IR, hyperspectral, and SAR images. The second approach is a spectral approach and has two steps. First, a new automatic target generation process (ATGP) is used to generate a set of potential targets (mines) from the image data in an unsupervised fashion without using any prior knowledge. The ATGP idea originates from the concept of orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) in signal processing. Second, a novel Automatic Target Detection and Classification Algorithm (ATDCA) is used to identify the potential mines. The algorithm can be used to detect anomalies (new and unknown mines) in blind environments. The algorithm is suitable for surveillance operations where the objective is to detect the presence of any potential mines. The proposed algorithm will be useful for surveillance. The market for military applications is quite large. The Commercial marketplace for this algorithm may be equally large. Potential applications include as geology, law enforcement agency, agriculture, border and coast patrol. The size of this market is not small, but it is hard to estimate at this time. We expect the aggregate market size will be similar to or larger than that of military applications.

TECHNICAL RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
760 Las Posas Rd., Suite A-4
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 987-1972
Dr. Edwin M. Winter
NAVY 02-172      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Airborne Detection of Disturbed Soil Using Electro-Optic (EO), Hyperspectral, Infrared (IR), and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sensors
Abstract:The proposed work will develop and demonstrate innovative sensor technology and algorithms for the detection of disturbed soil. This proposed effort will first investigate the remote sensing observables of soil disturbance as seen by electro-optical and infrared sensors and SAR. Based upon this investigation, we will design innovative processing algorithms to detect areas of disturbed soils automatically. Over the past several years, there have been advances in the development of algorithms for the detection of military objects of interest using hyperspectral sensors. We propose to use reflection band and thermal infrared data taken from hyperspectral measurement platforms to not only evaluate the potential of hyperspectral but also to determine if broadband sensors or multi-spectral sensors can accomplish the task. We also propose to use data acquired by SAR sensors at high spatial resolution and over multiple times to evaluate texture and moisture discriminants and the potential for change detection. Tests will be conducted on image data collected from airborne platforms to optimize and validate the algorithms. An option task for planning the evaluation of combinations of sensors and algorithms using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves is proposed. Buried Land mines are a significant problem throughout the world. They are a barrier to the movement of troops as well as a significant interruption of the normal movement and activity of civilians. Finding landmines and removing them is thus of high priority to both the military and civilian sectors. The detection and removal of landmines has become a viable commercial enterprise, especially since conventional techniques used to find and remove the mines are slow, costly and dangerous. One indicator of the location of buried mines is the soil disturbance created when the mine is buried. Previous studies by the team involved in this proposed effort (Technical Research Associates, Inc., Space Computer Corp. and Veridian Systems Division), have shown that this soil disturbance signature can be detected for months using hyperspectral techniques. In addition, Veridian has been investigating the detection of soil disturbances using SAR. A procedure that can detect the occurrence of soil disturbances that result from the placement of the mines would have high value to both the military and civilian community. The market timing for this effort is ideal because: 1). Military surveillance technology employing hyperspectral sensors is being investigated in all three branches of the military for a variety of applications. In addition, commercial hyperspectral systems are becoming more sophisticated and soon will have the ability to detect disturbed soil. 2). Recent advances in computer systems have made the combination of SAR and electro-optical/IR sensors for the detection of soil disturbances possible. Advances in on-board positioning using GPS and INS make the physical combination of SAR data and E-O/IR practical.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2411
Mr. Daniel Serfaty
NAVY 02-173      Selected for Award
Title:The Team Doctor: A Human-Centered Performance Assessment, Diagnosis, and Feedback Toolset
Abstract:Training for combat systems such as the Joint Strike Fighter must break new ground, delivering a single training framework that meets the needs of all four services while reducing training system acquisition and life cycle costs. Our proposed effort focuses on a critical aspect of this training challenge-innovative methods to provide performance assessment and diagnosis for feedback. Drawing on our background in measuring the performance of teams and organizations, Aptima proposes to build the "Team Doctor"-a toolset that links training objectives to scenario events to measures of performance, and presents those measures in an intuitive visual format so that trainees can immediately understand how they have performed in a training session. In Phase I we will develop a conceptual framework for the tool based on mission requirements, training objectives, and team and individual competencies; demonstrate the concept through storyboards, and develop a system architecture showing how the toolset will be integrated with other assessment, database, and training technologies. In Phase II, we will develop and test the toolset. We plan to work cooperatively with the Lockheed-Martin JSF Training IPT (letter of interest attached) in designing and developing the "Team Doctor" to ensure its transition to operational use. Training for effective team performance is a growing need not just for military teams, but for teams in a multitude of government and commercial settings. Systematic quantitative methods for diagnosing team performance problems and providing immediate feedback during and after training could improve the effectiveness of complex simulation-based team training for management teams, medical teams, air traffic control teams, power plant operations teams, and many others. The immediate application of the work will be in developing the Training System for the Joint Strike Fighter, but the "Team Doctor" product has extensive value for other military training systems and for industry.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N Bethlehem Pike, Ste 300
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Benjamin Bell
NAVY 02-173      Selected for Award
Title:Human Centered Performance Assessment Tools
Abstract:Training teams of military operators is critical to effective performance in combat situations increasingly characterized by network-centric, information-rich environments and the corresponding demands on rapid, collaborative decision making. Performance assessment of task skills is an inadequate measure of team skill mastery. Team performance assessment is needed, both to provide relevant team-skill diagnosis and intervention, and to reveal strengths and weaknesses of team training approaches. Enhancing Performance through Improved Coordination (EPIC) is an approach to improving team performance that focuses on the assessment of team skills. We propose to enhance team training and improve crew readiness by developing automated capabilities for team assessment in the context of scenario-based training. We will design experiments aimed at mapping crew actions to coordination behaviors and team skills, in order to articulate a set of team performance metrics that measures the crew's abilities to coordinate with each other and with their automation systems. We will then develop technologies that will enable two distinct capabilities: (1) an "instructor's associate" that offers a human evaluator real-time detection, diagnosis, and recommended interventions regarding team performance during a live training exercise; (2) an automated system that monitors team performance and that provides real-time assessment and remediation to a crew engaged in a team training exercise. Technology and intellectual property arising from this research and development program are expected to have substantial commercialization potential in both the public and private sectors. In the public sector, team performance assessment is a vital and growing concern in both military and non-military agencies. The need to effectively train military and non-military teams is especially relevant for cross-agency collaborations such as disaster relief, emergency services, counter-narcotics, and anti-terrorism/counter-terrorism. In the private sector, large and fast-growing market segments to which this technology applies are computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW), distributed learning and online training. Widespread use in industry and education of internet and telecommunication technologies are increasing demand for delivering remote training and for aggregating teams of geographically distributed collaborators. Assessing performance of participants in remote team training will hinge centrally on a capability to automate the team assessment process. As such systems are increasingly integrated with other enterprise Information Technology (IT), it would be difficult for CHI Systems to field a complete competitive product on its own, so we plan to seek out market leaders in either horizontal (e.g., web-based learning environments) or vertical (e.g., banking, IT, travel, etc.) markets to integrate and embed our technology under development contract or license as appropriate. CHI Systems has experience working in this manner, having conducted a major project for Pacific Telesis to create a new computer workstation for telephone operators in order to support increased flexibility in task allocation.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 347-6117
Dr. Tom Carolan
NAVY 02-173      Selected for Award
Title:Human Centered Performance Assessment Tools
Abstract:Micro Analysis & Design, Inc (MA&D) proposes to apply our expertise and technology to demonstrate integrated methods and tools for creating, assessing and analyzing measures of team performance and effectiveness during training events. The proposed approach will build on and adapt software products developed over a number of previous efforts to (1) develop a prototype for an integrated software tool that will support the training cycle from the development of diagnostic measures through adapting the training strategy to exercise assessed competencies, and (2) develop an online diagnostic assessment capability for team performance. The proposed software tools will allow the training community to construct performance measures, collect performance information from various sources, evaluate performance, analyze performance to assess essential competencies, recommend and support development of training interventions such as feedback delivery and scenario events/conditions to exercise specific competencies. Key elements of our proposed approach include mapping performance requirements to the associated knowledge and skill competencies necessary for effective performance and the development of human performance models operating as expert models to support online performance assessment. Real-time performance measurement and diagnosis will be an essential component of effective simulation-based training environments developed for government and commercial applications.

GHETZLER AERO-POWER
1649 Barclay Blvd
Buffalo Grove, IL 60089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 215-0520
Dr. Richard Ghetzler
NAVY 02-174      Awarded: 31OCT02
Title:Advanced Low-Drag Ram Air Turbine
Abstract:The technology offered by our Low Drag- Ram Air Turbine Invention (LD-RATG) addresses the major limitations of the present ram air turbine systems of the type used on the AN/ALQ-99 Tactical Jamming System Pod. Our system is ducted, with an electronic control system sensing turbine speed, adjusting the center body of a variable inlet which is working in conjunction with a variable nozzle to supply controlled airflow to an internal turbine. This maintains minimal air inlet spill over drag for all combined flight /electrical loading conditions. We have developed a small engineering prototype that has successfully demonstrated full function in wind tunnel tests at air speeds of up to 225 knots. This system has not yet been fully optimized to maximize performance, and an estimated 30 % efficiency increase will be needed to reach the goal of 40 kW in a size compatible with the pod. Using the present prototype design as a test bed, we will develop analytical models correlated with the experimental performance, to study, develop and experimentally verify design improvement strategies to increase the efficiency. Anticipated design improvements that will be addressed include a more streamlined center body, thinner stator airfoils, and twisting of the turbine blades. This research will assist upgrading the efficiency and increasing the size and power output of our LD-RATG making it a candidate for the Navy AN/ALQ-99. Other potential applications are for energy and auxiliary power on UAVs, UCAVs and business jets.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0814
Mr. Edward Lovelace
NAVY 02-174      Awarded: 30OCT02
Title:A High Reliability Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency Generator for Ram Air Turbines
Abstract:Present ram air turbine (RAT) generators use variable blade pitch geometry to maintain constant speed to produce constant frequency electrical power. The variable blade pitch control and actuation systems have poor demonstrated reliability and add weight and cost to the generation system. RAT generator such as this are used to power the RADAR jamming pod (AN/ALQ99) presently carried by the EA-6B Prowler aircraft; the only airborne electronic warfare capable asset for the joint armed services. This proposal seeks to develop a variable-speed constant-frequency (VSCF) generator and electronics package which when coupled to a RAT with fixed blade pitch will result in a more reliable, lower system weight/size, and less costly solution for producing constant frequency electrical power. The proposed generator system employs permanent magnet technology and reduced-rating power electronics to achieve these goals. This allows the RAT to be operated nearer its ideal aerodynamic operating speeds in variable wind conditions. This Phase I project will result in analytical development of candidate designs with comparison to the present product solution and other competing alternatives. A follow on Phase II will result in prototype hardware design, fabrication, and testing. Phase III will produce RAT generator systems for military platform installation and testing. The results of this research will demonstrate the viability and benefits of a VSCF generator RAT system over the present RAT blade pitch control technology. In Phase III this technology can be incorporated into an AN/AL99 type system for upgrade/retrofit on EA-6B Prowler through their end-of-life, and then for new installations on the replacement EW mission aircraft. Furthermore, the technology has growth potential as a wind power generation system, which can result in reduced acquisition costs for the military through dual-use, higher volume, production.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Asif Khalak
NAVY 02-175      Awarded: 30DEC02
Title:Physics-based Diagnostics and Prognostics of Interconnected Aircraft Subsystems
Abstract:Alphatech proposes a novel technique for Diagnostics, Prognostics, and Health Management (PHM) of interconnected mechanical subsystems, using physics-based models and multi-hypothesis technologies. In collaboration with Rolls-Royce, our effort is focused towards PHM development for the highly interconnected F35B LiftFan, to which our models and techniques will be applied. The goal of systems-level PHM is challenged by the presence of interconnected subsystems, each with organic sensing capability and PHM models. Interconnectivity introduces the possibility of cascading failures and secondary effects, since the performance and failure models of one subsystem are typically dependent upon the state of other subsystems. We develop the use of physics-based system dynamic modeling which directly represents such behaviors. Further, we augment the interconnected models with failure mode information (e.g. from a FMECA analysis), and uncertainty information, which is derived from simulations and experimental data in the context of the system dynamics and sensor characteristics. Finally, we adapt Alphatech's existing multi-hypothesis data fusion and estimation technologies for use in robust diagnosis and prognostics tools. The proposed technology would enable a system of diagnosing and anticipating mechanical failures, and allowing for their mitigation and resolution in a timely fashion. These applications will improve the efficiency of logistics efforts, avoiding unnecessary or inopportune repairs, and thereby reducing costs. Also, the technology could be used by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to establish reliability metrics during product development. A vast array of military and commercial applications exists, including maintenance in military and commercial airlines fleets, and gas-turbine power plants.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Michael Roemer
NAVY 02-175      Selected for Award
Title:An Integrated Modeling and Fault Simulation Environment for Analyzing Aircraft Subsystem Interactions
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Honeywell Engines and Systems and The Mathworks, propose the development of a software simulation environment specifically focused on the integrated modeling aspect required for rigorously evaluating the failure mode interactions between all subsystems and area managers of an air vehicle. The proposed integrated software simulation environment will be capable of failure mode modeling, full dynamic simulation, functional subsystem interaction, and provide PHM algorithm interface "plug-ins" to accomplish its goal. In order to address this multi-modeling functionality, the Impact team will leverage the COTS software suite by Mathworks called Simulink/Stateflow. Utilizing this open-systems software as the core analysis engine, the integrated modeling tool will be capable of providing full functionality from the lowest level failure mode simulations to the higher level area manager system integration. The proposed program will specifically develop the analysis and modeling paradigm and a generic set of library functions (Simulink block sets) that can be easily connected within the design modeling canvas that will provide complete dynamic signal propagation across systems to examine their effects throughout the air vehicle. The integration analysis software will address traditional air vehicle area manager integration architectures with a modeling paradigm that can be extended to any system or subsystems desired. The end goal is to enable the Integrated Modeling Simulation Test Bench to support dynamic simulation-level fault propagation analysis, testing and validation. A realistic demonstration will be developed for an air vehicle application during Phase I, which will be extended to a full-vehicle modeling blocks and integration under the follow-on Phase II.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Akhilesh Maewal
NAVY 02-175      Selected for Award
Title:Failure Effects Modeling of Interconnected Subsystems
Abstract:Driven by the considerable promise of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) methodology for reducing life cycle costs of equipment and machinery, prognostic, diagnostic, and anomaly detection techniques for estimation, evaluation, and prediction of conditions of mechanical, electrical and many other types of components have matured significantly during recent years. Proposed here is an effort to develop advanced algorithms and software for next generation CBM technologies to deal with the problem of incorporation of the failure mode effects models and failure monitoring tools constructed for individual components into the health monitoring scheme for the integrated system assembled from those components. Successful development of these tools will enable the system integrators to rapidly build preventive health monitoring (PHM) systems for complex equipment and machinery at significantly lower cost. The software will be developed on the Simulink platform of the Matlab Environment as an extension of the ADM (Aircraft Diagnostic Modeling) Library which includes a number of reasoner algorithms implemented by IAC, and complement IAC's intelligent Machinery Diagnostic System (iMDS) Matlab toolbox / blockset. Using Matlab as the basis for development will not only ensure rapid assessment of usefulness various algorithms but also provide an extendible platform for the users of tool. The tools for integration of failure effects models that are to be developed during the proposed program are applicable a wide variety of systems. Their usefulness is not limited to systems of interest to the Navy, but also to automotive, power plant, and a variety of other industrial applications.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5504
Mr. Thomas Campbell
NAVY 02-176      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:Improved Adhesion Strength Surface-Mounted Attachment Device
Abstract:The advanced aircraft now used in the Navy fleet consist of ever increasing percent weight of composite materials. Composite materials must be designed to accommodate through penetrations due to their notch sensitivity. The need to install hydraulic and electrical lines throughout an aircraft has lead to the development of surface mounted attachment devices that have no penetrations. Difficulties in peel resistance of these devices on the V-22 have lead to the need for improvements in peel, shock and fatigue performance of these safety critical components. Foster-Miller proposes to develop surface mounted attachment devices that have superior performance to any existing bonded attachment device. This will be accomplished through a firm understanding of the attachment behavior of these devices and through careful design for cost throughout the program. The support of Bell Helicopter will enable a directed program that will rapidly address issues of attachment of most concern to the Navy. The Phase II program will develop the design, tooling, production line and extensive test database needed to implement the devices on V-22. (P-020542) This need for reliable cost-effective surface mounted attachment devices is rapidly increasing as more aircraft are transitioned to composite materials. The need for these devices can be found on the V-22, Comanche, UCAV, and is expected to be needed for all future Navy aircraft and surface ships such as the DDX.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4873
Dr. Steven M. Cannon
NAVY 02-177      Awarded: 17OCT02
Title:Combustion LES Software For Improved Emissions Predictions of High Performance Gas Turbine Combustors
Abstract:Turbulent-combustion emissions modeling (NOx, CO, UHC and smoke) of military gas turbine combustors is a very difficult challenge. Although current RANS steady-state modeling can provide trends, it fails to give quantitatively - accurate predictions of emissions. A more accurate way to model combustor flows, and proposed for development in this SBIR, is combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Practical combustion LES calculations (1-2 million cells) can now be performed in ten days on a Beowulf PC cluster, and in five years, the run time will be less than a day as computers become substantially faster. We will start with an existing combustion LES code under development the past two years. In Phase I, a ten species mechanism, that includes JP8 fuel oxidation coupled with CO and NOx chemistry, will be used. We will model subgrid turbulence-combustion interaction with the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model developed by Stanford University. The Rolls-Royce AE3007 combustor will be modeled, and experimental data (exit temperature profile, CO, and NOx) will be compared with predictions. In Phase II, the software will be improved, including development of a more detailed chemical mechanism for accurate computation of unburned hydrocarbons and smoke. The final code will be applied to the Rolls-Royce JSF F136 combustor, and modifications to reduce emissions will be assessed. The combustion LES software developed in this SBIR will be useful in the cost-effective design and analysis of liquid-fueled, high performance combustors. The ability to reduce emissions, avoid combustion-driven instability, and to investigate high-payoff ideas will be possible. The software will be useful for gas turbine manufacturers, burner and boiler manufacturers, chemical processing industry, and the automotive industry. The software will be licensed and supported by CFDRC.

EXA CORP.
450 Bedford Street
Lexington, MA 04240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 676-8587
Dr. Ilya Staroselsky
NAVY 02-177      Awarded: 17OCT02
Title:Gas Turbine Engine Emissions and Noise Modeling
Abstract:The goal of the proposed Phase I/II project is to produce a unique computational tool for emission and noise prediction in gas turbine combustors of real world complexity by combining our Digital Physics technology based on Lattice Boltzmann Methods (LBM) pioneered by Exa Corporation for external flow/aeroacoustics applications with advanced, computationally efficient models of flame/turbulence/noise interaction developed by us in the past and validated for gas turbine combustors using research codes. The project will start with implementation of our unsteady flame propagation and emission models on the platform of Exa's commercial flow/acoustics simulator PowerFLOW that is already used worldwide for industrial design, optimization, and analysis. With this platform, the highest standards of numerical accuracy/efficiency, parallel scalability, and geometrical flexibility shall be naturally inherited. Upon optimizing this new numerical algorithm and benchmarking against prototype reacting flow data, we shall simulate a full-scale gas turbine combustor problem. The goal here will be to resolve all the relevant hardware details and validate flowfields/emission data against experiment and our past studies, as well as analyze reacting flow sensitivity to both the inflow and design changes. If this proof-of-concept effort is successful, the goal of Phase II will be on well documented, full-scale combustor studies emphasizing minimization of emissions and noise without loss of performance. Over the last few years, Exa Corporation has successfully accomplished the introduction and use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for automotive applications worldwide via our enabling technology of Lattice Boltzmann-based prediction of external fluid flow and acoustics in situations of real world complexity. The emission/noise prediction tool proposed for development in this Phase I/II SBIR project will now open major new commercial markets for our PowerFLOW product, especially at the engineering design level. First of all, this new technology shall enable prediction of internal chemically reacting flow within the automotive industry where Exa already enjoys a significant customer base and competitive edge. Secondly, the ability of the LBM methods to be developed and validated in Phase I to address chemically reacting flow problems should open important new markets for novel technologies in various other industries, especially in commercial aircraft design and civil engineering. Finally, this new technology from Exa Corporation should open broad new markets for computer aided engineering (CAE) by enabling emission prediction in engines of real world complexity which are now designed/optimized using either physical experimentation or semi-empirical rules. Indeed, market analysis shows that the existing CAE market of about $200 M per year should increase at least 10- fold by introducing new prediction technologies at the engineering design level. In order to penetrate this latter market, a trustworthy CAE tool that can be used in transparent and easy ways, including complex problem setup and data analysis, must be available. The LBM technology does precisely this and thereby makes possible the accomplishment of the opportunities proposed for development here.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 351-4440
Dr. Henry Cox
NAVY 02-178      Awarded: 08OCT02
Title:Next-Generation Air Deployable Active Receiver (ADAR)
Abstract:A crucial factor in sonar design is the benefit available from increased aperture. Current sonobuoys have been constrained to the A-size configuration. Development of the ADAR system has been a significant success in packaging and deployment of such a complex sensor in the small A-size format. With the Deployable Active Passive Sonar (DAPS), we propose to increase the physical aperture and add a vertical component, while maintaining as much of the ADAR design as practical. The compact DAPS aperture offers significant horizontal ABF gain without the burden of long integration times needed by long horizontal apertures. Its vertical aperture offers the added rejection of vertical components of the noise (including reverberation). The increased aperture over ADAR allows processing at lower frequencies to take advantage of improved propagation. Thus, DAPS can provide significant passive and active performance in the littoral regions of the world. During Phase I, ORINCON will demonstrate this improved performance through simulation. Detailed questions of longevity, packaging for deployment, survivability, and communications of acquired information will also be addressed. For Phase II, two prototype DAPS units will be assembled and tested at sea. In Phase III, DAPS will be taken to a production configuration and qualified for deployment by aircraft, surface ships, and submarines. Through the increased detection performance of DAPS, the Navy could offset reductions in the number of available assets and again be able to offer undersea superiority against a modern, quiet diesel-electric or air-independent propulsion (AIP) submarine threat to our naval forces in the littoral regions of the world.

