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449 Phase I Selections from the 03.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Xingtao Wu
AF 03-001       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Monolithic Deformable Membrane Mirror for High Energy Laser Applications
Abstract:To address the high-speed, low-cost, low-weight, and compact requirements of space- and air-borne high-energy-laser adaptive optical systems, this Phase I program will design test and fabricate a monolithic, high-resolution, deformable, thin-film MEMS-actuator-driven phase-only spatial light modulator mirror. The modulators will be built atop a VLSI driver chip, and in the Phase II program a six-inch wafer will provide four modulators with 512x512 pixels on 10-micron centers. In particular, the Phase I will focus on the problems of electrostatic MEMS actuator design and fabrication, high-voltage VLSI-MEMS driver chip design and fabrication, and prototype modulator assembly and testing to establish feasibility. The proposed modulator design offers: large phase dynamic range (large stroke), low-voltage and low power operation, low weight, scalability to millions of actuators, fast rise time (10 microseconds), electrically-independent actuators, excellent surface figure, high laser power damage threshold, compatibility with system architectures that reduce the computations necessary to compensate wavefront distortion, and low manufacturing cost. Anticipated Benefits Because of its unique design, the modulator is a nearly ideal phase corrector element. We expect the modulator to: offer at least 4d radians of phase correction (2d radians of displacement) at near-infrared wavelengths, operate at electronics-limited framing rates on the order of 4 kHz, offer more accurate phase correction at potentially higher rates than other modulators because of its 100% fill factor, be ultra-compact and extremely lightweight enough to be mounted into telescopes, airframes, missiles, satellites, and medical equipment without significant modification, be scalable to larger wafer sizes without any performance degradation due to the massively parallel nature of the feeding signals, and to yield low system cost because wafer-scale fabrication is being used. Potential Commercial Applications Commercial applications of the proposed MEMS phase modulator and its intensity counterpart include (1) large-screen projection displays, (2) low-cost wavefront correctors (such as retinal imagers and supernormal human vision systems) for the commercial and amateur astronomy markets, (3) low-cost mirror shutters for general-purpose use, and for applications in laser radar and printing, and (4) spatial light modulators for optical signal processing applications.

FIBERTEK, INC.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Mr. Richard Utano
AF 03-002       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Power, High Efficiency Optical Power Amplifiers
Abstract:Develop new techniques to design and build a fiber optical amplifier capable of >10W with wall plug efficiencies of >30% for space based commmunications applications. Fibertek proposes a Phase I program that includes a comprehensive trade analysis on fiber laser technology, modeling of a baseline architecture followed by design verification experiments. This development is anticipated to supply the building blocks for free space communications systems for future high bandwidth satellite communications and military air to air and air to ground communications requirements.

OPTICAL HORIZONS
12340 Santa Monica Blvd, Suite 251
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 979-3342
Dr. Fritz Strohkendl
AF 03-002       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Power, High Efficiency Optical Power Amplifiers
Abstract:Free space optical communications is rapidly becoming the technology of choice for intersatellite links (ISLs). Typical systems utilize high speed laser sources coupled with high power optical amplifiers. We propose the development of a high efficiency, high average power (22W), low noise, optical fiber amplifier for free-space satellite communications. The amplifier supports variable output pulse energies ranging from 2.2nanoJ at 10GHz up to 120microJ at 180kHz repetition rate when seeded with 10 pJ/bit. The amplifier has a 25 GHz bandwidth that can be tuned to match the transmitter/receiver, allowing large signal-to-noise improvement. The predicted signal to noise at the amplifier output is 48 dB in a 25 GHz bandwidth. We will further optimize our design through (1) match of gain media and pump lasers, (2) study of various pump geometries. The communications satellite market is rapidly expanding. For communication between satellites the new method of choice is optical data links, as they are more compact, lighter, and more energy efficient than RF based links. The increased power of our amplifier will enable high transmission rates, up to 100 Gbs. Its variable pulse energy feature will significantly facilitate initial emitter-receiver alignment and enable operation in high back-ground noise environments.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
AF 03-003       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Gain Threshold-less Laser System based on Optical Phase Conjugation
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal, we outline a plan to develop a novel ultra sensitive and high-gain laser system. Its operation is based on a high-gain thresholdless optical phase-conjugate mirror (OPCM). Such a laser system will be capable of tracking remote objects. A stimulated Brillouin scattering effect is used in the proposed approach for development of a high-gain pulsed laser system in an intra-cavity four-wave mixing architecture. In this proposal, we outline the operational principles of the system and show how the high-gain conditions (up to 108) can be achieved for a minimal intensity level of a signal of 10 14J. During Phase I, we will perform an extensive theoretical analysis, design a laboratory system, and demonstrate the key components of the system and its operation. During Phase II we will scale the technology for field demonstration. The proposed thresholdless approach for a high-gain laser system can significantly enhance the amplification of a very low intensity optical signal and in this way improve precision and accuracy with remote laser tracking, discriminating and imaging of a small objects. Because of increased accuracy, the control of satellites can be performed less frequently and with fewer tracking stations, thus saving on operational costs. In the government sector the proposed system could find applications in the Air Force and MDA for tracking and engaging missiles, especially during their mid-course phase. Small size, less system complexity and consequently system mobility are its operational benefits. Commercial applications include, but are not limited to, commercial aircraft, satellite tracking, and high-speed wireless communication. In addition, the proposed techniques can be used for improving the performance characteristics of lasers when a high-energy pulse with a required beam shape on a target surface is of interest.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Eric Honea
AF 03-004       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Space Qualified One Micron Lasers
Abstract:We propose a Yb:SFAP laser system, using a novel resonator scheme, that will provide over 1 J per pulse output at 100 Hz at high efficiency, in a package far more compact, lower mass and efficient that conventional systems. The high-pulse-energy power oscillator architecture is especially suited to space platforms where weight, volume, cooling and efficiency are particularly important. The proposed system will enable a 1 J/pulse 100 Hz system with efficiency and compactness far exceeding conventional systems. The efficiency and cost advantages of the Yb:SFAP system together are anticipated to break through the present cost barriers to diode-pumped solid-state lasers in commercial materials processing systems .

FIBERTEK, INC.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Dr. Floyd E. Hovis
AF 03-004       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Energy, Diode-Pumped, Nd:YAG Laser for Space-Based Lidar
Abstract:Lidar systems are powerful tools for a wide range of remote sensing applications. These include precision distance measurements, target detection, designation, and imaging, and the mapping of chemical species concentrations. The transition of lidar technology into space will provide a powerful tool for defense and commercial applications. For space-based measurements, lasers with a near diffraction limited beam quality and pulse energies on the order of 1 J are often required. Higher repetition rates increase the data acquisition rate. We are proposing to investigate 1 m laser designs that can provide 1 J/pulse at 100 Hz in a robust and compact package suitable for space. Our approach is based on an oscillator/amplifier design. The design incorporates diode-pumped, conductively cooled zigzag slabs as the gain media. The oscillator is an innovative application of polarization output coupling to a ring resonator to achieve a high beam quality with pulse energies on the order of 250 mJ. By starting with higher energy oscillator pulses we can achieve a more compact overall system. Proof of principle resonator measurements and scaling analysis will be performed in Phase I. The addition of amplifiers to achieve the final 0.5 -1 J output would occur in Phase II. There is commercial, DOD, and NASA interest in the development of state of the art, diode-pumped lasers to use in a variety of space-based lidar systems. The purpose of these lidar systems include tracking, imaging, and identification of objects near earth, in deep space, on land, and under water. There is also a growing interest, for both environmental monitoring and national security reasons, in the application of lidar systems to the sensing of trace levels of chemical and biological materials. Another active area of both commercial and NASA interest is lidar based wind measurements. Because of the large distances involved, large laser pulse energies are frequently required to achieve an adequate signal-to-noise from the lidar system. The class of laser of interest is in the 1 J, 100 Hz range. The higher repetition rates allow the opportunity for faster data acquisition for rapidly changing scenes of interest. Diode-pumped, 1 m solid-state lasers are a relatively mature technology and are good candidates for use as the primary laser or as the pump source for generating other wavelengths at the required pulse energies. In order to minimize the output and receiver optics, as would be needed for a space-based system, it is also desirable that the output from the laser be near diffraction limited. Although diode-pumped 1m lasers with the properties described above have been demonstrated for commercial and R&D applications, considerable development is still required to build the robust systems that would be needed for space-based and other field-based systems. Our SBIR proposal is intended to develop a high pulse energy Nd:YAG laser that can meet the needs of such lidar systems.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8730
Mr. David Ludwig
AF 03-005       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Active Optical Remote Sensing System for Ground Contamination Detection
Abstract:This effort is to develop/demonstrate an active optical contamination technique for airborne platform. ISC concept is an active system that transmits spectral energy to the target area, and uses the spectral return to identify ground contaminants. The detection mechanism to be considered is DISC. ISC has conducted an analysis using DC 200 with a one-micron film thickness. Active LWIR showed superior performance when analyzing both active and passive concepts. ISC will utilize a SOA OSC, which accounts for background sources, atmospheric transmission, and uses measured material HDR, MR and BRDF to determine the differential radiance when SF96 is placed on surfaces. ISC, with Mundkowsky Consulting, can fulfill the objectives of the SBIR. We plan to confer with Dr. G. Louis Powell of Y-12 Complex, Oak Ridge, TN, on his contamination research. A system approach is mandatory to ensure that the components to be developed meet the requirements and can be field-tested with GFE in Phase II. For Phase I, ISC will conduct the tasks in Section 2.0. Completion of these tasks will satisfy objectives of Phase I. The program will provide background to develop the airborne contamination detection system heretofore unavailable, benefiting the Air Force and industry. The active sensor system developed under this topic could be applied to a range of planned commercial active remote sensing systems for both commercial, homeland defense and military applications. Potential commercial applications include remote sensing for various surface contamination, agricultural chemical coverage and mineral exploration purposes.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Michael McFarland
AF 03-006       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High-Energy Laser Coatings for Large, Lightweight, and Compliant Deployable Space Optics
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation proposes to use its Filtered Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition (FCAPD) process to apply reflective high-energy laser coatings to complaint polyamide substrates for space-based mirrors. FCAPD coatings have better adhesion and are denser and more stable than coatings deposited using other methods, such as, sputtering or evaporation. In addition, the internal stress of FCAPD films can be controlled, allowing the curvature of compliant mirror surfaces to be fine-tuned during deposition. It is anticipated that the FCAPD optical coatings will permit the use of large, collapsible, space-based mirrors for defense applications. In addition, FCAPD coatings will find commercial applications in energy efficient coatings for home windows, anti-reflective coatings for automotive and aircraft windows, wavelength division multiplexers, and heads-up displays for aircraft helmet visors.

MICROCHEM CORP.
1254 Chestnut St.
Newton, MA 02464
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-5511
Dr. William Weber
AF 03-006       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High-Energy Laser Coatings for Large, Lightweight, and Compliant Deployable Space Optics
Abstract:Material and process innovations for high-energy laser coatings on compliant polymer substrates are needed to improve the adhesion and survivability of space-based optical membranes. These reflective membranes consist of a dielectric coating stack of neobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) and silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) laminated to a fluorinated polyimide membrane. Two prevalent limitations of these coated membrane structures are the lack of adhesion of the dielectric coatings to the polyimide film and the space survivability. Adhesion loss can be caused by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the dielectric coating and the polyimide or the inability of the polyimide to withstand oxygen plasmas. MicroChem Corp. is proposing two new stable polymer membranes, which are compatible with current, dielectric coating technology and provide greater than 99.99% reflectance at a wavelength of 1.315um. The first polymer, OPI-N2005, is a new fluorinated polyimide, which is transparent at 1.315um and has a low, negative CTE, which practically eliminates the compressive stress created by dielectric coatings. The second polymer, SU-8, is an epoxy-novolak which has more than twice the resistance to degradation by radio frequency (RF) generated oxygen plasma as compared to polyimdes, which has been shown to accurately predict in-space durability. This technology has already been demonstrated to be a low cost alternative to wafer fabricated quartz in the production of band-pass filters for telecommunication waveguides and fiber optic connections. These dielectrically coated polyimide filters have survived stress tests which simulate the rigors of buried underground cables. Both the high-energy COIL [laser] and fiber optic telecommunications operate at the same wavelength of 1.315 um, which means that the same dielectric stack and production techniques can be applied. Reflective optics for space-based and tactical applications are commonly used in both Newtonian style telescope designs and for collimating coherent light sources. Lightweight and compliant, deployable space optics are often limited to coherent light sources because their structural support does not produce the needed wave front accuracy. However, it has been shown that membrane optics are capable of producing near-diffraction limited images. This means that compliant optics can penetrate both commercial and military markets that were previously reliant upon heavy, costly and slow-to-produce monolithic designs. This could allow compliant optics to be used for satellite imagery and other space-based communications applications. Many of the polymers to be tested in this Phase I research proposal have been originally designed for use in the telecommunications and electronics industries. It is therefore, reasonable to assume that improvements in the materials and processes for space-based applications can also be used in the same applications. Many of the polyimides and other polymers in these applications are not photoactive or photo-imageable, i.e., the coated optical membrane must be mechanically separated into many small elements for use. Converting these polymers into photo-crosslinakable polymers, like SU-8 would allow the use of light to pattern the filters and obviate the need for mechanical separation, such as dicing or other forms of cutting. Therefore, it is easy to re-incorporate the findings of this Phase I research directly back into the products for commercialization in their current applications.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. David Sheikh
AF 03-006       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Dual Band Mirror System on Flexible Membrane for High Energy Laser Applications
Abstract:Emerging laser systems require defect-free coatings applied to flexible membrane optics in excess of 1-meter in diameter. Multilayer dielectric coatings have been developed to provide high reflectivity and very low absorption for high power laser beams. Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), in conjunction with SRS Technologies, propose to demonstrate a dual band mirror system applied to a CP1 polymeric membrane. The proposed innovation consists of an ultra-high reflectivity, narrow band, dielectric mirror on the front surface of the CP1 film and a wide band dielectric mirror on the backside of the substrate. The first surface mirror is designed to efficiently reflect the high energy laser (HEL), while the second surface mirror provides imaging capability in the visible or near IR band and high transmission at the HEL wavelength of interest. This design takes advantage of the fact that the two mirror systems do not interfere with each other when the substrate film thickness is significantly greater than the imaging wavelength. This innovation utilizes Surface Optics' ion-assisted deposition techniques and SRS Technologies' membrane casting technology. This technology will allow the creation of HEL coatings on large compliant substrates for many commercial and government applications. These applications include relay mirrors, space based laser systems, and large aperture telescopes.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Dr. Everett G. Farr
AF 03-007       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:A High-Voltage UWB Coupled-Line Directional Coupler
Abstract:Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radar systems will be useful for remote target identification, especially when looking through foliage, rain, or soil. The current state of the art, however, requires two separate antennas, one each for transmit and receive. Because the space available for antennas is limited, it would be highly convenient to use a single antenna. We investigate here a number of technologies that, when combined, allow a single antenna to be used. The most immediate requirement is for a broadband, high-voltage directional coupler. A new class of directional coupler is proposed that is fabricated from two coupled parallel transmission lines. These couplers operate over two decades of bandwidth, and they can be designed to withstand very high voltages. Because directional couplers have a finite directivity, there is some signal leakage from the high-voltage source directly into the digitizer. This leakage can easily burn out the digitizer, so we propose using a combination of signal conditioning and limiters to reduce the spurious signal. Signal conditioning involves using a portion of the source signal to cancel out the spurious signal. Limiters may be based on either spark gaps or solid state devices. We will investigate the usefulness of both signal conditioners and limiters. This research will lead to a new high-voltage Ultra-Wideband directional coupler that will allow a single antenna to be used for both transmit and receive. A prototype design will be built and tested during Phase I. This research will also develop methods for reducing or limiting the spurious response in the receive channel using signal conditioning or limiters.

PRO-TECH
11 C Orchard Court
Alamo, CA 94507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 552-0510
Dr. David V. Giri
AF 03-007       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Power Short Pulse Transmit/Receive Isolation Device
Abstract:Transient radars for target detection and identification have the requirement of the equivalent of a T/R switch used in conventional narrowband radars. The requirements for mono and bi-static radars are somewhat different. We have identified 4-port directional coupler comprising of coupled TEM transmission lines and a protective switch as necessary and adequate hardware for both bi and mono-static systems. The proposed Phase-I effort will accomplish the required electromagnetic analysis for the directional coupler and the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a prototype protective switch. As part of the protective switch development in Phase-I, we plan to have the ability in our experiments to investigate the performance of different gasses, electrode materials and shapes. The switch recovery times become a critical parameter and will be the subject of our study in Phase-I. The development of the directional coupler will be the subject of Phase-II effort. The hardware developed in this effort will be designed for pulse parameters of (100 kV to 500 kV), (100 ps to 250 ps) and (2 ns to 6 ns duration). This hardware can also be easily adapted for lower voltage (~ 10 kV) applications. Such hardware makes mono-static transient radar systems possible which are assured of many industrial (e.g., detection of buried pipes etc)) and law-enforcement (e.g., seeing through walls) applications.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Dr. Kevin Wall
AF 03-008       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High-Beam-Quality, High-Average-Power Yb:YAG Lasers
Abstract:Precision tracking of airborne targets, atmospheric sensing, and active imaging require high-average-power, high-beam-quality laser sources. We propose to address these requirements through the use of a side-pumped Yb:YAG laser where high beam quality is achieved by multi-passing the fundamental mode of the laser resonator several times through the gain region to effi-ciently extract the stored energy. The pump sources will be coupled to the Yb:YAG crystal using multimode fibers. This allows for flexibility in design and for the laser output power to be scaled to hundreds of watts by increasing the number of fibers pumping the crystal or the pump power in each fiber. In our proposed design, heat is removed from the laser crystal by direct contact to heat sinks; flowing liquid contacting the crystal is not required as it is in many high-average-power laser schemes, allowing the use of a variety of cooling schemes. Thermal lensing, which can cause aberration of the output beam, is kept low by spreading the heat load over a large area and minimizing the distance between the heat load and heat sinks. The use of Yb:YAG will also contribute to reduced thermal lensing due to its low quantum defect and high thermal conductivity. We anticipate that the lasers to be developed under this program would have wide applicability in laser machining and material processing. Specifically marking, drilling, cutting, welding, scribing, and ablation applications would benefit. Also, because of the high beam quality, harmonic conversion to other wavelengths for tailored laser machining applications would be very efficient. Military applications, where high beam quality illuminators are needed, would also be pursued.

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
4032 Blackburn Lane
Burtonsville, MD 20866
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 989-1896
Dr. Viktor Fromzel
AF 03-008       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Average Power Q-switched Diode-Pumped Yb:YAG Laser
Abstract:We propose to develop a compact, high-average-power, high-repetition-rate, Q-switched diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser for applications such as target illumination from airborne and ground based mobile platforms. An innovative double TIR laser-head design will be utilized to provide >150W of average power at high repetition rates (2 to 10 kHz), and TEM00 mode operation in all regimes. Strong, broad absorption bands of the Yb:YAG crystals allow pumping by efficient, robust, commercial, InGaAs laser diodes. The thermal load on the crystal is very low because of the small quantum deficit between the pump wavelength (940nm) and the laser output (1030nm). Diffraction limited laser beam (TEM00 mode), and stable Q-switched pulses of > 80mJ/pulse will be produced at 2kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a conversion efficiency of > 10%. At 10kHz PRF ~15mJ/pulse is expected with the same beam quality. The simple and compact configuration of the laser head along with high conversion efficiency and low thermal load will result in a small laser system suitable for airborne and mobile applications. In Phase I, a comprehensive design of the laser will be performed, and a bread-board high PRF Yb:YAG laser will be demonstrated. In Phase II a full scale prototype laser system will be developed. In addition to the military applications other anticipated commercial applications are for materials processing, lidar, remote sensing and detection, a high- average power source for efficient frequency conversion.

BOSTON MICROMACHINES COPORATION
108 Water Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 926-8796
Mr. Paul A. Bierden
AF 03-009       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Reflective spatial light modulator for high-dynamic-range wavefront control
Abstract:Optical MEMS arrays have begun to transform the field of adaptive optics for astronomy, vision science, and laser communication. They are faster, more compact, less expensive, and more power efficient than alternative technologies. The principal technical objective of this Phase I project will be to build and demonstrate a 150 x 150 element micromachined spatial light modulator (SLM) that can achieve high dynamic range, unprecedented frame rates, and precise wavefront-fitting. The device will be integrated directly on a CMOS driver chip, and will be controllable digitally through a personal computer. Fabricated using metal micromachining processes developed at Boston Micromachines Corporation, the SLM will allow up to 1m physical throw (2m optical path difference) for each of the 22,500 mirror pixels at 4 kHz frame rate. Challenges associated with design, process development, fabrication and testing will be addressed in Phase I research. In Phase II, megapixel devices (~200 mm diameter) will be produced using the same device architecture. If successful, the Phase I research project will yield a high-speed, reflective spatial light modulator with 22,500 independent pixels, 4-bit phase resolution, and 4 kHz frame rate. It will be usable over a range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 2 m. If controlled using modulo-lambda phase wrapping, this device will be capable of correcting tens of waves of optical path difference across its 15 mm aperture. The device architecture will be fully scalable, taking advantage of sequentially processed, vertically integrated arrays of CMOS electronics, MEMS electromechanical actuators, and optical-quality MEMS micromirrors. This architecture will enable a generation of new devices for phase and amplitude modulation. Moreover, the fabrication technology developed ? low temperature metal MEMS surface micromachining to optical tolerances ? will provide a foundation upon which other active optical components could be developed. Boston Micromachines Corporation has commercialized the world?s highest quality deformable mirror devices, and has established strategic partnerships with several leading developers of adaptive optics technology in the application areas of vision science, astronomy, and laser communication. The SLM takes advantage of key drivers for successful MEMS commerce, leveraging our existing products with a timely and important complementary product in the field of optical wavefront control.

INTELLITE
1717 Louisiana, NE Suite 202
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 268-4742
Mr. Dennis Mansell
AF 03-009       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Spatially Modulated Reflective Membranes for High-Dynamic-Range Wavefront Control
Abstract:Diffractive wavefront control has been demonstrated as a viable technique for high-dynamic-range laser wavefront control. Unfortunately, most conventional programmable diffractive elements, like liquid crystals and segmented mirror arrays, are damaged when illuminated with high-power laser light. The proposed work would investigate approaches for scaling membrane deformable mirrors to provide high-energy laser wavefront control with a large number of actuators. Success in developing this technology will provide the foundation to develop and market simpler, cheaper deformable mirrors for a variety of military and commercial applications. Government agencies that could utilize this technology include not only the DOD programs, but also NASA, the new Department of Homeland Security, and the NRO. Commercial applications in the fields of medical instruments, astronomy, photography, and optical equipment can also be expected.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court, Suite 130
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Xingtao Wu
AF 03-009       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Large-Area High Dynamic Range Monolithic Membrane Mirror Technology
Abstract:Applications in laser communication and high-power laser weapons could benefit significantly from the availability of a high dynamic range, large-area wavefront corrector. Deformable mirrors are often the key and performance-limiting components in such systems. High-speed, low-cost, low-weight, and compactness are also requirements for space- and air-borne systems. This Phase I program will design fabricate and test technologies and concepts that could lead to a large area, high-dynamic range, monolithic, deformable, thin-film MEMS-actuator-driven spatial light modulating mirror. The modulator will be built atop a tiled array of VLSI driver chips. The Phase I will investigate the fabrication of tileable chips with corrector elements on a 1 mm pitch and a monolithic mirror reflector over the actuators. Electrical addressing of a tiled array will be a major focus of the Phase I study. The Phase I will also focus on designs that will lead to large stroke (~10d radians at near infrared wavelengths), high speed (100 s pixel response speed) and on developing suitable electrostatic MEMS actuators and high-voltage VLSI driver chips. In the Phase II program a 28.7cm x 28.7 cm device will be fabricated by tiling four 5.6-inch square devices to demonstrate scalability of the concept. The proposed modulator is expected to offer large phase dynamic range (large stroke), low-voltage and low power operation, low weight, scalability to millions of actuators, fast rise time (100 microseconds), electrically-independent actuators, excellent surface figure, high laser power damage threshold, and low manufacturing cost. Commercial applications of the resulting MEMS phase modulator and its intensity counterpart include (1) large-screen projection displays, (2) low-cost wavefront correctors (such as retinal imagers and supernormal human vision systems) for the commercial and amateur astronomy markets, (3) low-cost mirror shutters for general-purpose use, and for applications in laser radar and printing, and (4) spatial light modulators for optical signal processing applications.

FIRST RF CORP.
1200 28th Street, Suite 302
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 03-010       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Narrow Band High Power Antennas for Airborne Platforms
Abstract:A novel approach is proposed that satisfies all critical system requirements. The design is based on modification of a waveguide radiating element using high dielectric strength materials. The radiating element design is compatible with a range of high dielectric strength materials. The element exhibits very high overall aperture efficiency (in excess of 98%) with minimal dissipative losses in the order of .1 dB. It will be shown that the design is compatible with several high strength dielectric materials. A robust plan to manufacture the antenna is presented that takes into account manufacturing of the final article that needs to conform to the host vehicle. Based on the past success and studies done in support of preparation for this proposal we believe the overall approach is sound and the risk is reasonable for execution of the program and carrying through to phase 2 and ultimately an implemented production program is low. Broadband, conformal, high power antennas have direct application to EW platforms and electronic attack missions. The technology will directly support a number of ongoing DOD acquisition programs, including weapons and manned/unmanned aircraft. On the civilian side the need for broadband high power communications exists and the technology will resolve key issues. Commercial benefits include high data rate transfer from mobile platforms, both air and ground.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Dr. Robert Koslover
AF 03-010       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Twistreflector Antennas for Airborne HPM Applications
Abstract:Throughout the last half-century, microwave antennas employing various combinations of polarization-dependent and polarization-transforming elements have been conceived, designed, patented, characterized, manufactured, sold, and praised for their compactness, beam-steerability, and other desirable features. However, these versatile antennas have only recently received attention within the HPM community. These aptly-named "transreflectors" and "twistreflectors" are actually well-suited to HPM directed energy applications. Leveraging this technology since late 1999, under Phase I and II SBIR sponsorship by the US Army/ARL, SARA has designed, validated, patented, and is now completing construction of a truck-mountable, rapidly and widely-steerable, high-gain (~30dB), L-band HPM antenna, for delivery to ARL in mid 2003. This is the first ever HPM antenna to support dynamic engagements of arbitrarily moving targets. No equivalent capability exists anywhere else. SARA's completed design is already adaptable, with modest scaling, to a large piloted aircraft, such as a B-1. However, for UCAVs and other small aircraft, additional R&D is needed to achieve shallower-depth, yet still widely-steerable antennas. Interestingly, flatter non-steerable varieties of twistreflectors show promise for application to omni-azimuthal radiating, HPM-based munitions. We propose here several specific new advances in combining twistreflector, transreflector, and HPM power routing technologies to help bring airborne HPM applications to reality. The proposed technology is intended primarily for military applications of airborne HPM-based directed energy weapons. However, commercial/law enforcement use as an airborne, non-lethal, vehicle-stopper is also anticipated.

VOSS SCIENTIFIC
418 Washington St., S.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-4201
Dr. Clifton Courtney
AF 03-010       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Narrow Band High Power Antennas for Airborne Platforms
Abstract:For two decades the US AFRL, and predecessors, have vigorously pursued development of High Power Microwave (HPM) generators. Less effort has been expended to develop compatible high power-capable antennas, though the recent DE-ATAC study identified antennas as a top priority in HPM DE research. We propose a concentrated study to validate and develop four Voss Scientific HPM antenna concepts for air platforms; two concepts are applicable to fundamental mode rectangular waveguide, and two are compatible with TM01 mode driven circular waveguide. The concepts for fundamental mode waveguide are: (1) the extremely large-slot, slotted waveguide array antenna, and (2) the split-guide, waveguide antenna. The concepts for circular waveguide are: (3) the Coaxial Beam-Rotating Lens antenna for circular apertures, and (4) the hybrid Vlasov-terminated / large-slot, traveling wave array antenna. In Phase I we will conduct first-order designs and rigorous FDTD simulations of each concept. Also, using estimated field emission thresholds, surface flashover, and air break downscaling factors, we will estimate the power capacity of each concept to show high power viability. Finally, working with our program partner, Boeing Corporation, we will show that the proposed concepts are compatible with specific air platforms. This effort will culminate in the development of high power-capable antenna(s), with an ultimate demonstration of radiated fields from a 1-GW HPM source. In addition, these antenna technologies, and associated HPM system components, will show feasibility with an air platform. Also, the antenna(s) developed for this effort can be used for HPM effects testing experiments at GW power levels, with polarization diversity. Commercial applications for HPM antennas include their use in space to beam converted solar to RF energy back to earth for commercial power consumption, as part of HPM systems for commercial aircraft self defense, and systems currently being studied to stop vehicles in a non-lethal manner.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Mr. Chuck Miyake
AF 03-011       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Power Mid-Infrared (2-10 Micron) Diode Laser Development
Abstract:Advanced IRCM lasers and systems, currently in development, require mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with very non-standard design parameters. The proposed effort will investigate the performance of commercially grown GaSb based materials and optimize their performance for use in unique laser transmitter designs, which will be directly traceable to future IRCM systems. The proposed mid-infrared laser technology has potential applications in spectroscopic gas sensing systems for environmental monitoring, explosive detection and industrial process monitoring sensors.

RJM SEMICONDUCTOR, L.L.C.
10 Summit Ave., Building 3
Berkeley Heights, NJ 07922
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 790-9000
Dr. Roger J. Malik
AF 03-011       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Power Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers
Abstract:RJM Semiconductor with subcontract support from University of Connecticut proposes to develop tunable high power mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) over the 2-10mm wavelength range. These QCL sources have important applications in spectroscopic sensing of chemical weapons and explosives and also can be used in secure free-space optical communications links and infrared countermeasures. We plan to utilize an innovative active region design which uses double-phonon resonance for better high temperature continuous wave (CW) performance and an integrated thermoelectric controller and multi-section architecture in order to fabricate lasers with continuous tunability. This combined with a new distributed feedback laser design would enable us to achieve tunable lasers with narrow linewidths. The Phase I tasks include: (1) modeling of the band structure and tuning characteristics of QCLs, (2) Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth and materials characterization of AlInAs/InGaAs/InP laser structures, (3) fabrication and measurements of the optical spectra and tunability of QCLs, and (4) design of tunable high power QCLs based upon Bragg gratings and integrated thermo-electric heaters. For Phase II, tunable high power QCLs would be developed and characterized as deliverables. Improvements in emission power, laser operating temperatures, tuning range, and modulation speed would be achieved in Phase II using novel laser design, improved heat-sink packaging, and power combining methods for laser arrays. There exists an urgent need to develop trace gas sensors for detection of chemical weapons and explosives for military and homeland security applications. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy at specific wavelengths in the 2-10mm range has been demonstrated to provide sensitive (parts per billion) detection of chemical molecules in the atmosphere. The development of high sensitivity, low-cost QCL chemical sensors would have wide ranging applications for military and homeland security forces. The QCL-based chemical weapons sensors could be used by ground troops in hostile environments and for airborne surveillance of the battlefield. Police forces could use these chemical weapons sensors to monitor potential terrorist targets. Airport security agents could use these chemical sensors for passenger and luggage screening. Customs agents could use these chemical sensors at ports-of-entry to detect explosives and narcotics. Also large potential commercial markets exist for environmental/industrial chemical sensing of power plant and automotive emissions and chemical waste effluent from factories. The total potential markets for QCL-based chemical sensors are estimated to exceed $100M annually by 2007.

BODKIN DESIGN & ENGINEERING
P.O. Box 81176
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 235-6351
Mr. Andrew Bodkin
AF 03-015       Awarded: 7/2/2003
Title:Innovative Measurement Techniques for Space-Based Remote Sensing/Standoff Detection
Abstract:Hyperspectral imaging has been recognized as an important tool for remote reconnaissance. It can identify targets by their pixel spectral content in addition to their spatial characteristic. This is important when the targets are too small to be spatially resolved, or are partially obscured by vegetation, or the targets can only be identified by their spectral signature, such as poison gas clouds. We propose to build an innovative hyperspectral camera suitable for use in satellite born instrumentation. Unlike other approaches this device captures both the spectral information and the spatial information in one simultaneous frame. (In contrast, a spectrograph-based imager would capture the full spectrum of a single spatial line of data at a time and a Fabry-Perot based device would capture a 2D image in a single spectral band at a time). The resulting instrument will have no moving parts and provide high resolution spectra in a compact, ruggedized, packaged. High resolution hyperspectral imagery is a key element in the developing fields of autonomous military target identification, countering camouflage concealment and deception, friend or foe determination, chemical warfare defense and homeland security. Additionally, it finds application in geologic mapping, biological research, medical imaging, cancer scanning and in clinical instrumentation. Our highly sensitive approach, will make hyperspectral imaging available for all these application, in a simple, low-cost, robust package.

TECHNICAL RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
760 Las Posas Rd., Suite A-4
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 987-1972
Dr. Edwin M. Winter
AF 03-015       Awarded: 7/3/2003
Title:Innovative Measurement Techniques for Space-Based Remote Sensing/Standoff Detection
Abstract:The resolution of hyperspectral sensors is typically much less than that achieved by panchromatic and multi-spectral sensors due to fundamental noise limitations. The proposed work will demonstrate a new and innovative technique based on linear unmixing, called Color Sharpening, which combines a set of high-resolution multi-spectral images with a lower spatial resolution hyperspectral image to produce a product that has the spectral properties of the hyperspectral image at a spatial resolution approaching that of the high resolution data. With the Color Sharpening approach, there is the potential for a new dual multi-spectral/hyperspectral data collection system for cost-effective space based spectral sensing Under Phase I, the algorithm will be developed further to improve the target detection performance and improve its computer implementation. A series of analyses will compare the candidate approach to current conventional panchromatic sharpening and to unsharpened data. To accomplish this, high resolution multi-spectral data will be combined with lower hyperspectral data using high quality registration. The new approach will be assessed in terms of object-to-background contrast enhancement and/or clutter suppression, classification accuracy as well as for accuracy and speed. Potential methods to apply the new technology to military and commercial applications will be investigated. Hyperspectral imaging systems are assuming a greater importance for a wide variety of commercial and military systems. The reason for this increased interest is the fact that a hyperspectral sensor of a given spatial resolution or pixel size will reveal information on the scene that can not be obtained by single band or multi-spectral sensors. For commercial geological remote sensing, the spectral properties of the surface will tell the existence of minerals of potential commercial value. For military surveillance systems, a hyperspectral system can often be used to detect and identify a military target, even though the target may occupy less than a single pixel. The ability of the hyperspectral sensor to behave as a sensor with higher spatial resolution does not mean that there is not a place for high-resolution imagery. In fact, many operational and planned hyperspectral sensors are coupled with a high-resolution instrument. There are many applications for a technology that can optimally combine the data from these two types of sensors. An existing procedure often called ?sharpening? combines the output of the analysis of the hyperspectral data with the high-resolution image. The proposed procedure allows the combination of multi-spectral with lower hyperspectral data using a physical model to optimally combine the data . There are two military applications: target detection and scene classification. Target detection requires high spatial resolution, which is difficult to achieve from space. This approach offers a possible solution for a satellite based sensor. For the scene classification application, which is used for terrain trafficability, crop assessment, damage assessment, detection of non-isolated ?target? materials, as well as intelligence, the development of image products with the properties of both sensors will aid the work of the Image Analyst. There are multiple potential uses for this technology in the commercial domain. Satellite hyperspectral remote sensing products are limited in spatial resolution by the constraints of a space-based optical system and the great range to the scene. TRA is already talking to the commercial companies involved in the Hyperion and NEMO satellite systems. The processing requirement is very important here and our program plan includes determining hardware and software solutions to the processing problem. The market timing for this effort is ideal because candidate hyperspectral satellite sensors are currently being studied for classification and detection uses by the military and intelligence communities. This proposed program represents a key opportunity to develop a new technology with high likelihood potential for commercial success that also has high promise for the United States military.

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH TECHNOLOGIES
1320 Pearl Street, Suite 108
Boulder, CO 80302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-4129
Dr. Boris Khattatov
AF 03-016       Awarded: 7/3/2003
Title:Long-term Ionospheric Forecasting System
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to investigate the feasibility of an end-to-end global long-term ionospheric forecast model based on a fusion of several diverse technologies and to develop the related probability density function evolution formalism to characterize the forecast quality. In order to meet the stated goal of a 3-day forecast one has to address the complete chain of events starting from highly unpredictable changes in solar conditions to changes in the ionosphere. Ideally, the system would consist of several physics-based models, a sufficient number of observational data streams and a data assimilation system that provides for computing error covariance evolution. Presently, an end-to-end first-principles based assimilative system is impossible. We propose a practical system based on a synthesis of several different technologies: (1) an artificial intelligence algorithm known as Support Vector Machines for predicting changes in solar wind from time sequences of solar images; (2) an empirical model of the high-latitude electric field potentials; and (3) a physics-based ionospheric model coupled with efficient Kalman filter for forecasting the final ionospheric parameters of interest. Additionally, we propose a prototype error propagation scheme for computing evolution of forecast probability density functions starting from errors of representativeness in the synoptic solar images to uncertainties in the final forecast. Improvements in space weather modeling and forecasting will be of immediate use for a number of practical military and civilian applications, particularly in satellite-based communications and navigation. Our commercialization strategy is based on the fact that contemporary space weather models are not capable of generating precise forecasts for use by those industries where solar and Ionospheric affects disrupt operations in a costly manner. At the same time, given our reliance and dependency on satellite and wireless communications such forecasts are of considerable interest to the private sector and the military to allow for operational planning instead of emergency reaction. In the private sector potential clients include: companies in satellite-based navigation (GPS industry); satellite-based communications, including high band width requirements and mission critical applications; cellular communications companies; power distribution concerns; and research institutions. Development of a physics-based ionospheric forecast system will address these needs and open up radically new commercial and military applications. To further substantiate commercial application of this technology we have established relationships in the commercial sector with major GPS service companies, confirmed by the enclosed letters of interest.

SPACE ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGIES
1676 Palisades Dr.
Pacific Palisades, CA 90272
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 573-4185
Dr. W. Kent Tobiska
AF 03-016       Awarded: 6/27/2003
Title:An Operational Ionospheric Forecast System
Abstract:This project will provide a prototype operational ionospheric forecast system based on the GAIM data assimilation ionospheric model and driven by the best operational models currently available. This system is the type envisioned by the National Space Weather Program. Its development represents a major advance in space weather operational systems for ionospheric forecasting. The system architecture combines physics-based and empirical models specifying the 4-D global conditions to provide global-to-local characterizations, at all latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes, with recent history, current epoch, and forecast out to 72 hours, of ionospheric and neutral density profiles, total electron content, plasma drifts, neutral winds, and temperatures. The prototype will be demonstrated at 10-minutely cadences for communications, GPS navigation, radar surveillance, and geolocation users. The system architecture is designed for operational reliability and robustness with quantifiable uncertainties. There are two modes of operation: a modified turn-key system with a central server at one geographical location and a distributed network system consisting of a database server that exchanges files between models running asynchronously on separate servers. Testing of the Phase II prototype will document ionospheric parameters' accuracy, precision, and error with established metrics, comparative data, and exercised under operational conditions with quality control. The team behind this proposal intends to commercialize this operational ionospheric forecast system. A plan for commercialization includes industry and market analysis, competitor analysis, product analysis, customer modification planning, partnership agreements, and system/product deliveries. The system will be a foundation for servicing ground, aeronautical, and space systems via coupled models. Capabilities that will be improved through use of this operational ionospheric forecast system include aircraft deployment and logistics. The system can substantially strengthen force projection at any given time with rapid ingress to any global location, e.g., a navigation and HF communication capability made possible by significantly improved ionospheric specification. It will enable new classes of missions, particularly those that require either shorter travel times from the continental U.S. to other hemisphere locations or higher accuracy single frequency GPS location knowledge. It will provide the technical knowledge to deny situational awareness to parties who may be using GPS single frequency devices. This proposed system will permit expanded UAV flight regimes capabilities in polar, mid-, and low-latitudes. It will also provide a platform for seamless integration of SBIRS Low TEC occultation data as well as C/NOFS ionospheric irregularities and scintillation data.

ENVIRONMENTAL AEROSCIENCE CORP.
7290 SW 42 Street
Miami, FL 33155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 267-7588
Ms. Debbie Sifford
AF 03-018       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:The Mu-LV Small Vehicle Launch Vehicle
Abstract:The Mu-LV Small Launch Vehicle employs hybrid propulsion technology to create a cost effective and operationally responsive system. During the proposed effort a refined system design will be completed and extensively analyzed and traded to optimize the overall vehicle. The project ends with a static firing of a hybrid booster to demonstrate the feasibility of the technical concept. The benefits the will result from the Mu-LV Small Launch Vehicle technology project include lower launch costs and a highly responsive operational spacelift vehicle. It is expected that the technology will be commercialized in the civilian sector.

GARVEY SPACECRAFT CORP.
15641 Product Lane, Unit A5
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-6086
Mr. John M. Garvey
AF 03-018       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:An Incremental Approach to Small Launch Vehicle Technology Development
Abstract:The implementation of small satellite architectures and satellite micro-miniaturization technologies has been inhibited due to the lack of responsive, cost-effective, user-friendly Spacelift solutions that specifically address this market. New technologies, including some of those being developed for small satellites, and modern business practices now make it possible to develop a commercially-viable Small Launch Vehicle (SLV). A key technical step is introduction and validation of these new technologies and services, many of which are intended to achieve cost reduction as opposed to vehicle performance enhancements. On the business side, an incremental approach based on a series of sustainable market niches is critical to overcoming the large up-front R&D investment that is characteristic of traditional launch vehicle development programs. The proposed Phase I study will refine a previously-defined path for developing a prototype suborbital test vehicle that takes advantage of an on-going SLV project that has already achieved several important milestones in this area. The ability to conduct frequent flight tests, with short, responsive lead times and for very low cost, is already attracting members of the small satellite and SLV communities who seek to get their hardware out of the lab and into flight. The same technology risk mitigation capability can play an important role in providing near-term opportunities for evaluating promising launch vehicle technologies identified during the Phase I study. Upon validation, such technologies would enable even further improvements in responsiveness, cost and vehicle performance. One specific project objective is an enhanced suborbital vehicle that can routinely reach altitudes exceeding 100 km. This system, which would be at least partially reusable, would represent a magnitude increase in performance over the existing vehicle design that is now serving the domestic academic market. A fundamental goal is to achieve such improvements while retaining existing costs and operational practices.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mr. Kevin Farinholt
AF 03-018       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Active-Passive Acoustic Absorber for the Scorpius Launch Vehicle
Abstract:We propose to build and test an active-passive acoustic absorber for the Scorpius(TM) launch vehicle. The absorber is designed to couple into the first few acoustic modes of the payload fairing cavity. Mechanical designs are tuned to the lowest frequency mode and the higher-frequency modes are attenuated with feedback control. Suppression of the first few acoustic modes will reduce the sound pressure level inside the fairing cavity and reduce the vibroacoustic loading on the payload. Previous work by the proposing firm and their subcontractor (Boeing-SVS of Albuquerque, NM) has shown that a 4 db to 8 dB reduction in overall sound pressure level below 300 Hz can be achieved with dissipative feedback. The acoustic dissipation is maximized through an automated tuning algorithm that identified the resonant modes of the cavity and automatically tunes the control parameters to maximize damping. Tasks associated with this work are (1) mechanical design of the absorber housed in the Scorpius (TM) launch vehicle, (2) design of control and power electronics, and (3) system integration and delivery for acceptance testing. Although this Phase I schedule is aggressive, the chance of demonstrating feasibility is maximized by using a previous design as the baseline forth Scorpius(TM) absorber. Opportunities in the commercialization of active-passive absorber technology exist in the small, medium, and large launch vehicle market. Feasibility demonstration in Phase I will lead to the development of a modular absorber system that can be incorporated as an add-on into future Scorpius and Minotaur platforms. We will pursue agreements with Orbital Science Corporation (the integrator of Minotaur) for the Phase II development. Applications to larger launch vehicle platforms will be pursued in collaboration with Boeing through our partnership with Boeing-SVS.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Dr. Martin J. Chiaverini
AF 03-018       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Advanced Vortex Hybrid Propulsion System (AVHPS)
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to develop an Advanced Vortex Hybrid Propulsion System (AVHPS) to meet the demands of highly-reliable, low-cost propulsion systems for small launch vehicles. The benefits of the AVHPS result from the combination of ORBITEC's patented vortex injection technique and high-regression rate solid fuels. The AVHPS will provide for high volumetric loading and energy density, high combustion efficiency, reliable system performance, safe storage and deployment, and low cost. The Phase I work includes launch vehicle conceptual designs and trade studies, modifications to an existing thrust chamber assembly, fuel burning characterization under the vortex combustion scheme, throttling and mixture ratio control tests, empirical regression rate and combustion efficiency correlation development, technical risk identification and management, and Phase II thrust chamber design and test plan. This technology aims to improve propulsion system performance, reliability, and reduce costs associated with small launch vehicle propulsion systems. The end product of the overall research and development program will also have application to sounding rockets, reusable and expendable launch vehicles, and upper stage propulsion systems for orbit-insertion. Near-term military applications include: boost-phase interceptors, high-speed and/or high altitude target drones, cruise missile propulsion, and forward observation craft propulsion. Military orbit transfer propulsion systems and satellite maneuvering propulsion systems can also benefit from this technology. This technology is closely related to ORBITEC's vortex combustion cold-wall (VCCW) chamber technology for liquid bi-propellant applications, and has the potential to dramatically improve liquid rocket and RBCC lifetime, reusability, and thrust-to-weight ratio. Future generation launch vehicles can benefit from these technologies. In addition to these applications, this new type of vortex combustion may have significant industrial benefits. For example, many classes of air-fired combustors can use the vortex combustion technology for improved combustion efficiency and potentially reduced emissions.

SPACEDEV
13855 Stowe Drive
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 375-2060
Mr. Frank L. Macklin, P.E.
AF 03-018       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Small Vehicle Launch Technology
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop innovative Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) technologies that provide responsive, cost effective solutions for Small Satellites. SpaceDev has identified several emergent technologies that have the potential to produce significant advancements in SLV responsiveness, cost, performance and safety. SpaceDev proposes to develop a baseline SLV vehicle concept that uses both hybrid and Lox/RP1 propulsion systems to their best advantage. Because of hybrid propulsion's inherent low cost, technologies to increase its mass fraction and performance without sacrificing low system cost are proposed. Our concept is based on multiple incremental improvements resulting in a low risk approach that has a high payoff. It leads to scalable, affordable propulsion systems that have many potential applications beyond a new SLV. We intend to leverage Schafer/AFRL's investment in Lox/RP1 engine manufacturing technology to both hybrid and Lox/RP1 propulsion. The SpaceDev Phase I project will define a baseline SLV to identify innovative solutions and enable trade-offs of performance versus cost. We will also define hardware technologies for reducing vehicle flight-control-systems cost. SpaceDev will prepare an improved conceptual design of its sub-orbital rocket to incorporate the new baseline SLV high-payoff technologies, and a Phase II plan for cost-risk mitigation testing. This project will define propulsion technologies and systems technologies that will enable the rapid and inexpensive development of an affordable, dependable small satellite launch system. This rocket technology has numerous commercial and military applications including launch-vehicle main stages, strap-ons, and upper stages to place small payloads into Low Earth Orbit (LEO); providing safe, low-cost reusable rocket engines for sub-orbital manned space planes, air launched rocket vehicles, the new proposed Orbital Space Plane, commercial and government sounding rockets; replacing current two-stage solid rockets used to transfer payloads from one orbit to another; and providing first stage propulsion for a future two-stage to orbit fully reusable launch vehicle to replace the Space Shuttle. The aim of this project is to develop a rocket motor with performance to take up to 1000 lbs to LEO, while delivering high responsiveness, lower cost, high reliability, and greater safety relative to existing options.

