---------- MDA ----------

425 Phase I Selections from the 03.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Dr. Mike Wang
MDA 03-001       Selected for Award
Title:A Light Weight High Flux Cooling Module
Abstract: Recent advancement in both commercial and military electronic devices, such as radar T/R modules, solid state motor drivers, RF power amplifiers, advanced microprocessor among others demands for advanced thermal management systems to maintain their high operation performance. A light weight high heat flux cooling module is proposed for current and future thermal management of instruments and devices in aerospace, defense and other fields. Its feasibility will identified and related important technical issues will be explored and solved, a cooling module prototype will be fabricated for thermal management of radar systems and other high power electronic devices and its cooling capability will be verified by prototype testing during Phase I. A successful demonstration of the proposed technology will further improve the performance and reliability of current and next generation high power electronic components and devices. The proposed technology has significant commercial values in fields of power electronics, optics, military electronics, computer and telecommunication. The accomplishment of the proposed research and development will efficiently improve performance and reliability of current and next generation semiconductor devices in electronics, optics, computer and communication. It will benefit to improvement and miniaturization of radar and communication systems among others. The developed technology has high commercial potentials in fields of power electronics, solid state lasers, military electronics, computer and communication. The proposed cooling module and its derivatives maybe used in both DoD related and many advanced commercial applications where high power density, weight and volume are mainly concerned. In addition, the proposed concept may also be used in nuclear related applications.

ATEC, INC.
387 Technology Drive
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 403-1744
Dr. John Lawler
MDA 03-001       Selected for Award
Title:T/R Module Board Cooled With Thin-Film Evaporators
Abstract:We propose to develop a superior thermal management system for high-power radar T/R modules at the Lower Replaceable Unit or LRU board level. We will incorporate evaporators into a new LRU board such that an evaporator is adjacent to each T/R module. Our unique and proprietary thin-film evaporators remove large amounts of heat via ultra thin-film evaporation of a working fluid. After evaporation, the fluid's vapors are channeled to the edge of the board, where the vapor is cooled and condensed back to a liquid and returned to an evaporator. The temperature drop across our LRU board should be about 10C, as opposed to the approximately 40C temperature drops across standard T/R module boards. The lower thermal resistance of our T/R module board will reduce the operating temperatures of future higher-power MMIC's, which will increase the reliability of the radar system. Our proposed design has many advantages. The cooling mechanism is ideal for the limited space available inside a T/R module board. The thin-film evaporators will be able to remove heat at rates of up to 200 W/cm2, which is comparable to spray cooling methods but with lower power and space requirements and fewer ancillary components. Our thin-film evaporators incorporated into a T/R module board will reduce the thermal gradient across these boards and allow the operation of the radar system at high power densities and frequencies. Similar in-board active cooling systems could be designed for other high-heat flux electronic devices, such as solid-state lasers, electronic power modules, computer network servers, and computer workstations with multiple processors. ATEC is currently working on developing a potentially high volume electronic cooling product utilizing our thin-film evaporator technology.

BELTRAN, INC.
1133 EAST 35TH STREET
BROOKLYN, NY 11210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(718) 377-0227
Dr. Lev Reznikov
MDA 03-001       Selected for Award
Title:ACTIVE RADAR SYSTEM THERMAL MANAGEMENT
Abstract:Beltran proposes an innovative thermal management system for high power solid-state lasers based on the Complex of Innovative Cooling Enhancement Technologies (CICET). CICET provides the highest reliability, flexibility of the thermal management with doubling of the sources of refrigeration, selectable for operational regimes: - Semi open cooling circuits.provide optional opportunities for full recirculating of the coolant or to blow out a fraction of the vapor of the coolant to cover peak demands of the refrigeration. - Ultra low frequency heat accumulation with Phase Changing Materials (PCM) for continuous operation of power radar system. - Planar microregenerators with PCM for the suppression of high frequency thermal pulsations. - Electrical intensification of coolant circulations, phase separation, boiling and condensation. - Ionization of the coolant for uniformity of its distribution. The expected combined increased cooling capacity will be in excess of 1000 Watt/cm2. Analysis of the experimental tests will be utilized for optimization and simulation of the intensified heat transfer for the Phase II design of the proof-of-principle hardware. Innovative cooling technique for high power radars will suppress overheating and excessive thermal cycling of space based high power electronic components. Application of the Cooling Enhancement technology will improve thermal management of powerful space- and ground-based computers, of microwave generators, space-based laser (SBL) and space-based radar (SBR). Experimental data and theoretical models and approximations will be utilized for the design and research of commercial, research and military products.

JW COMPOSITES, LC
420 South 500 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 355-7424
Mr. Joseph Weeks
MDA 03-001       Selected for Award
Title:Composite Heat Pipe Baseplates for Thermal Management of T/R Modules
Abstract:Thermal managment of T/R modules requires new materials to reduce the thermal resistance between the high frequency amplifiers and the module cooling system. We are proposing to construct a heat pipe evaporator as the baseplate of a T/R module using a new composite material with low CTE and high thermal conductivity. Aligned fibers both within the composite material as well as within the heat pipe wick will substantially increase the effective surface area for heat transfer. Advanced materials such as GaAs and GaN produce power densities beyond the capabilities of current materials. Our approach will enable these and similar devices with very high heat flux to be cooled. This technology can be adapted to cooling cell phone amplifiers, personal computers, and power electronic modules.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P. Scaringe
MDA 03-001       Selected for Award
Title:Demonstration of a High Thermal Conductivity Cold Plate Material Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:This proposal will demonstrate the development of a composite material containing aligned carbon nanotubes with thermal conductivity far in excess of traditional copper or aluminum. A unique process for fabricating the aligned carbon nanotubes will be demonstrated in Phase I. Limited thermal conductivity experiments will be performed to demonstrate the conductivity improvement. The aligned Carbon Nanotube Composite (CNC) will also be fabricated into a cold plate in Phase I and demonstrated. In addition to the potential for a thermal conductivity that approaches graphite (6600 W/mK, compared to 390 W/mK for copper), the CNC heat pipe is ideal for direct chemical bonding to solid-state electronic devices, thereby eliminating interfacial thermal resistance. This extremely high thermal conductivity material is ideal as a heat-spreading device, which can ultimately be fabricated into heat sinks (including microchannel heat sinks or heat pipes). Phase I will demonstrate a high thermal conductivity composite composed of aligned carbon nanotubes with enhanced thermal conductivity. Phase I will include manufacturing techniques, design specifications, experimental data and cost analysis. This effort will experimentally demonstrate the performance of a thermally conductive material that can be fabricated into cold plates, heat pipes, and related thermal devices and provide a heat flux capability that far exceeds traditional copper or aluminum materials. The proposed material would be applicable to all types of cold plates and heat pipes. In addition to the MDA applications, other potential applications include satellite thermal control, hardened radiator systems, and commercial or military electronics cooling (high-power electronics, supercomputers, electronic switchgear, and avionics). Mainstream has performed a commercialization study and the commercial potential is tremendous. A commercialization partner has been secured as well as Phase II matching funds.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 03-001       Selected for Award
Title:Super High Thermal Conductivity CTE Matched Power Amplifier Packaging: Hybridized Graphite Fiber Reinforced Al and Cu Alloys
Abstract:An order of magnitude increase in heat flux of multi-die passive heat sink materials is proposed. High performance graphite fiber reinforced aluminum and copper alloys are precisely CTE matched to diverse substrates such as CVD diamond, SiC, Si, GaN, GaAs, alumina and beryllia, by varying the volume loading of planar-isotropic graphite fiber preforms prior to infiltration with molten matrix alloy. By strategically locating oriented thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG) inserts within the preform, through-plane conductivity is increased more than a factor ten (1300 W/mK). In-plane conductivity to the system sink is increased by a factor of >5 to 1100 W/mK while maintaining CTE matching to the die or substrate. In a second approach, an array of highly conductive K1100 graphite fibers formed into stiff wires are inserted into a planar-isotropic graphite preform below the die mounting location prior to metal infiltration. A small volume fraction of K-1100 "Z" inserted wires will increase the through-plane conductivity to ~400 W/mK in Cu matrix systems. In this option, "Z" conductivity is enhanced while CTE matching is maintained. Since reinforcement is selectively applied only to die-mount locations, heat transport is increased by a factor of two while additional materials costs are minimal. Expensive active thermal management systems are eliminated in advanced radar systems. A 10 fold increase in heat transport capacity increases the possible number of dies in a package by a factor of 10. This translates to a tenfold decrease in cost. Current troubled designs with hot spots can be cured by selective application of option B. This technology enables WBG materials insertion into advanced radar systems. Lightweight aluminum versions of the hybridized solutions will enable lower launch weights and lower system weights in airborne or lighter-than-air-borne applications.

