---------- OSD ----------

114 Phase I Selections from the 02.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
OSD 02-H01      Awarded: 03JAN03
Title:Probabilistic Unit Life Status Estimation ( PULSE )
Abstract:The Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM) system must deal with artifact-laden, uncertain, and dynamic biomedical sensor data. We propose to address these critical issues directly with the development of the Probabilistic Unit Life Status Estimation (PULSE) suite of advanced Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) algorithms. BBNs provide probabilistic reasoning for dealing with uncertainty, and flexible modeling of real world problems. However, static BBNs do not explicitly provide temporal reasoning, which is necessary due to the dynamic nature of the WPSM sensor array data. We plan to utilize a formal extension to BBNs known as Temporal Belief Networks (TBNs), which adds the required temporal reasoning. TBNs combine the key features of flexible modeling, probabilistic reasoning, and temporal reasoning needed for the PULSE algorithms. We will use TBNs primarily to model the subject's clinical state, but also to model the sensor array hardware in parallel, obtaining metrics of sensor reliability which will improve the clinical state estimates. Finally, we will use the powerful sensitivity analysis feature of BBNs to isolate faults in the modeled sensor array, enhancing operational robustness. We plan to develop a prototype PULSE algorithm suite, and evaluate overall concept feasibility in a simulated physiological monitoring test, incorporating realistic sensor models. The Probabilistic Unit Life Status Estimation (PULSE) algorithm suite developed for clinical state estimation can be transferred directly from military to civilian telemedical applications. The potential is enormous for improving hospital, nursing home, and general civilian medical care. Additionally, the health benefits of more timely intervention in medical emergencies could be extended to people in many difficult, isolated, or hazardous occupations, including astronauts, divers, drivers, firemen, guards, miners, pilots, policemen, etc. Finally, the extension of the WPSM system to use in biometric identification and authentication would further develop the market for biometrics in computer security.

GCAS, INC.
1531 Grand Avenue, Suite A
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 591-4227
Mr. Maurizio Borsotto
OSD 02-H01      Awarded: 01JAN03
Title:Life Sign Decision Support Algorithms for Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM)
Abstract:This proposal focuses on computational algorithms for an Expert System that interprets data from a suite of wearable physiologic sensors to infer a soldier's current clinical state on the battlefield. There is a pressing need in the military for such a tool, in consideration of the high level of casualty in the battlefield that could be avoided through a prompt identification of the wounded and a quick intervention. It has been recognized that it would be possible to avoid almost 90% of the casualties simply by promptly identifying the soldier and applying a tourniquet in the first 30 minutes after the injury. Specifically, the computational algorithms will assess with high level of reliability if the soldier is dead, alive or in an unknown state. The algorithms will also identify corrupted data and the mechanisms responsible for their corruption. These mechanisms could be either a momentary fault, like noise in the data transmission circuit, or failure of some device. Techniques relying on the Bayesian Network framework provide valuable tools for tackling the problem with success. During Phase I we will investigate and identify the most appropriate methodologies, which will be fully implemented during Phase II. This set of computational tools will have both military and civilian applications. The health monitoring system developed with such tools have a broad base of applications. Telemedicine and web-based monitoring of home health patients and elderly people just represent two major fields. Other relevant fields are in all the situations where health or life is at stake, and quick intervention is required. As an example, mountaineers could clearly benefit from a monitoring system featuring global positioning system capabilities. The athletes represent another category that could be greatly interested. In fact, they need to monitor their training stress in order to achieve the maximum result. Other categories involve police officers, fire fighters and professional scuba divers, just to cite a few.

ADVANCED SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
39255 Country Club Drive, Suite B-12
Farmington Hills, MI 48331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 553-9375
Dr. Hal C. Cantor
OSD 02-H02      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Non-Invasive, Continuous, Transdermal Glucose Monitor w/Actuator Control
Abstract:AST proposes to develop a non-invasive methodology able to continuously monitor blood glucose concentration. As opposed to employing near infrared spectroscopy, which suffers from the limitations of sensitivity, stability, and repeatability, AST intends to employ direct measurement of glucose, via amperometric sensors coated with glucose oxidase membranes, from minute amounts of interstitial fluid obtained transdermally. AST's proposed transdermal sampling system, with incorporated micro-fluidics and micro-sensor technologies, will provide the capability to transduce the concentration of glucose, as well as other biological molecules including blood electrolytes, hormones, therapeutic drugs, etc., in near real-time with the potential for closed-loop feedback control to administer appropriate drugs or sound an alarm (via auditory, visual, or telemetric communication), while weighing only a few grams. Glucose concentration in blood can be used to determine metabolic status as well as asses the degree of stress a person is under. When AST's device is outfitted with closed-loop control capabilities, automated infusion of insulin can be achieved in the effort to maintain euglycemia at all times, with insulin presentation in a near-physiological temporal manner. This process, "intensive therapy" for diabetes management, appears to offer the greatest hope of preventing diabetic complications by achieving tight control of blood glucose concentration. The current commercial trend is towards continuous, non-invasive, on-line and real-time assay and analysis of biological processes in an automated manner. AST's transdermal monitoring device will be capable of providing this functionality in ambulatory individuals. The molecular specificity of detection by AST's sensor technology is dependent only upon the membrane composition covering each of the individual biodetectors within the array, providing the ability to customize the biodetector array to monitor glucose, stress hormones, reproductive hormones, biological toxins, pesticides, medicinal and recreational drugs, electrolytes, and many other clinically important molecules.

DELTA SEARCH LABS, INC.
400 Technology Square
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 551-4616
Mr. Vidi Saptari
OSD 02-H02      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Non-invasive, Transdermal, Near Infrared Glucose Monitor
Abstract:The project aims at developing an accurate and a reliable noninvasive, transdermal blood glucose monitoring device, based on the near infrared absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose level provides a gauge for the effectiveness of the body in converting food intake into energy. Abnormal blood glucose level signals diabetes, a disorder that affects over 100 million people worldwide. Noninvasive measurement of blood glucose involves directing a near infrared beam into a selected body site and analyzing spectral changes of the diffuse-reflected light due to blood glucose variations. Two major challenges still exist: (i) clinically relevant blood glucose variations produces little quantifiable spectral changes, and (ii) strong interference from the phenotypic and physiologic variables mask near infrared glucose signals. As a result of hardware and software optimization techniques, our compact and economical research-grade instrument provides a consistent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ~200,000 over 200nm wavelength range, sufficient for sub-millimeter path-length glucose prediction. Additional hardware modifications will push SNR to ~1e6, which is needed for robust, accurate and reliable glucose sensors for field use. Concepts to compensate for phenotypic and physiologic interferences will be developed and tested in Phase I. Concepts may include hardware, software and procedural techniques. The worldwide market for glucose monitoring product is estimated to have exceeded $3 billion in the year 2000. Low-cost, portable noninvasive glucose monitoring devices will replace the currently painful and expensive finger-pricking method. The technology can also be further developed and/or modified to measure other blood and tissue metabolites, such as cholesterol, protein and alcohol levels. The technology has various potential applications in other areas as well. These include the food and beverage industries, petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, where continuous and non-intrusive monitoring is needed.

LIGHTOUCH MEDICAL
Suite 123, 600 Genessee Street
Syracuse, NY 13202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 478-1670
Dr. Pamela Hagrman
OSD 02-H02      Awarded: 01JAN03
Title:Noninvasive, Transdermal, Near Infrared Glucose Monitor
Abstract:LighTouch Medical uses tissue modulated, near infrared Raman spectroscopy to measure blood glucose in human fingetips in vivo noninvasively. Using this proprietary and completely painless technique, LighTouch is able to measure blood glucose concentrations with accuracy and precision equal to standard fingerstick tests in the entire relevant range of blood glucose levels including below 100 mg/dl. The proposed effort pertains to the development of an external calibrator accessory. Will allow measurement of blood glucose without removing blood.

DIAMOND VISIONICS LLC
400 Plaza Drive, Suite-A, PO Box 1276
Vestal, NY 13851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-8526
Mr. Graham Upton
OSD 02-H03      Awarded: 16DEC02
Title:Advanced Ureteroscopy Simulation Workstation for Medical
Abstract:The challenges associated with surgery are diverse and often subtle. In order for a surgeon to become proficient, a thorough understanding of a wide range of surgical techniques is required. This includes the ability to assess a given situation and take the appropriate actions. These techniques require fine perceptual motor skills and attention to detail. The difficulty of open surgery notwithstanding, MIS introduces additional challenges. With MIS, the surgeon's view is limited to a 2-D representation of what the camera sees. Rather than a full view of the surgical field, only a relatively small area can be viewed at any given time. Also, the perspective-viewing angle can only be slightly altered, making depth perception very challenging. These limitations require surgeons to develop highly tuned spatial cognition skills in order to mentally reconstruct the 3-D environment. Diamond Visionics will provide useful solutions to the challenges stated above based on our extensive background in medical simulation and visualization. In Phase I, Diamond Visionics will investigate the feasibility of developing a proof-of-concept PC-based MIS simulation system for endoscopic surgical simulation. This system will greatly improve surgeon effectiveness by providing realistic visualization, haptics, and validated courseware. Federal and non-federal markets for the results of this research include a wide spectrum of medical facilities and institutions. The ureteroscopy simulator will deliver high realism and maintain low cost. This means that these devices can be attainable for all medical schools and hospitals. In addition, as it becomes apparent that simulation improves procedural performance in the operating room, these devices could be used for board certification. If adopted by insurance companies, medical malpractice premiums could be reduced if the doctors successfully complete a course with the ureteroscopic simulator. The federal market is included in the section above as part of the US market. However, the international market will be investigated throughout the Phase I effort. The commercialization strategy will be refined based on market surveys and trade studies. This will ensure that we develop a product that a wide variety of users would benefit from.

IMMERSION MEDICAL, INC.
55 West Watkins Mill Road
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 984-3706
Dr. Joseph L. Tasto
OSD 02-H03      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Advanced Ureteroscopy Simulation Workstation for Medical
Abstract:This project aims to demonstrate technical design feasibility for a training simulator for therapeutic ureteroscopy. Key software advances proposed include generating photo-realistic endoscopic views with appropriate lighting, generating fluoroscopic and 3-D transparent views, simulating local tissue surface deformation and real-time collision processing, simulating therapeutic interventions (wire and basket, laser, lithotriptor), and integrating these elements with a computer-based model of the urinary tract. Proposed hardware advances include simulating visual and tactile feedback for insertion and visualization of urethra, bladder, ureters, and calyces of the kidney, designing a method for automatic tool recognition and capture by the interface device, tracking nested devices with working channel force feedback, and using a gas pressure gauge to accurately simulate syringe haptics. The project would also entail developing instructional design and medical content, and participation of clinical subject matter experts in periodic reviews. The proposed virtual simulation platform has great commercial potential because it will be built on a commercially established simulation platform (Immersion's AccuTouchr Endoscopy), and it is a high patient volume procedure.

SIMBIONIX CORP.
11000 Cedar Ave., Suite 210
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 229-2040
Ms. Edna Chosack
OSD 02-H03      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Advanced Ureteroscopy Simulation Workstation for Medical
Abstract:Minimally invasive surgical procedures, although highly beneficial to the patients, require a high level of technical skill, for example, ureteroscopic endoscopic surgical procedures involve inserting a rigid cystoscope into the urethra, introducing a guidewire to the ureteral orifice and switching to a flexible ureteroscope while viewing the procedure on a monitor. There is a growing demand for hands-on training programs for these difficult and highest risk procedures. This phase I commercialization project will demonstrate the feasibility of providing a personal computer-based ureteroscopic endoscopic surgical simulator to train military and civilian healthcare professionals. Simbionix Corporation has a proven record of developing pc-based medical simulators, for complicated, highly risky and least-encounter endoscopic simulation procedures. Evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of medical simulators for training is constantly mounting. And the readiness of the medical world to use simulators in training is likewise accruing. Simbionix Corporation, headquartered in Cleveland, benefits from a close collaboration with the prestigious Cleveland Clinic Foundation. This project will bring to the surgical training market a high fidelity simulator, capable of training health professionals to perform numerous procedures such as stone extraction, stone lithotripsy, opening of strictures and complicated procedures with difficult learning curves such as transurethral resection of the prostate. Many leaders in surgical education and surgical professional associations have become convinced that simulation is the future of medical training. The timing for medical simulators to break through into broad use for training as with the airline industry and to be incorporated into the US physicians certification and recertification process is better than ever. A few factors contribute to the likelihood of successful commercialization of the product: the high quality of simulation together with physician's acceptance of using computer-based technology. There is also increasing of public awareness of medical errors. At the same time there is a constant decline of health insurance reimbursement (Medicare leads this trend). That limits the time that is available for training while trying keeping hospitals profitable. At the same time there are more and more minimally invasive surgery procedures being developed and used that in turn need to be taught. The principal market of medical training, including academic hospitals, community based hospitals, large surgical clinics and continuing medical education centers is estimated to be $1 Billion annually. Medical societies are seeking alternatives for certification and credentialing of practicing physicians according to objective standards. TURP by itself is an estimated at $2 Billion annual market with growing demand for training programs. All these conditions seem to create an exceptional opportunity for an ureteroscopic simulator to become an integral part of medical training for health care professionals both in the army and civilian arenas. Having an effective medical training device will make these advanced medical treatments more available to all patients. Simbionix Corp. has a proven record of successfully commercializing training simulators for minimally invasive medical procedures. Its first product for gastrointestinal procedures was already sold to well-over 100 medical and training centers worldwide.

IDOLON TECHNOLOGIES
72 Stone Place
Melrose, MA 02176
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 665-9200
Mr. George Hovorka
OSD 02-H04      Awarded: 23DEC02
Title:Non-invasive Human Metabolic Status Monitor
Abstract:The requirement for a low-cost personal metabolic sensor that has the ability to detect high levels of breath metabolites arises from the need for personnel to do their duties with a high state of readiness in all deployment situations. The object of the Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of a compact metabolic monitor that has low energy/power requirements and is low cost to manufacture. This device will have a simple user interface and rugged construction. The aim of the proposed program is to build a prototype unit and evaluate it under a variety of realistic conditions. The results of the work are expected to be a pocket-sized monitor system capable of rapidly determining a soldier's metabolic status. The commercial application of this device will include diet compliance monitoring and applications in diabetes therapy.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. Steven M. Massick
OSD 02-H04      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Diode Laser-Based Ketosis Sensor
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I proposal will lead to the development of a sensor for detection of the early onset of ketosis by breath acetone measurements. The device will be hand-held, lightweight, and battery-powered. Near-infrared diode laser measurement of a gas-solid reaction product of acetone will afford increased sensitivity. The sensor will provide a rapid measurement of breath acetone concentration with 1.0 ppm to sub ppm detection limit from a single exhalation. The technology will provide important non-invasive monitoring of the diabetic state. Other applications include the management of ketogenic diets for epilepsy treatment, the evaluation of the nutritional status of emergency personel in extended field situations, and monitoring breath levels acetone for dairy cattle.

ANTHROTRONIX, INC.
387 Technology Drive
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-0156
Dr. Corinna Lathan
OSD 02-H05      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Monitoring the Warfighter
Abstract:The goal of this Phase 1 proposal is to examine the technical feasibility of a cognitive performance self-assessment wearable computer system for operational deployment. We will use the standardized and validated software for assessment of cognitive performance, ANAM - Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, which is a set of computer administered and scored tests of cognitive processing efficiency. An ANAM testbed will be developed that can evaluate commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and developing technologies. We will then evaluate the technical feasibility of the major system components - Speech input and control, visual and auditory display, and alternative input devices. Human factors issues will be addressed through a user-centered design process including initial and final design reviews by an expert panel, focus groups with potential system users, and laboratory based usability tests. AnthroTronix, Incorporated, has extensive experience developing advanced human-computer interface for a variety of military operational environments and has assembled a world class group of consultants to act as our expert panel. The system identified in Phase 1 will be developed and tested in Phase 2 and expanded in Phase 3 to include other military and consumer applications. People who are experiencing a transient cognitive impairment (because of fatigue or sleep loss, illness or medication, etc.) may be error prone in situations that tax the limits of their reduced mental capacity. Furthermore, in complex work environments, any cognitive overload imposed by high task demands can lead to performance errors. Such conditions have frequently been implicated in major aviation and industrial accidents. Advances in portable computing technology, multimodal interfaces, and methods of neuropsychological assessment could enable us to bring cognitive assessment to these operational environment. Feedback of the assessment could enable an individual to modify the task, his or her own behavior, or some other system component thereby increasing performance and reducing the risk of error. Markets for potential commercial application areas for this type of technology include a remote site, fit-for-duty assessment tool; a portable cognitive performance assessment system in hospitals for patients with restricted mobility; and a system that enables testing of those who must operate in a hands-free, eyes free environment.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
OSD 02-H05      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Wearable Cognitive Warfighter Evaluation System
Abstract:The modern warfighter has to process a large amount of constant critical information. While cognitive performance evaluation of a warfighter's capabilities can be done in the lab, it has yet to be taken out into the field where the real stresses occur. Fortunately, it is now technologically possible to gather warfighter cognitive workload data through the use of wearable computers. Current cognitive workload systems are large and cumbersome. More effective systems need to be much smaller, easier to transport, easier to operate, and impose less burden upon the warfighter. This can be achieved using a wearable computing platform, incorporating advanced monitoring and interaction interfaces that enhance its operability. Cybernet has significant experience in the ongoing development of advanced human computer interfaces, presenting a unique opportunity for this topic area. To accomplish this task, Cybernet proposes to thoroughly research both the systematic task analysis research and cognitive task analysis research to develop an innovative approach for measuring and analyzing the cognitive workload of the battlefield warfighter using wearable computer technology. Options for monitoring and collecting data from the warfighter with advanced interface controls include the use of hands-free interface solutions, such as voice recognition, eye tracking, and gesture and behavior recognition. The proposed technology will be leveraged into Cybernet's OpenSkies Massive Multiplayer training and gaming simulation business. Development and use of cognitive models will help us to greatly enhance game play and fun. Cybernet has developed a massively multi-player simulation technology for air, sea and land game and simulation play . While this technology was originally developed for low cost government simulation for training, the Company plans to adapt the technology to revolutionize the consumer network gaming and flight simulator industry. The Company plans to distribute its OpenSkies simulation products at retail into the market, which is currently defined by Microsoft Flight Simulator, ProPilot, and Flight Unlimited.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2427
Dr. Eileen B. Entin
OSD 02-H06      Awarded: 30DEC02
Title:Design and Validation of Simulation-based Training for Emergency First Responders
Abstract:Simulation-based training is a promising instructional tool for training first responder military and civilian emergency personnel but its growth and adoption into practical use in training programs has been significantly hindered by the lack of validation. We will address this challenge through two interrelated objectives. We will design a validated training program for first responders that uses simulation technology effectively to increase skill levels. We will also demonstrate, in the process of developing this training program, the methods by which such training should be developed and validated. Our technical objectives include identifying the training needs of the first responder and mapping those to the strengths of simulators to inform the design of effective and optimal configurations of simulator-based training programs for first responders. We will draw upon the systematic measure-development process pioneered by Aptima for military aviation to design and develop a set of performance measures. The Phase I work will culminate in a proof of concept demonstration of our training program and validation methodology using a simulator in collaboration with the Harvard Medical School, Center for Medical Simulation. There will be two products at the end of Phase II-firstly the training program itself, to be transitioned into a variety of first-responder environments, and secondly, the methods used to design, develop, and validate the training, including the measures, and the scenarios, which can be applied in other domains to design and validate simulation-based training for medical skills. The validation process we will develop can be used to inform the design of appropriate simulation-based training programs that leverages the strengths of each modality of simulator or training method. The resulting tool can be targeted to both government and commercial sectors in both a horizontal and a vertical market expansion. This tool will allow commercial developers of medical simulators as well as medical researchers to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the simulators for training. It will help medical schools and other medical training institutions in the design of effective training programs. Such a tool will make valuable contributions in all sectors to identify and foster the improved design, growth, acceptance, and adoption of the most effective medical simulator technologies. The far-reaching result will be reduction of error and improvement of patient safety for crossing the quality chasm in healthcare.