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
184 CEDAR HILL STREET
MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. George Gould
AF 03-019       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Aerogels For Common Aero Vehicle Payload and Avionics Isolation
Abstract:Aspen Aerogels, Inc proposes to develop and demonstrate a revolutionary aerogel-based thermally insulating, shock and vibration isolation material intended for use in aerospace payload and avionics applications. The launch weight of the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) will be reduced and its operational reliability increased by using flexible aerogel composites optimized for mechanical resilience under vibrational, acoustic, and shock loads common to a maneuvering re-entry profile to protect payload and avionics packages. The aerogel-augmented avionics and payload isolation systems could also find use in future Air Force reusable launch vehicles (RLV's) such as the Space Operations Vehicle (SOV) or Space Maneuvering Vehicle (SMV). The advantages of the proposed core material over other available vibration, acoustic, and shock dampening materials are: 2-3 fold (or higher) improvement in thermal performance per unit thickness Density less than 6 pounds per cubic foot Multifunctional characteristics - thermal insulation, blast protection, shock mitigation In this Phase I program Aspen Aerogels will establish key vibrational, thermal, acoustic and shock properties of various flexible aerogel composite blanket materials and identify potential stack-ups of materials. In the Phase II, the payload and avionics isolation systems will be designed, optimized and encapsulated prototypes tested. The benefits and commercialization opportunities of this Phase I proposal include: demonstration of a higher thermal performance, lighter weight, multi-functional insulation product translating to launch weight savings and improved operational reliability for the CAV. The proposed technology will be applied to a broad range of military aerospace platforms as well as commercial shipping containers and avionics protection structures.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Brock Gilbertson
AF 03-019       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Common Aero Vehicle Payload and Avionics Isolation
Abstract:FMI proposes to develop an enabling technology for the Air Force's Common Aero Vehicle. This is comprised of an improved thermal insulation system for the exterior of the vehicle based on the goals of performance, cost, and weight. FMI will integrate the results of recent and ongoing Air Force contracts to develop CAV insulation and an aeroshell for this proposed effort. This proposed effort will result in a Thermal Protection System stackup that will be constructed and thermo-mechanically tested at elevated temperature. The Phase II effort will include detailed characterization of the materials of choice for the TPS for mechanical, thermal, and physical properties, including variation between production lots. A pre-production TPS design could be established, manufactured, and qualified in government furnished arc-jet testing. Future hypersonic vehicles will also benefit from this TPS effort.

OCELLUS, INC.
448 Lindbergh Avenue
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 447-0798
Dr. Michael Droege
AF 03-019       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Thermal/Shock Isolation System and Materials for CAV Paylaod
Abstract:CAV is a concept for a maneuvering reentry vehicle that brings a payload through the atmosphere from (sub)orbital trajectory. CAV uses an aero shell to protect payload and avionics from reentry heating. While the aero shell is the primary shield, a key CAV technical need is an insulation system for the interior of the aero shell, protecting control electronics and payload. Besides thermal protection, the insulation should isolate from shock, vibration, and acoustic loads. Ocellus proposes an exceptional new composite material that will meet or exceed requirements for the CAV application. This material, named BRIA, consists of a novel low-density ceramic fiber matrix filled with heat-resistant aluminum oxide foam. It is lightweight, mechanically strong, easily fashioned into shapes, an excellent thermal insulator, stable to 2600F, and should exhibit extraordinary energy dissipation characteristics. Our approach is to engineer BRIA to meet CAV needs for interior insulation. In a preliminary design, the BRIA insulation system is attached directly to the inner surface of the aero shell, providing more payload space and critical protection should the aero shell be damaged. Phase I work includes characterization of BRIA, model development for BRIA trade study, and preliminary design for BRIA in CAV. Immediate benefits from this Phase I activity would be the identification of an insulation system for the CAV that would offer value-added benefits such as, designs allowing insulation in contact with aero shell to provide more payload space and protection to payload should aero shell be damaged. Longer term benefits stem from further development of BRIA and its use in other aerospace applications and, ultimately, commercial products. Besides CAV, an initial aerospace market strategy is to develop BRIA as a Thermal Protection System (TPS) for Space Vehicles, such as Reusable Launch Vehicles, expendable launch and reentry vehicles, and the current Shuttle fleet. These applications would be enabled by an insulation material that provides excellent high temperature insulation, and possesses sufficient thermal tolerance and mechanical strength to withstand multiple atmospheric reentry cycles. The development of this large market would allow manufacturing scale-up and manufacturing efficencies. The secondary market, commercial products, feeds off of the systems and experience developed in the military/space market. This market would initially focus on niche applications such as flight data recorders and specialty high temperature furnaces.

AGILTRON CORP.
13 Henshaw Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-0513
Dr. Jing Zhao
AF 03-020       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Phase Gradient Fine Steering Mirrors for Free Space Optical Communication Systems
Abstract:Lasercomm offers attractive benefits of energy efficient, small size and weight, as well as resistant to detection and jam. However, lasercomm requires high accuracy pointing systems due to the much narrower beam divergence compared to conventional RF technology. Although mechanical beam steering mirrors provide the basic performance requirements, there is an increased need for high frequency beam steering device to overcome platform vibration and jitter. In this program Agiltron Inc. propose an alternative optical phase gradient based non-mechanical approach. Our innovative design overcomes the wavefront distortion deficiency that has traditionally hampered the application of phased array based device due to discontinuity and stair-step phase-delay profile. Our technology offers significantly reduction in size and power of fast beam steering systems as well as intrinsic precision control capability. In Phase I we will fabricate a prototype device to demonstrate feasibility. We anticipate that state-of-the-art performance in several key specifications can be achieved in Phase I of the program. Applications for optical scanning products are very broad. They include low-mass, low-power-consumption space terminals for future DoD, NASA and commercial space-to-ground and inter-satellite optical communications links. Other application includes lasercomm, displays, laser imaging, medicine, printing, industrial laser- based material processing and optical communications.

DISPLAYTECH, INC.
2602 Clover Basin Drive
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 774-2272
Dr. Mike O'Callaghan
AF 03-020       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Beam steering using a new class of fast, high-polarization ferroelectric liquid crystals
Abstract:It has long been known that optical phased array (OPA) beam steering can be performed by liquid crystal devices, yet available liquid crystals are either too slow for many applications (1 ms - 100's of milliseconds) or they are incapable of producing the necessary range of analog phase modulation. Developments in a new class of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) during the last couple of years have the potential to overcome these limitations, enabling OPA beam steering devices with speeds in excess of 5 kHz. OPAs consist of two-dimensional arrays of individual FLC phase modulators, they can be made by placing a layer of liquid crystal on the top surface of a specially designed VLSI circuit. The VLSI surface is divided into an array of individual electrodes, one per modulator. However, optimal drive voltages for the new FLC far exceed the capabilities of normal CMOS VLSI circuitry. We have devised a charge-controlled drive scheme to overcome this problem, allowing the new FLCs to be driven by CMOS-compatible voltages. Using the new FLCs and drive scheme, we propose to develop OPA fine steering mirrors capable of the speed and accuracy required for free space optical communications systems. Successful development of the proposed technology will benefit commercial users by enabling higher bandwidth free-space communications between points lacking optical fiber links, by improving the quality of information that can be obtained from LADAR systems, and by making available a novel programmable optics component technology that should be of use in diverse applications such as optical disk drives, holographic data storage, and optical switching. If it can be made cheaply enough, it could also offer a flexible alternative to scanners currently used for warehouse inventory control and supermarket scanners which use conventional opto-mechanical mechanisms.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Robert Kline-Schoder
AF 03-021       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Optical Sensor for Precision Fast Steering Mirror Control
Abstract:The overall goal of this project is to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a high bandwidth, large dynamic range optical sensor for precision fast steering mirror (FSM) control. FSMs are used in laser-based communications systems to enable the required high accuracy pointing systems that are needed because of their narrow beam divergence characteristics and vibration and jitter suppression. Relatively large diameter FSMs used in laser communications present a particularly challenging set of specifications. The mirror must be controlled with a positioning accuracy on the order of nanometers and must be capable of large angular slews requiring total displacements greater than 0.1 mm (or 100,000 nanometers). Further, the system must have very high bandwidth (up to 5 kHz) and be radiation tolerant. These requirements necessitate the development of new sensing technologies for use in feedback systems to meet the demanding specifications. Creare's Optical Sensor for Precision Fast Steering Mirror Control is a unique non-contact sensor, that can measure with: nanometer resolution; a dynamic range in excess of 100,000; a bandwidth up to 5 kHz; and radiation tolerance. During Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with a bench-top experiment. This technology would be useful for a number of space-based and airborne systems including military and commercial laser-based communications systems and military and NASA imaging satellites. Additional commercial applications include high precision manufacturing processes, such as photolithography and other chip-making operations.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Dr. Holger Luther
AF 03-021       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Technologies for Fine Steering Mirror Systems in Free Space Optical Communication Systems
Abstract:Future Free-Space Optical Communication / Lasercomm architectures have identified beam steering devices as critical path technology. Conventional Fine Steering Mirror mechanisms are a lower risk, near term solution. Typical performance requirements include: up to an 8 cm aperture, ,b1,a FOR, <1 microradian pointing repeatability and 5kHz BW. SSG proposes the incremental development of three key technologies to achieve these requirements. These efforts include refinements to SSGs proprietary Optical Position Sensor and central flexure concepts as well as improvements to the design of its voice coil motors. SSG feels that these key technologies are the ideal, low risk solution to achieving these FSM performance goals in the near future. In their present level of development, SSG is able to produce a FSM with 3.7 cm aperture capable of ,b0.57,a FOR, <1 microradian pointing repeatability and 2kHz BW. SSG also anticipates that wave front error correction will be a necessary function of FSMs in future Lasercomm systems. To this end, SSG is developing a Deformable Fast Steering Mirror as part of the Tera Hertz Operational Reachback (THOR) program. The work described in this proposal complements SSGs DFSM effort as well as the anticipated architectures of future Lasercomm programs such as THOR Advances in Fine Steering Mirror (FSM) technologies is necessary for future airborne and space Lasercomm architectures to accomplish their mission. There is a potential for commercial space Lasercomm networks to evolve from a hundred optical nodes to thousands of optical nodes and terminals where each subsystem employs one or multiple FSM units. Other airborne and space based beam steering applications include fine tracking mechanisms in remote sensing and targeting systems as well as high energy laser delivery systems for NASA and DoD. However, as the technology matures and becomes less costly, these capabilities will also improve the performance of commercial ground based free-space optical communication systems. As an added opportunity to these commercial potentials, SSG anticipates that wave-front correction will be an added requirement for these applications and is developing a combined Deformable Mirror and Fast Steering Mirror (DFSM).

INTERNATIONAL PHOTONICS CONSULTANTS, INC.
30 Tierra Monte NE
Albuquerque,, NM 87122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 797-4799
Mr. Edward W Taylor
AF 03-022       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Polymer Based Photonics for Space Environment Applications
Abstract:Polymer Based Photonics for Space Environment Applications Economical and efficient polymer based photonic (PBP) components such as high bandwidth electro-optic (EO) modulators are required for implementation in next generation high performance sateliites, including small-nano satellites. Satellite systems such as sensors, fiber optic data buses, intra satellite links, navigation, tracking and targeting will benefit from using hardened integrated polymer circuits. This Phase I proposal will demonstrate a feasibility concept using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) to fabricate intrinsically poled and stable EO polymer modulators that can survive in space environments. The Phase I results will be transitioned into a Phase II effort to fabricate unique and advanced radiation resistant, multi-component, integrated optic polymer circuitry demonstating high bandwidths, low V-pi, low power requirements,low scattering and propagation losses and stability under elevated temperatures. Intrinsically poled NLO polymer materials fabricated by ESA avoids degradation that can be introduced via electric field poled-high temperature processing of polymers. The ESA approach constrains processing complexity and cost while facilitating simple large scale component integration of photonic circuits.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Mr. James H. Bechtel
AF 03-022       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Low Voltage, Low Insertion Loss Microwave/Photonic Electro-Optic Modulator
Abstract:IPITEK proposes a novel low-voltage, low-loss wideband (>20 GHz) electro-optic modulator based on nonlinear optical (NLO) polymer materials. Our proposed approach will be based on IPITEK's experimental success in achieving 0.8 V halfwave voltage in a novel Mach-Zehnder modulator design. Optical push-pull will be used to reduce the half-wave voltage to less than 1 volt. The application of our unique nonlinear cladding layer technology can, in itself, reduce the half-wave voltage by thirty percent. IPITEK will also investigate the use of photonic bandgap structures for additional reduction in the modulator half-wave voltage. Also, our three-dimensional adiabatic tapered waveguide transitions together with cylindrical lensed fiber will result in low optical interface loss. Initial radiation testing will be completed during Phase I to determine the applicability of these devices for space environments. The potential for commercial applications is excellent, and high optical power throughput with low losses, small size, and low cost will satisfy both military and commercial requirements. These novel modulators will provide both high bit rates for digital signals and high dynamic range for RF distribution, and they fit IPITEK's present and continuing marketing and sales agenda. A range of diverse applications can be accommodated, such as high-speed digital signal distribution, the remoting of antennas for cellular and micro-cellular RF radio systems used in military and commercial applications, the distribution of analog cable television video signals, and even signal processing for phased array antenna beam forming.

SARASWATI ASSOC.
2015 St Julien Ct
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 390-9250
Mr. Mark Volden
AF 03-023       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Optical Network Devices and Protocols for Space
Abstract:The next generation architecture must become more protocol independent and bit rate independent. Numerous sensors and other sources will contribute to the traffic on a laser communications backbone platform. They will vary in rate (kilobits/s to gigabits/s) and in protocol. We will assess, then propose to construct a 160 Gb/s spaced based data switch for the backbone which will have unprecedented advantages in versatility, size and power. In addition we will assess, then propose to construct the modules which will interface, in native format, with an on board fiber optic bus, and a sample payload such as GBS. These modules will allow traffic from legacy payloads to enter the lasercom backbone. The proposed network will seemlessly integrate with the public switched telecommunications network (PSTN) managed by the commercial telecommunications service providers. The envisioned backbone topology, protocol, and onboard processor will allow growth of the space based backbone to 160 Gb/s and beyond with an order of magnitude reduction in size and power compared to present techniques. This will enable the cost effective deployment of a laser comm backbone for both DOD and commercial applications.

SPACE PHOTONICS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 951-3983
Mr. Fred J Orlando
AF 03-023       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Intelligent Free Space Optical Communications Node
Abstract:The Intelligent Free Space Optical Communications Node is an autonomous, free space optical, inter-satellite communications node that can intelligently locate, establish a link, and communicate with any other satellite in the network using adaptive protocol and gateway technologies. Innovations include Intelligent Adaptive Protocol Engines to accommodate multiple link and network protocols, Intelligent Adaptive Gateway Engines to translate between the inter-satellite and intra-satellite network protocols, Hit-less Switch technology to eliminate data loss during link handoff, and Autonomous Link Acquisition, Tracking and Anti-Jamming capabilities. The candidate protocols that will be evaluated for Phase II prototype development and demonstration include IP over Optical, IP over Sonet, and IEEE 1393 for inter-satellite applications; and, IP over IEEE 1394 and IEEE 1393 for intra-satellite applications. All protocol, gateway and autonomous control functions are uplink programmable to accommodate future changes, additions and improvements. Leveraging our Principle Investigator's experience as one of the Nation's leading aerospace network inventors and developers (MIL-STD-1553, AS 1773, IEEE 1393), SPI is in a unique position to successfully develop the Free Space Optical Communications Node. Previous development efforts will also be leveraged including the first Rad-Tolerant gigabit IEEE 1393 network developed in 1999 at SPI. This innovation is key to the realization of both DoD's Transformational Communications Architecture and NASA's Space Internet Architecture visions. With numerous government and commercial organizations attempting to define the operational and interface standards for their next generation communication architectures two facts are clear. First, standards development is an on going process that is not going to end any time soon. Second, the adoption of a single network protocol by either the government or the commercial sectors is never going to happen. Given this, aerospace developers must implement inter-satellite and intra-satellite networks today that will inter-operate with these multiple, constantly evolving protocols for the next 10 to 20 years. This innovation is one of the key enabling technologies. Potential Commercial Applications: This innovation is key to the implementation and operation of ?the internet in space? and multiple satellite communications networks like Teledesic.

AGILITY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
600 Pine Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 690-1718
Dr. Clint Schow
AF 03-024       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Low-Noise, Wide-Bandwidth, Large-Area APDs for Free-Space Optical Links
Abstract:For future satellite to ground optical links, large-area high-performance photodetectors are a key component. The APD is a natural choice, owing to its inherent sensitivity advantage compared to photodetectors that do not provide internal gain. The output of Phase I of this program is an APD design that achieves 3 GHz of bandwidth, a quantum efficiency greater than 50%, and noise performance comparable to silicon APDs, with a light sensitive diameter of 200 mm. In order to achieve these performance targets, Impact Ionization Engineering (I2E) will be used to incorporate an optimized InAlAs multiplication structure within a large area device. APDs designed for telecommunications applications incorporating these I2E InAlAs multiplication layers have achieved the lowest noise and highest gain-bandwidth product ever reported for any APD technology. Agility has an exclusive license to these low-noise structures and is therefore uniquely positioned to both successfully complete Phase I with a viable design and to implement the design by building APDs in Phase II that meet the program performance goals. Successfully designing a large area APD that meets the objectives of this SBIR will yield a device that not only facilitates space to ground communication, but also will find wide commercial applications in instrumentation as well as other space, avionics, and terrestrial free-space optical communications where large-area wide-bandwidth detector technologies currently do not exist.

INPHOT, INC.
13, Blossom Hill Drive
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 750-0992
Dr. Krishna Linga
AF 03-024       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Infra-red Avalanche Photodiode Detectors (APD) for Laser Communications
Abstract:InPhot Inc proposes to develop the enabling material and device technology for the realization of low noise, large area, high quantum efficiency infrared Avalanche Photodiode Detectors (APD) sensitive in the 1064 nm to 1550 nm spectral region for laser communication. We will achieve this by performing device designs to determine suitable material structures, epitaxial growth and device fabrication processes. The primary goal of this proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of low noise, large area, high quantum efficiency infrared avalanche photodiode detectors sensitive in the 1064 nm to 1550 nm spectral region by developing techniques to lower the impact ionization co-efficient, lower dark current that would prevent the edge break down and develop strategies for high quantum efficiency and high speed operation. In addition the Phase I effort projects the detector performance that can be realized from the proposed detectors through material and device designs. In Phase II, we will further optimize the material structures and design and fabricate infrared avalanche photodetectors and segmented or multi-element detectors based on them. This project will result in two products: infrared large area avalanche photodetectors in the 1064 nm - 1550 nm spectral band and the avalanche photodetector arrays. This project will result in two products: infrared large area avalanche photodetectors in the 1064 nm - 1550 nm spectral band and the avalanche photodetector arrays. The photodetectors will be applicable in missile seekers, battlefield target identification and recognition systems, and eyesafe LADAR. Civilian applications include fiberoptic telecommunications, remote sensing and laser spectroscopy.

BOULDER NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, INC.
450 Courtney Way, Unit 107
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-0077
Dr. Jay Stockley
AF 03-025       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Multibeam Optical Head for Satellite Laser Communications
Abstract:Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to use its expertise in liquid crystal optical phased arrays (OPAs) and spatial light modulators (SLMs) to investigate a novel optical head for space-based multibeam laser communications. The primary focus of the proposed effort will be to establish the feasibility of using a liquid crystal beam steering device in place of a gimbaled mirror to produce multiple beams for satellite communication links. The principle question regarding the feasibility of a satellite-based liquid crystal multibeam optical head is whether the liquid crystal modulator can withstand the radiation levels that satellite-borne devices are subjected to. During the proposed Phase I feasibility study we will investigate the radiation survivability of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator The technology proposed here offers the potential for improvements in the performance of free space optical communications links. The ability to address multiple nodes provides redundancy to ensure transmission and provides the broadcast advantage of multiple coverage with less likelihood of interference or intercept than RF. Possible commercial applications include the use of this technology for civilian satellite laser communications and free space optical links in general.

BREAULT RESEARCH ORGANIZATION
6400 E. Grant Road, Suite 350
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 721-0500
Mr. Mark Fink
AF 03-025       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Multibeam Optical Communications Transmitter/Receiver
Abstract:Future high bandwidth satellite communications will utilize free-space lasers, which provide high bandwidth, low probability of intercept and jam resistant communication between satellites and ground assets. A current network uses a satellite with a separate transmitter and receiver for each communication link. Current world events demonstrated that there are applications for multiple communication links between close proximity assets. However, multiple transmitters on a single satellite increases satellite complexity, weight, system cost and launch cost. A wide field-of-view transmitter/receiver system could mitigate those challenges. Further advantages would be gained by leveraging from existing telecommunication technology. Breault Research Organization (BRO) proposes to determine the feasibility of leveraging existing telecommunication components and other assets into a satellite's communication system in order to allow one transceiver to communicate to multiple targets within the field-of-view of the transceiver. With the increased dynamic nature of the modern battlefield, communication with multiple assets is critical to mission success. The technology described in this proposal leverages existing technology, which reduces cost and development time to a fielded unit. Though this system is designed for a military application, transition to commercial satellites would help reduce their deployment and other long-term costs. One wide field-of-view geostationary satellite acting as a node, directing and switching multiple communication channels could replace several satellites performing the same function. This would greatly benefit the satellite industry.

KENT OPTRONICS, INC.
275 Martinel Dr., Suite W
Kent, OH 44240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 897-0138
Dr. Le Li
AF 03-025       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Multibeam Optical Communications Transmitter/Receiver
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) proposal introduces a stationary gimbal-less multiple beam optical transceiver for future high bandwidth free-space laser communication. With a near 4p field of regards (FOR), the transceiver surpasses the shortcomings of a gimbal based device in terms of bulkiness, slow slew rate, heavy weight, power hungry, and difficult in achieving accurate and multiple beam pointing. The core component is a planar structured wave-guide (WG) optical transmitter [also termed as beam steering device (BSD)] integrated with an optical receiver. Other features include compact and motionless package (4 inches and 2 inches in length), random, accurate, and multiple beam pointing with a fast speed in sub-millisecond range, high efficiency, wide receiving angle, and broad spectral bandwidth. Finally, the device is rigid, lightweight, low power consumption, and low cost, meeting the requirements as demanded in the broadband optical reachback for free space laser communication in military, space, and commercial industry. In Phase I, a feasibility study on the WG transmitter will be carried out to address the concept. In Phase II, prototype transceiver will be developed and tested, followed by Phase III for commercialization not only for military but also for telecom, medical and entertainment. The proposed transceiver primarily suits military application purposes. In addition, the transceiver can find broad applications in commercial fields such as optical wireless communication, display, medical, entertainment, to name a few.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Mitch Shifrin
AF 03-026       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Millimeter Wave, Low Noise Amplifier
Abstract:To meet the growing demands to transfer data for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), Air Force is working on a project to expand MILSATCOM bands with new up-link bands allocated near 51 and 86 GHz. Hittite Microwave Corporation has been involved in development of millimeter wave (MMW) MMICs for many years and introduced novel products for amplifiers, converters, and sources using GaAs PHEMT technology. Recent advances in the semiconductor technology have brought the indium-phosphide (InP) MHEMT (metamorphic high electron mobility transistor) technology to the forefront as the promising technology for the next generation of MMW MMICs. A recent survey of technologies available for MMW low-noise amplifiers (LNA), for example, showed that LNAs made of MHEMT process have lower noise figure and consume a fraction of the prime power compared to GaAs devices. The reduced power consumption is a critical factor in space-borne platforms with limited prime power resources. This proposal addresses the prospect of expanding capabilities of LNAs to cover the full range of millimeter wave frequency bands for the projected MILSATCOM applications. LNAs operating over a wide band would provide the flexibility of multi-band operation of future communication links. The proposed program will lead to development of MMW LNAs operating at satellite up-link frequencies of 30 GHz, 44 GHz, 51 GHz, and ultimately at 86 GHz. As an example a 49-52 GHz 2-stage LNA design presented in this proposal exhibits a gain of 12 dB, a noise figure of 1.8 dB, a return loss of 10 dB achieved with only 6 mW of DC power dissipation. These LNAs offer significant advantages over the current industry standards and will impact the market for LNAs in both military and commercial communications terminals. The MHEMT technology is the most promising technology for millimeter wave RF LNAs. The low-noise and low-power capabilities of MHEMT will have an impact of replacing GaAs devices in all MMW systems that include commercial radios, satellite receivers, and sensors. The LNAs will have applications in commercial VSAT/USAT receivers operating in the frequency bands between 30 and 100 GHz.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Christopher E. Hay
AF 03-026       Selected for Award
Title:V-Band LNA for Satellite Communications(9625)
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a monolithic, V-band, low noise amplifier (LNA) for satellite communications in IBM's advanced SiGe technology. The primary design goals include 1.5 dB maximum noise figure with a small signal gain of 30 plus/minus 0.3 dB over a 49 - 52 GHz operating bandwidth. IBM's 8HP process, which is currently being developed around its demonstrated 210 GHz HBTs, and planned 9HP process, with a goal of 300 GHz HBTs, will be evaluated for realization of the LNA. These SiGe BiCMOS technologies provide the potential for future integration of the LNA with other receiver components on a single silicon chip at low cost and with low power consumption. In Phase I, a preliminary LNA design will be developed and simulated to estimate performance. In Phase II, the detailed design of the LNA will be performed, and a prototype LNA will be realized in the 8HP technology. To achieve the ultimate goal of 1.5 dB noise figure, the LNA will be migrated to the 9HP technology as soon as it becomes available, in either a Phase II Enhancement or Phase III. The V-Band LNA will provide a key component in satellite-to-satellite communications, as well as in short-range, wireless communications for data networks, security systems, and other local communications that seek to take advantage of the 60-GHz atmospheric absorption band.

TLC PRECISION WAFER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1411 West River Road North
Minneapolis, MN 55411
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 341-2795
Mr. Sasidhar Vajha
AF 03-026       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:A Radiation Hard Self Bias Low Noise Amplifier
Abstract:Current military and commercial communication systems at lower frequencies experience spectrum crowding, and does not have wide bandwidths needed for high data rates. Broadband Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) are crucial components in any receiver system. Although a wide variety of LNAs are currently available in the frequency bands below 50 GHz, little development has occurred in the 49 to 52 GHz range. Future satellite communication systems are in need of radiation hard, reliable LNAs in this frequency range. The TLC proposed wide band LNA takes advantages of the patented substrate engineering technologies, design, and microfabrication capabilities to develop a radiation hard amplifier capable of providing a flat gain, for temperatures of -40 C to +80 C, using InP PHEMT technology. This proposed project results in a wide band high gain, low noise figure, Low Noise Amplifier, which is needed in the present and future communication receivers. Applications include several military systems such as SATCOM (satellite communiation) systems. This LNA is also very useful in the transceivers of missile seeker, collusion avoidance radars, etc.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4118
Mr. Thomas Tiano
AF 03-028       Awarded: 7/15/2003
Title:Single Wall Nanotube Based Sensor for Particle Sensing in the Space Environment
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop a sensor to detect and count thermal and energetic particles in the space environment that can be deployed on micro- and nano-satellites. The novel device will exploit unique electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the active sensing elements. Fabrication of this sensor will be performed using standard lithographic and processing techniques developed for preparation of SWNT devices by Foster-Miller and its partners. These assembly routes are in stark contrast to fabrication methods used today in research laboratories, where nanotubes/molecules are grown between lithographically fashioned leads or placed there by single molecule manipulation (such as STM or AFM). The use of nanoscale circuitry will enable development of devices that are much smaller and lighter than those presently available. In this program, the Foster-Miller SWNT assembly technology will be extended to prepare sensors on standard microcircuits in which the active elements will be SWNT electronics that respond to particle impact. Phase I concept demonstration will include constructing SWNT circuits, demonstrating their response to particle impact and calibrating this response. This will lead to development of a full scale working prototype during Phase II and technology transfer to Foster-Miller's satellite manufacturing partner in Phase III. (P-030262) Utilizing single wall nanotube electronics to develop a sensor for detecting energetic particles on micro- and nano-satellite systems will enable the preparation of smaller, lighter and more sensitive particle sensing devices. This allows deployment of lighter satellite systems that will require less expense to launch and operate, and obtain more accurate data. The technology developed during this research will also assist in the development of nanoscale electronics based on SWNTs for a variety of commercial electronic systems, such as computer memory systems, helping to enable the continuing revolution of nanoelectronics.

AEROASTRO, INC.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 723-9800
Mr. Glen Cameron
AF 03-029       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Flexible and Extensible Bus for Small Satellites (FEBSS)
Abstract:Numerous organization in the US space community have expressed interest in using small satellites to perform space experiments, technology demonstrations, testing of prototype hardware and software, and the fielding of revolutionary systems such as satellite constellations. Unfortunately, the lack of a standardized, low-cost, small satellite bus architecture has and will limit our ability to advance the state of the art in space systems and components. To solve this problem AeroAstro proposes to develop FEBSS (Flexible and Extensible Bus for Small Satellites) a complete, low-cost, modular, bus architecture for small satellites (e.g., 10kg class University Nanosatellite). FEBSS modularity will allow the satellite developer to select only those components necessary to meet the mission requirements. It will provide an ''auto-sense plug-and-play'' connectivity both between the payload and the bus and between each bus subsystem. The FEBSS subsystems will be couched in a modular, standardized, open architecture framework that will significantly reduce overall development time, technical risk, and total cost. It is anticipated that the non-proprietary open architecture concept will benefit satellite developers because it provides them with choices when it comes to specific subsystem module selection - modules will be available from different manufactures with differing levels of performance and price. The FEBSS concept will significantly reduce the cost, complexity, and development time required to assemble a small satellite bus to meet a satellite developer's mission requirements. It is anticipated that individuals and organizations across the US space community will benefit from FEBSS because it will facilitate getting to space more quickly, easily, and economically. Microspace has been and will continue to grow for the foreseeable future. AeroAstro believes that FEBSS has tremendous commercial potential and intends to actively pursue all opportunities.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 323-4900
Mr. Jim Goodding
AF 03-029       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:A Plug and Play Smart Instrumentation Approach for On-Orbit System Identification
Abstract:This research will develop a "plug and play" instrumentation bus incorporating smart sensors with an initial application for gossamer spacecraft experiments. These smart sensors incorporate embedded transducer information that can be automatically downloaded, to the data acquisition system. Benefits of these smart sensors include elimination of human documentation errors, automatic gain setting to maximize digitizer resolution, immediate recognition when a sensor is swapped out and built-in transducer health checks. An instrumentation wiring harness study will further processing techniques with the goal to demonstrate an embedded harness for gossamer space structures. A model designed and fabricated under this research effort will be used to demonstrate the capability of the plug and play instrumentation bus with smart sensors for structural system identification. The technology developed under this SBIR Phase I will be directed towards current space flight experiments in lightweight, flexible space structures. Such experiments will benefit from an integrated system of sensors, instrumentation, data acquisition and actuators. In particular, the PowerSail program will be used as the first application to further the state of the art in the integrated instrumentation system field. Additional commercial applications include sensors and instrumentation for structural dynamics measurements of spacecraft, aircraft, and high performance ground based structures.

MEVICON, INC.
2534 W. Middlefield Rd
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 969-2675
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 03-029       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Photogammetry System to Enable `Large' Structure Demonstration With Small Satellite Buses
Abstract:Mevicon Inc. is pleased to propose the development of space qualified structural photogammetry systems that enables non-contactive structural deployment, shape, and dynamics characterization of the behavior of large flexible structures deployed from small satellite buses. Such systems will enable AFRL and other organization to confidently baseline close-range photogammetry as the instrumentation package of choice when developing flight demonstration programs that involve deployable and large flexible structures. This in turn enables more convincing flight experiments, thereby accelerating the insertion of new large deployable structure technology into operational missions. This yields satellites with larger solar arrays, antennas, and apertures which enable missions which with enhanced ground track resolution, and/or increased stand-off distances, etc. In Phase I we will develop mission driven requirements, derive performance and environmental survival metrics, perform system level and component analysis and trade studies, initiate autonomous data reduction algorithm development, and experimentally demonstrate feasibility, all leading towards flight experiment point designs. The feasibility established by these Phase I activities will pave the way for detailed analysis and testing in Phase II and lead to Phase III flight demonstration operations in conjunction with a representative deployable structure technology experiment. The advantage to the AFRL and other space technology development organizations will be an off-the-shelf flight proven standardized deployment, load response, and structural dynamic characterization hardware and software package that enables them to confidently baseline close-range photogammetry as the structures instrumentation package of choice when developing new flight demonstration programs that involve deployable and large flexible structures. This in turn will enable better data to be collected from flight experiments, thereby accelerating the insertion of new enabling technology into operational missions. This will yield satellites with larger solar arrays, antennas, and apertures where these subsystems enable missions which require greater power, enhanced ground track resolution and/or increased stand-off distances. Primary end customers are expected to be components of the US government who are interested in qualifying the behavior of their structures in space. In addition to the USAF and other DoD components who procure space components the MDA, NASA, DOE, NRO etc. would be potential customers. Most work in this arena though would be through these organizations contractor base such as Northrup Grumman (TRW), Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Spectrum Astro, Ball, etc. Developers of satellites for commercial communication systems such as Boeing Space Systems and Loral might also be customers interested in flying the space photogammetry systems when new versions of deployed hardware such as new solar arrays, antennas, booms, etc. are being demonstrated for the first time. Specialized packages for remote inspection satellites such as currently being developed at DARPA and elsewhere could also make use photogammetric systems to make 3d maps of the target satellites features or to inspect potentially damaged satellites for insurance claim purposes. Potential transition of the technology to other `demanding' environments such as in-flight aerodynamic characterization and parabolic microgravity flight with stringent design requirements are also possible.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 400, Reston Plaz
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 768-6500
Mr. Lawrence D. Davis
AF 03-029       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Modular, Self-Contained Data Acquisition & Control System for Flight Payloads
Abstract:The increasing emphasis on the use of smaller satellites for space experiments and operational systems by the DoD and NASA has given rise to increasing standardization of small-sat systems, resulting in reduced costs and acquisition time. However, because of inevitable trades between resources and capability, there remains a strong need for a standardized architecture for implementing experiments (e.g., active control experiments) requiring high computational and data acquisition throughput. Further, modularization of an experiment allows the experiment team to develop and operate with much less impact on the satellite than would be the case otherwise. One key component of such a modularized architecture is the payload computer and data acquisition/control system. We propose to define the architecture for a self-contained system based on commercial off-the-shelf components that greatly simplifies payload development by providing a simple, scalable interface and easy to use software to perform payload data acquisition and control. To assess feasibility, we will specialize the design to AFRL's PowerSail flight experiment, which has particularly challenging requirements for data acquisition and control. The result of Phase I is a detailed architecture definition including vendor selections for COTS items, and a detailed cost and schedule estimate for production of a prototype. Our proposed architecture has significant benefits for experiment payload development programs: Potential reduction in power consumption by retaining a simpler, low-power flight computer while using a separate payload computer for computationally intensive experiment tasks: the experiment computer may be turned off when not in use. Reduction of cost and risk associated with the specification and implementation of data acquisition and control by the experiment developer, instead of the system integrator. Much more thorough testing of integrated software, electronics, and experiment due to earlier integration at the experiment contractor. Reduction of cost of development due to the prior engineering of low-level software and electronic elements of the payload control system, including qualification testing and documentation. Increased responsiveness to and exploitation of evolving space electronics technology due to modularity and standardization of interfaces within the controller, both hardware and software. Reduced costs of acquisition for experiment payload due to simpler, cleaner interfaces between the payload and the host spacecraft.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 400, Reston Plaz
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 768-6500
Mr. Lawrence D. Davis
AF 03-029       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:A Redundant Deployment Controller for Small Satellite Experiments
Abstract:The prominence of launch costs in the implementation of space flight experiments has fueled the development of small-, mini-, and micro-sats that are tasked with hosting experiment capabilities of increasing complexity. As the deployed size of experimental space payloads grows, while holding stowed volume constant, the complexity of the mechanical stowage and deployment schemes increase correspondingly. Traditionally, control of deployment is the responsibility, not of the payload developer, but of the small-sat spacecraft integrator who has responsibility for the space electronics and software that are used to implement the deployment control scheme. As the complexity of deployable payloads increases, however, this traditional division of labor becomes increasingly problematic. We propose to develop a highly reliable, modular, COTS-based architecture for complex deployment control that can be purchased and integrated by the developer of the deployable payload, thus enabling the developer to assume complete responsibility for implementation of successful deployment, and simplifying the interface between the deployable structure and its host satellite. Further, by providing a thoroughly engineered deployment control architecture, including key flight electronics hardware components, much time and money can be saved in the development and validation of the deployment scheme over the traditional, ad hoc approach. Our proposed deployment control architecture realizes substantial benefits for deployable space experiments: Reduction of cost and schedule risk associated with the specification and implementation of correct deployment by the payload developer, instead of the spacecraft integrator. Much more thorough testing of integrated software, electronics, and structure due to earlier integration at the payload contractor. Reduction of cost of development due to the prior engineering of low-level software and electronic elements of deployment control, including qualification testing and documentation. Increased responsiveness to and exploitation of evolving space electronic technology due to modularity and standardization of interfaces within the controller, both hardware and software. Reduced costs of acquisition for deployed structure due to simpler, cleaner interfaces between the structure and the host payload or spacecraft. Clear demonstration during experiments of all necessary systems for deployment, including electronics and software, paving the way for acceptance of experimental hardware in operational systems. In Phase I we propose to demonstrate the feasibility of a network-based, decentralized deployment control system by demonstrating the functionality of the core decentralized components using COTS hardware that is traceable to space, using the PowerSail experiment as a first application.

SPACEDEV
13855 Stowe Drive
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 375-2042
Mr. Jeffrey Janicik
AF 03-029       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Small Satellite Bus Technologies
Abstract:Today satellites are large, expensive, power-hungry, slow to assemble, test, and integrate, and generally unique to each payload. This traditional way of doing things is not optimal for the testing, demonstration and fielding of new, smaller, higher performance experiments and payloads. By innovatively applying the "microcomputer" hardware and software way of thinking to this project, we will develop and identify new small satellite subsystem technologies that easily mate with an improved plug-n-play modular satellite bus. In addition, we will focus on aggressively miniaturizing those subsystems which offer the greatest opportunity to maximize payload mass fraction, while optimizing power consumption and computing power of the entire system. SpaceDev proposes to leverage previously performed work for our modular system block diagram, which remains the same from mission to mission. Using Intrasatellite Network connectivity and commercial standard interfaces and protocols, it is flexible enough to accept any payload interface, data protocol, throughput, or encryption requirement. Furthermore, the implementation of an Intrasatellite Network allows for standard bus-wide connectivity and plug-n-play capability for new component and/or payload technology. Our efforts will culminate in defining a systems engineering and integration approach for a flight qualifyable small satellite bus architecture that utilizes this modular approach. Overall, we see multiple benefits to our approach. By further miniaturizing our electronics modules, the demand for power is reduced, further contributing to either a reduction in the overall system size or freeing up more power for the payload. A fixed bus and its "reusable" block diagram architecture drastically reduces cost and delivery time for each mission and mission payload from mission to mission. Payload interfacing is simplified, and combined with a rapid launch capability, our micro-satellite approach ultimately provides the optimum rapid mission deployment for the user. Under the Phase I SBIR and subsequent Phase II follow-on, this work will produce two results: Off-the-shelf, modular satellite sub-systems and sub-system products that can also be used by other satellite manufacturers. SpaceDev believes we can further reduce the cost of micro-satellites significantly, which will open up more market opportunities for innovative and afforable space products.

MICROASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3065 Richmond Parkway, Suite 109
Richmond, CA 94806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 758-2600
Dr. Michael B. Cohn
AF 03-030       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Space Qualification of RF MEMS
Abstract:Packaging is critical for reliability, and constitutes ~80% of the cost of a MEMS product. Low-cost packaging is thus seen as the gateway to consumer markets. Proposed Phase I work will evaluate and optimize micropackaging under different thermal cycling, radiation and hermeticity/vacuum conditions, as well as for high frequency (upto 40 GHz) performance. MicroAssembly's microbump technology eliminates the need for lossy bond wires, and our ability to make fine-pitch connections within the package would enable hybrid, multi-chip systems with the performance of monolithic devices RF MEMS is projected to exceed $1 billion by 2007 . MEMS packaging costs, up to 80% of production costs, is a key advantage for MicroAssembly.

MICROWAVE BONDING INSTRUMENTS
2400 N. Lincoln Ave.
Altadena, CA 91001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 296-6484
Dr. John Mai
AF 03-030       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Integrated MEMS Switch Packages for Space Systems and Communications Architectures
Abstract:Microwave Bonding Instruments (MBI) proposes its patented novel bonding technology to package radio frequency MEMS (RF-MEMS) devices subjected to harsh environments. With this technology MBI addresses two important problems, the reliability of "zero-level" dies and the cost of such device. In Phase I of this proposal, MBI will test various proprietary packaging schemes to encapsulate a mercury drop-based, switch currently being designed by a MEMS micromachining group at UCLA for a NASA project. In addition, MBI will also acquire bare die from various commercial RF companies to validate rapid commercial integration of our packaging scheme developed under this proposal. The Phase I deliverables are candidate packaging schemes that are compatible with mass production and hermetic sealing of both the UCLA and commercial devices as well as prototype samples of the packaged devices. The eventual goal of MBI is to scale our existing process to wafer size, from its current 45 mm diameter size. This goal entails forming first-level interconnections on the chips before the wafer is diced. By moving the first-level interconnection process out of the back-end of the assembly line, several advantages can be realized. First, handling of an individual die is delayed until the end of the assembly process when the wafer is diced into completed packages. This eliminates the die attach process required for FBGA packages and BGAr packages. Second, the sequential bonding using traditional wire bonding methods to individual bond pads is not required. This eliminates a large number of the wire bonders usually found on the assembly floor, and thus reduces capital equipment cost and associated overhead expenses. Chip power requirements are also reduced due to shorter I/O path lengths and widths. This also minimizes heating effects and associated cooling requirements. The shorter I/O path lengths also mean lead inductance effects can be minimized in high performance microprocessors. One of the main reasons that RF MEMS devices are not as widely adopted today as they could be is the packaging cost. The packaging solution that MBI will study as the result of this proposal will minimize packaging cost tremendously while maintaining, if not improving, technical reliability. As the result of a successful study after Phase II, MBI will be able to expand from its existing IR and IC market penetration, to target wireless chip vendors in both the commercial and military market with its durable, low cost RF MEMS packages.

AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC.
45 Manning Road
Billerica, MA 01821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 663-9500
Mr. John A. Conant
AF 03-031       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Predictive Polarimetry Atmospherics Closure System (PPACS)
Abstract:AFRL/VSSS is the lead Air Force group for providing the DoD community with physics-based predictive models critical to assessing the utility of optical spectro-polarimetric sensing (SPS) for aerospace reconnaissance and target cueing. AFRL/VSSS is presently upgrading the government-standard MODTRAN atmospheric radiance code to properly handle polarization. However, there is currently no means of deducing the model inputs to properly represent aerosol composition variability, which has strong impact on target polarized signatures . Even for identical optical haze (thickness) levels, the unknown aerosol type can vary the sky degree-of-polarization by a factor of 2. The absence of a facility to gauge in-field aerosol properties to enable model comparisons to field measurements consequently threatens to obstruct development and maturation of spectro-polarimetric predictive models. To remedy this situation, Aerodyne Research, Inc (ARI) proposes a multi-firm team (ATA, SSI, Professor Aragon/SFSU) to design, implement, test, and deliver the Predictive Polarimetry Atmospherics Closure System, or PPACS, a facility which includes both the means of gauging the aerosol conditions during field measurements, and of rendering this information into suitable form for MODTRAN4-P. The Predictive Polarimetry Atmospherics Closure System, or PPACS, will serve a need that will grow in scope and recognition as MODTRAN4-P and spectropolarimetric sensing are increasingly employed across the remote sensing and reconnaissance communities. The target market consists of government defense (e.g. DoD) and civilian (e.g. NASA) test ranges, EO/IR system test contractors, and research institutions engaged in spectropolarimetric field measurements and modeling.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 536-2428
Chang-Hyuk An
AF 03-031       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Development of a Polarization Scattering and Emission Model and a Simulation Software Based on the Physical Optics Approach
Abstract:Current simulations (such as AFRL's) of optical polarization scattering and emission for remote sensing applications employ geometric optics. The approach is mathematically simple but lacks soundness of physics as it relies upon artificial adjustment of polarized specular and unpolarized diffuse components in the scattered radiation to match experiments. To significantly enhance AFRL's capability for polarization modeling and simulation, we propose to develop, during the Phase I and Phase II, a vector Kirchhoff diffraction integral model for polarization scattering and emission and to develop a full simulation code for target polarization modeling which includes atmospheric and environmental backgrounds. The vector Kirchhoff diffraction model will simulate a main lobe and a diffraction pattern for each rough surface facet of a material. Predicted measured polarization states will be result through calculating the diffraction lobes of different facet orientations. The Kirchhoff approach will produce specular and diffuse components solely depending on surface characteristics and incident/scattering angles. The primary Phase I objective is development of rough surface polarization scattering and emission models using the physical optics approach. A prototype simulation code for generating the scattering and emission polarization signatures for various target surface materials will be written and results compared to available experimental results. The result of this effort will enable us to understand the basic physics of the interaction between the incident (and emitted) radiation and the rough surface and will significantly enhance the current AFRL capability for polarization modeling and simulation. It will provide a theoretical framework for efficient lab measurements of Mueller matrices of various target and environmental surface materials. This will provide an essential part in simulation of the polarization of targets and backgrounds. The successful result of this work will also provide a systems engineering tool for developing polarimetric sensors and for the detailed optimization of data collection planning. This proposed work is directly applicable to the development of multispectral and hyperspectral imaging polarimeters. As these polarimeters come on line for military and commercial remote sensing, there is an increasing need for a capability to model target and background spectral polarization signatures. There is therefore a growing commercial market for a robust modeling capability.

SY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
5170 N. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 240
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-9756
Dr. David Chenault
AF 03-031       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Phenomenology Studies using a Handheld Polarimeter
Abstract: Polarimetric detection is gaining interest as a means to complement the information obtained through radiometric and multispectral detection. Understanding polarization phenomenology is key to exploiting polarimetry; however, the dependence of polarization on a significant number of parameters is not well understood and polarimetric BRDF data is limited. Many polarimeters have been developed for phenomenology studies. However, results from various sensors tend to conflict with each other rather than bolster phenomenology understanding. SY Technology is proposing to develop a non-imaging spectro-polarimeter capable of highly calibrated phenomenology measurements in the lab and field. The enhanced sensitivity will be achieved primarily through the use of highly linear, high dynamic range (through nine orders of magnitude) large-area detectors. The highly portable, inexpensive system is to acquire multispectral, full-Stokes data simultaneously with either a personal data assistant (PDA) or laptop computer. Small spectro-polarimeter tubes will be developed from the visible to the LWIR and may be combined in various configurations. Phase I of this SBIR will focus on developing a visible dual-waveband prototype with laptop acquisition, proper characterization and calibration procedures, and a feasibility study for integrating a suite of modular spectro-polarimeter devices (from the visible to the LWIR) with a PDA and/or laptop computer. This device will collect highly calibrated field measurements against which the calibration of more complex imaging polarimeters can be verified. Additionally, the device can be used as the detector assembly in a laboratory polarized BRDF instrument and then taken to the field to provide a correlation between laboratory and field measurements. The device may also be used in unattended, diurnal monitoring of polarimetric signatures of the sky, backgrounds, and targets of interest, providing a correlation between observed polarization phenomenology and weather conditions. The portability and low cost of the device makes it a prime candidate for use in the research and development of commercial applications of polarimetry including medical diagnostics, surface quality and defects analysis in manufacturing assembly lines, crop monitoring, drug detection, environmental monitoring, and ice detection.

LIGHTSPIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 30198
Bethesda, MD 20824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-8562
Dr. Eric S. Harmon
AF 03-032       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Specific Power Polycrystalline Solar Arrays
Abstract:The physical principles enabling a new class of polycrystalline thin film solar cells will be proven experimentally. The materials and device structure promise efficiency approaching that of single crystal material, even with grain sizes as small as 5 um. The new material's exceptional defect tolerance, ruggedness, and low growth temperature will enable fabrication on lightweight, flexible substrates of metal foil or polymer, giving extremely low system weight and cost. The gravimetric specific power of single junction cells should approach 1.8 kW/kg, with high thermal conductivity and excellent radiation hardness. We expect to achieve 10% direct AM0 conversion efficiency in a single junction cell in Phase I, and 20% in Phase II. Analysis of multi-junction polycrystalline solar cell models predicts 30% direct AM0 conversion efficiency, competitive with expensive single crystal cells, and 2.7 kW/kg. The polycrystalline solar cell arrays enabled by this project promise to benefit many areas of solar power generation, and will supplant battery use in some applications. The bare gravimetric specific power of 1.8 - 2.7 kW/kg (AM0) can reduce launch weight or increase available payload for planes and orbiting vehicles, both civilian and military. The mechanical flexibility and defect tolerance may support 30 W of solar power per square foot terrestrially (AM1.5), deployed on foil, polymer or even fabric. Eventual compatibility with $1 per square inch manufacturing methods from the LCD industry and even cheaper roll-to-roll manufacturing methods entails 100-fold reductions in cost per Watt compared to today's best solar cells.