THERMAL MANAGEMENT & MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY
4664 Vista de la Tierra
Del Mar, CA 92014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 665-2348
Dr. Daniel L. Vrable
MDA 03-001       Selected for Award
Title:ACTIVE RADAR SYSTEM THERMAL MANAGEMENT
Abstract:Major obstacles to TMD and NMD active radar system implementation are the current limitation of thermal management cooling technologies. An innovative thermal management concept providing high thermal capability with enhanced energy storage, thermal transport and heat dissipation is proposed. The concept relies on both innovative thermal design and advanced materials. The concept is directly applicable to cooling the T/R modules used extensively in the large active antenna systems. The cooling capability is increased significantly by improvements in the internal heat transfer, enhanced surface area for heat transfer and reduced thermal contact resistances. The improved thermal system provides higher heat flux capability, yet maintains the junction temperature of the critical electronic components. Devices such as T/R modules, laser diodes and high power electronic components can utilize this innovative thermal system design to significantly improve performance. The thermal concept provides enhanced thermal capability for a broad range military systems as well as commercial components and provides a robust and highly effective thermal management approach to address critical technology needs. The thermal system will have immediate application for ballistic missile systems, ground and space-based radar systems and high-energy laser directed energy weapon systems. System payoffs include higher power operation, lower temperatures, reduced component mass and improved packaging and structural integrity of the components. The technology can be applied to other high heat flux applications including: commercial power devices, advanced avionics, electric vehicles and high performance super computers.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8846
Dr. Suresh Subramanian
MDA 03-002       Selected for Award
Title:Dual Mode Active/Passive LADAR
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) proposes to design and fabricate a dual mode ROIC that simultaneously performs the function of an active time of flight (TOF) LADAR as well as a passive NIR imager thereby eliminating the need for having multiple sensors, alignment issues, and external data fusion. A large staring LADAR ROIC will be demonstrated using this concept. The approach leverages two key technologies developed at ISC - TOF 3D-Imaging ROIC and 3D ROIC stacking. Our approach simplifies the system level sensor design, reduces overall package size, and renders it more robust for insertion into missile interceptor platforms. The proposed innovation will find use in unmanned robotic ground, air, and space vehicles for ATR, threat detection, and terminal guidance applications. It can also be used for commercial 3D surveying and mapping.

VOXTEL, INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 243-4633
Mr. George Williams
MDA 03-002       Selected for Award
Title:3-D LADAR Polarimeter
Abstract:Polarization will increasingly be an important tool in ballistic missile defense. However, in practice, implementing a robust polarimetric system necessitates addressing a number of complex issues and challenges. Furthermore, polarimetric systems, traditionally have relied on spatial or sequential scanning mechanisms to record the multi-dimensional datacube. Due to spatial and/or temporal aliasing, as well as the need for moving parts, these solutions are unacceptable for MDA applications. With this understanding, we will design and optimize a Stokes LADAR polarimeter that is powerful in performance, yet simple in its design, requires no moving parts, leverages the most current subwavelength photolithography processes, and is based on proven diffractive optics techniques and technologies. The innovation offers robust, reliable, easily configurable, and cost effective active LADAR polarimetry over a wide variety of mission scenarios, targets, and environmental conditions. The deliverable output of the Phase I program will be an optimized system design, detailed manufacturing methods, an end-to-end system performance model, and a comprehensive Phase II development plan. The active polarimeter technologies will benefit a broad range of applications including: surface and sub-surface cancer detection, imaging in scattering media - including medical, atmospheric, and underwater remote sensing, machine vision, autonomous guidance, and ellipsometry. Sensitive polarimetric systems are currently being investigated for glucose detection, optical fiber communication systems, and other optical measurement devices.

CG2, INC.
1525 Perimeter Parkway, Suite 325
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 217-2703
Mr. Mark Bowden
MDA 03-003       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Scene Generation Techniques
Abstract:The growth in capabilities of Personal Computers over the past decade has been extraordinary. Until recently, large computational resource dictated the use of specialized hardware. With the phenomenal growth of capabilities of workstation grade personal computer systems, the range of potential applications that can be addressed with consumer off the shelf computational systems has expanded significantly. The hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) application space is no exception. The scene generation and facility control/dynamic simulation HWIL mission areas may benefit specifically from recent advances in the commercial computational systems. Leveraging the significant technology advances that are occurring in the commercial market will lower the costs of populating and operating HWIL test facilities, but more importantly, will shorten the facility upgrade cycle and lower the life cycle cost of facility computer support equipment. The successful completion of the Phase I goals defined in this proposal will set the stage for advancing the development and deployment of a common scene generation system. This technology would provide a common, proven test application to be used by both customer and development contractor to facilitate correctness and reduce the risk of comparing non-like results, thus reducing the cost of deployment and development of a system. The PC scene generator will have many places of use in today's booming high-speed graphics oriented industry. One of the main impacts on the commercial industry will be the testing of single and multi-mode sensors. This technology can also be used for medical imaging, police surveillance, fir prevention/detection, auto collision avoidance systems as well as intrusion detection systems. However, the main goal is to perfect all techniques involved in the study, design, and development of the PC scene generator. This way the feasibility of potential commercial products can be properly accessed with respect to their impacts on today's society.