VEREFI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
PO Box 396
Hershey, PA 17033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(866) 884-8373
Dr. Randy S. Haluck
OSD 02-H06      Awarded: 31DEC02
Title:Virtual Airway Trainer: A Simulation Workstation for Endotracheal Intubation
Abstract:Verefi Technologies aims to establish the feasibility of a simulation trainer for endotracheal intubation. We will build on Verefi's existing computer simulators for wound suturing and lumbar puncture to create the Virtual Airway Trainer. In the traumatized patient or soldier, endotracheal intubation is frequently the initial and most important life-saving procedure. In this setting, improper tube placement is the most common cause of preventable death. Intubation in the traumatized patient or soldier is often difficult due to poor ergonomics and lighting, associated head, neck, and facial trauma, and blood and vomitus in the airway. A simulation trainer will allow practice and experience in a variety of challenging intubation situations. The trainer will consist of a mock endotracheal tube with haptic feedback coupled to a computer controlled mannequin head with mechanically controlled airway geometry. Rich, accurate, 3D graphics will instruct and test the user on key anatomy and proper technique. Trauma surgeons, EMTs, military medical trainers, and anesthesiologists will be enlisted for development. This research will lead to a product with wide commercial application for civilian and military medical training programs and U.S. hospitals. This project will also lead to innovative simulator technology for future trainers for emergency medical procedures. The Virtual Airway Trainer will be a new simulation platform for emergency medical first-responders that will provide instruction the critical skill of endotracheal intubation to ensure preparedness for the traumatized patient or soldier. Our simulator will incorporate new web-based and computer-generated instructional methods which will increase the educational potential of the simulator over currently available methods. The Virtual Airway Trainer will have broad commercial applications wherever skill and training for endotracheal intubation are required including residency training programs, military medical training programs, emergency medical training programs, and private hospitals.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2427
Dr. Eileen B. Entin
OSD 02-H07      Awarded: 27JAN03
Title:A Web-Enabled Authoring Tool for Communicating Medical Risks
Abstract:Research on framing suggests that an individual's decisions about medical treatments can be affected by whether the information about the impacts of alternative treatments are framed positively (in terms of benefits) or negatively (in terms of risks). The goal of this project is to develop a web-enabled authoring tool for communicating medical risks that advises clinicians on how risk information should be framed and how the information should be presented so individuals can make treatment decisions that accurately reflect the objective data about risks and are consistent with their own values. In Phase I we will review the research literature on framing and information presentation and develop an experiment plan to conduct research on unresolved issues. We will also develop the requirements and an initial prototype for the authoring tool based on our literature review. In Phase II we will carry out the research program designed in Phase I, and apply the results to the development of the authoring tool. We will test the authoring tool using a range of use cases to insure that it is usable by clinicians and that the risk information that is developed is complete and comprehensible to patients. The value of this work is that it will allow authors to communicate information about risks in a way that is clear and comprehensible, and that allows individuals to make decisions that are in accordance with the objective data and with which they are comfortable. The advantage of a web-enabled tool is that it allows authors to easily update and modify information when necessary and allows end users ready access to the information. In addition to its use for communicating medical risks, the tool can be applied to communication about risks in other public and private sectors such as financial, nuclear, or transportation. The tool will be applicable for any commercial company that needs to communicate risks associated with the use of its products.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
OSD 02-H07      Awarded: 28JAN03
Title:Intelligent Authoring Tool for Informed Consent
Abstract:We propose to specify, design, and prototype an intelligent authoring tool for informed consent. This limited prototype will demonstrate the feasibility of helping users create complete and accessible informed consent documents. The authoring system will prompt the user for the information required in an informed consent document. This information may contain decision biases, such as framing effects, which will automatically be detected and corrected by the authoring tool. We will use our expertise in intelligent authoring and knowledge acquisition to create this system, while relying on a diverse set of subject matter experts to assist us with domain knowledge. Jon Merz, a bioethicist, and Susan Brown, a regulatory documents specialist, will both be involved in this project. The end results of this Phase I effort will be a prototype authoring tool that creates informed consent documents capable of presenting risk information to the patient in a sufficiently thorough, understandable, and unbiased manner while still providing legal protection to the care provider, as well as the specification and design of the system to be completed in Phase II. The two main benefits for clinical medicine and medical research are a greater understanding of framing effects in informed consent and a method of creating complete, accessible, and unbiased informed consent documents.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1810 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 378-6001
Dr. Michelle Sams
OSD 02-H07      Awarded: 27JAN03
Title:Effectively Communicating Medical Risks
Abstract:We propose to design and develop an effective medical risk communication tool, called CONSULT. The design will be based on an evaluation of the empirical research and studies that address risk perception factors and methods for improving risk communication. These include addressing issues in understanding probabilities, as well as emotional, social, media, and trust factors. A CONSULT authoring tool will be developed so that medical professionals and researchers can create consultations for new medical issues, as well as update information for existing issues. A key capability of the tool is the ability to build the risk probability models that are graphically displayed and interactive. These are the models that relate the client's personal data and profile (medical history, lifestyle choices) to the various risk outcomes (e.g., probability of side effects, or of recurrence of disease). The authoring tool will be designed so that there will be no requirement for programming languages or scripting. Clients can interact with CONSULT to play out `what-if' scenarios and view alternative consequences of choices. The types of information, multimedia, and presentation style will be customized to the individual based on their personal data and concerns profile. CONSULT is expected to provide benefits for clients, medical professionals, and researchers. Increased compliance with medical policies results in fewer health problems, reduces health care costs, and increases the readiness of personnel and troops for duty. CONSULT assists medical professionals to communicate medical risks to organizations and individual clients, exchange and update risk probability models among scientific community, and provide better patient care and health outcomes. In addition, CONSULT can be used as a research tool for evaluating alternative methods for effective risk communication.

BIO-TRACK LLC
800 East Leigh Street
Richmond, VA 23219
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 828-9329
Mr. Mark Licata
OSD 02-H08      Awarded: 28NOV02
Title:SOF Critical Care Medical Tools
Abstract:Current commercial market offers many products that may form the basis from which to proceed, these devices were not designed with the original intent to perform in the austere environment of combat by minimally trained personnel where evacuation and access to higher echelons of medical care are likely to be significantly delayed. The overarching challenge will be to design robust light-weight and easy to use critical care medical tools which meet the unique needs of SOF warfighters. Proper design of such devices should allow their application to known salvageable injury patterns with a minimum amount of failure. Successful design and creation of such devices will also provide advances in civilian emergency medical care. I - Development of a tourniquet that: a) Can be carried by each warfighter as a standard issue item. b) Can be easily self-applied using one hand in the event of that one extremity is incapacitated or required for other immediate action. c) Can be easily self-adjusted in terms of placement and in applied circumferential pressure allowing the user to know the pressure applied at any given moment. d) Ability to determine the safe limits of application in terms of tourniquet pressure, time, and perhaps even determine systemic blood pressure. e) Ability to apply the tourniquet directly to the wound with ports in the device for delivery of hemostatic, anesthetic, and antimicrobial agents to the wound without removing the tourniquet. f) Could be potentially incorporated into clothing and be in place at all times during mission. II - Development of an Airway Management Device that: a) Can be blindly placed and in correct position 100% of the time. b) Can be placed with no manipulation of the cervical spine c) Provides protection against aspiration d) Provides for gastric decompression e) Tamponades ororpharyngeal bleeding f) Prevents impending airway occlusion g) Provides adequate ventilation in the face of decreased chest wall compliance/high airway pressure h) Allows for subsequent endotracheal intubation without prior removal of the airway adjunct

PI MEDICAL, INC.
2800 Patton Road
St. Paul, MN 55113
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 634-3118
Dr. Anja Metzger
OSD 02-H08      Awarded: 28NOV02
Title:SOF Critical Care Medical Tools
Abstract:When military personnel are assigned to remote locations, are in combat, and are without a medic, the need for a lightweight and reliable system that stabilizes the airway following trauma is critical. Utilizing our unique understanding of airway compromise, we propose to design a system that can be used to establish an airway successfully and quickly in an unconscious person with an obstructed airway. The proposed system would enable military personnel with little medical training and acting in total darkness to place a device in the wounded soldier's airway to sustain the airway for a period of 60 minutes to 6 hours. The system shall not only serve to maintain the airway, but will also protect the airway from endogenous body fluids. Furthermore, the ability to easily access and deploy the airway maintenance system without compromising one's location by having to visualize the anatomy through illumination is critical to the mission and the persistence in combat of the warfighters. Finally, the system shall be compact, lightweight, include a minimal number of components, and require minimal training. Commercialization potential for a novel airway management system lies in the field of emergency medicine. Highly trained paramedics or emergency physicians sometimes experience difficulty in establishing an airway. Poor lighting in the field, accessibility to accident victims, and major head trauma are some of the situations were the proposed airway maintenance system could be beneficial to emergency medicine in life or death situations. Furthermore, this system could be utilized in situations encountered in remote areas such as the wilderness, bodies of water, in the air, offshore oil platforms, mountains, and in any other emergency situations where access to medical personnel and facilities is delayed.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-6411
Mr. Marc Drucker
OSD 02-H08      Awarded: 02DEC02
Title:SOF Critical Care Medical Tools
Abstract:SOF medics and operators require two pieces of FDA-approved equipment in order to provide critical care on the battlefield in many situations; a one-handed tourniquet, and an airway management device. While there are many devices on the commercial market that provide these functions for civilian applications, there are no products designed to meet the unique requirements of the SOF. This proposal addresses problems that are encountered by Special Operation Forces (SOF) medics with existing emergency medical tourniquets and airway devices. SOF places unique demands on medical equipment, driven by the types of operations they perform, the austere location that they operate in, and their remoteness from conventional military medical support. The performance requirements of equipment used by SOF medics differ significantly from civilian, Emergency Medical Technician (EMT), and hospital practices that drive the design of modern emergency medical equipment. This proposal plans to meet the needs of SOF for specially designed critical care medical tools with an innovative solution. Our approach to this problem combines a COTS-based mechanism that is specifically modified to meet the multiple needs of the SOF with an electronics package that deliver real-time spoken care instructions to potentially untrained users under duress. This solution meets the SOF needs through a medical tool that is lightweight, compact, and engineered for rapid battlefield application. The device shall provide care that is consistent with the SOF needs, recognizing the need to save a soldier who may be many days removed from advanced medical care. The electronics component will provide step-by-step care instructions to assist the untrained operator in the correct application of the device, increasing the patient's chance for survival.

GLOBAL EMEDICINE (DBA MEDANTIC TECHNOLOGY)
2710 W. Burbank Blvd.
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 718-4181
Dr. Gregory Thompson
OSD 02-H09      Awarded: 21JAN03
Title:Global Treatment Protocol Course via Advanced
Abstract:For this Phase I project, Medantic Technology (MT) proposes to develop an algorithmic treatment protocol structure that can be populated with approved treatment protocols and embedded within an intelligent tutoring system, combining both didactic and simulation pedagogical platforms. MT will leverage its experience in Military Medicine, instructional design and Distance Learning, including both didactic and patient simulation technology, to deliver the conceptual design, functional and technical specifications for a complete training solution, as well as sample demonstrations of the new technology. The dual method (demonstration and practice) training system will be fully implemented in Phase II and will be Web-based for worldwide access. Didactic content will be available on handheld devices for remote use. The Web-based solution will include an LMS for tracking and reporting content usage and student performance. By re-purposing Medantic Technology's existing clinical knowledge base along with the new algorithmic data structure and protocol simulation architecture developed in this Phase I, Phase II work can include development of a decision support tool as an operational aid to healthcare personnel when implementing diagnostic and treatment protocols. With simple modification of the protocol simulation platform, this tool could provide synchronous, patient-specific protocol guidance, including via handheld devices. The Institute of Medicine's 1999 report on medical errors resulted in greater emphasis on, and demand for methods that reduce human fallibility. Training and re-training healthcare personnel in the proper implementation of treatment protocols is one important method of promoting standard practices; use of intelligent decision support tools is another. Distance Learning provides an efficient, cost-effective method for training healthcare personnel in non-threatening environments. However, to be effective, the instructional content must be engaging and must adopt optimal instructional design and sound pedagogical methodologies. Through repetition of dual methodology (demonstration and practice) training sessions, in a DL environment, deep memory and knowledge retention can be promoted more effectively than by repetition of a single method alone or by a single cycle of demonstration-practice, as occur in traditional educational settings. The new instructional system to be developed will provide a cost-effective way (build one, deliver many) for educators and learners alike to remotely access such a dual-method DL environment anywhere, anytime, every time. The resulting product will provide both an effective training system and a commercially important decision support tool within federal, academic, and private sector markets. Once developed, the new system's impact on medical error rates can be tested.

JXT APPLICATIONS, INC.
1122 Brewster Drive
Dayton, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 335-2108
Ms. Roberta S. Gearhardt
OSD 02-H09      Awarded: 23JAN03
Title:Global Treatment Protocol Course via Advanced
Abstract:According to the Institute of Medicine, within the United States an estimated 44,000 to 98,000 deaths occur each year because of preventable medical errors resulting in $29 billion in additional health care burdens. These errors can be traced to human factors despite the best intentions of medical personnel. The types of errors cover a broad range from medication errors, incorrect procedures, equipment misuse, to poor record keeping. They include all personnel involved in patient care. Within the military, medical personnel at all echelons lack formal protocol training for assessing patients and reporting patient conditions to physicians that would allow the latter to make the best possible patient diagnosis and direct the medical personnel to provide the best possible initial treatment until the patient can be transported to a medical facility. Some civilian medical communities are working to overcome this problem but no national standardization of medical treatment protocols for first responder personnel exists at this time. The focus of this program is to develop standardized first responder protocols for military and civilian use and to develop an Advanced Distributive Learning (ADL) web-based training course accessible world wide via PC and palmtop computer to train them. Patients will benefit most from this effort because of standardized protocols which lead to better and more effective communications between first responders, their colleagues, and physicians. The military services will benefit because fewer medical errors will be made that lead to unnecessary loss of personnel, corresponding warfighting capability, and the associated monetary cost. The civilian medical community will benefit because it will be able to take advantage of the work accomplished for the military and adapt it for use at little extra cost. Medical personnel, military and civilian, will benefit because the standardized protocols will enable them to do a better job and the web-based ADL training course will allow them to access timely training and a valuable job aid easily and quickly using PC and palmtop computer technology. Reduced errors will also reduce costs for everyone.

ONTAR CORP.
9 Village Way
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-9622
Dr. John Schroeder
OSD 02-H09      Awarded: 08JAN03
Title:Global Treatment Protocol Course via Advanced
Abstract:There is a need in the modern military to optimize the time physicians interact with patients. For example, a goal is for doctors to spend no more than 15 to 30 minutes with the patient during routine outpatient appointments. A great deal must be accomplished during this time, ranging from a review of the vital signs and assessment of the patient's conditions, through a diagnosis and ordering of prescriptions, laboratory tests, etc. to a possible referral or follow up; and discharge. A significant advancement to improving physician /patient interaction is a set of standardized medical guidelines across both the US military and civilian medical community, and better training in the utilization of the guidelines. The training must be comprehensive ranging from diagnosis, through treatment, to the prevention of future medical conditions. The proposed program will accomplish this objective by combining the recent advances in telemedicine with those of Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL). The combination of telemedicine and ADL will be a powerful tool for training the medical community in the use of medical guidelines and related information such as Electronic Medical Records (EMR). We will accomplish this by utilizing two technologies that we have in place at Ontar. The first is called TENOR (Training and Education Network on Request) which is a highly sophisticated ADL system. The second system is called ComPResS (Computerized Patient Records System). ComPResS assists physician by providing EMRs on handheld devices in a wireless environment. Ontar will use TENOR as the ADL distribution media and interface for the proposed program. It leverages internet/intranet technology to deliver high quality content almost instantly to any location. The system has advantages which make it ideal for this application. We will use ComPResS to access and display DoD EMRs via the CHCS II system. We anticipate commercial products resulting from the proposed work. Ontar has found that there is a large commercial market for products derived from DoD research. Approximately 50% of our total corporate sales are from such products, with 45% of these sales outside the United States. These products are used by over 2500 DoD, industrial and academic institutions. Distance learning is an important part of both the civilian and military medical training. The proposed system will find wide applications in medical school for the basic training of new physician. However, we feel that its most significant use will be as a system that allows practicing physician a convenient way to refresh their medical skill. We have initiate discussion with the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC) to identify business areas and partners. Our relationship with our subcontractor will allow us access to a major civilian hospital system.

SOLUS, INC.
6555 Fort Myer Dr., Suite 700
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 333-3175
Dr. Roger von Hanwehr
OSD 02-H09      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Medical Protocol Scenario Training Based on Rosetta Technology
Abstract:SOLUS Inc. proposes an advanced distributive medical protocol 'course assembly' and 'scenario training' technology designed to meet multiple military mission objectives, including global standardization of treatment and decision-making algorithms. The system will be designed around a medical image database-coupled and telemedicine-deployable 'forward and reachback' training module intended for use by medical personnel engaged in professionally-interactive implementation of treatment protocols that guide initial assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients throughout local (standard medical facility) and remote (field combat) settings. With an adaptively intelligent tutor embedded in the training system, extensive use of semiotically-based, widget configuration-driven graphic user interface elements will enhance system applicability under performance stress, multi-task decision-making, and linguistically or culturally-variable geopolitical settings. Phase I will include detailed development of sample protocol content (based on approved military medicine practice guidelines) in three areas: closed and penetrating head trauma, intervention for systemic shock of multiple etiologies, and NBC threat exposure or related onset symptomatology. Designed to be internet-accessible on cutting-edge portable computational technologies, system design will utilize a proprietary version of the cutting-edge 'Rosetta' scenario assembly software technology for authoring and generating interactive multimedia training modules, and for running complex high-throughput graphically-driven routines in distributed user environments known for decision-implementation-intensive dynamics. SOLUS Inc. proposes an advanced distributive medical protocol 'course assembly' and 'scenario training' technology designed to meet multiple military mission objectives, including global standardization of treatment and decision-making algorithms. The system will be designed around a medical image database-coupled and telemedicine-deployable 'forward and reachback' training module intended for use by medical personnel engaged in professionally-interactive implementation of treatment protocols that guide initial assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients throughout local (standard medical facility) and remote (field combat) settings. With an adaptively intelligent tutor embedded in the training system, extensive use of semiotically-based, widget configuration-driven graphic user interface elements will enhance system applicability under performance stress, multi-task decision-making, and linguistically or culturally-variable geopolitical settings. Phase I will include detailed development of sample protocol content (based on approved military medicine practice guidelines) in three areas: closed and penetrating head trauma, intervention for systemic shock of multiple etiologies, and NBC threat exposure or related onset symptomatology. Designed to be internet-accessible on cutting-edge portable computational technologies, system design will utilize a proprietary version of the cutting-edge 'Rosetta' scenario assembly software technology for authoring and generating interactive multimedia training modules, and for running complex high-throughput graphically-driven routines in distributed user environments known for decision-implementation-intensive dynamics.

THE GLOBAL TELEMEDICINE GROUP
1317 Vincent Place
McLean, VA 22101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-9640
Dr. Jay Sanders
OSD 02-H09      Awarded: 30JAN03
Title:Global Treatment Protocol Course via Advanced
Abstract:The Department of Defense recognizes a serious void in remote operational health care management and is searching for solutions to pressing medical readiness issues. New threats and new operational environments combined with a rapidly changing scientific database and scarce medical resources accelerate the demand for new tools and methods to enhance and strengthen remote medical management capabilties. Specifically, tools that distribute knowledge and capabilities to aid a range of first-responders in comprehensively evaluating a medical situation, guide the uniform collection and reporting of critical information, and provide a telemedicine clinical reach-back to medical experts are essential components of today's medical preparedness and response plans. The objective of this Phase 1 proposal is to design a framework for the development of a distributive, deployable, protocol-driven, training system with integrated telemedicine capabilities that will enhance and streamline the assessment and management of remote medical situations across military and civilian environments. Ultimately, the creation of this type of system could enhance the transfer of remote clinical and logistical information, expedite appropriate medical intervention, significantly leverage available medical resources and knowledge, reduce mortality, morbidity and the incidence of medical errors and reduce long-term injury related disabilities through rapid remote management of medical conditions. Potential Benefits: Ultimately, the creation of this type of system could enhance the transfer of remote clinical and logistical information, expedite appropriate medical intervention, significantly leverage available medical resources and knowledge, reduce mortality, morbidity and the incidence of medical errors and reduce long-term injury related disabilities through rapid remote management of medical conditions. Commercial Applications: It is now quite clear that the majority of continuing educational requirements for the healthcare provider (physician, nurse, medic etc.) will be done on a "just-in-time" basis both at the "point-of-care" and at the patient location (home or battlefield) utilizing wireless telecommunications infrastructure. Given this new process of care delivery it is apparent that the most critical resource will be the availability of evidence-based content and diagnostic treatment protocols provided over the distributed network infrastructure. The process for protocol development and the design of an infrastructure to support protocol distribution, represented in this proposal, will therefore have tremendous market potential.

COMMAND TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
405 Belle Air Lane
Warrenton, VA 20186
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 520-7973
Mr. Thomas Nicholas Meyer
OSD 02-H10      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Generative, Knowledge-based Approaches for Rapid
Abstract:Proposed here is an effort to develop a generative, knowledge-based instructional development and delivery system, Jenny, for simulation-based training. Courseware development with Jenny involves (a) populating a knowledge base representing the structure of subject-matter knowledge and (b) creating simulation-based and other instructional materials that are associated with the knowledge base. At delivery time, Jenny creates and manages instructional interactions that are responsive to a student model. The model is a representation for the knowledge base that is continuously updated based on student performance. Jenny will initially focus on procedure training, but will be designed to conform to a broader standards for interoperability of knowledge bases, instructional procedures, and instructional materials. In addition, the simulation-based delivery system will provide for instructional delivery through a variety of interfaces including the World Wide Web and virtual-reality systems. Jenny's approach will make it possible to fundamentally restructure the division of labor in the design, development, maintenance, and delivery of courseware. The result of this restructuring will be dramatic decreases in the costs and cycle times of instructional development and maintenance, and dramatic increases in the richness and responsiveness of instructional interactions offered to students. The goals are to (1) make it easy for subject-matter experts to develop high-quality interactive courseware, (2) make it possible to tightly couple the courseware to simulations that can vary over a wide range of types and fidelity, and (3) ensure that interactions with students are generated at run time directly from content knowledge and a dynamic model of the student's skills. There are two major groups of customers for authoring systems for simulation-based training. Potential customers include teachers, students, and schools which license applications developed with the tools and training development teams which use the authoring tools

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
OSD 02-H10      Awarded: 08JAN03
Title:ADAPT-MD: A Dynamic Adaptive Training System For Simulation-based Medical Training
Abstract: Abstract not available...