NANOMATERIALS & NANOFABRICATION LABORATORIES
3468 W. Yale St.
Fayetteville, AR 72704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 799-3368
Dr. Yunjun Wang
AF 03-032       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Highly Crystalline Semiconductor Substrates for High Specific Power Solar Cells Fabricated by Nanocrystal Precursors
Abstract:The SBIR proposal is to develop ultra-thin highly crystalline semiconductor substrates that can be used for the fabrication of high power solar arrays from nanocrystals precursors. The as-prepared semiconductor substrates can be used as either the optical window or base substrates for the solar cells. The quality of semiconductor substrates will be improved by the use of high quality--precisely controlled size, narrow size distribution, different shapes, high crystallinity, various composition, and new surface ligands coated, semiconductor nanocrystals as precursor. Lattice match between these substrates and high performance solar cells is an important criterion for choosing the materials. These substrates will be fabricated on metal foils or polymer supports by the use of high quality semiconductor nanocrystals as precursors. The production of such nanocrystals is discussed in detail. A new strategy for fabricating highly crystalline semiconductor substrates on desired supports are proposed. Solar cells are essential and ultimate energy sources for many military and civilian space missions. Satellites, for instance, are being powered by solar cells no matter they are for civilian or military uses. Commercial market opportunities exist for low-cost and high power solar cell fabricated using nanocrystals as precursor.

UNITED SOLAR SYSTEMS CORP.
1100 W. Maple Road
Troy, MI 48084
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 362-4170
Dr. Arindam Banerjee
AF 03-032       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Specific Power Solar Array Using Multijunction Amorphous Silicon Alloy Solar Cells
Abstract:The proposed program will test the feasibility and key concepts towards the fabrication of a full-scale flexible thin film film photovoltaic blanket. In Phase I, the full size blanket will not be built. That will be undertaken in Phase II. Phase I will focus on the development and validity testing of the module coupon design, and the integration of the module coupons to fabricate a subscale photovoltaic blanket. The thin film structure that will be used is the multijunction amorphous silicon alloy solar cell. The work encompasses (1) defining system requirements, (2) module design and development, (3) fabrication of module coupons, (4) performing validation tests of the module coupons, (5) integration of the module coupons to fabricate a subscale blanket, and (6) performing validation tests of the subscale blanket. United Solar Systems Corp. will be the prime contractor and will be responsible for work related to the fabrication of the cells and module coupons. AEC-Able Engineering will be a subcontractor and will be responsible for the subscale blanket fabrication and various validation tests. Historically, this effort represents a milestone by bringing thin film photovoltaics of any type close to actual space application. Success of the program will help in meeting the needs of future high power spacecraft using a flexible thin film photovoltaic blanket. One example is the PowerSail. The program will enable United Solar Systems to enter the space power business for the first time. AEC-Able Engineering will establish greater market share in the space power market. A new breed of deployable space structures product line will open up new markets for both companies.

MEVICON, INC.
2534 W. Middlefield Rd
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 969-2675
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 03-033       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:High Efficiency SOTV Concentrator Systems Based on Asymmetric Inherently Stiff Single Surface Membrane Shells
Abstract:Mevicon Inc. is pleased to propose the development of single surface thin film membrane asymmetric shell structures for use as on-orbit solar concentrators. The proposed inherently stiff membrane (ISM) technology shows strong promise to enable advanced concentrator structures that provide means for foldless stowage, deterministic self deployment, and self rigidization. Elimination of the transmisive canopy, enabled by removing the need to retain pressure to maintain shape, significantly improves concentration efficiency (25% over SOA) while simultaneously greatly reducing/eliminating other concentrator sub-system mass contributers, such as the canopy, torus reaction structure, and pressurization systems. Based on initial estimates, system level performance could be increased by 50% and made independent of mission life. To better quantify these advantages, in Phase 1 we will establish feasibility of the key aspects of the concept by concentrating on refining understanding of the structural behavior of asymmetric single surface membrane shells, establish the feasibility of packaging, deployment, and rigidization approaches, and investigate manufacturing paths for concentrators of the required mission driven sizes. In Phase 2 we plan to refine designs, demonstrate manufacturing of larger scale concentrators with an appropriate partner, and begin efforts that would lead to flight demonstration under Phase III activities. The proposed effort is directly relevant to Solar Orbital Transfer Vehicles (SOTVs) as it offers a technology development path towards significantly improving concentrator subsystem efficiency and lifetime while simultaneously decreasing areal density and system complexity. The proposed effort will also lead to potential improvements in other space application areas where larger, lighter apertures are desirable such as, concentrators for solar power generation, radiowave antennas, laser-comm and LIDAR "light buckets", directed energy applications, and possibly someday optical wavelength imaging. These application areas are of interest to a broad range of government (AF, MDA, NRO, DoE National Labs, NASA, etc.) and commercial organizations (Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Spectrum Astro, Northrup Grumman (TRW), etc.).

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
2110 Omega Road, Suite D
San Ramon, CA 94583
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 743-1110
Dr. Takashi Nakamura
AF 03-033       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Solar Thermal Technologies for Orbit Transfer Vehicles and Space Mobility
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop an innovative solar thermal propulsion system for application to orbit change and mobility for small spacecrafts. In the proposed system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the optical waveguide transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The optical waveguide cable transmits the high intensity solar radiation to the thermal receiver for efficient, high performance thrust generation. Part of the solar radiation can be switched to attitude control thruster as necessary. The features of the proposed system are: 1) highly concentrated solar radiation can be transmitted via flexible optical waveguide transmission line to the thruster's absorber cavity; 2) the flexible optical waveguide linkage de-couples the thruster from the concentrator to provide freedom from the constraints of previous solar propulsion system designs; 3) the configuration of the solar receiver can be optimized for efficient heat transfer with minimal re-radiation loss; 4) aiming and tracking for the concentrator become significantly easier by moving the termination of the optical fiber cable to follow the focal point of the concentrator; and 5) high intensity solar radiation can be switched to different receivers to deploy several thermal thrusters as necessary. The product of the proposed research is a unique propulsion system for small spacecrafts. The proposed solar propulsion system will provide the specific impulse, Isp, and thrust levels between the chemical and ion thrusters. When developed to technical maturity, the solar thermal propulsion system will fill the need (Isp = 300-800 seconds; Thrust = 0.1-1N) for orbit change, mobility and attitude control for spacecrafts. Its high solar utilization efficiency (about ten times more efficient than that for electric propulsion systems) will make the proposed system highly competitive against the electrothermal thrusters such as arcjet and resistojet.

SIERRA LOBO, INC.
426 Croghan Street
Fremont, OH 43420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 499-9653
Mr. Mark S. Haberbusch
AF 03-033       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Solar Powered Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine Pulse Tube Cryocooler
Abstract:A highly efficient and reliable solar powered Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) driven pulse tube cryocooler for the active cooling and long-term on-orbit storage of cryogenic propellants is proposed to be developed. The Solar Thermal Cryocooler (STC), which consists of a solar concentrator, Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine driver, and a pulse tube cryocooler, efficiently uses solar energy for refrigeration. The STC directly converts thermal energy into acoustic energy, which is then used by the pulse tube cryocooler for active cooling of cryogenic propellants and boil-off elimination. The STC has no moving parts or rotational machinery and is truly a long-life cryocooler suitable for space applications. The STC has the unique advantage of using a solar orbit transfer vehicle's concentrator to maintain the cryogenic propellant for long periods of time while in a parking orbit. In addition, the STC is fully compatible with Sierra Lobo's in-space densified cryogenic propellant storage system technologies already under development for the Missile Defense Agency and NASA. Sierra Lobo therefore proposes to develop the STC and create a system simulation model that will be integrated with Sierra Lobo's Cryogenic System Design Tool (CSDT). The CSDT will be used to determine the feasibility of the STC technology for orbit transfer vehicles. The research and development of the proposed technology will have the greatest impact on the design of future space transportation systems. The ability to store cryogenic fluids for long periods of time on orbit, in deep space, or on planetary bodies in an efficient and reliable manner has a direct effect on the mission design, operation, and cost. Space systems that can use the STC include orbit transfer vehicles, storage depots, Mars and Lunar transfer vehicles, space stations, deep space probes, and Mars in-situ propellant liquefaction. Terrestrial applications of the STC include refrigeration in remote locations where power is not available, freezers for the storage of medicine and perishable food stables, cryogenic compressed gas liquefiers, and pollution free refrigeration.

TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
5445 Conestoga Court, #2A
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-2262
Mr. Steve Nieczkoski
AF 03-033       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Long-Term Cryogen Storage Technologies for Orbit Transfer Vehicle
Abstract:The simplicity of a solar thermal propulsion system offers promise of very low cost compared to advanced cryogenic stages for earth orbit missions. Integrated solar thermal propulsion and power technology has evolved significantly over the past two decades through the combined efforts of government agencies and the aerospace industry. During the past two years, TAI has been developing new insulation and installation techniques, has evaluated aerospace cryocoolers for a long-duration military space application, and has delivered a cryocooler interface system that can be easily adapted for distributive cooling of storage vessel walls. The main technical objective of this feasibility study is to determine the most cost-effective, reliable, and mass-efficient approach to store cryogenic hydrogen in space for up to ten years. The study will be focused in three key technology areas related to preserving cryogen during long-duration standby modes in LEO or GEO space environments. These areas are: (1) liquid hydrogen storage tank insulation materials and techniques; (2) long-life, high-reliability cryocoolers that have capacity to intercept a large portion of the parasitic heat leak to eliminate boil off; and (3) cryocooler integration issues that include approaches to interfacing the cryocooler(s) with the insulation system and storage vessel. Benefits are methods of zero boil-off feasibility of the insulation system and cryocooler technologies to meet the objectives for on-orbit storage of cryogenic hydrogen for periods of up to ten years. Potential missions include on-orbit servicing (i.e., refuel, repair, resupply, and upgrade on-orbit assets); reposition space assets; remove orbital debris; assemble large space structures; protect friendly space assets; survey potentially threatening assets; and disable hostile space assets. Commercial and government space assets that are operational but in useless orbits can be rescued and placed in their intended locations.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 284-8438
Dr. J. Kaye Mullen
AF 03-037       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Rapid Attack Discrimination & Response (RADR) Testbed
Abstract:The long-term objective of this SBIR is to establish a robust, flexible distributed fusion and resource management testbed with capability to ingest payload, state-of-health, warning sensor, and off-board data. The testbed will support implementation and evaluation of alternative distributed data fusion concepts, as well as quantifying and comparing the contribution of alternative AFRL sensors to overall situational awareness and the effectiveness of alternative response concepts. During Phase I, ALPHATECH proposes to develop a Dual Node Network (DNN) Distributed Fusion and Resource Management (DF&RM) architecture that addresses defensive counterspace mission distributed fusion needs. ALPHATECH will recommend the best alternatives for fusion algorithms to work within the DNN DF&RM architecture. ALPHATECH will also develop an architecture for the testbed needed to evaluate DNN DF&RM fusion and resource management nodes, and conduct two proof-of-concept demonstrations. The first will explore how satellites can be dynamically selected to participate in a cluster to defend against a potential threat. The second will show how Satellite as Sensor (SAS) data can be used to provide useful source data to the fusion nodes. Based on Phase I results, ALPHATECH will be positioned to build the Rapid Attack Discrimination & Response (RADR) Testbed during Phase II. Anticipated benefits of this research include: . Design of the best available technology to address the distributed fusion across a satellite cluster problem . Evaluation of alternative distributed fusion cluster approaches using the RADR Testbed resulting in selection of the best approaches prior to deployment . Commercial satellite abnormality detection and classification . Extensions into Homeland Security specifically for municipality disaster assessment and response. ALPHATECH sees great potential in commercialization of a testbed capable of evaluating space-based commercial and military applications prior to their actual deployment.

AXIA SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
2 Clock Tower Place, Suite #245
Maynard, MA 01754
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 897-9035
Ms. Baheya Shenouda
AF 03-037       Selected for Award
Title:Autonomous Satellite Cluster Data Fusion
Abstract: The concept of using clusters of microsatellites to replace large monolithic satellites is a relatively new idea. With this new concept, comes many new challenges to develop technologies that allow secure, intelligent information sharing between the microsatellites, the uplink/downlink communication with ground and external data sources. The overall system becomes more complex with the addition of multiple, input/output heterogeneous data sources that must receive, analyze and react efficiently and effectively to the analysis results. This results in massive amounts of information sharing with, as of yet, very little automation in handling, analysis, inter-intra communication and provide decision-making. The specific aims of this proposal are to: 1) design and describe a system architecture that will perform automated data fusion in an intelligent manner, 2) to have this architecture work for independent satellite units being expandable to multiple clusters of satellites, and 3) demonstrate its functionality to include health and status related anomaly. The future expandability of this type of system can have astounding effects in multiple disciplines including other military agencies, government organizations, as well as many other commercial domains, medical research, information technology and financial institutions.

CLEVERSET, INC.
800 NW Starker Ave., Suite 3
Corvallis, OR 97330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 758-6375
Dr. Bruce D'Ambrosio
AF 03-037       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Bayesian Variable Resolution Modeling for Autonomous Satellite Cluster Data Fusion
Abstract:The micro-satellite cluster is a revolutionary technology with potential to transform the way we view and deploy space-based applications. Tightly-coupled, highly autonomous satellite clusters promise enhanced mission capabilities and marked reductions in operational costs. However, ground-based data-processing and control present obstacles to the full realization of this technology. CleverSet proposes to apply its expertise in Bayesian methods for modeling and distributed data fusion, with support from Boeing Space Systems, to design, prototype, and evaluate a coherent distributed architecture for variable-resolution model-based data fusion for autonomous satellite clusters. The prototype system will efficiently predict, detect, and monitor ongoing processes and events, both internal (e.g. health status) and external (e.g. objects to be detected and/or classified). CleverSet's will apply variable resolution modeling using distributed relational Bayesian networks. Variable-resolution modeling provides the proven effectiveness of Bayesian data fusion in an efficient, scalable, distributed architecture. CleverSet proposes to exploit a recent breakthrough, relational Bayesian networks - a modular form of Bayesian networks ideally suited for dynamic tasks such as diagnosis, situation assessment, and distributed target identification. The results of the proposed work will be a concrete architecture for scalable, distributed data fusion, together with a near-flyable prototype instantiation of the architecture and a set of studies evaluating its performance. Distributed Bayesian inference will support scalable, distributed data-fusion with algorithms that provide real-time global data-fusion. Adaptive, model-based compression will provide efficient utilization of limited bandwidth by exploiting knowledge about the structure of communications for distributed Bayesian data fusion to produce superior data compression performance. Model-based decision-theoretic control will provide efficient use of processor and communication bandwidth resources. The work performed in the Phase I effort will allow extension of CleverSet's enterprise system monitoring software to widely-distributed systems and systems of systems.

TIAX LLC
Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-6437
Ms. Linda Selecman
AF 03-041       Awarded: 6/11/2003
Title:Integrated Aircrew Ensemble
Abstract:Today's advanced tactical aircraft have steadily evolved since the advent of winged flight, but the protective clothing worn by crewmembers has not. Current equipment does not offer adequate protection from the stresses imposed by increasingly high altitudes and acceleration. This complex problem is exacerbated by the need to protect crewmembers from an ever-widening range of threats. Compounding these issues is the lack of systems integration associated with the current aircrew clothing and equipment. For the most part, protective capabilities have been added to an original set of equipment in response to new threats, resulting in a piecemeal set of clothing and equipment that is bulky, cumbersome, and causes heat stress. Unless the protection afforded by life support equipment is enhanced, it will not be possible for future aircraft to be used to their full potential. Advanced technologies have been emerging and maturing rapidly over the last 20 years. The most favorable approach to utilizing these advanced technologies to their best advantage is to build the system from the ground up, combining functions where it makes sense. This proposal addresses both identification of new and emerging technologies and use of a systems approach to optimize human and system effectiveness. Phase I will result in a conceptual solution for an Integrated Aircrew Ensemble that reduces the physiological demands placed on aircrew members to allow optimum mission performance. The Phase I work will also provide information directly applicable to solutions for any worker requiring personal protection, e.g., firefighters, first responders, law enforcement personnel, hazmat workers, as well as members of other military services.

OPTICS 1, INC.
3050 E Hillcrest Drive, Suite 100
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 296-0469
Mr. John M. Hall
AF 03-042       Awarded: 6/5/2003
Title:Improved Low-Cost Helmet-Mounted Display for Mission Simulations
Abstract:The goal of the program is conduct research and trade studies using Cost as an Independent Variable (CAIV) to determine optimum solutions for a military helmet-mounted display device which offers performance superior to that which is already commercially available. The trade study will include analysis of various flat panel technologies (LCD, LCoS, OLED, etc.), varieties of optical configurations (see-through, panoramic, visor, etc.), performance specification evaluation (field of view, resolution, eye relief, etc.), and a survey of head-tracker technology. The intent is to choose a best low-cost approach for prototyping in a later phase of the program. The primary beneficiary of this effort will initially be the government/military sector, including customers involved in training simulation as well as actual military platform users. However, due to the universal demand for performance improvement and the emphasis on low-cost approaches, there is a substantial potential to breach commercial markets interested in virtual reality equipment.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Dr. Igor Ternovskiy
AF 03-043       Awarded: 6/11/2003
Title:Photometrically Compensated Hyperstereopsis System
Abstract:Intelligent Optical Systems proposes to develop a hyperstereopsis-based techniques for ground target identification. Under hyperstereoscopic viewing conditions, the separation of the two camera viewpoints is exaggerated and disparity can provide more than simple depth perception; many studies have demonstrated advantages of stereoscopic displays over conventional monoscopic displays for detection of barely distinguishable targets. In the same time psychophysical studies stated that alteration of the stereopsis negatively affects overall judgment of the image content. The IOS algorithm will be based on simultaneously psycho-physiological and photogrammetric corrections to the hyperstereopsis obtained from the digital video images provided by the TV and infrared (IR) systems on board the aircraft. The proposed technique will use all available knowledge about image acquisition conditions including the physics and geometry of the image acquisition transformation in conjunction with psycho-physiological peculiarities of the human visual system to assure geometrically correct and steady in time hyperstereopsis. In Phase I, we will deliver the prototype software for creating the hyperstereopsis effect using the optimal control parameters. In Phase II, we will improve the processing steps to achieve near real time performance and provide a suitable interface for the 3D experience. Faster and more accurate 3D visualization of video and camera images will improve detection and detection range of military targets and will also have commercial applications in robotics, automated vehicle navigation, and military and civil damage assessment. Applications in search and rescue, aircraft simulators, machine vision, flight tests, and flight training will also be explored.

ASPEN SYSTEMS, INC.
184 Cedar Hill Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Mr. Glenn Deming
AF 03-044       Awarded: 6/11/2003
Title:Personal Heat Pump
Abstract:Aspen Systems proposes to develop a small portable vapor compression-based personal heat pump system that may be used by Air Force flight line and aircrew personnel to reduce heat stress and cold weather exposure. Aspen Systems is uniquely qualified since we have successfully designed, fabricated, tested and licensed a small rotary compressor that literally fits in the palm of your hand. Our compressor weighs just over one pound and measures about 2" in diameter and 3" in length. It is capable of providing 300 Watts of cooling in a 120F ambient environment. We have just started production of a small coling system for pilots and we are currently developing systems for US Special Forces and the DOE. Additionally, we have just completed the development of a combustion-based personal heating product. A personal heat pump will allow military personnel as well as civilian workers to efficiently perform their missions in extreme environmental conditions. A single device that can provide both heating and cooling would reduce the cost and logistical requirements of personal microclimate conditioning. The product developed through this effort will find many commercial applications in hazardous waste clean-up and disposal, mining, metal processing, power plants, law enforcement, the racing industry, firefighting, motorcycling, construction and utility linemen.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Benjamin Bell
AF 03-045       Awarded: 7/8/2003
Title:Conversational Agents in a Pattern Oriented Training Environment (CAPOTE)
Abstract:Initial pilot training programs such as Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) presents students with an array of complex skills to acquire and integrate in a dynamic, time-sensitive performance context. Since most of a student's hours in UPT are spent on the ground, training could be fundamentally improved if students had on-demand access to flight training devices that were sophisticated enough to provide automated instruction in complex, highly interactive flight regimes. Moreover, training skills that rely exclusively on time in aircraft or in dedicated, high-fidelity simulators is put at risk given the limited time window UPT programs afford. A solution to this problem is to address two needs at the same time, providing (1) greater access to operational flight trainers; and (2) an automated intelligent tutor that reduces reliance on human instructor pilots. We propose Conversational Agents in a Pattern Oriented Training Environment (CAPOTE), a framework that offers important, high-payoff extensions to COTS simulation. CAPOTE employs intelligent tutoring to provide effective, instructor-less training opportunities, and synthetic agents that can assume key roles within training scenarios and interact in spoken language with the trainee. Our deep experience in training systems and speech-enabled cognitive agents provides mitigation against the risks presented by these complex technologies. Technology and intellectual property arising from this research and development program are expected to have substantial commercialization potential in both the public and private sectors. The specific technologies discussed here are simulation-based training coupled with intelligent tutoring, and speech-enabled synthetic agents. In the public sector, simulation-based training is a growing concern in both military and non-military agencies. The need to effectively train military and non-military personnel is especially relevant for cross-agency collaborations such as homeland security, counter-narcotics, disaster relief, and emergency services. In such instances, the need for training teams can be met with the use of synthetic, speech-enabled agents to stand in for missing team members or to role-play other participants in a training scenario. In the private sector, large and fast-growing market segments to which this technology applies include operator training and distributed learning. Widespread use in industry and education of internet and telecommunication technologies are increasing demand for delivering remote training and for aggregating teams of geographically distributed collaborators. Tailoring instruction and assessing performance of participants in remote team training will hinge centrally on a capability to provide sophisticated automated tutors, and on the availability of synthetic agents to populate scenarios.

PATHFINDER SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Union Blvd., Suite 300
Lakewood, CO 80228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 763-8660
Dr. Mark Terry
AF 03-045       Awarded: 7/8/2003
Title:Personal Computer (PC)-Based Aircraft Training System and Visualization Tool
Abstract:A PC-based training system will provide a low-cost alternative to the use of full-capability flight simulators and actual aircraft in aiding student pilots in Undergraduate Pilot Training to acquire critical pattern and radio procedure skills. The system will simulate the characteristics of the JPATS T-6A aircraft. This low-cost training system will be compatible with desktop or laptop personal computers, either with single or multiple displays. It will operate in multiple modes. It can be used as a desktop flight simulator and procedures trainer. It can also operate in a tutorial mode. In the flight simulator mode it will be able to use not only multiple displays by a single computer, but also side-by-side networked laptop computers, each providing a portion of a panoramic view. It will be implemented as an add-on to an existing desktop flight simulator. It will provide speech understanding by an emulated control tower to aid the student in practicing radio skills. Improves efficiency of UPT training while simultaneously reducing training costs.

DCS CORP.
1330 Braddock Place
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-8430
Dr. John Ruffner
AF 03-046       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:A New Display Paradigm for Air Traffic Control Management
Abstract:DCS Corporation is teaming with NVIS, Inc. to propose an out-the-window solution for the problem of air traffic control (ATC) personnel seeing and recognizing aircraft, surface vehicles, and unpredictable airport incursions in sufficient time to direct mishap avoidance or accident response measures, particularly during times of limited visibility. This project provides the opportunity to characterize the tasks of US Air Force traffic controllers in the tower environment, develop an out-the-window concept of operation, analyze hardware requirements and components to achieve device effectiveness, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a display concept prototype system, and integrate the hardware solution with tasks that enhance situation awareness and safety for controllers. To adequately address the low visibility conditions frequently experienced by ATC tower personnel, our system concept includes a see-through, head-mounted device and an infrared, scene-augmented, hand-held device. This concept incorporates supplementary visual information on a near-to-eye display that meets such form factor requirements as comfort, lightweight, and unobtrusiveness. The intent is to improve a controller's ability to see and recognize ground hazards, while utilizing the complimentary strengths of head-mounted see-through display and hand-held display technology. The principal investigator leading this project is experienced in air traffic control issues and display technology. There is significant commercialization potential for an Air Traffic Controller (ATC) head-mounted and hand-held displays (HMD/HHD). In addition to the target Air Force ATC application that is the subject of this SBIR, there are potential users in all branches of the military services that have aviation assets and ATC responsibilities. A significant potential government customer is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and its corresponding agencies in foreign countries. There is also potential utility for this concept for law enforcement personnel, firefighters, and special operations forces in non-aviation applications.

EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH, INC.
1595 Spring Hill Road, Suite 250
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 869-1658
Dr. Dennis K. Leedom
AF 03-047       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:An Expanded Toolkit for Modeling Sensemaking, Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Management, and Decision Making in Military C2 Teams and Organizations
Abstract:An expanded modeling toolkit will be developed for explicitly representing the sensemaking, knowledge creation, knowledge management, and decision making processes of military C2 teams and organizations within the joint synthetic battlespace. this toolkit will offer three unique advantages over existing modeling tools: - The toolkit extends the cognitive systems engineering and modeling state-of-the art to the team and organizational level where most higher-level C2 decision making occurs, - The toolkit captures the non-linear/emergent aspects of collaborative sensemaking that shapes the decision making process ina complex and evolving operational environment, and - The toolkit provides for the explicit modeling of knowledge as a contextually- valued commodity that is created and managed within the military C2 process. To accomplish this, a multidisciplinary research team from EBR will (1) synthesize relevant theories and constructs from five prominent social science frameworks into a high-level description of the sensemaking, knowledge creation, knowledge management, and decision making processes of a C2 team/organization; (2) extend existing congnitive systems engineering and modeling paradigms to provide a knowledge-centric framework for modeling these processes; (3) expand existing cognitive task analysis methods to support this modeling framework; and (4) demonstrate the resulting tools in an operational Air Force setting. The expanded modeling toolkit will provide the Department of Defense with a unique capability for modeling decision making teams and organizations within the synthetic battlespace environment. Specifically, this toolkit translates relevant cognitive and social/organizational research theory into practical C2 modeling tools that can be used in support of the Air Force's Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB), the Army's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB), and the Joint Forces command's Joint Simulation System (JSIMS). Using this toolkit, modelers can build synthetic C2 representations that are more capable or yeilding explicit insight as to how information technology, training, and organizational design influence the quality, timeliness, and reliability of knowledge management and decision making in a complex, evolving operational environment. Subsequest adaptation of this modeling toolkit to the civilian sector is envisioned to provide state and local governments with the simulation modeling tools needed to refine their C2 concepts ofr coordinating counter-terrorism and consequence management operations among multiple agencies and departments.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
1909 Bartley Road
Dayton, OH 45414
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 602-8340
Dr. James R. McCracken
AF 03-047       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Application of XTM and XFML to Individual and Organizational Modeling (AXIOM)
Abstract:The Design Knowledge Company, Inc (TDKC) and Sytronics, Inc. presents a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem, our Application of XTM and XFML to Individual and Organizational Modeling (AXIOM). AXIOM applies several innovative technologies to provide a standards-based approach to cognitive modeling. Specifically, we propose to develop and apply methods of knowledge acquisition to create standards-based knowledge representations (XTM, XFML) and demonstrate the use of these representations to populate a modeling and simulation framework based on the functional requirements of Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA). Further, we will evaluate existing tools for the manipulation of XTM and XFML for use in developing intelligent models at multiple levels of abstraction. AXIOM will reduce the effort and increase the reusability of cognitive models for the Synthetic Battlespace. This approach contrasts with existing approaches and delivers a new approach to producing cognitive models for use in simulation, including the development of a toolkit to significantly reduce effort, while affording flexibility and adaptability. Potential applications include content development for the Semantic Web, training systems, intelligence and homeland security, and gaming applications.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5236
Dr. Chujen Lin
AF 03-049       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:Wireless Link for Helmet Mounted Display/Tracker
Abstract:We propose to develop a high-speed wireless link between a fighter/bomber pilot's helmet mounted display/tracker (HMD) system and its host aircraft. Communication between HMD and aircraft is done through a complex and costly cable currently. This cable may hamper the movement of pilots and cause safety issues. It is desirable to use a wireless link to replace this cable. Conventional radio's carrier frequency poses a "security hole" in fighter/bomber's stealthy as enemies can easily detect the carrier frequency. We recommend using Time-Modulated Ultra-Wide Band (TM-UWB) for implementing the wireless link between the HMD and aircraft for the following reasons. The pulses transmitted by the TM-UWB technology essentially transmit at all frequencies within this range simultaneously. Hence, its energy is spread over several Giga Hertz and the power level at any frequency is below the noise level. There is no carrier frequency for enemies to jam, intercept, or detect. Furthermore, with TM-UWB radio, pulses are generated in a pseudo-random sequence, so a receiver without the proper pseudo random code will not be able to lock on to the signal. During Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of developing the proposed system through analysis, high-level design, simulation, and experiments. In February of 2002, FCC approved commercial use of UWB. TM-UWB offers the promise of fusing the various RF networks in an indoor environment, because of its combined in-building penetration and ranging capability. One of the commercial markets for the TM-UWB technology are residential houses with multimedia PCs with interactive gaming options or a television/monitor equipped with Home Theatre features (set-top box), Internet access or a video gaming console. Residential homes with, or desiring, higher bandwidth services are increasingly looking or a wireless component to additional value. The Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) Market is also expected to find use for TM-UWB products for networking, controlling multimedia presentations, video-conferencing, and automation or control functions.

JXT APPLICATIONS, INC.
2673 Commons Blvd, Suite 20
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 306-5003
Mr. Robert L. Baltzer
AF 03-050       Awarded: 7/9/2003
Title:Displaying Tailored Real-time Information in Multi-Crew Cockpits
Abstract:The effort proposed in this Phase I SBIR focuses on the need to improve the ability of the warfighter in the cockpit to find, identify, and attack mobile and concealed targets in all weather conditions. This will be accomplished through the integration of advanced operator-vehicle interface (OVI) technologies to enable aircrew in multi-crew cockpits to better manage and integrate Real-time in the Cockpit (RTIC) and off-board data to achieve mission objectives. JXT will investigate the feasibility of developing a Dynamic Information Filter to assist crewmembers in rapidly obtaining the most mission and aircraft system information, and coordinating and sharing it in the most effective manner to improve crew situation awareness, achieve increased mission effectiveness and reduce crew workload. The proposed Dynamic Information Filter will assist crewmembers in rapidly identifying and sharing the information that is most essential to ensure safe system operation and successful performance of the assigned mission. It will be especially useful where changes in mission assignment and/or on-board system status drive the necessity to rapidly make decisions based on critical information that must be coordinated between crewmembers before execution. It will also better manage information priority and delivery and help to relieve crewmembers of the detrimental effects of the "information overload" phenomena experienced through information rich on-board systems.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mr. Ben Lepene
AF 03-051       Awarded: 6/5/2003
Title:Self-Assembled Variable Transmittance Helmet Mounted Display Visors
Abstract:This Air Force Phase I SBIR program will develop and transition to application molecular self-assembly processing techniques for the manufacturing of photo-initiated electrochromic variable transmittance coatings for helmet mounted display visors. The room temperature and pressure molecular self-assembly process consists of alternate absorption of either noble metal, metal oxide nanoparticles, ligands, polymers, or biomolecules. Molecular self-assembled films can be dipped or sprayed under ambient conditions to conformally coat surfaces of virtually any size or shape, without the need of vacuum chamber confinement. NanoSonic proposes to utilize a layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly manufacturing approach to conformally deposit transparent electrodes, electrochromic materials, and anti-reflective coatings on optical grade polycarbonate visors. This project includes the integration and development of electrochromic materials, conductive coatings, hard coatings, photovoltaic, as well as antireflective optical filters. NanoSonic's self-assembly cost effective technology offers graded multifunctional polymer conformal coatings. These conformal light sensitive multicolored electrochromic coatings exhibit excellent contrast reserved for more costly conventional fabrication techniques, which are only suitable for flat surfaces. Coatings fabricated using self-assembly would also allow visors to be customized and trimmed to meet the demand of each pilot without affecting the performance and long-term durability. Primary commercial applications for variable transmittance coatings to be developed through this program include helmet mounted visors for the Air Force and Navy. On a larger scale, these coatings could be transitioned toward use on windows for light control for industrial, office, home and automobile use.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 347-6117
Dr. Thomas Carolan
AF 03-052       Awarded: 7/22/2003
Title:Intelligent Scenario Generation Tools for Training and Rehearsal
Abstract:Micro Analysis & Design, Inc. (MA&D) and the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) Human Factors Group have teamed to conduct innovative research and development aimed at demonstrating methods for diagnosing student competencies and training needs, and adapting the sequence and content of scenarios to target identified weaknesses. Cognitive task analysis methods will be used to identify the diagnostic strategies used by expert pilot instructors for relating observed performance to competencies and to training solutions. Human performance modeling and probabilistic methods will be applied to develop proof-of concept demonstrations of tools to support the pilot instructor in (1) assessing trainee performance and diagnosing deficient skills or competencies, and (2) adapting training scenarios to target identified skill or competency deficiencies. Adaptive scenario generation tools to will enhance the effectiveness and reduce costs of training for military simulation training systems. Automated performance measurement and diagnosis will be an essential component for creating deficiency-targeted simulation training scenarios for simulation-based training environments developed for government and commercial applications.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2412
Dr. Jean MacMillan
AF 03-053       Awarded: 7/14/2003
Title:STRIKE-TCT: Simulation-based Training and Rehearsal Integrated Knowledge-acquisition Environment for Time Critical Targeting
Abstract:As new capabilities are designed and developed for the Joint Strike Fighter, it is essential that effective time critical targeting (TCT) training capabilities be designed, developed and tested for ultimate integration into future JSF training. We propose to develop STRIKE-TCT-a PC-based training and rehearsal system that allows JSF crews to experience the key aspects of TCT decision making. STRIKE-TCT will allow an aircrew to "fly" a simulated mission, detect and analyze a target based on a realistic simulation, and make decisions regarding the prosecution of that target, all within the realistic time constraints of a JSF TCT mission. The system will provide coaching and feedback during the training session as well as a systematic after-action performance assessment and debriefing after the session is completed. STRIKE-TCT will integrate simulation, visualization, performance assessment, and intelligent coaching capabilities to effectively train the competencies required for TCT. Because of the strong prior experience and technology capabilities of the Aptima/SDS team, we will provide a prototype of the STRIKE-TCT system-not just design specifications-in Phase I. In Phase II we will fully develop the system and evaluate its effectiveness in increasing the analysis and decision making skills that are critical to TCT. The STRIKE-TCT product will offer a unique combination of advanced simulation technology with advanced training design and learner evaluation methods. The immediate benefit is to measurably improve the quality of Air Force TCT training. Eventual markets include other military strike training systems and the burgeoning simulation-based training market including corporate training, public safety content and service training, financial and medical continuing education, and healthcare and science education.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 758-1956
Mr. Jim Lunsford
AF 03-053       Awarded: 7/15/2003
Title:Time Critical Targeting Training and Rehearsal Environment
Abstract:In today_Ts fast-paced, dynamic environment there is a need for target acquisition and strike to take place _oin minutes, not hours.__ In the words of Gen. Jumper, _oFrom sensor_to strike_in single digit minutes.__ This new world of time critical targeting (TCT) represents a new way of thinking within the Air Force. To support this concept, there needs to be a mechanism that can support training within this dynamic environment as well as allow for analysis of how the Air Forces_T current and future (i.e Joint Strike Fighter) assets can be used to support TCT. To solve this problem, MA,K Technologies will work with the Air Force to design (Phase I) and develop (Phase II) a realistic, fast-paced TCT simulation environment to support tactical team training, mission rehearsal, and JSF TCT operational evaluations. This environment will emulate the TCT Functionality System about to be fielded to six AOCs, reflecting the different components and interactions associated with TCT. The environment will support interaction within the DMT as well as stand-alone operation. MA,K will leverage its TCT subcontractor expertise (Zel Technologies) and our current COTS product line as well as our commercialization experience to develop a deployable interactive TCT simulation environment. At the end of Phase I, MA,K will have a design roadmap for our proposed TCT training, rehearsal, and evaluation simulation environment. This roadmap will be used to develop a commercial-grade system during Phase II. MA,K is able to accomplish this by leveraging its COTS products and experience in creating low-cost PC-based tactical trainers for the military. By working closely with the customer and making our trainer HLA compliant, MA,K will produce a TCT synthetic environment that is ideal to support training and mission rehearsal as well as JSF operational evaluations related to TCT. MA,K intends to develop this TCT _oIntermediate Desktop Simulation__ trainer under its SIMinterNET product line ensuring quick commercialization. The trainer will be marketed to various agencies within the Air Force as well as other military services as a training and evaluation tool.

COMPUTER GRAPHICS SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT CORP.
2483 Old Middlefield Way #140
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 903-4922
Mr. Roy Latham
AF 03-054       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:Body Worn Graphic Image Generator for Simulator Based Training
Abstract:Size, cost, and potential obsolescence are the key concerns in this design for a deployable body-worn image generator for driving a twenty megapixel head mounted display. To minimize the size and cost, a parallel architecture is adopted with modules at the chip level rather than at the PC level. The design effort focuses on the development of a bus architecture that minimizes the design time needed to produce a module from the latest COTS graphics accellerator chip. Further substantial cost and size is possible from using a digitally inset high-resolution-area of interest. This approach takes advantage of the human eye actually having high resolution in a small area centered on the direction of view. Digitally insetting the high resolution area overcomes the lag problems associated with past systems that depended upon mechanical servomechanisms. Feasibility of adapting an eye-tracker to a wide field-of-view HMD is an object of the Phase I research. Developing a parallel chip architecture design is expected to save two-thirds of the cost and size of a parallel PC approach. Developing a bus design suitable for single-chip modules may allow advancement of as much as two six-month cycles of COTS graphics accelerator chips. The development of an area-of-interest approach, however, would yield a full factor of ten savings in the required capacity of the visual system while still providing eye-limited resolution to the user. The smaller and less expensive the visual system, the greater its potential ability to be deployed in both military and commercial training applications.

BEVILACQUA RESEARCH CORP.
4040 South Memorial Parkway, Suite B2
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 455-5403
Mr. Keith Martin
AF 03-055       Awarded: 6/27/2003
Title:Deployment Survivability for Mobile Ground Stations
Abstract:The goal of this program will be to investigate the issues associated with the development of a cognitive nuclear, biological and chemical threat data correlation and munitions effects analysis support system that is capable of supporting both training and operational deployments. BRC is a major support contractor for the Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center (ERDC). In this role we support munitions maintenance, development, integration and analysis using several validated computer models including the COBRA, Anti-Terrorist Planner and PENCURV models, which are used to accomplish vulnerability analysis of infrastructure assets using physical modeling. We also support the Army Threat Systems Management Office in the development of tools for cognitive reasoning, battle damage assessment and vulnerability assessment. Our proposal leverages work being accomplished at these agencies by integrating our current work in vulnerability assessment with work in cognitive (knowledge) processing to produce a data correlation architecture that produces a cognitive nuclear, biological, and chemical munitions effects analysis toolkit that facilitates the rapid assessment of multiple variables to produce a graphic depiction of potential munitions effects and create the standardized alerts necessary to support rapid decision-making and dissemination. If successful, the Phase I program will lay the groundwork for full-scale development and demonstration of a cognitive nuclear, biological, and chemical munitions effects analysis toolkit that facilitates the rapid assessment of multiple variables to produce a graphic depiction of potential munitions effects and create the standardized alerts necessary to support rapid decision-making and dissemination. The Phase II program will fully develop and test the individual components and resolve key technical issues before going on to Phase III.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6110
Mr. Timothy J. Choate
AF 03-056       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:Robust Exercise & Training Operational Environment (RETROE)
Abstract:As the complexity of exercises and training events continues to increase, the complexity of the supporting synthetic environment likewise increases. A contributing factor to this is the ad hoc compilation of simulation resources that themselves have dynamic implementations over their life cycles. This means that pre-engineered simulation solutions known to work that one can "pull off the shelf" to is harder to accomplish. To overcome this challenge, RETROE will use a low-bandwidth, higher-level simulation of the simulation resources themselves. The simulation engineer may visually configure the virtual synthetic environment and, in conjunction with intelligent software agent assistance, analyze the system before intervening into the operational environment to send inter-component test messages over a physical network. The intended user of this system would be those operations centers responsible for orchestrating distributed simulation environments for exercise or training support. This system will be able to compile the virtual synthetic environment at a single facility, or via low bandwidth communication with similar simulation engineer terminals at remote locations. This capability will allow a network of simulation engineers to collaborate to ensure correct system operation without the overhead of setting up the long haul simulation networks to achieve the same results. Anticipated benefits include the ability for simulation engineers to quickly compile and orchestrate software building blocks to achieve virtual applications, and analyze these entities before implementation begins. Potential commercial results include specialized software development kits for business, air traffic control, or finance decision support systems that rely on multi-component simulations to fuse and analyze dynamic data.

PRINCETON SATELLITE SYSTEMS
33 Witherspoon Street
Princeton, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 279-9606
Mr. Michael Paluszek
AF 03-057       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:Attitude Control System Simulation
Abstract:This proposal is for an innovative attitude control simulation with attitude control system visualization to support both spacecraft operations and operator training. The simulation uses the actual flight software running on an engineering model of the flight processor for the highest fidelity in operations support and training. The simulation includes a TCP/IP interface that allows it to be connected to other computers and processors to facilitate training and use during missions. For example, the spacecraft models run on one computer while the actual flight software runs on a board that is the equivalent of the flight board on the satellite. The simulation can be connected to the flight operations consoles for realistic training or use during operations and also can be connected to a separate training computer with graphics displays which allow the trainee to visualize the spacecraft in any operational mode. The training console applications would include other visualization tools that would clarify the operation of the ACS, reduce operator errors and speed training. This project is applicable to commercial spacecraft operations and training of spacecraft operators. It could also be adapted to other systems such as power plants and manufacturiing systems.

STAR TECHNOLOGIES CORPORTATION
10303 Galpin Court
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 759-2933
Mr. Robert Strunce
AF 03-057       Awarded: 6/23/2003
Title:COM Attitude Control System Simulation/Trainer
Abstract:Current and future Air Force missions cover a diverse set of spacecraft requirements from LEO (SIBRS Low, DMSP, Space Base Laser) to MEO (GPS) to GEO (SBIRS High, DSCS, DSP, Milstar). The specific missions cover communications, earth surveillance, weather, and navigation. New and innovative approaches to earth surveillance include constellations of earth observing spacecraft "Flying in Formation". Each spacecraft will have unique design specifications on actuators, sensors, dynamics, control functions and flight software. Traditionally, these spacecraft simulations have been divided into files, modules or classes which are compiled and linked to form a monolithic simulation application. This static approach requires re-compilation or re-linking for each different spacecraft and typically has "limited-to-none" capability to provide visual 3D dynamic displays of the spacecraft dynamic motion. Star Technologies Corporation (STC) proposes to apply the latest software architecture, Component Object Model, or COM software technology to the development of a "COM Attitude Control System Simulation/Trainer". This COM software architecture will enable the User to build COM objects that can be assembled without re-compiling or re-linking. In essence, COM provides a software "Plug-N-Play" capability which can dynamically plug/unplug objects into/from the application such as environments, sensors, actuators, dynamics, control functions, 3D images and displays. The "COM Attitude Control System Simulation/Trainer" architecture will provide a methodology for the rapid prototyping of various spacecraft (or any vehicle) attitude control simulations by assimilation of COM objects at run time. The addition of new COM components or the replacement of existing COM components will enable spacecraft simulations to evolve over time as well as support current operational spacecraft. Various 3D Visualization COM objects can be made available as well to present the actual spacecraft dynamic motion. Previously, development of a spacecraft attitude control system would apply 80% of the effort toward the development of a detailed spacecraft simulation while 20% went to the actual control system design and analysis. This "COM Attitude Control System Simulation/Trainer" architecture will reduce the cost and time-to-develop sophisticated spacecraft simulations to less than 20% of the effort, leaving the remainder of the effort for control system design and analysis. The COM simulation architecture will enable component manufacturers to provide sensor or actuator models as COM components thereby protecting any proprietary information while making their specific sensor or actuator model available as a plug-in. Star Technologies Corporation has contacted such manufacturers as Barnes Engineering who are in agreement with the providing such a COM plug-in component. The COM simulation architecture has the potential of supporting a variety of commercial as well as government spacecraft and launch vehicle simulation developments.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
Gwynedd Office Park, 716 N. Bethlehem Pike, Ste 30
Lower Gwynedd, PA 19002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 277-9288
Dr. Kelly Neville
AF 03-058       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:Satellite Technician Advanced Training System (STATS)
Abstract:It is very difficult to develop complex diagnostic skills in the absence of a tangible and concrete system context. Air Force space system operators are required to develop diagnostic expertise for spacecraft they have never and will never see. This problem has been recognized by training cadre at Vandenberg AFB. A significant need exists for models of satellites which can used to reinforce classroom instruction. In order to meet this need we propose to develop the Satellite Technician Advanced Training System (STATS). STATS will provide a state-of-the-art 3D visualization display, which can be used to examine spacecraft models. STATS will provide 3D navigation functionality, ability for remove outer skins, and selection/highlighting of sub-systems. Visualization will be coupled with a system simulation model used to generate realistic anomaly conditions. Anomaly parameters will be displayed in several formats designed to promote analytical diagnostic thinking. Both the visual model and the indicators will be linked to the actual IETMs for the given spacecraft. The IETMs will be converted to XML to provide a complex linkage and cross-referencing between the 3D display, indicators, and IETM. Intelligent agent technology will be employed to monitor and accelerated the diagnostic learning process. STATS represents an important training device for satellite operators across Department of Defense (DoD) services and agencies. It is similarly valuable to training commercial satellite operators. American business depends on over 150 commercially owned communications and imaging satellites, and the DoD manages and uses significant numbers as well. The war in the Balkans reportedly made use of four dozen satellites from nearly two dozen countries. Clearly, there is a demand for satellite operators, and the rapidly growing role of space in both military and commercial applications means that these operators will be increasingly challenged. Accordingly, high quality and thorough training will become increasingly important for satellite operators. STAT represents a set of key components of that training - 3D satellite visualization, diagnostic simulation, and integrated IETM support. Training will be facilitated by the use of intelligent agents to maximize training effectiveness and potentially reduce training costs.

ASCENSION TECHNOLOGY CORP.
107 Catamount Drive
Milton, VT 05468
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 893-6657
Mr. Don Odell
AF 03-059       Awarded: 7/14/2003
Title:Through Screen Optical Head Tracker
Abstract:Ascension Technology proposes to develop a fast, new six degrees-of-freedom tracker, phasorBIRDTM, immune to cockpit and helmet scatterers of magnetic/electrical field energy. It will integrate seamlessly with training simulators, aircraft, tanks, and combat air operations centers (CAOCs). Design features will enable it to exceed static accuracy and repeatability of the best magnetic trackers while eliminating the need for elaborate alignment and mapping hardware that significantly impacts logistical costs. Development will be based on a research model now returning accuracy of 0.2 mm/0.2 RMS. In this project, we will demonstrate scalability and capability in simulators with tiled rear-screen projections as well as feasibility in helmet-mounted NVG systems. We will first develop and test small, operational camera prototypes and second demonstrate that emitter modules can be made compatible with rear-projection screens. Once fully developed, the tracker will overcome performance and applicability limits caused by bulky, obstructive emitters and lens-based cameras that interfere with human motion, cockpit layout, and ingress/egress. The military will benefit in that the technology can be evolved to high volume commercial (real-time visualization systems, augmented reality systems etc) as well as helmet-display applications -- thus amortizing manufacturing costs over large volumes for increased affordability and lowering life-cycle costs. PhasorBIRD provides a tracker technology that has high potential for head and body tracking in the private sector and DOD. 1. Is capable of high update rates and high dynamic accuracy. 2. Simplifies helmet and cockpit integration design. 3. Is compatible with military training simulators and cockpit environments such as those found in the WST, F/A-22 and JSF. 4. Requires simple and relatively low power electrical interfaces. 5. Can be evolved to high volume manufacturing techniques, and has relatively low maintenance and life-cycle-costs. Private sector Primary commercial markets for next-generation tracker: Real-time visualization systems employing head/hand tracking to interact with immersive and wide-screen displays (e.g., VR design, prototyping and visualization of large graphical data sets). Such data is displayed interactively on devices ranging from individual headsets to multi-wall projections systems. Simulation and training system developed by contractors for military and commercial land and air vehicles. Although current magnetic, optical and hybrid trackers are often used in these systems, emerging requirements -- such as AFRL's weapon system trainer with wraparound display -- demand unobtrusive tracking, not hindered by metallic content, close quarters, and/or environmental noise. Augmented reality (AR) systems. In this emerging market, there is a hard requirement for extremely fast, low latency tracking to overlay virtual instructions on real-world objects. To do this, a user''s head and/or hands must be tracked to provide a real-time registration of the virtual data on the real-world object. AR has not advanced beyond research projects due, in part, to the lack of "fast, highly accurate head and object tracking." Applications stymied by the lack of adequate tracking include: simulation, manufacturing, repair and maintenance, medicine, and military target acquisition and situational awareness systems. One such Amy FCS project is HTSS, currently underway at the Night-Vision Lab at Ft. Belvoir. For a survey of the state of the art in AR and unmet needs, see Azuma R., Baillot Y, Feiner S, "Recent Advances in Augmented Reality," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Nov/Dec 2001, pp 34-47. The authors conclude that before the dream of AR can be realized, trackers need to be "more accurate, cheaper, and less power consuming." The phasorBIRD concept is the only tracker capable of meeting the lofty goals required to make AR a viable new technology. Hard requirements as reported elsewhere in the literature by Azuma et al specify angular accuracy at the "fraction of a degree level and measurement latency of less than 2 milliseconds." DOD In addition to AFRL/HEA, the AFRL/HEC HMST Program, ACC and ASC could be the primary Air Force end users of the technology. The AFRL/HEC HMST proposed Multi-spectral HMD Program is seeking advanced tracker technology for possible integration with new helmet-display concepts. The USAF F-15E, while not slated to get a helmet-cueing system until FY08, will likely opt for the newer and more affordable technology associated with ongoing technology efforts that are relatively mature by FY06. The USAF F/A-22 (DRA-22) office at ACC is actively seeking sources for improved helmet tracker and display technology. The JSF program will likely take serious note of this program if performance test results are positive. Any production programs arising from these efforts are likely to make new tracker technology the material solution of choice because it will have demonstrated its potential with worst-case helmet-mounted cueing systems in the OT&E operational, simulator and maintenance environments.

