---------- DARPA ----------

67 Phase I Selections from the 03.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3969
Dr. Lee Goldman
DARPA 03-001       Awarded: 19JUN03
Title:Transparent Oxynitride Coatings for High Speed Missile Applications
Abstract:Preliminary work on thin films of silicon-carbon-oxy-nitride (aka SiCON) by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) has suggested the potential of this material for high-speed missile window application. Surmet Corporation proposes to use an innovative plasma deposition technique to demonstrate fabrication of SiCON materials with improved optical transmission, hardness and strength for IR window applications. High rate of material deposition and ease of manipulating the process variables, make Surmet's proposed process suitable for the deposition of substantially thick films with precisely controlled chemistry. Also, unlike IBS it does not require sputtering targets with tailored chemistry. For this research, thin IBS deposited films of both Si-C-N and SiCON will be characterized and used as a baseline for subsequent deposition experiments using Surmet's process to produce materials with characteristics similar to films produced using IBS. The Surmet fabricated films will then be characterized with a focus on optical and mechanical properties to determine the composition best suited for erosion resistant infrared (IR) coatings application. Phase I results and consultation with the DARPA program manager will allow defining a Phase II research proposal for further development of SiCON either as a coating or a bulk material for high-speed IR missile windows applications. It is anticipated that free-standing bulk materials of SiCON (~200 mm) with desirable properties can be fabricated using Surmet's innovative deposition process. The proposed research effort to develop SiCON in the form of coating and/or bulk materials with improved properties for infrared (IR) optical applications in high-speed missile windows will be of significant technological and commercial value. The Phase I feasibility demonstration will help guide a future Phase II research for the synthesis and processing of bulk SiCON materials and its commercialization.

MORGAN RESEARCH CORP.
4811A Bradford Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 842-7875
Ms. Janet Baeder
DARPA 03-002       Awarded: 10JUN03
Title:Crossover-Free Fiber Optic Gyroscope Micro-Sensor Coils
Abstract:Recent trends in Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (IFOG) development have focused on system miniaturization and cost reduction for tactical weapon systems. Due to the significant cost advantage of single mode (SM) fibers, depolarized IFOGs have great potential in meeting low cost goals. A Phase I objective is a thorough investigation of stress induced birefringence in SM micro sensor coils. The second objective is an innovative crossover-free winding approach will be developed followed by a preliminary design of an automated winder for the crossover-free micro sensor coil. Micro sensor coils can be used in IFOGs and other fiber sensors applications. A wide variety of military and commercial applications exist. Military applications include guidance and control of missiles, aircraft, unmanned vehicles/aircraft, submariness, ships, satellites, and spacecraft. Commercial applications include guidance and control of passenger and cargo aircraft/cruise ships/cargo ships, automotive navigation, robotics, and platform stabilization applications.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Vladimir Kolobov
DARPA 03-003       Awarded: 10JUN03
Title:Accelerated Monte Carlo Methods for Rarefied Gas Dynamics
Abstract:Monte Carlo simulations of rarefied gas dynamics are important for many applications. This project aims to substantially accelerate Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms and develop a rigorous and efficient computer code applicable for a wide range of Knudsen number from rarefied to continuum flow regimes. This will be achieved by using implicit treatment of the collision processes, majorant frequency schemes based on master kinetic equation (MKE), and hybrid approaches combining continuum and kinetic descriptions of the flow. New MC schemes will provide accurate solutions with time steps much larger than required by standard DSMC, and ensure that for small Knudsen number the MC solution relaxes to local Maxwellian with conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Hybrid MC schemes and kinetic schemes of gas dynamics will be used to facilitate the automatic domain decomposition and coupling of the MC solution and continuum equations. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified computer code that will automatically switch between kinetic and continuum models to maximize computational efficiency and ensure numerical stability. The advantages of new methodologies will be demonstrated by comparison against traditional methods. The computational tool that results from this work would be a significant advancement in reliable and efficient modeling of physical phenomena in upper atmospheric flight. It could be used by both government and industry researchers to help design and analyze trans-atmospheric vehicles, new micro-propulsion systems, plumes, etc. Besides aerospace applications, the software will find numerous applications for several "on Earth" industries including material processing, semiconductor manufacturing, microelectronics, microsystems, MEMS, etc.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
8130 Boone Blvd., Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Dr. Christopher Teixeira
DARPA 03-003       Awarded: 17JUN03
Title:Accelerated Lattice Boltzmann-Monte Carlo Method for Simulation of Rarefied Material Dynamics
Abstract:The feasibility of a new approach that will accelerate the modeling of problems involving rarefied gas dynamics is established. The proposed hybrid approach solves the Boltzmann equation directly using a carefully designed discrete-velocity model and a discrete Monte Carlo collision process with several extensions that accelerates its computational capability in comparison with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). Moreover, in the low Knudsen number limit, the new method seamlessly becomes an efficient simulator of continuum flows called the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The end product will be a new simulation tool with significantly improved computational efficiency for combination continuum/rarefied flow applications. The developed technology will enable significantly higher fidelity and more accurate simulation of rarefied gas dynamics, a critical element in the design of components in numerous defense and civilian applications. Potential applications include improved adaptive flow control in microfluidic structures, improved material fabrication techniques, and improved modeling of physical phenomena entailed in upper atmospheric flight.

LEVEL SET SYSTEMS
1058 Embury Street
Pacific Palisades, CA 90272
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 573-9339
Dr. Susan Chen
DARPA 03-003       Awarded: 17JUN03
Title:A Uniform Hybrid Monte Carlo Method for Simulation of Rarefied Material Dynamics
Abstract:The proposed innovation consists of a new analytic and computational method for rarefied gas dynamics (RGD). The prevalent computational method for RGD is the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. DSMC becomes computationally intractable in the near-continuum regime, which is a significant limitation on its capability for materials processing applications. The new method is an interpolated fluid/Monte Carlo (IFMC) method that will accelerate DSMC in the near-continuum regime, removing this limitation. The IFMC method is an improvement over existing acceleration methods for RGD in that it is a single uniform method, valid for the full range of Knudsen numbers, with the correct asymptotic behavior in the continuum and near-continuum regimes. This innovation will provide a greatly accelerated and more robust computational tool for simulation of materials processing and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and will be of significant commercial value for the electronics and aerospace industries.

CDM OPTICS, INC.
4001 Discovery Drive, Suite 2110
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5593
Dr. W. Thomas Cathey
DARPA 03-004       Awarded: 29MAY03
Title:Use of Wavefront Coding in the Design of Sub-Wavelength Lithographic Imaging Systems
Abstract:Off-axis illumination, optical proximity correction, phase shift masks, interferometric techniques, and pupil plane phase masks have been used to increase lithographic resolution. Further progress requires new techniques and methodologies. The optimal combination of aspheric optics and signal processing which we term Wavefront Coding has been effective in dramatically increasing the imaging performance of other high quality imaging systems such as microscopes and endoscopes. Similar techniques can be used in lithography. Wavefront Coding can be used to increase the resolution and the robustness of the lithographic system. Examples include increased aberration tolerance to increase system z-alignment tolerance (depth of focus); increased instantaneous field of view in proportion to the increase in the depth of focus; increased numerical aperture by 20% to 30%; and the design of better object amplitude and phase masks to reduce the adverse effects of diffraction. Phase masks that are designed especially for lithography would require no signal processing, but the exposure level would be adjusted appropriately. The illumination, object mask and pupil mask could be jointly optimized, for a class of object masks. A successful project will demonstrate the usefulness of Wavefront Coding in increasing the resolution and throughput of lithographic systems. We anticipate a 20% increase in numerical aperture, an increase in the field that is proportional to the increase in the depth of focus (An increase in depth of field of more than 15 was obtained in microscopy), and a systematic methodology to jointly design the illumination and pupil function of lithographic systems optimized for a class of object masks. More effective object masks to reduce the adverse effects of diffraction should be possible with systems designs where all of the components are jointly optimized. As a result of the new methodology, lithographic lens manufacturers and mask makers will be able to produce products that give much smaller features with a higher throughput rate and an improved tolerance to system errors.

LUMINESCENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
500 Emerson Street
Palo Alto, CA 94301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 587-3213
Dr. Daniel Abrams
DARPA 03-004       Awarded: 09JUN03
Title:Sub-Wavelength Lithography Employing Phase Masks
Abstract:Luminescent Technologies is developing a disruptive innovation to improve sub-wavelength lithography for semiconductor manufacturing. The company has developed a new approach for optimizing photomasks as an inverse problem. It is a radical departure from existing resolution enhancement technologies that merely perturb the original design. Unlike existing techniques, this technology will consider the full realm of possible mask patterns which can diffract light in such a way as to print the desired circuit. In general, the optimal mask pattern will not resemble the original design; to the eye, it will appear more like a hologram. By using an inverse problem methodology to find the optimal mask, we can create masks which provide far better resolution and higher yields than any other competing technology. For phase I, we intend to use our approach to develop software algorithms for the design of phase masks (that is, photomasks that use phase shifting regions to enhance resolution). We intend to demonstrate a proof-of-principle simulation confirming that we are able to use our inverse algorithm to design phase masks. The commercialization of optimized photomasks would have dramatic positive effects upon the Department of Defense, the semiconductor industry and consumers in the United States. Semiconductors are ubiquitous devices that are the heart and brains of all electronics and computers and are the cornerstone of the United States technology industry. If the sub-wavelength gap prevents the continued advance of Moore's law, the power of semiconductors will not continue advancing at their historic rate, threatening the technological supremacy of the United States and the US Armed Forces. Similarly, if the sub-wavelength gap prevents semiconductor prices from continuing their historic decline, the productivity gains in the US economy associated with technology will also be threatened. On the other hand, the successful commercialization of optimized photomasks by Luminescent Technologies will enable the DoD to obtain faster, more efficient, and cheaper semiconductors. In addition the technology will create billions of dollars in value for the US technology industry, while literally saving American consumers billions of dollars.

CERONE, INC.
8100 Bainbrook Drive
Chagrin Falls, OH 44023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 533-1176
Dr. Hisao Yamada
DARPA 03-005       Awarded: 27MAY03
Title:Cost-Effective Production of Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract:An experimental program has been proposed to economically fabricate PMN-PT single crysal discs, 25mm in diameter and 10 mm in thickness, via the solid-state conversion method. Cerone has demonstrated the fabrication of PMN-PT single crystals as large as 5 mm x 5 mm x 2.5 mm and proposes to further optimize its proprietary solid-state conversin method in the proposed Phase I prgram. The proposed processes are described briefly as follows. First, fully dense ceramic dscs made of high purity PMN-PT powder are produced by a combination of pressureless sintering and hot-isostatic pressing. Second, the ceramic discs are ground to a uniform thickness and one of their surfaces is polished to a 1/4 micron diamond finish. PMN-PT single crystal seeds are prepared likewise. Third, the polished surfaces of the ceramic disc and seed are paired and heated at an elevated temperature to fuse them together. Finaly the pairs are heated at an elevated temperature under a gaseous pressure to completely convert the ceramic discs into single crystals. The latest cost analysis indicates that the solid-state conversion method is a cost-effective way to produce PMN-PT single crystal discs at a price competitive to that of high-quality ceramics. The proposed program will demonstrate a cost-effective way to fabricate PMN-PT single crystal discs. Because of excellent uniformity of their chemical compositions and thus, their very uniform electromechanical and dielectric properties, various electromechanical components for sensors and actuators can be mass-produced economically using readily available semiconductor processing equipment.

H. C. MATERIALS CORP.
2004 South Wright Street
Urbana, IL 61802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 244-8369
Dr. Pengdi Han
DARPA 03-005       Awarded: 02JUN03
Title:Cost-Effective Production of Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of reducing the manufacturing costs for large-sized PMN-PT single crystals grown by a novel multi-crucible Bridgman method with a specially designed zone-leveling capability. This hybrid method promises a cost-effective approach for the production of large-sized PMN-PT single crystals with improved compositional uniformity and quality control. The traditional Bridgman method is one of the simplest and most economic techniques for the growth of single crystals, but compositional variations in such multi-component PMN-PT systems leads to obvious property changes. Control of compositional homogeneity during the growth of PMN-PT crystals is a limiting factor for the successful commercialization of the next generation of PiezoCrystals and devices. Improvements in homogeneity and properties will lead to increased yields and reduced costs. The merit of the proposed technique is that: (a) multi-crucible configurations significantly increase the useful crystal yield/per run, (b) implementation of zone-leveling (with a large ratio of growth length (L) / molten-zone length (Z)) gives better control of compositional uniformity, and (c) self-refurbishment of platinum crucibles further reduces the costs of manufacture. The proposed work is directed at evaluating PMN-PT crystal quality by relating piezoelectric properties with compositional analysis of the boules. Audit of the manufacturing costs for PMN-PT single crystals grown by this new method will be made by a detailed consideration of the costs for platinum, materials, man power, environmental control, equipment depreciation and capitalization. The proposed crystal growth method will be of immediate applicability to the fabrication of inch-sized devices with uniform piezoelectric properties. Anticipated work in Phase II would be extended to larger sizes. The PMN-PT single crystal products, such as, poled or un-poled plates, disks, rings, cylinders and wedges, will be supplied to clients for the production of PiezoCrystal transduction devices for defense and civilian applications. The work will improve the properties of the next generation of piezoelectric crystals and reduce their manufacturing costs. The improved electromechanical materials will enable better commercial applications, including, transducers, sensors, actuators, and micro positioners, where higher signal-to-noise ratios and efficient energy conversion are required, e. g., acoustic imaging, accelerometers, hydrophones, and adaptive optics.