KINETICS, INC.
PO Box 1262, 100 SE Cascade Ave
Stevenson, WA 98648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 427-3649
Mr. Dennis Crow
MDA 03-003       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Scene Generation Techniques
Abstract:This effort extends the Fast Line-of-sight Imagery for Target and Exhaust Signatures (FLITES) scene generation program to include transient events that occur during the boost phase of ballistic missiles. The nominal transient events of interest include missile staging, shroud ejection, countermeasures, thrust termination, and solid propellant chuffing. Our approach is to develop a generalized formulism that will allow a wide variety of transient events to be considered and efficiently modeled as functions of time. Transient event models are important to include with the baseline signature computations since they could adversely influence targeting algorithms. The Missile Defense Agency is sponsoring many programs to develop acquisition, tracking, classification, and discrimination algorithms to target missiles while in flight. Physics-based signature models play a critical role for these algorithm development activities by producing realistic imagery of the missile as it progresses along its flight path. Increasing realism of the scene attributes by including time-dependent transient events will greatly assist algorithm designers to create stable and robust solutions. This project will have wide appeal throughout the DoD since synthetic digital simulations are increasingly being utilized to test, evaluate, or derive new guided-munitions targeting algorithms. We anticipate this program has the potential to become a standard within the DoD industry when it is inserted into the FLITES scene generation code. The ability of missile defense organization to generate physically correct signatures of threat missiles that includes transient event phenomenology would benefit the DoD by supporting: 1) algorithm development research, 2) hardware-in-the-loop testing to thoroughly examine the functionality of various flight hardware that includes hit-to-kill seeker systems, 3) and measurement and signature intelligence applications to determine specific system characteristics. Kinetics, Inc. has considerable knowledge and experience with the ballistic missile treat and the industry requirements necessary to support efforts to neutralize these threats. We are committed to providing the industry with high-fidelity signature generation tools and will continue to advance their capabilities as new research is conducted.

AEROMET, INC.
112 Beechcraft Drive
Tulsa, OK 74132
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(918) 477-6524
Mr. William Patrick Kennedy
MDA 03-004       Selected for Award
Title:Early Launch Detection, Tracking and Typing of Missile Boosters Using Quad-Cell Detectors
Abstract:Quadrant (quad-) cell detectors based on pin diodes are simple yet powerful sensors with a number of desirable characteristics including high quantum efficiency and excellent sensitivity, very-high time resolution, very-large dynamic range, and even a modicum of position resolution. F5ISR plans to exploit these characteristics, as well as some remarkable phenomenological findings by scientists at the Air Force Research Laboratory, in developing an airborne "fly's eye"-type all-sky sensor capable of early launch detection, tracking (ELDT), and even the identification of missiles. Each element of the array is capable of detecting a missile at launch or during boost and determining the direction of the target relative to the aircraft. Besides cueing, each sensor element can also gather hyper-temporal signature data allowing typing of the missile as well as other transient events that may occur in the theater of operation. Hence, we have named the sensor "BOLD" - Battlefield Ordnance and Launch Detection. Our Phase 1 development plan includes the design, fabrication, assembly and characterization of a single element of the array - a lens, a narrow-band filter, and quad-cell mated with a control and data acquisition computer. It is also planned to collect data on at least one missile launch to demonstrate capability. BOLD is designed to have specific application as a cueing sensor for airborne surveillance platforms based on Heimdall-IR and follow-on technology. Such aircraft include the MDA's High Altitude Observatory (HALO)-II aircraft as well as other proposed high-fliers like Global Hawk and Stratospheric Airship. In Phase II, we plan to design and fabricate two hemispherical arrays and install them on HALO-II giving it an important new capability that will enhance its capabilities as prototype Airborne Infrared Surveillance (AIRS) aircraft. However, because BOLD will be small, lightweight, low-cost, reliable, and intelligent and capable of operating autonomously, it could be the basis for widely-deployable missile-warning and/or Battlefield Ordnance Awareness (BOA) sensors. In Phase III we will take lessons learned in Phase II, redesign the BOLD sensor and processor, if necessary, and ready them for manufacturing and installation on all manner of military and commercial aircraft.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
201 N. Calle Ceasar Chavez, Suite 203
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 962-1175
Dr. John Langan
MDA 03-004       Selected for Award
Title:Spatio-Temporal Filtering and Dynamic Programming for Early Launch Detection and Tracking of Boosting Targets
Abstract: During Phase I, Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) will develop a spatio-temporal (S-T) filtering approach, preliminary system architecture and an analysis algorithm for motion based early launch detection and tracking of boosting targets. Boost-phase intercepts have an extremely compressed time line requiring fire control commit to be determined within the first minute following launch for an endo-atmospheric or low exo-atmospheric intercept. A spatio-temporal motion based approach performs data association over multiple frames without relying on absolute detection in any given frame, and therefore has utility in boost-phase intercept engagements when the target has a low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) due to atmospheric attenuation or is only intermittently observable. Systems relying on exceedance thresholding will have higher false alarm rates, and be less robust to changing atmospheric conditions than systems performing multi-frame data association. A motion based approach to early launch detection leverages the natural ability of massively parallel analog hardware to perform computationally intensive image processing tasks in real-time. Target analysis capabilities using nonlinear motion analysis image processing techniques integrated in analog image processors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military imaging applications. Dramatic improvements in early detection of low and/or intermittently observable targets are available through track-before-detect implementations using spatial and temporal filtering in combination with target tracking algorithms. The Company's primary goal is to move this core technology into the military market with products using this technology initially being sold for missile defense applications. Analog image processing technology may also be applicable in many other commercial areas including automatic inspection, biometric identification, security, surveillance, and other machine vision applications. To date, non-linear motion energy image processing technology using Tin Film Analog Image Processor (TAIP) chip technology developed under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract in conjunction with temporal filtering capability developed under ARMY Space & Missile Defense Command (ARMY-SMDC) contract has demonstrated significant utility in detection, track-before-detect capability when coupled with dynamic programming, and discrimination of low flying missile targets in moving background clutter. CSC is fulfilling current DARPA and ARMY-SMDC sponsored contracts while aggressively pursuing potential commercial opportunities for analog VLSI image processing applications. The unique and powerful capability to perform massive convolution functions in real-time, in a small package and with low power requirements will enable a new generation of intelligent systems not previously considered vi-able by system and product designers systems for performing sophisticated imaging tasks including automatic target recognition, target tracking, feature extraction, 3D reconstruction, image classification, and image understanding are critical for the building of compact, low powered deployable missile defense systems.