JXT APPLICATIONS, INC.
2673 Commons Blvd, Suite 20
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 306-5003
Mr. Daniel P. Faulkner
AF 03-060       Awarded: 7/29/2003
Title:Command and Control Interfaces for Virtual Teams
Abstract:The effort proposed in this Phase I SBIR focuses on the need to develop an effective Command and Control Interface for Virtual Teams in order to improve the communication and coordination abilities of the Air Operations Center (AOC) staff and enable them to work more efficiently and effectively in the distributed environment envisioned for the AOC of the Future. While all potentially beneficial methods and technologies will be assessed for applicability, the focus of this proposal is on the gains that can be reasonably and affordably made through improvements in mobile computing, Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) and video-conferencing capabilities. The payoff through achieving reasonable improvements in these three technology areas alone can account for a substantial improvement in distributed communications at an affordable price. We anticipate that the improvements that can be achieved through the application of state-of-the- art technologies to mobile computing, GUIs and video-conferencing will provide the Command and Control (C2) community near-term benefits that will result in a vast improvement over the capabilities of the communications systems currently in use. These benefits will extend beyond the AOC and into every facet of society as the product of this SBIR is used to enhance the way government, business and individuals increasingly interact with one another in today's electronic society.

US POSITIONING GROUP, LLC
Williams Gateway Airport, 5865 S.Sossaman Rd.
Mesa, AZ 85212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 988-1000
Dr. Steven M. Shope
AF 03-060       Awarded: 7/28/2003
Title:Command and Control Interfaces for Predator Squadron Operations Centers (P-SOC)
Abstract:The goal of this effort is to develop and assess user interface designs including, displays and other collaboration aids, to reduce cognitive load and to improve distributed C2 decision making and overall performance in complex team environments. An ideal test-bed for our approach is the Predator Squadron Operations Center, or P-SOC, initiative now being developed by the Air Force UAV Battle Lab. A de facto P-SOC has emerged in every recent Predator deployment to facilitate Predator operations; however, this entity has never been fully defined, equipped, or standardized. Preliminary P-SOC designs and user interfaces have been proposed by the P-SOC initiative group. What is critically lacking is the methodology to assess these designs. Additionally, when poor designs are encountered guidance is needed for interface improvements. Specifically, the goal of this SBIR project is to develop an assessment and improvement methodology for P-SOC user interfaces. Our proposed effort will evaluate, assess, and recommend improved designs to the current P-SOC operational structure and user interfaces using a cognitive task analysis. In Phase II, the P-SOC operations will be simulated using a synthetic task environment which will serve as a test bed to test and quantify P-SOC performance using various interface designs. Team-based command and control centers play an increasingly critical role in arenas ranging from air traffic control centers to battlefields to nuclear power plants. Teams can be made up of members located in close proximity or they can be distributed across great distances. The growing advances in technology and the resulting complexity of tasks have increased the need for teamwork. At the same time, these demands have increased the cognitive complexity of team tasks. Team members must interpret situations, remember procedures, plan, make decisions, and solve problems as an integrated unit. As a result, effective and efficient team user interfaces, training systems, and team intervention methodologies to maximize team performance will be a well-defined growth market.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 442-6947
Mr. Ron Small
AF 03-061       Awarded: 6/5/2003
Title:Multisensory Integration for Pilot Spatial Orientation
Abstract:This proposal describes a layered approach to improving pilot spatial orientation and reducing the negative consequences of spatial disorientation events. Improving current cockpit displays (i.e., head-down, head-up, and helmet-mounted) and incorporating new technologies (e.g., 3D audio, tactile) requires a methodology for integrating and testing all of the salient technologies and techniques to determine which ones are the best at enhancing spatial orientation, preventing spatial disorientation events, and minimizing the impact of any spatial disorientation events that do occur. Phase I will identify and address the most promising displays, tools, and techniques using a model-based approach. The anticipated benefits of the proposed research and development are to help pilots maintain spatial orientation in flight, or, when orientation degrades, to recognize and recover from spatially disorienting situations, thus preventing spatial disorientation's negative consequences. The cost impact of spatial disorientation on the US military is over $300 million per year, not counting lives lost. US civilian losses are comparable. Devising a layered approach to even incrementally improve the situation has a multi-million dollar per year potential benefit.

NTI, INC.
5200 Springfield Pike, Suite 119
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 878-3750
Dr. Samuel Moise
AF 03-061       Awarded: 6/6/2003
Title:Multisensory Integration for Pilot Spatial Orientation
Abstract:Spatial disorientation (SD) contributes up to 30% of all Class A mishaps in the United States Air Force. Type I SD mishaps occur because pilots do not attend to or misread primary flight information from their cockpit displays. The inability of current displays to provide pilots with intuitive and preconscious (ambient) information concerning the aircraft's attitude is believed to be responsible for the attention overload and processing failures that result in Type I SD. Several technologies have been proposed to improve the quality and naturalness of orientation information in the cockpit, including peripheral visual displays, 3-D audio, and tactile cueing. However, very few empirical data exist concerning the efficacy of these technologies in isolation, and none exist concerning their efficacy in combination. A comprehensive methodology is proposed for evaluating each display's controllability, attention demands, ability to overcome motion conflict, and effectiveness in unusual attitude recovery. The basic evaluation algorithms will be developed in Phase I, while the evaluation of candidate displays will be conducted in Phase II. A primary benefit from the Phase I effort will include an evaluation methodology that can be used to assess the effectiveness of multisensory technologies planned for advanced fighter aircraft cockpits. These technologies include helmet-mounted displays, 3-D localized audio, and tactile situation awareness systems. This product may also have commercial applications that include general aviation aircraft. In addition, given the increased use of virtual environments for training purposes, and wearable computers as navigation aids and aids for the handicapped, it is likely that situation awareness and orientation displays can be evaluated for commercial applications, using the same or similar technology. The Phase II effort should result specific recommendations for displays and types of displays that will be particularly effective for each of the above applications.

OCEAN OPTICS, INC.
380 Main Street
Dunedin, FL 34698
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 733-2447
Dr. Yvette D. Mattley
AF 03-062       Awarded: 6/10/2003
Title:Portable Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Bioanalyzer
Abstract:The search for a fast and reliable field detection system for biological warfare agents continues more than a year after the anthrax scare that accompanied the terrorist attacks of "September 11th". False positives are a significant problem with the current detection systems because the markers used by these systems are not absolutely specific for the biological warfare agents they are trying to detect. The ideal detection system would provide rapid results with a minimum of sample preparation and no false positives. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a revolutionary new sensor technology that is an ideal candidate for this task. LIBS is a real-time detector that can require no sample preparation and can operate in the point sensing mode, as well as being capable of standoff detection. Furthermore, this technology can be developed into a compact, rugged, and relatively low-cost package with unprecedented performance. Ocean Optics, Inc. proposes to determine the uniqueness of LIBS spectra for various complex biochemicals and non-pathogenic microorganisms to determine the limits of sensitivity for detection and identification. Furthermore we propose to generate a library of standard spectra for these samples and perform interrogation on solid surfaces and in liquids and aerosols. The result anticipated from Phase I is the determination of the feasibility of using LIBS to identify BW agents on surfaces and in liquids or aerosols and to delineate them from one another. In addition, it will result in the generation of a valuable database of LIBS spectral data. If Phase II is awarded, the portable LIBS system developed by Ocean Optics will be suitable for both military and civilian use. The commercial applications are immense not only for homeland defense but other environmental detection in the air ducts of hospitals, office buildings, apartment buildings and even homes. LIBS has applications in the metal detection and analysis market, determining the alloys in metals, engine oil analysis to determine engine wear, lead paint analysis and mining exploration. LIBS has the capability of being used in many applications presently being analyzed by MASS spectroscopy, which is costly, requires time consuming sample preparation and is anything but portable. LIBS could be the most exciting analytical tool to hit the analytical instrument industry in the past 10 years.

SPECTRAL IMAGING LABORATORY
7653 Airlie Drive
Tujunga, CA 91042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 352-2213
Dr. Francis Reininger
AF 03-062       Awarded: 6/10/2003
Title:Broadband Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for bio-agent detection
Abstract:A broadband laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) is proposed for the stand-off detection of bio-agents. The LIBS instrument will use a pulsing, high-powered laser to ablate contaminants and then record the spectral information emitted from the resulting plasma using a flash Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS). This research will determine the feasibility of using the LIBS technique for bio-agent detection. It will also determine the optimum laser wavelength for ablation, the optimum spectrometer wavelengths for detection, and the appropriate algorithms for bio-agent identification. The FFTS will be capable of measuring the spectrum from 0.2 - 15 microns, if necessary. Key attributes of the instrument include ruggedness, reliability, and high efficiency. Will provide the Air Force with a portable spectrometer capable of detecting bio-agents from a range of a few meters to 20 meters. The instrument would be especially useful to military and emergency responders such as police, firefighters, and medical personnel. Commercial instruments can be used by spectroscopists interested in applying the LIBS technique to the identification of toxic metals in paint and soil, spectroscopic analysis of fire suppressants and refrigerants, and for general gas chromatography. The instrument can be used to analyze the amount of carbon in soils to better understand global warming, and a flight version could be used for planetary exploration to determine elemental, mineralogical, and biological information, especially on Mars. When used in a LIDAR mode it can yield information on atmospheric properties.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4154
Ms. Marina Temchenko
AF 03-063       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Automated Individual Real-Time Toxic Exposure Monitoring (AIRTEM) System
Abstract:Recent conflicts have seen the confrontation of the United States and its allies with a new type of enemy; an enemy relying not only upon traditional means of aggression, but also upon terror. The effects of this new order of attacking American freedoms have been realized by civilians and servicemen alike. While many measures have been taken to heighten securities in American cities, there is a dire need to provide additional layers of defense on the battlefield. In this Phase I program, Foster-Miller proposes to aid in the defense of American servicemen from the untraditional munitions currently under suspicion of use by so-called rogue nations. The proposed effort will entail the development of an automated individual real-time toxic exposure monitoring (AIRTEM) system that will provide an immediate assessment of chemically- and biologically-induced impairment of deployed personnel. (P-030135) The development of a fully automated real-time monitor for the detection of chemically and biologically induced impairment of deployed personnel will provide the U.S. Air Force and other divisions of the DoD with an invaluable tool in the defense of the nation. The device will find commercial applications in sale to civilian police, fire and emergency personnel, as well as the American public, in times of uncertainty.

GENEXPRESS INFORMATICS, INC.
PO Box 200759
Austin, TX 78729
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 659-4539
Dr. Robert Chin
AF 03-063       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:Preferential Display (PD) based PROTECT system
Abstract:Exposure of humans to chemical or biological warfare agents has been demonstrate to be detected within hours of contact by measuring gene expression levels (profiles) on a genomic scale using microarray chips. While this technology has been shown to be deployable in the field, the human genomics databases are insufficient to diagnose which chemical or pathogen a person has been exposed to. GeneXpress Informatics, Inc. (GXI) and Dr. J.P.,Chambers of University of Texas at San Antonio propose to develop a differential gene display technology, called Preferential Display (PD), which will provide a simplified, cost-effective and efficient method to identify induced transcripts associated with military personnel exposure to chemical or biological warfare agents. By identifying these chemical/biowarfare agent induced transcripts, GXI intends to provide an unprecedented number of lead sequences for DNA microarray monitoring applications. In Phase I, GXI and Dr. Chambers proposes isolate and identify a preliminary set of gene sequences from a cell line which have been challenged by a chemical or biowarfare agent. The Phase II program will result in a fully automated PROTECT system for use in identifying and isolating biosignataure sequence databases from human test subjects. The PD technology offers a revolutionary technology to isolate and identify gene expression profiles of diseased versus normal tissues for use in developing microarray chips for medical diagnosis and monitoring of infectious diseases. The databases generated will have a wide commercial market as new drugs or drug targets.

INTEGRATED SYSTEMS IMPROVEMENT SERVICES, INC.
2149 Piccadilly Drive
Sierra Vista, AZ 85635
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 459-5012
Mr. Ronald L. Walter
AF 03-064       Awarded: 7/24/2003
Title:Simulation and Training Development to Enhance the Tactical Knowledge and Readiness of Information Warfare Teams
Abstract:The USAF approach to training its Warfighters is well defined for the aviation community but how do you build an Information Warfare Gunnery range? The ISIS IW gunnery range: Provides training/evaluation in USAF IW tasks and competencies. Includes methodology for systematically linking USAF tasks/competencies to a training scenario. Includes a mechanism to measure performance and assess knowledge. Supports complex scenarios over multiple days. Uses feedback loops to inject player action into the scenario Includes rules to ensure smooth game play and consistent scoring. Lends itself to training small teams with minimal administrative overhead. Our Phase I effort delivers: 1) Definition of USAF IW mission essential competencies/operational domains derived from current USAF and Joint tasks and doctrine. 2) Integration of USAF IW competencies/domains in a functional prototype linking those USAF IW competencies to a training scenario that measures player mastery of those competencies. 3) Game rules to facilitate control of an exercise. 4) Sample data to validate convergence of USAF Competencies, Information Structure, and Game Rules. 5) Specifications for a USAF IW Integrated Training Suite. 6) Cross referencing of USAF Tasks and Competencies to instructional principles and training strategies. Produces a measurable training system that fully addresses USAF IW knowledge and performance requirements. Immediately enhances existing USAF IW training Guides creation of USAF IW training where it does not currently exist. Uses USAF IW and Information-in-Warfare (IIW) functions to dramatically increase realism and broaden training tool applicability across DoD and other government organizations that share IW tasks but do not share training environments.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Mr. Richard Stottler
AF 03-064       Awarded: 7/24/2003
Title:An Intelligent Simulation-based Team Training Environment for Information Warfare
Abstract:Information warfare will play an increasingly crucial role in achieving military superiority. Increased training is needed to develop a force with the required expertise to achieve information superiority. We propose a simulation-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to train teams of Air Force personnel in critical information warfare skills. Being server-based, the ITS will enable distance learning. The ITS will develop individual skills and team performance skills. Among the proposed innovations is the facility for compositional scenario design using scenario fragments and rules for their selection and assembly. This will enable the generation of scenarios that are fine-tuned to different learning needs among team members in terms of the emphasis and optimal challenge levels. The proposed system will adapt itself to individual teams and its members, and thus minimize the need for human instructional intervention. By providing for distance learning, it will allow the Air Force to train its personnel, at remote locations, thus, cutting down on travel expenses and time. This will help the Air Force maintain a highly trained and prepared crew ready to handle information attacks at any time. Phase I will result in a proof-of-concept prototype that will demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our approach. Several government organizations other than the military deal with sensitive information. For example, intelligence and intelligence analysis is of significant importance to the Law Enforcement Agency, the FBI, and the Drug Enforcement Agency. Network intrusion detection and prevention is of importance both to the government and businesses. The proposed system can be marketed to such organizations.

FIORE INDUSTRIES, INC.
5301 Central Ave., NE, Suite 900
Albuquerque, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-9797
Dr. Andrew Motes
AF 03-065       Awarded: 7/29/2003
Title:Destruction of Chemical/Biological Warfare Agents using a Portable Microwave Emitter
Abstract:Due to current threats against the United States, there is a very real need for an efficient, effective and portable method to neutralize or defeat unknown chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWAs). In the event of toxic agent attack on civilian targets, a rapid and intelligent response by civilian authorities is required to minimize the spread and scope of the attack. It has been suggested that microwave exposure can be used to kill anthrax bacteria when used in conjunction with diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemical solution. Currently, there is a need for a portable microwave source that provides the required radiation intensity. Fiore Industries Inc has previously designed, built and tested a working portable microwave source that meets the requirements for this process. A Fiore team, that includes Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute proposes to optimize this method and to demonstrate through testing and analysis that Fiore's existing microwave source can be used to kill or neutralize a variety of biological and chemical agents. Due to current threats against the United States, there is a very real need for a generic method of destroying unknown chemical and biological warfare agents. In the event of toxic agent attack on civilian targets, a rapid and intelligent response by civilian authorities is required to minimize the spread and scope of the attack. The ability to respond with one standard protocol in all cases allows for a rapid response. Having a generic way of neutralizing multiple agents also minimizes the consequences of a failure to rapidly and correctly diagnose the agents involved, and further minimizes the risk in a multiple-agent attack. The potential customers for a novel and effective decontamination system include community hospitals, fire departments, city emergency response teams, and countless other entities. The number of Community hospitals in the United States is ~4900, with another ~3000 not-for-profit hospitals and another ~1100 state and local government hospitals. There are over 600 cities in the United States that posted populations greater than 50,000 in the 2000 census. Interest in bio/chemical decontamination is very high right now. At the end of the successful Phase II effort, the Fiore team foresees forming a limited-liability corporation with commercial rights to this technology, whose purpose is to take that technology to market.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
44901 Falcon Place, Suite 110
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 437-7274
Dr. Michael E. Read
AF 03-065       Awarded: 8/15/2003
Title:Destruction of Chemical/Biological Warfare Agents using a Portable Microwave Emitter
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes a program for the development of a system to generate, transmit and apply pulsed microwaves to biological agents on aircraft surfaces. The system will produce fields up to 100 kV/m over an area of 100 cm^2 at a frequency of 1.35 GHz and deliver the radiation at distances to 3 M. In Phase I, a laboratory system will be assembled, and tested against a biological agent simulant. Those tests will include the use of diazoluminomelanin (DALM) to enhance the effectiveness of the microwaves. Phase I will also include an assessment of the possibility of damage by the microwaves to aircraft electronics. It will conclude with the design of a fieldable prototype system to be fabricated and tested in Phase II. The proposed system would allow for a "dry" decontamination of a variety of surfaces, and would be appropriate for moderate area surfaces such as those of vehicles, tables, isolation hoods, etc. It will address destruction of biological agents on surfaces of interest to all of the armed forces and many civilian agencies. This is in addition to the continuing need by the medical community for fast, clean methods of decontamination of surfaces and instruments.

E-VIZ, INC.
3885 Decatur Blvd, Suite 2010
Las Vegas, NV 89103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 938-1708
Charles E Crist
AF 03-069       Awarded: 6/11/2003
Title:Featherweight Displays (FWDs):Ultra-bright VCSEL-based, Full-color Microdisplays using Solderless Nanoscale Interconnects
Abstract:The Feather Weight Display is a novel design and integration of industrially mature technologies including ultra-density silicon circuits with ultra-dense chip-to-chip interconnections, ultra-density VCSEL arrays, nonlinear photonic upconverting color materials, and nonlinear optical elements. To demonstrate its potential is primarily a design process. Design of emissive and virtual retinal devices and the identification of industry processes will be accomplished quickly. There are a full spectrum of users in the personal microdisplay market, each have distinct issues that must be overcome to be able to provide a winning combination of features. The primary need for the military user is all-weather functionality and low power drain. Size is also important, but somewhat secondary to other parameters. Reviewing the conditions within international consumer microdisplay market, one fines two primary issues that collide and prevent market from eruption with acceptable products and services. The first is personal vanity. People want and need to look fashionable if not ''cool''. All current personal displays are too large, bulky, cumbersome, and unstylish to blend into the typical person''s wardrobe, lifestyle, and social image. Secondly Cost. The primary benefit from this is the demonstration of higher integrated, lighter, more capable electronics packages. This is useful for not only for the creation of the Feather Weight Display, but also for many other advanced systems including sensors, transmitters, receivers and more. Demonstrating this process will allow the creation of complex assemblies by utilizing the different venders for each specialized function. This will demonstrate how a broad base of highly specialized single purpose circuits suppliers'' devices can be integrated into a smaller and lighter package.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 03-075       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:Software Toolkit for Optimizing Mission Plans (STOMP) for the Joint Synthetic Battlespace
Abstract:The engineering analysis and acquisition of command and control (C2) technologies and systems is an extremely time-consuming and expensive endeavor. DoD is addressing these problems by embarking on the use of modeling and simulation techniques, i.e. Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA). The acquisition component of the Air Force's Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) program is seen as a key enabler of SBA via providing a persistent synthetic battlespace infrastructure to support the exploration, design, development, analysis, and testing of new warfighting systems and concepts. To address SBA and the realization of JSB, systems and tools are required to rapidly generate synthetic representations and populate the synthetic components necessary to support assessment and acquisition of C2 systems for Air Operations Centers (AOCs). One of the tasks within an AOC is the development of air campaign mission plans. Here, we propose a Software Toolkit for Optimizing Mission Plans (STOMP) for the Joint Synthetic Battlespace. STOMP integrates an off-line genetic algorithm-based mechanism to rapidly generate, analyze, and visualize mission plans in tandem with a software interoperability bridge to provide the requisite translation and interface with JSB synthetic component databases. Commercial applications of the proposed approach to mission planning exist for a wide variety of domains where a need exists for optimized scheduling, such as transportation systems, supply chain management, and law enforcement resource allocation. In addition, the proposed effort will impact the development and enhancement of our Intelligent Agent Toolkit, via the incorporation of the genetic algorithms-based planning and adaptation and the visualization components of the proposed system developed under this SBIR effort.

QUINSTAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
24085 Garnier Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Mr. Robert S. Ying
AF 03-076       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:Millimeter Wave Communications for Force Protection
Abstract:United States Air Force and other services deploy a variety of covert and non-covert intrusion systems for securing various assets and bases. It is critical that the data generated by these systems be transmitted to various collection sites in a covert fashion to thwart any attempt to compromise the intrusion systems. Millimeter-wave communication links, operating in the oxygen or water vapor band of the electromagnetic spectrum offer an ideal solution to achieve the covertness and integration required for all these systems. The high atmospheric attenuation, coupled with encryptions and coding, provide an ideal secured two-way link between the sensors and the command posts or other remote sites. In addition, the narrow beamwidth achievable with small antennas makes millimeter wave transceivers portable and communication links easy to set up. An extension of the communication link to an all millimeter-wave sensor and link system offers not only total system covertness, but also broadband capability required for advanced high-resolution radar/passive imaging sensors. The low cost communication link design will have other potential applications in LMDS systems and millimeter-wave wireless network systems. In addition, the communications link can be used in secured communications in a battlefield environment.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Brian T. DeCleene
AF 03-077       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Secure Wireless Distribution of Cryptographic Keys
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR is to develop a capability to securely transmit cryptographic keys over wireless networking environments. The utilization of affordable commercial wireless technologies is a potential solution for automating the key distribution process to forward-deployed military units. As security properties in commercial wireless technologies may be weak, new solutions are needed that provide strong authentication and strong encryption. Transmission of sensitive in-theater data requires that all transmitters/receivers possess cryptographic devices. Increasing use of wireless technologies greatly increases the number of devices, and places unrealistic management and distribution requirements on the site generating the keys. Additionally, as security breaches are detected, it is paramount that new cryptographic keys be rapidly transmitted to the remaining trusted wireless participants. New approaches that delegate the decision-making process for key distribution are required for a scalable solution. Our approach is to add wireless interfaces to programmable Data Transfer Devices and to develop a scalable key management algorithm, based on the Subset Difference algorithm [NNL01], that provides administratively scoped domains to localize key revocation decisions. The technology developed under this SBIR is anticipated to have broad application permitting DoD and commercial vendors to utilize wireless communications technologies to securely distribute keys. The proliferation of affordable wireless devices is permitting individuals to connect to the Internet anywhere, anytime. New methods of securing sensitive information transmitted on these links must be developed due to a lack of or absence of strong security in commercially available wireless networking components. The research developed as part of this SBIR will provide a capability to securely distribute cryptographic keys to wireless users in a timely fashion, thus minimizing the release of sensitive information.

VISINTUIT
1413 Durness Court, Suite 100
Naperville, IL 60565
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 428-0910
Dr. T. Alan Keahey
AF 03-078       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Commercialization of Software Model Architecture Visualization Tool
Abstract:A critical problem in the defense and commercial communities is to understand network data in general, and network performance in particular. Over the past decade there has been a huge increase in the amount of networks and traffic, as well as our dependence on their efficient operation. Concurrently with this huge growth in networks, there has also been a massive increase in computer graphics capability, driven largely by the economics of the computer game industry. This increase in graphics processing power has opened up new opportunities for another generation of visualization tools in general, and visual network analysis tools in particular. This research project proposes advanced visualization techniques that leverage modern graphics processing power; moving beyond simple polygons, texture mapping, and 3D to create a new class of network visualization tools aimed at understanding performance in networks. Our ideas exploit immersion, VR, animation, smoothing, blending, adaptive interfaces, and new visual techniques to overcome inherent human perceptual limitations. Although relatively new to network analysis, the approaches have shown great progress in other domains. Taken together, our approach and the vastly more powerful graphics capabilities have great potential for dramatically improving our capability to model, analyze and understand network performance. The resulting visualization technologies will cause a paradigm shift in the way designers and users interact with and understand network models and traffic. The technology shall also apply to many different network analysis tasks, from telephone systems, to dynamic network depictions of organizational and social phenomena. This visualization technology will also serve as a more general purpose tool for modeling and understanding many other types of complex systems that are currently designed using techniques such as colored Petri nets.

EZENIA!, INC.
154 Middlesex Turnpike
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 570-8867
Mr. Drew Decker
AF 03-079       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:Multiple Security Level Collaboration
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to present an approach for developing a multiple level secure architecture that will support real-time collaboration access dissimilarly classified networks. This proposal combines the real-time collaboration expertise of Ezenia with the real-time contextual filtering and security screening. The resulting product, the InfoWorkSpace Guard, achieves an effective means of providing a collaborative capability across security levels while ensuring that data crossing these security boundaries is appropriately monitored and filtered. Commercially the multiple level real-time collaboration capability proposed architecture could be utilized to allow employees to interact with colleagues from another company while maintaining the integrity of each company''''s proprietary data.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 847-9123
Mr. Scott Thomas
AF 03-079       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Joint Collaboration Gateway (JCG)
Abstract:The Intelligence Community (IC) faces an increasingly significant challenge in the timely acquisition, correlation and analysis of information. Information technology advances have resulted in the explosive growth in the volume and rate of data made available to the analyst; this seemingly limitless supply of raw intelligence threatens to overwhelm the human element of the intelligence processing system. Current events, including the War on Terrorism, serve to highlight the need for improved intelligence and collection management. There is a clear requirement for multi-level secure (MLS) collaborative processing with improved search and filtering capabilities. We propose to design and develop a modular Joint Collaboration Gateway (JCG) architecture, based on ISSE Guard, to support MLS multimedia collaboration. Our innovative JCG architecture will incorporate intelligent contextual search and filter engine technology to provide real-time security filtering and facilitate coalition information exchange. In developing the JCG architecture, we will rely on our experience and expertise and build upon our current efforts in which we are developing a MLS text chat capability, as well as support for other media types, including audio, video, and whiteboard using industry standards H.323 and T.120. The Joint Collaboration Gateway will enable IC users to collaborate across dissimilarly classified networks in real-time. The JCG architecture supports Collaborative Targeting, Collaborative Mission Planning, and Collaborative Bomb Damage Assessment between Intelligence Analyst and Command and Control Operators, all using standard collaboration tools. The contextual search and filtering capabilities will significantly improve recall and precision of database and web page queries, and improved automated MLS filtering of collaborative messaging.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5250
Dr. Leonard Haynes
AF 03-080       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Agent-based Generic Scheduling Engine Builder
Abstract:The innovation of this proposal is use of negotiating software autonomous agents to allow creation of a generic scheduling engine that can be customized to a particular application. Our generic scheduling agents have the ability to interact with each other in a contract net paradigm, bidding and negotiating based on generic protocols, independent of the particular application for which a schedule is being created. The agents are particularized to a specific application by defining multi-dimensional value functions and constraints for each agent based on what that agent represents in the specific application problem. IAI has been working in the area of negotiating software autonomous agents for over a decade and we already have foundational software which will allow the above development. In our current agent-based software systems, we routinely have 20,000 software agents executing simultaneously on 10 computers, all cooperatively functioning in a single system. To generate the agent-based system, IAI will also exploit a new Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool IAI is developing called Diva. Using Diva for this development will help insure that the results are generic and reusable as the system is built. The work will also result in improvements to Diva to better support development of more generic agent-based applications. IAI is currently working on many projects based on the success of its software agent tools and techniques. The proposed work will allow us to create that software in a more generic manner so that the results will be more generic, more reusable, and more easily adjusted as applications change. In addition to our own use of the generic scheduling engine technology, IAI's agent infrastructure, called Cybele, has been acquired by over 350 people/organizations, and each of these is a potential user of the tools and techniques which will result from the proposed work.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 320-8888
Dr. Douglas Smith
AF 03-080       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:Component Generation And Integration For The ESC Scheduler Product Line
Abstract:Many Air Force systems depend on scheduling components to effectively manage resources for operations, maintenance, crew training, and so on. Each system tends to have unique and complex features in the tasks, resources, constraints, policies, and objectives that arise in its domain. Rather than attempt to build up a library of scheduling code modules, we believe it will be more flexible and economical to have a generator of scheduling components. This project will develop a synthesis system called Planware III that generates high-performance adaptive scheduling software. Planware III will automatically transform a high-level model of the types of activities and resources in a scheduling problem into fast problem-specific code modules, and help link them into their host system. Previous work (Planware II) developed offline schedulers that weren't designed to cope with execution failures due to, say, resource breakdowns or unavailability of a crew member. This proposal focuses on generating schedulers that support (1) the incremental adaptation of plans during execution, (2) the incremental adaptation of the scheduler code, and (3) the computational tradeoff between schedule quality and the time spent searching for a schedule. Planware is a general purpose generator of scheduling applications for domains involving the coordinated utilization of multiple resources subject to complex rules and constraints. Its competitive advantage is the ability to develop, maintain, and evolve highly customized scheduling applications for a fraction of the cost and time required by similar scheduling systems that are currently available commercially. Our commercialization strategy will focus on two areas: (1) Air Force and other DoD systems -- We anticipate teaming on a variety of system procurements to provide high-performance scheduling components covering operations, maintenance, crew training, and other resource management areas. (2) Manufacturing and transportation companies with well established ERP or Supply Chain Management Systems -- We plan to exploit the weaknesses in the planning and scheduling capabilities provided by applications included as part of the suite of tools commercialized by major ERP vendors like SAP, Oracle, I2, Manugistics, and transportation RF tagging vendors such as Savi Technology and Motorola. Our strategy is to generate plug-compatible components for end-users, resulting in new or greatly improved resource management capability.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 832-4407
Mr. Richard A Flanagan
AF 03-081       Awarded: 6/4/2003
Title:Milestone Mall
Abstract:There are major changes in today's business methods. Expensive and time consuming travel for gathering project personnel together will be replaced, in part, by network-centric technology. Management directives of large corporations are increasingly stipulating the use of a collaborative workspace environment for their organizations that are non-collocated. In the defense sector, time-to-market of complex systems is too long and is still increasing. In response to Small Business Innovative Research solicitation AF03-081, 21CSI is pleased to propose the development of a state-of-the-art distributive collaboration tool for major weapon system engineering development, manufacturing, and operations, entitled "The Milestone Mall." The overall objective is to design and to develop an intelligent agent-based distributive collaborative environment with decision aiding to support the development, acquisition, field operations, and logistics of complex systems such as DoD aerospace systems. We define "computer teleconferencing" as a collaborating group of avatars (unique computer representation of humans) in a setting of modular floors and shops. The Milestone Mall provides an environment for geographically dispersed government and civilian personnel to build and support complex systems. Early attention to security issues is necessary due to the reliance on many networks. Beyond the Milestone Mall core product, transition of the collaboration & decision support system (DSS) technology itself also will have very significant potential. DSS agents with advanced visualization have wide potential applicability to just about every industry involving humans in the loop (including the consumer sector). Many commercial applications would benefit strongly from the Milestone Mall concept: commercial satellite companies, NASA, air traffic control, and others. Our first commercial, non-military product incorporating Milestone Mall technology will likely be part of a decision support tool for commercial airline manufacturing. Although the milestone acquisition method is unique to DoD, it still represents a natural system maturation process and can be easily changed to suit product development industries. One area for fast development and production phases is the electronics industry. Time-to-market (TTM) is on the order of months - less than a year for many small systems. Beating out the competitor in Silicon Valley by 3 months makes the difference between profit and loss. The tool could be used both in support of decision-making and for distributed training.

THE SENBAZURU GROUP, LLC
16937 Briardale Road
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 580-7785
Dr. Kularajah Ratnarajah
AF 03-082       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:TCP/IP Addressing Concepts for Deployed Users
Abstract:This study analyzes and proposes a solution to address TCP performance degradations associated with satellite links. The proposed middleware (proxy-based) solution provides a flexible means for implementing a transport protocol across the satellite network that is tailored to the satellite_s bandwidth/delay and channel impairment conditions without requiring changes within end client/server devices. The net-centric solution also overcomes the limitations of standard TCP enhancement proxies that are rendered ineffective when network layer security is applied or when diverse routing paths are introduced. The proposed study focuses on the design of a satellite communications network infrastructure that incorporates network and performance proxies that are transparent to the SATCOM infrastructure as well as to end-user devices and network. The proxy-based solution: - provides dynamic traffic management in addition to standard TCP performance enhancement, - supports robust, customer-definable, network layer security, ensuring consistent end-to-end network layer security, - supports flexible network addressing that decouples end-user IP addresses from their location in the network, - introduces multi-homing to allow diverse, redundant routing paths across the satellite network, and - provides multiple routing paths as a means of bandwidth/path management to further enhance the performance of TCP traffic. The proposed development extends standard TCP performance enhancement while ensuring robust, customer-definable network-layer security and allowing TCP operation across diverse, redundant satellite paths. The net-centric design will therefore allow the benefits of TCP performance enhancement to be applied to new, legacy or mixed military or commercial SATCOM terminal environments that require high network reliability and redundancy and robust network security.

SARASWATI ASSOC.
2015 St Julien Ct
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 390-9250
Dr. Steve Yee
AF 03-083       Awarded: 7/10/2003
Title:GPS Spaceborne High Efficiency, Jam-resistant Satellite Crosslinks
Abstract:Applying benefits of huge amount of R&D invested in terrestrial optical communications. One outcome is working fieldable 40gb/s per wavelength optical communcication system Most efficient modulation/coding system practical.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Allen Waxman
AF 03-084       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Complementary Observation, Long Duration Track Fusion (COLD Track Fusion)
Abstract:Maintaining continuous track of high-value ground targets in complex environments using only a single sensing modality such as radar, presents a number of challenges for which the use of complementary sensors offers a potential solution. Even with simultaneous radar modalities such as ground moving target indicator (GMTI) and high-resolution range profiles (HRR), there are a number of common scenarios in which the track of a specific target can be lost and subsequent reacquisition of track is difficult. A significant problem is targets moving in and out of hide sites, where track is lost and identification of targets emerging from hide is uncertain. We propose that the fusion of complementary sensing by GMTI/HRR-radar and MSI/HSI spectral sensors have the potential to overcome these limitations and support long-duration tracking and reacquisition of targets emerging from hide. The proposed effort will explore the many synergies between GMTI tracking and HSI learning & recognition of target spectral signatures. Tracking can be aided by HSI & HRR target features, and context extracted using spectral data mining. Target learning can be assisted by tracking (in conjunction with spectral anomaly detection) to localize the target of interest in a small moving area. We will demonstrate the feasibility of such strategies using an existing multi-modality (EO, HSI) 3D site model of Mobile, Alabama, and embedding moving targets (possessing HSI and HRR signatures, and GMTI detections from a simulated radar sensor). We will utilize our existing software for multi-hypothesis tracking together with our neural assisted target learning & recognition (i.e., data mining) system, to demonstrate the potential of fused GMTI/HRR/HSI tracking of targets in and out of hide. We anticipate that this approach to multi-modality fused tracking will enable long duration target tracking and reacquisition of lost tracks as targets emerge from hide. We expect this study will also reveal significant issues in distributed sensor resource management. Success in Phase I with demonstration of feasibility, will lead to a Phase II effort in which a prototype integrated tracking & target learning/search system is developed and applied to data sets of interest. This integrated GMTI/HSI tracker will find use in military battlefield systems, homeland defense systems for monitoring critical transportation infrastructure, traffic monitoring systems, drug interdiction, and vehicle pollution monitoring (ground and maritime).

LSA
1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1300
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 363-5808
Mr. Dale R. Tyczka
AF 03-085       Awarded: 6/23/2003
Title:Passive Communication Options for Miniature Satellites
Abstract:Communication with miniature satellites presents a significant challenge, since their small size and limited power generation conflict with the need for long-distance communication links. Today's advanced sensors have driven the bar even higher by requiring increased bandwidths that can only be satisfied by optical communication. Conventional free-space optical (FSO) communication, however, typically requires some form of mechanical beam steering, which is expensive, heavy and bulky, and can also upset the position of an orbiting satellite. We propose to develop a passive optical communication system that eliminates the need for tracking systems on the satellite. To accomplish this, we will make use of our Smart Retroreflector[TM], which can provide passive communication over an extremely wide field of regard. We will examine both conventional and MOEMS versions of this technology and will also investigate the use of optical gain media to amplify the communication signals. Hardware experiments will be performed to evaluate each technique's feasibility, and the most effective technique will be chosen for further development and flight testing in Phase II. Our considerable laboratory experience and proven expertise in FSO communication place us in a unique position to address all relevant issues for this program, from link performance to marketing strategies. In addition to the benefits of enabling low-cost satellites to be flown in great numbers, thereby advancing the state of science for space platforms, low-cost passive communication systems and components can be applied to a great number of applications. Just a few of the more prominent commercial, government, and operational military applications that could benefit from this and subsequent programs include truly high-speed, last-mile internet connectivity, Search and Rescue (SAR), robotic control, automated aircraft landing guidance, and auto-alignment of optical systems. The use of a low-power optical communicator will also enable accurate, covert combat identification to prevent "friendly fire" incidents. It can also be used as a transponder ID system for ships, vehicles, cargo and aircraft that does not contribute to the increasingly problematic "RF clutter" that is present in many areas. Farming and land maintenance will become more automated and self-coordinating. Homeland, harbor and military base security will be improved through enhanced surveillance data transmission capabilities by permitting large numbers of low-power/low-maintenance sensors to be deployed as needed.

LPA SYSTEMS, INC.
290 Woodcliff Drive
Fairport, NY 14450
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 419-3900
Dr. Katrina Adams
AF 03-086       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Hyperspectral Visualization & Spectral Exploitation (HyperVISE)
Abstract:Program objective is to develop an easy to use hyperspectral visualization tool to assist the layman, whether they are the warfighter or first-responder, in quickly identifying anomalies in the area of interest. Historically, hyperspectral processing has been accomplished by imaging research scientists using highly complex procedures and laboratory-derived signature databases to match known signatures of known materials to extracted signatures for ID purposes. Challenges in working with hyperspectral data include the sheer volume of the data, incorporation of spectral libraries, and compensating for the affects of the atmosphere. Currently with only three bands visible at a time, there is a need for more visualization innovation. As the hyperspectral market grows there will be an increasing need for cost-effective simplified hyperspectral tools that work under a range of field conditions (i.e. not just the laboratory). The proposed research will develop a cost effective, easy to use hyperspectral visualization and exploitation tool for the non-scientist and layout a plan for incorporating new visualization and exploitation innovations. This hyperspectral visualization and exploitation technology will save time and money for the government and commercial sectors. Hyperspectral visualization and spectral exploitation of hyperspectral data is a relatively new technology that can extend the capabilities of traditional electro-optical imaging systems by offering improved procedures, algorithms, and accuracy for target detection and material identification. Such improvements would include both military and commercial applications, including detecting the use of camouflage, concealment and deception (CC&D), the development and deployment of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) weapons, as well as agricultural, emergency response, environmental monitoring and geological assessments, and homeland security.

PRINCETON MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
UNIT C-10, 3 NAMI LANE
MERCERVILLE, NJ 08619
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 586-8140
Mr. Sarjit S Bharj
AF 03-087       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:Low Loss/Low Cost Phase Shifters
Abstract:The use of electronically steered array is necessary to meet performance requirements of modern airborne radar and communications systems. Phase shifters are critical components in such arrays and often become the performance limiting component of the system. A substantial reduction of the the DC power consumption for spaceborne, airborne and portable sysytems is a very important consideration. Very low loss phase shifters can result in the elimination of driver amplifiers for very large phase array radars. Depending on the Transmit power, range and the required gain over noise, G/T ratio, the number of modules can also be reduced. Microwave and millimeter wave phase shifters are currently available in ferroelectric, ferrite,pin diode and FET based technologies. PIN diode phase shifters provide low loss but consume moderate power per diode. FET based phase shifters consume no DC power and are readily integrated with other functions on MMICs, thereby reducing costs but introduce substantial front end loss. Ferroelectric phase shifters have high voltage requirements and exhibit very poor temperature performance. Princeton Microwave is proposing the development of an innovative 3-BIT phase shifter that utilises MEMs technology to achieve very low loss performance at 20 GHz and 44 GHZ applications. The proposed approach is anticipated to provide at least 6-8 dB of system improvement in a radar system when compared to ferroelectic, ferrite or FET based phase shifter designs. Phase I will be used to demonstrate the concept practically. The development of the unique low loss 3-BIT phase shifter will improve the phase array radar system performance by a margin of 6-8 dB. This is mainly due to its low loss performance, thereby reducing the RF drive and gain requirements in Transmit chain. The reduced power consumption of the T/R module with the proposed low loss phase shifter will find applications in the portable and airborne systems at 20GHz and 44GHz.

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10386B Democracy Lane
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 293-8910
Dr. Jose E. Velazco
AF 03-088       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Miniature High-Efficiency V-band Dielectric Traveling-Wave Tube
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will involve the prototype development of an efficient V-band dielectric traveling-wave tube (DTWT) that will provide short-wavelength radiation for rf communications applications in future military satellites. The DTWT is based on the novel interaction between a small-diameter electron beam and the electromagnetic fields of a traveling wave inside a very compact dielectric waveguide. The dielectric waveguide is used to slow down the wave and replaces the less efficient helix structures used in conventional traveling-wave tubes. Our initial studies show the DTWT to be twice as efficient as conventional helix traveling-wave tubes and less sensitive to shock and vibration, making the DTWT ideal for space applications. Detailed numerical, computational and experimental analyses of this concept are proposed during Phase I in order to evaluate key issues such as bandwidth, maximum output power, efficiency and gain. Once fully developed, the DTWT should be capable of replacing conventional traveling-wave tubes in telecommunication systems for future space applications by offering substantial improvements in size, weight, and especially efficiency over its counterparts. If successful, the dielectric traveling-wave tube should efficiently provide coherent high-frequency radiation for many applications. Of particular interest are millimeter-wave sources for airborne radar, satellite communications, wireless television and communications, cellular telephones, and the microwave power module.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Dr. V. Nagarajan
AF 03-089       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Wavelet Compression for Improved Synthetic Aperture Radar Quality
Abstract:Systran Federal Corporation (SFC), the sister-company of Systran Corp., which is a Products Development and Marketing Company specializing in real-time, high-performance networking, and Prof. Yuan Zheng of the Ohio State University (OSU), are proposing to design and develop wavelet algorithm(s) and hardware for compression/decompression of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) signals. The novelty of the innovation is based on wavelet transforms which will be applied in two ways. The first way is to use wavelets as the transmitting pulse for increasing the resolution, and the second is to use the wavelet transform to treat the sensor data for compressing the volume of information. By using this wavelet approach one will be able to increase the resolution while reducing the amount of data which have to be communicated to the ground command stations. As part of the Phase I Program,. SFC and OSU will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed innovation by implementing wavelet algorithms on an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) board. In Phase II, SFC and OSU will design and develop "VLSI chips" for wavelet implementation. Both SFC and OSU have the required expertise to successfully carry out this SBIR program. Development of "innovative" wavelets-based solution for SAR image processing will immensely benefit the DoD. Wavelet implementation will increase efficiency and accuracy, and reduce latency.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
AF 03-090       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Ground Target Tracking and Identification System (GTIS)
Abstract:Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc. will develop a Ground Target Tracking and Identification System (GTIS) for fusing all available data using Bayesian inferential reasoning, multiple hypothesis association, and non-Gaussian tracking techniques. In Phase I of this project we will show how such a system for processing data from large numbers of diverse Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI), Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), Imagery Intelligence (IMINT), Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT), and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) sensors and sources can be developed, and demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness using demonstration software and simulated (or real-world) data. GTIS will use its fused output to produce an accurate and complete SA picture, easily used and interpreted at all command levels, that will include estimates of the past, current, and future locations of targets of interest and estimates concerning their classification/ID/intentions. Such a data fusion capability is especially important in urban, mountainous, and forested areas, where contact on the targets, even with a large number of sensors, will be intermittent. The prototype GTIS will allow us to demonstrate how powerful Bayesian inferential reasoning, multiple-hypothesis, and non-Gaussian data fusion techniques can significantly improve the ability of United States forces to track and target ground targets. Improved correlation and tracking technologies such as these are particularly necessary at a time when the United States is facing sophisticated ground threats such as terrorists in difficult environments, such as the Middle East and Korea, with reduced resources.