MATERIALS SYSTEMS, INC.
543 Great Road
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 486-0404
Kelly McNeal
DARPA 03-005       Awarded: 28MAY03
Title:Cost-Effective Acicular Seed Production for SSC Piezoelectric Single Crystal Materials
Abstract:Solid state converted (SSC) piezoelectric single crystal materials have been demonstrated to offer 80 percent of the electromechanical performance of melt-grown single crystals - at only a small fraction of the cost. Cost-effective acicular seed production methods are needed in order to scale up the SSC process and make it available for numerous defense and commercial applications. This program will investigate new processes for fabricating acicular seed crystals that are compatible with the PMN-PT ceramic matrix and effectively initiate solid state conversion. The seeds will then be incorporated into the PMN-PT ceramic injection molding process to form rods, which will be sintered using established methods. The electromechanical properties of the resulting SSC material will be characterized. This program will provide low cost SSC piezoelectric materials with substantially higher displacement and bandwidth than conventional piezoceramics. These materials will enable radically enhanced performance in variety of Navy sonar systems as well as in other military, aerospace, and commercial transducers, actuators, and sensors. SSC materials also facilitate size and weight reductions in a number of existing applications.

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD.
720-I Lakeview Plaza Blvd.
Worthington, OH 43085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6606
Dr. Edward M. Sabolsky
DARPA 03-005       Awarded: 29MAY03
Title:Cost-Effective Production of Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project (DARPA SBIR- Topic SB031-005) will focus on the formation of <001> grain-oriented (textured) 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-.0.325PbTiO3 (PMN-32.5PT) ceramics for various high performance sensor and transducer applications. NexTech proposes to grain-orient (texture) PMN-32.5PT ceramics in the <001> in order to access a high fraction of the properties identified for rhombohedral PMN-32.5PT single crystals. Fiber texturing (1-D oriented texture) will be achieved in PMN-32.5PT planar (wafer geometry) ceramics in the <001> by utilizing the Templated Grain Growth (TGG) process. The TGG process consists of the initial alignment of a low fraction of anisometric seed particles (templates) in the matrix during consolidation. The aligned templates then grow in the matrix during thermal processing, resulting in a textured ceramic. The <001>-textured PMN-32.5PT ceramics formed in this Phase I will potentially show d33-coefficients >1200 pC/N and k33-coefficients >0.85. The texture PMN-PT ceramics could potentially replace the use of single crystals in a multitude of applications, due to the versatility of the size and shape of the textured ceramics and their much lower cost. This Phase I will provide a basis for the formation and manufacturing of textured PMN-PT monolithic and multi-layer actuators in Phase II. Textured PMN-PT ceramics can be used for various military and commercial electromechanical transducer and sensor applications, which include aerospace, marine, biomedical, and ultrasonic industries. The <001>-textured PMN-PT ceramics have the potential of replacing all applications currently using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics due the enhanced piezoelectric response of the textured ceramics. The textured PMN-PT ceramics may also substitute for many potential applications of oriented PMN-PT single crystals due to the low production cost and geometrical versatility of the TGG technique.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Paul W. Rehrig
DARPA 03-005       Awarded: 28MAY03
Title:Innovative Production of PYbN-PT Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase I SBIR program is to greatly improve the performance of piezoelectric ceramics by combining recent new material discoveries with intelligent processing. Specifically high Curie temperature (Tc) Pb(Yb1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 (PYbN-PT) ferroelectrics will be fabricated into textured ceramics and bulk single crystals using templated grain growth (TGG) and templated crystal growth (TCG), respectively. This will yield piezoelectrics with extremely broad operating temperatures ranges and properties comparable to conventionally grown lower Tc single crystal materials. This will be a revolutionary advance in piezoelectric materials manufacturing, and would be an enabling material for a broad range of applications including highly sensitive vibration sensors, 2-dimensional medical ultrasound phased arrays, and high performance actuators for smart structures applications. At the conclusion of the Phase I SBIR program we expect to have produced either single crystals or textured ceramics of piezoelectric Pb(Yb1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 by combining recent new material discoveries with intelligent processing. These materials will exhibit broad operating temperatures ranges and properties comparable to conventionally grown lower Tc single crystal materials. This will help advance piezoelectric materials manufacturing technology and to enable the fabrication of material for a broad range of applications including highly sensitive vibration sensors, 2-dimensional medical ultrasound phased arrays, and high performance actuators for smart structures applications. The resulting PYbN-PT textured and converted ceramics will exhibit piezoelectric performance surpassing that of existing materials.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Paul W. Rehrig
DARPA 03-005       Awarded: 28MAY03
Title:Flux-Bridgman Growth of Large PZN-PT Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Abstract: TRS Technologies, Inc. is pleased to respond to DARPA's request for cost effective manufacturing of high performance piezoelectric single crystals. The objective of the Phase I program is to develop a cost-effective fabrication process for manufacturing large relaxor piezoelectric PZN-PT crystals by the Bridgman method. Currently, PZN-PT is grown by the flux technique; which results in relatively small crystals (<30mm in diameter). PZN-PT can not be grown by the conventional Bridgman method (directly from its melt), because perovskite PZN-PT is not stable at its melt temperature. However, by using a flux to stabilize the perovskite phase in a Bridgman furnace that allows the use of a seed crystal to control nucleation, we will be able to produce much larger and therefore less expensive PZN-PT than is currently possible. For this program TRS will develop a solution or flux-Bridgman process with nucleation controlled by PMN-PT seed crystals for the production of PZN-PT crystals greater than 1" in diameter. The materials technology developed will add an additional crystal supply stream to increase availability for development efforts that are dramatically advancing the performance of acoustic transducers and actuators in the form of increased sensitivity, broader bandwidth, higher strains, and higher acoustic power. At the conclusion of Phase I, we expect to have established the feasibility of the Bridgman growth technique for the fabrication of large PZN-4.5PT cylindrical crystals for high performance acoustic transducer and electromechanical actuator applications. Our efforts on the Phase II program will be to further scale up both diameter and total volume of grown crystal by investigating ways to efficiently charge the crucible with precursors materials (e.g. by low temperature pre-melting of the precursor powders). The cylindrical shape of PZN-PT crystals grown by the Bridgman method will make it possible to exploit wafer technology currently used in the semiconductor industry for mass production and cost reduction. Emphasis will be placed on ensuring high quality crystals by optimizing the growth conditions in parallel with scale-up efforts to minimize inclusions and other crystal defects. Large, low cost PZN-PT piezoelectric single crystals will compete with PMN-PT in a number of applications including medical ultrasound and vibration sensors. If Phase II is successful, future work will focus on further scale-up of crystal growth to mass production quantities on a similar commercialization path as Bridgman-grown PMN-PT.

ADHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 346-1685
Dr. Garth W. Gobeli
DARPA 03-007       Awarded: 28MAY03
Title:Miniature Directional Microphone for Handheld Automatic Speech Recognition in Military Environments
Abstract:The Phraselator, a handheld automatic translation device, currently uses a cardioic microphone as an input for automatic speech recognition (ASR). This microphone is highly vulnerable to performance degradation in typical noisy military environments and, thus, there is a need for an improved transducer for this application. We propose to develop a new directional microphone that is immune to extraneous sound inputs that are outside the microphone's forward detection lobe, i.e., there is a zero backside response. The microphone is comprised of a small parabolic reflector (20-40 mm diameter) that focuses the incoming sound onto a small (1-3 mm diameter) spherical receiver. Preliminary calculations indicate that such a parabolic reflector-based directional microphone will have an excellent directional response characteristic (forward detection response of 21 degrees FWHM) and will have an estimated sensitivity of about 2 x 10-3 Pa (20 db on the acoustic scale). Experimental measurements will be made to verify these calculations and various designs will be evaluated in order to realize optimum performance of the new miniaturized directional microphone. Various methods of encapsulation for ruggedizing the device for military applications will be studied. The miniature directional acoustic sensor has numerous military and industrial applications. Military uses include surveillance, location of vehicles, water craft, or sniper fire, command and control, and nondestructive evaluation. Commercial applications include sensitive hearing aids and inspection of processing equipment and machinery. The extreme sensitivity and directionality of the new microphone brings great benefits to each of these applications.

FULCRUM CORP.
9990 Lee Highway,, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-5145
Dr. David Lewis
DARPA 03-007       Awarded: 28MAY03
Title:Alternative Transducers for Handheld Automatic Speech Recognition in Military Environments
Abstract:The DARPA Phraselator is a hand-held, voice actuated phrase "book". The Phraselator (see Figure 1) is a handheld, wireless computer used to translate more than 1,000 spoken English phrases into languages such as Arabic and Pashto. Five hundred units were delivered to Peacekeeping troops recently in Afghanistan. The Phraselator, built by Applied Data Systems, incorporates SRI's DynaspeakTM speech recognition software. Phrases are translated in advance by a translator, recorded and saved in a phrase database. When an English phrase is spoken into the system, the translation is played back. The system is not a two-way translator. Input phrase is matched with prerecorded translation and played back through a built in speaker. A Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Phraselator could be used by the civilans for translations such as doctors; firemen and policemen interact with people who speak foreign languages. It can provided to foreign movie goers, at the museaums, at entertainment activities. Travelers can use the Phraselator while visitingforeign countries. A Phraselator would also enable teachers to interact with foreign students.

LI CREATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
225 Runnymede Parkway
New Providence, NJ 07974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 508-0239
Dr. Qi (Peter) Li
DARPA 03-007       Awarded: 27MAY03
Title:Alternative Transducers for Handheld Automatic Speech Recognition in Military Environments
Abstract:The proposal describes unique and promising solutions for robust speech recognition in handheld devices, particularly for the DARPA Phraselator, which was developed under a previous SBIR and a rapid development program. The proposed solutions are: (1) a new special designed microphone array with directional microphones and corresponding algorithms, such as beam forming, adaptive noise cancellation, and passive source localization to improve the quality of input voice signals; and (2) a new auditory-based feature extraction algorithm to improve speech recognition in noisy environments. These two solutions can be applied separately or together to construct an alternative transducer/new front-end, to replace the traditional transducer system. The goal of this project is to apply the results of our speech recognition technology to develop more efficient and effective transducers/front end to enhance multilingual automatic speech recognition and translation in the Phraselator and other handheld devices. As handheld devices and wireless communications gain more acceptance and wide usage, there will be a significant and sizeable market for the technology developed in this project. First, almost all the PDA's on the market today have a voice recording function. In noisy environment, users have to put the PDA's very closely to their mouth to get acceptable recoding quality. Using the microphone array and the new algorithms developed in this project, the quality of the recorded voice will be improved significantly under the same recording condition; Second, the same technology can be applied to wireless handset; therefore, the quality of the voice will be improved while the users are talking in a moving car or on streets with background noise; and Last, there are several companies which have already implemented automatic speech recognition and translation technology in PDA's and wireless handsets, and they provide market for the improved solutions developed under this SBIR project. The technology developed in this project can be used directly to improve the performances of speech recognition and translation in the handheld devices. Furthermore, we expect the solutions to be available in a very rapid development cycle and thus support pressing DoD needs. Also, we anticipate the proposed solutions will provide significant improvement with minimum added cost penalty. Upon the above analysis, Li Creative Technologies will be benefited significantly from licensing the new technologies developed from this project to the wireless and PDA industries and providing supports and further improvements continuously.

MAYUR TECHNOLOGIES
238 Amberleigh Drive
Silver Spring, MD 20905
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 464-2542
Ms. Xia Chen
DARPA 03-007       Awarded: 03JUN03
Title:Alternative Transducers for Handheld Automatic Speech Recognition in Military Environments
Abstract:The DARPA Phraselator currently in use is capable of translating spoken English language phrases into audible Pashto, Urdu, Dari, and Arabic language phrases. Although usable, the Phraselator is highly vulnerable to typical military noise resulting in degradation of its performance, primarily due to the limitations of the microphone. Therefore it is proposed to develop an innovative "magnetostrictive microphone" that uses the bone conduction vibration, setup due to the action of speaking, as the source of sound. Using magnetostrictive material coupled to the teeth/bone it is possible to convert the bone vibration into a proportional electrical signal that can be directly fed to the voice recognition module of the Phraselator. Since the environment sound does not have a direct path to the human bone, due to the attenuation effect of skin/muscle, they are automatically filtered out from the magnetostrictive microphone. In Phase 1, it is proposed to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate two alternative microphone technologies, viz., magnetostrictive rod-based transducer and magnetostrictive composite-based transducer, with specific objective of improving performance of the Phraselator in noisy military environment. The proposed magnetostrictive microphone has several potential commercial applications. They include communications on the tarmac of airports, helicopters, and Navy Carriers. The US military will be benefited by this new technology improve communication in the battle field environment. Other US federal agencies such as FAA and NASA are also beneficiaries of this technology development. The proposed magnetostrictive microphone has several potential commercial applications. They include communications on the tarmac of airports, helicopters, and Navy Carriers.