ENIG ASSOC., INC.
12501 Prosperity Drive, Suite 340
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 680-8600
Dr. D. John Pastine
MDA 03-004       Selected for Award
Title:A Unique Model of RF Radiation for Detecting and Characterizing a Missile Ground Launch
Abstract:A new, unique, and innovative theoretical model is proposed to provide the MDA with the ability to detect and interpret the RF signature resulting from the interaction of the initial, unsteady rocket plume formation with the surrounding air and launch pad during the initial launch phase. Preliminary calculations indicate that the signature created at the launch site should be detectable several hundred kilometers away. Physical model can be used to detect and characterize missile ground launch; to identify location of a surface or underground explosion of chemical explosives; to identify location of launch tube from muzzle blast after projectile exit; to identify source of weapons fire, building demolition, land clearance, and mining operations, pyroclastic flows, and underground magma.

INDIGO SYSTEMS CORP.
50 Castilian Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-9797
Dr. Eric Beuville
MDA 03-004       Selected for Award
Title:Early Launch Detection, and Tracking Sensor Concepts
Abstract:Infrared sensor technology has proven to be a key component in the development of advanced systems for target acquisition, tracking, interception, and destruction. These systems require advanced infrared sensors with 640 by 512 or greater spatial resolution, with simultaneous integration, and readout rates of 400 frames per second or greater. Sensors of this type are not currently commercially available. Innovations in high-speed multiplexing and low power design are essential to realize these devices. Two key subcomponents are proposed to be developed for the high-speed infrared focal plane array (HS-FPA); these are the readout integrated circuit (ROIC), and the infrared detector (InSb or InGaAs). Indigo Systems Corporation proposes to extend its family of high performance focal plane arrays by developing a large format, high speed, multiple output, sensor. During the Phase I Indigo will perform a trade study to establish the specification, architecture, and demonstrate feasibility and performance of the HS-FPA. The Phase II is divided into nine major tasks: preliminary design, critical design, ROIC fabrication, ROIC characterization, wafer test, detector material, detector processing, hybridization, and HS-FPA testing. High-performance and high-resolution infrared focal plane arrays (IR-FPAs) with 640x512 or greater spatial resolution, with simultaneous integration, and readout rates of 400 frames per second or greater are not currently commercially available for early launch detection and tracking (ELDT). Indigo Systems Corporation proposes to develop large format sensor implementing innovative high-speed multiplexing architecture with low power design and multiple outputs for high-speed IR-FPA system applications.

INDIGO SYSTEMS CORP.
50 Castilian Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-9797
Dr. Eric Beuville
MDA 03-004       Selected for Award
Title:Early Launch Detection, and Tracking Sensor Concepts
Abstract:Infrared sensor technology has proven to be a key component in the development of advanced systems for boost phase interception and tracking. These systems require sensors with both high-performance and high-resolution capabilities. One of the important long wavelength capable detection materials developed recently is the quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The next generation for the QWIP FPAs will be formats of 1kx1k, 2kx2k, and 4kx4k. These arrays will allow greater resolution and instantaneous field of view capability for a number of different infrared sensor based systems. Indigo Systems Corporation proposes to develop and commercialize a family of Large Format QWIP FPA ROICs. These arrays would be made available as Commercial-off-the Shelf-Technology to the developers of advanced large format QWIP detector focal plane arrays and systems. In the Phase I of the L-FPA development, Indigo will perform the tasks necessary to advance the ROIC design through the trade study phase. This effort will establish the specification, architecture, and demonstrate feasibility for all high-risk aspects of the array design. Phase II is divided into five major tasks including preliminary design, critical design, fabrication, characterization, and wafer test. Large Format QWIP FPA ROICs, developed under this program would be made available as Commercial-off-the Shelf-Technology (COTS) to the developers of advanced QWIP detector arrays and systems, enabling rapid deployment of low-cost infrared-based systems into commercial and military markets. Indigo proposes to develop L-FPA through the incorporation of a sub-micron CMOS stitching process. Stitched reticles are capable of producing multiple array configurations. Thus a single reticle set can be used to produce 1kx1k, 2kx2k and 4kx4k ROICs at reduced costs.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 243-6613
Mr. James McGraw
MDA 03-004       Selected for Award
Title:Space-Borne Passive Bistatic (Multistatic) GMTI Radar Using SIGINT Assets
Abstract:Observation of the earth by space-borne radar is an essential feature of present and future surveillance and reconnaissance. The ability to provide continuous observation over extended time periods and large overland areas, as well as detection and tracking of Time Critical ground moving targets (TCTs) such as a mobile Scud transporter erector launcher (TEL) plays a predominant role in this context. Current space-borne SIGINT assets are involved in the remote sensing and processing of data from foreign radars, communication signals and other RF and microwave sensors in order to obtain information about the capabilities of these sensors. Important features of these systems are the use of sensitive receivers and other devices that record data for later analysis. Combining the concept of space-borne Moving Target Indication functions (MTI) with SIGINT assets can provide for improved strategic or tactical situation assessment and thus reduce the uncertainty and ambiguity of the threat assessment product. PRA proposes a unique and innovative concept to extend the present capabilities of SIGINT assets to assist in MTI functions. Projected future reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition needs call for a space system able to provide support for near-continuous, all-weather wide area surveillance, attack operations, indications and warning, and assessment missions. One Concept of Operations (CONOPS) describes the military utility of a space based Moving Target Indicator (SBMTI). This envisions a constellation of space based radar satellites gathering moving target indicator (MTI) and synthetic aperture (SAR) imagery. SBMTI advantages include coverage over denied and high-threat territory, keeping U.S., and allied personnel out of harm's way, coverage for blind spots and screened areas, supplementing theater assets to greatly extend viewing ranges, and providing rapid access to cover TCTs such as Scud TEL tracks. Spaced based concepts have been explored, such as Starlite and TechSat 21, which consisted of either a large constellation of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites or clusters of micro-satellites flying in formation and operating cooperatively to perform the function of much larger, complex, and expensive single satellites, respectively. Affordability constraints have limited demonstration of these concepts and thus delayed an opportunity to access such rich sources of information that could possibly allow U.S. decision makers to be able to direct action that would significantly shorten a conflict and/or eliminate its impact on civilian populations. The value of this project is to leverage existing space-based SIGINT platforms to provide for a SBMTI capability that doesn't exist today.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
99 South Bedford Street, Suite 7
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Steven Richtsmeier
MDA 03-004       Selected for Award
Title:Field and Modeling Test Bed for Plume Detection through Sunlit Clouds
Abstract:Early Launch Detection and Tracking (ELDT) is emerging as a key component of US ballistic missile defense strategy. The complications of sunlit cloud cover and long slant path viewing make the problem extremely challenging and have thus far hindered the validation of proposed approaches. Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI), in collaboration with Northrop Grumman Space Systems (NGSS), proposes to develop a validated simulation and field test bed for rigorous evaluation of ELDT algorithm and sensor concepts. We also propose a novel VIS-SWIR multispectral, real-time algorithm and sensor concept for detecting missiles under sunlit clouds. In Phase I, a missile-plume-under-cloud capability will be added to SSI's MCScene first-principles scene simulation code and feasibility calculations performed for evaluating our new ELDT detection concept. In Phase II, MCScene will be integrated and validated with the NGSS Surveillance and Reconnaissance Testbed (SART) facility at Mt. Wilson, CA, and a sensor breadboard field demonstration of the proposed and other promising ELDT concepts will be conducted. It is anticipated that the new MCScene module developed under this program will be made available for use in MDA's Battlespace Environment Signature Toolkit (BEST). Both the detection concept and test bed will address outstanding problems in ballistic and theater missile defense for the US government. In addition, the developed image simulation and analysis software and SART facility enhancements would be valuable in a variety of government and commercial hyperspectral and multispectral imagery applications, which include surveillance, target detection and identification, technical intelligence, environmental characterization, oceanography, precision agriculture, forestry, geology, and pollutant and fugitive emission monitoring.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
135 S. Taylor Avenue
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Mr. Charles Bjork
MDA 03-005       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) and Track Algorithms
Abstract:CTI proposes an algorithm suite/design approach to improve speed, accuracy, and reliability of missile hardbody acquisition, track maintenance, and classification/identification efficiency. Various multiband passive IR, visible, and UV approaches, and now, visible and IR ladar approaches, are being considered for Forward Based sensors for boost-phase missile defense. The algorithm suite/hardware proposed by CTI is applicable to all types of sensors being considered, e.g., UV, passive/active visible and IR. Conventional plume tracking is used in each waveband to estimate important features and actual hardbody location. However, additional proprietary spatial processing uses radiance-data to further minimize hardbody uncertainty volumes. Image anisotropy corrections then further improve estimation, i.e., reducing deleterious impact of enhancement regions. These estimates are supplied to a batch-initialized, multiple hypothesis extended kalman tracking filter, for temporal processing. If more than one sensor is present in the suite, multiple results are fused in the multiple hypothesis stage of track filtering, The processing will be designed for speed, and is intrinsically parallel.. It will be demonstrated with a MATLAB thread containing the spatial component of the hardbody algorithm, and the enhancement correction. It therefore facilitates testing over necessarily diverse geometries, and numerous backgrounds and viewing conditions, using synthetic plume signatures. These signatures will be generated by GFE Radiation models from launch to burnout. Hardbody signatures must be generated by CTI's standardized signature codes to accommodate fully coherent ladars. : Sensors imaging through obscuring media, having features caused by embedded radiation/disturbance sources, e.g., harsh environment diagnostic testing, ship tracking via wakes, aircraft tracking via exhaust effluent plumes/contrails, with or without clouds at long ranges.