INTELLIGENT SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
5450 Tech Center Drive, Suite 304
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-4410
Mr. Jay Jesse
AF 03-090       Awarded: 6/5/2003
Title:Fusion Of Collects to Understand the Situation (FOCUS)
Abstract:The Fusion Of Collects to Understand the Situation (FOCUS) project will provide all source correlation and fusion for the purposes of targeting, situation awareness, and ISR tasking using imagery, MTI, SIGINT and HUMINT. The system will utilize two complementary fusion systems, the Web Enabled Timeline Analysis System (WebTAS) and the Automated Targeting Data Fusion (ATDF) System. Integration of these two complementary capabilities will produce a synergistic, innovative approach to the fusion of data from multiple intelligence sources providing real-time and historical analysis of target movement and tracking. In addition, this application of an open, plug and play fusion architecture will provide users with standard data and application interfaces, maximizing interoperability and reacting dynamically to unforeseen situations and to unexpected user needs. Provides the warfighter with automated data fusion and visualization tools that exploit multiple intelligence sources to perform time critical targeting, situation awareness and ISR tasking. This data fusion will result in improved detection and tracking of time critical targets. Commercial applications for the fusion of data related to movement include areas such as highway safety, air traffic control and weather.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Richard Pierro
AF 03-091       Awarded: 6/25/2003
Title:Space Based Radar (SBR) Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP)
Abstract:There is a growing interest in augmenting airborne GMTI surveillance assets with a space-based radar (SBR) capability. SBR GMTI would provide: deep coverage into areas typically denied airborne assets; extended surveillance; increased area coverage rates; and a steep look-down capability for foliage penetration. A medium-earth orbit (MEO) constellation for GMTI detection and tracking offers lower platform velocity, which narrows the clutter spectrum and improves target detection and minimum discernible velocity. The longer slant range means that the target area is visible much longer per satellite, with less handover of targets between adjacent satellites. Fewer satellites are also required with longer lifetimes for MEO deployments. The TSC and SC team will investigate innovative concepts and techniques to perform SBR GMTI from MEO altitudes in Phase 1. Preliminary tradeoffs will be performed to optimize antenna aperture size and configuration, operating frequency, power-aperture product, waveform selection, and constellation properties. The SMS computer modeling and simulation tool will be enhanced to incorporate these GMTI concepts and techniques. Various GMTI STAP algorithms for SBR MEO application will be incorporated into the SMS software for preliminary evaluation, and then refined in Phase 2. Processor throughput and memory requirements for the various STAP architectures will additionally be assessed. The advanced technology developed under this SBIR can be incorporated into future space-based radar (SBR) for both military and civilian uses. An SBR MEO GMTI capability can provide increased battlefield awareness, and allow warfighters to obtain real-time information to support: rapid insertion of forces; theatre surveillance, command and control; covert search-and-rescue; special operations; intelligence collection; and counter-terrorist missions. It can also support the monitoring of traffic associated with nuclear, biological and chemical weapons facilities, and movements of weapons of mass destruction. Civil applications include anti-smuggling, counter-narcotics, illegal fishing, illegal immigration, law enforcement, refugee sea patrol, and ship traffic control.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
8130 Boone Blvd., Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Mr. Paul Techau
AF 03-092       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Space Based Radar (SBR) Bistatic Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP)
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop interference mitigation algorithms for bistatic space-based radar (SBR) systems. The use of a bistatic SBR for wide-area surveillance offers many potential advantages: short path lengths, smaller satellite constellation sizes, clutter tuning potential, and stealth/survivability. Such a system requires good clutter and jamming mitigation ability. Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) has proven to be a powerful tool for use in clutter/jammer mitigation and its application to bistatic SBR surveillance offers potential benefits in this regard. Bistatic geometries offer unique signal processing challenges and they are both partly addressed and made somewhat more complex by the application of STAP. These challenges include the non-stationarity of bistatic clutter as a function of range as well as the contamination of STAP training data by targets (the latter is an issue for all radars in dense target environments. Under the proposed program, ISL will address issues associated with using STAP in bistatic SBR and develop methods/techniques that allow STAP algorithms to meet bistatic SBR performance objectives. Our Phase I efforts will support the development of a simulation model in Phase II that will be used to fully develop and refine the algorithms for bistatic SBR. Successful completion of this program will result in methods which allow the implementation of STAP algorithms for bistatic radar applications. The use of these algorithms will allow a bistatic SBR to successfully mitigate clutter and interference. The system concept and parameter definitions which are developed, along with the methods used to quantify bistatic clutter non-stationarity, will be a useful tool for both system design definition and STAP algorithm development. The algorithm implementation methods as well as the computer simulation developed under this program will have application to a variety of military and civilian applications that include SBR, airborne surveillance systems, anti-drug surveillance systems, and communications systems.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry Marcus
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:Advanced Information Understanding Algorithms to Detect Counter-Terrorist Activity in Support of Total Force Protection
Abstract:In this proposal 21st Century Technologies will (1) conceptually combine multiple social network patterns to provide greater visibility and a deeper understanding of anomalous and possibly terrorist behaviors to support force protection (2) implement these combined constructs into an social network pattern library usable for military security analysts and (3) integrate the library into TMODS. 21st Century Technologies', TMODS, (Terrorist Modus Operandi Detection System) ,currently being developed for DARPA under the EELD program, shall be used as a framework for the development of the library. The integrated social network pattern library shall be an add-on capability to TMODS. This approach provides intelligence analysts, who may not have social network or other types of expertise, the capability to identify threats based on a robust library of integrated social network pattern data. Technologies can be used to support force protection overseas as well as for homeland defense.

3 SIGMA RESEARCH, INC.
503 S. River Oaks Dr.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 674-9267
Mr. Michael Winburn
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Innovative Information System Technologies
Abstract:3 Sigma Research and Professor Sushil Jajodia propose an innovative technology that protects against "information leaks" by insiders, called Document Theft Reactive Attack Protection. DocTRAP: 1) protects sensitive document information from being leaked, 2) detects malicious insider activity, and 3) reacts to keep the sensitive document information from leaving the protected boundary of the internal network. The Phase I SBIR will result in the development of techniques that protect against the distribution of sensitive information to unauthorized persons outside the internal network. DocTRAP protects electronic information by creating identifying information for those documents that are deemed sensitive. Once under the protection of DocTRAP technology, specific actions on these documents can be detected, controlled, and restricted. The results of the Phase I work will show proof-of-concept and validate the DocTRAP approach. The vulnerabilities from insider attacks and information leaks faced by the military are not unique. Commercial enterprises and other government organizations face the same menace-insider theft of sensitive documents. Espionage is a significant threat. While the military must protect its sensitive data, commercial entities struggle with protecting their intellectual property, trade secrets, business and financial status, plans, and projections. Our unique approach to preventing information theft, provides a significant opportunity in the $5.5 billion a year security product market. No other commercial products offer DocTRAP's unique capabilities to detect and respond to information theft by insiders.

ADEPTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
1420 Spring Hill Road, Suite 600
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 860-3274
Mr. David Niemi
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Innovative Information System Technologies
Abstract:Publish-subscribe-query systems have been evolving from costly, monolithic, proprietary applications into a client-server model based on web services. More recently, distributed peer-to-peer systems based on undifferentiated end-user systems have been explored. All of these approaches tend to suffer from inherent architectural scalability limits. Based on its experience in building business-to-business and Internet applications, Adeptech Systems, Inc. instead proposes a distributed, modular server-to-server architecture based on object routers and publish-subscribe-query brokers. Server-to-server communications will use Beryllium, a native peer-to-peer communications protocol based on BEEP which offers much lower latency and overhead than systems layered on HTTP. Query and object routing operations will benefit from indexing technologies proven in extremely large-scale Internet Search applications. Redundant clusters of publish-subscribe-query brokers will provide user-related services such as managing and aggregating subscriptions, providing a standard web interface to users, and ensuring reliable delivery and publications of objects in accordance with security policies. We propose to study the feasibility and scalability, and to demonstrate a proof of concept of key portions of the proposed architecture and its applicability as a JBI solution. ASI's proposed architecture is intended to address a number of difficult problems relevant to the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) -- most critically, efficient publish-subscribe and query operations in support of a large-scale distributed information repository. We believe that the same architecture would have equally strong commercial potential for implementing information repository and workflow applications used by many large organizations.

AGILEDELTA
17003 NE 28th Place
Bellevue, WA 98008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 503-3403
Mr. John C. Schneider
AF 03-094       Awarded: 7/1/2003
Title:Extending the Infosphere to Mobile Platforms Using Optimized COTS Technologies
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate methods for extending the Battlespace Infosphere to mobile platforms using optimized COTS technologies. The 1999 USAF Scientific Advisory Board report titled Building the Joint Battlespace Infosphere identifies the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) as one of the most promising technologies for representing JBI information objects. Indeed, many DoD users are already adopting XML for wired applications. However, transmitting XML data over wireless data links and processing it on embedded and mobile platforms has proved challenging due to the size and complexity of XML data. Effectively, this creates a data representation rift between wired and wireless users of the Battlespace Infosphere. We propose novel and uniquely efficient methods for encoding and processing XML data to eliminate this rift. The resulting methods promise to enable deployment of XML solutions on small embedded and mobile devices with limited bandwidth, memory, processing power and/or battery life. This will afford mobile users unprecedented access to the wealth of enterprise information encoded in XML and enable enterprise users easy access to information gathered by mobile users. In addition, it promises to drastically increase the performance of existing XML solutions and increase opportunities for exploiting COTS software on embedded and mobile platforms. We anticipate our research will result in increased interoperability and information sharing between fixed and mobile platforms. It will drastically reduce costs by enabling the use of COTS software in environments where it is not feasible today. It will increase the performance, battery life and available bandwidth for mobile platforms and introduce new opportunities for advanced development.

ARGTEC, INC.
8640 Guilford Road, Suite 241
COLUMBIA, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-9891
Dr. M. A. Eshera
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:Context-Based Indexing and Retrieval for XML
Abstract:Context-Based Indexing and Retrieval (CBIR) is a critical C4ISR system capability needed by many important Air Force and Homeland Defense initiatives (e.g., JBI, SSW and CBP). ARGTEC is pioneering the use of a new, innovative technology for context-based indexing and retrieval of documents over large multi-media databases, employing the theory of Attributed Relational Graph (ARG). We have been successful in applying this technology to Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) and free-text indexing and retrieval. Realizing that the Extensible Markup Language (XML) is fast becoming the industry standard for data warehousing and online analysis, ARGTEC proposes to develop a new CBIR system that incorporate XML technology into its current free-text CBIR system. We will expand our system to encode XML information within our hierarchical, symbolic representation scheme and to process that information at multiple levels of detail and resolution. We will show that our system is especially effective in handling partial data and incomplete information as often occurring in user queries. This effort will provide C4ISR systems with the capability to analyze the semantic information associated with XML tagging. ARGTEC has worked with several industrial partners in both the defense and commercial arenas on infusing technological innovations into fielded, operational systems. C4ISR, Multilevel Collaboration, Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (JWID), Smart Sensor Web (SSW), Consistent Battlespace Picture (CBP), Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI), Multimedia and Unstructured DBM, Semantic Web.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Ms. Carla Marceau
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:iFUSE: Integrated FUselet Synthesis Environment
Abstract:A crucial component of the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) is a collection of fuselets, which are simple programs or scripts that effect small transformations on data. The global effect of a collection of cooperating fuselets is to transform data into knowledge. We will create an environment for building fuselets and managing the collection of fuselets. Our fuselet development environment, called iFUSE, will automatically classify fuselets and support semantic fuselet discovery and retrieval. In addition, it will address a challenge to JBI fuselet designers that has received little attention to date-namely, how to understand the global effect of a multitude of fuselets and ensure that they are cooperating efficiently. Features provided by iFUSE will include semantic fuselet retrieval, fuselet slicing, fuselet factorization, and change propagation control. The proposed fuselet development environment will provide the support that fuselet developers need in order to create and discover fuselets, avoid design and efficiency pitfalls, and ensure the appropriate factorization of fuselet code. iFUSE will help the designer of an individual fuselet understand the environment in which the fuselet operates, and thus address issues of efficiency and the global structure of the fuselet community. Without such a tool, the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) would eventually suffer from serious performance problems that would be hard to detect and correct. While the initial motivation for this effort is the success of the JBI, this technology has the potential to benefit commercial areas as well. Three possible areas are cooperating agent programs, enterprise integration brokers, and data mining. In the first, independent developers need to find agents for potential collaboration, and to understand and control the combined effects of cooperating agents. In the latter two, a JBI-like environment is emerging, in which the same sort of problems will arise. Development of this technology now will enable us to take advantage of future commercial potential in each of these areas.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Barry Ambrose
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Quality-of-Service Planner with Network Traffic Forecasting
Abstract:The Air Force seeks to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of its multimedia information communication network infrastructure, which supports multiple or adaptive QoS (Quality of Service) levels for multimedia data networking and information system applications. This requires a network traffic forecasting system that allows network data traffic and resources loads to be predicted into the near future, so that agile multimedia information network system applications can adapt their routing and bandwidth needs to optimize available network resources. To address this need, BCI proposes a novel Traffic Forecasting Assisted QoS Planner (TAQ) technology that builds upon a mature set of standards for implementing service guarantees in data networks. The dynamic TAQ system provides constantly updated forecasts of data traffic and server loads to any application that needs this information. The TAQ system additionally provides a means to submit bandwidth reservation requests for those applications that need assured service guarantees for data delivery. The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate the performance and potential of the proposed TAQ technology through a laboratory demonstration. In addition to the Air Force's agile multimedia information network system applications, the proposed technology is also applicable to many commercial applications that can benefit from rapid up-to-date notifications of network congestion points. Potential applications include, but are not limited to, voice over IP, video conferencing, broadcast and multicast video distribution, stock trading systems, sales force automation and field technician dispatch systems.

CMI TECHNOLOGY
340 Olive Street
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 853-3034
Dr. Charles Chui
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:Innovative Post-processing Tools for Command and Control Applications
Abstract:The objective of this proposed project is to develop methods and systems for the design of nonlinear filters, based on the so-called trilateral filter recently introduced by the P.I., for removal of a variety of noise processes, including white and impulse noises, from noisy image data. The trilateral filter is much less complex than current nonlinear PDE and variational solutions, and yet produces at least comparable results in removing white noise while preserving image quality (edges and textures). Furthermore, while the nonlinear PDE and variational approaches are not effective for removing impulse noise, the trilateral filter can even be used to remove mixed impulse and white noises. In addition to optimizing the scale parameters of the trilateral filter and redesigning its spatial component to achieve even lower complexity, our effort will focus on introducing the adaptivity feature to the new filters in this project. In particular, the new filters will adapt to image content with the goal of having the capability of processing both spatial and multispectral images. The ultimate goal is to integrate the filter systems to UAV missions as a post-processing tool for Command and Control to clean up noisy optical, infrared, and radar images and video clips. While the state-of-the-art methods and systems for removing noise from noisy image data without losing image quality are very costly, the innovative system to be developed in this proposed project can do at least the same job with only a fraction of the computational and implementational costs. In addition, this new system will be more robust and readily integrated as a postprocessing tool in a wide variety of environments for cleaning up noisy optical, infrared, and radar images and video clips. It has the potential of DUAL USE applications. For government applications, it could be used as a postprocessing tool for Command and Control of UAV missions; and for commercial applications, it could be delivered as a JAVA Applet to all internet users for image de-noising.

CYBER DEFENSE AGENCY, LLC
3601 43rd Street South
Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54494
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 323-2118
Mr. Dave Farrell
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Automated Testing with Adversarial Knowledge (ATAK)
Abstract:The Cyber Defense Agency (CDA) has developed a preliminary design for the Automated Testing with Adversarial Knowledge (ATAK) framework. Using the vision of creating an ATAK framework and tools, the CDA proposes to create a virtual "Red Team" to make CDA's expert knowledge and experience with Red Teaming and approach to applying the adversary perspective, available to a large number of clients and customers. The objective of this Phase 1 SBIR program is to investigate the feasibility of incorporating the notion of the adversary perspective in an automated vulnerability assessment product based on the ATAK framework. The product of this research would give DOD and commercial organizations the ability to conduct automated, customizable, reusable vulnerability analyses that utilize well characterized adversary models tailored to the organization's specific threat model. Using the ATAK approach has many benefits. Organizations that use it will:- Defend against corruption and impairment caused by cyber intrusions, and ensure availability of systems to provide uninterrupted information services.- Identify information system vulnerabilities through adversarial point of view to provide input for determining strategies and courses of action for better security defenses.- Develop processes for ongoing improvement of Cyber Operational Readiness by running ATAK regularly to provide realistic predictions of adversary behaviors and characterize their associated effects on mission critical activities.- Have access to the latest attack tools and exploits through the ongoing CDA product support, beyond the capabilities of any one organization. This keeps the ever changing adversary perspective fresh without maintaining their own staffs of qualified Red Team experts and/or opening their networks to outside consultants who may not be trustworthy and who may not even be qualified to conduct a Red Team exercise..- Safely incorporate organization specific classified or proprietary knowledge of attack tools and exploits.- Use the full set of displayed attack paths to identify root causes of vulnerabilities. Common mitigation points are easily identified.-Improve their security architectures at design time by using ATAK to analyze alternative architectures before they are implemented.

CYMFONY, INC.
600 Essjay Road
Buffalo, NY 14221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-9114
Dr. Thomas L. Cornell
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:Automatically Time Stamping Events in Unrestricted Text
Abstract:This proposal addresses the design and development of a temporal model to be incorporated as part of an information extraction system. The model will enable time stamping of critical information such as relationships and events; this in turns enables sophisticated visualization of information on timelines. Advanced temporal reasoning, including tracking of reference time shifts will be pursued. The Phase 1 effort will focus on the design of the temporal model, as well as its use in some sample time stamping tasks. The Phase 2 effort will focus on enhanced capability of the temporal model, as well as integration into an existing information extraction engine. Exact information about the date and time of an event is often not available from the text. However, it is usually possible for human readers to construct a partial order of events, and this is sufficient to understand the text. A key goal of this project is to support the processing of event information from texts even when only ordering information is available from the sources. Information analysts and decision makers will benefit since the proposed effort extends the utility of current information extraction technology. Without time stamping of events, or at least some temporal ordering, event information cannot be used in applications such as visualization. A commercially viable solution has many applications. The ability to gather intelligence from large volumes of publicly available information (newspapers, websites, newsgroups, etc.) is invaluable. Automatically deriving useful information is based on detection of key events, which in turn requires time stamping. Furthermore, business intelligence systems use large knowledge-bases of companies, products, people and projects. Updating these knowledge-bases from diverse text sources in an automatic or semi-automatic manner would be valuable; time stamped event detection is a key to this. Our commercial application focused on brand perception and monitoring will benefit. Military applications stem from the fact that analysts need assistance in visualizing events in order to detect hidden trends and patterns in large volumes of text.

DOLPHIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
474 Phoenix Dr.
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 838-7009
Mr. Jack LoSecco
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Microsoft Office File Inspection Application (MOFIA)
Abstract:The goal of this effort is to provide an application program for the review and release of Microsoft Office file formats within information domains comprised of multiple security and/or privacy levels. This initiative proposes to develop a prototype, robust file inspection application designed to expose data hidden in files created by Microsoft Office applications including Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel. As part of the ISSE Guard initiative, Dolphin Technology developed a simple Microsoft Office File inspection tool capable of identifying five different types of hidden information in Microsoft office files. Specifically: . After preliminary analysis, we have identified at least thirteen other ways of hiding information in these files that need to be analyzed. . In order to be commercially viable, we believe we must analyze, design, and, if feasible, prototype a standalone application that includes Application Programmer Interfaces (APIs) allowing it to be easily integrated with a wide range of other security devices including other Guards, firewalls, Multi Level Security (MLS) devices, and workflow management applications. 1. The anticipated benefits of the MOFIA technology will come in the form of an application program interface for the review and release of Microsoft Office file formats within information domains comprised of multiple security levels (military) and/or levels of privacy (commercial). 2. The commercial applications will encompass companies who release private data such as financial institutions, medical records, etc.

DUNTI LLC
3925 W. Braker Lane
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 305-0411
Ms. Rupaka Mahalingaiah
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Protocol Independent Interoperable Network Technology
Abstract:Networks have become the backbone of many commercial and non-commercial enterprises today. Underlying network technology has grown incrementally over the years and different technologies are deployed in different network segments. There are various protocols like TCP/IP, ATM, and Ethernet each with its own advantages. As the organizations are moving towards the concept of `one network', there is a critical need for a technology that can provide a network fabric that enables interoperability amongst various network segments with varying protocols. The objective of this proposal is to develop an innovative network technology that can provide an innovative protocol independent packet transport mechanism. The proposed technology provides an interoperable network fabric for popular protocols of today. The plans call for developing the concept in 2003 and developing the prototype product in 2004. Dunti LLC is a research and development organization located in Austin, Texas. Dunti is developing innovative networking technologies to address various problems associated with networking. This proposal will develop an innovative technology that will address the key need of providing network interoperability. Additional benefits include: 1. The technology will be able to provide end-to-end connectivity across multiple network technologies. 2. The technology will provide a protocol-independent network fabric. 3. The technology will be able to embed the properties of each protocol into the network fabric. 4. The technology will increase efficiency and reduce cost in networks. The proposed technology will be valuable in both commercial and non-commercial markets.

ECHELON 4 LLC
2833 W. Range Line Circle
Mequon, WI 53092
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(414) 617-5595
Dr. Jay S. Bayne
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Feasibility of Grid-based Distributed Real-Time Command and Control
Abstract:In the military, as in commercial enterprise, effective command and control (C2) is critical to the successful execution of strategies, operations and tactics. The military establishment is currently undergoing transformation to joint-command network-centric C2 regimes, and commercial enterprises are undergoing transformation to "virtual organizations" - federations of business entities whose financial objectives and production strategies, operations and tactics transcend those of its individual members. In both cases, concepts and technologies underwriting the global information grid (GIG) represent an appealing "platform" for defining and implementing coalition C2 policies and mechanisms. While the strengths of grid computing lie in its rationalization and harmonization of basic binding and transport services provided to enterprise applications, its weakness is its silence about support for distributed real-time enterprise command and control services - services for supporting reactive, autonomic and collaborative behaviors for measuring (sensing) and regulating (controlling) the performance of increasingly complex, always on, decentralized and evolving enterprise. For both military and commercial domains an enhanced distributed real-time C2 model is required. We propose a cybernetics-based C2 model usable in both military and commercial domains, and seek to investigate its feasibility as a basis for an enterprise operating system (EOS) with real-time extensions to core grid services. The proposal seeks to design and specify a software framework for grid-based distributed real-time command and control applications. Such applications are relevant to both military and industrial enterprise where decentralized, federated, and always-on collaboration is required within formal command and control policies. The global information grid (GIG) is today sufficiently well defined to support loosely coupled enterprise with little support for real-time end-to-end semantics. In addition to specifying essential C2 services of an enterprise operating system, the proposal seeks to define extensions to grid services required to support end-to-end real-time transactions. EOS C2 services and grid extensions are prerequisites to federated control, and are believed to have signigicant value to developers and suppliers of enterprise resource planning, distributed manufacturing, and process control products and services.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. Darren K. Brock
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Automated Design of Quantum Networks
Abstract:In order to design a circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the desired unitary matrix that represents the computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations. To date, such designs have either been found by hand or by exhaustive enumeration of all possible circuit topologies. We propose an automated approach to quantum circuit design using search heuristics based on physical principled of the technology of implementation. More specifically, in Phase I we propose to explore the viability of various automated design methods by applying then to the task of discovering quantum circuit designs for quantum teleportation - "send and "receive gates. Our goal is to shown that in order to find a given known circuit design (one which was hand-crafted by a person), automated methods can consider roughly an order-of-magnitude fewer designs that nave enumeration. In Phase II, we hope to demonstrate the ability to find novel circuit designs superior to those pervious known. We will use the macroscopic quantum phase of superconductors as our quantum variable; however, the formalism we develop will be applicable to any quantum two-state system considered as a candidate for quantum-coherent computation. The proposed method for automated design of quantum networks stands to advance the state-of-the-art in quantum computation research and development. Such advances can play a decisive role in the ability of researchers to provide tractable solutions to computational tasks that simply cannot be addressed by classical computing methods. We envision future markets for both theoretical, as well as experimental, development to meet these needs. For example, the factoring of large numbers (the key to US cryptographic superiority) benefits from an exponential speed-up in the quantum regime. Also, the searching (data mining) of terabyte databases will benefit from a quadratic speed-up. Noiseless encoding techniques also become available through the use of quantum data compression algorithms, with application ultra-secure data transmission. Further capabilities address Government missions of nuclear stockpile stewardship by potentially providing access to the simulation of physical (nuclear) systems at the quantum level. These applications taken together demonstrate a significant economic opportunity for the proposed technology to enhance the security, the science, and the safety of the Nation.

ISX CORP.
760 Paseo Camarillo, Ste. 401
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 247-7839
Mr. Joe Roberts
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:EBO Centers of Gravity Analysis
Abstract:A core of EBO technology relating effects to mechanisms to actions exists in the AFRL Strategy Development Tools. ISX will extend that technological base to exploit COG information, at multiple levels of system abstraction using semantics with ontology-based reasoning. We will design COG model of battle space that includes low fidelity abstract models and high-fidelity identification of key facts, relationships and battle space entities. With the technology solutions we envision, all commanders and their planning staff will have the tools to recognize and exploit strategic opportunities, and to do so in a repeatable fashion. This proposed effort is designed to support the commander with more complete knowledge of the battle space and elaboration supporting: 1) Analysis of strategic intent of actions grounded by considerations of full set of options, direct and indirect effects, and, 2) realistic view of the battle space that includes templates of entities in the battle space and beliefs about the adversarial view of vulnerability of those entities. In Phase I, we will investigate the important research issues associated with design of technological approach. In Phase II, we will build prototype tools, extend ontologies, and experiment with knowledge discovery. EBO will apply force against the enemy to achieve the end-state effect with an effective use of assets and at a tempo necessary to influence the behavior and environment of today's adversaries. Good strategic planners have been and are continuing to use effect-based operations methods. But the planning process requires large number of staff hours, without opportunity to capture, reuse, and ensure the process. We envision those planners, from strategic to targeting, having a full suite of effects-based tools. Our approach exploits semantics in the same manner used by planners today in discovery of cross-COG entities and dependencies at multiple levels of abstraction. In the future, all planners will employ effects-based operations to plan how to impose force against enemy systems to achieve specific effects that contribute directly to the military and political objectives. Using EBO extended with COG analysis, commanders and planning staff will: o Understand strategic objectives and see opportunities in the battle space to achieve effects o Look at battle space and see opportune strategies o Consider new insights for Nth order effects, both positive and negative relationships o Tools to compose and analyze alternative plans that can respond to adversarial changing behavior; capture of assumption and beliefs related to each of the plans

ITCN, INC.
8571 Gander Creek Dr.
Miamisburg, OH 45342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 439-9223
Mr. Roy B. Penwell
AF 03-094       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Information System Technologies: Real-Time Monitoring and Correlation of Multiple Streams of Information from Heterogeneous Sources
Abstract:Innovative Information System Technologies: Real-Time Monitoring and Correlation of multiple streams of information from heterogeneous sources This SBIR Topic calls for the development of "innovative information technologies for enhancing the performance.. of C4ISR systems/subsystems in the area of "Information understanding". It "Seeks to develop distributed, heterogeneous data/information systems to capture from all sources including text, data of any type, worldwide web, and the ability to reason over the data and learn the intricacies of the information supporting the war fighter needs. Capabilities include analytical tools/techniques for knowledge capture, management, and automated reasoning over the captured knowledge." In support of this requirement, we are proposing an innovative approach for the "information gathering devices" used in all life cycle phases of C4ISR systems/subsystems (Embedded Systems) being developed and used by modern war fighters. These Embedded Systems are becoming increasingly complex with multiple heterogeneous processors and data communication media. These systems produce multiple streams of data in various formats from dissimilar sources while they operate. This data must be observed and analyzed by users in all life-cycle phases to develop, operate and maintain these embedded systems. This approach will aid in the analysis and understanding of the myriad data needed for various applications. The proposed approach will support the engineering team that develops these systems as well as the operators and maintainers in the field. This approach will provide the data in a common format and time-correlated so that it can be presented to the user in an understandable and relevant manner. This project will research and determine the feasibility of developing a data gathering instrument that can simultaneously monitor multiple heterogeneous data streams in real-time and time-correlate the monitored data files. A demonstration of the feasibility of this technology will be conducted using existing products developed by ITCN. A preliminary design will be accomplished for a total monitoring approach with a specific module appropriate for this project. Additionally, an approach will be explored to time-correlate the software execution in the system's processing units to the data in the heterogeneous data streams. A networked architecture will be investigated that incorporates distributed monitor modules for VME backplanes, Mil-Std-1553 data busses and another appropriate source (eg. Ethernet). These modules could be distributed throughout the Embedded System and over different physical locations. This monitoring product would then be able to provide local and/or remote data acquisition. This architecture will be scalable to include future monitor modules for cPCI, Ethernet, FibreChannel, Firewire, etc. This technology could take the form of laboratory instruments or on-board monitors with man-machine interfaces supporting operational functions. It could also be incorporated into the system design to provide detection and correction of operational malfunctions. Benefits The primary benefit from this effort will be an "information Gathering" device that will present relevant and understandable data to the war fighter in a timely manner to increase his efficiency in developing, operating and maintaining C4ISR systems/subsystems. Specific benefits from the technology include; Aids in analysis of system performance; Gives visibility into timing related system issues; Saves training and instrumentation costs; Adapts to changing requirements; Saves training time and money; Saves time and facility cost; Allows monitoring in operational systems. Applications There are many anticipated applications for this technology in the Military/Aerospace market.The commercial potential for this technology is also very high. There are potential applications for this monitoring technology in virtually every sector of the Embedded System market. Any application that has a complex structure with multiple heterogeneous, software intensive, elements would benefit from the ability to measure system operations in real-time and in a non-intrusive manner and have this data time-correlated and presented in a common format for run-time and post-run analysis. Data collected in this manner will support applications such as: System development, System integration, Operational performance monitoring, Process Monitoring and Control, Operator training, System tuning, Status monitoring, Remote diagnostics and prognostics. Complex embedded systems are found in virtually every market sector including Industrial Control, Telecommunications, Test and Measurement, Medical and Transportation. These include: Aircraft (Commercial & Military); Avionics, Engine, Electronic Warfare: Sea Vehicles; Subs, Surface ships: Simulators; Engineering Development, Training: Ground Vehicles; Automotive, Trucks, Off-road Heavy Vehicles, Buses, Trains: Production Machinery; Continuous Processes, Machine Tools, Factory Robots: Telecommunications; Cell base stations, Remote maintenance.

MALIBU RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
26670 Agoura Road
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-5494
Dr. Daniel G. Gonzalez
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Innovative Information System Technologies
Abstract:Because of the potential presence of "suicide bombers" in large groups and the real risk of high casualties, their detection, isolation, and neutralization is a critical necessity. Ordinary passive observation techniques such as IR, Visual, and Biological are extremely limited in range and are prone to high false alarm rates. We propose an active millimeter sensor to detect objects and materials unique to the bomber with sufficient discrimination to minimize false alarms which does not require complex shape detection and characteristics of materials algorithms. An active radar can penetrate bombers' clothing at long range (~300'), to expose explosives and associated wiring and will permit the implementation of criteria for the identification of the bomber in a group environment. Analysis is presented which suggests the viability of this technique. And measurements from our initial experimentation have determined that signals from the illumination of a threatening individual by the narrow beam Radar are significantly greater than signals from the illumination of the same individual without a "homicide vest". This relatively inexpensive system is based on the utilization of commercial millimeter wave, 77 GHz, automotive collision warning radar hardware and technology whose safety has been approved as well as other COTS components. There is a need for new systems and methods for rapidly evaluating the threat potential of an individual amongst other individuals at a relatively long distance. It is desirable that at least some systems or methods be capable of being implemented without the need for complex signal processing thereby reducing implementation costs relative to many of the known systems. It is also desirable that the methods and/or apparatus provide an integrated, threat-driven solution to the threat detection problem.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive, Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 792-8904
Mr. Gary Blank
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:High Performance Computing Engine for Predictive Battlespace Awareness
Abstract:The increased tempo of future combat operations demands that command and control decisions be based on an accurate common operating picture (COP) of the battlespace plus predictive battlespace awareness (PBA). A fascinating advance in simulation technology is the concept of using simulations dynamically, to provide command and control decision support in real time. The essential idea is to have a simulation running at all times, constantly being fed the latest information available, so that it mirrors the state of the battlefield. Then, at important decision points, the simulation can be used to simultaneously evaluate the effects of possible courses of action (COAs), and recommend which is best. The possible COAs can be specified by the user or generated by the system. The system moniters the progress of unfolding COAs and alerts the user when replanning may be advisable. This provides an enhanced ability to rapidly "peer into the future," account for a range of inferred threat intents, coupled with possible courses of combat. Although this application of simulation technology is specifically designed for military command and control decision making, it clearly has potential commercial uses. This concept could be applied to any complex system for which a decision aid would be helpful. Of course, in order to be practical, it must be possible to model the system with reasonable fidelity, and the payoff for improved decisions must be sufficient to justify the cost of developing and operating the simulation decision aid. One example is the operation of a nuclear power plant. When an emergency arises, it may be critical to be able to simulate the consequences of possible responses before actually performing one. Or, the simulation might be able to predict that the system is headed for trouble well before it reaches emergency status, thus buying valuable time with which to respond to the problem. The same idea might apply to many large-scale manufacturing or industrial operations. At an important juncture, the rewards for being able to make fast and accurate judgements could be very high. A final application is the minimization of damage caused by terrorist sabotage of key infrastructure. These situations would make a simulation decision aid a valuable commodity.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Mr. Mark Wallace
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:COSMOS: The Spaceport Knowledge Framework
Abstract:In this COSMOS effort, Modus Operandi will develop the approach to constructing a meta-model of the enterprise for the spaceport at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This unifying model will provide the means to tie together numerous heterogeneous, distributed sources of information. With the COSMOS model, the Space Wing and its customers and support contractors will be able to collaborate and share information in ways that are well beyond the capabilities of existing information systems. A COSMOS meta-model makes it possible to build high-payback applications that would not be feasible without a unified model because so many organizations contribute data. The initial target application is range resource management. The range's diverse set of resources include, for example, the pad, facilities (assembly, payload processing and test), telemetry, and radars. Resource managers must allocate resources in response to requests from customers of the range and balance these requests against downtime for range upgrades and preventive maintenance. Because resource management is a complex problem, it is a rich test case for meta-modeling and will uncover unification issues. The immediate benefit to the 45th Space Wing Range Squadron is efficient resource allocation. The integrated meta-model will enable them to identify and resolve resource conflicts in real time, and reduce the manpower costs of achieving visibility into how resources are utilized for spaceport processing. The long range benefits of the COSMOS meta-modeling activity are to provide the 45th Space Wing with unprecedented visibility into the information pertaining to the spaceport enterprise. Visibility and rapid access to information will reduce lost time spent tracking down information, and will make it possible to accurately assess costs. Tools and techniques developed under the COSMOS effort will be directly applicable to commercial enterprise integration efforts. By tackling the difficult meta-model issues, COSMOS will reduce the cost of enterprise integration, and thus make enterprise-wide solutions more feasible.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Mr. Mark Wallace
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:ACE: Application toolkit for Collaborative Environments
Abstract:Collaborative, integrated information environments are a powerful way to connect teams and allow them to share diverse sources of information. Teams equipped with such an environment have the power to jointly analyze data contained in integrated legacy systems, despite lack of interoperability among the systems. Collaborative features such as threaded discussions, document sharing, and linked issues and action items close the gap between analysis and action. Yet the complexity of such environments requires specialized software engineering resources to deploy new applications that capitalize on the integrated information. Modus Operandi proposes an Application toolkit for Collaborative Environments (ACE) to rapidly build and deploy new applications. The ACE toolkit is an extension of our proven Wide Area Virtual Environment (WAVE) assets. WAVE provides a collaboration environment on top of a virtual object-oriented model of information integrated data sources. The ACE toolkit captures specialized software engineering knowledge with innovative domain-independent application patterns. Built-in safety net features minimize the risk of disrupting the team when new applications are added. ACE will target application patterns that are of value to decision support and homeland security domains. ACE benefits the Air Force by providing an approach to information integration that is well suited to geographically distributed teams that need to share information from diverse data sources. It can be deployed more quickly, and with lower risk, than solutions that require teams to adopt a whole new set of applications, or that force data into a single repository. With the ACE toolkit, applications that provide teams with the power to analyze integrated information can be rapidly customized to the team's needs and deployed quickly. Commercial applications of ACE in the Integrated Workgroup Solutions market include collaborative systems engineering by multi-contractor teams, and contract performance management with metrics from integrated enterprise data sources In the federal marketplace, ACE technologies can be used to enable sharing of information from diverse multi-agency legacy data sources for homeland security.

NET SQUARED, INC.
39427 Spanish Bay Place
Davis, CA 95616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 758-4338
Mr. Todd Heberlein
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:Automatic Signature Generation
Abstract:Content-based pattern detection for network intrusion detection systems and firewalls has enjoyed tremendous success over the last dozen years. However, as implemented, the approach has at least two drawbacks. First, because of a lack of good quality assurance support, many signatures that are deployed have high false alarm rates. Second, because current signature generation approaches take at best minutes, and more likely hours or days, these signature-based systems cannot effectively defend against fast moving, newly discovered attacks such as worms. To effectively address both of these problems, we propose to adapt technologies used in the Human Genome Project, suffix trees, to automatically, and within seconds, generate high quality signatures to newly discovered attacks. The results of the proposed work will be a set of technologies to automatically generate content-based intrusion detection signatures that have very low false positive rates. Furthermore, these signatures will be developed fast enough (on the order of seconds), so that the signatures may play an effective role defending against fast moving attacks such as worms. These benefits can reduce the false alarm rates for sensors, making analysts more productive. Managed security services can also provide effective response for their customers to fast moving attacks.

ON TIME SYSTEMS, INC.
1850 Millrace Drive, Suite 1
Eugene, OR 97403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 346-0471
Dr. Matthew L. Ginsberg
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Cross-Sortie Flight Route Optimization
Abstract:Existing flight planning systems, to the extent that they optimize routes at all, optimize individual flights in isolation. Airspace, air traffic, or diplomatic constraints, among others, may preclude all flights taking their individually optimal routes, however. Planners must then manually reroute some flights. This effort will apply OTS' strengths in flight planning and optimization to develop a parallel system capable of optimizing flight plans for multiple missions. simultaneously, taking all known constraints and business rules into account. The USAF's Air Mobility Command (AMC) currently has no cross-sortie optimization capability, but the functionality is increasingly required given increasing airspace saturation, and their endorsement, attached, indicates their perceived need. Commercial airlines have similar needs to optimize across their entire schedules, and the technologies and systems resulting from this effort should find direct application in helping improve the competetiveness of US airlines.

PROLOGIC, INC.
1000 Technology Drive, Suite 3140
Fairmont, WV 26554
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 363-1157
Mr. Chetan Desai
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:Weather Extension for a Commercial Geographic Information System
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate the feasibility of extending a popular and successful commercial GIS (Geographic Information System) architecture to provide 2D/3D visualization and analysis of weather information. Currently, weather data is routinely analyzed and displayed using a variety of specialized software technologies. GIS systems provide richer support for various geospatial operations, including mapping, geographic data handling, and spatial query/analysis functionality, but do not include native support for weather. This has resulted in current applications that use weather information being implemented as stove-piped systems with limited capability for integration with other mapping and geographic analysis systems. The proposed research would result in a "weather extension" to the ArcGIS framework from ESRI, allowing the development of "weather-aware" mapping applications. The extension would support future COE-based mission applications based on the DoD's Commercial Joint Mapping Tool Kit (C/JMTK) as well as applications based directly on the ArcGIS desktop platform. The successful outcome of this Phase I project will lead to the development of tools that extend the ArcGIS framework, providing an integrated GIS environment for the visualization and analysis of weather information. The proposed innovation would provide users a new ability to visualize and analyze weather information within commercial GIS software, leveraging the geospatial data handling and geoprocessing techniques supported by GIS systems. The following list provides potential applications of the research and development for various domains: * Department of Defense Using the proposed GIS extension, future military systems would be able to integrate the "weather picture", including integration of weather information with traditional spatio-temporal data such as GCCS and TBMCS. With the recent selection of ArcGIS components as the core of C/JMTK, the proposed weather extension would be compatible with mission applications based on C/JMTK. Additionally, the C/JMTK selection will result in increased adoption of ArcGIS desktop platform across the DoD, thus creating more opportunity for the weather extension to add value. * Other Federal Government Agencies Agencies such as NOAA, FEMA, NASA, EPA, USGS, and others use GIS technology for mapping and analysis. These same organizations also routinely rely on weather information for: emergency preparedness and response, erosion resulting from storms, prevention of loss of life and property, forecasting storm intensity and path, and global climate change evaluation. The proposed weather extension would support these agencies in these efforts, leveraging and integrating existing GIS software and datasets. * State and Local Government State and local government agencies often perform weather-related functions similar to Federal agencies mentioned above. Additionally, these government agencies create and maintain even more extensive GIS databases. They work with Federal agencies for "weather" support including forecasting, emergency preparedness, etc. As a result of massive loss of life and property in recent years, states such as North Carolina and Florida have made significant investments in software systems and geospatial databases for the express purpose of planning for future weather-related emergencies. Again, the proposed extension would increase the weather processing capabilities of the agencies and leverage GIS technology. * Private Sector Many businesses need real-time weather information that is accurate, accessible, easily understood, and location-specific to actively manage weather-related risks. Example industries include: Media, Public Safety, Surface Transportation, Aviation, Utilities, Golf Courses, Construction, Landscaping, Snow Removal, etc. Increasingly, businesses in these industries are using GIS to manage geospatial information about their operations. The proposed weather extension would provide substantial value by allowing effective management of weather data and issues impacting their bottom line.

SPLASHNOTE SYSTEMS, INC.
1650 Zanker Road, Suite 244
San Jose, CA 95112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 573-7921
Mr. Scott Tse
AF 03-094       Awarded: 5/29/2003
Title:Development of Interactive Portlet Technology for the Collaborative Enterprise Environment
Abstract:SplashNote Systems, Inc. is proposing the development of a portlet system for the Air Force Collaborative Enterprise Environment (CEE). While the current implementation of CEE has very powerful collaboration features, the addition of portlets would provide to the current platform the ability 1) to easily create and add ad-hoc interactive functionality to portal pages, and 2) to connect to other data systems in a customizable portal window. The resultant effect of the portlet system is to provide to the CEE a greater degree of flexibility in connecting to and displaying data and information from other back-end applications. And it gives the CEE the ability to address semi-structured or ad-hoc processes within the organization. The overall result is a more powerful product that can tackle a greater range of collaborative situations. The benefits to the Air Force are many. Portlets would expand the functionality as well as the versatility of the CEE to address more collaborative situations. Portlets would allow the CEE to become the platform, which aggregates other data systems. Using the portlet builder also cuts the time-to-deployment of new functionality. Similar to the CEE, other collaboration systems and collaboration products in the market place can benefit from addition of the SplashNote portlet system. Furthermore, the concept of portlets can also be applied to other market segments. For example, both public portal sites and enterprise portal software would benefit greatly from a portlet builder system.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Daniel Fu
AF 03-094       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:WARCON: A Wargaming Construction Toolset for Military Simulation
Abstract:The wargames employed for Air Force curriculums to date suffer from (1) varying interfaces that require repeated learning for each wargame use, (2) non-trivial development time to simulate modern warfare, and (3) rigid adjudication engines that narrowly focus on force-on-force conflicts. We propose to develop a comprehensive wargame construction toolset that will empower Air Force personnel to create wargames in accordance with modern warfare doctrine. The toolset seeks to present students with a standardized interface, allowing them to build experience with one wargame that will carry to the next, thus allowing them to focus on the content. The toolset will enable military SME's, developers, and students to rapidly generate wargames through mixed-initiative assistants, intelligent interfaces, and visual authoring tools. The toolset will feature an adjudication engine with advanced features for modeling gradual or delayed effects, effects-based operations, psyops, etc. We will determine requirements for such an engine. We will explore the wargame authoring process and determine how a mixed-initiative collaborative assistant can recognize user tasks and assist. Finally, we will absolutely prove the feasibility of our ideas through the development of a proof-of-concept, limited prototype, which demonstrates critical aspects of the toolset. A wargaming toolkit will prove of great advantage for rapid development and deployment of simulations and games for education, analysis, or entertainment. End users of the toolkit are empowered to author and run their own customizable scenarios.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5442
Dr. Azad M. Madni
AF 03-095       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:CRUISERT: Cross-domain User Identity and Credential Management Service
Abstract:Current mechanisms for cross-domain management of user identities and the exchange of associated cryptographic user credentials do not provide effective support for establishing unique user identities across organizational boundaries. Today, with coalition operations becoming key to the war on terror and rogue nations, the need for tools capable of managing cross-domain user identity and credentials has become paramount. This SBIR is concerned with the development of robust capabilities for managing and exchanging unique user identities and associated credentials across organizational and trust boundaries. The resultant tool design is intended to help establish and maintain unique identities despite the arrival and departure of both organizations and individuals in joint and multinational operations. Phase I will assess the viability of COTS tools for PKI, directory services, and policy management in creating the desired capability, and will develop an approach and high-level design based on the assessment. Effective, consistent management of user identities and credentials across domains and organizations. This dual-use capability is key to maintaining personnel coherence in coalitions operations as well as commercial virtual enterprises and supply chains.

CRITICAL ARCHITECTURES, LLC
36 Saxon Way
Skillman, NJ 08558
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 333-9750
Mr. Lawrence J Levin
AF 03-096       Awarded: 6/17/2003
Title:Force Templates for Assimilating Unit Infospheres
Abstract:The Force Template will provide JBI management processes with the semantic content they require. But determination of what those processes are, and hence what information and interactions the FT mechanism must support, requires experimentation with a working infosphere and these semantic models will inevitably change over time. What is required is a flexible approach to building Force Templates that includes semantic content with sufficient richness to provide a means to experiment with, and validate, the overall approach to the use of Force Templates in a JBI. By using the right methodologies and design patterns combined with semantic structures derived from earlier efforts to address the problem information dissemination management, we will be able to make significant progress in developing and demonstrating a robust and powerful Force Template mechanism.. Specifically, we propose to (1) define a structure with the flexibility to handle a wide range of semantic content in regard to describing units and organizations, (2) leverage previous work to provide a specification of a first-generation semantic content, and (3) specify both the basic FT design and the semantic content in a manner that will allow code generation of a prototype system directly from the specifications in Phase II. The result of this effort will be a flexible and easily tailored approach to Force Templates. The use of ontological patterns consistent with code-generation tools will speed up and reduce risk in terms of the Phase II effort. The ontologies themselves will provide a powerful semantic base for describing unit/organizational capabilities and needs.

CYMFONY, INC.
600 Essjay Road
Buffalo, NY 14221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-9114
Dr. Rohini K. Srihari
AF 03-097       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:An Intelligence Discovery Portal based on Corpus-Level Information Extraction and Text Mining
Abstract:This proposal addresses two major enhancements to current information extraction (IE) technology. The first concerns the development of higher levels of IE, at the corpus level, and finally across corpora including structured data. T he second objective concerns text mining from a rich IE repository assimilated from multiple corpora. IE is only a means to an end, which is the discovery of hidden trends and patterns that are implicit in large volumes of text. These objectives are based on a core IE system, InfoXtract. The core engine will be adapted to handle diverse, case-insensitive information, e.g. broadcast transcripts, HUMINT documents. The fusion system will assimilate information extracted across multiple documents with structured knowledge bases. The resulting rich, knowledge repository will be mined using unsupervised, machine-learning techniques for significant information. Finally, the design of an intelligence discovery portal (IDP) to be used by analysts that consolidates the new technology into an intuitive web-based application is proposed. This calls for natural language processing, corpus-based statistical NLP, and advanced machine learning. Final deliverables include: (i) prototype system for corpus-level IE, demonstrated using the Foreign Broadcast Information Services (FBIS) corpus (ii) prototype for text mining on above repository, and (iii) design of the IDP. Information analysts and decision makers will benefit since the proposed effort extends the utility of current information extraction technology. The IDP represents the goal of advanced IE systems. A commercially viable solution has many applications. Business intelligence systems use large knowledge-bases on companies, products, people and projects. Updating these knowledge-bases from diverse text sources as well as deriving key business intelligence in an automatic or semi-automatic manner would be valuable. Our commercial application focused on brand perception and monitoring will benefit. Military applications stem from the fact that analysts need assistance in detecting hidden trends and patterns from large volumes of text.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Perakath Benjamin
AF 03-097       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Information-Fusion based Indication & Warning Assessment and Recognition System (IIWARS)
Abstract:The aim of this project is to develop, build and validate an Information-Fusion based Indication & Warning Assessment and Recognition System (IIWARS) focused on asymmetric threats. The proposed system would integrate intelligent information processing technologies (for detecting and predicting threat trends), data and model fusion (to merge multiple data sources and multiple predictions), and an optimization framework (for optimal response evaluation). The system would ultimately facilitate robust and cost-effective detection and management of Indications and Warnings. The Phase I effort will (i) establish IIWARS requirements, (ii) design the IIWARS architecture, (iii) develop and demonstrate prototype IIWARS software. The Phase II project will harden the software and demonstrate its benefits on focused intelligence applications. Key innovations include: (i) Knowledge Engineering Methods to characterize Indicators and Warning Dimensions, (ii) Knowledge Discovery paradigms (text and data mining) that help in early identification of emerging Threats, (iii) Efficient Fusion Mechanisms that can extract and merge features from multiple disparate information sources, (iv) Predictive Models for Threat Estimation by threat source for the Indicators and Warning Dimensions, and (v) Stochastic Optimization Framework for Optimal Response Targeting. Specifically, the most significant benefit of IIWARS is that it will provide access to sophisticated technology to a wide audience of potential users in the military intelligence community so that the the power of these technologies will be rapidly exploited/realized for enhanced national security against assymetric threats. IIWARS will have a wide range of important defense and commercial applications including terrorist threat detection, industrial espionage detection, financial fraud detection, and business intelligence.

SCA TECHNICA, INC.
17 Port Chester Drive
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 321-6536
Dr. David K. Murotake
AF 03-098       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Information Assurance for Mobile Users Using Smart Radio
Abstract:Software Defined Radio (SDR) in combination with the powerful computing power available in today's PC's, laptops, and palm computing devices has enabled the "smart radio". One of the capabilities of "smart radios" is the combination of multiple methods, operating at all seven layers of the OSI protocol stack, for enhancing information and assurance (IA) and security. The proposed Phase I study will: analyze and document IA requirements using Requisite Pro; design an IA system architecture compliant with the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Software Communication Architecture (SCA); demonstrate the fusion of multiple methods including biometrics and adaptive waveforms based on IEEE 802.11 WLAN; and design a patent-pending, self-booting smart radio card and drivers suitable for high-assurance tactical hand-held and commercial/consumer applications. Some of the demonstration will be conducted on the Wireless Information Transmission System (WITS) software radio, developed by our partner General Dynamics Decision Systems of Scottsdale, Arizona. Design a high-assurance smart radio wireless card, BIOS and drivers suitable for tactical hand-held and consumer/commercial applications, which can be further developed and prototyped during Phase II. Demonstrate high-assurance mobile wireless technology for military, homeland defense, and consumer/commercial wireless eCommerce.