MAYA DESIGN
2100 Wharton Street, Suite 702
Pittsburgh, PA 15203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 488-2900
Dr. Peter Lucas
DARPA 03-008       Awarded: 12JUN03
Title:Cluster-Based Repositories and Analysis
Abstract:We propose to build an Open Analytical Framework to support collaborative, distributed data collection and analysis.The Open Analytical Framework will be an inexpensive, distributed data mining and analysis platform. It emphasizes collaboration through information liquidity and performance through massive scale and parallelization. It is composed of a large distributed ensemble of cooperating data storage nodes (repositories) and applications layered on the resulting uniform data space.We will address the problems of information object identity, schema definition, distributed indexing and query, caching and consistency, change notification, and intermittently connected (e.g., mobile) applications. Our proposed solutions revolve around the use of simple layered data representations (u-forms) and agents to manage the data (shepherds). Our goal is to facilitate the routine sharing of information and analytical insight across cooperating (but independent) organizations to support, for instance, law enforcement operations. We expect the resulting technology to have numerous government and commercial applications.

NIMKATHANA CORP.
1807 W WINNEMAC AVE UNIT A
Chicago, IL 60640
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 943-1834
Dr. Alok N. Choudhary
DARPA 03-008       Awarded: 27MAY03
Title:Cluster-Based Repositories and Analysis
Abstract:We propose a feasibility study to develop and inexpensive and scalable cluster and software architecture (comprising commodity components) to support data warehousing and mining applications. This study will include design, prototyping, and evaluation components with the overall goal of being commodity-driven (and henceforth cost effective) and emphasize ease-of-use and deployment to support DoD and advanced commerical applications. The technical features of the cluster will include scalability of both processing and I/O performance to enable large-scale data warehousing and mining software infrastructure, which is required for doing data analysis in terrorism-related applications. We provide details in the Commercialization Strategy of the narrative. Here is a summary: 1. High integration potential with existing products (e.g. SAS, SPSS, etc.) where there is a clear need for a "backend" cluster computing component. 2. Direct marketing and integration via system integrators such as Accenture. Many customers are asking for high-end, turn key solutions for large-scale data warehousing and mining (analysis) based on commodity clustering technology. 3. Availability as a paid service in the emergent world of network services, which is likely to require high-end clustering in order to scale well. This will also allow economies of scale to be leveraged, since many customers will not want to acquire and maintain their own clusters of servers. 4. Ability for corporations to support real-time analysis applications such as cyberterrorism, wherein there needs to be continuous analysis and refinement to support such applications as network intrusion detection, etc.

QUIMBA SOFTWARE, INC.
2672 Bayshore Parkway, Suite 618
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 625-1950
Mr. Robert Dourandish
DARPA 03-008       Awarded: 21MAY03
Title:Cluster-Based Repositories and Analysis
Abstract:This effort focuses on building a distributed data warehouse infrastructure running on an inexpensive cluster of processors and free-to-use, open source software, using the following components: Linux (operating system), openMosix (Cluster Software), and mySQL (Database Management Software.) In order for the system to perform as a single cohesive unit, a number of custom components will also have to be developed. Many organizations collect vast amounts of data for a variety of purposes, including resource exploration, market forecasting, intelligence analysis, or process management. In a number of industries, such as Pharmaceuticals, or disciplines such as Cancer or AIDS Research, BioInformatics, or Seismology, relatively massive primary data is routines collected from actual events - such as patient response to drug cocktails, results of research experiments, or earthquakes. This effort creates a viable option for the analysts and researchers in government, academia, or industry to bring down the cost of implementing multi-terabyte repositories to a reasonable amount.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2411
Mr. Daniel Serfaty
DARPA 03-009       Awarded: 22MAY03
Title:Modeling Asymmetric Threats to Critical Infrastructure
Abstract:To predict likely terrorist actions and terrorist targets in the U.S. we need (1) models of how terrorist organizations evolve and learn (2) identification of cultural variables likely to shape the evolution of terrorist organizations within the U.S. and (3) methods for including these cultural context variables in organizational learning models. Our team includes three essential types of expertise: (1) historical knowledge of terrorist organizations and activities and how they have evolved over time; (2) theoretical predictions from cultural anthropology on how cultural context affects organizational evolution; and (3) knowledge of available computational organizational modeling techniques and what they can accomplish. We plan to bring world experts from each of these three areas together onto one team, and conduct a Symposium in Washington, D.C. to assess what should be modeled, and what can be modeled. In Phase I we will assess what is needed to develop a model that predicts the evolution of terrorist groups in the U.S., evaluate current modeling organizational techniques against these requirements, identify areas where new modeling techniques will be needed, develop possible approaches, and prepare a plan for Phase II model development. The primary use of the model will be in predicting terrorist activities in order to protect U.S. infrastructure and develop courses of action for counter terrorism. Law enforcement agencies could adapt the model to assist in the management of riots and incidents of terrorism. Public and private agencies can use the model to help plan disaster relief operations, which typically involve many different types of organizations. Industry can use the model to help manage multinational responses to large-scale industrial accidents such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

PSYNAPSE TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1000 Thomas Jefferson St. N.W., Suite 400
Washington, DC 20007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 298-2660
Dr. Gary M. Jackson
DARPA 03-009       Awarded: 03JUN03
Title:Modeling Asymmetric Threats to Critical Infrastructure
Abstract:The proposed project will provide the detail necessary for all steps of a functional prototype of an assessment instrument to determine terrorist threat and likelihood of an organization being targeted for attack. The purpose of the Phase I proposal is to present a final design of such a system with tested and demonstrated functional components. Based on a reliable and validated behavioral model, the application proposed will focus on the identification and use of neural network based predictive patterns combined with an expert, rule-base component that augments historical information with targeting expertise of terrorism subject matter experts. A reporting mechanism whereby results would be embedded within interpretive text will be presented as part of the instrument design. Currently, no scientifically reliable and validated commercial application exists that is capable of accurately anticipating terrorist targeting. Given that the application designed is constructed and validated, it will be possible to provide organizations with a proactive capability that indicates weaknesses in security based on assessed targeting and associated vulnerabilties. Such an assessment, based on the organization's characteristics and current world events, will allow the organization to enhance security in a resouceful and efficient manner.

ELECTRICAL GEODESICS, INC.
1600 Millrace Drive, Suite 307
Eugene, OR 97403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 687-7962
Dr. Don M. Tucker
DARPA 03-010       Awarded: 19JUN03
Title:Head Access Laminar Optoelectric Neuroimaging System
Abstract:This project develops a dense array fNIR/EEG neuroimaging system for use in operational environments. Miniature NIR-enhanced optical emitters and detectors are combined with EEG and EIT (Electrical Impedance Tomography) electrodes embedded in a novel, flexible and wireless, geodesic head web. This device integrates all interconnect for power and signal within the flexible geodesic tension structure, allowing comfortable and inobtrusive use while minimizing movement artifact. A novel phase change polymer technology is introduced that optimizes coupling of both electrical and optical signals with the skin and scalp. An advance in miniature electronics will allow all amplification and signal processing to be worn on the head or body, allowing high bandwidth telemetry of dense array data on brain activity to the Cognitive Workload Assessment workstation. The initial design allows topographic reconstruction of both the hemodynamic (NIRS) and fast optical (EROS) signals, and it anticipates new algorithms for tomographic reconstruction of brain activity throughout the head volume. This optoelectric neuroimaging system will allow comfortable acquisition of dense array data on brain activity from a gossamer, wireless web structure attached to the head. High bandwidth information on spatial and temporal components of human brain activity can then be gathered with minimal interference in the routine behavior of the workplace. The soft flexible design allows use under a helmet while maintaining impact protection, and the resistance to movement artifact allows routine use with both ambulatory and supine patients in the medical setting.

INNOVATIVE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1100 Alakea Plaza, 23d Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 441-3606
Dr. Hunter Downs
DARPA 03-010       Awarded: 27MAY03
Title:Wireless Near-Infrared Devices for Neural Monitoring in Operational Environments
Abstract:The rapid development of the telecommunications industry over the last decade has led to significant advances in several technologies. Two of these technologies, wireless networking chipsets and laser miniaturization, have made it possible to create a device for wirelessly monitoring neuronal activity. In this project, we propose to utilize these technologies to create a wireless whole brain functional brain imaging systems with applications in the cognitive neuroscience, brain-machine interface, and medical fields. The NOVASOL continuous wave system uses three near-infrared wavelengths to compute blood flow and blood oxygenation over targeted areas and is the fastest CW fNIR system available. It is easily extended to multiple areas, can image through hair, and is currently being integrated into a helmet for comfortable imaging setup. The proposed wireless design and development Wireless CW OTIS system will allow the entire electro-optical data acquisition system to be incorporated into a self contained helmet, transmitting the data using wireless networking protocols to a remote computer. Building upon its unique experience with fiber optic based fNIR systems, NovaSol is proposing to research, design, and implement a WiFi peer-to-peer fNIR brain imaging system by coupling COTS WiFi hardware with existing fNIR architecture already developed by NovaSol. The proposed imaging system will yield a prototype that will demonstrate a mobile, continuous, non-invasive brain imaging system with spatial resolution on the order of centimeters and a temporal resolution able to image both the brain's immediate neuronal as well as its delayed hemodynamic response. This combination of characteristics will make this prototype a state of the art imaging system with far reaching applications and markets extending to: ˙ Military ˙ Research laboratories currently involved in brain imaging, ˙ Laboratories that in the past could not afford the current state of the art brain imaging technology, and ˙ Hospital patient monitoring. NovaSol, as a company, is very interested in taking the prototype system and adapting it for use in these market areas. We expect that interest in the system, as a product, will be generated through scientific publication and informal demonstrations with military, research, and hospital personnel. We will regularly seek input from these groups during the prototype development, especially when tradeoff decisions must be made. Modifications / enhancements to meet the specific needs of these groups will also be elucidated and considered for inclusion in final products. To facilitate this transfer, the project will be developed in accordance with standards governing the use of medical devices, such as ISO 9000 and the FDA Medical Devices standard. We envision transitioning the prototype into several products. One of these will be directed towards continuous monitoring in restricted environments such as the cockpit of flight simulators. Another product will be catered to the general brain imaging research community where an emphasis will be placed on easy extensibility by the community so that the product can continue to mature through industry-academic collaboration. Still another area of interest for product development is in the use of such a system for monitoring of blood pooling wounds, particularly hematoma development but also, with some changes in geometry, in other injuries occurring throughout the body (such as internal bleeding).

TECHEN, INC.
115 Cedar Street
Milford, MA 01757
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 478-0042
Mr. William A. Johnson
DARPA 03-010       Awarded: 29MAY03
Title:Wireless Near-Infrared Devices for Neural Monitoring in Operational Environments
Abstract:Measuring functional activation of the human brain has been advancing rapidly through development of several non-invasive techniques. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) offer the possibility of measuring simultaneously and non-invasively neuronal and vascular signals in the brain cortex. Although optical measurement of hemodynamic signals is well established, optical measurement of neuronal activation (the Fast signal) is just emerging and requires further optimization. The main goals of this feasibility proposal are to advance neuronal monitoring and DOT methodology, by demonstrating a portable (helmet and backpack), Proof of Concept (POC) wireless NIRS device. By miniaturizing existing NIRS laser and detector modules, and integrating wireless link capability, we will build a portable, light weight, functional NIRS system. The wireless link will couple real-time NIRS data to a portable computer for display. Validation test will use an existing DOT instrument (hemodynamic signals) and an EEG system (Fast signals) to locate and digitize ideal human head sensor sites, and to acquire baseline data. POC system sensors will then be placed at the same head locations and acquired data verified against the reference data thereby establishing the feasibility of using the Proof of Concept system for portable neuronal monitoring. A wireless monitoring device that offers both neuronal and vascular signals has a huge commercial potential. The market for non-intrusive portable monitoring by means of non-invasive brain monitoring offers a most exciting and significant break-through, impacting many industries. Early adapters are expected from the military for training under stress; medical - head trauma evaluations; educational- diagnosis of learning disabilities; and law enforcement - for interrogation. Medical research will also benefit from this research and development effort, because many brain studies may be improved by portable monitoring of functional activities including stroke rehabilitation and epilepsy. Other research benefits are for the study of normal brain development in infants, the diagnosis and follow-up of cerebrovascular diseases, and psychiatric syndromes in adults and children.