RDA, INC.
P.O. Box 49
Doylestown, PA 18901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 349-8083
Mr. Ronald H. Buratti
NAVY 02-178      Awarded: 31OCT02
Title:Next-Generation Air Deployable Active Receiver (ADAR)
Abstract:The Navy requires a new volumetric acoustic receive array with a larger horizontal and vertical aperture for use with the Extended Echo Ranging (EER) family of active Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) search systems. This requirement is driven by the fact that the current AN/SSQ-101 Air Deployable Active Receiver (ADAR) sonobuoy does not provide enough array gain in some important operational areas. Our Phase I approach is to first perform an analysis of the system requirements to quantify the performance benefits of the new sensor design in to the Air ASW search mission. Next, we plan to perform a performance analysis of a number of innovative array geometries. Finally, we plan to conduct a packaging and feasibility analysis for the leading candidate array configurations. The newly developed search sensor is needed to extend the performance of the EER family of Air ASW search systems into ever more challenging shallow water operational areas of interest to the Navy. The goal of this effort is to merge the technology developed in Phases I and II into an EER planned product improvement program in Phase III. In terms of non-military potential, the proposed sensor could be used for monitoring the migration paths of marine mammals. The new sensor could also be of value to the Coast Guard in both its homeland defense and drug interdiction missions.

SENSIS CORP.
5793 Widewaters Parkway
DeWitt, NY 13214
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 445-5064
Mr. Ernie Rockwood
NAVY 02-179      Awarded: 12NOV02
Title:Homeland Defense FAA/DoD Data Link Connectivity
Abstract:The success of combined Homeland Defense operations depends on the rapid exchange of information between all levels of military, civil, national and local authorities. The interoperability of dissimilar civil air traffic control and military defense assets requires a seamless command and control capability. A secure, real time networking capability between the FAA ground surveillance and control network and the DOD aircraft command infrastructure is needed to minimize the time required to prosecute airborne terrorist threats within CONUS and Alaska airspace. It must provide the capability for fused information to be securely presented to military aircraft, to civilian and military authorities and air traffic controllers. Our proposed network architecture provides seamless voice and data connectivity between widespread FAA and DOD ground or airborne command and control nodes by overlaying a Wide Area IP network on top of the FAA and DOD infrastructures. Access to the IP network is accomplished by translating legacy messages and protocols into a uniform IP based message standard, converting analog voice into digital Voice-over-IP and merging voice and data IP packets. This effort supports the Core Avionics Master Plan's Cooperative Surveillance Roadmap and the time critical distribution of secure information needed for an effective Homeland Defense capability. Sensis Corp. sees a potential valuable and large market for our secure seamless network. This market encompasses both the need for tighter homeland security as well as a similar need for all US and allied secure assets worldwide. Sensis plans to either license the technology or partner with larger avionics suppliers to further advance the developed approach. Sensis has close working relationships with many larger companies, such as Raytheon, Honeywell, ITT, Lockheed Martin and BAE.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 847-9123
Mr. Scott Thomas
NAVY 02-179      Awarded: 21OCT02
Title:Homeland Defense FAA/DoD Collaboration Guard
Abstract:Events of the past year have brought to the forefront the need for interoperability and information sharing between the different branches of the federal government. One such example is the need for a seamless command and control (C2) capability between the FAA air traffic management system and DoD air defense assets. This new C2 capability would provide a common operating picture of the civil airspace through sensor fusion and information sharing. This new C2 capability, however, requires new levels of collaboration between disjoint sets of users. The ability to email, exchange files, and text chat across security boundaries, however, is not sufficient. New mechanisms are required to enable users to discover information across the security boundaries, both quickly and efficiently. Trident Systems proposes to integrate current state of the art collaborative technologies with certified and accredited multi-level secure (MLS) guard technology to provide a secure collaborative environment. In addition, we will utilize emerging Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technologies to provide efficient information discovery capabilities. More specifically, we propose to design and develop a modular DoD Collaboration Guard (DCG) architecture to support MLS collaboration and information sharing. The DCG will provide seamless connectivity among the FAA, DoD and other authorities for Homeland Defense. A multi-level secure collaborative processing system that is integrated within the existing FAA and DoD infrastructure will provide a powerful tool to enable FAA personnel and DoD C2 authorities to collaborate across security domains. The DCG will enable both DoD and civilian authorities users to collaborate across dissimilarly classified networks in real-time, and to discover and share vital information to thwart terrorists attacks. The DCG architecture supports text chat/instant messaging, audio and video teleconferencing and share whiteboard collaboration tools. By improving FAA & DoD users' ability to effectively collaborate and share information, thus minimizing the time required to prosecute airborne terrorist threats.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
23 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Mr. George Dimos
NAVY 02-180      Awarded: 31OCT02
Title:Suppression of Cosite RFI in Airborne Communication Systems
Abstract: This proposal is responsive to the needs of Navy Airborne Command and Control (C2) systems using multiple receive and transmit antennas in a limited space for simultaneous operations (SIMOP), and thereby generating cosite radio frequency interference (RFI). Mayflower proposes to analyze and develop two techniques to suppress cosite RFI. The first technique will be external to the radio, and will be based on RF Adaptive Interference Canceller (RF AIC) technology, which Mayflower is currently developing to protect GPS receivers from high-power (10 Watt) L-band telemetry transmitters. The second technique will be integrated in JTRS, and will be based on Digital AIC (DIG AIC) technology, which Mayflower has developed and patented to protect GPS receivers from narrowband jammers. The main objectives of the Phase I feasibility study are to perform: (a) requirements analysis regarding RFI characteristics, sensitivity of the Link 16, and JTRS integration, (b) performance analysis of Digital Canceller of the cosite RFI, including modeling of cosite RFI waveforms and canceller adaptation, and (c) to develop preliminary design of RF canceller of cosite RFI by modifying the Mayflower GPS RF Canceller. These two cosite RFI mitigation techniques will be further developed, implemented and demonstrated in Phase II in an operational environment. The proposed RF Canceller technology can benefit any military or commercial communications installation facing interoperatbility issues. The proposed Digital Canceller technology will benefit the introduction of JTRS in aircraft and other limited size platform employing legacy antenna system which cause severe cosite RFI.

ZEGER-ABRAMS, INC.
1112 Clark Road
Glenside, PA 19038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 576-5566
Mr. Burton S. Abrams
NAVY 02-180      Awarded: 18OCT02
Title:Cosite Interference (Antenna Coupling) Management Technology for Airborne Communication Systems
Abstract:Development of a modern airborne cosite interference management system for Navy aircraft is proposed. The development will involve a generalized analysis to quantify the benefits of various cosite interference mitigation technologies and to provide recommendations for their usage and their specifications. The results of this general analysis will be applied to a candidate cosite system suite on a target aircraft selected by NAVAIR as preparation for implementation in Phase II. A Phase I Option program is proposed to: measure interantenna coupling conditions on a targeted aircraft, and to design the prototype system to be implemented in Phase II. The results of this program will provide the Navy with a blueprint for the management of cosite interference on its airborne platforms for legacy VHF and UHF radios as well as the new JTRS radios. This enabling system will help fleet aircraft overcome mission-limiting cosite radio interference.

ACCORD SOLUTIONS, INC.
3533 Albatross Street
San Diego, CA 92103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 692-9476
Dr. Carl Murphy
NAVY 02-181      Awarded: 01OCT02
Title:Compact Acoustic Model Execution Server(CAMES)
Abstract:The compact, acoustic-model, execution server (CAMES) and enhanced system-level development environment enables scientists to deliver compute intensive algorithms to all fleet platform types. All topic requirements are met by CAMES architecture implemented as a highly compact, general-purpose execution engine. The key innovation is the CAMES Synchronizing Memory Manager(SMM), which delivers data to hardware elements, keeping them busy on compute intensive models or data mining. The SMM achieves continuous execution of parallel and pipelined algorithms by queuing data when units are busy and allowing units to operate independently when free. The CAMES is based on extremely high performance field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The SMM enables programming of multiple FPGA by adding the ability to declare data across all memories. Accord embeds this into a commercial, system-level, programming environment to coordinate multiple FPGAs. A programmer sees a tread view of the model algorithm, not a hardware design language view. When validated a model is automatically synthesized, placed and routed and loaded into CAMES. The CAMES is compact and is configured for placement in limited environments, using only a single reconfigurable interface. Feasibility of the SMM will be established using memory/compute intensive elements of the Geoacoustic Inversion Technique. The CAMES is a general-purpose scientific and engineering model accelerator suitable for office, laboratory, factory, mobile or field computation. Commercial applications include bioinformatics, genomics, oil exploration, software-defined radio, integrated circuit design validation and many others. By breaking the memory size bottleneck CAMES delivers on memory-compute intensive models, extending the DSP marketplace to a new scientific modeling domain. CAMES enables researchers to deliver complex applications directly to an intended environment, enhancing their value added. Reconfigurable, Internet-compatible interfaces, based on differential serial lines, let it be integrated into both standards based or special interfaces that might be required for operation in mobile or extreme locations.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 849-0400
Mr. Ernest W. Drew
NAVY 02-181      Awarded: 01OCT02
Title:Multi-Platform Undersea Warfare Modeling/Simulation Using Netcentric Techniques
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. proposes to develop a networked modeling and simulation tool to support estimating environmental and tactical performance parameters. The tool will be accessible using any standard web-browser software. It will provide any user having access to a secure wide area network (WAN), such as secret internet protocol network (SIPRnet), with faster than real time acoustic modeling and environmental characterization. This project will leverage Sonalysts' commercial and military modeling, simulation and tactical decision aid (TDA) experience to support multiple and disparate users. This will be further enhanced by our teaming with the Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Modeling Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES) Institute. A intuitive graphic user interface (GUI) supported by a modeling decision engine (MDE) will be developed. The MDE will act as an intelligent agent to prevent inappropriate use of models/algorithms in the determination of USW sensor implementation. Because many of the users may have limited indigenous computational capability it is anticipated that a central site or sites will serve as a hub to support computationally and data intensive models, algorithms and databases. Potential benefits derived from this research project will be applications to other military, government, and commercial interests involving undersea modeling and simulation. This tool could be beneficial to the U.S. Coast Guard, and federal agencies such as the NSA, CIA, FBI, and drug interdiction units. Commercial applications might include fishing, seismic studies, oil exploration, ocean monitoring, marine mammals studies, and others. While this discussion is limited to undersea acoustic prediction, the methodology could be easily extended to cover electromagnetic sensors.

APPLIED HYDRO-ACOUSTICS RESEARCH, INC.
15825 Shady Grove Rd., Suite 135
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 218-3249
Mr. Brian Samuels
NAVY 02-182      Awarded: 08NOV02
Title:Environmental Sensor Simulation System
Abstract:The objective of this research is to produce an environmental sensor simulation system (ESSS) that will support advanced research and development for ASW. Efforts are underway to design new environmental sensors that will enable accurate, timely measurement of the ocean environment, especially for the shallow littoral regions where the environment is highly variable in time and space. One such sensor, the Tactical Acoustic Measurement and Decision Aid (TAMDA) will provide measurements of temperature, ambient noise, and bottom properties through active pulse inversion, for Air ASW systems in a manner that is tactically relevant. This research will support TAMDA and other sensor programs by providing an environmental simulation environment that provides a high degree of fidelity and resolution temporally, spatially and azimuthally. AHA's approach includes the specification of the basic functional, operational, and infrastructure segments that comprise the system. A detailed design specification of each functional segment will then be provided, based on AHA's significant prior experience in environmental simulation and environmental sensor design requirements analysis. Finally, AHA will produce a basic functioning prototype, using a component-based development paradigm for demonstration during the first phase. The potential benefits of this advanced environmental simulation research, are significant. First, Navy environmental sensors such as TAMDA could use the simulation system for design requirements definition, testing and training. In addition, commercial manufacturers of underwater sensor equipment could use the simulation system in a similar fashion. Finally, the EPA could use the simulation system in testing sensors and system used to measure water quality, in enforcement of regulations such as the Clean Water Act.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Basil C. Krikeles
NAVY 02-183      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Intelligent Gateways for Network-Centric Interoperability
Abstract:The requirements for true network-centric operations extend beyond the physical integration of heterogeneous networks and systems to include the timely delivery of the right information from the right source to the requestor across the network. This concept is essential for battlespace information superiority where all units share a common operational picture but not all information is required or even desired by each unit. The challenges include well-known issues with integrating incompatible, legacy systems as well as information brokering and management between these systems. This proposal explores an automated system integration framework based on ALPHATECH's eXtensible Distributed Architecture (XDA). Central to our approach is the development of intelligent gateways as hubs to connect legacy systems and networks to an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. These gateways not only provide a translation service to a common object model or ontology, but also message marshalling, brokering, and conversion services to ensure information delivery. Phase I will determine the feasibility of this architecture and develop requirements for its implementation in Phase II. Most commercial and government organizations have invested huge sums of money on legacy software systems. There is a great demand to integrate these systems with new systems so that information can be shared and become available to the right users. The technology developed in this effort will enable the automated integration of multiple heterogeneous systems to allow for interoperability in a network-centric environment.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Mr. Tod Hagan
NAVY 02-183      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:CODA: A Collaborative Data Access System
Abstract:Today's teams operate in environments where they need a global understanding of the unfolding development effort. This understanding needs to be integrated in real-time to allow planning, control, and execution with a minimum number of people and equipment. The challenge is to provide the right information at the right time, disseminated and displayed in the right way, so that [teams can do] the right things at the right time in the right way. Modus Operandi, Inc., proposes the Collaborative Data Access (CODA) system, an open network-based environment to integrate legacy systems into a new object-oriented (OO) system. Once software and hardware systems are integrated and a common interface is developed between hardware and software components and systems, high-level functions supporting multi-contractor activities such as program status and oversight, complex analysis and reporting, acquisition, system development, and collaborative heterogeneous information access can easily be developed. The CODA approach is to develop a "Wizard-like" tool to take COTS, GOTS, and legacy tools which are used for program management, design, analysis, HLA modeling & simulation, manufacturing, and testing and integrate them into an open environment based on the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) which supports tool interoperability and geographic distribution. - More productive creation, evaluation, and sharing of designs by geographically separated teams; - Tool-to-tool and site-to-site data migration allows new collaborative activities; - Increased productivity and utilization of an organization's personnel and resources.

QUADRIVATE, INC.
3161 Elliott Ave. #390
Seattle, WA 98121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 284-2055
Mr. Rusty Lee
NAVY 02-183      Awarded: 23DEC02
Title:Tools and Technology for Automating Software Systems Integration
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel system for integrating legacy software into a modern software system with a minimal amount of effort by the user. Often when computer systems are upgraded or when new systems are added, the old software systems must either be updated to work with the new systems, replaced with new systems, or be unable to take advantage of the features provided by the new systems. The proposed software system provides a way to preserve the extensive investments made in older software while taking advantage of the latest technologies available on modern software and hardware systems. The proposed system allows the user to use several different high-level graphical representations of a program's functionality to easily extract, modify, or replace individual sections of the program. These manipulations can produce separate new objects or take some of the functionality from one program and integrate it into another. Using the system would allow users to save time and money by taking advantage of already developed COTS solutions as well as legacy software and integrating them seamlessly into modern systems. Any large organization has to deal with legacy software on a recurring basis, every time they upgrade part of their systems. If successful, the proposed architecture could save companies and governmental organizations millions of dollars per year by allowing them to preserve their investments in software systems while integrating those systems into modern ones so that they can take full advantage of the latest technologies.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Mr. Burak Meric
NAVY 02-184      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Scenario Management Framework
Abstract:KBSI proposes to develop Intelligent Scenario Management Framework (ISMF), a new methodology for performing simulation training. ISMF will also include prototype software for demonstrating the methodology. The methodology and software will address current needs in research and development in the areas of individual and team training for both local and distributed systems. KBSI will first perform research on existing training systems and obtain requirements with respect to current training data sources and tools as well as related NAVY programs. We will next develop a new methodology for providing association between trainee deficiencies and remediation scenarios, automatically generating tailored training scenarios, dynamically assessing performance, and providing real-time feedback. Finally, prototype software acting as an "expert diagnostic tool" will be implemented for demonstrating the methodology. KBSI's innovative techniques include use of data mining for automated scenario generation, performance assessment, and skill classification. In addition, the IDEF3 methodology will be used to capture, integrate, store, manage, process, and disseminate scenarios and for building initial simulation models. XLink will be utilized for automated, bi-directional, and real-time feedback for individual and team training. XML and SOAP will be used to store enterprise knowledge and wireless and distributed clients to support the "Training anytime, anywhere" concept. The proposed effort will provide an unprecedented ability to conduct individual and team training by significantly reducing the time and effort needed for creating scenarios tailored for the deficiencies of trainees. This ability will alleviate instructor overload and culminate in a significant cost savings resulting from rapid training and retraining of NAVY personnel. Finally, the neutral format for these training scenarios can be easily adapted for other training and non-training applications.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner Rd., Suite 130
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 437-5001
Mr. Mark Swenholt
NAVY 02-184      Selected for Award
Title:Training Simulation Intelligent Scenario Generation Tools
Abstract:ScenPro proposes to model a process for using adaptive, automated technologies to develop an ATLAS (Automated Training and Learning via Adaptive Scenarios) software application, an intelligent, easily configurable, scenario generation and reconfiguration training support tool. ATLAS will support instructors that operate in distributed training environments that include complex, joint-service scenarios. ATLAS scenario generation for existing training simulations would be based on the training needs and learning objectives derived from individual student training profiles. ScenPro has expertise in simulation-based training and the Scenario-based Engineering Process (SEP) to develop the ATLAS tool. SEP features a Knowledge Acquisition process to obtain information from subject matter experts. ScenPro will provide a preliminary system architecture, which will be the basis for development of a fully functional prototype ATLAS tool in a Phase II SBIR program. We anticipate that ATLAS will provide the following capabilities to instructors, simulation control operators, and other joint-service training personnel: - Automatically extract training needs and objectives based on student historical data - Generate simulation scenarios that target student deficiencies - Provide instructors with the ability to rapidly validate and adapt scenarios to individual and team needs - Operate in both local or distributed training environments - Support established joint military learning and training methodologies During the Phase I effort, customers will be identified and strategic partnerships will be formed within the military, government and commercial sectors. We anticipate strong interest from the following organizations: US Navy: Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD) US Army: Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM ) US Air Force: Warfighter Training Research Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/HEA) US DOD: Joint Forces Command / Joint Warfighting Center ScenPro anticipates that the new Office of Homeland Security and/or the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) could also use the ATLAS tool to generate scenarios for large-scale exercises that involve multi-agency response and coordination. ScenPro has significant expertise in the incident response domain, and we believe that an ATLAS application could be shown to be of real value at local, state and federal levels in the incident response community.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-9034
Mr. Milton L. Stretton
NAVY 02-184      Selected for Award
Title:Training Simulation Intelligent Scenario Generation Tools
Abstract:Sonalysts proposes to meld our extensive research and development and training application experience with innovative approaches to scenario-based training management. Sonalysts will conduct architectural research to support the development of an adaptive training management system for aviation training systems. During Phase I, Sonalysts will apply existing software to demonstrate notional concepts to the user community. Phase I key tasks include identification of the following: * Identify aviation training systems and training requirements * Investigate the team and individual training objectives for the audiences * Review the levels of difficulty and the classes of events required to support training * Define the range of training data required for aviation-based training * Identify data architecture and relationships required to manage aviation scenario-based training * Review existing aviation scenario-based training systems and training management systems * Identify opportunities for technology * Develop prototype architecture * Determine data collection and feedback requirements These key tasks will result in development of a limited prototype of the data architecture and a complete system definition for Phase II which is the PHASE I option task. Our proposed approach will advance the state-of-the-art for aviation training management of simulation and scenario-based training while at the same time providing capabilities for live exercises. This approach has the potential for increasing the performance, resource, and cost effectiveness for future and legacy training systems. These advances will also benefit a broad array of commercial and defense customers. Commercial applications might include other service training systems, web-based gaming, commercial power industry, and air traffic control.

BIHRLE APPLIED RESEARCH, INC.
400 Jericho Turnpike
Jericho, NY 11753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-2416
Mr. David Gingras
NAVY 02-185      Selected for Award
Title:A Universal Testing and Evaluation Software Toolset (U-TEST)
Abstract:Through the use of maneuver primitives Bihrle Applied Research (BAR) intends to develop a multi-level Universal Testing and Evaluation Software Toolset (U-TEST) for the automated evaluation of trainer flying qualities and performance (FQ&P) for fixed- and rotor-wing vehicles. These primitives shall be based on common tasking in maneuver execution, data reduction, and results evaluation process. With this toolset, trainer developers are given building blocks to design configuration specific maneuvers or draw from a library of common FQ& P maneuvers to develop an automated test and evaluation set that can be accessed either at the programming level or through a high-level graphical interface. By leveraging existing test and evaluation technology, the development of the high-level software tool is streamlined. During the Phase I primary and optional effort a system design will be performed. In addition, a conceptual demonstration of low- and mid-level elements of the system will be performed using complex, trainer-like, flight models hosted in BAR's D-Six simulation environment. Benefits of the Research and Development: 1. Provides the Navy and trainer industry with a common set of tools for the testing and evaluation of flight training devices. 2. Reduces the development time and cost required for debug and testing of new training devices 3. Provides several new software products to be market by Bihrle Applied Research, including extensions to BAR commercially successful D-Six Simulation environment. 4. Creates commercial opportunities to extend technical services to both military and commercial training system developers

QUANTADYN CORP.
656 Pemberton Court
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 549-4356
Mr. David R Braun
NAVY 02-185      Selected for Award
Title:Universal Automated Flight Simulator Fidelity Test System
Abstract:Modern flight simulators are capable of reaching an extraordinarily high level of fidelity in the area of performance and flying qualities. In order to support the significant amount of development and testing to reach these performance levels a large number of well defined, precision flying tasks must be performed. This flight testing can be done manually or, more often in recent years, by an Automatic Fidelity Test (AFT) tool. These tools are usually developed along with the training device, and uniquely tailored to support the specific device development. The result is considerable tool development and tuning necessary to support the aero model development. Additionally, simulator manufacturers have different approaches to the testing requirements, resulting in inconsistent operation, function, and usage. This contributes to significant wasted time in training device development and reduced confidence in the validation process. The development of a Universal Automated Flight Simulator Fidelity Test System, providing an easy to use interface, proven test drivers, and a versatile plotting package would result in significant time savings during the course of device development. Device validation would also benefit greatly from the confidence of a proven tool, providing automatic and manual testing capabilities, and a powerful data analysis package. The development of a Universal Automated Flight Simulator Fidelity Test System provides for a powerful development and validation tool. The significant increase in the ease of use, along with the wide versatility of the system should provide a major incentive to all simulator manufacturers, including those with current in-house Autofidelity implementations.