SHADOWBAND SYSTEMS, INC.
3850 Chimney Ridge, Suite 700
Cumming, GA 30041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 488-9522
Dr. Raymond C. Garcia
AF 03-098       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:IA Technologies for Mobile Users
Abstract:In this proposal, Shadowband Systems, Inc. and the ACSEL & OCLNB laboratories of the Oklahoma State University have combined forces to propose an investigation and initial stage development of advanced security systems and protocols to enable extremely secure high-performance wireless and wired local are network (LAN) data communications. The developed security systems and protocols will enable high performance wireless sensors, computers, devices and applications on shipboards to communicate securely. This feasibility investigation will involve prototype development and testing of the security systems and protocols. Some of the key areas of investigation are listed in the following: wireless LAN (WLAN) technology (IEEE 802.11 g/a/b, Bluetooth, etc.), piconet management mechanisms and user applications, channel bonding technologies for higher data rates in WLAN devices, power optimization for wireless systems, RF propagation characteristics, smart antenna design and requirements for shipboards and submarines, wired (fiber-optical, CAT-5, coaxial, etc.) backbone network architectures and LAN designs (considering ATM, ATM-ELAN, Ethernet, Gigabit-Ethernet, MPLS, etc.) and commercial and military requirements for C4I systems, voice and data protocols for enhanced wired and wireless networks. Regarding the security packages available and the regulations to follow, throughout the development process the Navy's Information Assurance (IA) and Information Systems Security (INFOSEC) requirements and recommendations will be considered as a guideline for the wireless and wired network security systems and protocols to be developed. At the foundation level of the development, the FIPS 140-1 and 140-2 standards will be considered. On the innovative side, intrusion detection systems and protection protocols in defense of insider attacks will be included. The objective of the proposed research is to develop innovative high performance low cost security systems and protocols that are coherent with industry standards but provide enhanced levels of protection to the communicating units. We will create a secure end-to-end security architecture that is distinct, robust, extensible, and addresses shortcomings of current wired and wireless networks. These security advances are applicable to many horizontal and vertical markets, and will be of benefit to commercial, industrial, and government systems alike.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Darrin Taylor
AF 03-099       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Effects-Based Counter Terrorism Operations
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I effort is to apply concepts in social network analysis to support effects-based plan development at the strategic level for counter-terrorist operations. We will exploit Dr. John Lemmer's CAT (Causal Analysis Tool) to support plan assessment. Mr John Beyerle, an EBO expert and Mr. Craig Robinson, a 20 year decorated DIA senior counter-intelligence analyst shall serve as subject matter experts. 21st Century Technologies is uniquely positioned to support this effort because the company has substantial internal experience and development contracts in both counter-terrorist and EBO efforts from DARPA and Rome Laboratories, respectively. Federal domestic funding for homeland security is expected to top $42 billion in FY 2003. That substantial sum will be routed through not less than 14 different federal agencies. The proposed EBO based plan development system for counter-terrorist operations can support such homeland defense applications.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Dr. Tamitha Carpenter
AF 03-099       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Decision Support for Effects Based Counterterrorism Operations.
Abstract: We propose an approach to supporting effects-based counterterrorism operations through the development of an intelligent decision aid system. Our approach employs a unique combination of behavior modeling, adversarial planning, and intelligence-centered situation assessment technologies to provide end-to-end counterterrorism Course of Action (COA) development. Central to this system will be a case-based continuous adversarial planning system utilizing technology developed for DARPA's CyberPanel program. This planner is capable of reasoning about the expected effects of actions on adversary behavior and capabilities as well as potential negative effects on our own capabilities. We will extend this system by improving our ability to model threat groups' motivations and social biases, as well as provide a means to monitor for expected changes in behavior. These capabilities will allow the PECO (Planning for Effects-based Counterterrorism Operations) system to form, critique, monitor and continuously adapt courses of action in response to behavioral observations fraught with uncertainty. The prototype developed in Phase I will prove the feasibility of our approach and form the basis for a complete implementation of PECO in Phase II and its ultimate commercialization. PECO will present very high value to corporations seeking to improve their ability to make strategic plans in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. The proposed technology offers Stottler Henke to seize a significant opportunity in the market for competitive intelligence tools.

AGNIK, LLC
PO Box 2145
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 465-5518
Mrs. Kakali Sarkar
AF 03-100       Selected for Award
Title:MCDS: A Distributed Multi-organizational Collaborative Decision Support System for Emergency Preparedness
Abstract:This proposal suggests the design and development of a kernel for distributed collaborative multi-organizational decision support system for emergency preparedness, anti-terrorism, and homeland defense. The proposed research is based on a systematic approach that pays careful attention to both technical and human factors in the process. It offers a collection of novel technology-based solutions to efficiently manage, query, and mine the distributed data sources using some emerging tools like DAML-based representation of data. It incorporates psychological/social/organizational models, provides graphical interfaces for creating domain ontology, distributed and privacy-preserving data mining techniques, interfaces for mobile devices developed using advanced HCI techniques, and dynamic resource discovery for onsite emergency response team. Agnik's team for performing this research has stellar background and long experience in related areas. The PI has extensive experience in systems development. Professor Kargupta is a highly recognized figure in the area of distributed data mining and data stream mining. Professor Joshi is an expert in the area of Semantic Web, DAML, and mobile systems. Professor Sears is highly acclaimed for his work on human computer interfaces for mobile and desktop systems. Professor Provine is a behavioral psychologists and he has written numerous articles on terrorism. The proposed solution has direct commercial potential in the area of corporate environment that has lots of heterogeneous distributed data that are uneconomical to move to a central location. Also, this application has immense advantage of preserving privacy by not moving the data. This is particularly advantageous when the data is classified or sensitive. The mobile part of the application will be very useful for businesses that deal with time-critical data and collect that through multiple customers touch points. Other than the above-mentioned areas the proposed system will be applicable to handle other decision-support systems that handle emergencies other than an terrorist attack, e.g., flooding. As the system will be dynamic and user-friendly, new models can be entered easily to make the system adaptive for other applications as well.

THINKOM SOLUTIONS, INC.
3825 Del Amo Blvd., Suite 200
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-5486
Mr. William W. Milroy
AF 03-101       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:Multi-Band Antenna Technology
Abstract:ThinKom, with > 10 years experience developing and producing lightweight, low-cost and high-efficiency antennas using Continuous Transverse Stub (CTS) antenna technology and two years of commercial antenna technology development, including an innovative antenna technology called WAVETRAP offering wideband, beam shaping and beam steering capabilities and a variant of CTS called Dual Band VICTS, will investigate and recommend Multi-Band Antenna Technology and designs spanning 400 MHz to 1.5-3 GHz (using WAVETRAP) and 17 to 31 GHz (using Dual Band VICTS). Recommended low band antennas will exhibit these features: 1) total radiation efficiency > 70% (< 0.2dB ohmic loss between amplifiers (LNA & SSPA) and free space), 2) offer low (approximately 10 ohms) match to amplifiers to achieve high power added efficiency and low noise figure, 3) be physically low profile (< 1 inch thick), small (about 6-12 inches in diameter) and lightweight (< 1 lb), 4) allow ease in shaping the elevation beam, 5) provide ease in dynamically selecting azimuth coverage to maximize gain (G/T & EIRP) over a desired region, 6) be of robust physical construction to withstand both airborne and ground vehicle environments, and 7) use low cost commercial materials and processes to achieve affordability. An antenna exhibiting all the low band features described in the technical abstract, plus supporting a wide operating bandwidth (which WAVETRAP does), would also have many applications for mobile high data rate communications, such as Mobile WLANs and SATCOM. When the operating bandwidth spans from 0.5 to 6 GHz (which WAVETRAP can), then the antenna can support multiple terrestrial and satellite communication functions. The automotive and telecommunication industries are seeking multi-band and wideband, low profile, high efficiency (high data rate) antennas that support multiple functions (such as wireless communication, WLAN, satellite navigation and communication). Mobile WLAN concepts are being pursued for commercial applications under the umbrella of Intelligent Transportation Systems (Department of Transportation sponsored investigations) as well as under the broader category of Telematics for cars, trucks, etc. In addition, the telecommunication industry, as part of the development of 3G and associated mobile wireless data communications, have been investigating how to seamlessly integrate mobile wireless networks (cellular and PCS networks) with the existing and growing number of WLAN (802.11 based) "hot spots". As an adjunct to these telecommunication industry efforts, the WLAN community has been pushing to increase data rate (e.g. 802.11a & g) as well as improve the capabilities of such WLAN with mobile users (e.g. commercial vehicles). The main reason for these investigations by the telecommunications and adjunct industry members is that the planned for 3G networks are severely limited in their data rates with users in motion (significantly faster than walking speed). Mobile WLAN capable of high data rate communications with nodes (users) that are traveling at highway speeds are presently in development by a number of commercial companies and agencies (e.g. joint industry/academic project by ThinKom and University of California at Santa Barbara [UCSB] to demonstrate multi-band WLAN capability between vehicles [even in opposing directions] and vehicles to highway infrastructure while the vehicles are traveling at highway speeds). As part of this ThinKom/UCSB Mobile WLAN project the WLAN waveforms are being modified to reduce the impact of interference (multi-path, etc) and the Doppler effects of vehicle motion. In addition, the need for nulling and directive antenna capabilities will be investigated within this project. The ThinKom supplied antennas (using ThinKom's proprietary WaveTrap antenna technology), for the Mobile WLAN project, are capable of supporting the two bands of interest (802.11a & b or 5 to 6 & 2.4 GHz - in fact the antenna covers at least 2-6 GHz contiguously) and capable of forming directive azimuth beams in addition to a hemispherical beam. Subsequent WAVETRAP prototypes are planned to cover the 0.5 to 6 GHz band, and to provide the selectable directive azimuth beams, as well as to provide a modest filter multiplexing capability to offer isolation between designated sub-bands. An antenna exhibiting the high band features [such as: 1) total radiation efficiency > 70% (< 0.5dB ohmic loss between amplifiers and free space), 2) offer low (approximately 10 ohms) match to amplifiers (e.g. HPA & LNA) to achieve high power added efficiency and low noise figure, 3) be physically low profile (< 2-3 inches thick), small (about 15-20 inches in diameter) and light weight (< 50 lb), 4) be of robust physical construction to withstand both airborne and ground vehicle environments, and 5) use low cost commercial materials and processes to achieve affordability], plus supporting a multiple broad operating bandwidth would also have many applications for mobile high data rate satellite communications, such as mobile (COTM) internet access from aircraft and ground vehicles. When the operating bandwidth spans from 17 to 21 GHz and 28 to 31 GHz as well as Ku-band frequencies, then the antenna can support the diversity of commercial satellite communication functions needed now and in the near or far future for mobile internet access and other business communications such as full motion video conferencing. In this case the military products being sought include coverage of the commercial K and Ka-band satellite communication bands, specifically so that the military can make use of both commercial and military frequency allocations to maximize the likelihood of assured affordable communications. This of course means that these products can be directly translated into commercial products. Since these products make use of the CTS technology, for which ThinKom is the only commercial company, and the dual band VICTS technology, for which ThinKom is holder of IP rights, then this SBIR funded project will directly enable ThinKom products for the well-established business jet market place (roughly a 5,000 to 15,000 addressable market), the growing (being developed by such companies as Connexion By Boeing) commercial (airliner) jet market place (about 5,000 near to mid term addressable market), and the commercial (and maybe eventually consumer) ground vehicle market place (presently < 50,000 per year and potentially > 100,000 per year addressable market). For the business jet and commercial jet markets, our dual band VICTS architecture promises to allow ThinKom to drive the antenna "ODU" below $100,000 and possibly below $50,000 (depending on the specific ODU requirements and achieved production volumes/rates). For the commercial ground vehicle the same technology promises to allow us to achieve prices at or below $3,000 (again depending on requirements and production volumes/rates). The very high volumes/rates associated with consumer (e.g. SUV, vans, etc cars) should allow prices below $1,000. Obviously such increased production volumes/rates will help drive down the basic components and could also help further drive down the price of equivalent SATCOM products for the military.

NETWORK DISK, INC.
1257 Worcester Rd. Suite 323
Framingham, MA 01701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 254-4016
Dr. Ilya gertner
AF 03-103       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Gateway Interface for C4ISR Platforms and their Assets
Abstract:We propose to investigate and potentially develop a preliminary design of a JBI Gateway that could serve as middleware for integrating C4ISR systems using the JBI platform as the common information dissemination platform. A JBI Gateway is a JBI-like embedded software unit with force template software support - if successfully designed, this gateway would enable C4ISR platforms to securely plug in to the JBI and exchange information. We will evaluate the feasibility and capability of using a JBI Gateway to support C4ISR platforms and their assets. In Phase I, we will accomplish a feasibility analysis and capability analysis of the stated approach by: 1. modeling the interaction of two or more C4ISR platforms using the JBI and conventional force template technologies a. identifying the problems of using conventional force template technologies b. identifying requirements of a JBI Gateway to support C4ISR platforms and their assets 2. specifying a preliminary design of the JBI Gateway a. creating the preliminary design of force templates for C4ISR integration use b. developing JBI Gateway processes that would facilitate the integration 3. modeling the interaction of two or more C4ISR platforms using the JBI and preliminary design of the JBI Gateway - for subsequent evaluation If successful, the JBI Gateway would allow C4ISR systems to interoperate over the JBI Platform. The results of this work could have many potential military and commercial applications. Potential military applications include any that involve organizations within the government that must collaborate effectively. In addition, other international governments (for example, those collaborating on a United Nations mission) and private organizations could potentially be members of a coalition communicating over C4ISR architectures, thus each organization would benefit from a JBI Gateway as an integration alternative. Commercial potential applications include managing business partner communications and resources.

SENSIS CORP.
5793 Widewaters Parkway
DeWitt, NY 13214
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 234-3749
Mr. Nick Kowalchuk
AF 03-103       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Gateway Interface for C4ISR Platforms and their Assets
Abstract:Sensis Corporation offers an innovative approach for the design of a gateway interface for C4ISR platforms and their assets that provides interoperable services to and from a Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI). Our design approach for a JBI C4ISR client gateway interface is consistent with the current Air Force Research Laboratory design of JBI core services, Common Application Programming Interface (API), Information Object (IO) model, and the JBI Force Template concept. Included in our approach is a comprehensive set of innovative risk-mitigating feasibility and capability analysis studies that address the key issues required to successfully transition the Phase I preliminary design to a detailed design and prototype in Phase II. Sensis Corporation sees a large market for a JBI C4ISR Gateway Interface. This market encompasses the global need for interoperable information management systems (like the JBI) to provide the right information to the right people at the right time, in both military and civil applications. The JBI client gateway technology not only applies to current and future military C4ISR platforms (identified in PEO/DAC portfolios) that gather and disseminate information, but to commercial airlines for event recording, like black box information, real-time cockpit voice recording, and continuous updates on critical system status.

DACCO SCI, INC.
10260 Old Columbia Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 381-9475
Dr. Guy D. Davis
AF 03-109       Awarded: 5/22/2003
Title:Thermal Sprayed Polymeric Coatings for Landing Gear
Abstract:Military aircraft landing gear are subject to foreign object debris (FOD) and corrosion damage. FOD kicked up during take off and landing damages the protective coating and the resulting defects allow the corrosion-susceptible high-strength steel to corrode readily, especially in coastal environments or areas where deicing salts are used. DACCO SCI, INC., and the Zatorski Coating Company propose thermally sprayed polymeric coatings using a greatly improved application device. The device utilizes an electrically heated compressed air stream or inert gas stream flowing into a chamber where powder is mixed with a portion of the gas. This mixture and re-mainder of the heated gas is injected into a nozzle that is directed onto the substrate to produce a coating. This device has demonstrated ability to apply coatings of engineering plastics without burning and little or no degradation of engineering properties and is a marked improvement over other State of the Art thermal spray devices applying plastics. It uses no combustible gases and hence is safer than conventional units. Also, because the gas stream will not burn any existing plastic, repair of coatings is simplified. In addition to military landing gear, such as that for the C-17, the thermally sprayed polymeric coating would be suitable for commercial aircraft. Bridges and other infrastructure are dual-use examples where impact resistant, corrosion protective coatings are needed.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael Dingus/Mr. John Bulluck
AF 03-109       Selected for Award
Title:Improved Protective Coatings for High Strength Steels
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force has successfully introduced the C-17 Globemaster III into its inventory. This modern airlift aircraft is capable of rapid strategic delivery of troops and cargo to main operating bases, or directly to forward deployment areas. The design of this aircraft lets it operate on small, austere airfields as short as 3,000 feet and as narrow as 90 feet. Unfortunately, foreign object debris (FOD) is pervasive on such unembellished airfields. The landing gear components of aircraft are highly susceptible to FOD damage during take off and landing. Protective coatings are used on the landing gear components to prevent corrosion. However, impact and abrasion caused by FOD on tactical airfields has led to damage of the coating. This condition has jeopardized the safety of the aircrew and the success of the mission, and has extended maintenance downtime. It is evident that an improved coating with performance capabilities to prevent corrosion and FOD damage is necessary. Our unique effort will develop a new impact and abrasion resistant polyurea spray coating for the application. This VOC and HAP compliant technology offers outstanding abrasion and chemical resistance, exceptional hydrolytic stability, blast mitigation, weight reduction, and superior FOD damage resistance. The benefits for the military and commercial sectors from the development of these new, abrasion resistant coatings include extending the life of landing gear components and decreasing maintenance costs. This increased longevity will also decrease down time and increase full force projection. Additionally, the threat of landing gear failures caused by corrosion that occurs from poor performing coatings will be eliminated. The novel, high-performance polyurea coatings will be applicable to the general and commercial aviation markets. These coatings may also be applied to radomes, aircraft propeller blades, and other high-speed armaments and vehicles.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3969
Dr. Lee Goldman
AF 03-110       Awarded: 5/27/2003
Title:Low Cost Durable EMI Screen for Aircraft Infrared Sensors
Abstract:Existing screen technology for protecting sensors in aircrafts from electromagnetic interference (EMI) is prone to damage caused by rain erosion and environmental loads during flight. Surmet Corporation proposes to develop a durable screen, which will not only provide shielding from electro-magnetic interference (EMI) but will also resist erosion damage and be cost effective. The screen, fabricated from a solid sheet of stainless steel, will be rendered erosion resistant by the use of Surmet's innovative hard carbon coatings, viz. UltraCTM and Surmet Black BeautyTM. These high performance extremely hard coatings with very low co-efficient of friction, exhibit excellent wear resistance under many varied environmental loads. In addition, they are attractively dark black in color to provide aesthetic match with the color of the most of the fighter aircraft. Phase I work will involve the fabrication of EMI screen followed by deposition of Surmet's hard carbon coating. These coated screens will be tested for coating adhesion, impact resistance, environmental durability, mechanical strength and electrical properties. Fabrication of 4 screens (4 x 4" in size) for mechanical testing and 4 EMI screens (9 x 9"in size) is proposed for Phase I effort. The screen design and fabrication technique, in combination with the application of Surmet's hard carbon coatings is expected to significantly enhance the environmental durability and survivability of the screen. Anticipated improvements in EMI screen performance during flight environment as a result of the proposed design and fabrication method, coupled with the application of Surmet's high performance coating will be of immediate benefit as replacement of the conventional wire mesh. Results of the Phase I work will serve as guidelines for Phase II and III for further development and commercialization of the coated screen technology.

MAYATERIALS, INC.
1375 Folkstone Ct.
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 764-6203
Dr. Richard M. Laine
AF 03-111       Awarded: 5/23/2003
Title:Nano-engineered Coatings Based on Functionalized Silsesquioxanes
Abstract:Silanization is used commonly to form high quality interfaces between metals and coatings by treating surfaces with silanes RSiCl3 or RSi(OR)3 in a sol-gel like process. R can be many different functional groups ranging from glycidyl epoxy to aniline. These same silanes condense under sol-gel conditions to produce cubic silsesquioxanes [RSiO1.5]8 that have a rigid silica core and multiple functional groups. Researchers at the University of Michigan (UM) have proven that these nanometer-sized building blocks are easily made and used to form high quality, highly adherent and smooth epoxy resins and polyimides with a very great range of properties. Moreo-ver, the properties can be closely tailored. Many of the epoxy compounds are liquid at room temperature. Mayaterials, with laboratories within Eastern Michigan University's (EMUs) Coatings Research Institute has exclusively licensed this technology for commercialization and proposes to work in concert with groups at UM and EMU and with guidance from Boeing Company to develop chromate free silsesquioxane coatings systems. Phase I targets will be formulation of superior primer coatings on 2024 T3 Al. Phase II will involve refining Phase I work, developing superior topcoats and also unicoats also for 7075 T6 Al. The objective will be to develop property tailorable, solvent free, superior coating systems incorporating cerium carboxylates for long-term passivation protection from aging phenomena. Phase I objectives are to develop functionalized silsesquioxane coatings that eliminate the need for volatile organics in the coating process, provide one-step tailoring of multiple coating properties, high abrasion resistance, low toxicity, long lasting and low cost. Initial potential is in corrosion protection of aircraft components and surfaces with potential applications in automotive and marine applications.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 261-8373
Dr. David Palaith
AF 03-111       Awarded: 5/23/2003
Title:Quasicrystalline Thin Films For Corrosion Inhibition Of Aircraft Components and Assemblies
Abstract:Due to force restructuring to air expeditionary units, aging aircraft are having to play an increasingly important role. Maintenance becomes an major readiness and operational issue. Annual costs of maintenance of corrosion-induce degradation already tops $800M per year. Landing gears are particularly susceptible to wear- and corrosion-induced degradation. Aluminum and steel alloys are either strong or corrosion resistant but not both. Anodizing, vapor deposited chromium, and flame sprayed aluminum solve some problems while creating others. A new potential alternative is quasicrystalline thin films. They are hard, corrosion inhibiting, and are deposited at low temperatures. They can be deposited onto large landing gear components by vacuum deposition, onto small components such as fasteners by batch processing, and onto both large and small components and assemblies by hand-held plasma spraying. Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc. is proposing to demonstrate the feasibility of using quasicrystalline thin films as a corrosion inhibiting coating for landing gear components and structures. There are innumerable commercial applications for an easily applied, durable, hard corrosion inhibiting coating. These include commercial aircraft, automobile components, and top-side shipboard structures.

PEREGRINE CONSULTING, INC.
320 Medomak Rd.
Bremen, ME 04551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 592-7771
Mr. David S. Stapp
AF 03-112       Awarded: 5/20/2003
Title:Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase I SBIR proposal is to develop the foundation of a new computer software model entitled Turbine Field Life Analysis Multi-physics Engine Simulation, or TFLAMES, for conducting stress and life analysis of turbine aircraft engines that will reduce the conservatism currently found in such analyses. We will do that by managing the life of individual engines using actual flight data collected for the aircraft rather than using generic missions and bookkeeping Total Accumulated Cycles (TAC). This new and innovative approach will meet the Air Force's goal of extending time on wing for turbine rotating components while assuring the safety of air crew and enhancing mission readiness. The TFLAMES approach will integrate the thermodynamic cycle model, the heat transfer model, and the rotating component stress model for the full turbine engine using both proprietary and commercial analysis codes. The TFLAMES model will analyze stress conditions for a turbine in the field using data gathered during the actual mission flown (i.e. OAT, density altitude, high and low pressure turbine speeds, turbine inlet pressures, exhaust gas temperatures, etc.) then post-process stress results for near real time feedback of cycle damage accumulated for the flight. The TFLAMES life management model is equally applicable to the commercial fleet of turbine aircraft engines and will aid the airline industry in reducing engine overhaul costs and the associated loss of revenue service by increasing time between overhauls. Given the current economic climate it is clear that more accurately calculating turbine component lives based on actual mission conditions could yield much needed operating cost reductions. The conservative nature of current life analysis methodology makes it likely that the vast majority of individual turbine engines would benefit in calculated life and possibly enjoy more reasonable safety factors because of improved accuracy.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 145
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 259-7541
Dr. Jalees Ahmad
AF 03-112       Awarded: 5/29/2003
Title:Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:The proposed project will lead to a validated methodology for accurate life prediction of surface treated turbine engine components prone to fretting fatigue. The objective of this Phase I SBIR is to develop a modeling framework, and demonstrate its feasibility for further development in Phase II, by analyzing existing test data on fretting fatigue of surface treated laboratory specimens. In collaboration with Pratt & Whitney the need for a mechanistic methodology to characterize and predict fretting fatigue life of surface treated structural components has been identified. Once developed and validated, the methodology would enable prediction of the effect of redistribution of residual stresses on fretting fatigue life and on component distortions- issues important to useful remaining life predictions and prognostic health management. Furthermore, by quantifying the benefit, the methodology would enable more realistic cost-benefit analyses of surface treatment applications in current as well as future engines. By providing a unique modeling capability that allows combined consideration of fretting fatigue and surface treatment/residual stresses, the product will be readily marketable to aerospace propulsion and structures, automotive, energy production (e.g. land based gas and steam turbine engines) and other industries.

VEXTEC CORP.
116 Wilson Pike, Suite 230
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Dr. Robert Tryon
AF 03-112       Awarded: 5/14/2003
Title:Prediction of Creep Fatigue Interaction for Turbine Engine Components
Abstract:The VAATE Durability Focus Area mission is to make high performance turbine engine technology affordable to the user through proactive development of advanced technologies to prevent component failure, increase engine life & reliability, enhance reparability and reduce costs for improved warfighter effectiveness. Of particular consideration under VAATE I will be future requirements for long range strike aircraft. These aircraft will fly at mach 2-4 cruise capability, have 30% increased mission radius and 3 times sortie generation rate, and will be required to have fast response to time critical targets. Under high temperature, mechanical creep can affect material grain boundaries such that fatigue occurs. Creep induced fatigue is a less understood, unique and somewhat unpredictable failure mechanism. In order to meet VAATE affordability goals, physics-based software must be developed to predict creep-fatigue affects in order to avoid conventional total accumulated cycle (TAC)-based lifing and high operational costs. The proposed project will demonstrate feasibility for developing probabilistic, physics-based prediction software for thermo-mechanical failure (TMF). Phase I will focus on creep-fatigue damage interaction. Based on analysis of F100 and F110 data, it is estimated that 75-85% of unscheduled removals are due to durability and subsystem issues. The proposed technology will help enable accomplishment of established VAATE durability goals: double component life; reduce repair cost by 30%; and reduce development time by 25%.

BBM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
845 4th Avenue
Coraopolis, PA 15108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 269-4546
Mr. Dr. Tom Fabish
AF 03-113       Awarded: 6/5/2003
Title:Conductive Repair Coatings
Abstract:The central technical objective of the proposed project is development of a Conductive Repair Coatings which can be applied to multiple aircraft substrates and meet specific electrical conductance throughout the life of the coating. We propose for Phase I to develop a conductive repair coating (CRC) having improved conductivity level and consistency in conductivity over previous systems. The system based on either one or two component chemistry will cure to achieve a time-to-fly of <4 hours. Resistance to environmental degradation of electrical conductance, adhesion, and elongation (embrittlement) will be extended over reference. Its also the objective that this coating system will both maintain and enhance the physical and mechanical properties of the coating film compared to previous conductive systems and not deter from the coatings basic properties such as: flow, viscosity, dry-time, gloss, visual color, and potlife. The focus of the present proposal is a specially developed polymer matrix which contains modified fillers for new aircraft technology and based on novel polyurethane and or polyurea chemistry and have a conductance of <20 ohms/square. This experimental coating system can have great potential in many commercial applications. The specific uses include but are not limited to: anti-static coating for both military and commercial aircraft with respect to lighting strikes, conductive floor coatings for hospital surgery and "clean" rooms, testing and security facilities, conductive gasket materials. The system will be able to be hand-mixed or sprayed with a commercial spray gun.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 856-4190
Dr. Bijan Radmard
AF 03-113       Awarded: 5/19/2003
Title:Quick Curing Conductive Repair Coating for ESD Applications
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. responds to the need of Air Force to develop a fast cure, single layer conductive (surface resistance: 20 Ohms/sq) repair coating for adequate electric discharge and electromagnetic shielding in specialized aircraft. Triton will develop a single-layer conductive coating which cure quickly (less than four hours) and applicable by brush on damaged surface of specialized aircraft and available in low gloss, gray to black color or appearance. Triton innovative coating is capable of withstanding 6-12 months of service in a typical military aircraft environment. We will demonstrate reduced cure time and improved electrical conductivity, moisture and ultraviolet radiation resistance of these coatings. At the end of Phase I, four, one quart samples will be provided to Air Force for further evaluation. In Phase II, we will optimize and scale-up the process method to easily transition the developed technology to commercial arena in Phase III. Conductive Coatings developed in this program can be applied to commercial aircraft electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding applications.

KEYSTONE SYNERGISTIC ENTERPRISES, INC.
1458 S. E. Ocean Lane
Port St. Lucie, FL 34983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(772) 283-3502
Mr. Bryant Walker
AF 03-114       Awarded: 5/15/2003
Title:High Speed Forging of Titanium Components with Microstructural Control
Abstract:This program will demonstrate the engineering, manufacturing and economic feasibility of high speed conversion of alpha-beta titanium alloys to a homogeneous, fine grain, equiaxed alph-beta microstructure. When fully developed this newly discovered material conversion process will enable lower cost forgings with improved ultrasonic inspectability for titanium base superalloys. The benefits of successful implementation of this forging technology include the following: 1)Improved ultrasonic inspectability, 2) Improved material forgability, and 3)the ability to produce lower cost forgings with improved engineering properties. These benefits will directly apply to the aerospace OEM's and their end users the DoD and commercial airline companies around the world.

MPD TECHNOLOGIES
408 Richland Avenue, Suite 102
Athens, OH 45701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8500
Mr. Enrique A. Medina
AF 03-114       Awarded: 5/22/2003
Title:High Speed Forging of Titanium Alloy Components with Microstructure Control
Abstract:MPD Technologies, a joint venture of Ohio small businesses, with support from a Titanium supplier and a forging company, proposes to establish characteristics and requirements for industrial scale up of a new High Speed Forging Process for Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This faster process enables significant cost reduction, enhanced microstructural control, and superior performance in service for forged Ti-6-4 products. Current manufacturing of Ti-6-4 parts involves costly, complex processing sequences. Results of laboratory experimentation on small coupons and components show that the high-speed process can reduce this complexity while achieving desired product properties. In Phase I, MPD will assess feasibility of scaling up the high speed forging process to commercial level closed-die forging of Ti-6-4 components, and will establish, through appropriately designed experiments, relationships among final microstructure and key variables of the thermo-mechanical processing sequence. Phase I will design experiments for forgings of intermediate size and low complexity, conduct them on commercial hammer and screw press forging equipment, and evaluate microstructure, macrostructure, and inspection characteristics of the forged workpieces. Phase II will design optimized thermo-mechanical process sequences for larger forgings utilizing the knowledge gained in Phase I, will extend the process knowledge base, and will develop an industrial insertion plan. Project success will result in direct benefits to military and commercial aerospace industries, where Ti-6-4 is widely used in both engine and airframe components because of its attractive light weight, high strength, and corrosion resistance properties. Significant reductions in costs and delivery time, and quality enhancements achieved by industrial implementation of the new high speed forging process and related processing sequence will benefit the Department of Defense, its suppliers, the commercial aerospace sector, and other commercial applications of titanium alloy forgings.

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
184 CEDAR HILL STREET
MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Ms. Roxana Trifu
AF 03-115       Awarded: 6/12/2003
Title:Aerogel-based Thermal Barriers for Protection of Metal and Polymeric Composite Structures
Abstract:Current aircraft titanium and polymeric composite materials require thermal barrier coatings to push the material limits and maximize the aircraft mission capabilities. Improvement of the currently used thermal barriers protecting these structures would constitute a major milestone for Air Force. Novel materials and methods are sought to provide durable, lightweight, conformable thermal protection systems. The flexible aerogel materials developed by Aspen Aerogels, Inc. have already demonstrated excellent insulation performance and resiliency in ultra-high temperature applications. Aspen Aerogels proposes to expand their insulation concept to aerogel-based coatings and flexible tiles requiring low cost acquisition, installation and maintenance costs. The aerogel materials will improve the durability of the aircraft components, while preserving the substrates' integrity and mechanical properties. On this effort, Aspen Aerogels teams with Northrop Grumman to develop these novel thermal barrier solutions for advanced aircraft components. A follow-on Phase II program will facilitate commercial availability of the proposed solutions leading to lower cost multi-purpose protection aerogel materials for replacement of the current thermal barrier systems. Aerogel materials and application techniques will find use on structures of the turbojets and other sophisticated aircrafts by improving their reliability, efficiency and service life in demanding thermal, acoustic and vibration environments. Novel concepts and materials developed during this project will be commercialized for aviation, aerospace, high-R value ductwork and pipeline systems.

MICROPHASE COATINGS, INC.
170 Donmoor Court
Garner, NC 27529
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 779-7679
Dr. David W. Garrett
AF 03-115       Awarded: 6/12/2003
Title:Thermal Barrier Coatings for Titanium and High Temperature Polymeric Composite Components
Abstract:MicroPhase Coatings Inc (MPCI) will prove the technical feasibility of an innovative thermal barrier coating in response to SBIR topic AF03-115. The technology uses a novel polymer-titanium-silicate matrix that cures at room temperature. It incorporates hollow glass microspheres for additional thermal insulation. The matrix has already been demonstrated in the laboratory--it withstands high temperatures (to 1800F), provides thermal insulation, withstands shock and vibration, and strongly adheres to a metal and composite substrates. We add nano-clays to enhance the ability of the coating to serve as a barrier against moisture diffusion and nano-titanium crystals to scavenge free hydrogen. The dual combined effect, in concert with a relatively benign application process, will further inhibit titanium embrittlement. Our solution-cast approach will offer significant operational advantages compared to traditional plasma-deposited ceramics-i.e., low cost, easy application, field repairable, and broad commercial use. Phase I will confirm adhesion, inter-layer integrity, thermal-mechanical compatibility, thermal conductivity, and absence of embrittlement. We have established a strategic business relationship with Pratt & Whitney to ensure a system-engineered approach, engine compatibility, and to help with commercialization. The commercialization potential of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for engine and aircraft parts is very large. As engine development has continued to spawn hotter engines, stress on components has increased to the point that parts are failing before they reach their design life. With effective TBCs, engineers can design and develop new systems, concurrently considering substrates and coatings as integral subsystems, rather than treating coating as an afterthought. Integrated design approaches can lead to lighter, longer lasting systems, lower maintenance cost, and better performance. MicroPhase Coatings' approach to the Air Force SBIR enhances commercialization potential by providing a coating that can withstand flame and temperatures to 2000F, thereby allowing the coating to be used with firewalls, exhaust systems, navy ship bulkheads, petro-chemical processing, and other hot manufacturing processes. The coating can be applied at room temperature without the need for expensive plasma deposition systems, thus significantly enhancing affordability and cost-effectiveness. MPCI's proposal presents a commercialization strategy that is based on a strong team of strategic business partners.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George Hansen
AF 03-115       Awarded: 6/12/2003
Title:Thermal Barrier Coatings for Titanium and High Temperature Polymeric Composite Components
Abstract:Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect metallic alloys from corrosive and ablative effects of high temperature environments. Their utility has been proven in jet and automotive engines with demonstrated improvements in performance and fuel economy. Few materials can withstand long term exposure to the inside of a jet engine, and so their construction tends to be limited to super alloys, which are heavy. Added weight to a military jet decreases maneuverability, payload and range. Lighter construction materials will improve these performance characteristics, but candidate materials such as titanium alloys and polyimides will need thermal barrier coatings to survive for useful amounts of time. Current thermal barrier coatings are primarily yttria-stabilized alumina or zirconia that are compositionally graduated to prevent spalling. They are applied using specialized equipment in vacuum chambers, and this limits their widespread use, particularly in field applications. TRI/Austin proposes a completely different coating material that can be applied in the field by spraying, dipping or brushing onto a wide variety of materials, and cured using readily available means. The coating will have extremely low thermal conductivity, and if exposed to continuous temperatures above 1400*C, it will convert to a ceramic, increasing its thermal performance. TRI/Austin views this work as an excellent opportunity to broaden its coating product line to provide a variety of thermal barrier coatings for military, aerospace and commercial utility. These coatings will allow use of lighter weight materials in or near the engines of emerging military and commercial aircraft, but will also find application for space reentry vehicles, power generation turbines, automotive engine components, industrial reactor vessels, home furnaces, home appliances, and even as protective coatings on the sides of pots and pans to decrease accidental burns.

ACTON MATERIALS, INC.
1331 Upland, Building 2
Houston, TX 77043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 463-6400
Mr. Kim Wynns
AF 03-116       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Repair of HighTemperature RAM Coatings
Abstract:A coating system is proposed comprised of 1. Gradient pigment particles having an iron core encapsulated with a mixed intermetallic-oxide layer and a further silicon-based layer for enhanced bonding to the matrix 2. A matrix raw material that is thermally-sprayable using conventional technology that partially cures to an oxide during application and becomes fully cured on first use 3. Thermal spray equipment with separately-controlled feeders for matrix and pigment feed, to permit application of gradient coatings having superior bond at the interface and maximum pigment content at the surface. Feature 1: Increase iron content in the coating, as a percentage of total coating weight, by reducing the amount of dielectric-forming elements (e.g. Al, Si) required in the pigment. Benefit 1: Option to improve signature reduction, reduce coating weight, or both Feature 2: The system uses no solvents or liquid carriers. Benefit 2: Application is simplified with no VOC or other vapor discharges to control. Further, system avoids problems associated with coating distortion during bakeout of large liquid fractions, as with slurries. Feature 3: Pigment preparation system utilizes chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of elements onto surface of individual particles, creating ability to formulate unique alloys and gradients at the particle level. Benefit 3: Can quickly screen candidate formulations for improved coupling at high temperature, creating metamaterials that cannot be produced by conventional means. Can optimize the content and location of dielectric layer. Feature 4: Pigment and matrix will be applied by commercially-available thermal spray system, equipped with proposed dual-hopper feeder. System is field-proven, has no moving parts, easily transported and stored, can utilize multiple energy sources. Variant currently in use at multiple NSA manufacturing sites. Can be used in either manual or robotic modes. Benefit 4: Transport and operation require no additions to current infrastructure at repair sites, could be used on emergency basis at any location worldwide. Training has typically been less than 40 hours for equipment use AND repair.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4114
Dr. Robert Kovar
AF 03-116       Awarded: 6/12/2003
Title:Self-Healing, Adherent High Temperature RAM Repair Coating
Abstract:Foster-Miller, Inc. proposes to develop a new sol gel derived high temperature RAM repair material and application system for use on advanced low observable aircraft such as the JSF. This unique new repair system can be easily applied in the field "on wing". Initial flight-ready cure can be achieved at low temperatures with no damage to the underlying structure. Minimal-shrinkage final cure is achieved using engine exhaust heat generated during flight. The proposed coating will be chemically compatible with existing high temperature RAM, and will closely match the existing coating's electrical properties and underlying substrate's CTE. This coating will form a strong adherent bond to the underlying substrate and adjacent existing RAM coating. When fully cured it will be able to tolerate temperatures ranging from -25o to 1000oC without excessive cracking or peeling. Any surface micro-cracking occurring during cool down will be self-healing when the coating is reheated and fused by engine exhaust. Foster-Miller has assembled a team of leading specialists in high temperature materials and RAM coatings to develop this highly needed coating. Phase I will validate the feasibility of the Foster-Miller approach. Phase II will provide refined RAM coatings that can be demonstrated on actual aircraft components, paving the way for larger scale Phase III production. (P-030136) For the first time these repairs will be able to be accomplished "in the field" thereby greatly increasing mission readiness, and reducing downtime and repair costs for these vital low observable aircraft. The successful completion of the proposed Phase I and Phase II program will lead to early deployment (Phase III) of this new "on wing" high temperature RAM repair system.

MSNW, INC.
P.O. Box 865
San Marcos, CA 92079
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(904) 794-2071
Ms. Gail H. Cullum
AF 03-116       Awarded: 6/12/2003
Title:Repair of HighTemperature RAM Coatings
Abstract:Simple, affordable, durable repair methods that can be performed in the field are required for high temperature radar absorbing material (RAM) coatings. The proposed Phase I research will build upon previous RAM coating research at MSNW, Inc. The project will develop and demonstrate unique, robust RAM repair materials that are chemically, mechanically, and electrically compatible with the RAM coating. Experimental evaluation will include metallographic and SEM/x-ray studies of the repaired areas to assure chemical compatibility. The repairs will also be evaluated via thermal cycling and/or burner rig, mechanical testing at ambient temperature (adhesion/bond strength) before and after extended thermal exposure and electrical testing at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Additional testing at the end of Phase I will be performed on a downselected repair material and will include moisture susceptibility and salt fog testing. The project will target a Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems intermediate temperature coating and application in Phase I, and the lessons learned will be applied to higher temperature Lockheed Martin systems in Phase II with potential applicability to JSF. The anticipated benefits include significantly simpler and easier field repair methods leading to lower maintainability costs. The developed repair materials are expected to find military uses in the repair and refurbishment of RAM-coated airframe and engine hardware in both manned and unmanned vehicles. The potential commercial applications are minimal.

APPLIED OPTIMIZATION, INC.
8801 Windbluff Point
Centerville, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-5100
Dr. Anil B Chaudhary
AF 03-117       Awarded: 6/5/2003
Title:3D Simulation of Laser Additive Manufacturing [ 3D-SLAM ]
Abstract:Applied Optimization proposes to develop 3D Simulation of LAM, and verify its accuracy by correlating its results with microstructure data at the Boeing Phantom Works, for parts that are different from each other in terms of substrate and rib thicknesses, and build height. The simulation will model laser-powder-substrate interaction, using a combined analytical-numerical approach, such that it is transparent to the user. The shape of powder melt bead will be calculated by considering the effects of surface tension, and the resultant build height and shape, through multiple passes, will be tracked accurately. Effect of microstructure gradient on the material elastic properties will be included in the calculation of residual stresses in the HAZ. The near field, or laser spot region, calculation will be linked to a far field solution, in order to create a complete picture of LAM behavior, as a function of its process parameters. The simulation will include automatic and adaptive mesh generation, and make use of commercially available pre- and post processors. We expect the simulation time to be comparable to a present-day casting simulation. The anticipated benefit of 3D Simulation of LAM is the ability to eliminate trial and error in its process design, and thereby minimize the buy-to-fly ratio for expensive aerospace parts. This 3D Simulation software has intrinsic commercial viability due to its application to a large number of parts, for which the manufacturing process can be either simplified or made feasible by LAM.

INNOVATIVE RESEARCH, INC.
3025 Harbor Lane N, Suite 300
Plymouth, MN 55447
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 519-0105
Dr. Kanchan M. Kelkar
AF 03-117       Awarded: 5/20/2003
Title:Computational Modeling of Laser Additive Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:The overall goal of the proposed research is to develop a comprehensive, efficient, and well-validated model for the prediction of the shape and thermal history of components manufactured using Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) processes. The proposed model will use a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian treatment for analyzing the interactions between the gas and particle phases, and the laser beam. The temperature field in the deposition region will be determined by solving the unsteady energy transport equation that accounts for phase change and free surface effects. Detailed information of temperature gradients will be used for predicting the microstructure and residual stresses. Emphasis is placed on computational efficiency. Thus, the Volume-of-Fluid technique will be used to predict the shape evolution in a parent grid. A two-domain approach involving local mesh refinement and multigrid solution will be used for accurate analysis of the thermal interaction between the small-scale deposition region and the large-scale bulk. The model will be validated using data from experiments on practical LAM units. In order to establish the feasibility of the technical approach, Phase I research will focus on the development, validation, and application of the models for a co-axial deposition nozzle and for LAM processing of a thin-walled structure. The proposed model will offer a scientific approach to process design and optimization of LAM processes involving varying processing scales. The cost savings obtained through improvements in powder utilization, turnaround time, and product quality will facilitate wide-scale commercialization of the LAM processes. A conservative estimate of the annual revenue from the commercial version of the model is $500,000/yr.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-4572
Mr. Wei Shih
AF 03-118       Awarded: 6/6/2003
Title:Advanced Carbon-Based Fan Duct Heat Exchanger
Abstract: High conductivity (Hi-K) Carbon foam and Carbon-Carbon (C-C) composites are light-weigh and offers the highest specific thermal conductivity (conductivity/ density) among various engineering materials. Carbon foam and C-C have been identified as ideal core materials for medium to high temperature heat exchangers. However, Hi-K carbon foam is relatively brittle and exhibit low strength. In this proposal, a fan-duct surface-type heat exchanger using structurally enhanced carbon foam and Hi-K C-C heat transfers fins is proposed. The proposed design is relatively simple and maximizes the usage of state-of-the-art carbon foam and Hi-K C-C materials. A surface-type heat exchanger also offers significantly lower risk in manufacturing and in operation. In this proposal, critical technical issues are identified and innovative design and process are proposed. Enhancements in both structural integrity and thermal conductance through interfaces will be investigated. Assuming a successful demonstration of the proposed technology, a highly efficient carbon-based heat exchanger can be designed and fabricated. A successful demonstration of a surface-type fan duct heat exchanger using structurally enhanced carbon foam and high conductivity C-C will lead us to many new applications. Since the proposed fan duct heat exchanger design concept may be converted into a standardized module, it can easily be scaled up with minimum modification to handle higher thermal load as required by larger military fan duct heat exchangers. Since the proposed design is relatively simple to fabricate, the production cost maybe significantly reduced if volume requirement increase. A low-cost light-weigh high-performance heat exchanger can find many commercial applications in both aerospace and non-aerospace applications.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Witold Kowbel
AF 03-118       Awarded: 5/19/2003
Title:Advanced Surface Heat Exchanger Via High Strength Graphite Foam
Abstract:Currently employed surface heat exchanger utilizes Titanium metal. The low thermal conductivity of titanium combines with its high density results in significantly design penalties. Applications of graphite foam to the heat exchangers offers potential significant performance and weight benefits. However, the key strength, thermal conductivity and integration issues need to be resolved. Hamilton Standard will work with MER to design the surface heat exchanger with the graphite foam. A nanotubes reinforced graphite foam will be explored as means to achieve improved thermal and mechanical properties. Thermal fin efficiency will be evaluated and compared with the state-of-the-art design. This technology will be inserted into surface heat exchangers for both defense and civilian applications.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Mr. Dwayne R. Morgan
AF 03-118       Awarded: 5/23/2003
Title:Enhanced Strength Aerospace Carbon Foam Heat Exchanger
Abstract:Touchstone Research Laboratory and its partners propose to investigate the utilization of lightweight and efficient carbon foam for heat exchangers in aircraft. In general, carbon foams have the potential to be a revolutionary material in aerospace due to their light weight and thermal management capabilities. CFOAMr should meet the cost criteria since it is produced from bituminous coal and is much more affordable compared with petroleum coke and pitch foams. The thermal conductivity of CFOAMr can also be tailored to meet the thermal conductivity requirements for many heat exchanger applications in aerospace. However, higher strengths are needed to withstand high engine bleed-air pressures. Phase I efforts will demonstrate feasibility of carbon foam by developing proof-of-concept core components with enhanced strength and thermal conductivity, yet maintain low density and cost. Density, cell size and porosity will be tailored to yield a carbon foam material with optimal structural and thermal properties for heat exchangers. A full scale carbon foam heat exchanger will be delivered in Phase II for thermal and pressure drop testing. The carbon foam heat exchanger has the potential to be a highly efficient, lightweight, and affordable replacement to current heat exchanger technologies in aerospace. Significant improvements are expected to current heat exchanger designs such as intercoolers, precoolers and cooling shrouds. Applying CFOAMr technology to vapor-cycle heat pump designs may help overcome their two major design constraints, i.e., compact design and limited heat-sink size. The vapor-cycle heat pump is being considered as an alternative cooling system for avionic and electronic packaging upgrades on today''s deployed aircraft such as the F-16. They currently obtain cooling from the aircraft''s environmental control system that is driven with bleed air taken from the jet engine compressor, (reference article by Mr. Steve Benning, AFRL document IF-99-02).