ANTHROTRONIX, INC.
387 Technology Drive, Suite 1101
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-0156
Dr. Corinna Lathan
DARPA 03-011       Awarded: 19MAY03
Title:Personnel Monitoring for Assessment and Management of Cognitive Workload
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research is to use non-invasive physiological monitoring to aid in managing the workload of military personnel in a multi-task or high stress environment. Numerous physiological sensors are currently available for monitoring physiological parameters such as electrical activity in the brain, heart rate variability, respiratory rate, vascular blood volume, and skin conductance, all of which can be used to evaluate stress and cognitive workload. We propose to develop a conceptual architecture for a user centered physio-cognitive monitor, then determine the feasibility of a Physiological Assessment Monitor (PAM), which integrates a variety of non-invasive physiological and mechanical sensor systems. The PAM will be used to identify elevated stress levels and cognitive overload experienced during completion of various tasks. The PAM will be unobtrusive, so as not to interfere with task performance, and will be applicable in a variety of operational settings. A common task battery will be used to induce stress and workload elevation as physiological data is assessed. By identifying excessive stress and cognitive overload experienced during task performance, it becomes possible to predict, and therefore prevent, overloading of military personnel. In complex military and civilian environments where increased demand is placed on individuals and teams to achieve more, systems that can evaluate cognitive workload and stress levels could fill the need for an objective assessor of fitness for duty. Assessing the levels of stress and cognitive workload of numerous personnel allows for work to be delegated efficiently to those operators who are the most physically and mentally equipped to carry out a given mission or responsibility. Potential natural dual-use applications for a robust and reliable personnel assessment tool include use by commercial pilots/aviators, fire/rescue personnel, police, and others operating in high stress environments. Additional dual-use applications for this technology include use by pharmaceutical companies to assess the efficacy of stress related drugs, and use as an early detection platform for diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease.

ELECTRICAL GEODESICS, INC.
1600 Millrace Drive, Suite 307
Eugene, OR 97403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 687-7962
Dr. Phan Luu
DARPA 03-011       Awarded: 19JUN03
Title:Integrative Platform for Cognative Workload Assessment
Abstract:In modern military operating environments, military personnel are faced with the challenge of accomplishing more with less human resources. To meet this challenge, each personnel must be able to function optimally. In other words, each operator's cognitive resources must be maximized and delegation of tasks by supervisors to each operator must be based upon knowledge of the soldier's remaining cognitive capacities. Towards this end, the DoD wishes to develop an integrated workstation for the monitoring of the operator's cognitive state. In this application we propose to build a software platform that will provide the foundation for an integrated, user centered monitoring workstation. The software will provide the architecture for the integration of multiple, cognitive-load-sensitive, psychophysiological signals and real-time analysis engines for each of these signals. This architecture will support local as well as network access to the operator's cognitive state. We will also conduct functional studies in which an operator's EEG, electrocardiogram, electrodermal activity, and pupilometry signals will be analyzed to index the operator's cognitive workload. These studies will test the feasibility of building an integrated monitoring workstation of cognitive workload assessment. The anticipated benefits of developing such a platform are many. For the Augmented Cognition Project the resulting product will offer a platform for the integration of multiple psychophysiological signals. In addition it will provide a platform in which prototype analysis engines and cognitive load gauges can be rapidly developed. Outside of the Augmented Cognition Project this software platform will be relevant to medical applications. We are currently introducing our dense-array EEG system to the medical market. In the medical market, it is not uncommon for multiple neurophysiological signals to be monitored simultaneously, such in the emergency department or intensive care unit. Therefore, the software platform that will result from the completion of the proposal will also be very attractive selling points in the clinical market.

HUMAN BIONICS LLC
190 N. 21st Street, Suite 300
Purcellville, VA 20132
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 338-0477
Mr. Donald DuRousseau
DARPA 03-011       Awarded: 19JUN03
Title:Multimodal Cognitive Assessment System
Abstract:We propose to investigate the design of a multimodal cognitive assessment system (MCAS)to seamlessly integrate recording and analysis technologies and enhance the arousal state and decision-making performance of the war fighter under stressful conditions. Our plan is to define a multimodal psychophysiological data collection and analysis system architecture for the development of future technologies capable of delivering cognitive status updates and augmenting the presentation of critical data to a time when the operator is aroused and attentive and best able to process and retain information. Our proposed technology would analyze brainwave patterns associated with higher order executive processing, as well as, eye and heart measures to intelligently identify variability in arousal, stress, and cognitive workload capacity and manage the interface of these data for fitness assessment and task assignment. Our innovative technology would provide behavioral and workload assessment researchers with new tools to investigate higher order cognitive and automomic mechanisms involved in operational decision-making under high stress conditions. Quantifying a war fighter's cognitive state under stressful conditions is a multifaceted problem that is unlikely to be solved by any single effort. What is required are tools that aid the creation of new experiments designed to study the stages of mental effort in actual operational situations from many different viewpoints and with multiple populations taking into account cognitive processing differences based on ability, age, sex, and stress from fatique, injury, or workload. With portable tools to acquire multimodal signals and measure task specific attentiveness and stress changes, workload researchers will be able to gather psychophysiological data in real-world settings and enhance the interoperability of computer-based war fighter systems. Therefore, we intend to develop an inexpensive and easy to use MCAS that includes tools for sensor integration, task design and analysis, and wireless transmission capabilities to take cognitive monitoring technologies out of the lab and into the field.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 212-7474
Mr. Jeffrey D. Hicks
DARPA 03-012       Awarded: 02JUN03
Title:Next-Generation, Unifying Agent Architecture
Abstract:Agents, Agent Architectures and Agent-based applications have become a phenomena in recent years with seemingly everyone jumping on the bandwagon. However, as with any truly revolutionary breakthrough technology, Agents have lacked standards and ruling bodies to govern the direction of the bandwagon in its infancy. While inside this wagon train apparent chaos ruled, but with that chaos came many unique and valuable discoveries and innovations. Now that Agent technologies have become more mature with complex and useful applications being fielded, there is a need for a standardized common infrastructure. This Next-Generation, Unifying Agent Architecture should encompass the best of breed capabilities and technologies of existing and in-development Agent Architectures, Commercial and Academic-based Agent Architectures, and Operational and Theoretical Agent Architectures. To fully realize the objectives for the Next-Generation, Unifying Agent Architecture an honest broker is needed. 21CSI is that honest broker. 21CSI will leverage our considerable experience in developing Agent Architectures and our extensive expertise in developing Agent-based Applications, gleaned from Decision Support Systems developed on behalf of other DoD customers. This new Agent Architecture will be developed from scratch using the latest best of breed techniques documented in an exhaustive investigation of both commercial and academic/research Agent Architectures. This particular topic is by its very definition not limited to DOD applications. The Next Generation Unifying Agent Architecture will apply to all and any agent applications, military or commercial. Agent applications are already present widely, mostly to search and monitor events. With the Next Generation architecture, it will become more efficient for the entire software agent community to develop considerably more sophisticated applications, to make them useful and present in ever more industries.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5248
Dr. Philip Geotz
DARPA 03-012       Awarded: 17JUN03
Title:An Infrastructure for Cognitive Architectures
Abstract:A cognitive agent is a software model of a human's perceptual processes, reasoning, and behavior. A general approach to building cognitive agents must address the problems of knowledge representation, planning and reasoning, sensory and motor modeling while satisfying constraints imposed by neural implementations and human cognition. Moreover, different users have varying requirements for their cognitive agents, ranging from modeling fine-grained response and action times to stimuli to modeling high level cognitive actions such as reasoning, planning and mission execution. We propose to create a new design and systems engineering methodology, architecture and infrastructure for cognitive agents that promotes reuse of design, behaviors, and code and supports the incorporation of flexible control strategies and human modeling parameters. It includes both a set of reusable design templates for agents as well as a set of cognitive modules that can be plugged together in different ways to construct different domain-driven cognitive agents. The architecture will be interoperable with existing cognitive approaches through translation and mediation modules as well as through pluggable control and mediation strategies. This cognitive infrastructure and methodology can be used in conjunction with our distributed software-agent infrastructure, CybeleT. A methodology and cognitive agent infrastructure will allow us to provide our clients with a complete solution to distributed multi-agent simulations. Commercial applications include intelligent agents in computer games and online virtual environments, simulation for measuring human performance operating devices, and modeling human behavior in transportation such modeling pilots and vehicle operators.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2800 28th Street, Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5442
Dr. Azad M. Madni
DARPA 03-012       Awarded: 30JUN03
Title:COGNITECTURET: Cognition-based, Integrative Architecture for Next Generation Intelligent Agents
Abstract:Computational architectures for intelligent agents and human behavior models have advanced to the point where one can benefit from the other in creating more realistic Intelligent Synthetic Force behaviors. This Phase I effort is directed to analyzing the respective strengths and weaknesses of agent architectures and cognitive/human behavior models with a view to incorporating high payoff cognitive/behavioral constructs into agent architectures. To this end, a comparative framework will be constructed to explore the strengths and limitations of candidate agent architectures and human behavioral models with a view to identifying and exploiting common features, combining unique strengths, and circumventing the limitations of each within a next generation agent architecture. The resultant architecture will improve both the fidelity and validity of distributed training and wargaming simulations while facilitating the design, development, and deployment of agents. Psychologically-principled, socially-aware agent architectures will enable rapid development of increasingly usable systems in both the military and commercial sectors. In addition, distributed training, distributed mission rehearsal, wargaming, virtual reality systems development and constructive simulations, all stand to benefit from these next generation agent architectures.