BOUNDLESS CORP.
1730 Conestoga Street SE
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 415-9029
Dr. John Olson
NAVY 02-186      Awarded: 26NOV02
Title:Novel Copper Composite Grids for Lightweight, Sealed Lead-acid Batteries
Abstract:Boundless proposes to develop novel copper composite grids for lightweight, sealed lead-acid batteries offering 20% weight savings over conventional designs and possibilities of higher volumetric capacities and higher powers as well. These grids will be based on thin, lead coated composite materials, namely a copper composite for the negative grid and a carbon/copper composite laminate for the positive grid. Since copper is electrochemically unstable at the positive plate, and simple lead coating of copper has proven ineffective (due to pinholes and corrosion); the copper/carbon composite laminate will have an interior of copper composite covered by a layer of corrosion resistant carbon composite. The high conductivity of copper and the strength of the composites will result in grid much thinner than conventional lead grids. Boundless has performed proof of concept studies on the copper composites proposed herein. The stiff composites have been measured for conductivity. The conductivity for the composite grid is expected to be four times that of lead grid. Thickness is anticipated to decrease by 50% and weight by 80%. This technology is expected to be superior to other advanced lead-acid technology such as the Electrosource bi-plate technology, the Bolder Thin Metal Film technology and bipolar plate technology. In addition to meeting Navy requirements, commercialization in Phase III is expected to be rapid, due to the demand for improved lead-acid battery performance and close ties between Boundless and the lead-acid battery industry. Owing to the expected stiffness of the composite grids, they will be easily adaptable to conventional production pasting equipment. The technology would be amenable to any flat plate sealed or flooded lead-acid battery. Commercial applications such as automobiles, aircraft and lift trucks would all benefit.

CONCORDE BATTERY CORP.
2009 San Bernardino Road
West Covina, CA 91790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 813-1234
Mr. John Timmons
NAVY 02-186      Awarded: 23DEC02
Title:High Energy, Lightweight, Sealed Lead Acid Battery for V-22 Applications
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate lightweight grids for a lead acid aircraft battery with a goal of achieving a 10 to 15 % weight savings. Lead acid batteries are realiable, safe and cost effective for most applications. These batteries have demonstrated remarkable reliability at most operating temperatures and conditions. However, they are heavy and bulky. A significant weight savings can be achieved by replacing the core of the present cast lead (Pb) alloy grid with a lightweight substrate of an aluminum (Al) alloy that has been treated and coated with a thin layer of lead. Additional weight savings can be realized by replacing the current intercell posts and cell top straps of lead with Pb coated lightweight materials. The lead layer being necessary to protect the lightweight materials from chemical and electrochemical corrosion and provide a bond to the active material for the electrodes. Not Applicable

US NANOCORP, INC.
74 Batterson Park Road
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 678-7561
Dr. Rodney M. LaFollette
NAVY 02-186      Awarded: 14NOV02
Title:Lightweight Electrode Grids for Lead Acid Aircraft Batteries
Abstract:There is need to reduce the weight of aircraft batteries, such as the V-22, without sacrificing capacity or performance. One weight savings strategy that has been attempted is to use lightweight electrode grids. Titanium grids with a protective coating (such as SnO2) have been investigated, due to their low density, high conductivity and good mechanical strength, but success has been limited due to the difficulty in creating a pinhole-free coating. US Nanocorp ("USN") has successfully applied their thermal spray process to create thin, impervious oxide coatings on a wide range of surfaces, for use in electrochemical environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the effectiveness of thermal sprayed protective coatings for lightweight titanium grids for lead acid batteries. A weight savings of at least 10-15% for V-22 batteries will be achieved. During Phase I, titanium grids will be coated with SnO2 or TiOx, using US Nanocorp's patented thermal-spray process. The coating will be characterized to determine the metal valence, as well as the evenness of the coating. Electrodes will be fashioned and evaluated in experimental lead-acid cells. Performance will be contrasted with that of cells where electrode grids are made from lead-alloys. Lightweight lead acid battery grids would have a commercial potential of hundreds of millions of dollars. Automotive and other lead-acid batteries would be benefited, particularly when battery weight is important.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mr. Benjamin Lepene
NAVY 02-187      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Multifunctional Low Observable Transparency Hard Coatings
Abstract:This Navy Phase I SBIR program will develop and transition to application molecular self-assembly processing techniques for the manufacturing of mechanically and thermally robust multifunctional hard coatings for LO transparencies, specifically for the JSF system. The room temperature and pressure molecular self-assembly process consists of alternate absorption of either noble metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, ligands, polymers, or biomolecules. Molecular self-assembled films can be dipped or sprayed under ambient conditions to conformally coat surfaces of virtually any size or shape, without the need of vacuum chamber confinement. NanoSonic proposes to utilize a layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly manufacturing approach to conformally deposit electrically conductive, optically transparent and abrasion resistant thin films on optical grade polycarbonate transparencies. During the Phase I program, NanoSonic would work cooperatively with Virginia Tech, Lockheed Martin, and NRL to demonstrate the feasibility of this fabrication process, to optimize synthetic strategies and to quantify optical and IR reflectivity, mechanical and thermal integrity, and electrical conductivity of these hard coatings. This would enable NanoSonic to upscale the process for manufacturing. Commercial applications include protective and specialized coatings for aircraft, spacecraft, and other vehicles, coatings for optical components, coatings for polymer and polymer matrix composite structural components, and as functional thin film materials and devices for electronic, optoelectronic and biomedical systems.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4428
Dr. Douglas J. Taylor
NAVY 02-187      Awarded: 04NOV02
Title:Novel Hybrid Transparent Conductor for Abrasion-Resistant Windscreen Coatings
Abstract: Abstract not available...

HOOD TECHNOLOGY CORP.
1750 Country Club Road
Hood River, OR 97031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 387-2288
Dr. A. von Flotow
NAVY 02-188      Awarded: 04NOV02
Title:Prognostics for Blisks and Rotors in a Modern Engine
Abstract:This proposal is aimed at developing comprehensive prognostics and diagnostics for blisks and rotors. A system would be designed and deployed into Williams FJ44 pacer engine. This engine accumulates operating hours in a test cell at Williams. Access has been offered to Hood Tech for this purpose. The remainder of this proposal outlines this plan, linking it to parallel test activities Hood has scheduled in spin pits and test cells. This project is relevant to Hood Tech's continuing relationship with PW, specifically its JSF F119 program. P&W has asked Hood Tech to contribute PHM algorithms to its CEDU for this engine. This PHM work on the FJ44 is very likely to influence that EDU system on the JSF. Another potential outcome is an EDU subsystem for the FJ44. Hood Tech is not currently familiar with the customer demand for an EDU on the FJ44. Execution of this proposed work will bring familiarity with this potential market. Entry into that market is most likely to be through Williams and very possibly in partnership with an established supplier of EDU's, possibly Hamilton Sundstrand or Israel's RSL Electronics. In such a relationship, Hood Tech would most likely license the established algorithms to this commercial partner. A third commercialization possibility is the application, as engineering contractors or consultants, of the developed technology to any other turbine engine. This is as likely to be applied to terrestrial as to aircraft engines.

VEXTEC CORP.
116 Wilson Pike, Suite 230
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Dr. Robert Tryon
NAVY 02-188      Awarded: 06NOV02
Title:Detection-Driven Useful Life and Performance Life Remaining Prognostic Models for Aircraft Disk and Blade Propulsion Turbo Machinery
Abstract:Technology for extending the life of fielded systems offers the potential for signification savings in total ownership costs. On-board monitoring combined with physics-based analysis will instill increased confidence in prediction of remaining useful life. This, in turn, offers the potential to reduce premature part retirement and thus shifts part replacement costs to the out-years. Blisk components are a design combination of blade and disk elements with unique engineering attributes. For example, blisk designs tend to produce highly concentrated fatigue damage (compared to disks or blades) due to the fact that maximum vibratory stresses do not generally change location, flight to flight. Although prognostic systems need to consider unique aspects of blisk components, most of the state-of-the-art work has been focused on disk or blade components as separate components. The proposed project will develop a probabilistic, physics-based framework for innovative, on-board prognostics for blisk components. The proposed focus of this Phase I project will be on a JSF 2nd Stage Lift Fan (blisk) component. Blisks can develop cracks are so small that they can?t normally be detected through routine maintenance or from onboard sensed data so this work is critical to the overall JSF prognostics effort. The technology proposed herein will complement other prognostic development efforts through development of onboard software for evaluating a JSF blisk. Transitioning from fleet-based to conditioned-based maintenance will save DoD millions of dollars annually.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-7000
Mr. Mike Colony
NAVY 02-189      Awarded: 21OCT02
Title:Multi-Sensor Information Fusion and Information Visualization
Abstract:In general, time-critical decision processes require advanced data fusion techniques and innovative visualization capabilities to support the decision making process. It is our position, however, that systems involving complex environments, such as the cockpit of a tactical aircraft, require much more. For systems such as these, the data fusion capability must be fully integrated with an advanced decision optimization capacity in order to present the pilot with the essential, prioritized elements of each decision process. Furthermore, the pilot needs an indication of the uncertainty of the data and the confidence in the recommended courses of action. The objective of this research is to demonstrate the combination of Bayesian Network technology, decision theory, and new tools for dynamically constructing large-scale networks, to provide an advanced decision support capability that meets these needs. We will demonstrate the feasibility of this concept by developing a prototype decision support system for dynamic, in-flight, mission planning. This prototype will continually fuse multi-source data, while also providing the pilot with mission plan alternatives that evolve as the combat situation evolves. Additionally, we will leverage ongoing research with techniques for cockpit visualization of uncertain data to formulate an approach for Phase II development of a visualization prototype. This background research will greatly facilitate the transfer of these dynamic decision support technologies for use in military command and control systems, and other decision support systems that involve time-critical decision-making under uncertainty.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Patrick Toole
NAVY 02-189      Awarded: 21OCT02
Title:Multi-Sensor Information Fusion and Information Visualization
Abstract:Toyon Research, Java Professionals, and Lockheed Martin propose to develop a system that will accept information from multiple sensors (such as SAR imagery, EO/IR imagery, moving target indicator radars, target status, etc.) and sources (JSF sensors or information from ISR network that includes space, air, and ground platforms) and fuse this information for automatic object/target identification and signature aided tracking. The system will evaluate and present the information to the pilot in a form and manner appropriate to the tactical situation. The successful completion of this research will provide the Navy with a system capable of fusing information from multiple sources to identify and track objects. This technology is applicable to any system that uses multiple sensors to track and identify objects. Examples include airplane, ground vehicle, or small vessel tracking by counter-terrorism, counter-drug operations, or special operations.

INSIGHTFUL, INC.
1700 Westlake Ave N, Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 802-2319
Dr. Tim Hesterberg
NAVY 02-190      Awarded: 10OCT02
Title:Efficient Numerical Methods for Stable Distributions
Abstract:Stable distributions are a broad parameterized class of heavy-tailed distributions, containing the Gaussian distribution at one end and the Cauchy distribution in the middle, which have been shown to be a theoretically justifiable model for a large class of impulsive interference. Researchers have successfully used stable distributions to model real-life radar data sets, including clutter in sea data and forest canopy data. Nevertheless, practical considerations have hindered their use. In particular, general stable distribution probability density functions (PDF) and cumulative distribution functions (CDF) do not have closed-form expressions. In the last 5-10 years, however, a variety of algorithms have been proposed for PDF and CDF approximations, random vector generation, parameter estimates, diagnostic tests, and inference for univariate and multivariate stable distributions. These methods have been used for real-time calculations in optimum and sub-optimum detectors. But currently there are no reliable, commercial-quality implementations of these algorithms. The purpose of this research is to fill that gap. The ultimate goal is to turn these new methods and ideas into a coherent, user-friendly, fast and accurate C++ library for stable distribution calculations, and to demonstrate their use for signal processing applications. The proposed research will lead to the development of the first commercial software library for stable distribution calculations and analyses. The software will be incorporated into our flagship product, S-PLUS, a premier platform for statistical research and analysis. A core market for Insightful is finance, where stable distributions have important applications. We intend to enchance S+FinMetrics, a popular S-PLUS add-on module for financial data analysis, to include stable distribution models in the areas of portfolio optimization, value at risk calculations, regression and forecasting, and option pricing. We also anticipate that our expertise developed during the implementation of this research will open the way for further consulting opportunities.

ROBUST ANALYSIS, INC.
6618 Allegheny Avenue
Takoma Park, MD 20912
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 270-2826
Dr. John P. Nolan
NAVY 02-190      Awarded: 25OCT02
Title:Efficient Numerical Methods for Stable Distributions
Abstract:The proposal details how efficient, robust and portable algorithms will be developed for working with stable distributions. Stable distributions arise in signal processing problems in radar systems. They also occur in other physical problems (anomalous diffusion, Levy flights, etc.), and in mathematical finance. Having efficient programs for working with stable laws will make stable models accessible to researchers in these different areas.

RPA ELECTRONICS DESIGN, LLC
1285 Chenango Street
Binghamton, NY 13901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 771-0393
Mr. Richard E. Pray
NAVY 02-191      Selected for Award
Title:Interface between Image Generator and Display
Abstract:Many existing image generator (IG) systems lack the required fidelity for particular tasks because the tradeoff of rendering performance vs. image update rate causes scene load management to limit, or cull, certain objects form the scene. Several methods are used, including dynamically limiting the back of the viewing frustum (range limiting), dropping moving objects, or forcing the level of detail of selected objects to a lower level of detail in times of heavy load. Allowing the IG more time to render each frame of imagery would provide a mechanism for those systems to include additional scene content into each rendered image. A system which can manipulate raster imagery from a video source, to provide smooth motion on display refresh intervals based on ownship motion, would allow the IG the extra time it desires to improve scene content. The Intermediate Frame Calculator (IFC) system proposed herein would provide such a solution, improving the performance of both existing and new IG systems. The proposed system development has commercial benefits both in and out of the field of simulation. In simulation, the system can be directly applied to both new, low cost IG developments, as well as allowing enhancement of existing systems, with minimal system impact. The programmable logic based digital signal processing platform has application to other real-time signal processing applications such as acoustic (including SONAR), RADAR, or other complex data. RPA already sells prgrammable logic based solutions into these arenas. The addition of this platform would provide a new level of performance not currently available in those systems.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dr. Dutch Guckenberger
NAVY 02-191      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Stand-Alone, Low-Cost, Synchronized Device for Image Distortion, Edge Blending, Color Correction, and Frame Synthesis from Real-Time
Abstract:We propose to prototype an easily configured "black box" by assembling off-the-shelf components and proven software algorithms to enhance the output of legacy image generators. The device will process digital or analog video output from existing image generators, perform real-time distortion correction, edge blending, color and blemish correction, and provide overload management schemes. We will integrate and extend our existing techniques for real-time image processing and warping on low-cost graphics cards and personal computers into this system. Overload management will be accomplished by performing optical flow computations on the fly to simulate ego-motion on skipped frames. By applying techniques from robotics and machine vision instead of relying on a tight interface to the simulation system, integration of this system will be simply a matter of plugging the image generator's video output and the display into this device. Channel synchronization will also be provided by using gen-locked video capture devices, and by assuring that frame-lock is irrelevant by guaranteeing 60Hz update rates through the re-use of frames. In a Phase I option, we will investigate ways to also provide swap-lock to unsynchronized inputs and leverage our prior experience in real-time acquisition and manipulation of image generator video outputs. The benefits of this system, once developed, are by and large obvious: * Allows the enhancement of existing simulation systems without replacing the image generator software and data. * Provides guaranteed 60Hz update rates by frame re-use and prediction of optical flow. * The system does not require a network interface, or connection of any kind, to the simulation system, apart from the image generator's video output. * Assembly from off-the-shelf consumer hardware will keep costs under $5,000 per channel. * Allows distortion correction for any elliptical toroidal projection surface (including spheres and domes) with fine-tuning and regional distortion effects. * Provides color correction to compensate for irregular projector bulb burnout and projector hot-spots. * Provides blemish correction to compensate for imperfect projection surfaces. * Anisotropic filtering and sub-sampling capabilities for enhanced image detail on low-resolution displays. * Gen-lock and swap-lock capabilities for channel synchronization.

SIMWRIGHT, INC.
9344 Navarre Parkway
Navarre, FL 32566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 748-5371
Mr. Dan Matthews
NAVY 02-192      Selected for Award
Title:Automatic Extrusion of Surface Features from Terrain Aerial/Satellite Imagery
Abstract:Recent developments in computer scene generation hardware and software have produced an increased demand for high-resolution geo-specific visual terrain databases. The geo-specific visual terrain database is an authoritative computer visual representation of a locality's natural environment together objects representing natural and cultural features. The information can be derived from a variety of imagery sources and other physical data to provide a realistic geo-coded view of the area of interest. Terrain databases are characterized by several major elements. These include terrain elevation, cultural features, areal features such as lakes and roads, texture, and color. More robust terrain database formats also provide other elements such as material characteristics used in Infrared Scene generation. Databases are also characterized by metrics for resolution and accuracy. Increasing resolution in satellite imagery together with recent developments in desktop photogrammetry hold promise for solving these problems. A process is needed that will solve these problems by utilizing current stereoscopic aerial or satellite imagery to create the DEM, extract the cultural features, and texture the terrain. Additionally, this process should be automated to the maximum extent practicable. Once the data is extracted and properly modeled at geo-specific locations it will be used in a real time visual simulation. The research proposed for this SBIR Phase I effort fits in a natural progression of technology advances that SimWright has been exploring for the past several years. SimWright originally began as company dedicated to developing tools and technologies to improve all aspects of computer visualization and simulation. SimWright has most recently been exploring ways of integrating high-resolution aerial imagery with other data sources to create integrated database applications. These technologies have application in the rapidly developing field of geospatial databases. Integration of accurately geo-referenced visual databases for military operational and training applications is a natural extension of these technologies.

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 444-0094
Dr. Bob Wilson
NAVY 02-192      Selected for Award
Title:Automatic Extrusion of Surface Features from Terrain Aerial/Satellite Imagery
Abstract:Vexcel Corporation proposes to address challenges related to providing terrain and 3D feature data using civilian space borne optical sensors. The initial intended use of these data sets is to support the Navy's growing need for high quality, detailed 3D terrain and feature databases to support simulation and visualization activities. Space borne optical data is particularly well suited to this task by virtue of its universal availability as well as its standardized pricing and quality. Under this SBIR we will determine the inherent accuracy possible using satellite image data, such as that provided by QuickBird and IKONOS. This analysis will include consideration of innovative data processing strategies to improve accuracies and minimize ground control requirements. Under this effort, Vexcel will evaluate the best means to extract terrain and 3D feature data from satellite imagery. Under this effort, we will demonstrate system and algorithm performance over two test sites, and we will demonstrate the usability of the resulting terrain and feature data sets within real-time simulation and visualization software environments. The capabilities developed under this proposal will have broad commercialization potential in the domestic and international mapping industries. An important result of a successful program from a commercialization point of view will be Vexcel's ability to provide cost effective domestic and international mapping services to the Navy, and other branches of the DoD and the Intelligence Community: these production technologies will give Vexcel the capability to rapidly and cost effectively expand the detailed map coverage of strategically important international venues for the DoD. In addition, there is expected to be a growing need for large scale and extensive mapping of domestic urban environments, with ongoing update programs, in support of Homeland Security efforts. Vexcel will be in an excellent position to capture much of this business. This includes not only providing the technology for use by the Government, but also providing related systems and operations required to perform diverse mapping jobs. Vexcel will vigorously pursue, possibly with partners, developing such a program. Vexcel continues to develop the means to bring traditionally expensive detailed urban mapping within reach of commercial applications, such as telecommunications, and industrial facilities management. New techniques like those presented in this proposal offer the promise of further reducing the cost of producing useful value-added map products . This development may have a great commercial pay-off in diverse areas, such as cartography, telecommunications, video games, and civil engineering. The advent of techniques for extracting information (including accurate terrain and 3D feature information) from high resolution optical satellite data, automatically, is critical to reducing the cost of the information, and therefore making it marketable. Currently, prices of value-added products are driven by the cost of labor, since the manual extraction process being used today is extremely labor intensive. Automated approaches, using far less operator editing than the complete manual process, offers the promise of being able to produce competitive products from satellite optical image data.