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Raman K. Mehra/Lingji Chen
OSD 02-H11      Awarded: 27JAN03
Title:Problem Oriented Information Networking Tool (POINT)-- A Cognitive Integrated Medical Data Display System
Abstract:With voluminous amount of patient data being collected in the process of providing medical services in any modern health care system, information overload has become an increasingly challenging problem that physicians face. In a typical patient-physician encounter, the physician only has limited time to collect relevant data from various sources, and therefore it is highly desirable that the computer system provides appropriate visualization and navigation tools for summarizing, exploring, processing, integrating and rapidly presenting large amount of medical data. Scientific Systems Company Inc., Dr. Qing Zeng from Harvard Medical School, and Dr. Douglas Rosendale from Grand Junction Veterans Affairs Medical Center, jointly propose to develop a knowledge-based, concept-oriented graphical data display system that provides for physicians a cognitive, "Gestalt" view of patients data. The proposed system will consist of four integrated parts: (1) knowledge acquisition and maintenance, (2) knowledge-based relevant data identification (interpretation, inference, analysis) (3) user interface design: graphical representation, customization, learning, and (4) data retrieval from various medical databases. The tasks that will be performed in Phase I are: (1) knowledge acquisition, (2) knowledge representation, (3) user interface design, (4) data retrieval, (5) proof-of-concept implementation, and (6) reports, meetings and Phase II recommendations. The technologies proposed in this effort, on knowledge acquisition, knowledge inference, customizable user graphical interface and universal data retrieval, are readily applicable to provision of health care not only within Department of Defense, but also within civilian settings that have extensive continuum of care business practices.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Satheesh Ramachandran
OSD 02-H12      Awarded: 01FEB03
Title:Medical Materiel Knowledge Discoverer (MMKD)
Abstract:Improving responsiveness requires continual innovation, and technology has created the opportunity to use knowledge discovery for innovation and continual improvement in supply chain logistics. DMLSS can use knowledge discovery to increase medical logistics support effectiveness while reducing costs in two distinct environments: Military Treatment Facilities (MTFs) and deployed theater forces. The changing composition of military activities, technology, and adversaries increases the possible rapid deployment of forces in a widening variety of scenarios, with more potential medical risks and challenges. Therefore, DMLSS must be able to rapidly deploy knowledge discovery and apply results to supply chain logistics and the early detection of critical events. However, while many excellent data mining tools exist, the process of knowledge discovery and its application is elusive (and frustrating) for most organizations. The main goal of the proposed initiative is to design, develop, and validate a Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) for the DoD Medical Logistics community. The main product of this effort will be the Medical Materiel Knowledge Discoverer (MMKD), a configurable, dashboard driven system for knowledge discovery with drill down capability for rapid navigation through data and rapidly deployable to capture knowledge, identify of out of balance conditions, and apply decision optimization techniques. The result of MMKD will be a solution for uncovering mission critical knowledge by users who are not data mining experts. The system will also have dashboard driven monitoring capability with drill down and decision tools based on the knowledge discovered. Immediate beneficiaries include the DOD medical supply chain managers as well as other supply chain managers. In the commercial arena, MMKD will be directly applicable for those in the medical supply chain industry; however, the rapidly configurable nature of MMKD will make it applicable to virtually any data rich environment, particularly when dealing with supply chain logistics.

PREMISE DEVELOPMENT CORP.
One Hartford Square West
Hartford, CT 06106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 246-3000
Mr. Joseph Adam
OSD 02-H12      Awarded: 24JAN03
Title:Data Mining for Early Identification of Critical Events/Conditions in Medical Logistics
Abstract:The primary objective of this proposal is to identify critical data mining and analytical tools and emerging technologies and methodologies that can be used to improve the entire military medical logistics/supply chain management. In addition, as part of this research and analysis, Premise Development Corporation will demonstrate the feasibility of creating modern and user-friendly "dashboards" that integrates Defense Medical Logistics Standard Support (DMLSS) data. These dashboards empower users to produce business intelligence and knowledge management on demand and include Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodologies such as control charts, pareto diagrams, histograms, and other advanced data mining and visualization techniques. The architecture and functionality of the proposed dashboards will provide a highly graphical presentation layer of data sets that are or will be in the DoD medical supply chain databases of the DMLSS system. In particular, a functional prototype system will be developed using sample data sets (provided as appropriate by the government) from the Joint Medical Asset Repository (JMAR) data warehouse. The JMAR data warehouse contains comprehensive and timely information with respect to the location, movement, status and identity of medical materiel (e.g., supplies, equipment, pharmaceuticals, blood and blood products, staff, transportation, etc.) throughout the world. Given the vast amounts of data available from increasingly sophisticated data sources, there exists a tremendous need to enable to make fast, data-driven decisions. Managers and administrators need to be able to make timely and data-driven decisions. Furthermore, although there are several OLAP and data mining tools available on the market, these tools are typically expensive general-purpose products and many do not adequately meet the needs of end users. Premise believes that the data mining and presentation technology resulting from this grant will be commercially successful primarily due to the following key benefits: Ease of Use Graphical User Interface Minimal Support Requirements "Smart" Alarms & Alerts Minimal Training Requirements Statistical Process Control Tools Relatively Low Cost Interactive Scenario Modeling

AMERICAN SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
3100 S. Vista Ave., Suite 230
Boise, ID 83705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 366-2773
Mr. Richard Hayhurst
OSD 02-P01      Awarded: 14MAR03
Title:High-k Dielectric Research for the Development of High Performance Compact Capacitors
Abstract:Development of compact, high energy, pulse power capacitors is the gating technology for Pulse Forming Networks (PFNs) used in directed energy and kinetic energy weapons and microwave systems. This proposal is to explore high permittivity (high-қ) dielectric films and superior electrode materials in a solid state configuration to obtain capacitors that have high voltage breakdown and low leakage with a substantial reduction in size and weight over those currently available. Although high-k dielectrics have superior capacitance per unit area they are inherently leaky. To achieve the superior capacitors for pulsed power devices, it will be necessary to explore high-k dielectrics within the framework of achieving a smaller overall package with high Vbd but with minimal leakage. Demonstration of the feasibility of using high-қ dielectrics and achieve high energy capacitors in a smaller package with reduced leakage will be done by fabricating and testing of prototype discrete capacitors. Clearly if successful, this technology can be used to fabricate the discrete capacitors and capacitor networks used in pulse forming networks (PFNs). Additionally, however, it can be incorporated in integrated circuitry (IC) and significantly increase capacitance per unit area, thereby reducing cost, as well as enhancing circuit performance.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
62 Kerry Dr.
Mansfield, MA 02048
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 339-0278
Dr. Hua Jiang
OSD 02-P01      Awarded: 19MAR03
Title:Ultrahigh Energy Density Capacitors with Nanostructured Electrolytes
Abstract:High energy density capacitors will serve various commercial and military applications, such as pulse power systems, pulsed lasers, high energy switches, radar modulators, and directed energy weapons. However, todays capacitors, especially high energy density storage capacitors, are the weakest link in power electronic system reliability. For many military and industrial power electronic systems, capacitors with several orders of magnitude improvement in energy density are needed. In this Phase I proposal, Boston Applied Technologies (BAT) proposes an innovative and low-cost technology to fabricate novel nanostructured electrolytes for high power capacitors. The innovative planar boundary nanostructured electrolyte is capable to have a permittivity 10 times better than any thin film materials available to date and low dielectric loss. Both the electrolyte nanolayers and electrode layers will be deposited using the metal-organic chemical liquid deposition method developed by scientists and engineers at BAT. We anticipate achieving high performance nanostructured electrolyte capable for ultrahigh energy density capacitors with capacitance per unit area of about 100 YF/cm2 and energy density of 40 J/g. Capacitors made from the proposed planar boundary nanostructured electrolyte will be at least 5 times smaller than those state-of-the-arts power capacitors with the same output energy. Success in the Phase I effort will lead to the commercial fabrication of a new generation capacitor for a wide range of power quality applications, such as electrical vehicles, high energy switches, DC/AC inverters, DC/DC converters and pulse forming networks, and aircraft engine ignition systems.

K SYSTEMS CORP.
1522 Marsetta Drive
Beavercreek, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-5151
Dr. Richard L.C. Wu
OSD 02-P01      Awarded: 14MAR03
Title:High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Capacitors
Abstract:The objective of this research is to investigate methods for the fabrication of high energy density capacitors using oxygen-doped aluminum nitride (O-AlN) films as dielectric medium and to test their performance at high temperature and high current modes. The electrical properties of amorphous (O-AlN) film make it a potential candidate for use in capacitors for pulse forming networks. Its desirable properties includes: (a) very high breakdown strength, (b) very high resistivity, (c) excellent thermal conductivity, (d) high chemical inertness to oxygen at high temperature, (e) very low dissipation factor, and (f) very high high decomposition temperature. Under this proposal it is intended to investigate: (1) optimum conditions for the growth of high quality amorphous O-AlN films on aluminum foil, glass and silicon wafer, and (2) the fabrication of prototype high energy density of O-AlN capacitors, and perform high voltage and high temperature testing. The compact, high temperature and high energy density of O-AlN capacitors with high reliability have a myriad of in both commercial and military applications. The high temperature capability of O-AlN capacitors will enable high temperature electrically-driven aircraft accessories to be realized such as engine-mounted actuators and remotely mounted flight control actuactors as envisioned for the far term More Electric Aircraft (MEA), Directed Energy Weapons (DEW), Directed Energy Attack Aircraft (DE ATAC), Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) and High Power Microwave (HPM) demonstration program. The military will also benefit from O-AlN capacitors in Electric Propulsion Power Conditioning, Space Based Laser (SBL), Space Plane Power Management and Distribution (PMAD). High energy density capacitors are greatly needed for DOD pulse power applications. Also, commercial applications are widespread. These include utilities, deep-well drilling gear, power supplies, commercial aircraft, communication satellites and automobiles, medical instruments, small and large appliances.

LITHIUM POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 489-4889
Dr. M. Zafar A. Munshi
OSD 02-P01      Awarded: 14MAR03
Title:New Polymer Dielectrics for Capacitors
Abstract:The primary objective of Phase I is to develop a hybrid copolymer dielectric material based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) in a solid-solution combination with polypropylene that provides excellent insulator properties in an intrinsic cell design that delivers at least 45 J/cc and a demonstration of its feasibility in an initial prototype cell that delivers at least 10 J/cc at a projected cost per unit performance well below present cost. This hybrid polymer chemically stabilizes the high activity of PVDF and improves the electrical properties of PVDF resulting in a material with considerably improved energy density and electrical stability. Our objective will be to demonstrate the performance of this material in thin film form and to develop manufacturing procedures, specifically extrusion and biaxial orientation, for fabricating large area, thin films materials that can be metallized and wound into full-size film capacitors. The results of this development will be a new hybrid polymer dielectric that demonstrates increased performance values, including, higher energy density, lower dissipation factor, higher insulation resistance, higher breakdown voltage, high rep rate properties, improved reliability, higher temperature stability, and higher piezoelectric activity in finished products. Maximizing the energy density, improving its electrical stability and lowering the cost per unit of energy will open up a commercial market of this new design of metallized film capacitors. Such film material may have dual-use applications in capacitors and sensors, including, defibrillators, aerospace, defense, automotive bumper sensors, and electric power generation.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 694-8054
Mr. William Hall
OSD 02-P02      Awarded: 15DEC02
Title:High Current and Voltage Diodes for Power Switching
Abstract:Silicon carbide diodes capable of the standard blocking voltages of 600V, 1200V, and 3300V and low forward currents have been developed and demonstrated, however packaged diodes suitable for higher current DOD applications are not presently available. In Phase I, SatCon and its partners will determine the feasibility of providing packaged SiC diodes in each standard voltage category but capable of much higher forward currents, suitable for use as flyback diodes in higher power converters for DOD applications. Feasibility will focus on the technicalities of economical high-current, high-temperature packaging, but will also consider the practical issues of cost, availability and product qualification. Additionally, we will demonstrate a packaged 600V, 150A SiC diode operating at 100kHz or higher. SatCon and others have documented the significant advantage in power converter efficiency when SiC diodes are substituted for Silicon flyback diodes, however, the non-availability of packaged parts with current and voltage ranges useful for motor drives and higher-power converters has been a deterrent to their use. It is reasonable to believe that with time, this marketplace void will be naturally filled, but these high-current SiC diode products are needed now, and the three phases of this project: feasibility, demonstration, and manufacturing, will help bring products to market sooner.

SEMISOUTH LABORATORIES
One Research Blvd., Suite 201B
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 324-7607
Mr. Igor Sankin
OSD 02-P02      Awarded: 15DEC02
Title:High Current and Voltage Diodes for Power Switching
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to study the feasibility SiC rectifiers in high-voltage, high total current applications. Specifically, the Schottky barrier diode (SBD), JBS diode (JBS), and PiN diode device structures will be studied with strengths and weaknesses of each approach examined based on the system application needs and SiC material maturity. The insertion of SiC into high total current switch mode power supply (SMPS) motor controllers would significantly increase efficiency of electric vehicles. In addition, SiC rectifiers would allow for increased switching frequency of the SMPS, which would lead to smaller and lighter passive circuit components. Potential commercial applications of this technology include high total current SMPS for use in electric, hybrid-electric vehicles. General anticipated benefits are also derived from increasing the industrial base of SiC discrete device and epitaxy suppliers, which will provide market infrastructure to help support DoD and commercial system insertion.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
12214 Plum Orchard Dr
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 572-7834
Dr. Alexander Syrkin
OSD 02-P02      Awarded: 15DEC02
Title:High Current, High Voltage 4H-SiC Schottky Diodes for Power Switching
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop novel silicon carbide high-power large area Schottky diodes for military and commercial applications based on epi-wafers with reduced defect density. During last few years, TDI developed technology methods, which significantly reduce density of defects limiting device performances in silicon carbide. Recently TDI has demonstrated silicon carbide Schottky diodes up to 1.5 cm2 based on epitaxial structures grown on epi-wafers with reduced defect density. These results open the opportunity to fabricate robust high-power high-current SiC Schottky diodes. The goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate large area high power SiC Schottky diodes. In the Phase II, we will focus on the development of manufacturing technology for fabrication of SiC power Schottky diodes scaled to 1200 V and 120 A level based on low defect SiC epi-wafers. High performance SiC power Schottky diodes for switching applications will find a host of applications in military vehicles, air platforms, space platforms, and in commercial components like industrial motor drives, power converters and power supplies.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
12214 Plum Orchard Dr
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 572-7834
Dr. Vladimir Dmitriev
OSD 02-P02      Awarded: 15DEC02
Title:High power GaN pn diodes on bulk GaN substrates
Abstract:TDI proposes to develop GaN pn diodes for power fast-switching applications. The devices will employ low defect bulk n+-GaN substrates, low doped n-GaN voltage-blocking region grown, and Ga(Al)N p+-emitter. The main target of the program is to demonstrate GaN power rectifiers with blocking voltage > 3.3 kV, on-state resistance < 0.05 Ohm cm2 and forward conduction current > 10 A. The main goal of the Phase I is to prove the concept and demonstrate GaN pn diodes with blocking voltage over 1.2 kV. The use of bulk GaN substrates with reduced defect density will allow the fabrication of devices with excellent forward current characteristics and high reverse breakdown voltages with low leakage currents. Factors limiting device area and on-state resistance will be investigated. Device operations at high temperatures (up to 300oC) will be studies. The Phase II research program will be focused on increase of forward current capabilities and demonstration of packaged device stable for switching operations. High power GaN pn diodes will find a host of applications for fast-switching applications in military vehicles, air platforms, space platforms, and in commercial components like industrial motor drives, power converters and power supplies.

UNITED SILICON CARBIDE, INC.
New Brunswick Tech Center, 100 Jersey Ave.Bldg D
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 565-9500
Mr. Petre Alexandrov
OSD 02-P02      Awarded: 15DEC02
Title:Advanced High Current and Voltage SiC Diodes for Power Switching
Abstract:We propose to design, fabricate and develop an advanced SiC diode that can lead to (i) substantially reduced volume and weight of power systems, (ii) greatly expanded operating temperature range, and (iii) drastically improved power efficiency and enhanced radiation tolerance. In Phase I, we propose to compare and optimize different designs of the proposed SiC power diodes. We shall develop the critical processing technology to demonstrate the feasibility for the proposed SiC diode. We shall use 4H-SiC to fabricate and demonstrate the proposed diode up to 30 kW and prove that the proposed diode design is the best in comparison to conventional diodes. We shall, in Phase I, package the fabricated diodes for DC characterization to show its advantages over the conventional diodes. We shall also characterize the packaged SiC diodes in an inductively-loaded half-bridge inverter circuit to demonstrate its substantial switching advantages. In Phase II, we shall fully develop the processing technologies suitable for commercial manufacturing in two voltage categories up to 225 kW for DOD and commercial applications. The fabricated diodes will be packaged with Si IGBTs and SiC power switches and evaluated by using an inverter system. High performance SiC diode for high frequency, high power and high temperature applications including the Navy, the Air Force, and the Army high power motor control and power supply systems as well as numerous commercial applications.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
161 First Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 349-0819
Mr. Mark Harris
OSD 02-P03      Awarded: 10MAR03
Title:High Temperature Control Circuits for Rugged Duty Inverters
Abstract:This program will prove the practicality and feasibility of a high-temperature motor controller board suitable for operation at a heat sink temperature of 150C. We will design a microprocessor-based digital controller that will control an electric motor by means of PWM with the possibility to modify the PWM switching pattern, frequency, duty-cycle and deadtime. In Phase II, we will implement a PWM controller board for a three-phase DC-AC motor inverter that will operate at a 150C heat sink temperature. SatCon will work with military and commercial customers to define the requirments for both componet technology, i.e. gate drives, controls, and sensors, as well as the complete inverters functional at this elevated temperature. All forms of automotive power electronics would benefit from a shift to a much higher heat sink operating temperature, it would enable air cooling or one coolant loop and would generally reduce the size and weight of the systems. This would also enable much tighter integration of the power electronics with the machnes or systems being driven because temperature limitations will have been relaxed. By matching high temperature tolerant control circuitry with SiC power electronics a complete high temperature solution will be available for system integrators. These high temperature inverters would be of use to automakers for hybrid electric vehciles, as well as to the airframers for electric drives for flaps, landing gear etc, and shipyards for variable speed pumps and motor drives in many locations onboard ship. In addition many industrial applications could take advantage of the lighter weight and lower cost power inverters that will result as these products mature.

UQM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
425 Corporate Circle
Golden, CO 80401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 278-2002
Mr. Titus Herschberger
OSD 02-P03      Awarded: 13MAR03
Title:High-Temperature Control Circuitry
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I project is to develop high temperature control circuits for use in silicon carbide-based inverters operating at temperatures of 150C and higher. The specific objectives of this proposal are to research high temperature components, develop control circuit designs using available high temperature components, and analyze proposed designs to determine feasibility in inverter gate drive applications. UQM Technologies will research, design, and analyze high temperature control circuit designs to determine which has the best potential for application in high temperature, silicon carbide power converters. UQM Technologies is well positioned to develop inverter control circuits with 15 years of experience in designing inverters and brushless PM motors for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. A variety of gate drive topologies exist, a few of which will likely prove to be better suited to high temperature operation. High temperature silicon carbide power converter technology promises improved power density and a reduction in the size of the inverter and cooling system. The development of high temperature control circuits will enable the implementation of high temperature power converters because the components can be integrated inside a single package without the need for separating the high temperature from the standard temperature components. For packaging purposes, this integration results in improved electromagnetic noise performance, reduced cabling, and simplicity. The integration will also allow for faster development of high temperature power converter designs when the silicon carbide devices reach commercialization.High temperature designs will lead to reductions in cooling system size and weight, and also reduced overall system costs and improved system performance. Furthermore, higher temperature operation of power converters may become compatible with the coolant temperatures in internal combustion engines, eliminating the need for multiple cooling systems. This is a significant benefit for all hybrid electric vehicle applications, both military and commercial. Other applications in high power switching or hostile temperature environments could also benefit from development of advanced, high temperature power converters, such as spacecraft, aircraft, and electric power distribution systems. UQM Technologies has an existing product line of inverter designs ranging from 1 kW to over 100 kW that would benefit from further development of high temperature power converters.

ISOTHERMAL SYSTEMS RESEARCH
511 3rd St.
Clarkston, WA 99403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 758-2613
Mr. Thomas Weir
OSD 02-P04      Awarded: 18MAR03
Title:Phase-Change Cooling for Operational (Weapons)
Abstract:Spray cooling is a very effective convective heat transfer method. Although it is known that spray cooling performance is highly fluid dependent, and decays rapidly with increasing surface area, the relationships still are not well understood. Perversely, the most precipitous decline in cooling capability seems to occur in the region of the most commercial, long-term interest: digital electronic devices in ranging from a few to several millimeters in size. Moving out to larger areas of current DoD interest, such as laser combiners of several centimeters per side, the further reduction in cooling performance would appear to be comparatively minor. The ability to investigate these relationships for a variety of cooling requirements, with a minimum of experimentation for each special case, would be of great value. The proposed effort will result in a software utility with which to determine the optimum fluid, surface characteristics and operating parameters required for spray cooling of very high heat fluxes over small to large surface areas. Out of emerging necessity, spray cooling is rapidly gaining the attention of electronics OEMs. Electronic systems in the near future will contain many different components, such as power devices, microprocessors, graphics processors and even memory that will require advanced cooling techniques in varying degrees. The ability to quickly predict accurate detailed operating parameters, fluid choice and any surface enhancement requirements before final product definition will provide significant competitive value in a time-to-market driven world.

MICROENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2007 E. Fourth Plain Blvd.
Vancouver, WA 98661
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 694-3704
Dr. Reza Shekarriz
OSD 02-P04      Awarded: 18MAR03
Title:Nucleate Boiling of Nanofluids for Ultra High Heat Flux Thermal Management
Abstract:MicroEnergy Technologies, Inc. (MicroET) and the University of Washington propose to demonstrate the feasibility and the major advantages of a unique high heat flux cooling module which combines innovations in heat rejection with innovative rosette pump design to achieve heat rejection rates in excess of 1000 W/cm2 from the surface of a substrate. The most critical innovation is the use of ceramic nanoparticles suspension (i.e., SiC or aluminum oxide nanofluid) used as the heat rejection medium in which intense nucleate boiling produce extremely high heat fluxes. The piezoelectric rosette micropump geometry is integrated into the rosette cooling module to maintain a high enough flow rate through the parallel array of microchannels for efficient cooling. The proposed approach allows for distributed cooling of the electronics without the need for external pumping and the ability to provide localized control. During Phase I, we will perform analytical and computational modeling for system design and analysis, experimentally demonstrate the significant advantages and improvements in cooling system performance. The final product, ultra high heat flux thermal management system, in addition to application in defense technologies, will have a significant commercial value to a broader industry, including the aerospace and space electronics manufacturers. Efficient distributed cooling will reduce the risk of system failure, increase system throughput, and reduce the complexity, size, and weight of the system.