TEXTWISE, LLC
401 South Salina Street, 5th Floor
Syracuse, NY 13202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 426-9311
Dr. Edmund S. Yu
DARPA 03-012       Awarded: 11JUN03
Title:UNIfying COllaborative, Reflective, Neurogenetic (UNICORN) Agent Framework
Abstract:We propose to develop a new agent architecture based on a new agent framework, code-named the UNICORN (UNIfying COllaborative, Reflective, Neurogenetic) agent framework, which will combine the strengths of our own neurogenetic agent framework, enriched by the theory of Emergence (and the collaborative, self-organizing Swarms), with the strengths of other types of agent architectures, including the reflective processes. In Phase I, we will analyze strengths and weaknesses of current leading architectures for intelligent agents and human behavior models, 2) develop a comparative framework to identify common and unique strengths and weaknesses, and 3) use that framework to design a new architecture that shows significant improvements over existing architectures. We will attempt to develop a `neurogenetic' agent framework, as an integral part of the comparative framework, to model, simulate, evaluate and compare the leading architectures for intelligent agents. The `neural' part of the neurogenetic agent framework can be used to model various learning/reasoning capabilities, and perhaps even autonomy, while the `genetic' part can be used to model `interactions' among agents, the importance of which cannot be over-stressed. Furthermore, the `Swarm Intelligence' can be fully integrated into this framework, broadening the types of interactions what can be modeled and simulated, when empirically evaluating and comparing existing agent architectures. Our proposed UNICORN agent framework centers on the evolutionary, neurogenetic approach to creating and controlling intelligent agents, which has been concept-proved in two of our government funded projects, the NIMA (National Imagery and Mapping Agency) funded EVA project (EVolving Intelligent Text-based Agents) and the AFRL (Air Force Research Lab) funded EMMA project (Evolving and Messaging decision-Making Agents). However, in this proposal we actually go one step further and merge our ideas of the neurogenetic agents with one of the central ideas in multi-agent systems, namely, the concept of emergence and its associated concepts of emergent behavior and emergent functionality. The resulting unifying framework will be useful for any system of adaptive/learning agents, which we believe will be the dominant kind of agents on the World Wide Web, due to the ubiquitous as well as mutable nature of the Web and its users' needs and interests. On the theory side, developing a formal framework for multi-agent learning can lead to an improved understanding of the general principle underlying learning in both computational and natural systems. Multi-agent learning is not just the sum of isolated learning activities of the constituent agents. The learning activities of an individual constituent agent may be significantly influenced by other agents. The building of a prototype to capitalize on its possibilities in Phase II would advance understanding of how to apply this novel architecture to complex, dynamic, and persistent problems. Other possible applications for the resulting framework include agent systems for data mining on the Intranets or the Internet, agent systems for automatic construction of intelligence portals, and agent systems for automating and speeding up scientific discoveries on the Web or other complex information environments.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Robert Biehl
DARPA 03-013       Awarded: 17JUN03
Title:Distributed Tracking with Networked, Dynamically Relocatable Sensors
Abstract:Organic Air Vehicles have the potential to dramatically improve knowledge of the battlespace by providing persistent networked coverage which can dynamically adjust to changing conditions. These systems require novel algorithms which can address the problems of positioning, sensor resource allocation, and tracking. Here we propose to define an architecture and create core algorithms which address OAV challenges by a) positioning sensors dynamically based on tracking needs in a complex and changing environment, b) directing sensor resources quickly in response to target tracking requirements, c) tracking with algorithms designed specifically to deal with measurements of limited dimensionality and accuracy, and d) designing these components to work in a distributed environment subject to communications limitations. The design and core algorithms, together with ALPHATECH tracking, sensor resource management, and multi-asset synchronization technology will lay the groundwork for the creation of a robust, high performance OAV tracking system. The proposed work will lay the ground work for the key control/tracking component of an OAV system. Most directly, this technology can be leveraged to support DOD programs creating autonomous sensors for both the air and ground. System components such as sensor resource management and platform positioning can also be applied to larger relocatable sensor systems such as FORESTER. Commercially these technologies can be applied to distributed sensor networks for security and surveillance applications.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-6414
Mr. Paul Withington
DARPA 03-014       Awarded: 25JUN03
Title:Novel Sensors and Signal Processing for Detecting and Classifying Combatants Operating in Urbanized Terrain
Abstract:Improving situational awareness is a key prerequisite to increasing combat effectiveness in urban operations. The use of RF sensors in high-risk operations may increase situational awareness significantly. To build robust sensors capable of delivering accurate target identification in extreme environments, it is critical to fully characterize key performance parameters. Time Domain Corporation (TDC) proposes an integrated, experimentally verified analysis of their UWB radar for waveform capture, foliage impact, geographic dispersion, and spectrum management that will ensure the military's ability to accurately determine both the capabilities and limits of UWB sensor technology. TDC's PulsONâ technology is ideally suited for use as a sensor because of its high resolution, excellent propagation characteristics, simple signal processing, exceptional multipath immunity, and the potential to fuse the radar with a UWB communications link. UWB's potential for low false alarms is particularly exciting. A final report documenting the evaluation of UWB sensors for urban terrain will contain conclusions and projections regarding further close-range sensor development. The test results will be used to guide development of a reliable, close-range, 360-degree, low signature emission UWB sensor system that can perform Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition against adversarial forces operating in urbanized terrain and in foliage. The results of these tests will be used to create a close-range, 360-degree, low signature emission sensor system that can be used to perform Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition against adversarial forces operating in urbanized terrain.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Matthew Antone
DARPA 03-015       Awarded: 11JUN03
Title:Automatic Target Recognition from Motion Video
Abstract:We propose a new automatic target recognition (ATR) system that operates on video data, exploiting the inherent redundancy and spatio-temporal coherence of motion imagery to create three-dimensional target signatures. Unlike previous approaches that use shape alone, our method will additionally model and predict object surface appearance properties, in the form of bi-directional reflectance distributions (BRDFs), to compensate for environmental effects such as varying illumination. We will employ parameterized reflectance models and pre-defined shape and material characteristics to create and refine object models on-the-fly, both for the formation of target templates and for recognition of these templates in subsequently observed motion video. Tight integration between tracking, prediction, modeling, and registration reflects the tight coupling of the underlying recognition problem and facilitates optimal signature estimation by incorporating all available information. We will implement a prediction engine that guides refinement of geometry and appearance by accounting for environmental lighting, shadows, and material properties as well as object shape and reflectance. We will also apply robust correlation techniques to estimate target match probabilities across multiple video frames. Finally, we will evaluate the performance of our model generation and ATR techniques, and compare with existing approaches. Two major technologies will emerge from this effort. Automatic creation and refinement of 3D object models from video, incorporating both surface shape and appearance properties, will have significant impact on time-critical construction of target signatures, site modeling, and photo-realistic image based rendering. The larger program objective of robust video-based ATR has direct application to military scenarios that require high-precision confirmatory identification and tracking, and to commercial sectors such as law enforcement, security, and video monitoring and surveillance.

DIGITAL TRAFFIC SYSTEMS, INC.
6400 Uptown Blvd., NE, Suite 435E
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 881-4470
Dr. Thomas A. Tumolillo
DARPA 03-015       Awarded: 09JUN03
Title:Motion Based Video ATR
Abstract:The goal of our proposed research is autonomous real-time detection, classification, and location of targets from a video image. DTS Inc (www.dtsits.com) proposes to combine its robust software in real-time video tracking and classification of vehicles for the transportation industry with a new classifier (From our subcontractor, Quasar International, www.quasarintl.com) to develop a true ATR video system . This classifier has been used extensively in a broad variety of applications from non-destructive-inspection (NDI) of manufactured parts (resonant inspection) to a discovery engine for large gene expression and protein data sets. This new classifier will allow us to classify vehicles in a larger multidimensional space, which will dramatically reduce false positives and yield a high probability of correct classification and identification. All of the systems operate using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and computers. The development of a vehicle classification system on a Phase I contract will be of immediate use within the transportation industry. It will greatly improve the capability for vehicle classification from a non-road-intrusive sensor. It will form the basis for developing the ATR capability and putting the system on an airborne platform. The ability to classify and track vehicles has a wide variety of applications in the security and surveillance industry for both government and commercial organizations. This system will enhance the capability of security systems at military bases or other high-value-targets.

EQUINOX CORP.
9 West 57th Street, Suite 1650
New York, NY 10019
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 421-2999
Dr. Lawrence B. Wolff
DARPA 03-015       Awarded: 19MAY03
Title:A Motion-Based Approach to Automatic Target Recognition
Abstract:A general approach exploiting additional information obtained from motion video is proposed that can potentially enhance existing automatic target recognition algorithms. The approach uses a unique combination of statistical observation models and differential geometry. High performance Automatic Target Recognition from moving aerial and ground platforms including UAVs and surveillance ground vehicles.

IMAGECORP, INC.
6411 Ivy Lane #106
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Mrs. Qinfen Zheng
DARPA 03-015       Awarded: 27MAY03
Title:Motion Based Video ATR
Abstract:We propose a model-based temporal integration approach for automatic target recognition (ATR) using a single video stream. The video ATR problem is addressed as a verification and identification task. A generalized Hausdorff metric will be used for target to model matching and target to target tracking and verification. The Hausdorff metric is more robust to noise and allows a confidence interpretation for target recognition/verification. Our system can address stationary and moving target ATR using videos acquired from stationary as well as moving platforms. When fully developed, the system will integrate camera motion compensation, target detection, target tracking, target pose estimation, target verification, and target fingerprinting components. In Phase I, we will develop robust algorithms for 3D target pose estimation and sequential target recognition using a generalized Hausdorff metric. We will test and refine our existing algorithms for sensor motion estimation, target detection and tracking, and best view selection for video ATR applications. We will develop techniques for reliable and descriptive vehicle fingerprint extraction. The algorithms will be evaluated using videos acquired using a turn table as well as surveillance videos. During Phase II, we will develop, demonstrate and evaluate a prototype system capable of robust video ATR. The primary military applications for the proposed work are in target recognition from unmanned moving platforms. Commercial applications are in face recognition from a single video, and tracking a cargo laden truck or a ship over a long period of time.

EM PHOTONICS, INC.
102 East Main Street, Suite 204
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Mr. James Durbano
DARPA 03-016       Awarded: 28MAY03
Title:Rigorous Analysis and Design of Nano-Photonic Devices using a Novel Hardware Approach
Abstract:A nearly universal trend in modern technology is integrating systems, and their associated devices, on decreasingly smaller scales. Examples range from complete telecommunication systems on a chip to implantable medical devices smaller than human cells. The majority of these devices apply hybrid designs that integrate on a commensurate scale electronics with active and passive optical components. How to design such systems accounting for all the various physical phenomena, including those present in the fabrication processes, is a very challenging problem. Moreover, as optical components are reduced to a scale that is comparable to the operational wavelength, approximate optical design tools are no longer valid. For these cases more rigorous electromagnetic analysis is required. Thus, new computer aided design (CAD) tools are needed that integrate the rigorous physical models and fabrication processes into a single desktop environment. To solve this very challenging problem we propose to apply EM Photonic's revolutionary hardware acceleration system. This system has demonstrated that application specific hardware can provide unprecedented acceleration in solving complicated electromagnetic problems using only a single desktop computer. We are confident this novel approach will break the computational bottleneck that has hindered progress towards a truly useful micro- and nano- photonics CAD system. Anticipated Benefits: If successful our novel hardware approach could revolutionize the way optical engineering analyze and design micro- and nano- scale photonic devices. Moreover, since the algorithms we are proposing are rigorous in nature this same approach can be applied to applications in the microwave, millimeter wave or other EM regimes that require a complete full-wave solution.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Bradley Davis
DARPA 03-016       Awarded: 27MAY03
Title:Wave Kinetic Method for Simulation of Nano-Photonics Devices and Systems
Abstract:The implementation of the phase-space, wave-kinetic method is proposed for the simulation of photonic crystals. Although full-wave methods lead to higher accuracy, computational speed remains a problem. Consequently, a subset of the wave-kinetic method is proposed which nearly has the speed of ray-tracing, but the result is superior to the beam propagation method. This method, called "Diffractive Ray Tracing," extends the conventional ray tracing to include diffractive effects. It is derived from the more general wave-kinetic method and uses the Wigner phase-space distribution to obtain formulas for the spread of ray angles. This leads to the correct diffraction patterns for coherent and partially coherent beams. It is implemented using common radiative transfer methods in combination with the Monte Carlo approach. Starting from the wave-kinetic approach, this method can be further generalized for greater accuracy by moving beyond the Liouville approximation. Many other effects, such as nonlinearity, may also be included. When generalized to the time domain, this approach has been used to account for many orders of dispersion and we propose to investigate its application to ultra-wideband, short pulse interaction in Phase II. NanoSonic would work with a major research university on this program. Photonic devices will become more important in many sectors of the economy including telecommunications and biomedical systems, etc. The effective construction and integration of photonics and electronics into devices used in military, industrial and commercial sectors require tools that are more general, easier to use and faster. Accurate simulation is required in order to reduce concept to design time as well as a reduction in the large costs associated with sample device fabrication and product testing. Consequently, any advances in speed and applicability will serve a large industry base. Consequently, the demand for a commercial code is expected to be high. Currently, NanoSonic owns and through its website will soon make available, a shareware version of an FEM based photonics code developed through NanoSonic.

PEREGRINE SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
6175 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-0660
Dr. Charlie Kuznia
DARPA 03-016       Awarded: 30MAY03
Title:Backplane Optical Interconnection Technology Using Silicon-On-Sapphire Circuitry and BGA Packaging
Abstract:The overall objective of the project is to develop a technology for providing optical interconnections to high performance ICs that scale to greater than 1 Tbps aggregate bandwidth and fit within the IC industry cost structure. This technology is radiation hard and well suited for military applications. The objective of Phase I is to understand the system level requirements for this technology from end-users. Likely first insertion opportunities are high-end military applications for processing large data fields, such as in synthetic aperture radar and nuclear event synthesis. Commercial opportunities are in large computer routers systems and high performance distributed computing systems. Candidates for military partners are Lockheed Martin Corporation, Northrup-Grumman, and Boeing. Commercial candidates include Sun Microsystems and Cisco. The second objective of Phase I is proof of concept through design and analysis. The key issues are the mechanical integrity, thermal performance and optical interface of the PhotonicBGA without sacrificing any electrical/thermal performance of the standard BGApackage. The component must also be cost-effective for successful implementation. This project develops technology that creates board-level optical interconnects in a manner consistent with semiconductor industry manufacturing, assembly and test. We present a method for inserting pre-tested optoelectronic components within a standard BGA package to create 1 Tbps I/O bandwidth to the IC. The optoelectronic components interface to optical links formed in a PCB optical waveguide-layer or standard parallel fiber connectors. The optical links are chip-to-chip within a PCB and also between PCBs across a backplane. This technology offers a significant power consumption reduction when compared to current electrical I/O trends. This project creates a PhotonicBGA package that does not alter the physical envelope of a standard BGA package and does not sacrifice thermal or power delivery to the IC. The technology used in PhotonicBGA is proven radiation hard and well suited for military environments.

NOVELX, INC.
62 Buckingham Drive
Moraga, CA 94556
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 708-3584
Dr. Lawrence Muray
DARPA 03-017       Awarded: 24JUN03
Title:Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope
Abstract:NOVELX, Inc. proposes to develop and market an innovative miniaturized modular scanning electron microscope (SEM) for commercial and military applications. The Phase I technical objective is to investigate the technical feasibility of building a high-resolution, low-cost, miniature SEM that combines high-performance imaging with a proven manufacturable process. The miniature modular SEM (mmSEM) will nominally operate at 1keV at 1nA and achieve <10nm resolution. Several novel technologies and innovations will be incorporated into the NOVELX column. The machined components and hand-wrapped electromagnetic coils, common to a conventional SEM, will be replaced by all electrostatic micromachined, batch-fabricated silicon components using micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Batch processing will drive the component costs down while MEMS micromachining and silicon technologies guarantee that the dimensions of the components will be delivered precisely as designed. These technologies also guarantee that all components will meet the specifications and exceed the required tolerances. The result will be predictable, uniform column operation. The silicon components will be packaged using advanced integrated packaging technologies. These technologies are commonly used to fabricate small packages with high density interconnects in high-volume production. The NOVELX design eliminates individually wired interconnects common to conventional SEMS and replaces them with high density, batch-processed, printed circuitry. The mmSEM will be packaged in a tabletop or portable format and enable inspection of structures and devices, insulating and conductive, as well as biological materials with nanometer resolution.