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Richard S. Sapienza
AF 03-119       Awarded: 5/22/2003
Title:Gas turbine engine oil additives for advanced bearings - advanced steels
Abstract:In order to meet new requirements for improved performance and longer life, engine manufacturers have investigated the use of new, advanced high-chrome steels for incorporation into new gas turbine engines used in military aircraft. These advanced steels allow higher operating temperatures and higher speed capabilities, and provide improved corrosion and fatigue resistance. However, in performance tests conducted to date, bearings made of these new high-chrome materials have experienced significantly shorter life than anticipated. Existing lubricants have been specifically formulated with aryl phosphate antiwear additives that provide excellent performance under elastohydrodynamic and boundary lubrication conditions when used in conjunction with the current low chrome-containing bearings based on conventional steels. Under these conditions the aryl phosphate additives breakdown to form a lubricious film at the rubbing metal surface contact points, and prevent excessive wear of the bearings. Apparently, the chemistry of the new high-chrome steels does not interact in the same way with the aryl phosphate additives to form the life extending lubricious films. Under the current SBIR solicitation, the U.S. Air Force is interested in the research, formulation and development of new and effective lubricity additives for high temperature gas turbine engine oils (GTOs) to enhance the performance of bearings using the new high-chrome steels. METSS proposes to develop new antiwear additives for GTOs for specific use with the new high-chrome steel bearings, using a proven approach to cost-effective materials development. METSS will draw on existing materials and technology, working directly with industry participants to select the best materials for product formulation, and evaluate the new GTOs under a stringent testing and evaluation program to select the best performers. This approach ensures a non-biased approach to achieving the program objectives and opens up the opportunity of creating customized formulations that can be designed to directly address performance requirements using commercial-off-the-shelf enhanced GTO formulation components. The development of successful, new antiwear lubricant additives for advanced steel bearings will have both military and commercial uses. For example, many municipalities use power generation turbines, which have similar issues to aircraft gas turbine engines. Another commercial application is for commercial aircraft because commercial aircraft engine advancements usually follow military advancements by about five years.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Amarendra K. Rai
AF 03-119       Awarded: 5/29/2003
Title:Novel Gas Turbine Engine Oil Additives for Advanced Steel Bearings
Abstract:To meet the requirements for improved performance and longer life of future gas turbine engines, the engine companies have investigated the possibility of using advanced, high-temperature, high-fracture toughness, corrosion-resistant, wear resistant and fatigue resistant steels in gas turbine engine mechanical systems (bearings, gears, etc.). The advanced steels such as Pyrowear 675, CSS-42L, Cronidur 30, Cru-20, etc., are candidates for the mechanical systems of future gas turbine engines. However, in tribological performance tests conducted to date with the gas turbine engine oils (GTOs) formulated with existing antiwear additives, the advanced steels have exhibited significantly shorter life than anticipated. UES, Inc. proposes to develop novel antiwear additive technology and the tribo-configurations to enhance the tribological performance of the advanced steel materials. A systematic test methodology will be used to evaluate and validate the proposed antiwear additives and tribo-configurations. Based upon their performance ranking, the antiwear additives and tribo-configurations will be identified for further development in Phase II. Successful completion of the project will provide demonstrated knowledge about the antiwear additives and tribo-configurations required for enhancing the tribological performance of advanced mechanical systems. Besides application in military and commercial aircraft gas turbine engines, the novel additive technology and tribo-configurations could also be used in the mechanical systems of municipality power generation turbines.

WEDEVEN ASSOC., INC.
5072 West Chester Pike
Edgmont, PA 19028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 356-7161
Dr. Lavern D, Wedeven
AF 03-119       Awarded: 5/21/2003
Title:Gas turbine engine oil additives for advanced bearings - advanced steels
Abstract:New oil additive chemistry is needed to lubricate corrosion resistant bearing steels, including ceramic rolling elements. Combining lubrication attributes of polyol ester basestock blends with innovative additive formulations provide opportunities for enhanced lubrication of new bearing materials as well as conventional materials. The oil and additive formulation strategy involves blending surface lubrication mechanisms, including adsorption, near-surface viscosity enhancement and reaction chemistry. Additives include thiadiazole chemistry, phosphorus and non-phosphorus chemistry. Feasibility is conducted with a supporting team of oil and additive suppliers with an engine company providing focus for materials and operating requirements. An iterative testing and formulation strategy will use a modified load capacity oil qualification test, unique to the small business. Enhanced surface viscosity effects will be measured using 3-D ultra-thin-film measurements with optical interferometry. An existing load capacity database for qualified oil products will be used to judge feasibility and performance margin. Corrosion is a major cause of bearing rejection and failure. New oil chemistry compatible with corrosion resistant and ceramic bearing materials will significantly improve the performance margin and lifecycle cost of JSF and other military engine systems. These advanced materials and lubricants have immediate spin-off to commercial engines, automotive and industrial applications, including grease lubricated systems.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. Andrei Vakhtin
AF 03-120       Awarded: 5/29/2003
Title:Determination of Microcracking Damage in Composites
Abstract:There is a need for the nondestructive diagnosis of micro-cracking in the composite skin of a honeycomb sandwich structure used in aircraft and space systems. We propose to use Differential Spectral Interferometry (DSI) as a noninvasive tool to quantify the location and depth of micro-cracking in the composite skin. In DSI, the sample is irradiated with infrared light, which penetrates into the material. The back-scattered light, when combined with the reference light beam in the interferometer, produces an interference spectral fringe pattern - interferogram - that contains the depth information. The high dynamic range of DSI allows testing of materials which are opaque as seen by eye. We expect that the DSI method can be implemented in a relatively simple and compact instrument, which can be used independently, or in combination with currently used inspection methods, such as ultrasound techniques. The market is sales of the instrument to the military and commercial organizations for inspection of micro-cracking damage in parts and structures made of composite materials. Benefits include enhanced aircraft safety and cost savings resulting from improved quality control during development and manufacture of composite parts and materials.

THERMAL WAVE IMAGING, INC.
845 Livernois Street
Ferndale, MI 48220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 414-3730
Dr. Steven Shepard
AF 03-120       Awarded: 5/29/2003
Title:Determination of Micorcracking Damage in Composites
Abstract:Rapid growth in the performance and capabilities of pulsed thermography, and the increased use of composite materials in the construction and repair of military and commercial aircraft, has strongly positioned it as a viable NDI technique. This technology, as it currently stands, is a widely accepted rapid, non-contact, wide-area inspection tool. In Phase I of this program, Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc. proposes to leverage its expertise in this field coupled with work performed under previously awarded SBIR programs. Specifically, we will investigate development of a nondestructive method to inspect composite skin honeycomb components for micro-cracking, heat damage, and other defects related to excessive thermal and/or moisture exposure. Two significant modifications to the conventional pulsed thermography approach will be investigated for feasibility: (1) A low-energy, repetitive data acquisition scheme will be evaluated for measurement of material properties and depth of low level damage, (2) A hardware device to reduce the duration of the flash lamp pulse by an order of magnitude will be built and tested. Successful development and implementation of the proposed NDI pulsed thermography system, for detecting and quantifying size and depth of micro-cracking in composite skin plies, will fill a wide-spread void in current capability for both commercial and military aerospace industry segments. Conventional NDI techniques such as UT, X-ray, PT have shown limited success for this particular need, not to mention long inspection times, high cost of operation, health and safety issues, and inadequate portability. Our Phase I proposal was formulated based on input from current and prospective customers in Government and private aerospace manufacturing, service, and R&D, including Air Force, Navy, NASA, commercial airline, and military NDE personnel. We found that several major aerospace and power generation customers (Boeing, Airbus, GKN Westland, Lockheed-Martin, Siemens Westinghouse, GE) were still using conventional inspection techniques such as UT, X-ray, and PT for detection of micro-cracking with moderate success, not to mention long inspection times, high cost of operation, health and safety issues, and inadequate portability. These customers indicated a high degree of interest in an NDI system that would incorporate the advanced features of the pulsed systems that they were using on other applications.

ESPIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
100 Cherokee Blvd., Suite 325
Chattanooga, TN 37405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 267-6266
Dr. Jayesh Doshi
AF 03-121       Awarded: 9/29/2003
Title:Filter for Airborne Pathogens and Toxic Liquids
Abstract:Recent terrorist activities have left virtually no question that future protection systems for warriors will need to address chemical-biological filtration. Although filters are presently available for CB threat, there remains a need for regenerating, signature-less filters that can trap nanoparticulates and biological pollutants. In this context, under Phase I eSpin proposes to provide a feasibility demonstration of self-regenerating polymer and carbon nanofiber based composite filter. The filtration of fine aerosols is benefited by small diameter and high surface area material. The application of nanofibers is well suited to addressing the problems of trapping and neutralizing pollutants. Electrospun nanofibers will be produced and the architecture will be tailored to achieve the desired filter performance and gas adsorption by varying fiber diameter and fiber packing fraction within the matrix, as well as activation level for optimum performance. The nanofiber surface modification will be tailored to generate singlet oxygen to regenerate filter. Carbon nanofibers will absorb chemical pollutants, while nylon nanofibers are expected to hydrolize the pollutant At the end of the Phase I & II of the proposed effort, eSpin will have successfully developed nanofiber based, robust, low cost air filters for filtering CB compounds. The introduction of nanofibers to filtration presents new economic opportunities as well as the potential for raising the performance standards for the filtration industry. The potential commercial applications of the proposed research is in area of HVAC, clean rooms, large government buildings, aircraft, cruise ships, portable shelters, etc.

SUPER-PULSE
1452 Hanshaw Rd.
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-6224
Dr. Czeslaw Golkowski
AF 03-121       Awarded: 9/22/2003
Title:AIRBORNE CBW AGENT DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGY
Abstract:Decontamination is a process through which dangerous chemicals and microorganisms, including vegetative cells, spores and viruses, are rendered harmless. Conventional technologies such as new-generation of HEPA filters provide reasonable protection for a certain amount of time. However, HEPA filters are expensive and require the use of pre-filters to limit their rate of loading, moreover, they dissipate large amounts of power from the ventilation air stream. We propose to develop a new technology for decontamination of air streams through simultaneous injection and generation of strong oxidative free radicals. These free radicals, which have an average lifetime of less than a second, are effective in neutralizing chemical and biological agents upon contact and dissipate not leaving any residue. The strong air/gas stream containing free radicals produced in a non-thermal plasma source will be able to penetrate efficiently the contaminated air stream due to vibrant turbulence caused by the injection stream. Non-thermal plasma technologies are currently under investigation for their ability to decompose biological and chemical agents. Plasma chemical processes have been known to be highly effective in promoting oxidation, enhancing molecular dissociation, and producing free radicals to enhance chemical reactions. Plasma techniques such as the pulsed microwave discharge proposed here, offer advantages of energy efficiency and the capability for the simultaneous removal of co-existing CBW agents. The air decontamination technology using non-thermal plasma can be used in military and civilian environment. Exclusive of homeland defense, the principal commercial opportunity is as an infection control/allergy suppression accessory in ventilation systems and in private residence, aircraft, and business ventilation systems, including medical and microbiological facilities. There are also likely to be analogous military applications.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Peter C. Sterling
AF 03-122       Awarded: 5/30/2003
Title:Novel Flame and Impact Resistant Foam Core
Abstract:Flame resistant lightweight, foam cored composites are needed for many Air Force applications including aircraft structures and portable personnel protective barriers. FMI proposes to fulfill this need by development of an innovative composite structure that will incorporate fire resistant resin and foam with Kevlar ballistic fabric. This approach is based upon individual materials and production techniques that are well understood by previous FMI development efforts. A (FR) phenolic foam core will be used to reduce weight but at the same time provide fire and impact resistance. A compression molding process will be used to combine all of the components into one foam cored sandwich composite. The outside of the composite will have the (FR) resin impregnated fiberglass, which will provide some structural, flame resistant, and ballistic properties. The (FR) foamed core will provide further flame resistant properties while also adding some impact resistance. The backside of the core will be protected with (FR)resin impregnated Kevlar,which will continue to provide flame resistance, but most importantly prevent bullet penetration from a Threat Level II. This process will yield a lightweight, foamed core protective barrier at a low cost. A low cost process to produce lightweight flame resistant foamed core composite with improved impact resistance that will be of interest in the fabrication of both military and commercial products. Products such as firewalls for transport vehicles and aircraft, and portable personnel protective barriers.

TEX TECH INDUSTRIES, INC.
105 North Main St, PO Box 8
North Monmouth, ME 04265
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 933-4404
Mr. David F. Erb Jr.
AF 03-122       Awarded: 6/23/2003
Title:Novel Flame and Impact Resistant Foam Core
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop new processing methods and materials packages for foam core materials that can be used in military and civilian applications that call for ballistic and flame resistance. The research work will build on an existing program in the area of ballistic resistant composites using polyurethane resins and aramid / glass reinforcements. New materials that will be tested include advanced Aramid soft ballistic fabrics and a nonwoven silica paper recently specified as the primary fiberlocker in the Airbus A380. The optional use of thin sheets of Titanium will also be evaluated. A variety of fire and smoke reduction technologies will be utilized to improve the current composite which has an LOI of 36 to 47 without additives or synergists. The pultruded skin layers will be laminated to a variety of core materials including syntactic foams, high performance thermosets such as polymethacrylamide, advanced thermoplastics and novel materials, e.g. Geopolymers. The feasibility of two different methods for simultaneous in-line production of sandwich core materials will be investigated in the course of the research program. Complete sample testing will be conducted including; mechanical, cone calorimetry, FAA standard procedures under FAR 25.853 and NIJ Standard 0108.01 / MIL-STD-662E. The cost of conventional advanced material processes in terms of labor, capital equipment and materials is very high. The proposed pultrusion methods and materials solutions are projected to significantly reduce the overall cost for new ballistic and fire resistant foam core composites used in advanced materials applications. A number of military and civilian transportation applications would benefit from the successful completion of the proposal: One of immediate significance is the production of terrorist resistant bulkheads for compliance with the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) under section 104 (a)(2) which specifies future aircraft security enhancements including terrorist resistant floors, ceilings and bulkhead designs. Other aircraft components amenable to the new technology might be long, continuous floor sections and curved sections used to form the straight portion of a fuselage. Hat sections for component stiffening might be another opportunity. Areas requiring compound curvatures could be fabricated using conventional methods and the material solutions developed in the program. Other large opportunities for foam core concepts resulting as a spin-off of the technology lie in the area of improved fire safety and survivability for civil infrastructure including metal buildings that use foam based insulation. Yet another opportunity may exist in third world development and military deployment structures. Related to this would be the potential for blast / fire resistant materials for protection of barracks and other key facilities as well as armor upgrade kits for military and civilian applications. The proposal uses numerous new material advances in conjunction with established production technologies, thus the potential exists to convert the R&D effort into commercial products in a short period of time.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng C. Tan
AF 03-122       Awarded: 5/22/2003
Title:Lighweight Foamed Composites with Superior Flame and Impact Resistant Properties
Abstract:Fiber reinforced composites have many applications in both the military and civil sectors that require lightweight structure, fuel efficiency, and environmental durability. Some military applications have additional requirements that the materials must be impact and ballistic resistant in addition to the need for flame and moisture resistant characteristics. Metals and ceramics are recognized to have good ballistic properties, but their densities are too high for applications that require mobility. Conventional polymeric foam cores are designed to enhance bending stiffness of structures. Although current foamed structures normally have good impact properties, they do not have the required properties for severe impact (like ballistic) and flame resistant properties. In this Phase I research we propose to develop a new class of microcellular foamed composites from a fire retardant polymer and fibers. This microcellular foamed composite can be processed in one step. They should have superior impact, flame, and moisture resistant properties. They are lightweight and are excellent for applications that require mobility. Additional features include high mechanical properties, ductility, and the ability to resist fragmentation from neighboring components. If successfully developed, the proposed materials would have an immediate and large market in the military and law inforcement sectors. Potential applications of the proposed microcellular foamed composites include: portable protective shields for soldiers and policeman; infrastructure of buildings; bridge decks and piers; high performance, high speed racing sport and civilian transport vehicles; temporary runways and parking lots for aircraft; floor panels and decks of ships and boats; acoustic dampening; flame-resistant firewalls for racing circuit and passenger cars, truck and train components, and air vehicles.

MAKEL ENGINEERING, INC.
275 Fairchild Avenue, Suite 106
Chico, CA 95973
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 895-2770
Dr. Darby B. Makel
AF 03-123       Awarded: 5/15/2003
Title:Hidden Threat Detection Techniques
Abstract:Makel Engineering proposes to develop a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based chemical sensor system for detection of human targets, which could pose a threat to United States military personnel and assets. The proposed sensor system would use MEMs based chemical sensors and wireless communications technology to produce a low cost remote sensing system for a wide range of military applications that could be deployed as small packages around installations or used with rovers to explore terrain such as caves and tunnels to search for human targets. The proposed sensor system will be based on MEMs sensors, which can detect indicators of prolonged human activity in areas that are assumed secure or uninhabited. Chemical sensors can be used to detect, ammonia, urea, sulfur compounds, and methane from biological waste products. Chemical sensors can also be used to detect enhanced carbon dioxide levels in enclosed areas. Physical sensors for parameters such as sound, IR signature, and temperature can provide further indicators of the presence of human targets. This creates a sensor system that can be deployed with a "nose", "ear" and "eye" to provide data for assessing the presence of potential threats. The sensor suite is based on detecting gas phase chemicals from biologically generated waste, respiration, and perspiration as well as an acoustic sensor and IR thermal sensor. In addition, the technology in the proposed system can be applied to the detection of toxic industrial compound or chemical weapons threats. The need for remote detection of hidden human subjects and potential chemical agent threats has been highlighted during US military operations in Afganistan. Hidden enemy subjects presented threats to US airbases and pockets of resistance throughout the mountains and urban areas. US military personnel currently face chronic and acute environmental threats from the poor environmental practices of host nations, collateral damage from warfare, and terrorism. These threats consist of compounds that are not detectable by currently fielded systems.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 725-5007
Dr. Robert Douglass
AF 03-123       Awarded: 5/19/2003
Title:Standoff Detection of Human Carried Explosives for Military Force Protection
Abstract:U.S. military commanders have placed a high priority on protecting U.S. forces from concealed Human Carried Explosives (HCEs) at home and abroad. Required detection ranges extend beyond 100 meters, and response times for suicide bombers are often less than one minute. Civilian law enforcement and corrections authorities are also highly interested in technologies that remotely detect concealed weapons in individual and group settings. Modern hidden weapon detection technologies use portal configurations that require close-in sensing, putting the security professional at risk. Emerging millimeter wave radar imaging technologies extend detection ranges to tens of meters, but require a minute or more to scan and form an image. SET proposes to develop a novel multisensor hidden weapon detection system that extends detection ranges beyond 100 meters, and automatically detects and alerts an operator to HCE threats in seconds. The system employs video sensors to detect and track potential threats, and a real-beam radar to interrogate and classify tracked objects cued by the video. This research lays the groundwork for the proposed system by investigating the feasibility of remotely discriminating HCEs from clutter with video-cued radar. The proposed HCE detection solution offers many benefits over state-of-the-art technologies, including extended operating ranges to detect HCEs before they threaten forces, rapid interrogation to minimize operator response times, automated processing to reduce labor costs and cognitive overload, inexpensive and portable COTs sensing and processing components, innovative video and radar fusion algorithms to reduce false alarms, and non-imaging penetrating radar to avoid privacy concerns. There are numerous commercial law enforcement and corrections applications for stand-off metal detection technologies, such as the ability to safely search apprehended criminals, monitor prison populations, and remotely scan crowds at sporting events, concerts, airport lobbies, open markets, and other public venues.

VAC, INC.
P.O. Box 292677
Kettering, OH 45429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4609
Mr. Scott Gregory
AF 03-123       Awarded: 6/13/2003
Title:Novel Delivery Systems for Threat Detection
Abstract:Organic optical brighteners function by absorbing UV wavelengths and fluorescing visible light. When wavelengths of the entire visible spectrum are emitted, white light is the resultant color. Specific organic optical brighteners have been used in limited military applications. Some biological compounds will also fluoresce when interrogated by UV sources. More specifically , materials such as porphyrin-based chromophores, when interrogated by a 355 nm wavelength source, such as a UV laser, will flouresce at a specific wavelength. This wavelength can then be readily discerned with night vision goggles, if observed at close distance, or can also be observed by a color camera at distances up to 2 kilometers. The unique wavelength properties of selective chromophores make them excellent candidates for detection systems. Such detection systems could be utilized by U.S. forces for area denial,, friend/foe identification badges and environmental obscurants. However, the biologically active materials also possess inherent instability properties and are degraded by oxygen, water, sunlight and heat. The present SBIR program proposes to stabilize the chromophores using proprietary delivery system technologies so that the cited military applications can be effectively developed. Security Equipment, Product Tampering Indicater, Intrusion Detection, Personnel Security

NOVACERA
188 S. Whisman Rd.
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 954-5739
Dr. Hergen Eilers
AF 03-124       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Window Materials for Airborne Directed Energy Applications
Abstract:NovaCera proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of gas-phase condensation to synthesize ultrapure, spherical, monodispersed, unagglomerated nanopowders of yttria (n-Y2O3) for window materials for airborne directed energy applications. It is expected that the use of ultrapure ceramic nanopowders will result in significantly improved mechanical and optical properties of these windows. The windows are needed to protect high-energy lasers and high-power microwave devices from the extremely harsh environmental conditions while still allowing the transmission of high-power directed energy. They need to maintain their mechanical and optical integrity over a wide range of varying conditions, including thermal shock. Gas-phase condensation has been used in the past to synthesize high quality ceramic nanopowders like yttria and zirconia. NovaCera intends to demonstrate that this method is suitable for producing nanophase materials that meet the very stringent requirements for the production of windows for directed energy applications. These requirements include the use of ultrapure materials and the synthesis of nanophase materials with a very narrow size distribution. In addition, these windows are also of interest for the protection of sensors on missiles and aircraft. Commercial applications include lighter and stronger windows for aircraft and ceramic injection molding. In addition to the applications of advanced high-energy laser and high-power microwave DE weapons onboard airborne systems, these materials are also of interest for the protection of sensors on missiles and aircraft. Commercial applications include lighter and stronger windows for aircraft and ceramic injection molding.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3969
Mr. Thomas H. Hartnett
AF 03-124       Awarded: 5/30/2003
Title:Window Material for High Energy Laser Applications
Abstract:High energy laser (HEL) window materials require high transmission of energy from directed energy (DE) devices while providing improved properties required for long life and affordable airborne application. The material must have low absorption and low scattering in the laser wavelength region. Of the various candidate materials, ALON appears to be most promising because of its favorable properties such as excellent optical transparency, high hardness, high strength, durability, low intrinsic absorption characteristic and large window size fabrication capability. Surmet Corporation proposes to develop high purity ALON as the window material for high-energy laser (HEL) directed-energy (DE) devices. Using an innovative cost-effective manufacturing process developed by Surmet, Phase I research will attempt to determine the best ALON composition with high purity and very low optical absorption and scatter. Three compositions of ALON will be synthesized to form window size test coupons. These will be characterized for purity, composition, absorption, scatter and temperature co-efficient of refractive index, in order to demonstrate the improved performance and suitability of this material for the intended HEL window application. At the conclusion of the Phase I research, the test size coupons of ALON will be delivered to the Air Force Program Manager for further evaluation for qualifying Surmet for a Phase II award. ALON is already being developed by Surmet for commercial uses as supermarket scanner windows, scratch resistant lenses and windows, watch crystals, prisms, etc. The proposed research to improve the scatter and absorption properties of this important material via production of high purity ALON will make it suitable for high-energy laser window applications.

ECLIPSE ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 344-7300
Dr. Paul Watson
AF 03-125       Awarded: 7/8/2003
Title:Narrow Band, High Reflectivity Optical Elements in the Infrared
Abstract:High efficiency narrowband infrared reflectors are being considered for applications in optical communications, remote sensing, optical limiting and laser hardening. In order to protect space-based sensors without diminishing the capabilities of these components, it is necessary to reflect impinging optical beams at threat wavelengths while supporting high optical transmission at detection wavelengths. This program will develop a new technology which will provide electrically tunable rugate mirrors, i.e. rugate mirrors which use ion intercalation to change the refractive indexes of the layers resulting in an electronically controllable shift in the reflected wavelength. Phase I will test the feasibility of fabricating a rugate mirror using materials that are expected to be ionorefractive. Phase II will further develop the rugate mirror fabrication and develop their ionorefractive wavelength tuning capabilities. Anticipated benefit of this SBIR is the fabrication of a rugate mirror that meets the requirements and has the possibility of being tuned using a small electrical voltage. With reflectivities higher than can be obtained with gratings, narrow-band filters will have a very widespread use in a variety of military and commercial applications in infrared sensors.

RUGATE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
353 Christian Street
Oxford, CT 06478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 267-3154
Mr. Thomas D. Rahmlow, Jr.
AF 03-125       Awarded: 6/6/2003
Title:Narrow Band, High Reflectivity Optical Elements in the Infrared
Abstract:Fabrication of far infrared notch filters requires development of a filter that is ten times thicker than our current near-infrared filters. Rugate Technologies proposes to improve upon its capability in infrared filter fabrication through incorporating multiple design techniques, materials research, process development, and incorporating novel optical monitoring techniques into our already automated deposition system. In Phase I, we will develop and demonstrate the fundamental processes, materials, and monitoring required to produce these filters. We will fabricate laser mirrors of 4, 3, and 2% bandwidth on flat substrates with edge-to-edge uniformity of better than 1/4 of the bandwidth of the filter notch. Narrow band, highly reflective optical filters developed for the infrared spectral region will offer enormous performance benefits in several critical areas. Many military sensors that combine laser-based range finding and targeting, with infrared imaging will directly benefit. The results will be applied to hyperspectral imaging and commercial applications such as radiometry, tunable laser sources, laser chemistry, and laser spectroscopy.

TELAZTEC LLC
15 A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 229-9904
Mr. Douglas S. Hobbs
AF 03-125       Awarded: 6/13/2003
Title:Low Loss Hologram Filters for the Infrared
Abstract:We propose to develop a new type of wavelength selective mirror for mid and long wave infrared optics. Based on surface structure waveguide holograms, the new technology approach promises to deliver high performance combined with the ability to vary the filter characteristics by simple modification of the hologram parameters. The novel filters are also expected to provide a significant cost advantage due to inexpensive fabrication techniques. Produce rugged, low loss, wavelength selective optics for mid and long wave infrared devices. Commercial applications include pollution monitoring, laser material processing such as cutting and welding, environmental sensors, and medical lasers.

AERO THERMO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
620 Discovery Drive, Bldg I, Ste 100
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-1141
Mr. Bruce Moylan
AF 03-126       Awarded: 5/12/2003
Title:Innovative Durable Thermal Protection Systems for Next Generation Civil and Military Space Vehicles
Abstract:Reusable space vehicles currently being designed by the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for both military and commercial applications require innovative structural components that are both light weight and able to withstand the severe thermal environments of multiple reentries into the atmosphere without time consuming and expensive refurbishment prior to the next flight. This program builds on, and expands, Aero Thermo Technology's (AT2) recent success bringing state-of-the-art thermal protection materials and advanced composite manufacturing techniques together to form a family of durable hybrid thermal protection concepts applicable to both insulated and hot structure designs. This approach is a paradigm shift away from the typical tile based thermal protection methodology that is too heavy and requires significant investments in both inspection time and refurbishment. The next generation of space vehicles will not be able to meet their program requirements by using the techniques developed in the 1960's. The thermal protection designer is asked to produce structures of unprecedented performance, and AT2's NexGen insulated structure approach is just such a design solution. AT2's durable thermal protection concepts hold the promise of surviving multiple reentries while minimizing vehicle weight and enabling rapid turnaround of the vehicle with minimal maintenance. Rapid turnaround times with minimal maintenance and refurbishment requirements translate into huge operational cost savings and increased system availability, which is key to any military space vehicle. The designs developed in this program will lead the way to innovative durable thermal protection systems and insulated structural designs that are applicable across a wide range of military and commercial applications including the Air Force Space Maneuver Vehicle (SMV), the Space Operations Vehicle (SOV), and NASA's Next Generation Shuttle.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
1024 E. Lancaster Ave.
Rosemont, PA 19010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 526-9505
Mr. Guido Teti
AF 03-126       Awarded: 5/14/2003
Title:Optimized Hybrid Leading Edge for Reusable Launch Vehicles to Maximize Lift, Cross Range and Durability
Abstract:This effort explores using innovative hybrid reinforced carbon-carbon, refractory ceramics, super alloys and composite materials as thermal protection system (TPS) in Hybrid composite leading edges for reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The RLV leading edge is the primary TPS that space vehicles use re-entering the atmosphere or traveling at hypersonic speeds. Depending on the Mach number spacecraft surface temperatures are as high 4000F. The shape of the RLV leading edge, primarily the radius affects the functionality of the spacecraft including RLV drag, lift and leading edge aero-thermal heating. Sharper leading edges create more lift and re-entry cross range capabilities. The downside of a sharp leading edge is that aero-thermal heating is increased, resulting in steep thermal gradients in the leading edge. These thermal gradients create high thermal stresses. Blunt leading edges leading edges have less thermal gradient and therefore thermal stresses are lower. However, the cross range capabilities of the vehicle are reduced. This effort seeks to parametrically define hybrid composite material architectures optimizing the RLV leading edge for maximum lift, cross range and durability at temperatures of 4000F. The goal is finding the optimal hybrid composite material combinations and architectures for given leading edge radii on the specified RLV. Required analyses for hybrid leading edge designs include: Micro-mechanical materials computations for hybrid material properties, calculation of leading edge Aero thermal heating heat transfer coefficients, heat rates and pressure loads as a function of leading edge radius. Transient heat transfer analyses for calculation of leading edge thermal gradients. Thermal stress analyses using resulting temperature gradients. Evaluation of leading edge response, as a function of hybrid material architecture via material failure ratios. The result of these analyses will provide the best hybrid material candidates and RLV leading edge designs. MR&D's core business is design and structural analysis of high temperature composite materials. The fundamental technology and design tools developed in this SBIR program will allow us to expand our client base and offer more capabilities to our existing customers. Additionally, the technology developed here will be translated to other commercial and government applications to expand the market for refractory materials in hybrid material leading edges, nozzles, hypersonic airframes and ramjet engines. Potential commercial users of the hybrid leading edge materials are companies including, NASA, Boeing, Rockwell, Thiokol, Lockheed Martin, ATK numerous others.

THERMAL MANAGEMENT & MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY
4664 Vista de la Tierra
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 807-8960
Dr. John W. McCoy
AF 03-126       Awarded: 5/9/2003
Title:Durable Hybrid Thermal Protection System
Abstract:In this program, the technical feasibility of a new thermal protection system (TPS) design for hypersonic airframes will be established. The design will draw from the strengths of many advanced aerospace materials, placing each material into a narrow role it is best suited to fill. An innovative design approach will be introduced that combines an early emphasis on thermal management, a novel materials system, and a novel leading-edge internal configuration. The novel materials system we propose is enabled by a recent TMMT advance in the synthesis of metal/carbon composite materials with unique thermal properties. The novel structural configuration we propose combines radiant and active cooling mechanisms in a manner that allows the surrounding advanced composite structures to spend a longer portion of the flight cycle within the temperature range where their oxidation protection system functions most effectively. The proposed design solution innovatively reconfigures the existing materials set into a system that better integrates thermal, structural, and aerodynamic requirements. Thermal protection systems currently pose one of the greatest challenges to the advancement of hypersonic flight technology. The TPS design solution offered enhances the thermal capability of a new generation of reusable launch vehicles such as those under development in the National Aerospace Initiative, but also contributes to the broader advancement of aviation technology.

KVA ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 3335
Santa Rosa, CA 95402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 636-5330
Mr. Jasper Morrison
AF 03-129       Awarded: 6/12/2003
Title:Inductively Coupled Initiation Systems
Abstract:The proposed Inductively Coupled Initiation System utilizes a unique operating configuration that will maintain the integrity of the ordnance system, while providing the means to test the initiation system without functioning the detonator. The Inductively Coupled Initiation System developed will be added to the product line to provide a unique fireset for commercial applications.

CONDUCTING MATERIALS CORP.
6935, Oakland Mills Road, Suite, 'D'
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 745-2003
Dr. V.R.Paiverneker(Mana Pai)
AF 03-130       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Optical Initiation of Explosives
Abstract:Currently, initiation of primary explosives such as lead azide is achieved by a hot wire ignition system. In order to decrease the fuze size, eliminate complexity of the fuze box and reduce the ignition time, there has been a need to replace the hot wire ignition system by laser ignition. Because lead azide is white in color, it scatters most of the laser radiation and requires very high powered laser systemswhich are heavy and expensive. Efforts by Sandia National Lab to blacken the lead azide by mixing it with carbon black decreased the required laser power somewhat but not enough. LEDs which are light weight and inexpensive, would be ideal for initiation. However, the laser power needed to initiate lead azide needs to be reduced substantially, to be able to take advantage of LEDs. The Principal investigator has used a doping technique to make lead azide intrinsically colored and initiated this doped lead azide with much less laser power, almost similar to LED. However, LEDs were never used. Here, Conducting Materials Corp. in collaboration with Dr. Jim Spicer and Dr. John Brupbacher of Johns Hopkins University intend to study the feasibility of initiating lead azide and also HMX using LEDs. The PI's expertise in doping techniques and explosives, and JHU consultants' expertise in laser technology and atom infusion technique are a perfect combination to tackle this problem. Currently, initiation of primary explosives such as lead azide is achieved by a hot wire ignition system. In order to decrease the fuze size, eliminate complexity of the fuze box and reduce the ignition time, there has been a need to replace the hot wire ignition system by laser ignition. Because lead azide is white in color, it scatters most of the laser radiation and requires very high powered laser systemswhich are heavy and expensive. Efforts by Sandia National Lab to blacken the lead azide by mixing it with carbon black decreased the required laser power somewhat but not enough. LEDs which are light weight and inexpensive, would be ideal for initiation. However, the laser power needed to initiate lead azide needs to be reduced substantially, to be able to take advantage of LEDs. The Principal investigator has used a doping technique to make lead azide intrinsically colored and initiated this doped lead azide with much less laser power, almost similar to LED. However, LEDs were never used. Here, Conducting Materials Corp. in collaboration with Dr. Jim Spicer and Dr. John Brupbacher of Johns Hopkins University intend to study the feasibility of initiating lead azide and also HMX using LEDs. The PI's expertise in doping techniques and explosives, and JHU consultants' expertise in laser technology and atom infusion technique are a perfect combination to tackle this problem. All federal government projects using hot wire ignition system will benefit significantly by use of CD type of diode lasers. These include all missiles and rockets. The concept could be used very successfully for all commercial explosives used in mining industries.

CONTINENTAL CONTROLS & DESIGN, INC.
1921 N. Gaffey Suite J
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 831-8669
Mr. James P. Hynes
AF 03-131       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:Efficient Propulsion for Long Loiter Tactical Mini Air Vehicles
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate self starting, computer controlled, high efficiency, heavy fuel IC engines for small UAVs with extended loiter capability. Internal combustion engines were supplanted by gas turbines for most military aircraft after WWII, but they are still the obvious choice for small, low subsonic UAVs. We will investigate adapting mass production direct injected 2 stroke engines for UAV use. A loitering UAV needs a lightweight powerplant with good specific fuel consumption across a wide operating range because the operating point changes dramatically as fuel is burned off. We modify and test a direct injected 50cc engine derived from a low emissions scooter and compare it's performance with a high output fuel injected 4-stroke. With stratified charging to minimize throttling losses and improved charge trapping, we expect a BSFC below 0.5 lb/hp-hr throughout the flight envelope. We will also design optimized propellers and provide detailed performance estimates for this propulsion system in candidate airframes. An efficient, robust, self starting heavy fuel IC engine is sought by all branches of the military and could see widespread use for portable power for commercial use.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Arthur Dobley
AF 03-131       Awarded: 7/14/2003
Title:A Phase I SBIR Program for an Ultra-lightweight Lithium Air Battery for Unmanned Air Vehicles
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will advance an efficient and lightweight power plant for Unmanned Air Vehicles by developing an ultra-lightweight lithium air battery coupled with an electric motor. Specifically the project advances lithium air batteries by focusing on an efficient air cathode structure with an increased oxygen diffusion rate. Typical problems are air cathodes with low oxygen diffusion rates and water contamination. By improving the structure of the air cathode and using a non-aqueous proprietary thin film composite polymer electrolyte the battery system will greatly improve. The proposed air cathode structure is a carbon composite with a binding agent and metal catalysts. We propose to increase the oxygen diffusion rate of the cathode structure by investigating different carbon morphologies, varied surface areas, and a double-sided electrode to greatly increase the reactive surface area. Metal catalysts are incorporated to enhance the oxygen reduction kinetics within the cathode structure. Yardney's experience and technologies in the zinc-air and Al-air power sources will be adopted in the design of the new air cathode structure. Advantages of the proposed lithium air battery include a high energy density, ultra-lightweight, safe design, environmentally friendly components, and an increased oxygen diffusion rate cathode. The proposed lithium air battery could be used as a high energy density primary battery for powering an electric motor in an Unmanned Air Vehicle. This air battery would actually consume oxygen from the atmosphere making it very light in weight. Commercially the new air cathode structure could be adapted to improve the capabilities of all metal air batteries. Metal air batteries offer high energy in a highly portable package. These batteries have the potential to power camping equipment, model airplanes or any equipment where air is present.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome Fanucci
AF 03-133       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Extendable Loitering Wing (ELW) based on Spacecraft Boom Technology Adaptation
Abstract:An Extendable Loitering Wing (ELW) weapon is proposed in which a large flying wing lifting surface is deployed from a vehicle with a stored volume not much larger than LOCAAS. After weapon release, a tail-mounted parachute slows vertical descent such that wing deployment occurs at low airspeed and high altitude (i.e. low dynamic pressure). After the parachute cord is cut the ELW pitches up to achieve best L/D and glides to the target area, providing significant standoff range (87 miles) and conserves fuel for loitering. Upon reaching loitering altitude for the LADAR seeker (300 to 750 ft AGL), the reciprocating engine is started and the search pattern is established. The weapon has 12 hour endurance at 67 mph and a 750 meter wide scanning footprint, covering a 382 square mile area, more than ten times greater than LOCAAS (which has only 30 minute endurance). Key to this performance is an extremely lightweight and aerodynamically efficient deployable structure using low cost pultruded composites for deployable wing spars. The fundamental technology for the deployable spar has been used on numerous deployable spacecraft booms, and can be readily adapted to Loitering Weapon requirements using novel methods such as Shape Memory Alloy locking elements. Upon completion of Phase I, a detailed weapon aerodynamic and structural design and analysis will be generated. A full-scale wing deployable spar shall be fabricated. This structure will be used to demonstrate multiple deployment and retraction cycles to verify the robustness and reliability of the deployable structure. It shall then be proof loaded to assure that the structure has adequate safety margins for all flight conditions. Many military systems use deployable wing structures based on inflatable fabrics and rigid hinged structures. The proposed concept, once proven, would provide designers with another viable approach to developing a large wing from a small package. Markets could include easily transportable UAVs and long-range weapons. Sizes could be scaled down for man-portable "personal reconnaissance vehicles", or scaled up for large, long duration sensors platforms. The coiled boom technology used for the wing spars might be developed into non-flight applications without the wing skins. Uses could include portable masts and antenna towers, as well as instantly-installable and removable temporary structures for advertising at trade show. The multi-element concept might actually improve the performance of the booms in space applications as well.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Ernie Havens
AF 03-134       Awarded: 5/30/2003
Title:Adaptive Wing Structures for LOCAAS
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group Inc., (CRG) will use our unique suite of smart materials technologies to prototype a structurally adaptive wing for integration with Lockheed Martin's Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (LOCAAS). We will use CRG's Shape Memory Polymer (SMP), Dynamic Modulus Composites (DMC), and Dynamic Modulus Foam (DMF) in conjunction with engineering design, process development, fabrication, and other supporting technologies as needed to accomplish the goals and requirements set forth by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control. Together, these materials technologies support the concept of adaptive structures extremely well. The development of this adaptive structure is expected to directly benefit the Air Force, Lockheed Martin (LMCO) and Cornerstone Research Group (CRG). This program will develop the technology necessary to achieve morphing missiles, aircraft, and many other innovative adaptive structure concepts critical the near future of the Air Force. For LMCO this technology increase their ability to meet the system goals for multiple DoD applications near and far term. Specifically, it will enable their LOCAAS as well as future and/or current missile improved performance characteristics. For CRG, the development of this technology to integration and manufacturing will demonstrate the benefits CRG can offer as an R&D Service Company and innovator. Additionally, this technology has a commercialization path already established with the LMCO relationship and therefore, will be well poised for generating a CRG industries division for contract manufacturing of adaptive structures in general.

QORTEK, INC.
2400 Reach Road, Suite 204
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
AF 03-134       Awarded: 6/16/2003
Title:Variable Sweep Adaptive Airframe
Abstract:QorTek has teamed with Boeing Corporation to propose an advanced multi-regime variably swept design that builds on earlier work done on variable geometry aerostructures. The design is suitable for short-range high-speed strike or long-range loitering attack by air-launched weapon systems. It also has an intermediate design point that enables high maneuverability. The design uses a compact form factor actuator to enable the novel variable sweep design of both the variable wing and canard to be integrated with increasingly smaller planforms. Boeing Corporation represents a major component of the worldwide commercial airframe manufacturing for both civil and military aircraft. The variable sweep design could lead into applications to a number of other unmanned miniaturized missile delivery or UAV aerostructures. Boeing is already investing in such unmanned and/or expendable vehicles and has identified the proposed device technology as a key enabling technology to meet operational requirements.

ELECTRONICS DEVELOPMENT CORP.
9055F Guilford Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 312-6651
Mr. Robert N. Johnson
AF 03-137       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:Free Flight Sensor
Abstract:U.S. munition safety standards require sensing two independent environments before arming the warhead. One of these safety signatures is supposed to be associated with the launch environment and one with the post-launch environment. For gravity-release weapons released from aircraft the first environment is typically lanyard pull with the associated release from the bomb rack, and the second environment is ram air ingested into a generator device. While this has worked fine for many years on non-powered free-fall weapons, there is an increasing use of powered and non-powered guided weapons where the airflow is not stable or predictable. The proposed Phase I program will result in a system-level design of a smart sensor that can be used for a post-launch safety sensor for high altitude releases or highly-maneuverable weapons where airflow is not dependable. The two main alternatives to be considered are an acceleration sensor that monitors the dynamics of the release and flight event, and a proximity sensor to detect positive separation from the aircraft. The resulting sensor will have application for a broad class of powered and non-powered guided weapons, as well as significant commercial applications. Successful completion of the proposed program will result in improved reliability of powered and non-powered guided weapons released from aircraft. This will not only increase combat effectiveness, it will reduce the problems of duds contaminating the battlefield. The commercial potential depends on which of the identified alternatives is selected for full development following the Phase I analyses and tradeoff studies, but there is significant potential for commercial use of the technology for transportation monitoring and security applications.

FIRST RF CORP.
1200 28th Street, Suite 302
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 03-138       Awarded: 6/4/2003
Title:Bistatic Altimeter Concept
Abstract:The proposed Bistatic Altimeter concept is intended to provide a low cost solution to improve the accuracy of existing munitions such as the Joint Advanced Standoff Strike Missile (JASSM), Small Diameter Bomb (SDB), and the Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM). For GPS guided munitions, the GPS navigation error can be related to the weapon CEP. Examining the unclassified ORD threshold for the current GPS capability, the horizontal accuracy is 6.3m but the vertical accuracy is 13.6m. It is clear that vertical dilution of precision (VDOP) dominates the GDOP and can result in higher CEP than predicted. The concept exploits radiation from existing national or commercial assets as the transmitter and utilizes a new antenna, algorithms, processor, and receiver to provide precise altitude measurements of the munition. Central to the research and critical to the ultimate success of the program and ultimate implementation, is a system configured for ease of integration into the weapon system. The antenna performance in the installed configuration will be central to success and is an important aspect of the research. The technique also has application to manned aircraft; military, commercial, and private air transportation. Low cost precision guidance and low cost precise altimetry of munitions and aircraft. The technology will find many application in precise navigation and mapping and radar ranging.

FIRST RF CORP.
1200 28th Street, Suite 302
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 03-139       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Precise Guidance--No Seeker
Abstract:Current precision guided weapons utilize GPS/INS and seeker technologies for guidance to ground targets. GPS/INS systems work by acquiring position and velocity information and maneuvering to given target coordinates entered before release. If seeker technology is used, target-tracking techniques are employed to guide to the final target. The need to precisely attack fixed/moveable targets has come to the forefront in the most recent conflicts. Seekers bring high accuracy for moving/moveable targets but also much higher cost and greater mission planning, power, and cooling requirements. The ability to attack this class of targets without the expense and issues associated with seekers is desirable. This proposal presents a novel concept for precision guidance against fixed/moveable ground targets for implementation in air-launched munitions. The system will provide precise all weather engagement of moving targets in a high J/S environment. Additional benefits include precise navigation for other commercial and DOD assets.

COMPOSITE MATRIX CORP.
218 Exeter Road
Hampton, NH 03842
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 926-4752
Mr. Guy A. Rossi
AF 03-140       Awarded: 6/20/2003
Title:Airframe Materials for High Speed Tactical Missiles
Abstract:Composite Matrix Corporation proposes the development of a revolutionary new class of metal matrix composites (MMC) based on corrosion-resistant copper alloys and continuous fiber reinforcement producible at low cost using methods based on traditional investment casting. The continuous-fiber structural preforms can be produced economically by a rapid laminating process. The calculated density, based on the rule of mixtures, is determined to be 4.22 gm/cc (0.15lb/in3). Unidirectional tensile strength and modulus are estimated to be 3,309 MPa (448 ksi) and 221 GPa (32 msi), respectively. Both strength and stiffness will not degrade significantly at the required 649C (1200F), with the potential to maintain these properties to upwards of 927C (1700F) depending on the selected matrix alloy. The proposed effort will measure tensile strength and modulus of as-cast specimens at ambient and elevated temperatures. High cycle (tension-tension) fatigue testing will be performed at ambient conditions. The ultra-low density, relative to other high-temperature materials, makes this material exceptionally attractive to the high-reliability weapons, spacecraft, and aircraft markets, while the economics of the constituent materials and low-cost production methods will enable penetration into price-sensitive consumer markets such as hand-held power tools and high-end sporting goods. Low-cost lightweight metal matrix composites represent a new class of materials applicable to both commercial/consumer and defense products for mass-critical applications. Defense applications include spacecraft, fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, and next-generation weapon systems, munitions, missiles, land and amphibious vehicles. Examples of consumer applications are hand-held power tools, automotive suspension components and sporting goods. Industrial/commercial applications may range from passenger and freight aircraft structural components and advanced propulsion systems, to high-speed rotating equipment used in printing and paper processing.

SRS TECHNOLOGIES
1800 Quail Street, Suite 101, P.O. Box 9219
Newport Beach, CA 92658
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 862-4188
Mr. Ken Bentley
AF 03-141       Awarded: 6/4/2003
Title:Rapid Target Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis
Abstract:Development of target geometric models (TGM), their associated failure analysis logic trees (FALT) and Failure Modes, Effects Critically Analysis (FMECA) is a time consuming process. The Rapid Mobile Target Generator (RMTG) exploits advances in technology, coupled with nearly 30 years of experience with vulnerability analysis, and results in a novel approach that reduces this costly and time intensive process. Incorporating aspects of virtual reality, artificial intelligence, open architecture and object oriented programming, RMTG allows the user to quickly characterize, identify, place and combine generic critical components into a viable representation of any number of complex mobile target types. RMTG's knowledge and rule bases develop FALTs and FMECAs dynamically as the user places critical components (2C) into the generic target shell. The vulnerability and lethality community has created thousands of TGMs, each with their own set of 2C. RMTG catalogues these by target class and forms a set of common critical components (3C). 3C are added to the target shell via a "drag and drop" graphical user interface. Users are assisted through the process with embedded on screen help and error check functions and end products are "sanity checked" throughout the process against the database of previously developed FALTs and FMECAs While SMTG will initially benefitthe Defense and Homeland Defense communities, commercial applications include the ability to quickly assess the the vulnerability of any buildings, equipment, aircraft, public convayance or ship to damage from explosions (gas, dust, chemical reaction, terrorist attack) or other damage mechanisms.

SURVICE ENGINEERING CO.
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 273-7722
Mr. W. Keith Bowman
AF 03-141       Awarded: 6/2/2003
Title:Rapid Target Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis
Abstract:The weapon effectiveness community is challenged to assess a variety of combat systems with the complex and time-consuming process of developing the myriad of inputs required for a high-resolution vulnerability analysis. It is desired to develop a capability to quickly develop these inputs using automated tools and built-in libraries of components/systems to support weapon effectiveness studies. The proposed solution consists of a vulnerability analysis toolset that implements an extensible file structure based on XML. The toolset will be designed with a simplified user-interface and will work with multiple Government-developed vulnerability applications. It's construction will be based on open, cross-platform standards and an open-source distribution model. Completion of the proposed effort will provide the DoD will the ability to rapidly perform vulnerability analyses. The technology required to implement this capability has commercial applications in Computer Aided Design, database development, and web-based 3D content domains.