MUDAWAR THERMAL SYSTEMS, INC.
1291 Cumberland Avenue, Suite
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 463-6516
Mr. Michael T. Meyer
OSD 02-P04      Awarded: 18MAR03
Title:Phase-Change Cooling for Operational (Weapons) Environment
Abstract:The challenge in cooling Direct Energy (DE) weapons is to dissipate 500 - 1000 W/cm2 using compact, light-weight cooling hardware, low coolant flow rates and relatively low pressure drops. This is a formidable challenge considering those attributes are typically incompatible with very-high-heat-flux dissipation. Complicating the task of heat acquisition/transmission/rejection is the need to deploy such weapons in ground, sea, and air based platforms; each offers unique heat rejection challenges and limitations. Added to the mix of concerns are potential shock and vibration, and high ambient temperatures. Military aircraft pose additional challenges due to intermittent exposure to high-G forces. The primary objective of the proposed Phase I study will be to lay the foundation for implementation of a new, highly robust phase-change cooling technology in DE weapons. This technology utilizes micro-flow passage control to maintain the coolant is close proximity to the heat-dissipating surface. Thermal tests will be performed on a module containing a representative cooling cell to validate the required heat dissipation. This project will also explore scale-up of the single-cell findings to a 100 kW cooling system. The proposed effort will have far reaching impact on cooling systems for defense weapons. This study is also expected to yield new breakthrough thermal management solutions for commercial avionics, telecommunication systems, spacecraft, computers, and medical devices.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 737-2553
Dr. Dan Rini
OSD 02-P04      Awarded: 24MAR03
Title:Two Phase Cooling Technologies for Electric Weapon Platforms
Abstract:Effective two-phase cooling techniques with high heat transfer rates and low surface superheat are essential for the thermal management of high-power electric weapons. The thermal management system must be designed and built so that it can operate on DOD platforms under realistic operating environments. It is envisioned that to meet all the requirements, the thermal management system must use a high-flux two-phase heat acquisition technique such as spray cooling, a refrigeration cycle, and possibly a thermal energy storage subsystem. RTI proposes an approach that integrates spray cooling into a compact two-phase heat transport cycle. Conceptual analysis, design, and subscale experiments are proposed to demonstrate the robustness of the integrated heat acquisition/transport/rejection system that can operate in harsh environments such as extreme temperatures and transient g forces. In addition, the thermal management system should not introduce unacceptable levels of shock and vibration to the electric weapons. Thus the use of large coolant flow rates should be avoided. The proposed effort also includes a system analysis to demonstrate system level payoffs. Thermal management is one of the most important technical issues facing high-power solid-state lasers. The proposed efforts will enable diode-pumped solid-state lasers to be operated at increased power density, leading to more lethal electric weapons that can be housed in many DOD platforms under typical operating environments. The thermal management system is also beneficial to the development of high-power industrial lasers used for metal cutting, drilling and welding; as well as the next generation of high-power medical and telecommunication devices.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2318
Mr. Bradley Hitch
OSD 02-P04      Awarded: 18MAR03
Title:High Power Electric Weapons Cooling
Abstract:Directed energy weapons under development by the Air Force and others can impose both high heat flux and large overall heat load demands on their cooling systems, up to 1000 W/cm2 and 100 kW respectively. TDA proposes to implement an ammonia-based spray cooling system to meet these demands. Our system is a novel two-phase thermal cycle that avoids the disadvantages of both mechanically pumped loops and heat pipes. This thermal management system is essentially passive, using self-generated fluid forces to promote the circulation of the working fluid, thereby eliminating the weight and power draw penalties associated mechanically-pumped systems as well as providing sufficient fluid pumping pressure capability to implement high heat flux spray cooling with insensitivity to g-loading. The proposed high heat flux cooling technology is applicable not only to heat removal from military directed empergy weapons but to high-power commercial eletronics, communications, computer and power-management markets. In addition, smaller versions of the cooling cycle are useful in cooling high performance chips and multi-chip modules.

ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
650 Nuttman Road, Suite 114
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 982-2303
Dr. Mehdi Namazian
OSD 02-P07      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Versatile Logistic Fuel Preprocessor (VLFPP) for Fuel Cell Applications
Abstract:The U.S. military needs compact and efficient fuel cell reformers for processing logistic fuels for fuel cell applications. However, reforming logistic fuel is challenging due to the fuel carbon deposition tendencies and its high sulfur level. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex) and Pennsylvania State University (PSU) have teamed up to develop the innovative Versatile Logistic Fuel Preprocessor (VLFPP) that converts the logistic fuel to a sulfur free clean fuel with no carbon deposition tendency. VLFPP combines an innovative fuel upgrading approach and a novel sulfur adsorption method. When combined with the available gasoline reformers or current military reformers, VLFPP will be able to use the existing technologies to convert the logistic fuels to hydrogen. This approach will help implement military fuel cell power systems faster and with less cost. Under the Phase I the VLFPP components will be tested and its design will be refined for integration with the military 5 Kwe mobile APU and 500 Kwe stationary fuel cell systems. These activities will demonstrate the feasibility of the VLFPP in enhancing the logistic fuel reforming and provide the basis for demonstrating and delivering a prototype VLFPP/Reformer system in Phase II. VLFPP is a compact and low weight multipurpose unit that can be applied to a variety of military and commercial fuel cell applications. These applications include transportation, portable communications and power generations, remote stations, APU and distributed power generations. These are large markets that are currently limited by fuel reforming challenges. VLFPP will eliminate this barrier and penetrate these markets. In addition, the desulfurizer portion of the VLFPP is applicable to refineries. Considering these applications, it is anticipated that VLFPP could ultimately capture over a billion dollar market.

FUELCELL ENERGY, INC.
3 Great Pasture Rd.
Danbury, CT 06813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 825-6067
Dr. Sai Katikaneni
OSD 02-P07      Awarded: 04DEC02
Title:Stabilized Nano-ZnO for Diesel Desulfurization for Fuel Cell Applications
Abstract:The SBIR Phase I project study will be on the development of stabilized nano-ZnO adsorbents for diesel desulfurization for fuel cell applications. Direct Fuel Cell Technology (DFC) is unique in that it can operate directly on hydrocarbon fuels without the use of an external reformer to generate hydrogen. Logistic fuels are desirable fuel choice for military based fuel cell applications. However, In order to use a distillate fuel in a fuel cell power plant it must be processed to convert to a fuel useable by the fuel cell. Diesel fuels consists high sulfur in the range of 0.5 - 1.0 wt%. Sulfur deactivates catalysts used for hydrogen generation as well as electrode catalysts in fuel cells. In addition, sulfur will emit in the form of toxic emissions into environment. Thus, sulfur will be removed from diesel fuels using hydrodesulfurization followed by adsorption process. ZnO based adsorbents from commercial sources provide low capacity for sulfur removal, resulting large bed size, cost and overall effect on fuel cell performance. Novel stabilized nano-ZnO desulfurizer adsorbents for diesel processing is proposed in this project that would enable high capacity for sulfur, stable and low-cost. The proposed concept is based on synthesis of nano-ZnO having large surface area and coated with porous ZrO2 and TiO2 stabilizers to reduce sintering for stable operation. Also, stabilized nano-ZnO adsorbents are easy for regeneration with fuel cell cathode exhaust air and reduces desulfurizer bed size by more than 30 times. Improved desulfurizer adsorbents that provides a compact, low weight and low-cost desulfurizer system for diesel processing will have a direct impact on the speedy commercialization of fuel cell technology for buildings, transportation, portable, and other various applications including military. The fuel cells have a potential for multibillion-dollor market in the power generation industry. Advance stabilized nano-ZnO adsorbents for sulfur removal from diesel fuel processing will be technical breakthrough for speedy commercialization of fuel cell technologies. Success of this project will overcome the major commercialization hurdle of fuel cell technology, a non-polluting high efficiency power source a cleaner environment.

INNOVATEK, INC.
350 Hills Street, Suite 104
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1093
Dr. Trevor M. Moeller
OSD 02-P07      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Cross-Flow Microchannel Combustor for Heat Transfer in Logistics Fuel Reformer
Abstract:In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project, InnovaTek will develop and demonstrate a novel catalytic microchannel combustion system configured for cross-flow operation. The microchannel combustor will be capable achieving high heat transfer rates and will provide a uniform temperature profile in microreactor channel. These advantages provide the opportunity to achieve efficiency improvements in catalytic microchannel reformer process resulting in reduced size and weight for larger scale layered reformer systems. In Phase I, mathematical and CFD process models for combustor operation and heat transfer performance will be developed. These models will provide the basis for design and fabrication of a single-plate microchannel prototype system for testing microchannel combustion characteristics. Experience gained from this testing will be factored into the model and used to design and fabricate a multi-plate combustor. This prototype will be used in a "proof-of-concept" test to demonstrate system durability in continuous operation for at least 24 hours. In Phase II, the concept will be scaled into a multi-layered, fully integrated fuel processor system capable of supplying pure hydrogen to a 1 kW PEM fuel cell for electrical generation. Designs and plans will be developed for scale-up to 500 kW systems. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer an attractive opportunity to provide a portable, quiet and efficient system for electrical generation. Such systems can provide portable power for military field use, and for civilian recreational and transportation applications. In order to achieve this potential, an equally quiet, efficient and portable supply of hydrogen gas is needed. A portable steam reformer capable of producing hydrogen from infrastructure fuels offers an ideal solution as the complementary technical solution. The novel cross-flow microchannel combustor that will be developed in this proposed work will provide a critical complement to our present goal of developing steam reforming for commercial and military applications. In the combustor, heat from the combustion process will directly heat a catalytic microchannel reactor providing the maximum opportunity for heat utilization by the catalyzed process. Anticipated benefits include increased specific reaction rates and conversion, smaller size with less weight and reduced relative heat losses through the reactor skin. A multi-layered microchannel structure that will constitute the final reactor will become the core of an integrated fuel processor capable of utilizing gasoline, diesel or JP-8 as a fuel source. A steam reformer with these characteristics will have commercial applications for both portable and stationary markets and when mated to a compatibly-sized PEM fuel cell will provide an ideal option for portable field generation.

INNOVATEK, INC.
350 Hills Street, Suite 104
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1093
Dr. Quentin Ming
OSD 02-P07      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Sulfur-Tolerant Water Gas Shift Catalyst for Fuel Processing in a Microchannel Reactor
Abstract:The rapid start time, quiet operation and high efficiency, of fuel cells provide an ideal solution as a mobile power source or an auxiliary power unit (APU) for a wide range of military and commercial applications. However, the supply of hydrogen gas to the fuel cell at the point of use remains a problem. A fuel processor that provides clean hydrogen from sulfur-containing logistical fuels is needed to allow fuel cell technology to be realized. InnovaTek will provide a solution to this need by developing a catalyst and support structure for use in the water gas shift reaction to produce CO-free reformate for a fuel cell from sulfur-containing logistical fuels. The catalyst developed will function at a high space velocity (>30,000 hr-1) that will reduce the size and cost of the fuel processor. It will tolerate sulfur without loss in activity thereby allowing the use of logistical fuels without the need for prior sulfur removal. It will also be resistant to temperature excursions and exposure to air and condensate, thereby maintaining its activity through numerous start-up/shut-down cycles. In addition, the catalyst will be optimized for use in an engineered micro-channel reactor that provides a differential temperature profile for both high temperature and low temperature water gas shift reactions, thus providing a high CO conversion within a single compact reactor design. Evolution in the power generation industry has created a demand and major market opportunity for alternative power generation technologies. As an alternative technology, fuel cells have been in existence for more than 160 years, but have only recently been developed sufficiently to provide a viable alternative to conventional technologies in the automotive and power generation industries. Today, because of their clean, quiet and efficient production of power, fuel cells are widely believed to offer a number of advantages over other small to medium sized power generation methods. Analysts forecast that various sectors of the overall fuel cell market will emerge within the next five to ten years, including: portable and backup power products, residential and specialty products (including APU), micro power (compact/handheld) products, and transportation (motive) products. By providing clean hydrogen from sulfur-containing logistical fuels, InnovaTek's fuel processing technology will allow fuel cell technology to be realized earlier and in broader markets.

MESOFUEL, INC.
1001 Menaul NE
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 314-8170
Dr. Anand S. Chellappa
OSD 02-P07      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:Deep Desulfurization of Diesel and JP-8 Using Novel Adsorbents
Abstract:Power generation using fuel cells is an attractive option for military and commercial applications. In particular, the military is interested in generating hydrogen from JP-8 fuels as it represents a logistic fuel. A main bottleneck in processing JP-8 and diesel fuels is the fact that these fuels contain refractory sulfur compounds such as thiophenes and alkyl and substituted thiophenes. Hydrogen generation using untreated logistic fuels is not practical due to the fact these sulfur compounds cause irreversible catalyst deactivation both in the fuel processor and in the anode of the PEM fuel cell. The industrial desulfurization process requires pure hydrogen to remove sulfur compounds, and is conducted at high temperature and pressure. This commercial route is therefore not suited for fuel cell applications. We propose to develop and validate tailored inexpensive adsorbents to remove sulfur from logistic fuels at mild operating conditions. These adsorbents are created by chemically bonding specific functional groups onto the surface of activated carbon. By selecting the appropriate functional groups, high-capacity adsorption of sulfur-bearing compounds can be achieved. We will demonstrate these adsorbents, combined in our MesoChannelT Adsorber will yield a compact, simple and efficient method for sulfur removal that requires no hydrogen and potentially field-regenerable. A compact, efficient and inexpensive system for removing sulfur from logistic fuels would revolutionize the use of such fuels for power generation using fuel cells. There has been significant research in the area of sulfur tolerant catalyst. However, the ultimate solution to mitigate sulfur deactivation of catalyst in both the fuel reformer and the anode of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the removal of sulfur compounds prior to the fuel processing step. One study projects that the "world wide market for fuel cell products and systems - including spending on research and product development, prototype testing, test marketing, demonstration programs, etc. - will more than triple through 2005 to $8.5 billion, and exceed $23 billion by 2010. However, even if 2010 forecasts are met, fuel cells will be far from realizing their full commercial potential, which will likely unfold throughout the first half of the new century".(1) One primary reason for the fuel cell industry not obtaining full commercial potential is the significant problem of sulfur poisoning and the degradation of the fuel reformer and fuel cell due to sulfur poisoning.

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES, LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-6968
Dr. Joseph Poshusta
OSD 02-P07      Awarded: 06DEC02
Title:Compact, Highly Efficient Logistics Fuel Desulfurizer
Abstract:Mesoscopic Devices proposes to design and demonstrate an advanced, ultra-compact fuel desulfurizer that can utilize sulfur sorbents many times more efficiently than typical fixed-bed, moving-bed, or even fluidized-bed approaches. The improved efficiency directly translates into an estimated system size 40 times smaller than a fixed-bed single-use system having similar fuel capacity based on a 5-year, maintenance-free life cycle operating continuously. For a 2 kg/hr fuel stream (enough to fuel a 10 kWe fuel cell) containing 700 ppm sulfur, our conservative estimates indicate that the new desulfurizer system resulting from the proposed effort will occupy about 2 liters and weigh about 3 kg. The proposed system utilizes an innovative sorbent geometry with integrated regeneration subsystems. In Phase I, we will experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, and through modeling and subsystem experimentation, we will design a complete desulfurization system capable of treating 2 kg/hr of fuel containing 700 ppm sulfur. The desulfurization system developed in this project will significantly reduce the cost and logistics burden of using sulfur-sensitive fuel cell technologies for military power generation. The mobile desulfurizer will allow cleanup of logistics fuels in the field to fuel cell standards, eliminating the requirement for a specific fuel cell fuel. This system is the only desulfurization technology that scales easily for fuel cell systems from 1 to more than 1000 kWe. This system is compact and can be integrated component of large power generators. Commercially, the highly compact device and low sorbent mass requirements will make the desulfurizer attractive for use in automotive and stationary fuel cell power applications. Spin-off benefits include portable military generators that are smaller, lighter, quieter and a factor of two more efficient than diesel generators.

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD.
720-I Lakeview Plaza Blvd.
Worthington, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6606
Dr. Abdul-Majeed Azad
OSD 02-P07      Awarded: 09DEC02
Title:High Efficiency Fuel Cell Reformer for Logistics Fuels
Abstract:Fuel cell systems are being considered for naval vessels, including surface ships and submarines, for propulsion, auxiliary, and emergency power generation. The use of logistic diesel fuels as a source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells would allow implementation of fuel cell technology without substantial changes to the fuel supply infrastructure. Fuel processors are required to convert the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas with little or no sulfur or carbon monoxide, which are poisons to the fuel cell. Thus, efficient sulfur removal technologies are needed to minimize system size, complexity and cost. One of the desired attributes of such a desulfurization system would be operation at relatively high temperatures and approaches that would allow uninterrupted operation. In this SBIR project, NexTech Materials proposes to develop high-capacity and regenerable sulfur sorbents that operate at high temperatures. In Phase II, we will design and construct a prototype desulfurization system, and demonstrate the operation of this system in a prototype logistic fuel processor. This program, if successful, will lead to the development of efficient desulfurization systems for use in logistic fuel processors needed for PEM fuel cell systems The primary advantages of fuel cell power generation for naval vessels include increased efficiency, lower weight and smaller size, less pollution, and reduced acoustic signature. Commercial applications of the sorbents to be developed include automotive fuel processors, refineries, and coal gasification plants.

ADAPTIVE MATERIALS, INC.
832 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-7643
Dr. Aaron Crumm
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:Small Scale Fuel Cells for Ground Personnel
Abstract:Adaptive Materials Inc. will explore the feasibility of small scale power generation using microtubule solid oxide fuel cells as outlined in Topic Area 3; Materials and Processes for Electrochemical Energy Conversion. We believe microtubule solid oxide fuel cells are the key to a soldier portable, rapid starting, field-rugged, compact, and light weight power source. Individual cells demonstrating many of these unique performance properties have already been developed by Adaptive Materials as part of the DARPA Palm Power Program. We envision combining these cells together with suitable balance of plant components and liquid hydrocarbon fuel to create a system capable of delivering at least 1,000 Whr from a package smaller and lighter than the current BA5590 military battery. The proposed SBIR Phase I effort will develop and evaluate several fuel cell system designs for portable power applications. The designs will be verified using a combination of analytical models, in-house generated fuel cell data and all available performance data on balance of plant components. The potential commercial opportunity that exists for a company with a viable portable power source that can operate on readily available hydrocarbon fuels is enormous. The first portable electronics company to successfully acquire a portable fuel cell technology will dominate the marketplace with longer running, more powerful devices packed with power guzzling features. In addition to the portable electronics marketplace, a multitude of niche markets exist for every application that could benefit from increased run time, instant refueling, and/or more power per weight and volume than a battery.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Dr. Myles A. Walsh
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 10DEC02
Title:Structured electrolytes for lighweight fuel cells
Abstract:Compact and lightweight power sources are needed for communication, computation and sensors. There are no solid proton conductors that work satisfactorily between 200 and 500C. This is a most important and desirable range of operating temperatures for small and scalable fuel cells. This research explores the feasibility of developing structured solid-state proton conductors that operate efficiently at temperatures above 100 C. The proposed effort would lead to much simpler water management systems and a much higher tolerance for carbon monoxide levels in the fuel. This reduces the need for auxiliary components and reduces the size and weight of the fuel cell system.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. P. Perumal
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Small Scale Fuel Cells for Ground Personnel
Abstract:This DoD Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project proposes an innovative fullerene-polymer based electrolyte for PEM fuel cells. A limitation of the commercially available perfluorinated sulfonic acid electrolytes is that they are highly dependent on humidification and do not function well above 100C in H2-PEM fuel cells under normal conditions. The poisoning of the CO is also a severe problem when operating the fuel cell below 130C. In this program, new fullerene polymer electrolytes will be developed. The proton-migration in the proposed polymer is by the transfer of protons across hydrogen bonds within the active polymer functional groups, unlike conventional perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, which need water to transport protons. This proposed membrane is expected to perform at all environmental conditions from frost to elevated temperatures. The PEM fuel cell using the proposed electrolyte will be considerably reduced in size, cost and complexity compared to the existing PEM fuel cell system. This novel proton-conducting electrolyte enables higher conductivity in room temperature application and also enables use of higher operation temperatures and hence higher power density for PEM fuel cells. The proposed polymer membranes do not need water to maintain their conductivity and also will have high tolerance towards carbon monoxide when used at high temperature. These changes can considerably enhance applications in the automotive industry, in portable electronics, as well as in residential and military applications.