ZYVEX CORP.
1321 N. Plano Road, Suite 200
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 235-7881
Mr. Rahul Saini
DARPA 03-017       Awarded: 19MAY03
Title:Manufacturing Assembly Technology for Producing Low-Cost MiniSEM Columns
Abstract:This proposal presents a low-cost high-precision method for manufacturing miniaturized e-beam columns, resulting in widespread application in imaging and lithography. While the advantage of downscaling e-beam columns is well known, no commercial applications have emerged, due in large part to manufacturing difficulties. This project begins with the Etec miniaturized e-beam column design and introduces component designs leading to a low-cost automated manufacturing solution. Although the Etec column is generally not considered ideal for an SEM, its high performance and industry-wide familiarity make it an excellent vehicle for proving manufacturing concepts. We will conduct detailed analyses of the design and assembly process to determine the column's performance within manufacturing tolerances and in a range of environmental conditions. Our proprietary assembly approach, currently the focus of a $25M five-year NIST-ATP award, entails a combination of robotic stages and MEMS actuators, connectors, and parts. Our assembly technology produces robust mechanical and electrical connections with precision dependent upon component tolerances rather than assembly robotics. A major strength of this assembly strategy is the ability to incorporate parallel assembly, dramatically reducing cost. This flexible method further enables a variety of designs meeting the resolution, scan field, and depth of focus needs of many different applications. By developing a flexible, low-cost manufacturing system capable of producing a diverse range of high-performance SEM columns, this program benefits an enormous array of industries and researchers. Our proposed manufacturing technology will enable widespread applications of miniaturized e-beam columns through inexpensive parallel, automated assembly. These low-cost, high-performance columns will make e-beam technology broadly available to single- and multi-column users, previously unable to afford this technology. In single-column use, our technology will create the market for a general purpose, tabletop SEM, suitable for use in high school and college labs across the country. "Backpack" versions of the SEM could be carried into the field by geologists, biologists, and forensic specialists, and the like. Current specialized SEM applications (e.g., LEO's engine oil analyzer) will blossom into a much wider range of applications. NASA's desire for miniSEMs suitable for space missions (Mars landing) will be easily met. Arrays of e-beam columns will find applications in semiconductor inspection, significantly reducing the industry's cost-per-image expenditure and enabling high-throughput, multi-point critical dimension measurements. Perhaps the application most impacted will be lithography, through columns of arrays of e-beam columns. With arrays of mask-writing columns 100 columns and higher, direct wafer writing becomes feasible.

INTEGRATED MAGNETOELECTRONICS
1214 Oxford St.
Berkeley, CA 94709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 841-3585
Mr. Richard Spitzer, PhD
DARPA 03-018       Awarded: 27MAY03
Title:Noise Tolerant Magnetoelectronics
Abstract:CMOS digital logic is inherently noisy; generated noise can couple chip components through ground planes, power connections, and signal lines. Noise upsets are being exacerbated by the lower operating voltages and shrinking logic-level margins accompanying smaller feature sizes; measures to counter these effects are losing ground. The proposed project will demonstrate inherent properties of all-metal (no semiconductors) circuits based on the transpinnor, an active device with logic and amplification capabilities, that mitigate sources of noise: no spikes from digital switching; margin independence of feature size. The project objectives are to identify and characterize mechanisms underlying noise generated by analog and digital circuits; analyze effects of such noise on analog, digital, and mixed-signal circuits, for both all-metal and CMOS technologies, due to coupling between neighboring components; compare these effects in the two technologies; and provide a plan for system demonstration incorporating the noise-abatement capabilities of transpinnor electronics. The proposed project is expected to demonstrate that all-metal circuit components can overcome the susceptibility of their CMOS counterparts to noise upsets in a multiple-noise-source environment, and that this advantage improves with decreasing feature size. All-metal electronics is an enabling technology that transcends applications.

SITUS LOGIC
1442 Lomita Drive
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 799-7830
Mr. Alain J. Martin
DARPA 03-018       Awarded: 28MAY03
Title:Asynchronous Techniques for Noise Tolerant Nanoelectronics
Abstract:As progress in deep submicron technology exacerbates issues of clock distribution, power consumption, control and estimation of delays, and noise immunity and tolerance, asynchronous techniques are becoming more and more attractive. The design of an asynchronous MIPS microprocessor in 1998 and the current design of an asynchronous 8051 microcontroller (both developed at Caltech in the proposer's laboratory) have demonstrated that asynchronous techniques can produce circuits with high throughput and low power consumption, without sacrificing the robustness and reliability of a "quasi delay-insensitive approach", i.e. without introducing delay assumptions. The absence of delay assumptions in asynchronous design results in a remarkable robustness to variation in physical parameters, which has been witnessed in several occasions when mistakes in physical layouts that would have been fatal in clocked designs were entirely absorbed by the delay insensitivity of the design. The first objective of this project is to identify and characterize the susceptibility of asynchronous designs to noise upset by radiation or EMI. The prototype chips designed at Caltech under previous and current DARPA projects will provide invaluable testing beds for radiation experiments and measurements. The second objective is to propose asynchronous solutions to overcome SEU and noise susceptibility at the electrical level, and to detect and correct their effects at the logical level. The proposed solutions will be included in the CAD tool suite under development by Situs Logic. The rapidly increasing use of computer systems in embedded systems and in different forms of hostile environments, like space, has created a demand for rugged, noise-tolerant systems that are also energy-efficient and high-performance. The project intends to demonstrate the benefits of an asynchronous approach in that application area. The results from this project will be commercialized in two ways. First, they will be included in a modified version of the Situs CAD tool suite specifically aimed at radiation-hard and noise-tolerant design. Second, Situs plans to design and commercialize a low-power, high-performance, enviromentally rugged, and radiation and noise tolerant version of the 8051 microcontroller for space, military and other applications.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Mr. Shyam Raghunandan
DARPA 03-019       Awarded: 28MAY03
Title:Fabrication of Large-Area Distributed Electronic Modules
Abstract:How can one make a sensor that can make different types of measurements on a large area, on a shape that is not known a priori, that is lightweight, that is accurate with a fine resolution, while at the same time has the resolution and sensitivity of a stand-alone instrument, and at an affordable cost?' This proposal will develop a process and a tool to answer this commonly asked question in military, space and commercial sensor and electronics applications. Currently available sensors can make different types of measurements with a high degree of accuracy. These are limited in that they only measure the state of either a point or a small region on the body. A technology and process that extends this capability to address the remaining constraints will be of enormous benefit to the sensor community. In this proposal we will design and build a proof-of-concept tool and demonstrate an associated process using in-house hardware to fabricate large-area distributed electronic modules. This tool will be capable of performing lithography, photoablation and excimer laser crystallization on a single platform. In the follow on Phase II program, we will construct a fully functional tool for low-cost manufacturing of large-area distributed electronic modules. The proposed system will enable low-cost fabrication of a wide variety of electronic systems for novel space and military based applications. Numerous applications can be found in self-sufficient, large-area sensor skins that have an integrated power source, wireless communication interfaces, etc. Such electronics systems will enable real-time `health-monitoring' of spacecraft, munition systems, personnel, food and critical life supplies in battlefield conditions. In addition, they would be used in the commercial aircraft, automotive and shipbuilding industries for monitoring the state of critical operating systems.

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9036 Winnetka Avenue
Northridge, CA 91324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 727-9786
Mr. Ethan Wei
DARPA 03-019       Awarded: 09JUN03
Title:Low Cost Fabrication of Power Pack on Plastic
Abstract:As with military and aerospace applications, high power sources with low mass and volume ar desirable to satisfy miniaturization goals for commercial uses including powering automotive miro-sensors, smart cards, personal digital assistants and hand-held telecommunication tools.In this proposed Phase I research, we are going to develop a screen printing process of fabricating thin film Zn-alkaline battery/supercapacitor hybrid power pack on plastic and on-chip:i.e. a micropower-on-chip technology with low cost. Power soucre for military use sensors, electrostatic actuators and mcirogyroscope of MEM devices, Memory back-up in space application and smart cards.

MESOSCRIBE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Long Island High Technology Incubator, 25 E. Loop
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6455
Mr. Richard Gambino
DARPA 03-019       Awarded: 17JUN03
Title:Distributed Electronics
Abstract:Direct-Write Thermal Spray (DWTS) is proposed as an innovative new technology for applica-tion for Distributed Electronics. Four key application areas have been identified: 1) Distributed Sensing and Environmental Monitoring, 2) Distributed Electromagnetics, 3) Distributed Wiring and Connectivity, and 4) Distributed Semiconductor Devices. These interrelated topical areas will be cohesively integrated to provide radical new approaches for electronics integration on new and pre-existing surfaces. Examples include instrumenting vehicle surfaces (airplanes, ships, tanks), ordinance (missiles and their containers, shells), and building surfaces with sensing, E-M capability (antennas and/or radar-jamming), and wiring/connectivity (for signal, power, RF, communication, sensing and actuation signals). Also, the ability to deposit semiconductor materials such as Si and Ge in a distributed fashion without the need for expensive fabrication facilities is of enormous interest for innovative new applications as well as in-the-field repair. DWTS can be used to fabricate sensors (temperature, humidity, strain, heat flux, magnetic, crack propagation, etc); antennas; conducting wires, passive components (capacitors, inductors, and resistors), and semiconductor materials, making it an extremely versatile tool for Distribute Electronics applications. We have partnered with AIL, NRL, Boeing Corp., and NUWC for identification of key end-use applications as well as to forge a commercialization path. The successful implementation of direct-write thermal spray (DWTS) technology can have dramatic and far-reaching impact on the emerging field of distributed electronics. In particular, the unique materials and device capabilities of DWTS represents an enabling technology for distributed sensing, electromagnetics (antennas and radar jamming), wiring and connectivity, and semiconductor active devices. In this sense, it is a disruptive technology. Indeed, DWTS can deposit metals, insulators, polymers, semiconductors, and combinations of these materials, both in multilayer form and as graded materials. Furthermore, since DWTS is a direct-write-based technology, the technology enjoys tremendous versatility in terms of the surface topology DWTS is used to pattern. For example, conformal (both convex and concave) surfaces, surfaces with large areas (10+ square meter), and flexible surfaces (even moving) can be coated using the existing DWTS technology infrastructure. DoD applications under consideration include fabricating antennas (traditional, fractal, genetic-algorithm designed) and antenna arrays (phased arrays); distributed sensor arrays for environmental and surface condition monitoring; semiconductor devices including P-N junction diodes for rectification, varactors, and frequency tuning as well as FET devices, which are currently under investigation. The technology can applied to wide range of new and pre-existing military vehicles, buildings, ordinance, shipping containers, even solder's equipment. The technology shows equal promise in the commercial sectors in terms of, for example, instrumenting the wings of aircraft or large stationary structures (buildings, bridges, automobiles) for temperature, strain, crack propagation, creep, etc. Similarly the capability to deposit new and innovative antenna technologies on a variety of surfaces would be extremely useful as the revolution in wireless communication continues into full gear.

SARCOS RESEARCH CORP.
360 Wakara Way
Salt Lake City, UT 84108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 581-0155
Dr. David T. Markus
DARPA 03-019       Awarded: 10JUN03
Title:Ultra Flexible Substrate
Abstract:Current microelectronics relies on silicon substrate, ceramic packaging and fiber glass circuit board, devices built using this technology is costly and not flexible. Although foils (such as polyimide or steel) promised to address flexibility, they have to be very thin. Sarcos has been working on a revolutionary technology that will enable electronic devices to be fabricated on filamentary and elongated prismatic flexible substrates which can be interconnected to form large area and even volumetric flexible electronics. The capability of flexible substrate to be folded, conformed to structure, woven or embedded means that the form factor of the electronic devices fabricated using this technology can also be changed, resulting in military capabilities not possible before. So far we have developed and demonstrated a proprietary cylindrical lithography (CL) method for fabricating electronic devices on non-planar substrates (e.g. cylinders such as optical fiber, PZT tubes and NiTi shape memory alloy). This project will expand the capabilities of CL. Solar cell, photodetectors corrosion sensors, embedded processors, mobile and concealed sensors, communications elements and other devices which are space, weight and power (SWAP) constrained.