CYRANO SCIENCES, INC.
73 N. Vinedo Avenue
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 744-1700
Mr. Neil Plotkin
NAVY 02-193      Selected for Award
Title:Leak Detectors in Aircraft Systems
Abstract:Miniature, low power, lightweight, low cost, smart detectors such as those made by Cyrano Sciences, Inc. installed at critical fluidic system connections (e.g.; fuel pump, oil filter, hydraulic actuators), seal points, or interstitial spaces in the airframe can provide a timely warning to the pilot or maintenance crew that a critical fluid is leaking and allow them to service the system or take other appropriate actions to mitigate the problem until the aircraft can be landed safely and repaired. Sensor modules incorporating Cyrano's polymer composite sensor technology and proprietary chemical event detection and real time pattern recognition software will continuously monitor the aircraft's chemical environment and produce an alarm condition if the rate of change of chemical signal (i.e. a leak) exceeding a pre-set threshold is encountered. Static puddles would not display a significant rate of change over relatively short time frames (up to an hour) and hence would not produce an alarm condition. Upon detecting a leak, the sensor response pattern will be compared to stored response patterns in real time and an indication of the identity of the leaking fluid and whether the leak rate is increasing or decreasing will be wirelessly communicated to the alarm notification console. Low cost, low power, miniature smart detectors such as those made by Cyrano Sciences, Inc. could be deployed in aircraft fluid leak detections systems, industrial equipment, motor vehicles, or other systems where the integrity of fluidic systems are critical to the performance of the mission. The estimated market for aircraft leak detection systems in military and commercial aircraft is estimated to be about $22 MM in 2005 and growing to $51 MM in 2010. The market for commercial and industrial leak detection, primarily in the chemical industry is estimated to be around $500MM. The increase in equipment availability (military and industrial) and reduction of unscheduled maintenance costs due to fluidic system leak failures are difficult to quantify but could be economically significant.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Paul Mario Koola
NAVY 02-193      Awarded: 05NOV02
Title:Leak Identification Quantification and Detection System (LIQDS)
Abstract:We propose to develop a sensor system "Leak Inspection, Quantification and Detection System - LIQDS" that will detect fluid leaks, pinpoint the leak location coordinates, identify the type of fluid and quantify the leakage rate and achieve this remotely without inserting a sensor at the location of leak. Such a system will be extremely useful for the new generation aircraft being developed including the F-22 and Joint Strike Fighter. The effectiveness of a system is only as good as its weakest link and hence it is critical to improve subcomponent reliability. Current on board health monitoring systems do not have the sensitivity to detect slow fluid leaks. This reduces confidence in the health status mandating scheduled manual inspections. This technology would allow early detection of fluid leaks thereby avoiding serious damage to subsystem components and improving health of the system. Remote leak detection is critical for applications in modern aircraft industry and also in process plants and other fluid transportation industry. In-situ sensors and wiring could reduce overall system reliability and hence a remote monitoring system has good potential in future health monitoring and condition based maintenance systems. We intend to integrate this LIQDS system eventually into existing health monitoring systems.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5513
Mr. Derek Fox
NAVY 02-194      Awarded: 30OCT02
Title:Fiber Placement Process Change Streamlining
Abstract:Fiber placement is a relatively new composite fabrication process with increasing use on military and commercial programs. The materials, equipment, and process are continuously evolving and while these changes provide productivity and quality benefits they also present the risk for unintended problems. These changes are implemented in different ways and at different times across the industry. The risk issues are addressed as they arise with ad hoc test programs specific to each development activity. Foster-Miller has assembled a well-qualified team to address these issues. Our team includes the industry leader in production of fiber-placed composite structures, Alliant Techsystems. Two consultants, Mr. Dee Gill and Dr. Jon Sticklen, will provide expertise in the areas of fiber placement technology and expert systems development, respectively. We will develop a structured methodology for validating changes in the process attributes based on our team's in-depth understanding of fiber placement technology and composite structures. This methodology will be deployed to industry in the form of an expert system. This will provide the benefits of our systematic approach in a unambiguous and uniform way. (P-020538) This program will result in the establishment of a standardized methodology for making improvements to fiber placement equipment, materials, and processes. This will provide benefits to the Navy in current programs, such as V-22 and F/A-18E/F, and in future program, in particular, the JSF. The benefits are partially derived from the affordability and quality enhancements provided by the technology improvements, but also by reducing the risk of unforeseen negative consequences of incorporating these changes. Success in this program will pave the way for development of similar process change methodologies for other emerging process such as resin transfer molding.

JEFF HENDRIX
11582 Southington Lane
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 481-6842
Mr. Jeff Hendrix
NAVY 02-194      Awarded: 08NOV02
Title:Fiber Placement Process Expert System
Abstract:Fiber placement has evolved into an accepted production process. As additional applications emerge and production rates increase, additional equipment must be brought on line to meet the demand. The major thrust of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of determining how composite parts could be effected when manufactured using different fiber placement machines. Through the ability to identify which part features are likely to be effected, decision makers can assess the risk of transitioning qualified, production, fiber placed parts, from one machine to another. The system will enable users to formulate and implement risk reduction plans in order to minimize potential impacts on the acquisition program. This project will provide the knowledge necessary, captured in a user friendly tool - the Fiber Placement Expert System (FiPES), that will enable this activity. The FiPES will permit machine builders, part fabricators, prime contractors, and end users to evaluate the ramifications of transferring certified fiber placed parts from one machine to another. The FiPES will benefit DoD programs such as the Joint Strike Fighter, EELV, and unmanned aircraft. Commercial users could include business jet producers, space payload fairing fabricators and large commercial aircraft suppliers.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Rolf Orsagh
NAVY 02-195      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Fault-to-Failure Progression Modeling of Propulsion System and Drive Train Bearings for Prognostic and Useful Performance Life Remaining Predictions
Abstract:In response to SBIR topic N02-195, Impact Technologies, in cooperation with RLW, propose to develop and demonstrate a multi-disciplinary prognostic and health management (PHM) approach specifically designed for real-time, automated remaining useful life assessments of propulsion system and drive train bearings. The proposed approach integrates collaborative diagnostic and prognostic (D&P) technologies from different engineering disciplines including statistical reliability modeling, physics-based rotordynamic models, damage accumulation models, physics of failure modeling, and sensor-based condition monitoring using automated reasoning algorithms. Intelligent fusion of complementary data/information sources such as oil temperature trends, oil debris and condition information, and vibration features will be used to provide robust assessments of the bearing health state. In addition to detecting incipient bearing faults, the complementary diagnostic techniques provide an essential foundation for prognostics by distinguishing between potential failure modes. Based on the failure mode discrimination results, intelligent prognostic algorithms can be selected based on the specific bearing failure mode progression model needed. As with diagnostics, the prognostic approach will utilize knowledge from a variety of engineering disciplines including statistical progression rate models, component rolling contact fatigue models and sensed data analysis to achieve high fidelity predictions. Only through the utilization of all of these sources of engineering information can up-to-date assessments and predictions of bearing remaining useful life be determined for use in automated PHM systems. The proposed system will be developed for implementation as an embedded engine/drive train health monitoring system that will integrate appropriate D&P models with sensed data in real-time. The propulsion system and drive train bearing prognostic modules will be calibrated and verified using TF-63 engine test rig failure data, supplied by URRC. The propulsion system and drive train bearing prognostic system will be capable of integrating real-time information from multiple sources on the engine so that critical engine component diagnoses and prognoses can be made more confidently and at an earlier stage. Costly inspection routines and premature component replacements can also be avoided using the prognostic technologies developed under this program. Commercial applications for the prognostic and diagnostic strategies developed can be realized on any machinery health monitoring application in the electrical generation industries, chemical processing industries, commercial aviation as well as gas transmission and oil industries.

POSITRON SYSTEMS, INC.
6151 N. Discovery Way
Boise, ID 83713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 520-6269
Mr. Douglas Akers
NAVY 02-195      Awarded: 21NOV02
Title:Improved Life Remaining Predictions and Modeling for Propulsion Drive Train Bearings Using Photon Induced Positron Annihilation (PIPA)
Abstract:Propulsion jet engine and drive train components are critical to our forward deployed military aircraft. Key components within are the bearings designed to make dependable operations a reality. Currently, drive train bearing life is based upon manufacturer projections which address a nominal group-life failure before replacement. However, drive train bearings in combat jet engines experience varying loads and suffer from unique operational conditions. Spalling fatigue damage in one of the more common failure mechanisms in drive train bearings. Spalling, caused by micro-plastic deformation, leads to subsurface cracking, flaking and eventual bearing failure. Due to advances in improved bearing materials many bearings have mission life remaining even with detectable damage. This would potentially extend operational readiness and minimize platform downtime. A definitive understanding of the buildup of operational damage and remaining bearing life once a fault is identified is required. A new technology, PIPA, has demonstrated a capability to nondestructively characterize operational damage in metallic materials leading to accurate assessment of remaining useful life. This Phase I effort will investigate the feasibility of quantifying usable life remaining in jet engine bearings provided in collaboration with a major DoD vendor, delivering new bearing prognostic models for the military and commercial aerospace industry. This technology will significantly improve the material characterization and modeling capabilities for propulsion bearing failure mechanisms in military and commercial aircraft, directly resulting in safer and less expensive operations of aircraft propulsion machinery. This improvement in material characterization technology will provide long term benefits not only to the Navy applications but to manufacturers, maintainers and operators of machinery using all types of bearing equipment.

SENTIENT CORP.
2940 Sunnybrook
Idaho Falls, ID 83404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 524-4865
Mr. Sean Marble
NAVY 02-195      Awarded: 21NOV02
Title:Fault-to-Failure Progression Modeling of Propulsion System and Drive Train Bearings for Prognostic and Useful Performance Life Remaining Predictions
Abstract: Abstract not available...

MAKAI OCEAN ENGINEERING, INC.
P.O. Box 1206
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 259-8871
Dr. Joseph C. VanRyzin
NAVY 02-196      Selected for Award
Title:Systems Optimization for an Integrated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Plant
Abstract:Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop a computer algorithm tool for designing, optimizing and assessing the economic viability of an Integrated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion system for a tropical US Military base or civilian community with deep seawater access. The Integrated OTEC system will provide one or more of the following: electrical power, cold water for district air-conditioning, cold water for commercial refrigeration, fresh water, and water for aquaculture. Deep ocean seawater is an attractive clean energy source that, if applied to the correct location and operated in an optimally balanced system, can provide a broad range of critical community needs. High capital costs have hindered applications of Deep Ocean Water Applications (DOWA). Advances in the areas of OTEC thermal power systems, deep ocean pipeline technology, and seawater air-conditioning provide a strong basis for realistic and practical cost assessment and system optimization. By sharing the output of the seawater supply system over multiple applications and for the production of multiple complimentary products, the high cost of the seawater supply can be shared. Makai has a strong background in the design of deep water pipelines, seawater air conditioning systems, OTEC systems, and general ocean engineering design. The proposed software will be used to assess the feasibility of using deep ocean seawater to provide critical services to tropical US Military Bases. By capitalizing on these natural resources, energy consumption and the associated greenhouse gas emission from these bases can be dramatically reduced. Furthermore, by having these bases pave the way toward the utilization of OTEC and DOWA, larger commercial plants will become economically viable.

OCEES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
1136 12th Avenue, Suite 280
Honolulu, HI 96816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 734-1784
Dr. Stephen K. Oney, PhD
NAVY 02-196      Selected for Award
Title:Systems Optimization for an Integrated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Plant
Abstract: Abstract not available...

BENTHOS, INC.
49 Edgerton Drive
North Falmouth, MA 02556
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 563-1000
Mr. Dale Green
NAVY 02-197      Selected for Award
Title:Four-dimensional (4-D) Oceanographic Instrumentation
Abstract:The dissemination of data collected from undersea systems historically has been accomplished via cable and/or by RF telemetry. In many cases the available (limited) signal processing capability has required the transmission of raw or only slightly processed data to the end user. Due to recent major advances in DSP technology, it is now possible to develop systems of sensors with substantial organic computing power which permits in-situ data processing and data fusion. Because of recent major advances in undersea wireless acoustic communications, it is possible to deploy networks of such sensor systems covering large ocean areas, from very shallow water to the deepest oceans. We propose to develop the infrastructure to support wireless networks of underwater sensor systems, specifically including chemical sensing, optical imagery, and small sonar systems. Our immediate developments focus on supporting and enhancing the spectrophotometric elemental analysis systems (SEAS) for measurements of a wide variety of substances at nanomolar and subnanomolar concentrations. SEAS measurement capabilities include pH and CO2 partial pressure, ferrous and ferric iron, cupric and cuprous ions, nitrate and nitrite, hydrogen sulfide, chromate, and chlorophyll. Since SEAS analyses involve full spectral measurements in the visible (resolution approximately 3 nanometers), our systems are well suited to measurements of the visible light attenuation characteristics of ocean water, and measurements of seawater fluorescence spectra. There is a strong interest internationally in monitoring of marine environments for pollution, fisheries management, and smuggling into littoral waters. The developments anticipated from this work will permit us to develop integrated systems to support such monitoring.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS & DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes
NAVY 02-197      Selected for Award
Title:Four-dimensional (4-D) Oceanographic Instrumentation
Abstract:We propose to build a directional wave buoy that is smaller than a soda can, collects and transmits indefinitely, and costs less than $1k. These microbuoys can be moored, or left to drift. Micro wave buoys developments to date are non-directional, they only report the amplitude spectrum, and they have a short lifetime. Most directional buoys use tilt instead of orbital velocity to determine wave direction so need to be large to mechanically filter the higher frequencies. Here an accurate MEMS IMU decouples tilt from other measurements. The heart of the new buoy is a Tiny Guidance Engine (TGE) that we developed for smart munitions. In less than 1 cubic inch, this device measures all 6 degrees of freedom inertially, 3 axes magnetically, temperature and position/velocity with GPS. A small solar cell allows indefinite operation, due to the extremely low average power consumption. The environmental data is compressed in the onboard microcontroller and transmitted to Argos or Iridium satellites or other receivers, depending on application. Additional sensors (salinity etc.) can be added as desired) Low cost tiny wave buoys have many military and commercial uses.

IMAGING SCIENCES RESEARCH
9310A Old Keene Mill Road
Burke, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 593-8054
Dr. Dennis B. Trizna
NAVY 02-197      Selected for Award
Title:Four-dimensional (4-D) Oceanographic Instrumentation
Abstract:We propose demonstration of a bistatic HF radar to map vector currents, current shear, and wind vector fields using a multiple-frequency bistatic HF radar capability currently under development. The proposal leverages on our ongoing work in bistatic HF digital transceiver development for Office of Naval Research, our development of a ship RCS measurement radar for ONR/ NSWC on the west coast, and our two-site bistatic experimental site being developed at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. The bistatic HF radar would take advantage of the new transceiver's programmable digital frequency switching to cover a range of 3-30 MHz for current shear, and as a bi-product, ship target classification. Bistatic looks offer an enhanced classification and tracking capability over monostatic. Algorithms recently developed by Vesecky (IGARSS '02) indicate that wind field vector maps can be derived from current shear estimates. We intend to use this algorithm in conjunction with bistatic radar data, requiring only a single receive antenna array. This program would result in additional capabilities not available on existing commercial HF current mapping radars, at a lower price due to new digital receiver technology. The potential for dual use for ship tracking and classification provides an inexpensive approach to maritime traffic control, both for civilian and military applications.

SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
99 Perimeter Road
Nashua, NH 03063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 880-3784
Dr. Peter J. Stein
NAVY 02-197      Selected for Award
Title:Using Dynamic Ocean Circulation Models with Ship-Based and Remote Instrumentation to Improve Echo-Sounding Data Analyses
Abstract:Modern multibeam echo-sounding sonar systems, coupled with sophisticated optimal estimation algorithms, can provide high-resolution bathymetry and confidence intervals over a region. However, the failure to capture the detailed 4-D sound-speed structure with discrete measurements of sound-speed profiles (SSP) causes the acoustic propagation models that are an integral part of the bathymetric computation to be in error. Moreover, the time devoted to performing SSP measurements can significantly increase the total time needed to conduct a bathymetric survey. In this proposal, we outline research intended to determine the feasibility and benefit of including a dynamic ocean circulation model as an integral component of bathymetric surveys and computation processes. In Phase I, we'll conduct a numerical study by recreating the 4-D sound-speed structure for the time and region of an archived hydrographic survey. We'll then conduct a cursory analysis of the improvements realized in the bathymetry computation in using the ocean model output to compute the effects of variable sound-speed on acoustic propagation. Future phases of the proposed research could leverage the ONR sponsored HFX experiment at the Pacific Missile Range facility in March 2003. If successful, the proposed research could greatly improve the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of bathymetric surveys. These improvements would be largely realized by making better use of remote sensors and decreasing the ship-based SSP measurement frequency. The ultimate result of the proposed research would be a new bathymetric analysis tool that allows real-time visualization of the ocean model output, automated use of the ocean model to drive the integrated acoustic propagation models and improved understanding of the overall errors associated with ocean variability.

AMBALUX CORP.
5264 N. Calle Bujia
Tucson, AZ 85718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 795-8600
Dr. Philip Lacovara
NAVY 02-198      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Technology for Anti-Submarine Warfare
Abstract:A Yb:YAG transmitter is proposed that will provide greatly enhanced non-acoustic sensor system performance through higher efficiency, higher average power and more favorable output wavelength. Ambalux will draw on its unique combination of experience in developing Yb:YAG laser technology and familiarity with optical sensors and non-acoustic technology. Our proposed program will provide ONR with high-payoff coherent laser technology that can be leveraged into other applications besides non-acoustics, notably any coherent lidar applications that requires highly coherent output with very high power efficiency. This laser will be a technology enabler for the use of coherent lidar in power- and cooling-sensitive applications involving Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs). Other noteworthy applications include long-range, high-bandwidth undersea communications using coherent detection. The laser described here has many commercialization opportunities. First of all, there are relatively few single-frequency sources available and those available tend to be bulky and inefficient. The commercial-scientific laser market would welcome a reliable, efficient and economical single-frequency laser product. Several companies specializing in sophisticated solid-state lasers could function as distribution channels for a commercial product.

BILLINGSLEY MAGNETICS
2600 Brighton Dam Rd.
Brookeville, MD 20833
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 774-7707
Mr. Bill Billingsley
NAVY 02-198      Selected for Award
Title:Compact, Sensitive, Low-Power, Thin-Film Magnetometers for ASW Surveillance Systems
Abstract:The advent of new underwater threats in the form of small, quiet, and in some cases autonomous vehicles renders existing anti-submarine warfare (ASW) sensor systems inadequate. These smaller vehicles can navigate in shallower waters where deep-ocean acoustic detection and tracking methods become unreliable. Modalities other than acoustic sensing become important. A new sensor capability is being developed under the DADS (Distributed Autonomous Deployable Sensors) program. Among them is magnetic field sensing. Present sensor technologies fail to meet at least one of the operational criteria: noise performance, low cost, small size, and low power. Thin-film sensor technologies, using various forms of magnetoresistance or spin-dependent electron transport phenomena, offer the possibility of meeting all criteria. The team of Billingsley Magnetics, Inc., and Quantum Magnetics, Inc., proposes to test thin-film sensors from different foundries, using its advanced control and readout electronics that demonstrably extract the maximum performance from the sensor elements. It will also address the pressing problem of power consumption and develop a design to be implemented in Phase II. The team possesses the intimate familiarity with DADS operational issues and requirements, the most advanced sensor electronics, and state-of-the-art magnetic sensor test facilities required to meet the program goals. Military applications include submarine surveillance, detection and tracking of military vehicles and personnel, and facility security systems. Numerous applications of magnetic sensing await sensor systems combining sufficiently high performance with sufficiently low power to become commercially viable. These include advanced weapon detection systems for security and many forms of noninvasive testing and inspection.

FERRO SOLUTIONS, INC.
563 Poplar Street
Roslindale, MA 02131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 838-8298
Mr. Jiankang Huang
NAVY 02-198      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Technology for Anti-Submarine Warfare
Abstract:FerroSolutions proposes to develop a novel hybrid sensor combining magnetic and electroactive materials that together detect unique magnetic and acoustic signatures for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). The technology behind the proposed sensor is based on a proprietary passive magnetic field sensor technology. This magnetic field sensor is to be modified in order to allow it to simultaneously resolve both the magnetic and acoustic signature of a distant object. The sensor is characterized by i) high output voltage, ii) strong sensitivity (signal per unit disturbance) and iii) the ability to detect and store (for later comparison) unique magnetic and acoustic signatures of different objects and environments. Power requirements are low and may, in some cases, be harvested by the device itself from its environment. There are numerous commercial and military applications for sensors that can detect and resolve simultaneous magnetic and acoustic signals. These include battlefield as well as commercial ground traffic detection and control (manned or unmanned), security checkpoint surveillance, detection of personnel or inventory movement, and personal or mechanical health monitoring (such as fatigue, torque, excess vibration or temperature exposure).

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 793-1630
Dr. Jerry Butman
NAVY 02-198      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Technology for Anti-Submarine Warfare
Abstract:A new underwater acoustic sensor is described based on laser remote sensing. Such a sensor has several advantages over conventional hydrophones, including insensitivity to flow noise and the capability of forming a virtual array in three dimensions. The laser waveform and novel signal processing algorithm make it possible to suppress noise sources that have hindered previous such attempts. These include Brownian motion, ambient turbulence, optical refractivity fluctuations in ocean water, and platform motion. Analysis, computer simulations, and laboratory experiments are used to verify the principle of operation and predict the sensor1s performance in the ocean. Results show an acoustic sensitivity advantage of 25 dB over previous attempts. This technology has wide applicability in the field of underwater acoustics. If proved practical it would be used on many undersea platforms including submarines, towed arrays, torpedoes, and unmanned underwater vehicles. This means that major segments of the US Defense Community are potential customers. To the extent that sound is the main mechanism for remote sensing underwater, this technology would represent a major advance in that field.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 351-4440
Dr. Henry Cox
NAVY 02-198      Selected for Award
Title:Deployable Active Passive System (DAPS)
Abstract:A crucial factor in sonar design is the benefit available from increased aperture. Current sonobuoys have been constrained to an A-size configuration. Development of the ADAR sonobuoy has been a significant success in packaging and deployment of such a complex sensor in the small A-size format. With the Deployable Active Passive System (DAPS) receiver, we propose to increase the physical aperture and add a vertical component, while maintaining as much of the ADAR design as practical. Our notional DAPS receiver design offers significant horizontal ABF gain without the burden of long integration times needed by long horizontal apertures. Its vertical aperture offers added rejection against vertical components of the noise (including reverberation). The increased aperture over ADAR allows processing at lower frequencies to take advantage of improved propagation. Thus, the DAPS receiver can provide significant passive and active performance in the littoral regions of the world. During Phase I, ORINCON will demonstrate this improved performance through simulation. Detailed questions of life, packaging, survivability, and communications of acquired information will also be addressed. For Phase II, an experimental prototype will be assembled and tested at sea. In Phase III, a DAPS advanced development prototype will be built and qualified for deployment by aircraft, surface ships, and submarines. Through the increased detection performance of DAPS, the Navy could offset reductions in the number of available assets and again be able to offer undersea superiority against the modern, quiet diesel-electric or air-independent propulsion (AIP) submarine threat to our naval forces in the littoral regions of the world.