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES, LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-6968
Dr. Joseph Poshusta
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 10DEC02
Title:Portable Battlefield Fuel Desulfurizer
Abstract:Mesoscopic Devices proposes to design and demonstrate an advanced, portable fuel desulfurizer in response to the topic area of interest "Area 2: Technology for handling fuels and processing fuels to meet fuel cell requirements." The proposed portable desulfurizer can utilize sulfur sorbents many times more efficiently than typical fixed bed, moving bed, or even fluidized bed approaches. The improved efficiency directly translates into an estimated system size 35 times smaller than a fixed-bed single-use system having similar fuel capacity based on a 5-year, maintenance-free life cycle operating at 2,000 hr/yr. For a 2 kg/hr fuel stream containing 700 ppm sulfur, our conservative estimates indicate that the new desulfurizer system resulting from the Phase I effort will occupy about 2 liters and weigh about 3 kg. The proposed system utilizes an innovative sorbent geometry with integrated regeneration subsystems. In Phase I, we will experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, and through modeling and subsystem experimentation, we will design a complete desulfurization system capable of treating 2 kg/hr of fuel containing 700 ppm sulfur. The desulfurization system developed in this project will significantly reduce the cost and logistics burden of using sulfur-sensitive fuel cell technologies for battlefield power generation. The portable desulfurizer will allow cleanup of JP-8 in the field to fuel cell standards, eliminating the requirement for a specific fuel cell fuel. Initially designed to support multiple, low-power, portable generators, variants of this system could also be used as an integrated component of large power generators. Commercially, the highly compact device and low sorbent mass requirements will make the desulfurizer attractive for use in automotive and stationary fuel cell power applications. Spinoff benefits include portable military generators that are smaller, lighter, quieter and a factor of two more efficient than diesel generators.

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES, LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 466-6968
Dr. Jerry L. Martin
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Compact, efficient high pressure air blowers for portable power sources
Abstract:This proposal is submitted to topic area of interest "Area 1: Auxiliary components for balance-of-plant". Mesoscopic Devices proposes to develop a high-pressure air blower that improves power density and efficiency by as much as 50% over competing approaches. Recent advances in fuel cells demonstrate their potential to be the basis for compact and lightweight person-portable power sources. However, the balance-of-plant components necessary to complete the power source dominate the size and weight of the system. We propose three innovative air blowers to be evaluated and compared in Phase I. We will develop models and demonstrate key fabrication steps, as well as perform separate effects tests where necessary to reduce model uncertainty. We will determine the potential size, weight and power draw improvements possible for person-portable power sources for each blower, and select one for further development in Phase II. The high pressure air blowers developed in this program will significantly reduce the size and weight of portable power sources, enabling their introduction to the field. Portable power sources increase the capability and effectiveness of our soldiers, by supplying the power they need for advanced electronics, including communications and sensors, while reducing the weight of batteries that they must carry. Commercial applications of the compact, efficient air blowers developed in this program include fuel cell systems for powering portable electronics (e.g. laptop computers and video recorders), small stationary power systems such as for recreational vehicles, and non-power system applications such as industrial automation and portable sensing equipment, where the small size and weight of the blowers has great value.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Jeffrey Mecham
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Improved Methanol Permeability for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed OSD Phase I program is to develop and commercialize ion-conducting thermally stable polymers for use as high temperature proton exchange membrane/membrane electrode assemblies (PEM/MEA) materials with low methanol permeability as components of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Polymer electrolyte/proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are an environmentally friendly power source for a wide range of applications that include transportation (cars and buses), stationary (home power generation), and consumer electronics (computers and phones). Sulfonated ion-conducting sites will be introduced via direct polymerization, allowing control of both their location and concentration. Preliminary work has indicated that the PI and colleagues are capable of synthesizing such materials exceeding the conductivity and methanol permeability performance of perfluorinated sulfonic acid Nafion materials at, or above, room temperature. These new sulfonated copolymers show no change in cell resistance over a period of one month at a hydrogen/air delivery pressure of 30psig at 80C under fully humidified conditions. Additionally, cast films of the novel copolymers demonstrated a marked (nearly four-fold) decrease in methanol permeability (fuel cross-over), which could greatly limit flooding, and the decreased efficiency associated with this phenomenon. These new materials also are much less costly than fluoropolymers and they can be synthesized from commercially available starting materials. Current membrane technology needs to be improved in the area of methanol permeability if DMFC technology is to be used to power electronic devices. NanoSonic's new membrane materials would allow extension of PEMFC to other applications where output stability may be a major concern, such as portable soldier power, regenerative fuel cells, or as portable computing power systems power sources where system downtime is unacceptable.

POWER & ENERGY
106 Railroad Drive
Ivyland, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 942-4600
Dr. Peter R, Bossard
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:A novel low cost membrane for recovery of hydrogen from fuel cell reformates
Abstract:Area 2: Technology for handling fuels and processing fuels to meet fuel cell requirements. Hydrogen, obtained by steam reforming various hydrocarbons and alcoholic fuels, is the primary fuel for low temperature fuel cells, both of the alkaline electrolyte as well as the proton exchange membrane (PEM) type. The gas mixture resulting from the reforming process (the reformate) is usually contaminated with CO which is responsible for poisoning the fuel cell's catalysts. Of all the possible approaches to the CO problem, separation of the hydrogen from all other reformate gases using a palladium-based membrane is generally considered to be ideal. The effectiveness of hydrogen diffusion through dense palladium-based membranes is evidenced by the success of our commercial tubular palladium purifiers in meeting the stringent purity demands of the compound semiconductor industry. However, the palladium wall thickness of the presently used membranes is too large to be cost effective for the fuel cell industry. Based upon our experience in hydrogen purification and our collaborator's expertise in developing engineered nanoparticulate products, we propose to develop and implement a novel palladium-based membrane assembly, wherein the thickness of the palladium membrane will be reduced to ~ 1% of that used in state-of-the-art purifiers, while still generating high purity hydrogen and maintaining mechanical integrity of the membrane assembly required for fuel cell operation. Such a membrane will result in a dramatic decrease in the cost of hydrogen separation, and a corresponding increase in the flux of hydrogen which is inversely proportional to membrane thickness. Accordingly, a test membrane will be fabricated, characterized and tested in Phase I, and a prototype assembly will be developed in Phase II, followed by integration with a fuel cell. The product of this program, a cost effective hydrogen separator, will be sold to fuel cell manufacturers in Phase III. The projected market for fuel cells is immense, both as a compact portable power source and as a stationary power generator. Fuel cells are needed by both the military and commercial sectors. The promise of fuel cells relies in part on the ability to supply contamination-free hydrogen at low cost. The proposed approach targets a capital cost for the purifier of ~ $ 100/kW, which is an order of magnitude smaller than what is possible today. Additionally, our membrane assembly has the potential to decrease the cost of fuel-cracking reactions by reducing their dependence on expensive catalysts and widen the range of possible fuel sources.

PRECISION COMBUSTION, INC.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 287-3700
Dr. Subir Roychoudhury
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 11DEC02
Title:JP-8 Micro-reformer
Abstract:PCI proposes into topic Area 2 to develop and demonstrate a JP-8 micro-reformer capable of delivering the hydrogen required for a 20 We Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) from a catalytic reactor which is expected to be ~1 in3 (size of 2 standard AA batteries) and weighing <100 grams. This combination can be used to meet the power needs of individual soldiers, and scaled up for surveillance and artillery gear, or for auxiliary power units. An efficient, durable, sulfur tolerant, compact and lightweight reformer for reforming JP-8 to provide fuel for a SOFC would not only far exceed the energy density of batteries, but also operate silently. Major technical hurdles, which include large size and weight, high operating temperatures, inefficient use of expensive catalysts, poor sulfur tolerance, and lack of efficient vaporization and premixing of JP-8 without coking, continue to be significant limitations of current approaches. Recent progress in short contact time reactor design using PCI's Microlithr technology offers the potential for the development of advanced reformers with a high likelihood of overcoming these barriers. The JP-8 Micro Reformer offers hydrogen generation for solid oxide fuel cells, or with CO clean-up for PEM fuel cells, from an ultra-compact, high efficiency Microlithr reactor having fast start-up, rapid transient response, quiet operation and high selectivity. The specific application targets JP8 as a fuel, although other fuels may also be reformed to hydrogen in this reactor. The proposed catalytic reactor volume is sized at less than 1 in3 to provide 20 We. PCI's Microlithr Micro Reformer is applicable to the three major fuel cell market sectors, transportation, stationary, and portable. The excellent startup and transient response characteristics provide value to all three sectors with transportation and portable power customers also valuing the relatively small size and low weight of the technology. Primary target markets for the ultra-compact JP-8 Micro Reformer technology will be for military and commercial portable power applications (15 to 300 watts) such as for communications, computers, and other small devices for individual soldier power for extended missions as well as for specialty civilian use.

PROTONEX TECHNOLOGY CORP.
420 Maple St., #15
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 490-9960
Dr. Paul Osenar
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Small Scale Fuel Cells for Ground Personnel
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I SBIR project (under AREA 3) is to develop the next generation of Protonex' low cost, reliable polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks by incorporating rolled good type membrane and electrode assemblies (MEAs) during manufacture. Such an achievement would further reduce the cost of fabricating PEM fuel cells while simultaneously improving manufacturing yield. Protonex has already demonstrated the capability to produce low cost, reliable fuel cells utilizing our proprietary (patent pending) technology. The stack technology adapted to the rolled good MEAs will be applied to develop 20Watt fuel cell system (during phase II) that will be safe, rugged, highly efficient and easy to manufacture. Furthermore, the system will be compact and lightweight, allowing the DoD to achieve truly "man portable" power. To accomplish these objectives, Protonex has teamed with Albany International Techniweave (AIT) to capitalize on their advanced low cost, high performance rolled good type MEA technology. Our other teaming partner, Northeastern University (Dr. Sanjeev Mukerjee) will assist the development effort by characterizing the novel MEAs and corresponding gas diffusion layers (GDLs). In addition to military applications, developments in fuel cell power sources will have an immediate impact on a wide range of commercial power sources including battery chargers, laptop computers, emergency power and light (medical), recreational power (camping) and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS).

SEQUAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11436 Sorrento Valley Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 202-3135
Dr. W. Scot Appel
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 23DEC02
Title:Microscale Hydrogen Concentrator and Purifier
Abstract:Advancements in technology have created the need for high power density portable power sources. A fuel cell powered by hydrogen derived in-situ from stored liquid hydrocarbon fuel(e.g., JP-8 fuel) represents one of the best solutions to meet this need. Liquid fuel contains sufficient energy density, so that, when coupled with a reformer / fuel cell system, it is a desirable source of fuel for portable power. A fuel cell/reformer system includes liquid fuel storage, a reformer to produce hydrogen gas from the liquid fuel, a hydrogen purifier to remove carbon monoxide from the hydrogen stream, and a fuel cell stack. Each element is critical for an operating system that can provide 20 watts of power and has an energy density in excess of 1 kWh/kg. SeQual Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a micro-scale hydrogen purifier to be used with a man-portable power system. The hydrogen purifier will operate a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycle that will both enrich the hydrogen concentration to near 100% and remove carbon monoxide. The proposed PSA system will weigh less than 150 grams and require less than 1 watt of parasitic power. In addition to the field portable power unit applications, the micro-PSA systems will be useful for several industrial applications ranging from small portable power units for recreational vehicles to power systems for portable electronics. The technology developed under this program will also be useful in miniaturizing the oxygen delivery system that can be used for various applications ranging from medical to fuel cells.

US NANOCORP, INC.
74 Batterson Park Road
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 678-7561
Dr. Jinxiang Dai
OSD 02-P08      Awarded: 12DEC02
Title:Portable PEM Fuel Cell Using Low Cost Pseudo Catalyst Electrodes
Abstract:DOD seeks compact and lightweight portable fuel cell systems for communication, computation, and sensors, with a 20W power requirement. US Nanocorp proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting a member electrode assembly ("MEA") using low cost pseudo-catalyst electrodes for portable proton exchange membrane fuel cells ("PEMFCs"). An MEA in a conventional PEMFC stack uses a Nafion proton exchange membrane electrolyte, noble metal catalyst anode and cathode. The high cost of precious metal catalysts and complex fabrication techniques limits their applications both in commercial and DoD arenas. Substitution of precious metal catalysts with low cost and abundant materials is the primary challenge when developing low cost portable PEMFCs. The proposed PEMFCs system will consist of a metal hydride anode, a nanofibrous manganese dioxide cathode, and a Nafion proton exchange membrane. The electrochemical performance of the PEMFC system using pseudo catalysts will be evaluated. The advantages of novel pseudo catalyst PEMFC will include high-energy conversion efficiency, low polarization, high working voltage, insensitivity to CO poisoning, low cost, high efficiency, and zero pollution "cool" energy conversion. This pseudo catalyst portable PEMFC system will be useful in many applications, including computers and communication devices, military aircraft, sensors, and medical power supply systems. Commercial potential of the proposed technology include: portable fuel cell systems for communication, computation and sensors; electric and hybrid vehicles; home utility suppliers; power source for appliances, military aircrafts, electric wheelchair, and medical power supply systems.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
Dr. Randolph E. Treece
OSD 02-P09      Awarded: 21MAR03
Title:Improved Microminiature Thermionic Converter Using Low Work Function AlGaN Electrodes
Abstract:There is a general need to generate high energy density electrical power sources for space, aircraft, ground and naval vehicles, as well as to convert the heat already present in high temperature sources into electrical power. Thermionic power generation is a very attractive solution to both needs. Thermionic emission typically occurs from metal surfaces when the temperature of the metal excites the electrons to energies exceeding the metals' work function, allowing the electrons to be emitted into vacuum. The work function of most metals fall in the range of 4-5 eV, requiring temperatures exceeding 2000K to produce significant thermionic emission. Astralux proposes to build and test a revolutionary new cathode material based on AlGaN. Due to the low work function of the AlGaN, much larger emission currents can be achieved at a given temperature than would be possible with a simple metal emitter. When compared to MTCs fabricated from metal/metal oxide electrodes, our MTC will demonstrate larger power conversion by increasing the average voltage of emitted electrons, increasing the emitted current and reducing the space charge effects. These improvements will lead to a device capable of thermionic emission at temperatures well below 1000 K. The thermionic power generator addresses growing markets where the needs of remote, off-grid power continues to increase together with the overall need for power. Thermionic power may be able to supplement, or replace, photovoltaics in space and terrestrial power applications as well as provide additional power to utilities to meet incremental growth needs. The photovoltaics market is over $1 billion annually.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Mathias Hecht
OSD 02-P09      Awarded: 21MAR03
Title:Thermionic Power Source Technology.
Abstract:It is proposed to survey existing thermionic converter technology and to determine how significant improvements can be achieved. All components for thermionic generators will be critically evaluated and improvements in design and materials will be sought. It will be evaluated if high performance cathode materials can be integrated into a substantially improved thermionic converter device. One of the new cathode materiasl is a composite that enables thermionic energy generation at very low temperature and is stable for extended periods of time. Also, recently discovered thermal transfer and interface materials with very high thermal conductive and good temperature stability will be evaluated. Components and materials will be tested. Thermionic converters with high efficiency can be used to harvest electricity from combustion processes and to enable distributed energy generation. Improved converters could find commercial applications in furnaces, and as highly reliable portable power sources.

POWER TECHNOLOGY SERVICES (PTS), INC.
7800 Netherlands Drive
Raleigh, NC 27606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 362-1501
Mr. John Driscoll
OSD 02-P09      Awarded: 11APR03
Title:Thermionic Converters Based on Nanostructured Carbon Materials
Abstract:The goal of this program is the development of thermionic energy converters based on nanostructured carbon materials. Nanocrystalline diamond and carbon nanotube materials exhibit unusual electron emission properties which should lead to an all new technology for low temperature thermionic energy conversion. Recent results have established that these materials exhibit bright emission sites with field enhancement factors approaching or greater than 1000. In this program PTS Co and researchers from NC State will team to demonstrate the effectiveness of thermionic emission using nanostructured carbon materials. Both doped and undoped nanocrystalline diamond and aligned carbon nanotube films will be produced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition at NC State. The field enhancement factors of the films will be established and the emission stability of the nanostructured carbon materials will be recorded. A new physics based model including thermionic-field emission sites and quantum mechanical tunneling will be developed. The materials results and physics based model will be combined to define a prototype system to be constructed in the Phase II program. The development of a new technology for low temperature thermionic energy conversion will lead to numerous commercial and military applications that require power generation from remote thermal sources. Spin off technology such as cold cathodes will have applications to Vacuum Microelectronics and display technology.

URI
3616 W. Thomas Road, Suite 1
Phoenix, AZ 85019
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 373-5519
Mr. Randall Kohuth
OSD 02-P09      Awarded: 24MAR03
Title:Thermionic Power Source Technology.
Abstract:Development is proposed of a thermal storage unit (TSU) for thermionic power systems for space aircraft, ground and naval platforms. The TSU has extremely high thermal energy storage capability per uit volume which will enable or compliment future high performance Stirling cycle thermal conveters or a multitude of other thermal systems. The high performance TSU is especially suited for storing thermal energy from solar collector systems, but may also find application with other heat sources in systems where very high intermittent peak power demands are required. The high performance TSU uses no expensive, rare, or strategically sensitive materials and can be made at low cost. The system may be repeatedly discharged and recharged with no limit to the number of cycles or the depth of the discharge. There is no known upper limit to the system size or power level. High power levels may be achieved by combination of modular units. There are multiple military, civil, and domestic applications where the proposed high performance solar energy thermal storage power unit might be used in place of electric storage batteies, fuel cells, capacitors, etc. Specific applications might also include high efficiency transportation power systems and storage for remote solar-based power systems.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Michael D. Silver
OSD 02-R01      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Identifying Critical Factors Affecting Warrior Readiness for Coalition and Collaborative Teams
Abstract:As the military assumes more missions involving operations other than war (including humanitarian operations and support to domestic authorities), more of our military leaders will need to become proficient in coalition and collaborative leadership environments. Success in such operations, including multinational and multi-agency operations, increasingly depends not only on teamwork within the leaders' own hierarchical organization (which most military leaders are very familiar with) but also teamwork among the leaders of the multiple organizations in the operation (which most military leaders are not very familiar with). Although success in such operations will depend on the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) of our leaders, there is currently insufficient training focusing on the SKAs relevant to these coalition-related military operations other than war (MOOTW). The primary objectives of Phase I will be to 1) identify the highest-priority SKAs related to successful leadership in coalition MOOTW, 2) identify which SKAs are currently being trained adequately, and 3) recommend any additional needed training based on gaps between what is needed and what is being trained. The results of Phase I will be used in Phase II to guide development of a training program focused on improving leaders' coalition-relevant SKAs. Benefits of the training program will include leaders who are more prepared than ever to function effectively in multi-national and multi-agency coalition operations other than war. This in turn will lead to more effective coordination among coalition members, lower numbers of casualties (innocents as well as coalition members), better relations with our allies and coalition partners, and more successful coalition operations. Such successes will increase the political and social acceptance of US military operations other than war, acceptance both domestically and in the international community. Upon completion of Phase II, the training developed would be readily marketable to the military, and may be adapted for use by civilian government agencies and non-governmental organizations in coalition operations with the military. A modified training program would also be highly marketable to civilian corporations wishing to improve their successes in global business operations by preparing their leaders better for those operations.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Michael Paley
OSD 02-R01      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Warrior Readiness for Coalition and Collaborative Teams
Abstract:The focus of this proposal is to develop a system that is responsive to the needs of military leaders in developing and maintaining high performance, multinational teams. In Phase I we will define requirements for a scenario-based assessment and training system. The system will be derived from a training needs assessment specifically intended to identify competencies for multinational teams. Based on this knowledge of team competencies, a testing element will be aimed at the diagnostic assessment of team member performance for operating within multinational teams. This diagnostic information will inform the training methods for enhancing team performance on three levels. First, to support team leaders in building high performance teams, team process metrics will structure team training methods to increase, for example, team cohesion, adaptability, and information management. Second, individual diagnostic information will be generated for team members to provide feedback and support team self-correction. Finally, diagnosis will structure scenario selection for focused, experience-based, team-in-the-loop training to enhance skills and knowledge for operating within multinational teams. In Phase II, we will operationalize the requirements for the team training system and develop a tool to enhance multinational team performance in both military and commercial environments. Many military, diplomatic, and commercial activities require that people from diverse cultural backgrounds interact and collaborate to achieve goals. Specification of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to perform effectively within these multinational team environments provides a means to structure team training. The training system described in this proposal is intended to provide an integrated method to assess and train multinational teams. Our approach provides team leaders a specific method to build and maintain high performance multinational teams. This tool will be useful to military and commercial applications that need to train for multicultural operations and are dependent on high reliability team performance.

MIRUM CORP.
805 Gibbon St.
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-1840
Mr. Joseph Chiara
OSD 02-R01      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Training and Development of Key Skills that Contribute to Leadership and Team Effectiveness in Multinational Teams
Abstract:Mirum proposes to develop a training intervention that targets the leader and team attributes needed for effectiveness in military multinational teams. This effort will also yield a diagnostic tool that can be used to appraise the need for training interventions in multinational teams. Anticipated changes in the military's operating environment argue for the ascendant importance of attributes that promote effectiveness and adaptability in multinational teams. The training interventions to be designed as part of this Phase I effort will be grounded in conceptual principles of leading multinational and multicultural teams, and will provide assessment, automated feedback, and progress-tracking and other features consistent with identified best practices in leadership and team training. The proposed team and leader training program and the multicultural diagnostic tool is expected to assist the Army in training, assessment, and development of its officer corps, particular those who will have to work with multicultural and multinational teams. The techniques and methods constructed as part of this proposal will be generic in the sense that, with domain and process specific modifications, they will be applicable to other DoD services and more generally, to leadership and team training in non-DoD and non-governmental service sectors.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. North
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 561-0202
Dr. Karol Ross
OSD 02-R02      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Warrior Cognitive Skills Assessment Battery
Abstract:This project will develop a Macrocognitive Assessment Battery (MAB) to enable the Army to determine the readiness of its small unit leaders to handle the challenges created by Objective Force Warrior (OFW). The reliance on information technology in OFW will increase the cognitive demands on small unit leaders. Therefore, the Army will need tools for assessing the ability of its leaders to function effectively in high-tempo, data overload conditions. Unfortunately, existing cognitive assessment methods are aimed at too detailed a level. By utilizing the framework of Macrocognition, Klein Associates will be able to design a tool to focus directly on processes such as sensemaking, attention management, uncertainty management, recognitional decision making, and situation assessment, that link directly to the demands of OFW. The Phase I effort will develop a preliminary prototype version of the Macrocognitive Assessment Battery, and will pilot test that version in order to gauge face validity for individual tests and for the MAB as a whole. Once we have achieved those objectives, we will be ready to: move into Phase II, developing a more formalized version of the MAB; evaluate reliability and validity; link the MAB to training in Macrocognitive skills that will be essential for OFW effectiveness. The Macrocognitive Assessment Battery should prove invaluable in the Army, the DoD in general, and in paramilitary organizations such as firefighting, for determining the ability of decision makers to perform the cognitive functions required by advanced technologies.