UMACHINES, INC.
943 S. Raymond Ave
Pasadena, CA 91105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 441-3223
Dr. Guo-Dung John Su
AF 03-142       Awarded: 7/10/2003
Title:Revolutionary Beam Steering Technology for Imaging Laser Radar
Abstract:Currently the development of ladar seekers is often limited by beam directing mechanisms, which are usually operated by costly, bulky and power hungry voice-coil or electro-mechanical actuators. Umachines proposes to demonstrate the innovative architecture of compact scanning mirrors with sub-millisecond response time based on MEMS technology. This architecture is the next logical evolution of our individual mirror technology and makes use of micromirror arrays to achieve large scanning angles and high-speed response independent of optical aperture sizes. Additionally, we are going to develop a new packaging scheme which could address large arrays of mirror pixels. In the Phase I effort, we propose the following techniques to replace the current mechanical raster scan in the laser ladar systems: (1) Examine micromirror arrays architecture with sub-millisecond response time independent of aperture size (2) Develop practical I/O methods compatible with high resolution micromirror arrays by fabricating bottom electrodes with BSB (backside solder bump) to perform low temperature solder bonding with IC control circuits (3) Proof of concept of how the proposed micromirror arrays could be integrated into imaging ladar systems The MEMS fabrication process for making micromirror arrays with flat surfaces and hidden mirrors provides a solid basis for many optical MEMS devices. There is no doubt that feasible and low cost MEMS processes could also benefit other research works or commercial products. MEMS micromirrors with flat surfaces and high fill factors are a must-have factor for practical applications such as displays or optical telecom communications systems. BSB provides a practical packaging solution for high resolution devices such as micromirror arrays. We expect that in the near future, more and more MEMS devices are going to be fabricated on a single chip with control electronics. As I/O number increases, the BSB could form the packaging cornerstone for other devices (not necessarily optical MEMS) that need large numbers of I/O.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Dr. Wolfgang Kober
AF 03-143       Awarded: 7/24/2003
Title:Munitions Research
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and The Boeing Company propose the development of a prototype real-time next-generation GPS receiver that is tolerant to constructive interference, jamming and spoofing for use with precision-guided munitions, particularly those associated with UCAV scenarios. Continuous GPS availability is assumed in many of today's commercial products, as well as navigation and transportation systems. Since 9/11, the possibility of terrorists affecting GPS availability has become a real possibility. DFC's proposed GPS system has the capability to maintain robust naviagational performance in the presence of spoofing and meaconing interference., thereby helping civilian transportation systems (land, sea and air) continue to operate despite such such terrorist interference. Moreover, landing systems using pseudolites will benefit greatly.

FIRST RF CORP.
1200 28th Street, Suite 302
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 03-143       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:Munitions Research, "SAR" For AFRL MNG
Abstract:AF03-143 (SAR) for AFRL, MNG Branch The US Air Force has a desire to place a SAR seeker on a LOCAAS type munition. The resolution that is sought for full weapon's effectiveness is that currently achieved in UAV SARs and not currently practical or affordable on a munitions platform. One of the key driving requirements is the SAR antenna and processing algorithms. FIRST RF Corporation in conjunction with Dr. Soumekh is proposing an innovative design for both that has the potential to be the enabling technology to reach the Air Force vision of a high resolution low cost SAR. This technology is fully complementary with ongoing SAR efforts at AFRL. Advanced Signal Processing techniques and ever improving signal processors present the opportunity to consider alternate synthetic aperture radar antenna systems, eliminating the need for active electronically scanned or mechanically scanned antenna systems. The focus of this effort is the study and design of antenna systems and associated signal processing for future weapon systems and munitions. The proposed SAR sensor can be configured to process in SAR and Moving Target Indication (MTI) modes, which enables the same sensor to be used for acquiring and tracking, stationary and moving mobile/re-locatable targets. Overall, the benefits of a SAR seeker for a PGM application are clear but the implementation on the munition size platform to date has been the challenge. The desire is for a small size (6" platform), increased resolution, and low cost. The requirement exists for a weapon seeker to have all weather precise targeting and engagement capability. Some current and future weapon systems will loiter in the battlefield or target area in search of specific targets and targets of opportunity. The technology proposed will significantly reduce the cost of current SOA systems. the proposed approach will provide commercial application to GPWS in commercial air safety.

FREESTYLE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4152 Aldrich Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 849-1321
Dr. Kevin S, Schweiker
AF 03-143       Awarded: 9/24/2003
Title:Munition Deployed Microprobes
Abstract:Freestyle Technologies, Inc. proposes to perform exploratory research in the area of munition-deployed microprobes. The baseline microprobe will consist of simple acoustic and sesmic sensors and will be deployed by an autonomous munition at locations of interest. Once deployed, the microprobes will form an ad hoc wireless network and passively monitor for targets. The microprobes will signal the orbiting munition to the presence of targets during a munition overflight of the microprobe area. The microprobes are intended to help solve the occluded target problem and to provide persistant monitoring of the battlespace prior to target engagement. The development of the proposed microprobes will assist landbased search and rescue operations by monitoring acoustic distress signals in remote areas. The microrobes can also be wired into fixed networks to monitor and control traffic.

FREESTYLE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4152 Aldrich Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 849-1321
Dr. Kevin S. Schweiker
AF 03-143       Awarded: 6/27/2003
Title:Multiple-View Genlocked Camera
Abstract:Freestyle Technology, Inc. proses to design an build a six-camera video imaging device for use in navigation research. The individual cameras will be attached to two-meter tethers to allow for flexible placement on a variety of platforms. All cameras will be genlocked to a common signal to assure that corresponding pixels in each camera are sampled at the same time. A user interface will be provided to allow the user to set individual camera parameters and to sample individual frames or sequences of frames from the camera system. Optical flow algorithms will be developed and embdedded in the user interface to allow for the estimate of motion parameters of interest for navigation purposes. A multiple-view genlock camera (MCGV) system will be of value for all types of robotic air and land vehicles. It is anticipated that a navigator based on the MVGC will be of lower cost than a MEMS-based IMU and have a lower drift rate.

KARAGOZIAN & CASE
2550 North Hollywood Way, Suite 500
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 303-1254
Mr. David Bogosian
AF 03-143       Awarded: 6/26/2003
Title:Munitions Research
Abstract:A nine-month, $99,934 effort is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of developing new fast-running models to predict the response of masonry walls to conventional air-dropped and surface-fired munitions. The walls include concrete masonry unit (hollow or grouted) and brick. The munitions include cased bombs at some standoff, as well as proximity fuzed and point detonating artillery rounds. The models will be based on the results of numerous high-fidelity physics-based (HFPB) calculations of wall response using state-of-the-art nonlinear finite element and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) models. Principal components and singular value decomposition techniques will be used to reduce the HFPB data to a fast-running mathematical formulation that can be used for any arbitrary set of input parameters. The phase I effort encompasses validation of the analytical techniques for predicting wall response to combined blast and fragment loads, and particularly for detonations immediately adjacent to the wall. A suite of experimental results will be sought for use in the validation portion of the study. The models developed will be implemented (in phase II) within the MEVA code. As such they will replace current models which are of limited applicability, represent limited types of loads and response modes, and produce limited output. The resulting increase in the accuracy and utility of MEVA will enhance the Air Force's ability to use that code in a wide range of applications, including weapon development, weapon effects studies, targeting analyses. Beyond MEVA, the models may be utilized in a large number of military and civilian assessment codes which require the capability of predicting masonry wall response: IMEA, ATPlanner, Blast/FX, BEDAC, ERASDAC, BLASTPRO, etc.

MATERIALS PROCESSING, INC.
5069 Martin Luther King Freeway
Fort Worth, TX 76119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 492-4446
Dr. Animesh Bose
AF 03-143       Awarded: 5/27/2003
Title:Novel Hard-Nosed Penetrators
Abstract:There is an urgent need for the development of innovative concepts of advanced warheads for air-delivered conventional munitions to defeat host of targets, both above and buried under the ground. The diverse need for the modern penetrator provides a tremendous challenge for the material science and engineering discipline. Getting to the buried targets with conventional munitions is becoming increasingly difficult as the targets are being reinforced with concrete. The current high-strength steel penetrators are gradually becoming ineffective in defeating these targets. To make the penetrators effective, there is the need to develop new penetrator concepts that will significantly enhance the penetration performance. One of the criteria for attaining greater penetration is to design a conceptual penetrator with a very high hardness nose structure. This nose structure (which may be around quarter of the total penetrator length) can be followed by an ultra-high strength and high toughness steel (maraging steel) or even conceivably a much lower cost mild steel structure that will simply provide a high fracture toughness mass that will follow the very high hardness nose structure. The Phase I investigation will reduce to practice this novel penetrator concept. Success in Phase I will result in the development of a novel hard nosed penetrator concept that will have potential applications in both defense and commercial sectors. Some of the large penetrators that are being developed for use against hardened bunkers will benefit from the use of such a novel hard nose penetrator concept. This will benefit DoD and the Air Force in establishing superiority in any war situation. The other major benefit that will be gained from this Phase I project will be the ability to form complex shaped structures (using the process of powder injection molding) from an expensive and very difficult to machine material such as cemented carbides. This ability will be of great use in producing complex near-net shaped parts from such hardmaterials for numerous wear related components that have applications in the oil and gas industry and in material shaping tools. This project will also develop (in Phase II) the concept of a new functionally graded steel structure which can have numerous applications in the tool and die sector. The success in this proposal also has the potential for use in the area of a totally novel concept of "intelligent penetrators."

MILLI SENSOR SYSTEMS & ACTUATORS
93 Border Street
West Newton, MA 02465
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-1346
Dr. Donato Cardarelli
AF 03-143       Awarded: 6/19/2003
Title:A Planar Z-axis Gyroscope for MEMS Inertial Measurement Units
Abstract:A planar z-axis gyroscope is necessary to develop planar Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) for the guidance of air-deliverable munitions and armaments. An integrated IMU enables the smallest size, lowest cost, and best potential for improved performance. Together with System on Chip and embedded electronics, the full IMU can be contained in the smallest possible package. At MSSA an Integrated IMU is under development without a z-axis gyroscope. We propose to develop the z-gyroscope to meet this need. The z-gyroscope will also be added to other IMU approaches under consideration. A particular IMU approach is based on a pyramidal mount with orthogonal faces onto which three z-gyroscopes are mounted without the need to align them since the input axis is normal to the mounting surface. Other gyroscopes are not as attractive because their axis is normal to the mounting surface. Other advantages of the pyramidal mount are that only the z-gyroscope is needed and it is possible to use selected devices. Fabrication yield is not as important as with Integrated IMUs. The accelerometers are rugged instruments based on a dynamic tuning principle that enables high performance with the capability to withstand high-g shock The military, industrial, and consumer applications for precision motion measurement and control are broad and valuable. These applications span missile guidance, virtual reality simulation & training, oil drilling, vehicle safety and navigation, and personal navigation. OEMs that supply these applications are constrained by the lack of affordable sensors with adequate performance. Low-cost MEMS gyroscopes, accelerometers, and IMUs with tactical-grade performance would enable OEMs to migrate a host of military and industrial products into much larger consumer markets, and to expand the number of applications that deliver economic value based on low-cost precision motion measurement. The resultant economies of scale in production and application would yield significant benefit for the military programs that spawned the enabling technology.

MUSTANG TECHNOLOGY GROUP, L.P.
400 W. Bethany, Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 747-0707
Dr. Robert R. Bless
AF 03-143       Awarded: 5/30/2003
Title:Fuze Proximity Sensor Aided Guidance
Abstract:Future precision guided munitions require increased targeting accuracy at a very low cost. In this study, Mustang Technology Group will show the technical feasibility of an innovative approach to fuse GPS/INS data with available data from advanced RF fuze proximity sensors, both of which are low cost sensors. Together, the sensors can improve the overall performance of a GPS/INS guided weapon system. The study includes requirements definition, algorithm development, simulation development, and hardware architecture definition. Low cost guided weapon systems using this technology will have improved targeting performance, thereby reducing the total number of weapons needed. Dual-use opportunities for the technology include low cost automated landing systems for commercial aircraft.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
Nova Research, Inc. DBA Nova Biomimetics, 320 Alis
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
AF 03-143       Awarded: 5/27/2003
Title:Feasibility Assessment of 1K x 1K and Larger Variable Acuity Superpixel Imaging Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:Nova Biomimetics has recently developed a family of novel two-dimensional imaging chips whose designs are based on properties exhibited by biological retinas. The "Variable Acuity" imager permits the user to program a unique spatial arrangement of "superpixels" that may be updated in real time. In effect, any spatial configuration of pixels in the imager may be realized by programming the device in a way that permits pixels to share their individually-collected photocharge with any or all of their neighbors. Single and multiple "foveal" configurations are possible, and these high spatial resolution regions may be "flown" around the FPA at the will of the controlling processor. Nova is currently designing 320 x 256 pixel versions of visible and midwave infrared (MWIR) VASI FPA devices. This proposed program will assess the feasibility of producing highly integrated VASI devices with 1K x 1K and larger pixel formats for extremely high spatial resolution applications. It is precisely for these very large format applications that the high-speed, high-resolution wide field-of-view capabilities of the VASI offer unique operational advantages. Devices developed to date have demonstrated these capabilities; 1K x 1K and larger devices will now be able to exploit these unique features to great advantage. Dynamically configurable spatial features of VASI FPA devices will enable more capable, smaller and cheaper agile sensor systems to be developed for missile warning, long-range identification/detection applications for missile defense and surveillance applications.

NOVEL ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS, INC.
P.O. Box 1085
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32549
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 496-3749
Dr. Theodore S. Sumrall
AF 03-143       Awarded: 5/27/2003
Title:Novel Power Supply for Microrobots
Abstract:AFRL/MN is interested in the development of technologies to support a micro-robot system that can, depending on its payload and operational requirements, act as means of attacking, tagging, tracking, and/or observing enemy operations. Of particular interest are deeply buried hardened targets. One of the AFRL/MN goals is to develop a micro-scaled device capable of satisfying three basic requirements regardless of operational functions: (1) mobility, (2) navigation and (3) payload delivery. Technology developments required in order to accomplish these basic functional requirements and to realize the micro-platform concept are all based upon advancements in micro-power. The overall objective of the Novel Power Supply for Microrobots Phase-I Project is to decisively demonstrate the feasibility of technology which could provide a long-term electrical power source for microrobots, thereby, allowing the accomplishment of the above basic functional requirements. Demonstration of this technology could be extended across a broad spectrum of mobile micro-devices, including potential employment of micro "rescue robots" to locate survivors in collapsed buildings due to earthquake, terrorist strike, etc.

POSITRONICS RESEARCH LLC
4001 Office Court Drive, Suite 303
Santa Fe, NM 87507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 438-2654
Dr. Gerald A. Smith
AF 03-143       Awarded: 5/22/2003
Title:Positronium Storage Ring
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to design a neutral atom, stabilized positronium storage ring for accumulation of at least 10^15 atoms for periods of days or longer. The design will parallel as much as possible recent developments in storage of neutral atoms with permanent electric dipole moments. Radial confinement on the atom is based on the force exerted on an electric dipole in an inhomogeneous electric field. Since the stabilized positronium atom is expected to have a very large electric dipole moment, quite modest electric field gradients appear to be feasible. The circular ring will be enclosed in a magnetic solenoid, which provides one of the ingredients required for stability in addition to the electric field. All technical aspects of the ring, including mechanical design, vacuum, electric and magnetic fields, injection, extraction, controls, diagnostics, data acquisition, and systems tests will be considered. The deliverable will be a final technical report that includes a description of the storage ring, computer-based verification and validation results, detailed specifications and drawings. A low-mass system capable of holding hundreds of MJ's of energy for long periods of time has many potential commercial applications. Among these in the aviation sector is a positronium-powered ramjet or turbojet, with the capability of extended flight (up to thirty days) and range (transcontinental). Related applications include weather surveys, population, agriculture and pollution studies, and land and marine assays. In addition, positrons are an established tool for investigation of material surfaces, especially semiconductors and polymers. Our system will be capable of providing abundant and portables supplies of positrons, resulting in extraordinary energy and spatial resolution applied to these annual multi-billion dollar industries.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
15261 Connector Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 903-1000
Mr. Jay Cleckler
AF 03-143       Awarded: 6/12/2003
Title:Networked Penetrating Fuze and Sensor Collaboration System
Abstract:Chemical and biological weapons are expected to proliferate over the next twenty years. It is likely a mater of time before the US Air Force has to respond to this gathering threat. However, bombing targets that house chemical or biological threats would present a substantial and unique challenge. If biological agent is released into the air in sufficient quantities, millions could be exposed. One potential solution is the use of submunitions that can gut, or "disable" the inside of a target while leaving the exterior walls completely intact. SARA is enthused to propose a submunition network/smartfuze technology for this approach which will enable attacking submunitions to share gathered target data, request additional submunitions if necessary, and collaborate in defeating such a target with the amount/type of force needed to defeat WMD capability without disastrous collateral effects. The basis of this network is the ability to dependably communicate through earth, concrete and even steel with proprietary SARA technology based in extreme low frequency (ELF) electromagnetics. SARA proposes to demonstrate buried communication in a Phase I effort and develop a breadboard, inside of target/outside of target, network in Phase II. SARA envisions the market for such technology will be purely military, with the US Air Force and allies as potential customers. However, the technology could have import to several other military initiatives such as functional defeat of hard and deeply buried targets, area denial and tactical unmanned ground sensors (TUGS). Continued development may spin off applications for mine communications and hardened smart networks for mining and underground facilities.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Mr. William Clark
AF 03-143       Awarded: 6/12/2003
Title:Large Format APD Array for Eye-Safe 3-D LADAR Imaging
Abstract:Solid State Scientific Corporation (SSSC) proposes a novel guard ring avalanche photodiode array sensitive at eye-safe wavelengths. The Air Force will benefit from this technology, as it will enable large format (>256x256 elements) single chip APD arrays that are highly sensitive, low cost, and highly manufacturable for use in LADAR imaging systems. In Phase I, SSSC will fabricate an array of discrete APDs demonstrating highly uniform large area arrays using standard semiconductor manufacturing processes. In Phase II, SSSC will demonstrate a prototype large format APD array for 3-D imaging. Large format APD arrays and low cost discrete APDs sensitive at eye-safe wavelengths would be beneficial in the following applications: free-space optical communications, fiber optic communications, range finding, non-destructive evaluation, 3-D imaging, low light level imaging, remote sensing, astronomy, photon detection, and spectral monitoring and analysis.

TEMPEST TECHNOLOGIES LLC
Suite 208, 8929 South Sepulveda Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-1677
Dr. Yun Wang
AF 03-143       Awarded: 7/22/2003
Title:Image-Based Tracking for Smart Muintions
Abstract:In this proposal we consider the development of statistical image processing, tracking, and guidance technologies for navigation, guidance, and control in advanced smart munitions. The archetypal example system in which we are interested is the LOCAAS smart munition. The algorithms we propose to develop, however, will be broadly applicable to any number of seeker, interceptor, and semi-autonomous munition systems. Leveraging recent research in optical flow and active contours with proven filtering technologies of direct applicability in tracking for systems such as the Air Borne Laser, we will develop a suite of algorithms to determine feature positions over time within scenes observed by imaging-sensor-bearing munitions. The feature positions over time are then to be used for improved track and guidance accuracy. Much more general and flexible than traditional correlation trackers, the optical flow methodology adapts well to scaling and aspect angle changes. Coupled with efficient temporal models and filters, the optical flow and active contours can maintain the location of multiple targets in a scene with great accuracy. Potential commercial applications will be primarily of a military nature, as the effort proposed herein is heavily focused toward advancing LOCAAS and other munitions systems capabilities. Other optical tracking and imaging systems will benefit, however, from improvements derived from this research. Entertainment technologies related to motion capture and animation offer a variety of potential commercial applications.

TELASIC COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
1940 East Mariposa Ave., Suite 100
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 955-3715
Mr. William W. Cheng
AF 03-144       Awarded: 7/18/2003
Title:Readout Integrated Circuit Development for Staring Focal Plane Array Laser Radar (LADAR)
Abstract:An investigative study of the development of an advanced ROIC to interface with a large focal plane array of optical detectors such as the HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) in an array size of 256x256 or larger. TelASIC is proposing the study of two innovative approaches using an advanced fine geometry BiCMOS process technology to improve dynamic range and bandwidth, extend range resolution and range accuracy. The first approach is the extension of an existing architecture to include a power saving, intelligent digital programmable bandwidth / dynamic range feature, along the signal path for different campaign specific requirements. The second approach is the multi-sampling of signal using multiple sample/holds configured without the need of higher speed clocks. Special considerations will be provided to address the issues of power dissipation, reduced unit cell size and improvement of noise immunity. Study proposed in Phase I will determine feasibility of design methodology proposed.

MICROFAB TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1104 Summit Avenue, Suite 110
Plano, TX 75074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 578-8076
Dr. David B. Wallace
AF 03-145       Awarded: 6/23/2003
Title:Method of Micro-Encapsulation of Nanometric Reactive Particle Mixtures with Explosive Cores
Abstract:MicroFab Technologies has developed a method and equipment for making uniform populations of multi-micron plastic microsphere to a desired size. The technology developed at MicroFab will be directly applied to the problem stated in AF03-145 of incorporating nanometric reactive particle mixtures into explosive or propellant casting mixes using conventional equipment. This will be done by first incorporating the nanosize reactive particles in multi-micron plastic spheres containing explosive materials by MicroFab's jetting technology. Whereas the nanometric powder would not disperse in the casting mix due to development of high viscosity, the larger size microspheres, which will not provoke this reaction, can be incorporated using normal procedures. The immediate benefit of successful completion of Phase I and Phase II of our proposal will be to the Air Force in that it can overcome a current problem in producing explosive materials by the melt casting process. A secondary benefit will be to MicroFab in that it will further develop its jetting method of making plastic microspheres. MicroFab Technologies, who is a manufacturer and seller of industrial and specialized ink jet equipment, will enjoy the opportunity to produce and commercialize the jetting equipment and method used to produce the microspheres.

PHASEX CORP.
360 Merrimack Street
Lawrence, MA 01843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 794-8686
Ms. Paula Wetmore
AF 03-145       Awarded: 7/21/2003
Title:Micro-Encapsulation Of Nanometric Reactive Particle Mixtures With Explosive Cores
Abstract:Nanosized reactive materials are being used to enhance traditonal energetic materials in cast explosive or propellant formulations. The small size, however, results in high viscosity of the formulation during mixing. If the nanoreactive material could be encapsulated to form multiple micron particles, and futhermore if explosive materials could be intimately admixed with the nanomaterials during encapsulation, the viscosity problems would be eliminated and the formulation would exhibit enhanced energetics. Gas Anti Solvent Encapsulation will be applied to the microencapsulation of 25nm reactive metal and 1 micron RDX to produce particles on the order of 50 to 200 microns. Tests were carried out to demonstrate the concept and are described in the proposal. The process will be optimized and batches of mocroencapsulated reactive metal/RDX composite particles will be delivered to AFRL. Successful completion of Phase I and Phase II programs will have demonstrated that microencapsulation of reactive metal/explosive composite particles to multimicron size, and delivery of batches for testing, will result in reduced viscosity problems when the material is incorporated into formulations. The data on enhanced properties of these formulations will proliferate to the commercial sector where more energetic explosive having potentially longer duration release will be valuable in construction and mining operations. It is also anticipated that there will be applications for this encapsulation process in other industries including pharmaceuticals and foods.

BLAZETECH CORP.
24 Thorndike St.
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0700
Dr. Venkat Devarakonda
AF 03-146       Awarded: 6/4/2003
Title:Material Characterization of Chemical and Biological Agents
Abstract:Hydrocodes, CFD codes and aerosolization codes are routinely used to model effects such as shocking of chemical and biological agents inside storage containers subjected to fragments impact, agent expulsion upon container failure and agent dispersion in bunkers. Such codes need accurate properties of the materials stored, such as chemical and biological agent slurries, to make realistic predictions. While some of these material properties are currently available in different reports, there is no single source that provides these data in the format required for the execution of the hydrocodes. Here, we propose to combine literature reviews with innovative experimental measurements and develop necessary properties data. Examples of experimental techniques include measurement of material EOS and shock response using shock tubes, heat capacity using thermo gravimetric analysis, and surface tension using pendant drop from a capillary tube. The key findings will be encapsulated into algorithms to calculate material characteristics. These algorithms will be combined into a toolkit that will interface with the hydrocodes and CFD codes of interest to the Air Force and provide them with necessary properties data. The proposed toolkit can be used in various defense applications such as modeling the collateral effects due to weapons attacks on chemical and biological agent storage facilities; hazard assessments of various facilities; and in designing techniques for agent defeat. The experimental methodology developed here will be useful in developing the toolkit for other chemical and biological agent formulations. The methodology has important applications in pharmaceutical and environmental analysis industries.

PHYSICS, MATERIALS & APPLIED MATH RESEARCH, L.L.C.
1333 N. Tyndall Ave. suite 212
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 882-7349
Dr. Kevin Kremeyer
AF 03-146       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:High Strain-Rate Testing and Characterization of Liquid Suspensions
Abstract:Many biological agents are not stored or weaponized in "pure" form. Instead they are stored in the form of mixtures, or liquid-based suspensions, which may behave very differently from regular liquids. This includes anisotropic response to applied stress and modified fluid properties, making the material equation of state change drastically from one point in the fluid to another. Our overall research effort will develop and execute experiments to determine an understanding of these material properties, and then formulate reliable and robust material models. Our experimental techniques will include quasi-static loading and a highly modified Split-Hopkinson (Kolsky) Pressure Bar technique. Specialized diagnostics will facilitate an understanding of the dynamics, and allow unique model verification capabilities. The ability to characterize biological warfare agents, and model their dissemination is becoming increasingly important in the world. This capability must be developed and made available to the agencies tasked with defending against and preparing for such attacks. Our testing and model-development capabilities, and the models themselves, can also be sold to biochemical industries and users of biological reactors, ranging from large pharmaceutical companies to waste water recovery establishments. The high strain-rate regimes will only be of commercial interest in the event of an accident, unless we are identify new processing capabilities inherent, in high strain-rate treatment of specific suspensions.

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS
117 Clements Ave
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 324-2596
Dr. Murali Beddhu
AF 03-147       Awarded: 5/29/2003
Title:Modeling Damaged Agent Filled Containers with Incompressible Turbulent Flow and Moving Boundaries
Abstract:hyIn order to meet the higher order accuracy requirements of Counter Proliferation community, Essential Knowledge Systems in collaboration with its consultant Dr. Z. U. A. Warsi will develop an accuracy selectable suite of flow solvers suitable for incompressible flow analysis with a liquid equation of state. Modern software design principles including a component-based model will be used. These suites are based on compact numerical schemes that are mathematically similar to each other. Each numerical scheme is highly accurate and yet computationally efficient. A hybrid grid formulation cast with respect to a moving frame of reference will be used. The proposed numerical scheme will be coupled with a six-degree of freedom motion solver for computing body motions. Suitable turbulent modeling strategies are presented. Efficient parallel implementations will be developed during Phase II. Proposer will develop single processor 3D versions during Phase I, extensively study numerical properties, computational accuracy and computational issues as well as benchmark against known 2D and 3D exact solutions, numerical solutions such as backward facing step and driven cavity, and experimental results such as flow past a circular cylinder and sphere. Deliverables include all data generated including the source and object codes of the entire software suite. The anticipated benefits of the proposed work is the high accuracy solver that will fill a void being felt in the counter proliferation community. This software suire will be extensible and will have interfaces for other software that the Sponsor may have. It will enable high accuracy computations of complex flow fields that involve two phase flows and cavitation caused by a moving body. Further extensions to other flow fields can be easily accomplished because of the flexible software design. Applications of this software to other commercial areas include fluid flows of interest to the medical community, MEMS, micro and nano fluidics.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. John R. Budenske
AF 03-148       Awarded: 7/21/2003
Title:Distributed Robotic Intelligent Behaviors
Abstract:Recent military efforts have illustrated the difficulty for conventional weapons to find and defeat "deep-targets" that are concealed, guarded, mobile, or even buried. Examples include underground hardened bunkers, cave/tunnel systems, and mobile SCUD launchers. Miniature robotics could be used to find, collect data, track, and even defeat such targets, but the robots need to be well coordinated, and possess an intelligence for finding creative solutions towards achieving its mission. A distributed robotics system architecture is proposed that allows a swarm of heterogeneous robots to be dropped into a search area, and perform deep-target reconnaissance missions. Included in this approach are the collections of intelligent behaviors that control the individual robots, and the mechanisms for selection and composition of compound behaviors. The architecture takes into account the unique requirements and characteristics of the miniature robotic hardware, the communications and power constraints, and the types locomotion and sensors that are anticipated to be present in the system. In Phase I, the distributed robotic architecture will be designed, and prototype behaviors will be implemented in a simulation for analysis. During Phase II, the system will be implemented upon a collection of small robots already developed at the University of Minnesota Distributed Robotics Laboratory. This research will support critical DOD warfighter applications for defeating deep-targets, as well as other planning and monitoring applications in robotics, C4I, autonomous unmanned vehicles and Future Combat Systems. Commercial applications include: support of just-in-time manufacturing, intelligent highway and air traffic control; work-cell manufacturing; industrial inspection; autonomous farming; nuclear facility maintenance; personal assistants (softbots); and mobility aids for the handicapped.

IMAGINATION ENGINES, INC.
11970 Borman Dr., Suite 250
St. Louis, MO 63146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 317-2228
Dr. Stephen Thaler
AF 03-148       Awarded: 6/11/2003
Title:Creative Robots to Defeat Deeply Buried Targets
Abstract:Recent developments in the area of artificial neural networks have led to a totally new brand of machine intelligence that is capable of autonomously improvising and implementing cunning concepts and strategies. This revolutionary neural network technology, called the "Creativity Machine Paradigm," has led to a wide variety of clever, self-learning neural architectures that will inevitably enable a whole new generation of truly autonomous robots. Designed as OOP class templates, these self-learning Creativity machines may be instantiated into thousands of independent or cooperative agents. The resulting intelligent swarms may exhaustively learn from their digital or real-world environments, individually or collectively manipulating their surroundings. Each of these objects may evolve suitable sensors and effectors to best achieve their objectives. Self-perfected, this new form of artificial life may be harvested from the simulation environment and then implemented within hardware through ASIC or reconfigurable computing schemes. Herein we propose to examine the feasibility of designing and testing these advanced connectionist paradigms within a specialized integrated development environment to aid in CONOPS development. The highly matured parallel algorithms derived from these simulations would be converted to hardware based control systems for use in miniaturized attack robots specialized to penetrate deeply buried underground facilities. Technology developed on this program will be applicable to commercial and military robots and consumer toys. Spin-off from this effort would result in major advances in self-configuring electronic devices, micro-surgical robots, autonomous control systems, as well as the real-time generation of physically plausible virtual environments, whether for entertainment or tactical simulations. Furthermore, each subtask of this proposed Phase I effort will generate products and services having solid commercial viability. Among these numerous by-products will be (1) neural models of sensors, actuators, and electronic interfaces that allow virtual performance testing to prospective buyers, (2) a general development environment for advanced neural network cascade construction, (3) educational toys for the investigation of artificial life, and (4) a development environment for battlebots that may be applied toward military or civilian ends.

SYSTIMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13110 NE 177th Pl. #234
Woodinville, WA 98072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 672-1755
Mr. Randel Hoskins
AF 03-151       Awarded: 6/6/2003
Title:Precision, Soft Landing Dispenser
Abstract:Systima Technologies, Lockheed Martin and Irvin Aerospace have teamed together to develop a precision, soft landing, 1000 lb class dispenser. These companies bring an extensive background in the key areas required for development of a precision delivery, soft landing capability dispenser. To minimize development costs and risks, the precision, soft landing, dispenser (PSLD) draws upon proven Air Force systems and on-going Air Force development efforts. To minimize aircraft qualification costs, the PSLD's external profile and loaded mass properties will match the SEEK EAGLE qualified Tactical Munitions Dispenser (SUU 65/66). The dispenser itself will be a new design, fabricated from composite materials (to maximize payload capability), and configured to allow easy ground access to the dispenser's interior. To provide precision location delivery, the PSLD uses a WCMD tail. To provide additional standoff range, the PSLD could be outfitted with range extension kit being developed for the Tactical Munitions Dispenser. Soft landing is provided by a combination of staged parachutes and a crushable section built into the dispenser. A feature of the PSLD design/operation is minimizing the time that PSLD descends under parachute. This feature is important to minimize the effects of low altitude winds and potentially drawing undesired attention to the delivery point. The precision, soft landing, dispenser (PSLD) provides a method of resupplying isolated troops and sites with precision delivered, soft landed supplies. In humanitarian relief applications, the PSLD system would be a way to quickly deliver emergency supplies to precise delivery points in remote locations. These supplies would able to be delivered from a very wide range of aircraft including bombers and fighters (specifically any aircraft qualified to carry TMD dispensers). With the use of an optional range extension kit, these supplies could be delivered from standoff ranges over 35 miles. These large standoff ranges minimize aircraft risk when delivering supplies into hostile territory. The delivery system would minimize the risk of compromising the location of the troops being resupplied by minimizing both the altitude at which the parachute (landing retarder) is deployed and the time that the delivered supplies are hanging under the parachute. PSLD will be refurbishable after each mission for reuse.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaft St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Mr. Matthew Scarpino
AF 03-157       Awarded: 6/25/2003
Title:Enhanced Circuit Protection and Safety via Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters for Military/Commercial Aircraft
Abstract:WPI proposes to design an Embedded Locator and Breaker (ELAB) capable of (1) detecting arc faults and damaged wire on an aircraft, (2) interrupting the circuit in the event of an impending fault, and (3) communicating the status externally. Using new algorithms for signal reflectometry with classification based on Artificial Neural Networks, ELAB will detect faults in all forms of cable within an aircraft. ELAB will integrate sophisticated circuitry for fault detection and location, a bimetal circuit breaker for fire prevention, and a communications module for providing feedback to inspection and maintenance personnel. Installation of ELAB includes two options: (1) refitted into the main circuit panel or (2) distributed throughout the aircraft space on a one-time basis. After installation, feedback communication will be sent to a central backplane panel. This noninvasive procedure allows more frequent inspection of aircraft wiring than is currently performed, resulting in more rapid detection of failures. Artificial Neural Networks combined with advanced signal processing software within each ELAB provides improved detection accuracy and more detailed classification of arc and insulation faults than is now possible. The ELABs constitute a distributed network of multiple smart sensors, resulting in a distributed decision-making environment resistant to damage or accidents. Following technology development, WPI will commercialize this system using a 5-part process. The first step in the process is to host a product demonstration at WPI's in-house laboratory for the Air Force. Second, our system will undergo a field test for flight applications on Air Force aircraft. The third step involves the trial production of a small number of ELABs on 747s available for testing at the FAA's William J. Hughes Technical Center. This allows WPI to evaluate the production capability and process and to make any necessary modifications. The test market of 747s using the system will provide invaluable feedback regarding the performance of ELAB under the intended conditions. Fourth, WPI's marketing department will investigate alternative product applications, particularly products or industries with extensive wiring that could potentially cause fire or where arcing conditions may occur. The final commercialization step is full production and product launch. Once full production is underway, we will pursue partnerships with ship equipment, electrical systems, and appliance manufacturers to allow their products to reach consumers pre-equipped with a variation of ELAB. Because of its broad applicability, ELAB could have a total annual market potential of more than $1.1 billion.

X-L SYNERGY, LLC
2000 Wyoming Ave.
El Paso, TX 79903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(915) 584-0575
David Nemir
AF 03-157       Awarded: 7/17/2003
Title:Arc Fault Quenching for Mission Critical Systems
Abstract:Solid state circuit breaker technology can enhance existing arc fault detection technology by providing a higher tolerance to nuisance tripping and by providing an opportunity to maintain some reduced level of control in the event of an electrical fault. By the appropriate control of power MOSFETs, power may be quickly removed upon the detection of an arc and quickly restored upon the extinction of the arc or to test if the arc has indeed been extinguished. This allows the use of sensitive detection thresholds, and, in an actual fault condition, may allow an aircraft to maintain enough control to complete a mission or to safely land. Phase 1 research will examine various arc quenching algorithms in a laboratory testbed. Arcing severity will be characterized through infrared sensors and power will be removed and then restored with varying schedules to examine the conditions under which an arc may be tolerably controlled through solid state switching. The proposed technology represents an augmentation that will be compatible with existing arc fault detection/interruption technologies. While applicable to both DC and AC electrical systems, it will have its greatest impact on DC arc fault control where only the severest of faults are presently detectable. By allowing a higher sensitivity fault detection threshold to be used, the proposed research enhances sensitivity for arc fault interrupter circuits, increasing the safety they can provide to both commercial and military aircraft. Since aircraft are routinely maintained in service beyond their intended design life, this represents an important addition to the state-of-the-art and a mature technology should enjoy wide acceptance in both markets. In the commercial nonaviation market, arc fault interrupters are presently mandated in new construction in the U.S. (market potential of over 4 million units per year), have been mandated for air conditioners beginning in 2004 (5.7 million units per year) and will see expanded use in the electric and hybrid electric vehicle markets.

SYNCHRONY, INC.
6410 Commonwealth Dr.
Roanoke, VA 24018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 989-1541
Dr. Victor Iannello
AF 03-158       Awarded: 7/15/2003
Title:Non-Contact Support of Integral Power Unit using Advanced Integral Starter-Generator
Abstract:This program addresses the development of non-contact technology to position and support the shaft of an integrated power unit (IPU). The technology uses foil bearings integrated with an advanced integral starter-generator (ISG) that produces radial force while operating as either a motor or a generator. A novel electromagnetic structure, power electronics, and control algorithm offers a 30% reduction in weight compared to state-of-the switched reluctance machines. Applications here

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-4264
Mr. Dennis F. Grosjean
AF 03-160       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Health Monitoring for the Integrity of Electrical Power Wiring and Power System Components
Abstract:An effort to utilize information from partial discharges (PD) to monitor the health of aerospace electrical-power wiring and power-system components is proposed. The Phase-I effort will define the issues related to PD detection and analysis in a subatmospheric environment with high-frequency excitation systems such as those available with current inverter technology. A pressure chamber will be employed to conduct a preliminary experimental investigation of PD performance parameters in the subatmospheric environment. These tests and associated analysis will allow definition of the most appropriate probe, detection system, data-acquisition system, and data analysis algorithms for use in achieving an accurate diagnosis of the health of the electrical system. Efforts in Phase II will concentrate on the actual development and testing of a prototype system, based on the findings of Phase I. The ultimate goal of this program is the development of a commercially available, cost-effective, partial-discharge detection system (PDDS). The main components of the PDDS will be (1) a specialized probe and detection device capable of detecting partial discharges in aerospace electrical and electronic circuits under actual operating conditions including low pressures and high frequencies, and (2) an on-line data-analysis and diagnostic system. The PDDS to be developed will be useful for the operation of military and commercial aerospace equipment.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. William Hallidy
AF 03-160       Awarded: 6/25/2003
Title:Health Monitoring for the Integrity of Electrical Pover Wiring and Power System Components
Abstract:Control of electrical discharge is necessary to avoid degrading insulation in electrical wire cable. The need for such control is increased when the cable is used in aerospace systems where ambient pressures may be well below one atmosphere at flight altitudes. The voltage required for onset of partial discharge at high frequencies can be significantly smaller than at low frequencies. For example, in wire at an altitude of 10 km, coronal onset voltage above 50 kHz was found to be 20% smaller than at frequencies below 20 kHz, thus increasing the potential for partial discharge. Temperature and humidity also affect coronal onset voltage at high frequencies. In airborne and spacecraft electronic applications, insulated or even bare conductors may be used for high frequency signal transmission for radar or high power transmission applications. Continuous monitoring of such wiring is needed to predict incipient insulation failure. Therefore, Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an Optical Health Monitoring System for wiring. The proposed system will permit real time, continuous monitoring of wiring at arbitrary pressures and excitation frequencies and will determine both magnitude and location of any discharge on the wire with spatial resolution of less than one foot. The transition of the technology to a commercial product is organic and central to the proposed program. The OHMS will permit monitoring the health of wiring systems' insulation in hazardous or otherwise inaccessible environments. This technology has application to the commercial air industry, where it can be deployed in fuselages and wings to improve safe operation of hydraulic, fuel, and other critical control systems. Similar applications apply to ground vehicles and ships. The electric power industry can install the Optical Health Monitoring System (OHMS) along high voltage transmission lines to enable remote monitoring of voltage discharges.In addition, the system could easily be modified to also monitor temperature along the wires using SPEC's Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) technology originally developed for NASA. Similar applications also exist for the commercial broadcast industry to monitor and protect critical communication lines.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Lawrence G. Piper
AF 03-161       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Technologies for Elimination of Hyrdazine in Aerospace Power
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc., Honeywell and ATK Tactical Systems propose to develop an environmentally benign monopropellant source to be used in aircraft Emergency Power Units (EPUs). The proposed system uses a catalyst to control the rate of decomposition of a monopropellant. We anticipate that our system will eventually result in essentially a drop-in replacement for the currently used EPU systems which are based on hydrazine monopropellant. Our proposed system, however, will alleviate considerably the negative health and safety aspects involved in hydrazine-based systems. The proposal discusses monopropellant and catalyst systems and outlines a set of key experiments which are necessary to guide further development. We anticipate that the proposed technology will result both in substantially reduced health risks to aircraft maintenance personnel and also in greatly reduced aircraft maintenance costs. This latter benefit follows from the reduced level of safety precautions that will be necessary once hydrazine is no longer used as an EPU fuel. The proposed technology also has direct applications to spacecraft propulsion systems.

PIONEER ASTRONAUTICS
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 980-0890
Dr. Robert Zubrin
AF 03-161       Awarded: 7/24/2003
Title:Nitrous Oxide Emergency Power Unit
Abstract:The proposed Nitrous Oxide Emergency Power Unit (NEPU) is an environmentally friendly monopropellant technology for aircraft power systems. The high energy density and storage safety of nitrous oxide along with the low emission characteristics of nitrous oxide dissociation make the NEPU a very attractive alternative to toxic hydrazine EPU's. A nitrous oxide based emergency power unit can achieve the required power and duration in a system volume and mass similar to that of a hydrazine unit. The catalytic decomposition characteristics of nitrous oxide are analogous in many ways to those of hydrazine. Because the feed system is pressurized, the NEPU can operate under all conditions of speed, altitude, and attitude. The vapor pressure of nitrous oxide provides motive force for operation of a dissociation reactor and downstream systems. After startup, no power is required for operation of a basic nitrous oxide based dissociation system. The lack of moving parts required for nitrous oxide dissociation leads to a fundamentally reliable system. A nitrous oxide based emergency power unit can achieve the required power and duration in a system volume and mass similar to that of a hydrazine unit but without the concerns about toxicity, safety, handling, and environmental issues. With the information available now, it is clear that potential near-term commercialization centers on military applications. Following later are potential selected commercial applications.

COVALENT ASSOC., INC.
10 State Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 938-1140
Dr. Victor R. Koch
AF 03-162       Awarded: 6/24/2003
Title:Nonflammable Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes Capable of Extended Operational Temperature Ranges
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force requires that rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries operate at the extremes of a thermal envelope that cannot be met with present-day battery technology. Based on some new materials developed by us and some preliminary results obtained with them, we believe that a new family of non-flammable electrolytes may be formulated so as to allow Li-ion battery cycling at temperatures as low as -50C and as high as 80C with good capacity retention. During Phase I we will synthesize a number of new salts and formulate them with various solvents. The resulting electrolytes will be characterized in respect to ionic conductivity at various temperatures, electrochemical stability, and flammability. Our best non-flammable electrolyte formulations will be subjected to cycling in Li-ion cells at the aforementioned temperature extremes. The development of a new family of non-flammable electrolytes that allow Li-ion batteries to cycle with good capacity over a 130C thermal window will fulfill a broad spectrum of military and civilian power source requirements. In addition to powering weapons systems under climatic extremes, such advanced electrolytes would also enable the development of safer Li-ion batteries for consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Gerhard L. Holleck
AF 03-162       Awarded: 6/18/2003
Title:Nonflammable Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes For Extended Operational Temperature Ranges
Abstract:This SBIR project has the goal of developing a technology for the fabrication of advanced Li -ion batteries with increased safety capable to operate over an extended temperature range. Most state of the art batteries contain electrolytes with very volatile solvents of extreme flammability and their electrical performance degrades drastically at very low or high temperatures. It is proposed to develop novel electrolytes, designed to be nonflammable and, due to their reduced viscosity, will permit efficient battery operation over the entire military temperature range from -40C to 80C. The development will result in safer Li-Ion batteries for operation over a wide temperature range in e.g. communications equipment, emergency transmitters and locators, portable computers, video recorders, night vision devices, various sensors.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4105
Dr. David Ofer
AF 03-162       Awarded: 7/14/2003
Title:High Energy, Extended Temperature Range Lithium Ion Battery with Nonflammable Electrolyte
Abstract:Foster-Miller proposes to develop high voltage lithium ion batteries having nonflammable electrolyte and capable of delivering high power at temperatures from 70C to -40C. These lightweight rechargeable batteries will be able to operate in the cold temperatures at high altitudes, greatly advancing the development of power sources for applications such as all-electric UAVs, reusable launch vehicles, and satellites. (P-030206) These rechargeable batteries are expected to become the principal portable power sources across a broad spectrum of military applications by providing light weight, low temperature high power capability comparable to that which is currently only available from single use primary batteries. Such applications will include satellite communications, GPS navigation and weapons targeting electronics. Changeover to rechargeable batteries will greatly ease logistical burdens of battlefield deployment and resupply. Similar impacts are expected in specialty industrial applications requiring extended temperature range-capable, light weight high power batteries.

MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS LLC
P.O. Box 807
HUNTINGTON BEACH, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 799-0004
Mr. Caio A. Ferreira
AF 03-163       Awarded: 6/25/2003
Title:High Current (40 to 100 amp) Solid-State Power Control (SSPC) Technology
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR Phase I project is to establish the feasibility and performance merits of an innovative high current solid-state power controller for power management and fault protection for applications in both commercial and military aerospace electrical power systems. An innovative high current solid state power controller can be achieved with emerging new technologies in high temperature power electronics, high temperature electronics, and advanced composite materials. Silicon carbide based solid state power controllers have strong commercial application potential for both military and commercial sectors. The ability to operate at higher temperatures make silicon carbide based solid state power controllers ideal for harsh environments and potentially eliminates the need for special cooling schemes and apparatus in an aircrafts and spacecrafts. Conventional silicon based solid state power controllers generally rely on elaborated refrigerated air cooling systems due to its limited maximum operating temperature. The elimination of special cooling schemes and apparatus offers significant positive benefits for the weapon systems (aircraft). This technology will be marketed to a number of potential customers such as the U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command, Material Command and Space Command; U.S. Navy Air Systems Command and Space & Naval Warfare Systems Command; U.S. Army Aviation & Missile Command, Material Command, and Space & Missile Command.. Phase I results will be presented to potential customers, including commercial aircraft and spacecraft manufacturers, to make them aware of the benefits and potential participation by them in Phase II for a specific application. Manufacturing and production will follow Phase II.

VPT, INC.
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5000
Dr. Glenn Skutt
AF 03-163       Awarded: 6/25/2003
Title:IGBT-based 270V Solid-State Power Controller (SSPC) for Joint Strike Fighter Application
Abstract:VPT Inc. proposes a 270V, high current solid state power controller (SSPC) based on IGBT chip scale embedded power packaging technology and a thick film hybrid controller. This packaging will allow operation over the full military temperature range of -55C to 125C. The SSPC will contain additional features including transient voltage protection to meet requirements typical of Mil Std 704A and EMI filtering typical of Mil Std 461. The controller will provide a current squared-time (I2T) trip characteristic. The goal is to provide the SSPC in industry standard half brick and full brick configurations and directly apply the products to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. The Virginia Tech Center for Power Electronic Systems (CPES) will be a major subcontractor to VPT on this project. CPES brings major expertise in high current IGBT technology. In Phase I, VPT will perform the following: (1) Define requirements for SSPCs on the JSF program, (2) Provide an IGBT-based power stage design using chip scale embedded power packaging technology, (3) Design an I2T controller that can be packaged in hybrid format, (4) Design spike protection according to Mil Std 704A, (5) Design EMI filtering, (5) Demonstrate the system with a breadboard. The SSPC developed in this SBIR will have direct application to the Joint Strike Fighter program as well as commercial aircraft

JOHNSON RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CO., INC.
1640 Roswell St., Suite J
Smyrna, GA 30080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 438-2201
Dr. Davorin Babic
AF 03-164       Awarded: 6/30/2003
Title:Application of Microsystem Technologies in Advanced Aerospace Vehicle Power Systems
Abstract:Air Force has identified fuel cells as emerging technology of choice for power generation because of their superior fuel efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Electrolyte is