POLATOMIC, INC.
1810 N. Glenville Dr., Suite 116
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 690-0099
Mr. Robert Slocum
NAVY 02-198      Awarded: 13NOV02
Title:Sensor Technology for Anti-Submarine Warfare
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal describes the development of a conceptual design for a high-sensitivity laser magnetometer for ASW using Optically-driven Spin Precession (OSP). The OSP laser magnetometer is an innovative high-sensitivity instrument capable of measuring scalar DC and ELF magnetic fields with a sensitivity better than 0.3 pT/root-Hz. The OSP laser sensor employs Optically-driven Spin Precession (OSP) instead of conventional Magnetically-driven Spin Precession (MSP) to induce and observe magnetic resonance in the helium cell. An OSP single-cell digital locked-oscillator scalar magnetometer was demonstrated for the first time under a recent NASA Phase I Project achieving 3 pT/root-Hz sensitivity. Under this SBIR project the sensitivity will be improved by one order of magnitude for ASW applications through laser noise reduction. A design will be developed to miniaturize the OSP sensor by eliminating the resonance drive coil and cable and obtaining full sensitivity on all headings using a single helium cell thereby reducing the number of helium cells from three to one for omni-directional operation. The feasibility of fabricating a high sensitivity breadboard OSP magnetometer in Phase II will be established under the Phase I Project. The OSP magnetometer will have a variety of commercial and military applications including measurements of the magnetic fields around the Earth including monitoring the solar magnetic field activities for telecommunication applications and climate change predictions. The OSP Magnetometer will be use at the Earth's surface for airborne and surface geomagnetic prospecting as well as unexploded ordinance detection (UXO). The laser magnetometer technology is currently being considered by the US Navy and the Japanese Defense Agency for submarine detection and for mine countermeasures applications. The OSPM capabilities of outstanding accuracy, high-sensitivity scalar measurements, omni-directionality without dead zones, and high-frequency detection will open up a variety of applications in commercial security and surveillance applications.

WEBB RESEARCH CORP.
82 Technology Park Drive
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 548-2077
Mr. Clayton Jones
NAVY 02-198      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Technology for Anti-Submarine Warfare
Abstract:Proposed is an underwater surveillance system for operation in denied littoral areas using autonomous underwater gliders. The approach is particularly suitable for extended surveillance prior to actual conflict and is capable of remote or off-shore deployment of multiple gliders which will patrol over distances of 1000 km or more with an endurance of 30 days. Gliders, which operate by changing buoyancy and gliding in a vertical saw-tooth profile, bring some unique advantages to this challenging problem: silent operation (no propeller), ability to surface or equilibrate at equilibrium depth, hover as required, long range and extended endurance. The principal disadvantage of gliders is: slow speed, approximately 0.4 m/s. An important potential advance is creating a vehicle able to rest on the bottom. Most AUVs must remain in motion, or possibly equilibrium in neutral buoyancy mode at controlled depth with little or no propulsion. The ability to be both mobile and rest on the bottom creates many opportunities. In particular, advantages include: much longer missions; operating during certain hours with quiescent periods; avoidance of bioluminescent trail; remaining quiescent until triggered by events; accurate observation of local tides and currents; etc. There are difficulties with bottom resting. The principle difficulty is that all AUVs, (especially propeller driven designs) have modest negative buoyancy capability. A design optimized for both mobility and bottom resting is proposed Two-way, real-time communication by satellite and GPS navigation are current glider capabilities. Air deployment capability is proposed. The Navy will benefit from the development of a new class of patrol and surveillance AUVs . Their unique capability is remote deployment and extended missions of observation and communication in any littoral area. A special benefit is the proposal to break new ground in AUV design and operate both in the propelled and bottom resting mode. Bottoming is a novelty in AUV operations, the combination increases endurance and allows deployment of an enhanced suite of sensors. There are benefits for the academic and environmental research community, especially for investigations of sporadic events or observations during specific parts of the daily or tidal cycle or, alternatively, for avoiding unfavorable events. Currently available gliders are commercially viable and the enhanced capability proposed will substantially increase their utility.

INTELLITECH, INC.
2009 Huntcliff Drive
Gambrills, MD 21054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 306-7855
Mr. Stephen J. Fujikawa
NAVY 02-199      Selected for Award
Title:UUV Obstacle Avoidance System using Miniature Sonar Sensors
Abstract:Research pertaining to the development of an OAS (Obstacle Avoidance System) for a highly autonomous UUV (Unmanned Underwater Vehicle) operating in shallow water is proposed. This technology will enable a UUV to operate autonomously in hazardous environments while navigating to a designated target without benefit of remote piloting or prior knowledge of the undersea geography. The overall objective is to define the obstacle avoidance technologies, including the system architecture, sonar sensors and processing, obstacle avoidance algorithms, and autopilot structure together with control laws and interfaces. The research is facilitated by building on the results of the investigator?s previous work on OAS for miniature helicopters operating in urban areas, and experience in UUV and sonar engineering and development. The proposed effort will focus on the integration of an existing OAS, UUV autopilot, and miniature sonar sensors. Phase I models and tests the complete system in a high fidelity 6-dof simulation environment, evaluating the ability of the system to detect and avoid undersea obstacles such as rocks, reefs, vegetation and mines. Testing of the proposed system in sea trials during Phase II is possible due to extremely low cost of the proposed hardware, $1000s (vs. $100,000s for commercial UUVs and sonars). This research will facilitate the development of low cost UUVs for autonomous operation in cluttered shallow water environments, which can perform hazardous missions such as mine detection and tagging with more speed and reduced personal risk versus sending a manned submersible. Commercial applications may include surveillance and mapping of hazardous or unreachable areas such as wrecks and caves.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Info Tech Div., 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Keehoon Kim
NAVY 02-199      Selected for Award
Title:Autonomous Dynamic Path Optimization Navigator
Abstract:Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) need to navigate around unanticipated obstacles in shallow waters. To meet that need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Autonomous Dynamic Path Optimization Navigator (ADPON) system, for real-time, robust, self-adjusting, intelligent autonomous obstacle avoidance/navigation of UUVs. The ADPON is based on POC's proprietary fast genetic algorithm, which processes signals from on-board obstacle avoidance sonar (OAS) sensors to continuously optimize the navigation path while avoiding both moving and stationary obstacles in shallow waters. This system will perform autonomous obstacle avoidance, accommodating navigation parameter changes such as payload, speed of advance, and even salinity. In Phase I, a preliminary ADPON model will be developed, optimized, and integrated so that the feasibility of the concept can be demonstrated. Phase II will develop a fieldable ADPON prototype, and will address robustness and practical deployment for U.S. Navy UUVs. We will also initiate commercialization efforts for a smooth transition to Phase III. The ADPON is an autonomous path optimizer, with numerous applications in maritime and aerial control, navigation, robotics, and automation, including intelligent mission planning, communication network scheduling, and network management. ADPON has additional commercial potential in manufacturing automation, scientific exploration, damage assessment, and aircraft security.

ALPHATECH, INC.
50 Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Dale Klamer
NAVY 02-200      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Decentralized Fusion for Developing a Common Undersea Scene
Abstract:Naval C4ISR systems are inherently distributed, relying on a variety of platforms and sensors to supply various aspects of the littoral battlespace. The ASW and MCM commanders require an accurate and timely scene that is developed within a network-centric infrastructure, with the ultimate goal of maintaining a consistent portrayal of the battlespace among dispersed warfighters. Critical issues that hinder development of a consistent undersea picture across distributed C2 nodes include shared sensor data across multiple platforms, bandwidth constraints in exchanging information, interfacing with legacy systems, registration errors, and communication latencies. Multi-platform, decentralized tracking has the potential to outperform centralized tracking approaches in the real world. We leverage our experience in multi-source hierarchical tracking and fusion to develop baseline algorithms that include an efficient approach to distributed multi-hypothesis tracking, cutting edge nonlinear filtering, mixed detection-level and track-level processing, and a recursive approach to track fusion that supports real-time processing. New capabilities to be developed include: adaptive tracklet formation algorithms that reflect target dynamics, target interaction, network loading, and real time demands; network-centric data association algorithms that preserve ambiguities to downstream decision-making processes; effective tracklet processing algorithms that account for correlation, sensor measurements, and context data; and bias estimation and compensation algorithms. The proposed technology will help support network-centric multi-sensor multi-target tracking capabilities for ASW and MCM C4ISR systems in developing a common undersea picture. Commercial and military applications include border and maritime surveillance and reconnaissance, and law enforcement for smuggling and other illegal activities.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-5433
Dr. Kenneth Poehls
NAVY 02-200      Selected for Award
Title:Cueing Specific Processor for DADs
Abstract:Although the original goals of DADS have been partially realized, the operational emphasis has changed to focus on cueing other ASW assets. The effective search rate of ASW assets is greatly enhanced by cueing. The algorithmic focus for a cueing system changes from tracking to detection, classification, and final track estimation. Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) proposes modifications to the existing DADS processor to better satisfy the new goals. DTI proposes to achieve better performance in two ways. First, the existing MMFT processor is currently optimized to track targets based upon short data windows. The optimization of MMFT will be redirected toward early detection and target depth estimation at the expense of location. In addition, classifiers from other DADS sensors will be integrated with MMFT to improve target classification. Second, alternatives to the current acoustics/non-acoustics fusion paradigm will be investigated. In particular, two alternative approaches to fuse data using a modified MMFT or a Kalman Filter Track Fuser will be compared. Phase 2 will integrate several of the above algorithms into the existing DADS processor and validate them against past DADS data. An alternative processor approach will also be implemented and tested. The in situ fused processor (MAD/ELFE/Acoustics) results of the proposed effort will directly integrate into the Navy's shallow water distributed sensor program DADS. MAD, in particular, has been identified as a necessary technology for the Navy's shallow water ASW program (SWALAS). The primary customers for advanced in situ distributed barrier systems are the U.S. Navy and our allies. DTI will team with a sensor partner for commercial production of the system.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-5433
Dr. Kenneth Poehls
NAVY 02-200      Selected for Award
Title:Fused MAD/ELFE Detector for MMMDS
Abstract:Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) will develop and validate a combined MAD/ELFE detector for airborne submarine search and tracking to support the Multi-Mode Magnetic Detection System (MMMDS). The new detector will fully integrate with the onboard noise mitigation processor. DTI proposes to base the detector development and fusion on ELFDET, a prototype DTI processor developed under separate contract. ELFDET contains, or can accommodate, all the necessary components (noise reduction, MAD, ELFE) for a combined detector but has yet to generalized. In this contract DTI will focus upon further development of the Rao detector for ELFE signatures and its relationship to noise and MAD detection. The detector utilizes ELFE basis functions in a matched field type detection algorithm. The basis function approach will be generalized to take better advantage of the signature characteristics and to include a complex envelope. After the ELFE detector has been much improved, DTI will focus upon optimally redesigning the order of processing and the effect of each processing step upon those following. The improvements to ELFDET will form the foundation for the Phase 2 tasks to fully fuse and test the MAD and ELFE detectors with the noise mitigation algorithms. The results of the proposed effort will significantly enhance the Navy's ability to upgrade the existing airborne MAD system. MAD has been identified as a necessary technology for the Navy's shallow water ASW program (SWALAS). The primary customers for advanced MAD system are the U.S. Navy and our allies. DTI is teamed with sensor and platform partners for commercial production of the next generation system.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive, Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Mr. Stanley D. Kuo
NAVY 02-200      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Signal Processing and Detection for Advanced EER Systems
Abstract:This work will combine the improved signal processing techniques developed by Signal Systems Corporation for use with EER and IEEER sensors with a version of MetronA's Likelihood Ratio Tracker. It will apply this combination to EER data collected at sea to test for improvement in detection performance over standard EER processing. The combination of advanced signal processing and Likelihood Ratio Tracking has the prospect of producing dramatically improved detection capability for EER and IEER systems.

ORINCON CORP.
9363 Towne Centre Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-5530
Dr. Donald Pace
NAVY 02-200      Selected for Award
Title:Feature-Enhanced Multiple Hypothesis Nonlinear Tracking
Abstract:ORINCON and Metron propose to develop an integrated multiple hypothesis nonlinear tracking capability that crosses multiple feature (or attribute) domains while properly representing dependencies between these feature domains and the kinematic domain. In previous research, ORINCON and Metron successfully integrated a Bayesian particle filter tracker (Nodestar) and a multiple hypothesis, Gaussian sum, extended Kalman filter tracker (ALFP) into the MultiStar tracker, and demonstrated resulting improvements on passive sonar kinematic data. We will extend our MultiStar capability to non-kinematic attribute domains, and will define the appropriate architecture for properly representing interactions between the kinematic and non-kinematic domains. We will demonstrate dependent attribute interactions on specifically targeted features. Initially, we will focus on passive narrowband frequency attributes provided by the state-of-the-art Acoustic Rapid COTS Insertion (ARCI) and ARCI(IUSS) contact followers and by the novel Spectral Histogram Probabilistic Multi-hypothesis Tracker (Spectral H-PMHT) contact follower research currently in progress. We will also address attributes provided by visual and radar/ESM sensors. Fusion that properly exploits the increased observability across these attribute domains holds promise for immediate and substantial improvement in fused scene representation and management. We expect that this effort will result in practical implementation of a superior data fusion and tracking system that will be the standard against which other such systems will be compared. It will provide the increased observability, speed, and accuracy required to significantly improve the Fleet's capability to solve difficult problems in C4ISR, including close encounter, log likelihood tracking problems, and a broad range of track-before-detect problems. While the immediate application is to provide the highest quality data fusion and tracking system to the Navy for tactical use, the techniques developed will be applicable to a wide range of data fusion and tracking problems both in the military and civilian markets, including Integrated ASW, the Advanced Rapid COTS Insertion (ARCI) program, the Advanced Processor Build-Tactical (APB-T), and the ARCI(I) program.

POLATOMIC, INC.
1810 N. Glenville Dr., Suite 116
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 690-0099
Mr. Donnie King
NAVY 02-200      Selected for Award
Title:Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) and Space Exploitation
Abstract:This proposal describes the design of an innovative ASW tracking algorithm. It uses data from a high sensitivity magnetometer that is presently being developed under the ONR MMMDS program. This algorithm is called the Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) Tracker Algorithm. It will be incorporated in the Multi-Mode Magnetic Detection System (MMMDS) once it is designed and tested. The outputs of this algorithm are: The three-axis position of the target, the horizontal velocities of the target, the three axis dipole moments of the target and the turns-per-knot of the target. Using the MT Algorithm submarines may be tracked and identified in deep or littoral waters. Fixed Wing, Helicopter or UAV MAD equipped aircraft will be able to track and identify a submerged target using the MAD Tracker Algorithm. Using a figure eight tracking pattern the ASW aircraft will be able to track after the first two target detections are accomplished. Present ASW aircraft can revisit/detect the submarine using the figure eight MAD pattern every 4 minutes. It is expected that this algorithm will produce positions of the target to less than 100 feet and velocities that are accurate to 0.1 knot. The MT Algorithm will have a variety of commercial and military applications. Although this algorithm's primary focus is tracking and identifying submerged submarine targets in littoral waters, it has a variety of applications in the military and commercial markets. These include: location and characterization of buried mines and UXO, locating and monitoring underground facilities, locating lost submerged ships or aircraft and locating geologic magnetic anomalies that are associated with ore deposits.

SIGNAL SYSTEMS CORP.
P.O. Box 787
Severna Park, MD 21146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 431-7148
Dr. Laurence Riddle
NAVY 02-200      Selected for Award
Title:Air ASW Full Field Scattering
Abstract:The US Navy uses multistatic acoustic sensor systems with Air Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) aircraft, supporting acoustic sources and receivers in a coordinated ASW search and surveillance mission against conventionally powered submarines operating in shallow water as well as all submarines operating in deep water. Current systems suffer from high false alarm rates when operating in shallow water. The opportunity exists for optimally exploiting the full scattering field of the target's response to multistatic sources. Exploiting this full field scattering approach should improve sonar performance. Fusing together multiple echoes originating from the same target has the potential to reduce false alarm rates for the sonar system. There are several difficulties in using full scattering field detections. One difficulty is that target motion effects may be required to eliminate some classes of clutter. Another difficulty is that target aspect information is needed to optimally combine multiple echoes. Signal Systems will use an optimal likelihood ratio tracker as a framework for exploiting the full scattering field effects available in Air ASW multistatic systems. This tracker will incorporate Metron Inc's Bayesian target tracking technology. In Phase I, we will develop a preliminary full field scattering detection method and evaluate its performance using at-sea data sets. This research, if sucessful, will increase search rates and reduce false alarms in Navy multistatic sonar systems, such as Extended Echo Ranging (EER), Improved EER (IEER)and Distant Thunder.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-5433
Dr. Scott Grossman
NAVY 02-201      Selected for Award
Title:Tactical Decision Aid Model Upgrades
Abstract:Dynamics Technology, Inc. proposes to enhance the performance of existing Tactical Decision Aids (TDAs) for ASW applications by improving upon existing models, adding new capability, and embedding the algorithms within updated GUI software. Such a TDA will be useful to government and military analysts for mission planning, assessment of foreign technologies, and route planning, and it will be useful to operators of ASW sensors for assessing sensor performance against threat submarines and to submariners for evaluating own-ship vulnerability in real time. It also will be a useful training tool.We will assess the performance of existing models embedded within TDAs against state-of-the-art models, identify the models in need of upgrade, and include new targets and new sensor platforms in the TDAs to address current ASW concerns. Based on these results, we will either upgrade one model or add one new modeling capability in Phase 1, and plan for upgrading the full suite of sensor models in Phase 2 work. Our planning will include careful consideration of the inputs and outputs to provide maximum utility to the end-users of the TDA. Successful completion of the Phase 1 review of modeling capabilities and priorities and Phase 2 implementation into a TDA will result in a modern piece of software useful to many types of users for many purposes. Military analysts can use it for mission and route planning and as a tool for post-mission debriefing and alternative outcome assessment. Intelligence analysts can use it to evaluate the potential threat from existing or future enemy sensors. ASW operators can use it to evaluate expected performance of ASW sensors in real-time and for training. Submariners can use it for real-time assessment of own-ship vulnerability, mission planning and replanning as new information arrives, and for training. The software will be developed for use at several levels of complication. For users who need quick answers, we will plan to have a mode that requires minimal inputs and bases answers on historical environmental parameters or parameters automatically derived from available sensor data. For those who need to explore dependence on environmental parameters, performance of new or hypothetical sensor systems, or on multiple CONOPS scenarios, we will allow adjustment of all necessary parameters for sensitivity studies.In addition to the users described above, the Coast Guard and Homeland Defense agencies could use the TDA to address security from enemy submarines in domestic waters. Furthermore, the models, algorithms, and sensors could be extended to detection of surface ships with additional effort. The TDA would provide many of the models and the software architecture framework for such development. A surface ship TDA would be useful to Immigration Services and law and drug enforcement agencies, as well as the above domestic security agencies.

BFD, INC.
1275 Kinnear Rd.
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 487-3689
Mr. Michael C. Breslin
NAVY 02-202      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a High Performance, Low Cost, Lightweight Boron Carbide-Alumina-Aluminum Armor Material
Abstract:The proposed work focuses on an improved body armor system based on the use of thin layers of a new and innovative ceramic/metal composite material (ONNEXT) combined with high performance polymer composite backings. The key element in this study is a unique class of tough ceramic-metal composite materials that contain both interconnected metal and a large fraction of boron carbide. The metal phase provides significant toughness and damage tolerance, and the boron carbide provides high hardness and outstanding ballistic performance. These materials are processed by a unique manufacturing method allowing thin and complex shapes to be formed at a reasonable cost. The overall goal of this effort is to develop and demonstrate armor that will defeat two very different military threats at an areal density of 6 pounds per square foot (or less): M2 AP (which presently cannot be defeated without hard ceramic), and the M80 ball (which is efficiently stopped by organic composite armor). Three key variables in the ceramic/metal system will be studied and optimized: precursor production method, ceramic layer thickness and ceramic layer geometry (i.e., non-planar shapes). This work heavily leverages the development of boron carbide containing ONNEX, which has been developed as a wear material. The primary benefit of this program will be a reduced cost, improved performance armor system available to the US military. Reducing the cost of personnel armor will allow the military to outfit additional troops and improved performance will yield fewer casualties. The net result will be measured in human lives rather than dollars. Additionally, the resulting armor system will have substantial impact on the current domestic body armor market (which exceeds $90 million annually) and vehicle armor market (which exceeds $18 million annually) by providing improved protection at a reduced price to paramilitary and law enforcement organizations.