MIRUM CORP.
805 Gibbon St.
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-1840
Mr. Joseph Chiara
OSD 02-R02      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:A Methodology and Plan for Assessment of Cognitive Skills and Adaptive Thinking
Abstract:We propose to take a structure, comprehensive, and multi-dimensional look at issues related to cognition, adaptive thinking, and performance under various environmental stressors. More particularly, we will investigate how these constellation of factors apply to junior leadership performance and actual and potential growth, and how the results of this research can improve skills and leadership training. We believe the benefits for DoD and other potential uses can be significant. Greater understanding of the skill requirements of leadership and how to better select and train individuals for those skills is of great value particularly for those employed in industries or position of large responsibility with the potential for large losses. We think there are many application domains available for the successful completion of this work.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Mr. Tim Langevin
OSD 02-R03      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Dismounted Infantry Situational Awareness Assessment in Virtual Simulations
Abstract:Dismounted Infantry training systems which make use of Distributed Simulation networks in Virtual Environments (VE) enable After Action Review of exercises such that "what" happened during an exercise can be reviewed by the trainees. The ability to determine "why" events happened and "how to improve" team and team leader performance can only be understood if more abstract, derived data representing the Situational Awareness (SA) of the team and team leader during an exercise is captured and reviewed. Current SA techniques disrupt the continuity of exercises. The Army requires new tools and techniques such that trainees and researchers can capture SA data during an exercise, but review it and analyze it later with powerful AAR and analytical tools. MK Technologies proposes to team with Firearms Training Systems (FATS) to develop a general purpose Distributed Simulation Data Analysis Tool (VR-Data) which will be customized for Dismounted Infantry Situational Awareness analysis. VR-Data will be a general purpose data analysis product which will work on either DIS or HLA networks, and will incorporate a widely-used COTS data analysis package, making it useful for any distributed simulation exercise analysis. FATS will then take this generic product and customize it for DI SA applications. This effort will result in several benefits that will help the US Army DI SA training and research community. An instrumented COTS product line will exist. A well-known developer's toolkit (VR-Link) will enable other simulation developers to make compliant federates. A COTS data analysis tool for DI will be deployed with FATS' customer base for further feedback. At the end of Phase I, MK and FATS will have a strong foundation for Phase II development and commercialization. The Phase I work effort is being accomplished with existing, robust, commercial-grade COTS products, and the best known networking toolkit in the industry, significantly reducing risk. Unlike most SBIR efforts, in this effort we produce working prototypes in Phase I. The DI variants of our COTS products will start to be released early on in Phase II.

SA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4731 East Forest Peak
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 515-8214
Dr. David Kaber
OSD 02-R03      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Dismounted Infantry Situational Awareness Assessment in
Abstract:We propose to develop a comprehensive team SA measurement system to provide direct insight into soldier dynamic knowledge and decision skills at various levels of small squad command and in major types of military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). The system will integrate a real-time measure of team SA for use during soldier immersion in VR simulators and a post-immersion measure for integration in after action reviews. We will also describe an approach for integrating the results of these measures to provide a comprehensive analysis of SA based on objective data and subjective perceptions of participants. Phase II work will be a direct extension of Phase I and will involve development of a prototype of the measurement system and sample scenarios to validate and assess the usability of the measurement system. The resulting measure will help optimize Army VE training capabilities in terms of identifying suitable protocols/scenarios for small team mission skill development, assessing and providing feedback on individual dismounted soldier/land warrior readiness for battlefield situations. We expect the measurement system to be highly sensitive to VE training scenario manipulations and predictive of soldier decision making and MOUT mission performance. The most immediate commercialization potentials for the new comprehensive measure of SA in (virtual) training applications includes: public safety officer emergency operations training, state/federal crime scene investigator training, and tactical military/defense support team traiing. These types of units might train for such small-scale operations in high-fidelity VR scenarios. For these organizations the safety of their personnel, and those they support in service, in highly varied and critical situations is dependent on a rapid assessment of and understanding of the situation. Operations in these organizations are similar to small-scale Infantry operations and military SASO activities. The SA measurement product(s) developed through this SBIR should be applicable to these other organizations identified above, following some modifications for task/domain differences.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner Rd., Suite 130
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 437-5001
Barbara Brown
OSD 02-R03      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Dismounted Infantry Situational Awareness Assessment in
Abstract:Small infantry unit situational awareness (SA) can be observed, inferred, and measured during virtual simulations using a variety of non-intrusive tools and techniques. Dismounted infantry SA implies that the small unit leader and his team understand the mission objectives and their specific roles and responsibilities to work together toward successful mission completion. They perceive the environmental cues and dynamic conditions of their tactical situation and comprehend their potentially positive or negative impact. The Situational Awareness - Simulation Training and Assessment Toolset (SA-STAT) system will increase soldier, team, and team leader effectiveness through identification of improved training and assessment techniques that increase situational awareness, responsiveness, and mental agility for making sound decisions. These characteristics support concepts for the Objective Force and complement the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program. Our strategy is to build upon STRICOM's OneSAF Testbed Baseline (OTB) in the interest of reducing costs, shortening development time, and providing a product that will be compatible with the Army direction for DIS/HLA simulation software. There are restrictions regarding distribution of the OTB software used as a platform for development. The SA-STAT system will be custom-designed software with the potential for upgrades and maintenance for an extended product life. It is unlikely that we will be able to market it commercially.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Jared Freeman
OSD 02-R04      Awarded: 06JAN03
Title:Automated Communications Analysis System
Abstract:Synthetic environment exercises are a critical component in the DOD's strategy for testing CONOPS, training soldiers, and evaluating equipment. Communication is a vital component of these exercises, and communications data is a valuable information source for AAR facilitation. However, communications analysis requires time-consuming transcription and processing. Technologies are being developed to address transcription and categorization problems. However, technology alone cannot solve this problem. To automate communications analysis, a systematic method of communications measurement is needed. Aptima is pioneering the field of communications measurement, developing and using measures of team performance and C4ISR processes based on communications for numerous military exercises. Our team will assess and apply state-of-the-art technologies to make communications data accessible. More fundamentally, this team will develop the necessary measurement structure for a system to yield useful results. Phase I will produce a theory-based Taxonomy of Communications measurement, tailored to the types of communications found in military exercises. This taxonomy will guide the selection of voice recognition, communications tagging, text parsing and automated categorization technologies. And we will lay the foundations for the Phase II development of Auto-CAS (Automated Communications Analysis System), by defining the System Architecture and requirements for rapid-reporting and data visualization

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Ms. Karen A. Harper
OSD 02-R06      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Modeling Individual Differences and Stressors (MINDS) in Human Cognitive Performance
Abstract:The US Army Natick Soldier Center develops and applies modeling and simulation technologies to evaluate new warfighter systems, both in terms of their ability to maximize individual combatant (IC) effectiveness and small unit warfighting capabilities. While past M&S work has focused on understanding the IC's physical capabilities and limitations, significant additional gains in warfighter effectiveness could be gained with a corresponding understanding of cognitive capabilities/limitations. We propose an M&S-based approach which builds on an existing cognitive model and extends it to account for the effects of behavior moderators on cognitive performance. We will model the effects of two classes of behavior moderators: 1) individual differences representing variations in behavior across a range of individuals; and 2) environmental stressors that vary an individual's responses as a function of situation. Our approach to Modeling INdividual Differences and Stressors (MINDS) will be carried out in three phases: 1) selection of a set of behavior moderators particularly relevant to soldier performance and mapping of those moderators to specific cognitive processes; 2) incorporation of model-based representations of these moderators within a selected cognitive modeling architecture; and 3) demonstration and evaluation of the integrated soldier model within the IUSS combat simulation environment. Significant focus in the US Army's Objective Force Warrior (OFW) program will be placed on enhancing the individual soldier and small unit's performance with respect to information-oriented operations. Therefore, we believe that the proposed MINDS system will provide significant insight into how individuals can best be supported in these very cognitively-intensive tasks, in a manner that account for their own style of work, personality and biases, as well as situationally-induced performance limiters such as workload and stress. The initial focus of our commercialization effort will be the enhancement of our Intelligent Agent Toolkit (IAT) product, via the incorporation of routines for modeling the effects of individual differences and environmental stressors from the proposed MINDS system.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Dr. Walter Warwick
OSD 02-R06      Awarded: 13DEC02
Title:Integration of Behavior Moderators into Cognitive Performance Models for Assessing Cognitive Readiness
Abstract:This proposal to the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Science & Technology describes an innovative approach to advancing the modeling, simulation and analysis of human cognition. Until now, two orthogonal conceptions have underpinned the modeling and simulation of human cognition; one focuses on the mental workload that defines cognitive performance, while the other emphasizes the content of the cognition itself at a symbolic level. Both approaches have merit and both have become valuables tool in their own right for modeling and simulating isolated aspects of human performance. They are, however, stand-alone approaches and as such they lack the necessary integration to represent the combined impacts of workload on cognitive processes. We propose the connection that will make such an integration possible so that, for the first time, it should be possible to predict the impact of workload on the "thought process" of a synthetic agent. The proposed work will not only improve the realism and fidelity of human behavior, but it will reconcile two distinct theoretical traditions. As the needs and uses of human behavior models increase, so does the need for models that realistically represent actual human behavior. By integrating cognitive models and workload models, the user community will acquire an architecture and a tool that will advance the state of the art for both the assessment of cognitive readiness and for the detailed predictions of the impact of combat stressor on cognitive performance. Users of this technology include the training and education community, simulation-based acquisition, logistics concepts, personnel performance and training, personnel protection, cognitive and behavioral adaptability, mission planning and rehearsal, status reporting and predictive assessment, and human systems integration into warfighting.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Susan Fischer
OSD 02-R07      Awarded: 28JAN03
Title:Measuring Multi-tasking Ability
Abstract:Multi-tasking requires dealing with information from multiple sources under time constraints and is critical for successful (i.e., safe) performance in many occupations. The primary objective of Phase I will be to design a reliable and valid measure of the ability to learn and perform jobs that require skilled multi-tasking. Formal development and validation of the measure will then be performed in Phase II. The first objective of Phase I will be to review the current literature and identify existing measures of multi-tasking ability. The second objective will be to design the multi-tasking test, and will involve two tasks: 1) identify existing measures that can be combined and/or modified for inclusion in the test, and 2) analyze several common multi-tasking jobs to determine the cognitive requirements that a general multi-tasking test must assess. The third and final objective will be to plan the validation studies to be performed in Phase II, which will entail obtaining human subjects committee approval and identifying and accessing an appropriate subject population. Phase I products will include a database of reviewed multi-tasking literature, a database of candidate multi-tasking measures matched to multi-tasking abilities, the test design, the Phase II study design, and IRB human subject approval. The resulting test would provide a much-needed tool for screening applicants in a multitude of occupations requiring multi-tasking, including military personnel such as pilots, air traffic controllers, bridge officers on aircraft carriers, officers in command information centers, and air warfare controllers, and non-military personnel such as nurses, emergency service dispatchers, nuclear power plant controllers, and public transportation drivers. For a small fee, employers could greatly increase their likelihood of identifying the applicants most likely to succeed on the job.

SAM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
425 Bush Street, Fifth Floor
San Francisco, CA 94108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 837-1600
Alan Gevins
OSD 02-R07      Awarded: 01FEB03
Title:AN EFFICIENT TEST OF MULTITASKING ABILITY
Abstract:Although there are clear individual differences in the ability to perform well in stressful, rapidly-changing multitasking environments such as those found in military command and control operations and in civilian aviation, current standardized tests are inadequate for confidently predicting who will excel in such critical jobs. We thus propose to develop and validate a computerized test to assess multitasking ability under speeded conditions. This project will leverage our experience with measuring individual differences in intelligence, working memory, and multitasking ability, and combine it with the efforts of others who have focused on the development of an abstract test of multitasking ability suitable for personnel selection. In Phase I we will program a Multitasking Test (MTT) that manipulates time pressure and event occurrence density, factors that are crucial determinants of successful decision making in complex dynamic situations. We will also collect data to begin to evaluate the MTT's learning curve, its retest reliability, and the cognitive load it imposes as a function of varying task difficulty. In Phase II a large formal study will be conducted to establish the sensitivity of the MTT to individual differences in multitasking ability and to evaluate its relationship to general intelligence and working memory ability. There is an important societal need for better tools for selecting personnel capable of performing well in jobs that make a high demand on multitasking abilities, especially in contexts where errors can have high costs and impact public safety. There is also growing need for tools to facilitate research on attentional multiplexing, and for a clinical test of attentional multiplexing. If successful, this project could lead to the development and commercialization of a test of multiplexing ability with widespread utility and significant market potential.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Dan L. Grecu
OSD 02-R08      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Context-driven Infospace Configuration for Augmented Cognitive Readiness
Abstract:Cognitive readiness has been recognized as one of the main objectives supporting the development of a "responsive, deployable, agile, versatile" force implementing the advanced concepts of modern warfare. Charles River Analytics proposes an architecture to support the Context-driven Infospace Configuration for Cognitive Readiness Amplification through the integration of situational and mental contexts. The architecture is based on three inferential agent types. The Situational Context Inferencing Agent implements the automated extraction of the mission context from the operational environment, and its semantic enhancement with mission domain knowledge. The Mental Context Inferencing Agent uses a staged model of expert human behavior to predict the parameters characterizing the user's cognitive processing ability. Finally, the Information Customization Agent combines the situational and the mental context into an information space supporting cognitive readiness. The agent first determines the active and passive information contents sources based on the situational context. It uses the information processing needs derived from the situational context, and the user's profile and his/her cognitive processing state to infer the user's information needs, and selects matching information services. Finally, it configures the information services connected to the appropriate information sources into an information space supporting rapid information assimilation and focused information processing. We see several potential commercial applications of the developed technology. The Situation Description Agent can be used to extract key features of a tactical situation in real-time into a knowledge-based format, to enable decision-support tools to act in response to a changing operational environment. Such decision-support tools range from situation awareness and mission planning components, to information retrieval and dissemination. The Mental Context Inferencing Agent supports the development of decision aids sensitive to the user's workload, and can be applied to the development of user-centric interfaces for pilots, warfighters, mission planners, and in training workstations. The Information Customization technology supports adaptive information push for a range of applications, including mission execution, command and control centers, and emergency management.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
OSD 02-R08      Awarded: 18DEC02
Title:Information Delivery and Intelligent Agents for the Battlespace Environment
Abstract:The battlespace warfighter environment contains a large amount of constant critical information that needs to be processed and displayed. The level of information varies widely, from pilots, to theater commanders, to situations assessors, and to field army units. The battlespace environment is very sophisticated and has fast developing situations, leading to frequent encounters with novel situations that demand adaptive problem solving skills in its operators. This rapid development of the battlespace poses a constant challenge to its operators who have to acquire knowledge of the equipment systems, understand critical information, and also gain expertise in identifying and responding to problems. Human information processing and performance knowledge has not been completely utilized for solving real world problems. Fortunately, cognitive task analysis uses mental models, emphasizes cognition, analyzes expertise, evaluates knowledge for the whole job, and segments tasks based on skill. Cybernet proposes to develop a system to provide not only the capability of advanced battlespace information processing in complicated and stressful environments, but also the optimization of this information flow, allowing operators to interact in large complex situations in an effective, efficient, and optimal manner. Furthermore, Cybernet will explore the development of intelligent agents to enable better information flow and display. The proposed technology will be leveraged into Cybernet's OpenSkies Massive Multiplayer training and gaming simulation business. Cybernet has developed a massively multi-player simulation technology for air, sea and land game and simulation play. While this technology was originally developed for a low cost government simulation for training, the Company plans to adapt the technology to revolutionize the consumer network gaming and flight simulator industry. The Company plans to distribute its OpenSkies simulation products at retail into the market, which is currently defined by Microsoft Flight Simulator, ProPilot, and Flight Unlimited. To make a significant inroad to this market, Cybernet plans to sell the product not as an end to itself, but as the entry point to a new game playing experience.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner Rd., Suite 130
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 437-5001
Barbara Brown
OSD 02-R08      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Information Delivery Configuration for Augmented Warrior Readiness
Abstract:Information can mean the difference between life and death, between mission success and mission failure. For information to be actionable, it must be accurate, timely, and comprehended. In executing this Phase I SBIR effort - Adaptive Information Presentation - ScenPro proposes to define cognitive readiness measurement criteria, construct a rules-based representation to integrate that criteria with other mission and task parameters, identify display options, and develop a knowledge management architecture. ScenPro will accomplish the Phase I program objectives by building on our domain knowledge and software infrastructure developed as part of the Agent Supported Information Visualization (ASIV) and Virtual Soldier Skills Assessor (ViSSA) programs. We will assure that our system design meets user needs through a combination of user verified scenarios and formal knowledge acquisition sessions with internal and external subject matter experts. Our formal Scenario-Based Engineering process will be used to define functional requirements, identify constraints on key system components, and apply rapid prototyping of concepts for customer evaluation. The concepts and prototype software developed as a result of this Phase I effort carry a high potential for applicability to many government and commercial markets. Although content requirements and data sources are domain dependent, the infrastructure developed to access source data, assess cognitive readiness, and intelligently present information can be used by many organizations that require coordinated responses in time critical situations including Special Forces, medical response units, incident responders, as well as commercial and other government organizations with similar responsibilities.

SEMANDEX NETWORKS, INC.
201 Washington Road
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 720-4912
Dr. Daniel Reininger
OSD 02-R08      Awarded: 31DEC02
Title:Actionable Information Delivery in XML-based Content Networks Using Cognitive Readiness Profiles
Abstract:All DoD organizations are facing intense pressures to deliver mission-critical information to the warfighter in a combination of type, contents and format that maximize information assimilation and facilitate rapid action. Semandex Networks has assembled a team of experts in distributed computing and network software to pioneer a new category of information-distribution infrastructure based on the extensible Markup Language (XML) standard. The system automatically knows where content is and to which decision-makers it needs to be delivered, dramatically reducing the occurrence of information breaks. In this model, warriors at all echelons express their need for information, in the form of a set of Profiles, and the network automatically delivers to that warrior those packets containing that information. The system effectively operates as an integrated, distributed, publish/subscribe system without the management and administration overheads of existing systems. It is the objective of this Phase I SBIR to determine the feasibility of extending the profile framework with a constantly adapting cognitive readiness profile (CRP) based on warriors' Cognitive Readiness Level (CRL). The CRP will be used to modulate the information flow, filtering it within a content-based network, providing an adequate match between the dynamic requirements posed by the warfigher's information needs and the description of the new situation. The CRP will be further used to propose and prototype a proof-of-concept application, interposed between information sources and the warfighter to continuously evaluate and configure the information being delivered. XML-based content networks that take into consideration end-users' cognitive readiness are a paradigm shift with the potential to revolutionize information flows. The technology has immediate applicability in all forms of Information Workflow Processes as Information Overload affects critical decision makers at all levels in all knowledge-based organizations. In order to make effective decisions under stress, information management systems must consider Cognitive Readiness Levels when presenting actionable information. We believe that XML will play a key role on achieving this goal. While it may be infeasible currently to directly link presentation modalities to biometric indicators in the commercial sector, the Semandex approach would bring considerable benefits to continuing decision-making domains that integrate large collections of incoming information such as mission control centers, financial services, traffic and transportation management, and complex industrial process monitoring environments.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court, Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Scott Wood
OSD 02-R08      Awarded: 31DEC02
Title:Information Delivery Configuration for Augmented Warrior Readiness
Abstract:In response to the Office of The Secretary of Defense (OSD)'s need for adaptable information assimilation systems to support the fast paced flow and complexity of the evolving battlefield in both Command and Control (C2) and direct combat applications, Soar Technology, Inc. proposes to conduct a study that will address both the multiplicity of information sources and the need to support rapid warfighter decision-making while preventing information overload. This study will identify the warfighter cognitive readiness criteria, information delivery dimensions, and cognitive and perceptual regularities and limitations that will support configurable information delivery to the C2 or battlefield warfighter. Innovative features of this solution include; the design of flexible information delivery heuristics, the development of a high-level language to encode the heuristics, and their embodiment in an intelligent user interface design based on intelligent agents that will directly place the heuristics in the information-processing pipeline. This solution will not only have wide military application, at multiple levels of Command and Control and battlefield systems, but also in application areas as diverse as industrial and manufacturing control, law enforcement, emergency response management, air traffic control, and medical information systems. Anticipated Benefits: 1. Performance improvements in mission-critical and safety-critical systems in numerous military applications. 2. Systems producing less mental overload conditions and human error conditions. 3. Systems that increase warfighter information processing and decision-making ability. Potential Commercial Applications: The proposed project will result in a technology and design approach that can be sued to support civilian and government command and control systems that require: 1. Management of heterogeneous and disparate data sources. 2. Support for context specific data filtering and fusion and display management. 3. Support for time critical decision- making. 4. Minimization of information overload and fatigue.