MTL SYSTEMS, INC.
3481 Dayton-Xenia Rd.
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-3111
Mr. R.K. Hill
MDA 03-005       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) and Track Algorithms
Abstract:MTL Systems, Inc. (MTL) presents a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem of developing Advanced Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) and Track Algorithms for visible, ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), and laser radar (Ladar) sensor systems viewing a missile in the boost phase. Our proposed "Advanced Imaging Missile Tracker (AIMIT) technique combines proven technology for static image recognition (based on image complexity) with a natural extension to dynamic image recognition. Through this combination, AIMIT exploits both static features (single-frame) and dynamic features (image changes from frame-to-frame) to provide a highly optimized, fast, and effective missile identification and tracking capability, across a broad range of sensor types and sensor locations, involved in acquiring and tracking a missile throughout its boost phase. In Phase I, MTL will perform (1) a prototype development, (2) experimental and analytical feasibility assessments which address existing system integration feasibility as well as functional/performance feasibility, (3) a prototype demonstration, (4) a preliminary system design to carry forward into Phase II, and (5) an initial assessment of commercialization potential. As such, the Phase I program will provide an experimentally-validated, feasibility-demonstrated approach and design to use in a Phase II proof-of-concept program, and to ultimately achieve technology transition (commercialization). The AIMIT commercialization opportunity is within the proliferation of image-based applications across the breadth of government, industry, and commerce. Reliable, robust video ATR systems would find use in defense and commercial video monitoring and surveillance applications in force protection, physical infrastructure security, counter-terrorism, law enforcement, and special operations. The AIMIT process is much more cost-effective for commercial and military operations than current products, since it operates faster, and requires less data storage space (for images or models) than other techniques. AIMIT can replace slow and user interaction-demanding systems with a low-cost, automated alternative. Commercial developers and marketers of video-based security systems comprise a ready and waiting marketplace for AIMIT.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 331-6322
Dr. C. Ralph Waters
MDA 03-005       Selected for Award
Title:Boost Phase Tracking Employing Plume/Hardbody Physics Models Embedded In An Extended Kalman Estimator
Abstract:A critical aspect of Boost Phase Intercept concepts is the discrimination of the hardbody in the presence of the extended intensity image provided by the missile's radiant plume. PRA proposes developing a real-time tracking algorithm that utilizes a physics based model of the plume/hardbody intensity pattern. This model is embedded within an extended Kalman filter structure to estimate both the dynamic plume shape and the position of the hardbody. The immediate benefit is an enhanced solution to the Boost Phase aimpoint selection problem for both DEW concepts such as ABL (Aim Based Laser) as well as Boost Phase Interceptors. It offers the commercial potential of developing a programmable logic array that would be a key product in a low cost interceptor system.

ACUMEN CONSULTING
6238 Covington Way
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 708-5084
Dr. Steven L. Solomon
MDA 03-006       Selected for Award
Title:High Dynamic Range Infrared Scene Projector for Boost Phase Intercept
Abstract:The existing generation of high performance dynamic IR scene projectors is incapable of simulating high temperature sources such as hot engine exhausts, rocket plumes or infrared countermeasures. The materials used in fabricating the current generation of devices are not stable at the high temperatures required (~2500 K or higher) - the pixel will melt well before reaching these temperatures. Resistive heating technology is the most mature of the myriad IR scene projection technologies available today, and hence the most appropriate springboard for the development of high dynamic range IR scene projectors. Attaining the temperatures required will involve numerous development tasks, the most challenging of which is selecting the materials of which the emitter pixels are fabricated. These new materials must 1) be stable (i.e. repeatable) over the temperature range 300 K - 3000 K, 2) possess thermo-physical properties suitable to the apparent temperature and speed specifications and 3) be compatible with thin-film processing requirements. This proposal will, via research, identify candidate materials for fabricating the next generation of high temperature emitters. Methods for measuring the relevant thermo-physical properties of these materials will be researched, and a list of vendors capable of depositing, patterning and etching these materials will be generated. The primary result of the proposed work will be a list of materials that are suitable for the fabrication of emitter pixels capable of attaining MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 2000 K, thereby substantially reducing the risk associated with development of the next device generation. The high temperature materials developed under this effort will provide substantial benefits to the existing generation of low temperature devices as well in the form of improved stability, thus the potential market includes the entire IR scene projection community. The entire hardware in the loop test community will benefit directly from the development work proposed here, as will programs that rely on using infrared sensors to detect high contrast targets. Commercial products designed for fire fighting or search and rescue could use this product for developmental testing or training as well.