HIGH PERFORMANCE MATERIALS GROUP, MSE, INC.
1300 Marrows Road
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-6217
Mr. Evans A LaRoche
NAVY 02-202      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Body Armor
Abstract:High Performance Materials Group (HPMG) proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative and affordable lightweight body armor material consisting of a low density ceramic phase, a low density metal phase, and reinforcing wires or fibers of compatible composition, preferably metal. Based on HPMG's extensive material development background, we anticipate the distribution and orientation of these phases to yield a material that can satisfy the strength, stiffness, and toughness requirements of personnel armor and of many structural applications. The envisioned material should exhibit at least the stopping power of hot pressed boron carbide as well as have a capability to stop multiple projectiles, thereby providing improved protection for the wearer. This Phase I effort will focus on improving performance through the incorporation of compatible metallic wires or low cost fibers in order to minimize the armor cost. As a result of the focus on high performance at affordable cost, we anticipate rapid and successful commercialization of the proposed body armor. The proposed lightweight body armor material will have the superior stopping power of hot pressed boron carbide while exhibiting multi-hit capability. This will substantially increase survivability against multiple hits, compared to existing ceramic armor inserts. The proposed technology is aimed at reducing the materials and manufacturing costs far below the existing benchmark of lightweight boron carbide ceramic inserts for body armor. Once proven for military use, the same or similar concept armor would immediately extend to law enforcement, first responders, and other government security personnel. The proven technology would also be applicable and easily extended to protection of mobile and fixed platforms and structures such as ground and air vehicles, munitions containers, hazardous material containers, and shelters of many shapes and functions.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
714 Bond Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 898-1060
Dr. John Langan
NAVY 02-203      Selected for Award
Title:Fly's Eye Image Processing For Air-Surface Weapons
Abstract:During Phase I, Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) will develop and implement guidance algorithms inspired by insect visual systems. The common housefly has the ability to navigate complex environments while possessing only a tiny brain. Over the last ten years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of the fly visual system and applying this understanding to simple robotic systems. In this project, Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) will leverage its previous experience in developing biomimetic systems for missile guid-ance inspired by the biology of the fly's visual system for an air-to-surface weapon. In previous work, CSC has developed an analog, massively parallel, real-time video processing system capa-ble of bulk spatio-temporal filtering. The enabling device uses analog silicon retinas in multi-chip architectures for complex, agile, spatial-frequency filtering. This existing system hardware has been used to implement an Adelson-Bergen motion energy model that bears a formal rela-tionship to the Reichardt model. During Phase I, CSC will investigate the design and use of this system in an insect inspired guidance system. In Phase II, the most promising algorithms will be implemented in our existing hardware for comprehensive testing. In addition, alternative ad-vanced system architectures for implementing the algorithms will be investigated. Target analysis capabilities using nonlinear motion energy image processing techniques inte-grated in analog image processors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military imaging applications. The company's primary goal is to move this core technology into the military mar-ket with products using this technology initially being sold for missile defense applications. Analog image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas including automatic inspection, biometric identification, security, surveillance, and other ma-chine vision applications. To date, non-linear motion energy image processing technology using TAIP chip technology developed under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract in conjunction with temporal filtering capability developed under Army Space & Mis-sile Defense Command (ARMY-SMDC) contract has demonstrated significant utility in detec-tion, track-before-detect capability when coupled with dynamic programming, and discrimina-tion of low flying missile targets in moving background clutter. CSC is fulfilling current DARPA and ARMY-SMDC sponsored contracts while aggressively pursuing potential commercial op-portunities for analog VLSI image processing applications. The unique and powerful capability to perform massive convolution functions in real-time, in a small package and with low power requirements will enable a new generation of intelligent systems not previously considered vi-able by system and product designers systems for performing sophisticated imaging tasks includ-ing automatic target recognition, target tracking, feature extraction, 3D reconstruction, image classification, and image understanding are critical for the building of compact, low powered de-ployable missile defense systems.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard, Mailstop 100
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Patrick Shoemaker
NAVY 02-203      Selected for Award
Title:Insect Small Target Motion Detection for Seeker Applications
Abstract:Insects display remarkable capabilities for guidance and directed flight based on their visual sense. If duplicated in autonomous flying weapons, these capabilities could greatly enhance their effectiveness. Recent work has begun to shed light on a class of neurons present in the visual systems of several insect species, which respond selectively to small moving targets. These cells, dubbed Small Target Motion Detectors (STMDs) are distinct from the FD cells that have been studied in dipterans, in their preference for point or near-point targets. STMDs are the subject of an ongoing AFOSR-sponsored collaborative effort between Tanner Research and neurobiologists at Adelaide University, to study their physiology in depth and model their operation neurobiologically and in silicon. We propose (in further collaboration) to study the response of these cells and application of models for them to the problem of detecting and pursuing a moving ground target from an approaching air platform. Issues such as how these cells and the whole organism respond to moving clutter induced by egomotion will be addressed. Tracking of small moving targets is a capability of insect visual motion processing that would be directly useful for air-to-surface autonomous weapons, as well as surface-to-air and air-to-air interceptors, and small autonomous flying vehicles. It is also expected to have applications to problems in surveillance and collision avoidance.

RD INSTRUMENTS
9855 Businesspark Ave.
San Deigo, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 693-1178
Dr. Blair Brumley
NAVY 02-204      Selected for Award
Title:Frequency Scanned Phased Array Sonar
Abstract:This Phase I proposal is to establish the feasibility of developing a near-forward looking sonar to enhance the near-nadir bottom survey and obstacle avoidance capability for small undersea unmanned vehicles (UUV) such as REMUS. The proposed approach is a relatively simple Frequency Scanned Phased-Array (FSPA) sonar that takes advantage of the frequency dependence of the direction of phased-array beams to form multiple beams within a forward sector, mapping range and angle into time-frequency space. The FSPA approach has the flexibility to be implemented in several different beam geometry configurations, ranging from small angle sector to full two-axes coverage. The simple implementation will be practical and affordable for use in small UUV's. During Phase I we will conceptually configure a FSPA sonar to the UUV requirements, use theoretical analysis aided by experiments to validate the concept, identify the performance limitations, and specify a prototype to be developed in Phase II. The anticipated benefits of the of Phase I and II development is availability of a prototype sonar practical for use on small UUV's to enhance the near-nadir bottom survey and obstacle avoidance capability. Potential commercial applications include use on a wide range of commercial and military UUV's involved in bottom bathymetry mapping and operating in environments with obstacles.

TERATECH CORP.
77-79 Terrace Hall Ave.
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 270-4143
Dr. Alice M. Chiang
NAVY 02-204      Selected for Award
Title:Small Undersea Unmanned Vehicle Forward-Looking/Near-Nadir Sonar
Abstract:In response to Navy SBIR 02-204, Teratech Corporation submits the following proposal to perform a concept design of a high-resolution forward-looking sonar in a low power, low cost, compact configuration, integrated with the WHOI Semi-Autonomous Hydrographic Reconnaissance Vehicle. This sonar will be designed to fulfill operational requirements for gap-filler and obstacle avoidance while preserving the vehicle's ability to conduct extended range missions. The sophistication of the sonar is a result of the development of application specific integrated circuits based on Teratech's proprietary Charge Domain Processing technology. With the integration of this sonar, Teratech and WHOI will provide a highly capable, small (80 lbs.), low cost unmanned undersea vehicle for civilian and military use. This vehicle will be shippable by commercial overnight mail for deployment anywhere in the world. A large military and commercial market exists for obstacle avoidance and gap-filler sonars for UUVs and towed side scan sonars. A FLS on the WHOI REMUS AUV has military and commercial application in Navy salvage, explosive ordinance disposal, and for use by Navy Seals to conduct search and survey missions in zero-visibility water. The commercial markets also include imaging sonars for aiding search and rescue dive teams, and bathymetric surveys by the marine and oil industry with towed side scan sonar fish. The gap-filler sonar will substantially increase the survey area coverage rate and the obstacle avoidance mode will substantially reduce costs of ship time delays and loss of equipment resulting from collisions of the survey fish with underwater obstacles.

MISSION RESEARCH CORP.
735 State Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-5560
Mr. Jeff Dame
NAVY 02-205      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Implementation of EDA Tools & Circuit Design Techniques to Mitigate Radiation Effects on BIST Circuitry
Abstract:Increased electronic system performance requirements and improved semiconductor manufacturing techniques have driven component suppliers to continually increase the number of operating functions and in many cases, integrate multiple devices, into single semiconductor packages. As device complexity increases, production level testing becomes more time consuming and less effective due to the increased number of fault conditions to be tested. Components with a Built In Self Test (BIST) capability have the advantage of improved fault coverage during production, as well as improved functionality over the service life of the device. As BIST capability is incorporated into radiation-hardened components, the effects of the radiation environment on the BIST function, and how the BIST circuitry interacts with the standard device function during a radiation event, is unclear. Designers must understand the BIST operation in all environments to ensure overall system performance and reliability are maintained. The proposed Phase 1 research will demonstrate the feasibility of developing BIST circuitry design guidelines and techniques for radiation environments and incorporating standardized design rules into a commercially available Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tool suite for use by system designers. Development and implementation of design guidelines and techniques for radiation hardened components and BIST circuitry into a commercially available EDA tool suite will improve the design process for electronic systems operating in radiation environments. This will ensure more accurate and reliable systems are developed and deployed in the future.

RIDGETOP GROUP, INC.
7070 North Oracle Road, Suite 120
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
Dr. Bert Vermeire
NAVY 02-205      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Effect of Analog Built-in Self Test (BIST) on a Flash Analog-to-Digital Converter's (ADC) Radiation Effects Behavior
Abstract:Built In Self Test (BIST) must be used to mitigate the continuous increase in complexity in systems on a chip (SOC). BIST can, however, affect the way in which a circuit responds to a radiation, including the power drain through photocurrents. BIST can therefore influence the "rail-span collapse" threshold, known to be a dominant failure mechanism of CMOS circuitry under prompt, or dose rate events. Ridgetop proposes to quantify the effect of the mixed signal and prognostic BIST on the radiation vulnerability of a high speed flash Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). It intends to study the failure mechanisms that are activated by total dose, single event effect and dose rate (prompt) radiation incident on the circuit by simulation, followed by verification using a manufactured prototype. A set of guidelines (design and layout rules) will be formulated to ensure radiation tolerance to a specified level. The design rules will be verified by fabricating the circuit and its BIST structures in its original and modified configuration. The final deliverable will be a rule checker software tool that interfaces with Spice netlists and GDSII layout files to ensure maximum compatibility with existing EDA tools. Circuit design measures to mitigate radiation effects in mixed signal circuits will be of interest for military electronics designs, as well as for nuclear and space civilian applications. The resulting rule checker will be incorporated into an EDA tool for distribution. Ability to detect when an integrated circuit has a high probability of failure; as-needed replacement of high-risk ICs during planned maintenance cycles; reduced down-time for critical applications; mitigation of uncertainty in characterizing stringent environments; mitigation of risk due to incomplete radiation test procedures; capabilities for determining amount of useful remaining life of an IC; excellent diagnostic resolution for failure analysis.

US POSITIONING GROUP, LLC
Arrowhead Research Park, Box 5040
Las Cruces, NM 88003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 646-2221
Dr. Steven M. Shope
NAVY 02-206      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Wireless Power and Communications Umbilical for Weapons Systems
Abstract:This proposal describes a robust wireless communications and power transfer link between submarine combat control systems and weapons encapsulated in submarine launch tubes. Our approach is based on electromagnetic induction. We propose a Phase I SBIR project that will use finite element modeling, communications modeling, and an engineering design study to analyze the feasibility of our wireless umbilical approach. We will extend our previous work on wireless torpedo umbilicals to this appliation. Our focus will be on a link that is safe, effective, and highly reliable. Commercial applications are numerous. One example is an electrical plug that has no exposed conductor elements. In addition to shock reduction this would eliminate fires and would be ideal for explosive environments where making/breaking an electrical power connection often leads to an arc that could cause an explosive ignition. Electric cars could recharge immediately next to gas pumps. Such connections would also be ideal for underwater connectors and connectors in highly corrosive environments.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 832-4407
Mr. Richard A. Flanagan
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Surveillance System Concept (SSC)
Abstract:It is a global extent of terrorist networks, opposed to large powers, attacking the U.S Navy abroad, U.S. Embassies, and now in our homeland. Traditional methods are based on defending from what has happened in the past: "preparing to fight the last war". Although most agree this is not the best way, it is all too common. What is needed is to be cognizant of activity that is non-traditional, out-of-place, or unusual. How do we detect and gain advance warning against asymmetric naval warfare threats to ships at anchorage, berthed ships, or even naval installations in a foreign country? Asymmetric warfare is non-traditional, unlike what we are used to detecting. What we propose is to bring humans and computer systems together to collaborate using a Hyper-Card paradigm incorporated with intelligent agent technology handling a multitude of disparate pieces of information. Detected activity that is anomalous or suspicious is then tracked and graded by the hyper-card system. The main interaction comes from watchstanders, guards, sentries, and similar personnel who have been issued a personal digital assistant (PDA) with "hyper-cards" that are interlinked to one another as well as to a central tracker (master computer running intelligent decision support software). We call it Surveillance System Concept (SSC). Our first transition application area is littoral-oriented U.S. naval vessels since these are vulnerable from a foreign country and its coastline. Research and development timing would also be fortuitous for incorporation into the construction of the new Arleigh Burke-class of destroyers (DD-51) since construction will be extended for three years -- from 2006 to 2009 -- as a result of the restructuring of the DD-21 program into the DD(X) program. Our first commercial, non-military products incorporating Hyper-card technology will likely be large-area critical infrastructures such as ports and harbors protected by a civilian protection service organization. Also, transition to non-military government organizations is likely including the Department of Homeland Security.

3TEX, INC.
109 MacKenan Drive
Cary, NC 27511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 481-2500
Dr. Larry C. Dickinson
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:3WEAVE MULTI-FUNCTIONAL COMPOSITES; LOAD BEARING AND ARMOR PROTECTION
Abstract: Shipboard structures such as aircraft hangars, masts, antennae cable trunks, etc. need armor protection against small arms fire and light blast associated with a terrorist or other asymmetric attack. These structures benefit from the use of lightweight anti-corrosive materials. 3TEX will develop a multi-functional composite material system that will both carry structural loads and provide ballistic protection. The new material/armor technology is based on 3WEAVE 3D weaving for the reinforcement of the FRP composite. 3WEAVE composites have been shown to provide superior multi-hit performance at lower weight in hard faced armor systems. Using a combination of design-build-test and detailed material level analysis, the concept of 3WEAVE multi-functional material will be demonstrated. This work will be accomplished with a project team that includes the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM), Northrop Grumman Ship Systems (NGSS), and Northrop Grumman Newport News (NGNS). 3WEAVE Multi-Functional Composite systems will be optimized and developed for specific Naval applications. Once proven, these materials can be retrofitted to existing shipboard structure and or implemented into new platforms such as the DDX. These materials will both carry the necessary structural loads and provide required ballistic/blast protection, all at a lower weight than current state-of-the-art materials.

3TEX, INC.
109 MacKenan Drive
Cary, NC 27511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 481-2500
Dr. Larry C. Dickinson
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:3WEAVE-COMPOSITE/CELLULAR-METAL BLAST PROTECTION
Abstract: Shipboard structures such as aircraft hangars, masts, antennae cable trunks, etc. need armor protection against blast and ballistic events associated with a terrorist or other asymmetric attack. These structures benefit from the use of lightweight energy absorbing materials. 3TEX will develop a 3D-woven-composite/cellular-metal armor system. The new material/armor technology is based on 3WEAVE 3D weaving for the reinforcement of the FRP composite, and innovative cellular metal materials. 3WEAVE composites have been shown to provide superior multi-hit performance at lower weight in hard faced armor systems. Using a combination of design-build-test and detailed material level analysis, the concept of 3WEAVE-composite/cellular-metal armor protection will be demonstrated. This work will be accomplished with a project team that includes the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM), Cellular Materials International and Northrop Grumman Ship Systems (NGSS). 3WEAVE-composite/cellular-metal armor systems will be optimized and developed for specific Naval applications. Once proven, these materials can be retrofitted to existing shipboard structure and or implemented into new platforms such as the DDX. These materials will both carry the necessary structural loads and provide required ballistic/blast protection, all at a lower weight than current state-of-the-art materials and armor systems.

ADVANCED POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1250 24th Street, NW, Suite 850
Washington, DC 20037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 549-2412
Dr. James P. Galambos
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Chemically Driven Hydrogen Gun
Abstract: Long range Naval Gun Fire Support (NGFS) represents a cost efficient and highly effective enabling technology for the U.S. and Allies to retaliate against remote terrorist elements without relying on expensive missiles and air assets. This proposal describes a chemically driven hydrogen gun that will provide two to three times the range of next generation rocket propelled munitions for standard barrel lengths and upwards of 300 nm for extended barrel designs. The technology involves a cartridge system that rapidly combusts aluminum and water propellant to produce high-pressure hydrogen gas while trapping the heavy aluminum oxide products. The result is a light gas gun that stores the hydrogen as water and operates as a standard cartridge gun. Projections show muzzle velocities near 2.2 km/sec are achievable for a 20 kg (44 lb) projectile in a 5"-62 cal gun. Previous work by APTI's staff has demonstrated the ability to combust aluminum-water and accelerate projectiles (up to 120mm) to high velocities. This proposal builds on that work by addressing two major performance issues associated with the earlier work. These issues include the large electrical ignition system and the discharge of large amounts of aluminum oxide in the combustion process which significantly reduces the acceleration performance of the projectile acceleration and coats the inside of the barrel. In this proposal, using a conventional ignition train eliminates the need for a large pulse-forming network. Secondly, and more significantly, a means for trapping the heavy aluminum oxide is proposed such that the result is a chemically driven light gas gun. Considering its facilities and corporate experience, APTI is uniquely qualified to pursue development of this technology. The hydrogen gun concept is applicable to a number of gun systems. Within DOD a significant market exists presently for direct application of the technology to provide high velocity direct fire and long range artillery from both shipboard and land platforms. Commercially, the ability to chemically drive a hydrogen gun opens the possibility for low orbit launch. Additionally, a variety of environmentally attractive propulsion and power generation capabilities can be realized using this combustion technology to provide hydrogen and heat for compact power supplies and fuel cells.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CORP.
15210 Dino Drive
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-8030
Dr. J. Goeller
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Survivability and Denial
Abstract:The attack against the USS Cole clearly showed the vulnerability of surface ships to close-in attack from an explosive charge. The objective of this proposal is to examine technologies that offer enhanced protection of ships against asymmetric attack using high explosives. The concepts to be investigated include the use of energy absorption sandwich panels using various core designs such as corrugated and egg box construction. New steel alloys that have far superior strength and energy absorption capability than currently used ship hull steel will be investigated as the sandwich panel face material. Simple analytic models will be used to estimate bending and membrane resistance to airblast and underwater shock as well as energy absorption during large plastic deformation. Sensitivity studies considering face plate thickness, separation of face plates and core density will be conducted to determine optimum design/designs based on weight and construction costs. Typical ship hull panels approximately 40 feet by 40 feet constructed from the optimum sandwich design will be analyzed using finite-element hydrocodes. The resistance to ship holing will be determined as a function of charge size and standoff. Design of innovative sandwich ship hull panels using high-energy absorbing materials has the potential of protecting vital areas of the ship from close-in explosive attack thereby preventing the loss of life. The high-strength panel design can be used in future ship design as well as external additions as backfit to current ships. The principal user of the technology would be NAVSEA in the design of ships, and commercial ship builders in the construction of combatants and merchant ships. High-energy absorbing materials would also be very effective in preventing damage to merchant ships during collisions with another ship or obstacle.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Joel Tabb
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator Biosensor for Bioterrorist and Biowarfare Agent Detection
Abstract:Agave BioSystems, in collaboration with Dr. Robert Boyd, of the Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester, proposes to develop an ultra sensitive and highly specific biosensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator technology for bioterrorist and biowarfare agent detection. This novel biosensor would couple the specificity of antibody detection with the increased sensitivity of WGM resonator technology. Simulations have demonstrated that WGM resonator technology can provide at least an order of magnitude greater sensitivity as compared to current detection mechanisms such as SPR. The signal generated by this system provides a straightforward intensity reading allowing for use with simple and inexpensive instrumentation. The microfabrication of this detection mechanism, coupled with microfluidic systems to be developed in the Phase II, will result in a disposable biochip that can be readily used in a small, compact and portable instrument. As a result of the successful completion of both the Phase I and Phase II programs, Agave BioSystems will have established the core technology to produce highly specific and sensitive pathogen detection instrumentation based on Whispering Gallery Mode disk resonators. These truly innovative instruments will be small and inexpensive, combining advances in solid-state optics and microfabrication with classical microbiology. Significant commercial opportunities exist for the economical and accurate detection of biowarfare, food-borne, and environmental pathogens as well as in diagnostic markets such as medical, veterinary, agricultural and point-of-care.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Joel Tabb
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Organic Thin Film Transistor for Bioterrorism Pathogen Detection
Abstract:It is clear now that deadly biological materials can easily be spread throughout the U.S., and that there are few methods currently available to rapidly detect and identify these bioterrorist agents. Significant resources have been applied to the development of DNA diagnostic systems for this purpose but, to date, these systems are limited in their ability to accurately and reliably detect small quantities of target DNA and require a relatively lengthy processing period involving amplification of either the target or a downstream signal and are susceptible to false positives. An optimal detection system would allow for direct target DNA detection without an intervening amplification step. Agave BioSystems, in collaboration with Cornell University, proposes to construct a novel and highly sensitive organic semiconductor-based DNA detection system that will have a theoretical detection limit of a single copy of target. This detection system will utilize organic thin film transistors and will be completely independent of any biologically-based amplification steps. In this Phase I, we will provide proof of concept for the novel detection mechanism through the microfabrication and testing of sensing components. Potential diagnostic markets include medical, food safety, environmental, agricultural, as well as forensics, law enforcement and the military. Relevant examples of DNA diagnostic applications include the detection of bioterrorism agents, identification of multi-drug resistant bacteria in patient samples, determination of food pathogens and molecular typing of personnel.