PROTOBOX LLC
1464 North Broad St.
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 879-2588
Mr. Ronald Ewart
OSD 02-R09      Awarded: 28JAN03
Title:An Embedded Simulator Test Evaluation Monitor (ESTEEM) with Human Performance Measurement Capabilities for Distributed Mission Training (DMT)
Abstract:Protobox LLC proposes to develop an Embedded Simulator Test Evaluation Monitor (ESTEEM) to measure and optimize human interaction with simulation devices across DMT networks. ESTEEM is being developed so that researchers can understand the performance of their network simulations while they are being conducted. The proposed system will provide a tool that can correlate human performance interactions with simulations conducted on a network. The system can be located at a simulator to measure a single simulator's interactive performance with a human operator. Multiple ESTEEMs can be located at multiple sites on a network to deterministically measure interactive simulator performance. Rapid development of the Distributed Mission Training (DMT) network has outpaced researchers' capability to measure and verify its performance. With several high fidelity simulator systems slated for installation on the DMT network within the next few years, it is important that researchers have the tools to measure the performance of the network, and of the end-to-end performance of the simulations. Full development of the multi-node version of the measurement device, will for the first time, enable researchers to understand the quality of their interactive simulations as they are being executed. The proposed simulation tool will enable researchers to improve the quality of training and research that they conduct via network simulation. If the quality of the tested simulation is high, researchers will have confidence in the results of their human experiments conducted on those simulations. The system will be a powerful tool supporting the improvement of network simulation and interactive human performance across the Distributed Mission Training (DMT) network. The proposed system will be the first system to provide researchers with quantitative information about the performance of a network simulation while the simulation is being conducted. Engineers can use the system during the development of a simulation to optimize the interactive performance of the simulators located at various network nodes. ESTEEM can quantify the simulation latencies from stick input at one site until a pilot perceives the result of that input in a simulated aircraft at another site. The system will also allow researchers to study the interactive performance of human participants with the simulation. If successful, this system will contribute to the improvement of the quality of simulations conducted across the DMT network.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Dr. Carroll Day
OSD 02-R09      Awarded: 20FEB03
Title:Real-time Simulation Network and Human Performance Device for DMT
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation (SFC) and Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC) propose to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize the SNAPPY version 3.0 Real-time Simulation Network and Human Measurement Device for Distributed Mission Training (DMT) To efficiently train personal and to optimize human interaction with simulation across DMT networks, it is essential to know human performance and network latencies in real time. Such measurements enable crucial distinctions between simulation infrastructure delays from human factor deficiencies of the training system. The SNAPPY 3.0 network/human performance measurement device shall measure the latencies, provide the data in near real time, and record the data for detailed analysis later. Our proposal is based on previous successful programs that form the foundation for this low-risk high-payoff proposal: SNAPpy low-latency network interface and real-time data collection system, AgentsTools intelligent software agents toolkit to support distributed simulations" programs to formulate a refined concept for a real-time performance monitoring and analysis. The SFC/SAIC team intends to improve the SNAPpy 2001 latency measurement system previously developed by the team. This proposed program will improve the functionality and extend the purview of the latency measurement system to the High Level Architecture (HLA) simulation applications. Simulation is becoming more complex given developments in the defense, Internet, and gaming applications. The applications are used to manage large systems (such as the United States air traffic control system), to analyze systems (such as the next generation Internet protocol or a military campaign), to entertain (such as large scale games or animated movies), or-as the case of interest in this proposal-simulation for Distributed Mission Training (DMT). The resulting complexity comes from a hierarchical interconnection of computers and networks forming networks of simulations. The timing and synchronization become more complex. At some point, the latencies and unknown delays could contaminate the simulation and taint the resulting control, analysis, game, or training. A capability to measure the latencies in a simulation is therefore essential. Understanding the latencies in a Distributed Mission Training application is most urgent since an unknown but large latency may undercut the training accomplished, train for an erroneous system, or negate any training at all. If the latencies are unknown and unmeasured, those responsible for the training or training research are rendered impotent to provide training or understand the factors influencing their results. Systran Federal Corp. is eager to take advantage of this important requirement for a system to measure latency in simulations. The products we have already defined in previous efforts will be widely applicable and useable. We are eager to commercialize these products.

JXT APPLICATIONS, INC.
1122 Brewster Drive
Dayton, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-0974
Mr. Terrell W. Fulbright
OSD 02-R10      Awarded: 15JAN03
Title:Accommodation Engineering and Decision Aide (AEDA)
Abstract:The effort proposed in this Phase I SBIR focuses on the development of methods (e.g. immersive methods for visualizing fit and accommodation) and design of an advanced user interface to help prospective users of web-accessible anthropometry data better see, evaluate, and understand the information presented. The worth of the entire collection of anthropometry data is only as good as the information that can be drawn from the data via the user interface. Therefore, having a user interface that is adaptable to the level and needs of individual users is critical to success in accessing and using the data available. To optimize usefulness, the interface will be designed to be 1) intuitive and easy to use, 2) tunable to the level of expertise of the individual user, 3) able to operate in a stand-alone or integrated mode, 4) web enabled, 5) compatible with the primary CARD Laboratory Information System interface, and 6) designed so that it can easily evolve to accept new visualization and display techniques as they come to market. The user interface will be designed for stand-alone operation and as a plug-and-play portal to the planned Anthropometry Research Information System (ARIS). The design objectives of Phase I will be matched to future CARD Laboratory Information System requirements and seamless integration with that Information System. The planned use of an independent user group to determine user needs will provide a user-oriented approach for establishing what anthropometry data is actually needed by prospective government and industry users, and will ensure the interface design is based on verified user needs. The design provides for reduced future maintenance costs, and reduces overall evaluation program risk by focusing objectives on valid user needs and easy portability to the planned ARIS.

ZWEAVE, INC.
98 Greene Street
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 343-3959
Mr. David Buck
OSD 02-R10      Awarded: 29JAN03
Title:Accommodation Engineering and Decision Aide (AEDA)
Abstract:Several international 3-D Anthropometric data resources have been developed and are now available for use in a variety of industry and government applications. A significant knowledge base of 3-D whole body data sets has been developed thorough measurements of U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps personnel, and data collection efforts such as the U.S. Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Research Network (ARN) program and the Civilian American and European Anthropometric Resources (CAESAR) survey and others. Now that these resources are available, several challenges have been identified with the access and use of these 3-D Data resources. These challenges include: O Accessing 3-D resources found in multiple international locations O Searching a 3-D data resource O Finding information across multiple 3-D data resources O Identifying useful information from vast data resources O Inputting new information into 3-D data resources The purpose of this Phase-I SBIR project is to identify technology concepts and approaches to solving several of these challenges. The continuing advancements in Web-based internet technologies, advanced multi-dimensional databases, expert systems, and federated data access technologies can be integrated to create an environment highly conducive to increasing the access and understanding of 3D Data for a variety of industry and government purposes. Developing tools to increase access and search capabilities of 3-D anthropometry will permit the manufacturers of vehicles, safety equipment, or apparel to: O Create requirements for the design and development of the product O Support the analysis of the interoperability of the products O Assess the ability of existing products to work together O Determine the optimal fit for equipment and clothing for a particular individual

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2428
Dr. Gavan Lintern
OSD 02-R11      Awarded: 08JAN03
Title:Identifying and Capturing the Cognitive Demands Imposed by New Systems
Abstract:The fast pace of technological change has pushed military procurement into a design environment in which traditional evolutionary design methods no longer satisfy the need to take advantage of the new functionality that is now emerging. No aspect of this new demand is more taxing than the design for human participation. A more systematic, human-oriented approach is needed to elicit and define the cognitive requirements associated with new systems. For knowledge acquisition, we will draw on the methods and tools developed for Cognitive Work Analysis, which constitutes a set of methodologies for acquisition and representation of the domain and subject matter knowledge essential to the design of complex, distributed socio-technical systems. The proposed method will move the design of complex multi-person human-machine systems from an ad hoc process that is largely based on heuristics toward a more systematic, scientific process based on analysis and modeling. Furthermore, there is no systematic well-defined "bridge" between knowledge elicitation techniques and constructive simulation models. A goal of the proposed effort is to build this bridge by creating a systematic approach, with a supporting tool suite, for translating the products of our cognitive requirements analyses into a format compatible with that required for our quantitative model. A tool that can support design of human-system integration requirements for complex, large-scale systems within the context of a rapidly developing technological base will ensure a better match between system functions, organizational and team structures, and human cognitive and physical capabilities. It will be applicable to the conceptual design of any complex system that includes human participants. Examples include air and space vehicles, air traffic control, space mission control, metropolitan emergency management, nuclear power plants, and police command and control units. We believe there is a virtually unlimited market for methods and tools that can support formative design within today's challenging design environment.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. North
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Dr. Thomas E. Miller
OSD 02-R11      Awarded: 08JAN03
Title:Expanding system designs to support the cognitive demands of teams
Abstract:Team interaction and coordination are critical elements in the complex systems of today and tomorrow. The field of cognitive engineering (DC) represents human requirements in order to improve design, but it has not yet adequately accounted for team components. CE has not yet transitioned research strategies to practical strategies for Program Managers responsible for designing complex systems involving teams of humans and technologies. Klein Associates proposes to perform a team Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) in order to capture the cognitive elements of teams that are important in system design. The goal is to derive tools that capture the essence of team performance to help Program managers specify the decisions, judgments, and situation assessment requirements of teams. Klein Associates will generate a concept for methods and tools to support system design for improved team performance. This approach is innovative because it merges two related lines of research: 1) decision-centered design (DCD) approach, which identifies the cognitive demands of individuals for system design, and 2) strategies for identifying the critical elements for effective team performance. Incorporating the cognitive demands of teams into the DCD design process will be a critical step in the advancement of the field of cognitive engineering. The development of an effective technique to support the early stages of conceptual design to effectively support team components will obviously have wide application. We believe that many of the direct applications will be inside the DoD, in domains such as the Joint Air Operations Center (JAOC). The design process will have applications to all of the services. Outside the DoD, team-oriented systems design takes place in many high-stress command and control settings such as control-room environments in power, chemical and petrochemical industries become acute team coordination problems during any incident. We may also apply our tool to paramilitary command and control such as police, fire and rescue, which often require the same kind of coordination as do military operators.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
OSD 02-R12      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Organizational and Cultural Criteria for Adversary Modeling (OCCAM)
Abstract:We propose a Phase I program to develop and demonstrate an analyst decision aid that incorporates Organizational and Cultural Criteria in Adversary Modeling (OCCAM). We define cultural criteria (i.e., behavior moderators) as influences upon individual decision-making and behavior that arise from affiliations with specific groups; where `group' ranges from family through professional organizations to nation and religion. This uniform conceptualization of cultural behavior moderators lends itself to operational definitions that enable effective computational behavior prediction. Four core components characterize our approach. First, we will identify key factors moderating behavior, from psychological theory and practical field knowledge. Second, we will develop methods for augmenting sparse and uncertain data sets characterizing asymmetric operations by inferring these key factors from the individual's group affiliations. Third, we will develop a toolkit of knowledge-based methods for behavior prediction, and evaluate the applicability of several of these in a suitable operational scenario. This toolkit will allow us to generate ranges of possible, plausible behaviors, reflecting the challenge of unequivocal behavior prediction. Fourth, we will integrate these concepts and methods into a computerized decision-aid that explicitly represents the uncertainty inherent in the data, as well as the reliability of the prediction methods. We see considerable potential for application of the behavior prediction and decision-aid prototype in the commercial area, specifically in high volume, time critical financial transactions. These include the commodities futures market, local and national stock exchanges, and international currency markets where much, if not all, of the market movements are governed by psychological and organizational factors, well beyond the ken of conventional financial and economic analysis. The focused application of an adversary modeling tool in these arenas could have a significant impact on the perceptions of other players in the market and could translate to increases in profit margin for active traders.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Daniel Fu
OSD 02-R12      Awarded: 17JUN03
Title:Knowing the True Adversary: Acculturating Behavior Models for Wargaming
Abstract:We propose a decision aid that will give military planners, from battle commanders to psychological operators, a handle on the nature and behavior of adversarial forces in an unfamiliar cultural climate. The aid will provide products including intelligence collection requirements, profiles of adversaries relevant to PSYOPS, and simulation capabilities at various levels of abstraction, from determining adversaries' strategic goals to wargaming actual battlefield scenarios at the platoon level. The system will consist of a general model for the effects of culture on decision making and behavior, authoring and automated analysis techniques for applying this model to specific tactical situations, and a mechanism for execution of behavior in existing military simulations. We will develop a cultural model based on the Cultural Lens model of cultural differences in military domains developed by our consultant Klein Associates Inc., as well as a case-based reasoning engine that uses past examples of scenarios and groups with specific cultural traits. We will use existing software components and authoring tools, allowing us to focus our effort on the representations and artificial intelligence algorithms necessary to define and apply cultural aspects of behavior and decision-making to simulation. We will demonstrate and evaluate our design with a proof-of-concept prototype. This project is applicable to all areas of Information Operations, Psychological Operations, and Course of Action Analysis in future operations of all intensities. It will also be applicable to modeling differences in social and commercial populations such as corporate culture.

AXIOM RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, INC.
5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 300
Falls Church, VA 22041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 379-0412
Mr. Patrick Brown
OSD 02-R13      Awarded: 25MAR03
Title:Design of Sharable Content Objects with Return on Investment
Abstract:This project will develop tools to support the design, development, discovery, and cost-effective reuse of learning-object based instructional materials that fully support the goals and guidance provided in the ADL Sharable Content Object Reference Model and are informed by empirically derived principles of sound instruction. A design methodology will be demonstrated in Phase I of how meta-data tagging can be used to inform the development of learning objects with instructional design logic while also collecting "maintenance" / "configuration management information that will be crucial in providing "discoverability" and in tracking re-use, as needed for developing indices of return on investment. During the transition to Phase II, we will engage partners from the commercial sector to provide real-world "use cases" that will assess the effectiveness of the design approaches increasing reuse and in improving the quality of instruction. Partners will be selected who either develop different types of instructional product (e.g., training versus education, recreational learning, different target populations) or specify distinct instructional approaches in their corporate strategies, in order to test the designs rigorously. At least one partner will be selected to test the design approach against other applications, such as performance support systems, reference guides and / or IETMs. Industry already has reported reuse on a scale as high as 1000:1 with sharable objects . Efficiencies on such a scale are sure to transform commercial practice. There are other benefits, however, just as important if far more difficult to measure. These include "social return on investment," which is to say, finding ways of making information / instruction available to chronically under-served populations such as students in schools that cannot attract or keep teachers certified in the areas they teach, geographically dispersed learners, home-bound students, or learners in need of real-time interjections of information / instruction. Potential commercial applications include sales to any or all participants in the development of e-learning materials, currently projected to reach $46 billion by 2005. Even fractional improvements in development costs could be very significant.

DISTRIBUTED SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
11315 Corporate Boulevard, Suite 115
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 206-3390
Mr. Chris VanDuyne
OSD 02-R13      Awarded: 10MAR03
Title:Design of Sharable Content Objects with Return on
Abstract:The production of educational content is traditionally labor intensive and requires significant software development skills, time and resources. Traditionally, trainers using Computer Based Training (CBT) do not have the software background or expertise to rapidly create stimulating content for their students. DiSTI believes that by leveraging previously developed EGO (Encapsulated Graphical Object) technology it can rapidly produce a graphical interactive content generation capability that will create Encapsulated Graphical Learning Objects (EGLOs). DiSTI proposes to extend its current GL Studio product to allow for the creation of these reusable, realistic and highly interactive, SCORM compliant EGLOs. In one example, a set of EGLOs simulating test equipment and another simulating bread-boarded circuits can be selected from a repository to be included in a training course. The resulting course would allow for effective training in basic electronics, as the behaviors of both the test equipment and circuit electronics would be completely simulated. EGLOs will include the ability to be deployed through standard web servers and web clients, be interactive with other EGLOs and other SCORM components, and be accessible through repositories for inclusion in pedagogically correct training allowing a high return on investment and stimulating content for the student. An authoring tool that can create ELGO (Encapsulated Graphical Learning Objects) has a very large potential in commercial applications. The DoD as been extremely interested in these type of objects for several years now. They see that the creation of EGLOs will greatly reduce cost while providing the students with compelling content that is pedagogically correct. This is all being made possible with the rapid advancement in consumer video graphics cards and innovative software technology. This same technology will be used to create training courses for all industries in the next 3 to 5 years. DiSTI believe that this technology will not only change the way we teach students in the Military, but also at the High School level in many technical areas. We see the market for this type of tool to be in the 10 to 15 million-dollar range initially. The market will continue to grow year after year as the Internet and web-based training becomes more affordable and readily available to the students. We see this tool being used outside the traditional military setting and moving into the true commercial sector. The next planned market in which to offer these services is to the medical test equipment field. The medical profession is in need of new ideas on how to training medical professionals on the operation all of the new highly sophisticated diagnostic equipment that is currently being developed.

GLOBAL EMEDICINE (DBA MEDANTIC TECHNOLOGY)
2710 W. Burbank Blvd.
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 718-4181
Dr. Gregory Thompson
OSD 02-R13      Awarded: 27MAR03
Title:Design of Sharable Content Objects with Return on
Abstract:For this Phase I project, Medantic Technology (MT) proposes to enhance the SCORM information model by creating an expanded set of meta-data elements and content for learning objects used specifically in the medical education domain. To support the meta-data content, MT will provide a concept-based terminology whose foundation and structure are based upon standard medical terminologies such as the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). To further support the creation of SCORM-compliant learning objects and to demonstrate the use of the new meta-data set, MT will design and develop a raw digital asset indexing tool that uses the concept-based terminology for cataloging sharable content objects (SCOs). Finally, MT will demonstrate the search and retrieval advantages afforded by use of the concept-based indexing system. Phase II efforts will expand and build upon Phase I work by demonstrating cross-over applicability of the new meta-data sets to non-medical education domains. Efficiency of the indexing and retrieval tools will be evaluated. Integration of the resulting Digital Asset Management System (DAMS) with Web-based instructional development tools will be achieved and value testing of the complete integrated DAMS will be conducted through time-use studies. As the use of sophisticated and expensive multimedia in education accelerates, there is a great need in multiple markets for improved asset management, content sharing, and cost containment. When standards-compliant learning objects are created, course developers can share and re-use these objects rather than "recreate the wheel" each time that object is needed. Thus the return on investment is realized the first time, and every time, that a learning object is retrieved for re-use. Studies have shown that the use of ADL technology-based instruction can reduce the time and cost of instruction, increase student knowledge and performance, and improve organizational efficiency and productivity. It follows naturally, then, that providing courseware developers with the tools needed to create SCORM-compliant instructional content will reduce the barriers to commercially successful instructional development that result from the high financial and personnel resources required. There is a commercial demand for a standards-based DAMS within markets where these barriers exist - academia, the publishing industry and the military. Medantic Technology already enjoys strong working relationships in all these markets; the product resulting from this SBIR project will meet their demand. Our refined concept-based approach to meta-data content provides further commercial value and a significant competitive edge.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5442
Dr. Azad M. Madni
OSD 02-R13      Awarded: 25MAR03
Title:Model for Return on Investment Analysis in the Design of Sharable Content Objects
Abstract:The information model for metadata tags in the SCORM standard has several sections that require additional review and consideration before the ADL vision becomes a reality. Educational, testing, and relationship data elements are examples of sections that can be extended to provide better descriptions of the instruction. These depend on techniques for defining learning objects that are not only interoperable among learning management systems, but are describable in repositories by both course developers and learners. Phase I of this effort will define techniques to support design and authoring of learning objects that have pedagogical underpinnings and are based on practical, object-oriented considerations. Specifically, Phase I will produce a set of metadata content and elements that provide a pedagogical basis and a return on investment model for sharable content objects. The standardization of meta-tag data elements and content will achieve superior interoperability and reusability of content. This standardization is key to industry-wide acceptance of corporate e-learning and other training initiatives.

JONES CAUDILL & ASSOC., INC.
16113 Cuttysark
Corpus Christi, TX 78418
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(361) 548-4229
Dr. Edward R. Jones
OSD 02-R13      Awarded: 24MAR03
Title:Design of Sharable Content Objects with Return on Investment
Abstract:The primary objective of this proposal is to leverage current state-of-the-art developments in Advanced Distance Learning (ADL) by designing and building web services, based upon sound e-learning principles and standards, to support and encourage developing reusable learning objects and thereby increasing the return on investments in e-learning development. Currently these tools only exist as limited prototypes or in a format that is not easily used. Without them, developing content that conforms to the e-learning specifications is very time consuming and, in many cases, impractical. The manifest file for the ADL SCORM course, is over 200 pages of XML. It is not practical to expect this file to be free of errors, if it is developed without using a manifest generator, and it is unrealistic to expect for someone to locate file errors without using a XML validator. The research and web services developed in this project will accelerate ADL content development. This work will answer key research questions around the definition and usage of key Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) meta-data elements and the design of practical interfaces to web services for developing SCORM and IMS conformant ADL content. Answers to these questions will result in the development of web services that encourage the wide spread use of ADL specifications to develop reusable e-learning content. Developing reusable e-learning content is key to improving the return on investments in e-learning content.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2413
Ms. Diane Miller
OSD 02-R15      Awarded: 13MAR03
Title:Web-based Game Design Advisor
Abstract:Gaming technologies offers flexibility not possible with classroom-delivered training and enable instructors to train more students faster. Instructional games offer the strong potential to increase understanding and retention of learning materials and engage and motivate learners. To maximize learning, game-based training must be designed based on sound pedagogical principles that do not compromise the learner's immersive experience. We will review the literature in light of our own success in the computer gaming industry and identify attributes of commercially successful computer games. We will map those key factors to the challenges and issues most relevant to military training, design a proof-of-concept prototype of the web-based game design aid, and develop an evaluation plan to assess the utility and effectiveness of the tool. We have comprised a uniquely qualified team with the theoretical and experiential knowledge needed to: 1) devise a principled approach for the development of the game design aid and 2) understand and meet the technical and marketing challenges of the project. The proposed work will: 1) identify a comprehensive set of gaming factors positively affecting learning outcomes and trainee motivation, 2) establish links between those factors and specific characteristics of military training and, 3) produce a web-based prototype of a design aid for instructional games and a plan for its evaluation. There are numerous commercialization opportunities in both government and industry for an advisor to design web-based instructional games. Although the design aid will initially be used by military customers in Phase I & II, its sound underlying pedagogical principles, basic technology, and unique construct will make it an ideal candidate for commercialization in several technology/market pairs in the general gaming and instructional development market. We intend to target the web-based game design advisor to both government and commercial customers in both a horizontal and a vertical market expansion.