ION OPTICS, INC.
411 Waverley Oaks Road, Suite 144
Waltham, MA 02452
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 788-8777
Dr. James Daly
MDA 03-006       Selected for Award
Title:High Temperature SiC MEMS Infrared Emitters
Abstract:There is a need for infrared scene generators with much larger dynamic range and apparent temperature than currently available to accurately simulate high end targets like jet engine exhaust, missile plumes during boost phase, fuel explosions and infrared countermeasures (flares). Current scene generators based on silicon resistor arrays are limited to about 650,aC. We are proposing a 2-part solution to achieve higher apparent target temperatures (up to 2500,aC). We propose to demonstrate high temperature emitters (up to 1200,aC) based on SiC rather than silicon. Further, we will adapt our expertise in photonic crystal technology to control infrared emissivity as a function of wavelength in order to increase the apparent radiometric temperature of the emitters to ~2500,aC. Ion Optics is the emerging technology and product leader in infrared MEMS gas sensors. We have developed patented optical platform technology for controlling (tuning) the infrared emission and absorption wavelengths of a silicon surface. We have used this technology to create small, accurate, reliable, low power, and low-cost infrared gas sensors to detect toxic and combustible gases in homes, automobiles, public buildings and the work environment. In phase 1, we will use this SensorChip,. technology to demonstrate emissivity-controlled, apparently high temperature (>2000,aC) emission from SiC test structures. In phase 2, we will demonstrate SiC emitter arrays suitable for use in high dynamic range scene projectors. The military benefits of IR scene generators with improved dynamic range include: permits more realistic evaluation of advanced (complex) infrared automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms and signal processing concepts; enables more realistic simulations of IR countermeasures to help develop more robust tracking algorithms; and it enables more realistic simulation of aerothermal heating of seeker windows. As importantly, the ability to more realistically represent IR scenes will improve reliability of seeker calibration and reduce testing costs by reducing the need for flight tests.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 812-2994
Mr. Dale Klamer
MDA 03-007       Selected for Award
Title:An Efficient Computational Approach to Target Discrimination
Abstract:Target discrimination is one of the critical components of the midcourse phase processing in providing effective missile defense. Currently, detailed models that use an elaborate discrete Bayesian network predict the sensor phenomenology for each possible target type and sensor. The predicted sensor phenomenology is compared to the observed phenomenology, and the target type estimate is updated. The complex relationships modeled in the Bayesian network is extremely computationally expensive and cannot keep up with real time. We propose to use a Gaussian sum approximation technique to model the continuous variate probability density functions (PDFs) that occur in the Bayesian network used in target discrimination. Gaussian sum approximations have the potential of increasing the accuracy of estimating the continuous valued PDFs that are currently modeled by picewise linear discrete functions. We will address both the accuracy of the Bayesian network and, perhaps more importantly, the computational efficiency of the Gaussian sum approach in updating the node PDF when new sensor information is received-only eight computations are needed to update a term in the Gaussian sum. In summary, we will develop and evaluate the computational efficiency of Gaussian sums to model continuous components used in the Bayesian network for target discrimination modeling. The significance of developing a real-time updating of the Bayesian network used for target discrimination is increased performance in the midcourse phase. This increase in the performance of discriminating between warheads and decoys significantly increases the likelihood that warhead threats will be killed by space-based interceptors, as well as increasing the accuracy of the target-clutter map used in the handoff to ground-based interceptors in the terminal phase. Potential commercial applications of computationally efficient Bayesian network models include modeling complex financial networks that provide buy and sell signals for stocks, in addition to supplying real-time models used to detect and select automated responses to sophisticated attacks on computer network systems.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 725-1112
Dr. Shozo Mori
MDA 03-007       Selected for Award
Title:Data Fusion for Missile Defense
Abstract:Information Extraction & Transport (IET), Inc., proposes an innovative yet practical approach to Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Midcourse Defense Segment (MDS) object tracking and discrimination. The proposed approach is to integrate multiple-sensor MDS object tracking and discrimination capabilities, making the best use of the MDS interception opportunities utilizing all the available information provided by a diverse set of MDS ground-, sea-, and space-based sensors. Reliable object discrimination may be obtained by only a selective set of sensors (such as XBR) at a relatively short range. However, to relay the accurate discrimination information to in-flight MDS interceptor elements, the entire MDS tracking system must perform optimal or near-optimal real-time multiple-object tracking. For that purpose, we propose to model the feature signals by stationary Gauss-Markov stochastic processes, particularly for narrow-band radar and infrared/electro-optical (IR/EO) sensor feature signals, to enhance track-to-measurement association performance to obtain higher track purity, which is essential for any object discrimination algorithm to make correct decisions. IET also proposes to use multiple-sensor-invariant feature parameters to enhance track-to-track association (including Target Object Map) performance, so that all the essential object discrimination information accumulated by all the MDS sensor assets can be used in the MDS intercept opportunities. IET expects the successful implementation of the algorithms detailed in this proposal to enhance both track-to-measurement and track-to-track association performance thereby improving multiple-sensor midcourse object discrimination capability, and, ultimately, the ability of the midcourse interceptor to correctly identify and kill lethal objects in a shorter time. Beyond the BMD applications, our feature-aided tracking approach can be applied to a wide range of target tracking, surveillance, monitoring, and target recognition and identification problems. The potential applications include military, law-enforcement, and facility and home security systems, using a wide range of distributed sensors.

ORINCON
ORINCON Hawaii, Inc., 970 North Kalaheo Avenue, Su
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 254-1532
Dr. R. David Dikeman
MDA 03-007       Selected for Award
Title:Physics-Based Boost and Midcourse Phase Discrimination and Tracking
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR effort, ORINCON, together with Boeing, proposes to develop physics-based discrimination algorithms that allow for the multihypothesis tracking (MHT) of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) objects to create an unambiguous target object map (TOM) in both the boost and midcourse phases. By coupling a center-of-mass discrimination analysis, together with the MHT, it will become possible to a) identify low-SNR targets via momentum coupling, b) create better matching of ground-based tracking target object maps (TOMs) with kill vehicle TOMs, and c) more easily register the kill vehicle TOM by tracking the center of mass of the cloud of targets associated with the missile. Tying discrimination and tracking together is a fairly novel approach made possible in the missile defense problem by the fact that objects to be tracked are amenable to a physics-based analysis due to their calculable dynamics (unlike typical tracked objects, which are steered). Overall, by fusing the tracking analysis with the physics-based discrimination, we will provide a more robust tracking and discrimination solution. To achieve this capability, ORINCON proposes developing signal processing techniques and an expert system engine that will couple to our MHT tracker system. Boeing will assist with data, sensor, and architecture parameterization. The proposed approach will provide the Government with a unified approach for solving many closely related problems within the MDA launch-to-impact cycle. The combined multiple-hypothesis tracking and data fusion capability that ORINCON Defense provides will result in improved localization and discrimination of enemy warheads and decoys, thus improving the overall performance of a missile defense system. This technology is being leveraged from ongoing efforts for the Air Force to guide an in-flight missile (using updated target locations) in prosecuting a moving ground target. The effort under this SBIR will be tightly coupled with other ongoing work by ORINCON Defense for the MDA.