ANGEL SECURE NETWORKS, INC.
127 Washington St.
Belmont, MA 02478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 489-7304
Mr. Fred Hewitt Smith
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Detection, Indications, and Warnings
Abstract:The US risks delivery by terrorists of nuclear weapons hidden in shipping containers to US ports. Navy Admiral Vern Clark has stated that the Navy and Coast Guard have the capability to deal with such problems, but lack a critical element--good information regarding ships coming to US ports from all over the globe throughout the course of their voyages. Our system for gathering that intelligence would require insertion of hardened wireless devices capable of detecting nuclear weapons into containers prior to loading. The devices would continuously detect and be monitored by US authorities throughout the container's journey from loading in the foreign country to the ship's arrival at the US port. Ships bearing containers without devices could be barred from US ports. Since devices may be in enemy hands during loading, novel security measures would be required to harden them against tampering and reverse engineering. We propose to use our ANGEL security system, developed over the last five years, as a foundation for the container system. ANGEL protects networks through orthogonal authentication, audit, strobed encryption, automatic network generation and installation, and random confusion. We plan to extend proven ANGEL technology to design a highly secure container monitoring system. Military: -Avoidance of a container-enabled nuclear, "dirty bomb", etc. attack on the homeland. -Opportunity to "inspect" 100% of containers imported into US ports, rather than current spot checks of about 5%. -Use of detecting device system could be required for containers that would be imported through Canadian or Latin American ports. -Since an enemy will probably tamper with the devices, there should be opportunities for gathering forward intelligence against the enemy before it realizes it has been detected. -The detecting devices could provide intelligence to the Navy as to the location of a particular container ship at any point in its voyage. - Intelligence from the system might be valuable to prevent terrorist attacks on Naval vessels afloat using weapons hidden in shipping containers. -This system could also be used by the Navy to securely ship its own containers under continuous surveillance between Navy bases. -The proposed system is far more cost efficient than building large structures at each port to scan containers from the outside, as the wireless devices involved are cheap and can be easily upgraded to contain latest sensors and wireless technology as technology advances. Outside scanning will create bottlenecks at ports. Upgrading physical structures to incorporate new scanning devices will be expensive and time consuming. -The proposed system could be extended to cover truck bodies entering the US. -Greater likelihood of detecting dangerous cargoes if sensors can be put inside the container and given a longer period of time in which to scan the cargo. Commercial -Decrease risk that a container ship will be destroyed at some point in its voyage or in port by a terrorist bomb. -Decrease risk that a shipping line will be ruined by having its container ship involved in an terrorist attack on the US. -Use of system by shipping lines could result in reduction in insurance premiums. -Use of system by shippers could result in reduction in insurance premiums. -Use of system would give preferential treatment at ports to shipping lines that used it, reducing shipping times and costs. ANTICIPATED RESEARCH BENEFITS The proposed research and development involved in showing the feasibility of creating containerized for nuclear weapon detection using ANGEL technology has broad applicability to other areas of immediate concern to DoD, including the following: Authentication. Knowing who is on the other side of the connection is a fundamental problem in multiple military and business applications. How do we know that it is Alice? How do we know that it is still. Alice? The ANGEL system is designed to provide multiple methods of authentication, including biometrics and other system knowledge. This problem depends both on technology and on process engineering. Even in the area of quantum cryptography, where encryption theoretically cannot be broken, the problem of authentication has not been solved. ANGEL could have application here as well. Streaming. ANGEL technology can securely provide randomly generated keys to large systems and securely strobe or change the keys. The proposed research has as one goal extending strobed encryption to streamed data. Code Randomization. ANGEL is a system whereby random values may be passed to a large network at the time of installation, the installation may be authenticated through multiple methods (orthogonally) and then these values may be randomly changed. Adding confusion to computer systems is an opportunity to frustrate reverse engineering by a sophisticated enemy. ANGEL is an ideal platform and test bed to fully explore the possibilities of adding code randomization to complex systems that must withstand enemy attack. Forward Intelligence. Enclosing wireless devices in tamper aware containers which contain various types of detectors has a broad applicability in the military and civilian area, in that such devices might be able to detect enemy intrusion or attacks before the enemy was aware that he had been detected. The ANGEL is ideally suited to set up a system of devices that could detect and report attacks. Several devices could be connected to one another so that they would detect an attack on one of their number and be able to report it before they themselves could be disabled. NASA has already expressed interest in purchasing ANGEL technology to secure communications in space, once the technology is fully developed. DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION STRATEGY Military, Police, Fire, Homeland Defense Applications. The highly secure flexible wireless network we are designing would provide the ability for military and emergency personnel of all types to continue communicating among themselves and with the outside world when natural disasters or enemy attacks occur. Communications and information access should save lives. Private Financial Sector. The ANGEL point-to-point networking and data packaging technologies were originally developed for a large international bank client, who has been using them to transfer millions of dollars in trades from clients in Europe and Japan to the home US office. We believe that there is a large market for the ANGEL technology in the financial infrastructure market, by which we refer to the major international banks and stockbrokers. After September 11th, the financial industry has recognized that it needs the same kind of highly secure flexible wireless networks already proposed for the military and emergency civilian personnel to protect its employees and its assets, and keep the industry running, in emergency situations. There is also pressure from the OCC and the Basel Committee of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), an international organization which fosters cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability, on large banks to improve operational risk systems. There have been some disastrous frauds perpetrated on banks by trusted insiders, some of which have ruined the banks involved . The SEC is also pushing the financial industry toward T+1 settlement, which will entail yet more operational risk as new systems become operational. The ANGEL system is not a consumer product, but is very appropriate for large financial institutions that are focused on the management of risk. The potential market is huge. A measure of the size of the financial infrastructure might be the flow of funds through the Group of Ten Countries, which in 1997 was $1,435,449 billion dollars. Using this figure as a starting point, we calculate that the market for security services in the financial infrastructure market would be $92 billion dollars annually.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 413-0290
Dr. John Dugan
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Attribution and Retaliation
Abstract:The war against terrorism in Afghanistan has underscored the importance of using UAVs as long-dwell-capable Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance assets. Tactical UAVs having time-series imaging (i.e., video-like) capability are extremely important to be able to detect partially obscured, transient movements and to calculate precise locations of targets of high interest in order to deliver effective retaliation against asymmetric attacks (Such a capability also can provide enhanced targeting for sea-based fire support utilizing the future Extended Range Guided Munition). Finally, accurate target positioning from UAV's could provide support to special operations teams through situational awareness and "bubble cover" for detecting adverse movements in their vicinity. Prior ONR investment including the Airborne Remote Optical Spotlight System, Littoral Remote Sensing, Mine Counter Measures Future Naval Capabilities, and Precise Tactical Targeting programs has developed research-and-development algorithms to calculate the accurate positioning of targets (3-5 m Spherical Error of Probability at 3 km standoff). The objective of this Phase I is to automate these algorithms to such a degree that they can provide the foundation for a Phase II effort to achieve precise geo-location of stationary targets; detection, geo-location and tracking of moving targets; and operation in real-time by a typical fleet operator. Aret‚ Associates has developed algorithms under multiple ONR programs that provide precise geo-positioning of targets of interest. Thus far, these algorithms are exercised post-flight, require significant manual manipulation, and do not provide real-time performance. This SBIR project (Phase I + Phase II) is to automate the techniques used to generate precision geo-location of targets in such a way as to allow real-time operation and demonstrate it on a surrogate ground station system. There is a need for automated algorithms of this kind to support DoD and US Coast Guard missions. We have demonstrated targeting accuracy of 3-5 m at 3 km standoff using our manually intensive algorithms, which is much better than what is available from current-generation UAV platforms like the USAF Predator. The development of these algorithms will provide significant risk reduction and will speed transition of this critical technology to operational UAV systems.

ARGON ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
12701 Fair Lakes Circle
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 995-4242
Dr. Robert Kellogg
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Detection, Indications, and Warnings
Abstract:Protecting the U.S. coastline with commercial and naval ports is important. Providing indications and warning to U.S. Navy ships in foreign harbors is an equally daunting task. Argon Engineering Associates proposes to develop a small, low-cost HF, VHF, and UHF sensor to search and monitor maritime bands, providing both Over-The-Horizon (OTH) and Line-of-Sight (LOS) warning capability. The system design allows Angle of Arrival (AOA) and Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) from system sensors used alone or in cooperation with mobile platforms such as the U.S. Navy's Ship's Signal Exploitation Equipment (SSEE) or aircraft and helicopter systems. One of the key innovations of the system is providing situational awareness in a tiered security level, allowing immediate information for law-enforcement and maritime security actions while protecting Sensitive Compartmented Intelligence (SCI) used to predict the terrorist or criminal maritime operations. Once the Anti-Terrorism Technology Surveillance System (ATTSS) remote sensor is demonstrated, Argon believes that because of the universal TCP/IP interface, the sensor can be integrated with a variety of signal measurement systems such as HITS, CMASS, and other large Government application programs for signal intelligence reporting. This allows for increased Argon business exposure.

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
188 CEDAR HILL STREET
MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Mr. Christopher Stepanian
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Aerogels for Multi-Functional Asset Protection
Abstract:Aspen Aerogels, Inc proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel Aerogel based multifunctional material with the capability to provide improved shipboard damage control (blast mitigation and fire containment), as well as the ability to provide enhanced thermal insulation and IR signature reduction. Events of the past year have driven home the need for non-traditional technologies and solutions to address terrorist threats. This design utilizes aerogels, a new class of extremely low density materials that offer highly unusual physical, mechanical and thermal properties. The combination of nanometer scale pore structure and very low density have already demonstrated excellent thermal and fire protection performance and appear be ideally suited for blast attenuation in weight sensitive applications. Initial blast tests of aerogel materials by one of the leading US munitions producers are extremely promising. Successfully developed under this program, the resulting aerogel product would be an ideal retrofit solution (developed as field installable kit in Phase II) for field installation on existing platforms, and an enabling technology for future ship design. Practical and effective design concepts suitable for protection of Navy assets will have been developed and documented. Such blast-attenuation designs shall be suitable not only for next-generation Navy platforms such as DDX, but also for retrofit to current Navy assets including port and harbor facilities. In addition, blast-response and mitigation data for aerogel materials will have been developed to better characterize how these unique materials perform in a blast environment. This information can lead directly to a better understanding of the physical principles at work and how to optimize blast-attenuation seat designs for optimum protection and minimum weight. Large commercial markets for these designs and materials are waiting to be served. This includes military and civilian vehicles, many aircraft applications as well as blast-mitigation in the oil and gas industry.

AVIR, L.L.C.
300 W. Main St., Suite 301
Charlottesville, VA 22902
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 962-7055
Dr. Gabriel Laufer
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Hand-Held Remote Sensor of Weapon and Toxic Industrial Chemicals for Anti-Terrorism Applications
Abstract:A new hand-held, lightweight, low-cost, modular, infrared remote sensor of chemical weapon agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) will be developed for anti-terrorism applications. The sensor will depend on new differential absorption radiometer (DAR) technology that enables detection of multiple species while nearly perfectly correcting for interferences by atmospheric gases (such as water vapor) and various sources of clutter including aerosols and variations in source emissivity. A hard-wired signal processing circuitry will provide these corrections by subtraction and normalization at exceptionally low uncertainty. A prototype of the sensor demonstrated sensitivities exceeding existing passive sensors while using low-energy, low cost, uncooled detectors. A newly developed algorithm used to process the outputs of the multiple DARs of the sensor demonstrated significant enhancement of specificity. The simple design and user-friendly output will allow implementation of the sensor for use by untrained personnel in domestic and military applications. When using natural IR emission, the detector will lend itself for packaging as a remote passive sensor or, when combined with an artificial source, as an in-situ sensor e.g., for protection of public buildings. Unique NASA technology licensed exclusively to Avir will permit the extension of the sensor for imaging and for downwind hazard assessment. The sensor will be initially designed for use as a hand-held device for military personnel or domestic first responders. However, its versatility, low-cost, simplicity and robustness will allow it to be quickly modified for other security applications including public facilities such as ports, ships, subway stations, trains, airports, or government buildings. Its detection speed (< 1 s) will also permit it to be used as forward looking helicopter avionics, on ground vehicles, hybridization with existing equipment such as DIAL and Fourier transform spectrometers for large field-of-view and rapid sensing, and more. The sensor can also be packaged for non-defense applications such as detection of natural gas leaks, alcohol sensors for law enforcement applications, or electrical fire detection.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
62 Kerry Dr.
Mansfield, MA 02048
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 354-0054
Mr. Linsheng Fan
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Detection, Indication and Warning ---A Novel Portable X-ray System
Abstract:After the 9-11 terrorist attacks, homeland security and anti-terrorism become a national priority and received the most and highest attention. Improved anti-terrorism technology is specially needed to prevent future terrorist attack and increase the ability and accuracy of US military force in the anti-terrorism mission. An advanced portable x-ray system will greatly help the anti-terrorism mission in many ways. Current digital x-ray imaging systems are limited in application due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity, resolution, size, and cost issues. Boston Applied Technologies (BAT) proposes a revolutionary solution to overcome the hurdles current portable x-ray systems are suffering from. In our approach, a novel x-ray source with a large emission angle would significantly reduce the distance between the x-ray source and the detector; hence make the system very compact and light in weight. The proposed portable x-ray system will provide the best resolution, will be at least 3 times weight reduction and two times cost reduction over other x-ray systems available to date. It is an ideal system not only suitable for anti-terrorism mission, but also will find great application in medical field and many other nondestructive detection areas. Success in the Phase I effort will lead to the commercial fabrication of a new generation of portable digital x-ray detecting and imaging system. This advanced system will have great applications in military, space, industrial, medical and public security.

CCL BIOMEDICAL, INC.
P.O. Box 276
Newark, DE 19715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 831-2213
Dr. Nina M. K. Lamba
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Consequence Management and Recovery
Abstract:The threat of terrorist or military attack using biological, chemical or radiological weapons is one of the largest concerns to U.S. military forces. Development of defense initiatives that can be implemented to neutralize agents and decontaminate personnel, equipment and buildings are required to counter the potentially catastrophic effects of such an attack. A family of biocides has been identified that possesses potent antimicrobial activity. These materials are more than 100 times more effective at killing E.coli than a comparable amount of free quaternary ammonium compound. We propose to perform further modifications not only to enhance antimicrobial activity, but also to provide neutralization of chemical agents. The goal of the proposed work is to develop these biocides into systems that can be used to neutralize agents and decontaminate sea-going vessels following an attack. Compounds will be synthesized, characterized and tested for antimicrobial activity and neutralization of chemical agents. Optionally, we will explore the performance of cheaper alternative raw materials. In Phase II, we plan to develop neutralization and decontamination solutions, conduct hazard and toxicity testing, and immobilize the compounds to polymers, enhancing utility in pre-event installation measures as well as post-event decontamination. Successful development of these materials will provide a stable, broad spectrum agent for the neutralization and decontamination of biological and chemical warfare agents. Decontamination of radiological materials is also expected. Additionally, useful materials can be produced by grafting the compounds to polymers. These agents could be used both to protect personnel and installations in the event of exposure, and as decontamination agents during clean-up. These materials are not expected to cause severe damage to materials of construction of buildings, equipment etc. unlike current neutralization and decontamination agents. The ability to use these materials in a number of forms will allow their use as air filters, solutions, aerosols, garments, ointments, water purification etc. More broadly, compounds and materials displaying biocidal activity will have commercial applicability to private sectors, including healthcare, and applications where prevention of biofilms is desired. Polymers containing these biocidal agents will have utility wherever prevention of bacterial adhesion and colonization is required, e.g. protective clothing, food preparation areas, medical devices, air filtration systems, waterlines, etc.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Michael D. Jaeger
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Nonhazardous Plasma Decontamination for Consequence Management and Recovery
Abstract:We propose to develop technologies that greatly improve the applicability of plasma technology as a chemical and biological warfare agent (CBWA) decontamination method for forward-deployed Navy forces. The effluent from glow discharge plasmas offers the potential to decontaminate sensitive equipment quickly and cleanly, thereby enabling fast recovery from terrorist or other asymmetric attacks and ensuring continuity of Naval operations. However, plasmas that use air as feed gas produce high concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that are hazardous to humans and incompatible with carbon-based filtration cartridges in standard CBWA personal protection gear. In a separate project, Creare is currently developing a portable plasma decontamination system that is capable of using oxygen/argon plasma feed gases. We propose to extend the applicability of the system by (1) developing novel plasma chemistries to mitigate ozone production and (2) developing a portable oxygen/argon gas generation system to supply nitrogen-free plasma feed gas in the field for NOx-free, logistically independent plasma decontamination. These developments would enable plasma decontamination of sensitive equipment in interior compartments in ships, aircraft, and buildings, as well as on-the-move in small personnel delivery vehicles used in Special Operations. Creare's nonhazardous plasma decontamination technology is expected to provide a portable system for decontaminating sensitive equipment in naval vessels, aircraft, vehicles, and building interiors. The technology will provide significant benefits to cleanup efforts and continuity of operations following chemical or biological warfare attacks in military and civilian settings, as well as cleanup of certain toxic industrial chemicals and infectious agents in the chemical, medical, food processing, and transportation industries.

DYNAMICS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-5433
Dr. Kenneth Moses
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Neutron/X-ray In-Port Surveillance System for Ships
Abstract:Associated Particle Neutron Imaging (API) and dual-energy x-ray systems, two demonstrated non-intrusive imaging technologies, combined with tailored multi-sensor procesing techniques will be integrated into an automated In-Port Surveillance System for detection and identification of explosives and chemical and radiological agents. The integrated neutron/x-ray (N/X) system will provide In-Port surveillance to defeat asymmetrical threats while loading and unloading ships stores and materiel in hostile or friendly ports. API technology offers superior inspection performance by its ability to provide true 3-D imaging and spatially resolved identification of chemical elements composing materials concealed within pallets and packing crates. Dynamics Technology, in collaboration with DOE Special Technolgies Laboratory and Rapiscan Security Products, will develop the N/X system. This integrated N/X inspection system, a robust threat deterrent technology, could reduce the number of personnel required to achieve an equivalent inspection capability and security level. In Phase I, DTI will: (1) perform a laboratory feasibility demonstration of combined neutron/x-ray screening of representative targets (2) evaluate candidate processing algorithms, and (3) use DTI's existing API performance model to develop Phase II prototype requirements and assess operational tradeofs. In Phase II, a prototype N/X system will be built and tested in a representative operational scenario. A Integrated Neutron/X-Ray Imaging and Material Identification System could provide "Port Surveillance" to defeat asymmetric threats in littoral friendly or hostile regions. Once development is complete, a commercial venture with Rapiscan will be formed to produce the N/X surveillance system and sell the product to the Navy, merchant shipping companies, and intra & international transportation companies.

EMPIRICAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
P.O. Box 8175
Charlottesville, VA 22906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 296-7000
Dr. David W. Gerdt
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Consequence Management and Recovery
Abstract:First responders include the people who immediately go into harms way to mitigate effects due to disastrous events. These responders include military personnel involved in close quartered combat in urban areas, firefighters, police, and emergency rescue personnel. The health of responders is paramount to preservation of their lives and to the success of their mission. Empirical Technologies Corporation (ETC) is developing advanced, low-cost, state-of-the-art, RF telemetered physiological monitoring systems providing key physiological variables remotely. Physiological monitoring facilitates important knowledge of the states of health, fatigue, and mind. With adequate monitoring, remote triage, remote medication, even tele-surgery is possible. In rescue situations, the radial artery at the wrist allows practical pulse monitoring as it is always exposed and palpable, even in the obese. ETC's sensor causes no dermatitis common from ECG conductive gels and is made from medical grade silicone. The wrist sensor cannot fall off and may be integrated into a wristwatch band. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring occurs comfortably without constrictive cuffs. Tasks involve increasing the range to two miles, integrating a GPS chip set, upgrading the unit to monitor blood pressure, and integrating a temperature sensor. The commercial applications are enormous and related to health care for anyone who needs to be monitored. This includes the aged, the infirm, newborns, post-operative patients, and athletes. All patients would appreciate the replacement of current, but ancient, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring equipment in hospitals

ENGINEERING TECKNOWLEDGEY APPLICATIONS (ETA)
5511 Ridgeton Hill Court
Fairfax, VA 22032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 503-5324
Mr. David H. Hinzel
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Detection, Indications, and Warnings
Abstract:The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 constitute the deadliest ever foreign assault on U.S. soil. The attacks have drawn attention to inadequacies in the nation's state of preparedness, its warning and response capabilities, and have brought renewed urgency to halting the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying a wide range of communications electronics and sensor payloads can be utilized to provide: rapidly deployable emergency communications capabilities; arrays of sensors that can detect nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) agents; situational awareness information to military, civilian, homeland security, law enforcement, and "first responder" personnel; and forward-based reconnaissance, intelligence collection, and warfighting capabilities to military forces. This Phase I project will begin to develop critical technologies for a wide range of payloads that will be integrated into UAVs. In particular, Phase I will utilize the "System-of-Systems" approach to pursue communications systems payloads, active and passive electronic MASINT sensors, and sensors capable of detecting NBC agents. It will focus on integrating these payloads into the Future Combat Systems (FCS) Organic Air Vehicle (OAV). The OAV will be used as the "technology platform" to develop applications, products, components, and technologies that will ultimately fit into the OAV systems architecture. The anticipated benefits of this program will be the development and commercialization a wide range of technologies based upon the "Systems-of-Systems" concept. The overall system platform can be broken down into communications systems and sensor payloads, subsystems/modules, components, and technologies. Each of these areas will have applications and markets that are independent of the overall system platform. Additionally, each of the individual "parts" of the platform can become separate projects that ultimately fit into the system, thereby creating a technology platform to generate applications and markets. A "spiral development" approach can be implemented to provide continuous product development, thereby taking advantage of emerging technologies, applications, and markets.

EXPOUND, INC.
19A Crosby Street, Suite 210
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 916-2148
Mr. Richard Markow
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Consequence Management and Recovery
Abstract:Demonstrate the feasibility of producing a natural language processing engine capable of integrating into existing sensor and Information Technology products to disseminate crisis management data to enhance the ability of Naval forces to anticipate, prepare for, recognize, survive, and retaliate against a terrorist or other asymmetric attack. A natural language understanding (NLU) engine can fuse information from a wide range of disparate sources, providing intelligent decision support, and coordinated crisis response strategies to shipboard, land-based, forward-deployed forces. NLU interfaces can be particularly beneficial in circumstances where the command structure is in temporary disarray or mission critical experts are incapacitated or otherwise separated from the group because of its ability to interpret and understand common language. We shall present a feasible conceptual approach to overcoming the technical challenges of implementing an integrated terrorist attack/crisis management response capability with a Natural Language interface. It will address the ability to interpret a number of feeds and casualty conditions to trigger appropriate response strategies. Unlike a Boolean algorithmic construct which requires significant customized programming to implement, rigid compliance to a structured logic tree schema to operate, and skilled programmers to maintain, a natural language interface is flexible and easy to use. Expound competes in the self-service marketplace. Expound's conversational self-service applications transform existing commercial applications (CRM, ERP and Knowledge Stores) into interactive customer self-service applications. Natural language self-service solutions also support learning, administration, corporate portals, help-desk applications and many other solutions as well. The Expound Advisor suite of products reduce stress on support channels by providing natural language automated, immediate and accurate responses to inquires and communications through the web, fax, email, IVR systems and hand-held devices.