INKITIKI CORP.
PO Box 8863
Honolulu, HI 96830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 951-8288
Paulo Machado
OSD 02-R15      Awarded: 14MAR03
Title:Intelligent Design Advisor for Web-based Instructional Games
Abstract:Design advisors are the most viable method to guide novices and non-ID professionals through the process of creating effective instructional materials, and are especially useful in situations where experts are unavailable. Yet, production of accurate advisors requires tedious detailed analysis of relevant expertise, processes, and tasks. However, sufficient expertise may not always be available, or may be incomplete, inconsistent, or changing frequently. This is particularly valid for new domains, such as online instructional games. An alternative route is automated Machine Learning (ML). Author feedback and machine learning can be used to selectively and automatically refine, revise, validate, and expand the advisor's expertise, improving performance and effectiveness without incurring the repeated costs and inconvenience of manual system upgrades. We propose to undertake this promising route, with the goal of producing a web-based intelligent advisor that incorporates machine learning technology to automatically improve its effectiveness as it interacts with the authors. Benefits: The ability to produce high quality effective web-based learning has become a critical factor in empowering the Nation's technological, economic, and military superiority. An effective intelligent advisor for online instructional design will enable the production of significantly better ADL materials. resulting in increased learning outcomes, and ultimately the development of a better prepared and more productive workforce. The result: increased productivity and quality. Applications: DoD ADL, corporate e-learning, university and school distance learning.

CLEVELAND MEDICAL DEVICES, INC.
11000 Cedar Avenue, Suite 130
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 619-5899
Mr. Eric Sadowski
OSD 02-T01      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Handheld WLAN Analyzer with Transmitter
Abstract:Cleveland Medical Devices Inc. proposes to design and develop a test system where the installation and maintenance of a wireless Local Area Network (LAN) will become simple and routine. The device will be a low cost handheld unit that has a simple user interface for less skilled users and also have more sophisticated capability for those tough to identify problems. It will have a go/no go mode for quick check out and also more in-depth capabilities all the way up to a 802.11 network emulator. The device will simplify Wireless LAN installation. It will allow the RF environment to be analyzed, device placement to be tested and optimized, and the overall system to be optimized. The Wireless LAN Analyzer with Transmitter will simplify installing wireless networks. It will allow minimally trained technicians to efficiently optimize the installation of wireless networks, without an RF engineer. In those instances where an RF engineer supervises a number of technicians, the device is programmable, allowing the RF engineer to preprogram the screens, simplifing the technicians job, while allowing collecting and analyzing data for future review by the RF engineer.

SYNTONICS LLC
9520 Bendix Road, North
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 480-7205
Dr. Keunha Lee
OSD 02-T01      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Develop Wireless LAN Design & Validation Tools
Abstract:Although wireless 802.11 networks can be exceptionally convenient to install and flexible to use, as compared to a wired network, there are also potential downsides. Quirks in the host facility, signal multi-pathing, and electromagnetic interference all can create difficult design and validation issues. Add the realities of a Navy shipboard environment or a shore-side industrial installation, and simple site survey tools and design techniques become inadequate. To achieve a WLAN's promised convenience and flexibility, Syntonics will develop WLAN site survey, installation validation and troubleshooting tools that can cope with shipboard and other military installations. Springboarding from commercially available software and hardware tools with customization to meet the unique requirements of military WLANs, Syntonics believes developing a set of appropriate tools for the Navy is possible and practical. The objective of Phase I is to develop a set of tools that perform three tasks in a military environment:Interference detection and source localization; Multi-path identification and diagnosis; and Traffic injection and point-to-point network performance measurement Tool concepts, performance metrics and life-cycle cost estimates will also result from this work. The commercial potential of WLAN tool products is substantial. The adoption of WLAN technology is exploding and with it the need to survey prospective installations, support installation activities, and troubleshoot operating networks. The small but growing number of existing commercial products substantiates the commercial potential of advanced tool products. The SBIR solicitation does not provide adequate information for Syntonics to estimate the DOD market potential, but our general familiarity with military WLAN applications encourages us to believe that it is large.

TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, INC.
429 West Airline Highway, Suite S
LaPlace, LA 70068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(985) 652-1127
Mr. Syed M. Ahmed
OSD 02-T01      Awarded: 20DEC02
Title:Develop Wireless LAN Design & Validation Tools
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research Project addresses the development and feasibility evaluation of WLAN DESANVAL, a suite of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Design and Validation tools for complicated military environment where there is vulnerability to security, electromagnetic interference (EMI), Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and ordnance. The tools are developed to determine, measure, and locate sources of EMI/RFI as well as determine multi-path interference (MPI); aid in determining a method to eliminate the impact of EMI/RFI/MPI on the WLAN; generate traffic at adjustable rates (packets of adjustable size) and measure the throughput, errors, and collisions between any two points on the WLAN; and measure the nominal transfer rates of the most commonly used Internet Protocols (IPs); such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) between certain critical points in the WLAN, such as uplinks to core and distribution devices or between clients and APs. Production level products of the WLAN design and validation tools have value in both the commercial and government sectors, especially in military applications, Navy ships, commercial boats, the defense industry, communication between downstream and upstream operations in factories and assembly lines.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
700 King Farm Boulevard, Suite 600
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6779
Mr. Ray Wang
OSD 02-T02      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Intrusion detection for 802.11 networks
Abstract:Existing WLAN security has been incomplete in the commercial and government sector, focusing primarily on encryption, authentication, and wireless VPNs. The comprehensive security solution requires the addition of several key functions which include network vulnerability assessment, identification and characterization of new and emerging intrusion threats, identification and location of rogue APs, WLAN protection from intruders and attacks, and the development of proactive WLAN security management policies. In order to effectively protect WLAN infrastructures, a comprehensive, multi-faceted Wireless Intrusion Detection Security and Management System (WIDSMS) must be developed. The WIDSMS will discover known, and unknown WLAN network vulnerabilities and unauthorized devices, send alerts, assess the extent of the intrusion or violation, effect elimination of unauthorized wireless connections, and provide overall WLAN network management functions to monitor network performance, dynamic connections and history, and to enforce reactive wireless network policies. To complete the WIDSMS solution functionality with wired network VPN solutions, the AP must also establish plug-and-play virtual communications path between its wired connection on the backbone to the VPN concentrator in order to provide encrypted access from the wireless client all the way through the VPN tunnel before allowing access to the wired resources. The Wirelesss Intrusion Detection and Security Managment System will provide a powerful, proactive wireless management system which can adapt to changing network requirements, new wireless protocols, and emerging wireless threats for wide application in areas such as Federal office buildings, DOD assets, Force Protection efforts, Homeland Security, hospitals, emergency response centers, space stations, underground command bunkers, nuclear plants, mobile and remote workers, and any high value industrial asset or process

ANNTRON, INC.
1315 S. Allen St., Suite 405
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 867-2312
Mr. Scott Thompson
OSD 02-T02      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:Intrusion detection for 802.11 networks
Abstract:Wireless LAN technology provides freedom and flexibility to the Local Area Network. The current standards based (IEEE 802.11) wireless LAN equipment is intended to provide reliable coverage over a limited range of approximately 100m. However, the wireless LAN transmissions may be detected and exploited at much greater ranges, and can provide an intruder with the opportunity to attack the network from a remote site, outside the secured facility. Existing Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) can provide tools for determining if a network attack is occurring, but they do not provide the system administrator with information about the attackers location. By exploiting in-depth knowledge of the 802.11 Rake Receiver and wireless channel models, it is possible to characterize wireless clients that are beyond the range of intended coverage. Anntron proposes to evaluate existing NIDSs for military environments. Using in-depth knowledge of 802.11 Rake Receiver and channel models, Anntron will create simulations of range estimation using standard 802.11 access point attributes. Anntron will then develop an Intelligent Agent to provide the system administrator with early, spatial information regarding the attack. Anntron will also evaluate using its' own patent pending wireless LAN multi-beam antenna technology to provide additional location information. Modeling and simulations will provide a means of predicting intruder range based on access point attributes. A multi-beam antenna provides the sensitivity to engage attackers at range, and provides azimuth location information. An Intelligent Agent will combine NIDS, range, and azimuth information to the system administrator for early, spatial intrusion information. The products will have both military and commercial appeal for improving enterprise wireless LAN security.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Frank Adelestein
OSD 02-T02      Awarded: 19DEC02
Title:WIDS: Wireless Intrusion Detection System for 802.11 Networks
Abstract:The combination of inherent insecurity of wireless networks (signals radiating further than the intended coverage area) and weaknesses in the current security mechanisms are weighing heavily against this highly valuable network technology. Thus, wireless networks on military bases and on board Navy ships at dock will be open targets for attack; this useful technology will not be fielded until the security vulnerabilities are addressed and mitigated. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes to create Wireless Intrusion Detection System (WIDS), an intelligent access point integrating intrusion detection, firewalling, and packet filtering, and capable of using moveable, directional antennae to provide a bearing on the locations of intruders. WIDS improves upon the state-of-the-art by providing much earlier detection capabilities than is currently available. Users of WIDS will be able to detect network intruders as they connect or attempt to connect to the WIDS access point, before they connect to the omni-directional access points for their real network. In some cases, intruders can be detected when they are attempting to scan for networks (e.g., by using netstumbler), long before they associate with the access point. By using a combination of signature and behavior based techniques, WIDS can detect "spoofed" MAC addresses (i.e., an intruder masquerading as a legitimate user). WIDS uses directional antennae so that intruders "see" the WIDS access point long before the omni-directional access points and also to provide a bearing giving the location of the intruder. Since the signals in wireless networks radiate beyond the intended coverage area, WIDS will provide protection against intruders that are beyond the physical perimeter but still able to attack the network. WIDS will serve both military and civilian customers who need to protect their wireless infrastructure.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
700 King Farm Boulevard, Suite 600
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6779
Mr. Ray Wang
OSD 02-T03      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Wireless LAN Design Tools
Abstract:Recognizing the challenges that Navy faced today for the modern wireless shipboard communications, AEPTEC is proposing a design tool to assist Navy to plan and implement WLAN by characterizing and taking into account of all considerations of wireless signal propagation, attenuation, coverage, throughput, performance, security, and cost. The objective of this proposal is to call for a study on characteristics and requirements for "WLAN Design Tools" to perform trade-off and comparison analysis between various WLAN characteristics such as Access Point (AP), Wireless protocols and technologies, cost, and security options. It is increasingly valuable to quantify the requirements and benefits of WLAN design when more wireless based products deployed at public space. A user friendly design and validation tool aided with 3D imaging capability will become imperative for wireless network operator as well as IT professional to effectively design WLAN at various wireless medium to characterize performance and perform cost trade-off as a result of multipath and path loss and their impacts on RF attenuation, reflection, interference, coverage, topology, protocol, cost, and security.

MOBILISA, INC.
2023 E Sims Way #346
Port Townsend, WA 98368
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 344-3233
Dr. Nelson Ludlow
OSD 02-T03      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Wireless LAN Design Tools
Abstract:WLAN industry standards continue to evolve at a rapid pace, therefore Mobilisa proposes an expert system wireless LAN design tool to manage and reduce acquisition and installations costs over a ship's 35-year lifetime. Our expert system uses a ship's 3-D space coordinates and mission data requirements as input, and produces optimal location for wireless access points (AP), type of AP and wireless mode. Parameters that can be controlled or evaluated include: coverage, security, robustness, bandwidth requirements, signal strength, and equipment and installation costs. We initially model two forms of 802.11 RF and Fast Infrared. Our system is adaptable to changing WLAN standards because each wireless access point technology is modeled individually, and then included in the overall expert system. When a new technology is introduced a new model representing that system is added to the library, while the overall expert system stays intact. Our expert system works with mixed wireless modes and has three cost prediction models. The expert system finds optimal WLAN design by using AI techniques of Heuristics coupled with Localized Genetic Algorithms. An explanation-based system is included. This system can be implemented as an API to existing Navy ship design systems such as ASSET. Wireless technology represents one of the fastest growing sectors of the IT Market. Mobilisa intends to aggressively market this technology into three new areas: 1) General WLAN Expert System to determine optimal use and placement of existing wireless COTS technologies for customers who want to add wireless technology to existing structures, such as offices, hotels, restaurants, hospitals, et cetera; 2) Specific application in sea vessels such as the Washington State Ferry System; and 3) tools that promote the used of multi-mode wireless technologies to work in a Open Systems Architecture.

OPNET TECHNOLOGIES
7255 Woodmont Avenue
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 497-3000
Mr. Paul Janes
OSD 02-T03      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Wireless LAN Design Tools
Abstract:There is significant interest in WLAN technology since it overcomes many limitations of wired LANs and can be deployed in military facilities and environments relatively quickly. Many challenges are encountered when planning a WLAN deployment and ensuring that mission critical networked applications are optimized to achieve adequate service levels. Currently, no single suite of COTS products can be used to plan and design an optimized WLAN for the special requirements and applications of the DoD. There is a crucial need for a comprehensive, affordable WLAN deployment planner that integrates the attributes of typical WLAN design software with the attributes of technologically sophisticated software for planning, analyzing and optimizing communications networks and networked applications. The WLAN planning software envisaged integrates these important attributes to produce a product that will facilitate WLAN trade-off analysis (coverage, bandwidth), reduce infrastructure and operational costs (equipment, cabling, installation), optimize network and application performance, and satisfy network security requirements. The R&D will result in a comprehensive solution for designing, simulating (both at the physical and network level), measuring, and maintaining any form of wireless LAN. Such a system does not exist today, and will be of immense value to the Department of Defense and commercial enterprise customers. The WLAN design software that results from this project will create a seamless operating environment, whereby a designer has the ability to analyze or monitor any aspect of the wireless network to whatever level of detail is desired. With the overlay of a user-friendly interface, a fully standalone product emerges that can be marketed and licensed. The final software product will be personal computer (PC) based and modular in form, with software components that can be individually included or excluded from any given license on the basis of user requirements.

AEPTEC MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
700 King Farm Boulevard, Suite 600
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-6779
Mr. Ray Wang
OSD 02-T04      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Self-Configuring Hub-less Wireless Network
Abstract:Navy is expanding its shipboard information networks, information technology systems requiring wireless technologies are being developed to support increased shipboard information gathering for logistical, personnel, and maintenance-related functions a self forming networks that can expand and contract on demand, extend into damaged areas with unknown infrastructure, with no/short notice to support roving patrols, and between ad hoc elements of the platform as needed. A self-organizing and self-configuring network protocol, without the need for any existing network infrastructure or administration such as Dynamic Source Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc is emerging that will enable multiple mobile nodes to communicate using peer-to-peer and multi-hop capabilities. This type of capability needs to be exploited to enable shipboard facility e.g. manufacturing plant and platform e.g. shipboard networks to operate with virtually no configuration support or other technical input required. This will enable net centric capability to migrate wherever required and whenever needed. Enable wireless devices to join and access internet via wireless ad-hoc networking without concerning their network addresses and routing protocols hence to improve mobility and greatly simplify roaming between wireless devices anf networks.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 847-9123
Mr. Scott Thomas
OSD 02-T04      Awarded: 10JAN03
Title:Self-organizing Wireless Adhoc Network (SWAN)
Abstract:Future applications in both shipboard and highly mobile land-based wireless systems will require the capability to automatically configure and reconfigure as required to support rapid instantiation and employment of wireless networks. Current commercial technology-both network protocols and available hardware-make industry-standard wireless communications approaches suboptimal for platform and facility use in the military context. In particular, most modern wireless networks do not provide adequate support for multicast communication. Trident Systems has previously developed, under SBIR funding, a reliable multicast protocol, intended for tactical networks. The Wireless Reliable Multicast (WiReM) provides reliable multicast transfer at the transport and networks layers. Trident Systems proposes to build upon the successful implementation of WiReM to develop a scalable, self-configuring IP based wireless network protocol which will become the foundation of a future Self-organizing Wireless Adhoc Network (SWAN). A second element of the SWAN to be conducted under this effort is the development of an innovative cylindrical antenna which can dramatically improve the performance and security of commercial off the shelf wireless LAN solutions thus extending the range and utility of available COTS hardware for military employment. Trident has teamed with SAIC St Petersburg to support the antenna development under this effort. Commercialization of this SBIR can be applied to business, education and government sectors. The primary goal is the design of a scalable reliable mobile multicast protocol that can satisfy real time performance and reconfiguration criteria to support applications requirements and optimize network performance. Reliable multicast transport is a common problem to many industries and government agencies alike. Potential commercial applications include Internet Service Providers (ISP) and wireless communications network operators. Example companies include Nokia Rooftop and Mesh Networks. These network operators could potentially use SWAN to deliver packets based on specified QOS requirements. This would dramatically increase efficiency and reliability of networks.

VIATEC RESEARCH, LLC
Rsrch Bldg.I Centennial Campus,514 Daniels St.#274
Raleigh, NC 27605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 349-4448
Dr. Anthony T. Rivers
OSD 02-T04      Awarded: 14JAN03
Title:Autonomic Ad hoc Wireless Networking
Abstract:The innovation of this SBIR Phase I project is the development of a reliable high-bandwidth Autonomic Ad hoc Wireless Networking (AWN) technology that automatically creates dynamic configurations to form networks on an ad hoc basis, thereby enabling platform and facility wireless networks to automatically self configure without requiring hubs or other infrastructure. Current methods try to build ad hoc networks using a one-size-fits-all approach. That is, they rely on only one ad hoc networking routing protocol, absent of real-time adjustable protocol tuning parameters. Unfortunately, none of the "10-or-more" MANET protocols have been proven to give superior reliability and performance in broad-range live-tests. Our approach is different. We utilize multiple protocols, each with real-time dynamically adjustable network protocol tuning parameters. Therefore, our technology can provide optimal QoS for unexpected events and conditions. This makes our approach ideal for survival after attack and continuity of operations Antiterrorism Homeland Security measures. In phase 1, Viatec Research will investigate several ad hoc routing protocols, perform live tests on two, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each under different scenarios, examine network tuning parameters for dynamic adjustability, develop preliminary design documents for a prototype, and deliver reports and a demonstrative presentation. Military and corporate organizations will benefit from real-time auto-configuration, auto-monitoring and auto-control (reactive and predictive) of their wireless networks. They will get a software and/or inexpensive embedded chip implementation that is platform adaptive and therefore implementable on COTS and proprietary hardware and software platforms for ruggedized and non-ruggedized devices and systems. Military installation product evaluations are planned to be performed at Fort Benning, GA. Deployment into government systems will be pursued by teaming with a large government systems integrator like Harris Corporation. Corporate commercial markets for our Autonomic Ad hoc Wireless technology will be pursued through our Business Partner relationship with IBM. Dataquest estimates that there will be approximately 828 million digital wireless users worldwide by the end of 2003.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
2721 White Settlement Rd
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 335-1147
Mr. Kartik Moorthy
OSD 02-T04      Awarded: 17DEC02
Title:Self-Configuring Hub-less Wireless Network
Abstract:This SBIR proposes the development of Self-configuring Hub-less Wireless Networks (SHWN) that automatically adapt to changing configurations as needed and enable the creation of dynamic platforms/structures to form networks on an ad-hoc basis. In addition, when combined with existing wired network technologies, this innovation can provide self-configuring, self-healing, fault-tolerant communications for mobile nodes that also communicate with the fixed, wired network infrastructure. This hybrid network architecture enables mobile nodes to collect and process data both independently and cooperatively, as opposed to the centralized HOST data processing approach currently used for shipboard damage control situations. This net centric design allows nodes to reconfigure their communication routes based on the current status of surrounding nodes. The proposed solution also focuses on reducing the latency of Network Reconfiguration in a distributed control infrastructure for component level based automation systems on naval platforms. This failure analysis/network reconfiguration supervisor will be distributed in nature, consisting of multiple redundant subsystems. The proposed innovation will allow the creation of self-forming networks that can expand and contract on demand, extend into damaged areas with unknown infrastructures, support roving patrols with no/short notice, and communicate between ad-hoc elements of the platform as needed. WPI will commercialize Self-configuring Hub-less Wireless Networks (SHWN) using a 5-part process. The first step is a product demonstration at WPI's in-house laboratory for the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Second, SHWN will undergo a field test on Navy vessels. Step three involves a trial production supplying a test market. Fourth, WPI's marketing department will explore alternative product applications. The final step is full production and product launch. Once production is underway, we will pursue partnerships with shipbuilders such as Northrop Grumman and Newport News Shipbuilding allowing their products to reach customers pre-equipped with SHWN. WPI anticipates capturing 1% of SHWN's $1,119,030,000 estimated annual market. Enabled by our extensive facilities and experienced personnel, WPI will develop, market, and manufacture the IACMR in house. With more than 200 products on the market, WPI possesses the experience, expertise, and resources to drive this solution from concept to commercialized product. WPI already has a costing system in place to facilitate progress recording and billing. Additionally, our strong business relationships with Boeing, Lockheed, General Dynamics, Northrop Grumman, Textron, United Technologies, and BAE allow us to develop products that meet the needs of the specific industries for which they are designed.