SENSIS CORP.
5793 Widewaters Parkway
DeWitt, NY 13214
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 445-5724
Mr. Kevin McEntee
MDA 03-007       Selected for Award
Title:Data Fusion for Missile Defense
Abstract:In a Ballistic Missile Defense scenario, sensors will be faced with trying to identify and track targets in a scenario composed of decoys, Electronic Counter Measures, and associated missile fragments. The objective of this is to develop algorithms, concepts and techniques that utilize ground, high-altitude, or satellite sensor data together with onboard missile/kill-vehicle sensors to provide an enhanced target discrimination capability. Sensis proposes Multi-Sensor Track (MST) algorithm modified to a Multi-Hypothesis Multi-Sensor Data Fusion System (MH-MS-DF) to fuse data derived from ground, high-altitude or satellite sensor data. The association algorithm of the MH-MS-DF will have the capability to adjust for time mis-alignment of data sources, missed detections, false alarms, incorrect sensor ID information, dynamic data association gates, and sensor registration limits. During Phase I, Sensis shall develop concepts and techniques for a Multi-Hypothesis Multi-Sensor Data Fusion System derived by extending the capabilities of a Sensis developed Multi-Sensor Track algorithm. During Phase II, Sensis will develop software algorithms to implement and demonstrate the MH-MS-DF algorithms derived in Phase I. During Phase III, Sensis will promote dual use application of the MH-MS-DF to civilian problems such as Drug Interdiction, Air Traffic Control, Medical Applications, and Homeland Defense Initiatives. Defense related Applications include: Automatic Surveillance Minimization of Friendly Fire Casualties Target Tracking, Location and Identification Commercial Applications Transportation Systems (Location of trucks, railway cars, ships, and aircraft) Drug Enforcement Agency (aerial drug interdiction) DOD Homeland Security (detect and track aircraft where the transponder replies are not being received) Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) (traffic control)

CARDINAL SYSTEMS & ANALYSIS, INC.
4000 Cathedral Ave, NW, Suite 121B
Washington, DC 20016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 257-0690
Dr. C. Tucker Battle
MDA 03-008       Selected for Award
Title:An Optimization Algorithm for Missile Defense Planning
Abstract:Planning for theater missile defense (TMD) is complicated because defense coverage is, in general, dependent upon the location of the attacker's launch sites and not all attackers can cover all targets. In addition, there may be considerable uncertainty associated with launch-site locations and stockpiles. An attacker synthesis problem is formulated in which the attacker, with knowledge of the defense deployment, distributes its attackers among its launch sites to maximize damage. The formulation assumes that the attacker must exhaust the interceptor stockpiles covering a given target before it can cause any damage and that the defense uses a subtractive firing doctrine. An algorithm based on the use of Lagrange-multiplier and branch-and-bound techniques is proposed for the solution of this problem. An important by-product of the solution is a set of constraints on the distribution of attackers to launch sites. These constraints can be used as the basis of an analytical framework for developing joint TMD/attack operations (AO) plans and allocating intelligence resources associated with the intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB). The objectives of Phase I are to develop the algorithm and demonstrate its utility in these two problem areas, It is anticipated that a new analyical framework will be developed to support planning in the areas of joint BMDS/AO operations and intelligence preparation of the battlefield. This framework could be the basis for developing new planning modules for the GCCS.

GCAS, INC.
1531 Grand Avenue, Suite A
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 591-4227
Mr. Maurizio Borsotto
MDA 03-008       Selected for Award
Title:Decision Theory Research and Development
Abstract:Many difficult problems in detection, tracking and intelligence use a Bayesian Network approach to determine produce a hypothesized result. A difficulty with this approach is the interpretation of the belief or likelihood value used to define the uncertainty associated with the final hypothesis. Higher confidence could be achieved if likelihood ranges were associated with the various data "evidence" and internal "rules" used in the network. These ranges would propagate through the network to the end hypothesis, thereby establishing a likelihood range for this final conclusion. Ranges in likelihood require the introduction of second-order probabilities, also called "precision", in the specification of the external data and internal rules used in the network. This proposal describes a new approach for treating uncertainty in Bayesian Networks that allow second-order uncertainty to be formulated and propagated through the network, thereby increasing the confidence in the hypothesized belief presented by the network. The method is based on research formulated and tested by the author using Polytrees with outstanding success. This proposal extends that work to Directed Acyclic Graphs of the form commonly found in Bayesian Net structures, including Precision Backtracking (PB). PB gives us the ability to discover which precision ranges in the rules and evidences are principally responsible for the precision range of a given Belief. We also will extend precision handling techniques to Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs), which merges BNs with relational and object-oriented modeling. PRMs allow the construction of complex, structured and reusable probabilistic models starting from building blocks (classes) that can be extended and refined independently as needed, and combined at will. This generalization is therefore applicable to complex domains and vast models that are intractable with many other approaches Efficient algorithms for capturing and propagating likelihood ranges (second-order uncertainty) in Bayesian Networks represent a significant enhancement towards improved interpretation of the results produced by a network. The proposed techniques and software will be leveraged in the thousands of applications currently using Bayesian Network techniques. These applications include target tracking, medical diagnosis, military operations, terrorist movement analysis, Course of Action and other intelligence issues, oil and mineral exploration, robotic controls, financial forecasting, and many more. In the future it is expected that there will be a significant increase in the number of such applications as Artificial Intelligence methods gain general acceptance.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 752-7473
Dr. Masami Takikawa
MDA 03-008       Selected for Award
Title:Decision Theory Research and Development
Abstract:In this Phase I effort, Information Extraction and Transport, Inc. (IET) proposes to develop new representation formalism and inference algorithms for Partially Dynamic Decision Networks (PDDNs), which are a decision-theoretic extension of Partially Dynamic Bayesian Networks (PDBNs) that have been developed by IET for the Ballistic Missile Defense Decision Architecture (BMD DA) and are extensively used by BMD DA developers. A PDBN extends a BN by introducing dynamic nodes whose values change over time so that the models can include both static and dynamic nodes. PDBN solution algorithms exploit this additional structure in order to effectively compute the values of the joint probability distribution of the random variables in the PDBN based on dynamically observed evidence, such as sensor reports. By adding decision making capability to PDBNs, PDDNs will enable large-scale modeling of missile defense decision problems that involve dynamics (e.g., dynamically changing re-entry vehicle locations) and uncertainties (e.g., sensor noise) to build missile defense systems that use the developed models to make optimal decisions that maximize the expected current and future benefit by utilizing all information available through real-time streaming inputs from multiple sensors. Information Extraction and Transport, Inc. (IET) anticipates that the benefits of this Phase I effort will include: 1) a formalization of Partially Dynamic Decision Networks (PDDNs), a novel framework for dynamic decision making under uncertainty, and theoretical results regarding the correctness and computational complexity of inference algorithms, 2) a prototype implementation of a PDDN solution algorithm, and 3) a prototype PDDN compiler that compiles a PDDN specification to generate procedural code that can be embedded in a real-time environment. IET anticipates that the Phase II implementation of these algorithms will support large-scale BMD PDDN modeling (for sensor management, RV/object discrimination and tracking, for example) and real-time decision making with streaming sensor inputs. Beyond the BMD applications, our framework is applicable to a wide range of complex control problems. The potential applications include military, medical, and financial decision making, which all involve a complex model of the domain, making decisions in real-time in response to streaming inputs.