SI2 TECHNOLOGIES
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 856-4162
Dr. Joseph Kunze
DARPA 03-019       Awarded: 18JUN03
Title:Low-Power, Monolithically Printed, Conformal, Sensors and Associated Microelectronics
Abstract:SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes the use of high mobility (>10 cm2/(V s)) organic semiconductors to enable printable, low-power flexible sensors and microelectronics with the compactness and low weight that is essential for manned and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) electronic system integration. SI2's Direct Write technology and high mobility conductive polymers enable the proposed sensor systems and will offer a significant cost reduction over the existing paradigm. By reducing the cost of electronic devices and using large area flexible substrates, it is possible to distribute the electronics over the entire surface of a vehicle and provide an additional saving of space over conventionally packaged electronic devices. The proposed low power microelectronic system will increase the mission capability of a number of military platforms such as UAV's. The ability to cost effectively embed and integrate microelectronics will provide additional capabilities with minimal space, weight and power requirements. Additionally, the ability to fabricate inexpensive sensors conformal with vehicle surfaces could greatly increase the ease of which chemical and biological agents can be detected. This ability could have a wide range of application including homeland defense. This technology also has potential in the commercial sector for a embedded sensors, logic and communications systems where cost, space, weight and power are constrained.

LIGHTSMYTH TECHNOLOGIES
860 W. Park, Suite 250
Eugene, OR 97401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 431-0027
Dr. Thomas W. Mossberg
DARPA 03-020       Awarded: 12JUN03
Title:Lithographically-Scribed Planar Holographic Optical CDMA Devices and Systems
Abstract:This phase I SBIR proposal comprises a feasibility study of an advanced new class of optical devices that promise to provide a dramatic expansion of practical optical function in areas such spectral filtering and optical processing. Many areas of optical data transport will benefit from robust, low-cost, yet high performance devices delivering building-block functionality in these areas. The new devices are fabricated using the powerful method of lithographic holography and are based on Holographic Bragg Reflectors (HBR's) as the primary functional element. In the present proposal, we focus on those aspects of HBR's performance key to their potential role as enabling elements in optical systems employing optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA). OCDMA offers important advantages for multiplexed optical data links including flexible bandwidth provisioning, all-optical channel discrimination, and multi-channel function with a single generic optical source. Lithographically scribed HBR's are broadly enabling to OCDMA function and may comprise the key to reducing such systems to widespread use. Commercial and military activity is increasingly focused on the distribution of data. Optical data transport networks provide the key enabling element to such activity once high bandwidth and/or appreciable distances are involved. Optical Code Division Multiple Access Communications, an analog to microwave CDMA, offers powerful optical data transport function if suitable devices can be developed to render its deployment practical. The present proposal relates to the design, simulation, and system integration of a new class of optical coding devices which are based on holographic Bragg reflectors and fabricated via lithographic holography. These devices may finally open the door to deployment of OCDMA systems.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division, 20600 Gramer
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Ranjit Pradhan
DARPA 03-020       Awarded: 21MAY03
Title:Tunable Spectral Devices Based on Planar Holographic Diffractive Structures
Abstract:Combining photonic components into a single integrated optical chip usually requires channel waveguides, which are difficult to fabricate and have high losses. Therefore, DARPA is seeking device technology for two-dimensional holographic diffractive structures in planar waveguides that efficiently connect multiple input-output port pairs. Lithographic scribing of these devices followed by low-cost stamping or etching into optoelectronic materials promises devices that are extremely robust and immune to point defects. However, their implementation in complex yet flexible fully 2D photonic devices for spectral filtering, target discrimination and other applications will require dynamically tunable on-chip holographic elements. In response, to this DARPA need Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new electro-optically tunable Active Planar Holographic Diffractive Structure (APHODS) technology combining standard lithography with holographic nanostructuring. It combines electro-optic material such as liquid crystal polymer with surface relief structures in planar waveguides to create a high speed, low voltage electrically-tunable, fully 2D planar diffractive structure. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of APHODS by means of a simple tunable grating device. Phase II will culminate in a fully packaged 2D planar holographic device for spectral filtering and processing applications, leading to a manufacturing ready device in Phase III. The incorporation of coherent spectral filtering and spectral target recognition, into a single chip will have enormous benefits to a number of military and commercial applications. With the U.S. military's increasing use of photonic technologies, the development of APHODS will be critical for homeland security. Initial applications are envisioned in advanced optical code division multiplexing and many other types of all-optical processing. Optical integrated circuits of commercial importance include waveguides, emitters, detectors, modulators, and spatial wavefront control devices, all in the plane of the waveguide. Use of fully 2D planar waveguide circuits allows powerful integration of all these functions in a single planar waveguide.

PIONEER ASTRONAUTICS
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 980-0890
Dr. Robert Zubrin
DARPA 03-021       Awarded: 29MAY03
Title:Pioneer Sea Glider
Abstract:The proposed Pioneer Sea Glider is a new method for underwater transport of equipment and personnel over long distances in a quiet manner. A unique buoyancy control system is based on the conversion of liquid nitrous oxide to a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen. This nitrous-oxide-derived buoyancy gas also provides breathing air and heat for crews and is based on technology developed and patented by Pioneer Astronautics for long-duration space flight, SCUBA, and terrestrial rescue operations. Because one volume of nitrous oxide gas dissociates to 1.5 volumes of nitrogen plus oxygen, buoyancy gas mass requirements are reduced by one-third compared to those required for other gases. In contrast to successfully demonstrated sea gliders currently used for unmanned oceanographic research purposes, the Pioneer Sea Glider will provide much greater carrying capacity and speed. The Pioneer Sea Glider will be capable of operations between the surface and maximum depths of about 500 meters (1,640 feet) in seawater. The proposed buoyancy control system will accommodate the increased drag resulting from the higher desired velocity. Mission durations of several days or even longer are possible. Potential near-term commercialization of the Pioneer Sea Glider centers on military applications including deployment of sensors, unmanned aerial vehicles, and personnel. Closely following are non-military oceanographic research applications for sample collection and scientific observations. A potential market for commercial SCUBA divers also offers great promise.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Dr. Lonnie K. Calmes
DARPA 03-022       Awarded: 03JUL03
Title:Streak Tube Imaging Lidar for Naval Autonomous Vessel Survival (STIL-NAVS)
Abstract:The ability to map ocean waves around an unmanned surface craft and provide intelligent feedback control for survival steering in high sea states will enable the use of high speed, inexpensive, commercial watercraft to meet military requirements in the littoral. Areté Associates brings extensive experience in two key areas of expertise that will be combined to assess the feasibility of a LIDAR solution to sea wave mapping: Areté is a leader in sea surface simulation software and has designed and fielded numerous ocean LIDAR systems. Areté Associates developed a novel 3-D Imaging LIDAR system, the Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (STIL) that can provide high resolution imaging of the sea surface and subsurface at significant standoff ranges. The patented STIL approach is based on application of mature technologies, and has been demonstrated in the laboratory, ship-based experiments, and airborne demonstrations. Areté proposes to adapt the STIL sensor to the problem of sea wave mapping with a proposed sensor system called Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR for Naval Autonomous Vessel Survival (STIL-NAVS). The proposed Phase I effort will use existing ocean surface rendering software tools to build a detailed model of STIL-NAVS that will be used to produce an optimized system design. Phase I will study the feasibility of STIL-NAVS for local sea surface mapping, and paves the way for immediate transition to Phase II engineering and development of a fieldable configuration. In addition to the sea-mapping mission, STIL-NAVS has numerous commercial and civilian applications, including dangerous wave warning for commercial craft, such as fishing boats, and assistance to search and recovery operations. Areté has previously transitioned other high resolution, real time imaging systems to the commercial marketplace, and anticipates similar success with the STIL-NAVS system.

PROSENSING
107 Sunderland Road
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-4402
Dr. Ivan PopStefanija
DARPA 03-022       Awarded: 01JUL03
Title:High Resolution Sea Surface Mapping Radar System
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal addresses the development of a novel rapid scanning radar interferometer designed to map the surface topography of the ocean surface within one kilometer of an unmanned surface vehicle (USV). A system capable of mapping local sea conditions and commanding an adaptive vessel control system would have the ability to steer the boat into the steepest waves to reduce the chance of capsizing in heavy seas. The proposed interferometer will operate in much the same way as a conventional marine radar, enclosing a rotating pair of fan beam antennas in a radome near the top of the USV to provide 360 degree coverage. The proposed system is based on proven technology developed for oceanographic research applications, that has demonstrated the ability to produce ocean surface maps with an rms error of less than 5 cm. During Phase I, we propose to carry out a software simulation of the mapping process, accounting for realistic sea states and expected radar parameters. Based on the results of these simulations we will design a prototype system, including the radar, data system, and auxiliary sensors and interfaces necessary to implement real-time stabilization of a USV. Successful completion of this SBIR project will result in a practical ocean surface mapping system that can be used as a key element of an adaptive stabilization system for USVs. Such a system could also be employed as a steering aide for manned ships in high seas, reducing the workload on the ship's pilot.

BROWN COMPUTER CO.
200 Park Office Drive, PO Box 13381
RTP, NC 27709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 361-5118
Mr. Gregory O'Neill
DARPA 03-023       Awarded: 24JUN03
Title:Short-Range Ultra-Low-Cost Anti-Submarine Sensors
Abstract:Currently available equipment for detecting submarines shows poor performance in littoral waters. We propose to deploy a population of inexpensive devices that will augment the capabilities of the currently available equipment to achieve the goal of detecting submarines in littoral waters. The U.S. military will achieve the capability of detecting submarines in littoral waters.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Bradley Davis
DARPA 03-023       Awarded: 09JUN03
Title:Low-Cost Biodegradable Massive Sensor Networks for Submarine Detection
Abstract:The proposed SBIR program would design and implement effective, networked multi-sensor means for the detection of submarines at close range in littoral waters. During Phase I, NanoSonic would develop two designs for simple, low-cost and biodegradable submarine detection sensors and multi-sensor systems. The result of the Phase I program would be a downselection to a single implementation approach, in cooperation with a major DoD contractor intimately involved in distributed littoral battlespace sensor systems. Brassboard hardware based on that approach would be fabricated, deployed and evaluated during Phase II in cooperation with that contractor. NanoSonic specifically anticipates the transition of developed technology in cooperation with that contractor. NanoSonic would also work with Virginia Tech researchers who have specific experience with small autonomous submergible multi-sensor platforms and their cooperative networked communication, through Navy programs. The NanoSonic PI has direct experience in the defense industry on similar sensor, propagation and cooperative identification problems through unclassified and classified efforts. The SBIR program would result in 1) low-cost massive sensor network approaches for littoral ASW detection, 2) cooperative multi-sensor network concepts that could be applied to terrestrial sensing applications, and 3) methods for implementing biodegradable sensor materials and devices. Low-cost massive multi-sensor networks have defense applications for the cooperative detection and classification of air, land, and sea vehicles, land and water troop movements, ambient electromagnetic fields associated with voice and data communication, and chemical and biological warfare agents. Commercial applications of similar networks include perimeter security and nondestructive evaluation systems.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 918-1154
Dr. Albrecht Jander
DARPA 03-023       Awarded: 05JUN03
Title:Ultra-Low-Cost Magnetic Sensors for Submarine Detection
Abstract:This work seeks to develop ultra-low-cost antisubmarine surveillance devices based on NVE Corporation's mass-producible solid-state magnetic sensor technology. The sensors will be used in shallow littoral waters to protect against surprise attack by enemy submarines. NVE's spin-dependent tunneling sensors are fabricated using thin-film processing techniques that are compatible with semiconductor manufacturing processes and will allow wafer-scale integration with electronic circuitry. The resulting integrated sensor units, when produced in high volume, should be inexpensive enough to permit high-density distribution in the area to be protected. In this Phase I effort, we will produce two conceptual designs for mass-producible submarine detectors incorporating NVE's magnetic sensor, electronics, battery and acoustic transmitter. We will evaluate the technical feasibility of the magnetic tripwire approach as well as the feasibility and projected cost of a high-volume manufacturing process. Based on a preliminary manufacturing cost analysis, we expect to be able to manufacture the proposed devices for less than one dollar each. High-density application of ultra-low-cost sensors may be a cost effective alternative to current anti-submarine sonar systems used in shallow littoral regions. Similar systems may be used in terrestrial applications to protect against surprise attack on military installations or terrorist attack on civilian facilities. The fabrication technology developed under this program would also allow the integration of electronic compasses in power and cost sensitive consumer goods such as wristwatches and cellular telephones.