FULCRUM CORP.
9990 Lee Highway,, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-5145
Mr. Vijay Kohli
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Container Security Technology for Expeditionary Logistics
Abstract:The intent of this effort is to enhance the available sensors so that inserted bio, nuclear and explosive materials are detected and reported. Another critical element is the simple detection that a container seal has been violated. If a container is partitioned, the exact location of the violation is reported. If a terrorist is able to insert a threat item, he also will be able to exchange of spoof RF Tags and sensors so that an appropriate response will not be detected. To counter the spoofing threat, secure communications are employed so that any exchange of the monitoring equipment is evident. The RF Tag communicates at various ranges to a command and control center. The center contains a capability to record sensor information, which is provided to a database for environmental parameters and a decision support system (DSS) that establishes relationships, rules and cues for action. This technology has tremendous commercial applications. Currently only 2-3% containers get inspected due to labor shortages etc. Fulcrum proposed technology ove 90% will be inspected automatically and noitification, if there is a intrusion or other problems with cargo.

INTERSCIENCE, INC.
105 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 283-7500
Mrs. Michelle D. Simkulet
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Subtopic 1: The CRISSTL Ball, A Remote 2pi + Multi-Spectral Surveillance Projectile Device
Abstract:This proposal addresses "Subtopic 1: Detection, Indication and Warnings" to enhance situation awareness for MOUT (Military Operations in Urban Terrain) type of engagements. The technology proposed is a ruggedized, self-righting projectile that can be thrown, launched, or dropped into a target area to provide multi-spectral (visible, near-IR and infrared) 2pi+ hemispherical field of view images that are transmitted to a remote receiver for situation assessment. The Phase I and Phase I Option effort will focus on the design and development of the CRISSTL (pronounced crystal) Ball's (Compact, Remote, Multi-spectral Imaging Surveillance System with Two-pi+ OutLook) core optical system, packaging, and display options. The concept is based on an innovative 2pi+ field of view vision system developed by InterScience uniquely integrated in a compact packaging scheme with commercially available optical and detection components. The Phase I / Phase I Option design and development effort, will lead directly to fully integrated production prototype of the CRISSTL Ball under Phase II for quantity production and deployment. The proposed technology would be a tremendous asset in the developing challenges of asymmetrical warfare concentrated in an urban environment to enhance situation awareness, avoid surprises and minimize casualties to personnel and assets. Remote and compact urban surveillance system would have application throughout all departments of the military, law enforcement, and security. Once fully developed, the system could be customized for various surveillance applications including industrial monitoring, campus and corporate surveillance and law enforcement.

INVENTIS, INC.
14800 Espola Road
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 486-9754
Dr. Tsu-Ju Fu
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:A New Micropore Detector for Detection of Biological Warfare Agents
Abstract:Current systems for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWA) using DNA and/or pathogen identification operate exclusively based on the amplification of target DNA and there are no commercial instruments which will provide amplification-less DNA analysis. A new micropore detection system is proposed which will be capable of direct detection of pathogens and or their DNA with no amplification, however offering an extraordinary sensitivity approaching only a few copies or a single DNA molecule detection. The detection system is based on a simple electrical detection of a signal originating from the micropore detector. Fully developed instrument will offer multiplexed detection of BWA in a ruggedized, field portable design, which will make feasible the detection of BWA and infectious pathogens in a point of care, and hand-held devices. The overall objective of the Phase I will be to demonstrate the feasibility and develop the proposed new sensing system. The Phase II will incorporate the sensing system with a microfluidic sample preparation which will include pathogen separation and direct detection in the micropore sensor, or separation and detection of DNA after lysing the target pathogens. The Phase II project will culminate with a functionable portable prototype for detection of BWA agents. The proposed detection system is universal offering detection in immunoassay type systems as well as in nucleic acid based systems. The applications will range from military detection of BWA to analysis of pathogens in diagnosing infectious diseases.

KALSCOTT ENGINEERING, INC.
104 Walker Pl.
Lawrence, KS 66049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 979-1113
Mr. Tom Sherwood
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Detection, Indications, and Warnings
Abstract:The need for a ship-launched tactical reconnaissance mini UAV is presented, to support fleet/force protection and perimeter defense goals. A cohort of such vehicles could gather situational awareness data to provide early detection and indication of assymetric threats on a round-the-clock basis. A low-observable, highly survivable platform design is presented. Aero, propulsion, structures, nav/comm/controls, payload integration issues are addressed. Manual, semi-autonomous and autonomous flight capability is described. A detailed Phase I work plan is presented. Plans for Future Phase II efforts are presented. Low and medium altitude reconnaissance, litotral area reconnaissance, pipeline inspection, mine sweeping, commercial shipping protection, wildfire monitoring

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5668
Mr. James J. Gorman
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Attribution and Retaliation: Pultruded Graphite, Boron, & Tungsten Hybrid Composites for Advanced Penetrators
Abstract:KaZaK Composites Incorporated (KCI) proposes to design and demonstrate a pultrusion-based manufacturing process for fabricating large tungsten or hybrid multi-material penetrators, in which individual heavy metal rods or wires are bonded together chemically and reinforced in axial and/or circumferential directions using high strength/stiffness fibers. These rod or fiber composites may be applied as reinforcements to a homogeneous steel penetrator or may be formulated to achieve operational objectives as completely composite constructions. A wide variety of solid and hollow cross sections may be fabricated in this fashion. The principal objective here will be to optimize the cost/size tradeoff for high performance penetrators, by using the lowest cost metal forms and combining them via methods derived from polymer composite manufacturing. Some reduction in density and possibly other performance measures may result as compared to homogeneous tungsten projectiles. The cost advantages of using tungsten forms available in commercial quantities as the feedstock for ordnance developments will however lead to substantial operational performance advantages over steel penetrators. Continuously bonded lengths of tungsten wire or rod may advantageously be separated in the endgame trajectory to enhance weapon lethality. The addition of boron and/or graphite fibers may also expand the velocity/obliquity envelope that may be tolerated. Two principal operational benefits will result from this development effort. The first of these is the low-cost availability of large-scale heavy metal product for military or civil applications. The second primary benefit is the enabling of new classes of penetrating weapons having a tungsten core and graphite composite sheath to expand the weight - length envelope and improve weight-specific penetrating performance of long rod projectiles. These benefits will be most compelling for military applications initially, but may expand in scope to industrial or resource-exploration applications of tungsten.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Perakath Benjamin
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptive Toolkit for the Discovery of Threats (ATDT)
Abstract:We propose to design, develop, and deploy an adaptive toolkit for automated threat discovery. The toolkit will provide innovative mechanisms to rapidly discover emerging threat situations. The proposed approach integrates intelligent knowledge discovery techniques with knowledge-based methods to facilitate robust and cost-effective threat detection. The main product of this project will be the Adaptive Toolkit for the Discovery of Threats (ATDT), an agent-based decision support system that facilitates the automated generation of information from disparate and distributed data to support early detection of emerging threats. The Phase I effort will (i) establish ATDT requirements, (ii) design the ATDT architecture, and (iii) demonstrate prototype ATDT software. The Phase II project will harden the software and demonstrate its benefits on focused military and commercial applications. Key innovations include (i) hybrid approach that combines knowledge discovery methods with classical rule based techniques, (ii) extendible and reconfigurable agent-based architecture, and (iii) intelligent learning mechanisms that adapt to changing data patterns. Key benefits include (a) ability to rapidly and accurately predict emerging threats, (b) significant reductions in the time and effort for converting distributed data to actionable decision information, and (c) robust threat prediction in dynamic and uncertain environments. The principal benefit is the capability to rapidly, reliably, and accurately - detect and predict emerging threats. Applications include terrorist threat prediction, emergency response management, target/decoy recognition and discrimination, industrial espionage detection, financial fraud detection, computer network intrusion detection, and business intelligence.

MANNING APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
419 South Main Street, PO Box 265
Troy, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 835-5402
Dr. Christopher Manning
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Etalon Spectrometer for Chemical Threat Detection
Abstract:The work proposed here will demonstrate the feasibility of a high-sensitivity, scanning-etalon infrared spectrometer to detect silent chemical threats, in response to Subtopic 1 of the solicitation. There is a critical need throughout the DoD, the U.S. government, and the commercial sector for cost- effective sensors to provide timely warning of asymmetric attacks. The Navy is particularly exposed, as it is often the front line of defense. Infrared spectrometry's sensitivity and selectivity minimizes missed detections and false alarms. A new digital signal processing module will compensate for convolution and alignment variations, and enhance the performance of inexpensive optical hardware at small incremental cost. The new instrument can be employed as a passive remote sensor on UAV and surface platforms, or as an active point sensor, offering an unmatched sensitivity and specificity for early warning, providing a superior and less expensive replacement for the JS- LSCAD. To prove feasibility in Phase I, a prototype sensor will be constructed, tested, and mathematically modeled. Comparison of test and model results will verify optimum performance. Because cryogenic detector cooling provides optimum sensitivity, a portion of the effort will verify cooling options. Many commercial opportunities will accrue from development of this technology. Military applications include personnel protection, remote sensing of clandestine activities, including drug and toxin manufacture. Commercial applications include a range of process and quality control, spectral imaging, environmental and occupational health monitoring, laboratory research, field measurements and remote sensing applications. Conservative estimates indicate a $10 million per year market for the technology. Cost-effectiveness insures capture of a significant market share.

MAXWELL SENSORS CORP.
10020 Pioneer Blvd., Suite 103
Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 801-2088
Dr. Winston Z. Ho
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:All-in-One BWA-Biochip for Rapid and Confirmatory Detection or Warning
Abstract:Most biological warfare agents (BWA) are deployed as aerosols, which involves spreading small BWA particles into the air, along with a multitude of ambient aerosol particles. Downwind from a release, concentration levels of just a few particles can fall on an object or person and still pose a threat. Unfortunately technologies for rapidly assessing biological agents in the environment remain underdeveloped. MSI proposes to develop an all-in-one BWA-chip based on field usable enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology that can provide rapid, "confirmatory", and "simultaneous" detection and identification of most prevalent (~10) BWA. The proposed BWA-Chip combines the "gold standard" ELISA principle, and MSI's proprietary microfluidic technology, in order to provide a monitoring system that is robust enough to operate in the military field environment without compromising test sensitivity and specificity. The resulting BWA monitor will dramatically reduce false-positive and false-negative readings. With the air sampler integrated into the system, the system will automatically collect and analyze samples before sounding any alarm. Phase I work will focus on the development of an assay protocol, design, and fabrication of the platform, integration of the system, characterizing the system by performing bioassays, and evaluation of its technical merit. Homeland security has become one of the U.S.'s top priorities following recent terrorist activities. Rapid "on-site" detection and identification of suspected materials, is needed for individuals, police departments, and various law enforcement agencies. Benefits to domestic preparedness and infrastructure protection would be immediate. The proposed compact and highly sensitive device has a wide variety of applications in biological sample processing for water quality monitoring, food safety testing, and on-site testing of blood supplies or donors.

MOBILEFOUNDATIONS, INC.
103 W. Broad Street, STE 600
Falls Church, VA 22046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 532-9615
Mr. Neil Baitinger
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Port Protection System (IPPS) for Anti-Terrorism - Detection, Indications, and Warnings
Abstract:This proposal addresses the Information Systems technology area for Anti-Terrorism - Technologies for Asymmetric Naval Warfare: Subtopic 1. Detection, Indications, and Warnings. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an innovative, integrated system that protects Navy forces and assets from terrorist attacks by: (1) monitoring heterogeneous sensors and surveillance systems to detect potential threats; (2) integrating data from those systems under a single Web user interface; (3) utilizing decision support tools to assist in determining the nature, severity, and consequence of the threats; (4) autonomously triggering warnings to Naval forces and local first responders; and (5) providing distributed situational awareness and interoperable communications for improved response. The benefits of this system include: earlier detection, improved security, enhanced decision support through the integration of previously unrelated surveillance input, more efficient response, unified command and control, and reduced consequences. This capability is required because of the inability to anticipate new and novel ways that today's terrorists will attack. There is no doubt that terrorists will be planning attacks that cannot be easily detected by current stovepipe monitoring and alerting systems. Our proposed system will help prevent the devastating impacts of their weapons of mass destruction. Benefits: The benefits of providing an Integrated Port Protection System (IPPS) that combines monitoring, alerting, decision support, and interoperable communications are evident because it will help the Navy: (1) Reduce its vulnerability to terrorist attacks, (2) Enable proactive action to prevent terrorist acts before they occur, and (3) Manage consequences of terrorist attacks. Commercial Applications: The capabilities of the proposed system can be customized to support almost any military or civilian organization concerned with force and critical infrastructure protection. Likewise, since 9-11, local governments and commercial institutions have also recognized the need for integrated and interoperable security tools to ensure business continuity.

NATIONAL SIGN & SIGNAL CO.
301 S. Armstrong Rd.
Battle Creek, MI 49015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 306-6388
Mr. D. David Johnson
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Detection, Indications, and Warnings
Abstract:US forces deployed worldwide need enhanced physical security and force protection against terrorist or other asymmetric attacks. The proposed system provides a less-than-lethal system that denies enemy access and provides enhanced protection of military and government installations, port and harbor facilities, and other high-value afloat assets against terrorist or other asymmetric attack. The proposed system provides a means of providing non-lethal area denial to vehicular attack by providing a retractable barricade system made of retractable pylons, which will withstand a 15,000 lb. vehicle moving at 50 mph, and upon attack, conduct into the attacking vehicle a high-voltage electrical pulse designed to destroy the electrical and control system of the vehicle without harming passengers in the attacking vehicle. The passengers of the attacking vehicle remain unharmed as a result of the limited magnitude of the electrical pulse and, more importantly, the effects of the steel frame and steel sheet metal around the passenger cab, which provides an electromagnetic shield against injury. When not in use, the vehicle barricade system remains unobtrusively concealed beneath the roadway in an underground housing. When activated, either remotely through secure radio or web-enabled communication or locally with a control panel, the barricades rise in seconds providing a clear deterrent to a vehicular attack. National has outlined a comprehensive Phase I project for development of the proposed retractable security barricade system to include design, simulation, testing, and evaluation of the key design parameters. First and foremost, a remotely operable, retractable security barricade system is a security solution for entrances at government and military installations, gates and entrances to secure areas, and to provide a secure perimeter around federal and state buildings. The commercial potential of the proposed technology will focus on both security (area denial to vehicles) and theft prevention of high value assets. The proposed technology can be commercially deployed as a system that will deny vehicle access to traffic lanes, parking lots, access points to secure perimeters, etc. Additionally, National has access to over 90 distributors that are strategically located across the United States. National does business in every state and its distributor network is comprised of prominent distributors in the traffic industry, who have direct representation with state and local governmental agencies, and other customers.

NEKTON RESEARCH LLC
4625 Industry Lane
Durham, NC 27713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 405-3993
Dr. Frederick Vosburgh
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Field Casualty Shock Alarm
Abstract:A low cost, non-invasive sensor is proposed for automated detection of shock in combat casualties. The proposed technology will also find application in emergency and critical care medical applications in other military and in civilian settings. The technology may also find use in adaptive management of shock victims. The sensor will require no expertise to use. It will operate untethered and unattended for extended periods to provide immediate warning of acute onset of hypotension. The sensor will maintain a continuous data record which will be displayed and made available for download for post evacuation management of the victim. Automated detection of shock will benefit the care and triage of trauma victims in military or civilian settings. It will inform medical personnel of acute changes in condition of trauma victims automatically. Additional benefits include use in critical care patients and for management of infusion therapy in shock patients.

OMNISITE BIODIAGNOSTICS, INC.
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. John G. Bruno
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Handheld Chemical/Biological (CB) Aptamer-Based ECL Point Detection Sensor (AEPDS)
Abstract:Countries hostile to the U.S. have or are in the process of developing or obtaining Weapons of Mass Destruction, in particular chemical and/or biological (CB) warfare agents, ­.asymmetric threats­". The OmniSite/Raytheon team proposes meeting this CB threat with biotechnology based on OmniSite­Ýs ongoing Aptamer research and development efforts to develop a handheld, lightweight, easy to use CB Aptamer-based ECL Point Detection Sensor (AEPDS) which is highly specific and sensitive only to its target CB agent. OmniSite will develop aptamers by a process called ­.Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment­" (SELEX). SELEX aptamers will be incorporated into miniaturized, disposable Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems-Electrochemiluminescence (MEMS-ECL) sensor chip capable of detecting concentration levels of at least 8 different CB agents simultaneously with timely (< one minute) detection sensitivity for protein toxins in the nanogram to picogram range and anthrax spore sensitivity in the 10 ­V 100 spore range. AEPDS will be hand-held and battery operated for individual sailor use. Planned efforts: ,h Phase_I: Set generation of specific DNA aptamers, AEDPS preliminary design, and MEMS-ECL biochip prototype. ,h Phase_II: Clone/sequence aptamers, optimize assays for field use, and final systems AEPDS design/prototype/test. ,h Phase_III: Transition to production ready design and explore commercial market. There are worldwide potential benefits for the OmniSite chemical/biological (CB) aptamer-based ECL point detection sensor (AEPDS) that is a lightweight, portable, quick and easy to set-up and use as a simple and cost-effective method of detection and quantitation. The AEPDS area of use could be expanded to battlefield of mines and mitigation of unexploded ordnance, to commercial applications as an unobtrusive, passive, in situ detection of explosives in congregated public areas such as airports, train stations, sports stadiums, any crowed area that could be a potential terrorist target. AEPDS could evolve into commercially feasible ­.fire/smoke detector­" type device mounted in sensitive areas to provide homeland detection warning capability for explosive devices. Furthermore, the AEPDS core technology, SELEX is a combinatorial chemistry technology, has tremendous potential in the detection of other molecules of interest such as industrial environmental chemicals, medical diagnostics, food safety, and drug discovery screening. As this SBIR progresses, Raytheon will work with OmniSite to ensure that the technology and systems approach can be integrated with larger systems activities that Raytheon is pursuing and implementing, such as OFW and FCS, along translating the AEPDS design into a commercially viable product.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
4030 Spencer St, Suite 108
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-4445
Dr. Nahum Gat
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Color Night Vision for Detection, Indications, and Warnings
Abstract:The technology addressed is related to electro-optical sensors and specifically to image intensified night vision video cameras and goggles. Specifically we address equipment that can be used to enhance ship perimeter security, harbor protection, as well as support for surveillance, reconnaissance, and offensive activities by Special Operations Forces. Scene understanding, perception, orientation and reaction time are drastically reduced at night, reducing the defensive and offensive ability of the warfighter. Night vision equipment brings back some of the lost capabilities but the human brain is "wired" to use color rather than monochrome brightness as part of scene perception. Recent conflicts in which US Special Operations Forces participated have demonstrated the advantages of night time operations by a properly trained and equipped units against an adversary that is handicapped by the darkness. But false color techniques based on the fusion of thermal infrared (TIR) with image intensified (I2CCD) cameras does not help much since the resultant colors have no intuitive connotation to the world as perceived by us. In contrast, however, a true color night vision device based on a novel image intensification technology could dramatically change the situation. The technology can be compared to color TV displacing B&W TV. Yes, B&W TV is still available, but who wants to use it? This proposal addresses two areas: first the enhancement of a unique computer model that simulates night vision equipment with very high fidelity. This model serves as an inexpensive platform for testing various design concepts and developing performance figure of merit. Second, under Task I a sensor brassboard will be designed based on the selected optimal design approach. The design will allow the immediate fabrication of the sensor component for an early Phase-II technology demonstration. The US Special Operations Forces is a significant market and OKSI's goal is to provide such equipment to the various units under SOCOM. Commercial opportunities for the technology exist in the law enforcement, media and news gathering, and individual users (hunters, etc.) who use presently available monochrome night vision equipment.

PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES
12777 High Bluff Drive
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-8855
Dr. Maurice Pessot
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Attribution and Retaliation - Random-Access Multi-Beam Oscillator (RAMBO)
Abstract:Precision optical sensing of short-dwell-time targets - The past several decades have witnessed steady increases both in the number and the variety of optical sensors employed in guided weapons. As laser sources have become more efficient and cost-effective, this range of sensors has extended to target discrimination, over-the-horizon terminal guidance, terrain avoidance, Doppler imaging LADAR, and proximity fusing. This has created a growing demand for lasers with outputs which can be steered within an extensive field. Responding to this need, we propose to develop a compact low-cost laser; the output of which can be switched internally so as to emerge from one of several exit ports in a random-access fashion. Electro-optic port-to-port switching occurs internal to the resonator; thereby eliminating the alignment and crosstalk issues which arise with separate source and switch configurations. Further features of the source include its high pulse rate and its ability to provide random-access switching in a time which is less than its interpulse period. Proof-of-concept experiments have separately demonstrated the accommodation of several tens of ports and the generation of 30-ns pulses at a pulse rate of 20 kHZ and an average power of several watts. The technology represented by the development of the RAMBO concept has direct application to a wide variety of commercial fields; prominent amongst which are precision machining, LADAR, telecommunications, and laser printing, to name but a few.

PLASMASOL CORP.
1345 Campus Parkway
Wall Township, NJ 07753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 216-8680
Mr. Richard Crowe
NAVY 02-207      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Terrorism - Survivability and Denial
Abstract:The specific goals of this proposed project is to develop a system capable of integrating into existing building infrastructure for the specific purpose of protecting against chemical and biological attacks. Significant progress has been made in the detection of chemical and biological agents as well as their destruction in bulk processing. There still exists a significant lack of technology to protect a building or similar large infrastructure in the event of a release of an agent. Current ventilation designs are vulnerable to attacks from either outside