PEL ASSOC.
1084 Shennecossett Rd., UConn-Avery Point
Groton, CT 06340
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 448-6522
Dr. Morton L. Wallach
DARPA 03-023       Awarded: 03JUN03
Title:Anti-Submarine Wake-Activated Sensors
Abstract:A sensor/communications package is designed that can sense the physical presence of a submerged submarine at very short range, and that can be manufactured cheaply enough to enable very high density seeding of anti-submarine barriers using environmentally benign materials. The method is based on specially designed biodegradable composite sensor particles activated by the submarine propulsor wake turbulence. These sensors are small nano or micron sized with wake induced luminescent signal emitters and tailored life. The sensor material is sown in a barrier field from air or surface craft. Sensor detectability is achieved by secondary remote sensor technology from satellite, or air and surface craft. Conceptual designs are developed as well as evaluation of the functionality of the detection and communications system. The design will include a communications and data processing unit for monitoring the sensors in the water. An automated sensor manufacturing process is designed capable of producing 100,000 units per year and a complete manufacturing analysis is done including a detailed per-unit cost breakdown, in order to allow evaluation of the affordability of the sensors. Current naval doctrine calls for non-acoustic means of detection to augment current search methods in shallow water and coastal areas. This innovative method consists of the collective signature of a large, dense field of sensors and will provide for detection and tracking of submarines in otherwise difficult areas. These sensors are also very low cost, easy to manufacture, and substantially biodegradable in order to avoid damaging the marine ecosystem. Non-DOD uses for this material are readily apparent in the homeland security area for surveillance operations in coastal and harbor areas. It is anticipated that this technology will be adapted by other Federal agencies, such as the Coast Guard that have responsibility for security in U.S. contiguous waters. This technology can also be used for tracking underwater vehicles and surface ships by other law enforcement agencies and commercial interests. The technology can also be used for marine biological and environmental sensing, and for military monitoring shallow water zones for swimmer and small craft operations.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Stephen Kupiec
DARPA 03-023       Awarded: 12JUN03
Title:Submarine Detection by Acoustic Retina Network
Abstract:Detecting submarines is inherently difficult, and particularly so in littoral areas. A detection system is needed that would consist of thousands of inexpensive sensors to detect a nearby submarine. In response to this need, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop the new STARFISH system. The central element of the system is an inexpensive sensor node combining a Kynar film acoustic transducer, thin film battery, MEMS pressure or magnetorestrictive sensor, and microprocessor mounted on a strip of biodegradable plastic. The combined sensor is designed for high volume web production at low cost. The strips are scattered by air or sea, and then establish a network by sending simple acoustic chirps to designated concentration sensors, which concentrate and preprocess the information in the fashion of a neural net. When a detector senses a contact or notices an occlusion of the chirps from its neighbors it generates a detection chirp, which is processed by the concentration nodes. When a pattern of detections is recognized, the secondary nodes generate distinctive chirps that are detected and located by a small array of sonobuoys. STARFISH systems will be the underwater equivalent of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags for inventorying and tracking submerged objects for oil and gas exploration and extraction and other industries. Equipped with chemical sensors, a STARFISH system could cost-effectively detect and track coastal pollution over broad areas.

SI2 TECHNOLOGIES
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 856-4206
Dr. Jonathan Towle
DARPA 03-023       Awarded: 13JUN03
Title:Short-Range Ultra-Low-Cost Anti-Submarine Sensors
Abstract:SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes the use of innovative array of sensor suites for ASW. Each sensor suite will contain two sensors, which will provide the system with an extremely low false alarm rate (FAR). An inexpensive integrated sensor suite is now possible to fabricate due to recent advances in both conductive polymer and Direct Write technologies that will enable SI2 to cost effectively fabricate high volumes of these sensor suites. By reducing the cost of electronic devices and using a flexible substrate, it will become possible to distribute electronics over the surface of the sensor suite, giving and additional saving of space over conventionally packaged electronic devices. The proposed array of low cost integrated sensor suites will offer greater reliability at lower cost for ASW. The enabling technology, the proposed low power system electronics could provide additional capabilities to many systems. Additionally, sensor suites could be fabricated for applications other that ASW. This technology also has potential in the commercial sector for embedded sensors, logic and communications systems where cost, space, weight and power are constrained.

BLUEFIN ROBOTICS CORP.
301 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-0004
Mr. Scott Willcox
DARPA 03-024       Awarded: 03JUN03
Title:Rapid Design & Development of Behaviors for Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:Bluefin Robotics proposes (in Phase I) to create a methodology for developing the Bluefin Agent Behavior Language (BABL) and associated tools. BABL will enable the rapid design and development of behaviors for autonomous vehicles. Key features of BABL are that it: 1) Makes a minimal set of assumptions about the capabilities and assumptions of the target UVs. 2) Maintains generality without losing the ability to exploit the advanced capabilities of any given agent. 3) Presents a clean interface that allows the user to think about behavior and mission composition in a natural manner. Two core elements of BABL are that it stacks layers of behaviors that operate in sequence or in parallel, and it enables users to formulate implementation-independent statements of goals and directions. In phase I we will review prior agent behavior languages, tools, and architectures; develop generic use-case scenarios; develop and document the design methodology; and specify the language and toolset. 1) Creation of a standard, general agent behavior language for use with unmanned vehicles in all military branches 2) Enabling rapid development of complex behaviors and missions for heterogeneous unmanned platforms. 3) Strengthen synergies between DOD, commercial, and academic unmanned vehicle programs, easing technology transition between these three sectors. 4) Creation of standard for commercial agent behavior programming and tools for the unmanned systems industry.

PERCEPTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 439-6500
Dr. Amos Freedy
DARPA 03-024       Awarded: 30MAY03
Title:A Command Language for Composable War Fighting Behaviors Of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles In The Future Battle Space
Abstract:Unmanned Combat Systems including robotic unmanned vehicles (UVs) are increasingly being deployed to improve the survivability, lethality and sustainability of combat operations. Two factors are critical to the exploitation of UV war-fighting power: a capability for commanders to specify and insert tactical behaviors which can be autonomously instantiated by the UVs as effective war-fighting partners; and a schema for collaborating and supervising the UV forces in battle. Our objective is to exercise the complementary cognitive functions of human and machine to forge a fighting entity with capabilities superior to that of human or machine in isolation. Our innovative approach is to leverage and build on the prior investment of tens of millions of dollars in a command architecture, language and tools for robotic forces that has been made in connection with the DARPA-sponsored SIMNET program and its Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) successors. Building on this strong base, we will develop ontology of war fighting behaviors and establish semantic and communication protocols of a war fighter oriented supervisory language. We will develop design specifications for architecture and tools, select a prototypical FCS application scenario as an application context and conduct a proof of concept demonstration at a DIS facility. The proposed R&D program will provide robust and effective architectures, tools and processes for designing and inserting command instructions regarding tactical behaviors in unmanned vehicles and other robotic entities. The first product will be a set of software tools software and an agent behavior language that can be used in a variety of mobile agents applications. The software will be optimized for sale to DoD and Homeland Defense agencies as well as civil organizations that employ remote robotic agents in hostile environment such as chemical spills, forest fires, local law enforcement, etc. The product will feature innovative elements for supporting human robot-teams collaborating in hostile missions where a variety of complex behaviors are required. These will include (1) Authoring and control languages using command-instruction at military semantic level, and (2) Human factored graphical operator interfaces for the tactical control of individual and heterogeneous collectives of robotic entities to include combinations of manned and unmanned systems working interchangeably within the same command and control environment.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court, Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 301-9559
Dr. Robert Wray
DARPA 03-024       Awarded: 03JUN03
Title:Rapid Design & Development of Behaviors for Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:Soar Technology, Inc. proposes a system for end-user behavior specification of autonomous entities. The approach is three fold: First, we propose to develop a user interface that uses a metaphor of a "playbook and whiteboard". This methodology based on ideas of visual programming; that is, the user manipulates objects on the screen (rather than source code) to piece together behaviors from smaller components. Second, the visual programming environment is supported by an infrastructure consisting of a methodology for encapsulating behavior units, a behavior ontology and a reasoning engine to manage the complexities of composing behaviors. The ontology describes roles, agent capabilities and temporal and behavior constraints. The reasoning engine helps the user piece together behaviors that make sense with respect to the constraints of the behavior units, and informs the user of violations. Lastly, our approach includes the use of a platform-independent behavior representation language that can describe the richness of behaviors generated by the expert user. To support the many different UV platforms, this behavior language can be compiled into the native execution form of different behavior execution systems. The proposed system would enable UV system operators who have expertise in the domain but not in programming to develop new behaviors or modify behaviors from an existing library. By taking the software developer out of the loop, the time and costs associated with implementing new behaviors for autonomous entities can be greatly reduced. The platform-independent approach taken here also expands the usefulness of the tool by providing mechanisms to compile the behavior representation language to any operational UV execution language. The commercial prospects of such a behavior specification tool expand beyond the military's use of unmanned systems. Autonomous agent technology is becoming more pervasive in areas of simulation, for anything from intelligence analysis to the buying habits of consumers - and with this comes the need for domain experts to specify the behavior of these agents. There is also immediate need for this tool in the entertainment industry, both in the development of synthetic characters for games, and for the use of such characters in movies.

ADVANCED CERAMETRICS, INC.
P.O. Box 128, 245 North Main Street
Lambertville, NJ 08530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 397-2900
Dr. Ajmal Khan
DARPA 03-025       Awarded: 29MAY03
Title:Self-Powered, Light Weight Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Anti-Icing Thumpers
Abstract:Advanced Cerametrics, Inc. (ACI) has developed a technology to scavenge waste energy, such as vibration or flex to power active structural control using its piezoelectric fiber composites. Commercial examples include Head Sports' Intelligence skis and tennis rackets. Similar lightweight, flexible actuators are proposed to be placed on rotorcraft surfaces to deform the surface, at short time intervals and stroke, to fracture ice build up. These small devices can each generate nearly 60 pounds of force from energy scavenged from vibration and several powered designs will be prepared in Phase I to test the best concept for fracturing ice. A test stand will be constructed using a rotor section. The most likely candidate designs will be made into self-powered units in Phase II. These self-powered devices can operate independent of outside sources of power or control and are completely autonomous. The fiber composite structure has relatively high loss and thus will assist in improving the low observable characteristics of the aircraft. ACI will partner with Sikorsky Aircraft for this development. All aircraft experience ice build up, which impedes their airworthiness. The ice is heavy and interferes with airflow. The proposed devices will be lightweight and conformable to irregular surfaces. The associated electronics are simple and light. ACI proposes to market the development to the commercial aircraft industry concurrent with the conclusion of the rotorcraft study. ACI has also conceived of a variation on the device to make an anti-ice surface for very high altitude UAV's, which may stay airborne for extended periods and this design will be presented to Lockheed and others involved with these aircraft.

OXAZOGEN, INC.
1910 West St. Andrews Road
Midland, MI 48640
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(989) 832-5555
Dr. Jin Hu
DARPA 03-025       Awarded: 19JUN03
Title:Tough Polyfluorosiloxane Networks as Anti-icing Coatings For Military Rotorcraft
Abstract:Ice formation on projections on aircraft is a leading cause of aircraft fatalities. There is a need for efficient ice-phobic technology for both civilian and military aircraft. For military aircraft, including military rotorcraft, there are additional requirements of being lightweight, low energy consuming, and having low observability. This SBIR proposal will test the feasibility of highly crosslinked polyfluorocarbosiloxane networks with extraordinarily low surface energy (water contact angle 115-121°) to act as tough anti-icing coatings for military rotorcraft. This unique technology could lead to a new coating industry based on ice-phobic properties. This proposed SBIR program which is based on the use of highly-crosslinked polyfluorocarbosiloxane networks as ice-phobic coatings, offers numerous opportunities for use in both military and commercial applications. They include, among others: (a) ice-phobic coatings for civilian and military aircraft, for ground and water transportation vehicles or vessels, and for any articles requiring anti-icing properties, e.g., traffic signs, antennas, etc., (b) ink-release lithographic coatings, (c) anti-fouling coatings to reduce problems created by marine organisms, such as zebra mussels, barnacles, and algae, on marine tankers, (d) coatings that allow the easy removal of graffiti, and (f) self-cleaning and water-condensation-free glass. If successful, the value of these unique materials as ice-phobic, non-stick, release coatings could be in the multi-millions of dollars in product and license fees.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4428
Mr. Douglas J. Taylor, Ph.D
DARPA 03-025       Awarded: 29MAY03
Title:Durable Coating to Prevent Aircraft Icing
Abstract:The accretion of ice in arctic environments is an expensive problem for the power transmission and microwave industries; the military, whether on land, sea, or in the air; and airlines that operate in blizzard-like conditions. Traditional de-icing technology relies on chemicals to melt the accreted ice and is only a temporary solution. Some coatings have been explored that attempt to prevent the formation of ice on a surface, but many of these are also temporary solutions. TPL proposes a durable coating that will significantly delay the formation of ice on a variety of surfaces. The coating is a molecular combination of organic and inorganic constituents specifically designed to be durable and ice phobic. The inorganic component will impart hardness and durability, while the organic part will impart flexibility and ice phobicity. The wet- chemically derived coating is easy to apply and has excellent adhesion. Proposed coatings will be evaluated for ice phobicity by the Army's Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratory, which is well-known for their abilities in icing research. Mechanical and dielectric properties will be tested by TPL, whose investigators have extensive experience and resources in wet-chemically derived coating technology Materials and surface coatings are needed to protect exposed structures and systems (e.g., ships, automobiles, aircraft, locks and dams, communication and power delivery systems, and environmental instrumentation) against unwanted ice accumulation caused by freezing precipitation and in-cloud icing. Many of these applications are for arctic installations, including military and commercial microwave and r.f. towers and power transmission lines, and equipment that is permanently or temporarily operated in arctic conditions or blizzards, such as aircraft and ships.