IPEAKSDATA CORP.
2530 Woodstock Place
Boulder, CO 80305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 494-2053
Mr. Robert L Welch
MDA 03-008       Selected for Award
Title:The Need-to-Know Filter for Approximate Inference
Abstract:Bayesian Agents and Object Oriented Bayesian networks (OOBN) and Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN) are new Bayesian Network (BN) representations enabling on-the-fly BN construction that is especially useful in the situational awareness of high-level sensor fusion and for missile defense systems that detect, identify and assess anomalies and threats. Yet a large BN can be computation-ally difficult to solve using exact solution techniques. Human organizations use approximation in integrating large quantities of information. In sensor fusion, and in intelligence organizations filters limit the number of contacts that get through to analysts. Without such filters the analyst is often overloaded at critical moments. Only reports for which there is a need-to-know (NTK) are included in the fusion analysis. In this SBIR project a similar NTK filter is applied to propagation algorithms used for Bayesian networks and systems of Bayesian agents. The project develops a new approximation algorithm: Information flows across an interface only if the message contains novel information that is of value to the receiver. One measure of novelty is the relative entropy measure of change in the distributions of the in-terface prior and posterior to the flow. Several variants of the NTK filter are ex-plored including bidding for bandwidth needed to transmit a message. Agents consult potential information servers to determine the novelty of information that could be available if the server were incorporated into the situational awareness. The winning bid identifies the next best piece of information. The feasibility, performance and usefulness of the filter are demonstrated with an example from remote sensor fusion. Bayesian Networks and Agent Systems constitute a technology that is especially in tune with high-level fusion, where diverse information sources, both sensors and human intelligence, must be reconciled, and lead to threat assessment. In the sensor tracking market, Bayesian methods have a lengthy history. The net-work representation brings considerable capability in learning, modeling, and reasoning in large complex systems, but the representation power is far ahead the ability to obtain solutions in large networks. This SBIR R&D, if successful, will provide tools and products of use to the MDA and the greater remote sens-ing, surveillance, and intelligence communities in both government and commer-cial markets.

SYNERGIA LLC
2400 Broadway, Suite 203
Redwood City, CA 94063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 569-4999
Dr. Gregg Courand
MDA 03-008       Selected for Award
Title:Decision Theory Research and Development -- Risk-Advised Prediction
Abstract:We propose to design a very powerful technology to support actor modeling and behavior prediction of arbitrary individual and social actors, all guided by risk analysis calculations. Users without formal background in psychology, social theory, or decision theory will be able to develop actor models relevant to contemplated risks, and form predictions about actor behavior. Predictions serve to validate the models and, once accepted, to inform the development of indications and warnings. The actor modeling technology will enable users to summarize observations about human activity (individual, social) in the form of generative practices: computations that reproduce the observations if handed the right conditions, and that predict how behavior is produced and adapted in related situations. Practices enable prediction of actor behavior for situations that have not been observed; we have proven the viability of our modeling approach in other work. This technology rests on Synergia?s Event and Activity Capture technology, used to encode observations about human activity using a representation we have invented: hierarchical event-behavior graphs. Predictions are delivered to Bayesian networks or decision graphs. In the latter case Synergia has invented diagnostic calculations that legislate which parts of the decision structure (not just parametric structure!) are rational to improve. Defense, public-sector, and private-sector activities are becoming more complex, and more inter-dependent in their execution. Risks and opportunity management are extremely sensitive to timely decision-making and action. Prediction of the activities of others is essential in modern threat environments, and equally, in the private sector. We will create a new technology to support risk-advised modeling and prediction of the likely capabilities and intentions of arbitrary individuals and social actors (e.g., organizations, culture). The technology will enable modeling and prediction based on psychological, cultural, ideological, and institutional factors, rather than doctrine or ''company policy''.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5139
Mr. Mark Frymire
MDA 03-009       Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Battle Management Techniques
Abstract: In the future Ballistic Missile Defense system, it will be necessary to coordinate the operations of many geographically dispersed system components to create an architecture with the best chance for defeating the threat. Though challenging, it is desired that this architecture be implemented in a distributed manner to avoid the need for a centralized controller to which all sensors transmit all of their information for processing and decision-making. In the research effort proposed here, the Decisive Analytics Corporation Team will implement a distributed C2BMC inference architecture using a framework called Multiply-Sectioned Bayesian Networks. Using this approach, which is based on recent advances in the artificial intelligence literature, it is possible to decompose a unified Bayesian Network into subcomponents that operate at different locations, while exchanging data to maintain global consistency. Our implementation will employ the actual system models under development for Project Hercules, and we will assess computational performance with respect to various implementations of these cases. This background research will result in the development of a distributed multi-source fusion engine for inference. Potential application includes use in military command and control systems, and other decision support systems that involve time-critical decision-making under uncertainty, including crisis monitoring, and medical applications.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 841-3500
Dr. Suzanne Mahoney
MDA 03-009       Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Battle Management Techniques
Abstract:Many technical issues need to be addressed before a distributed BM/C2 architecture can be designed and implemented. Specific issues include: what should each BM/C2 node know in terms of models, sensor data, and overall system goals? What algorithm is used by each node? How do the BM/C2 nodes coordinate their processing in order to avoid conflicts and achieve high performance? What happens if there is latency in communication? In this Phase I effort, Information Extraction and Transport, Inc. (IET) proposes to support the Ballistic Missile Defense-Decision Architecture (BMD-DA) efforts to build a generic BM/C2 decision architecture by developing algorithms that allow multiple cooperating BM/C2 nodes (agents) to coordinate their decisions to achieve near-optimal performance in a distributed BM/C2 architecture. These algorithms are designed to estimate and communicate the impact of evidence on object classification using learned Bayesian network factoring of posterior joint likelihood distributions. We will also develop algorithms that estimate the performance of learned Bayesian network factorings these posterior joint likelihoods. The result will be an experimental harness where we will demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using learned Bayesian network factorings of posterior joint likelihoods to support efficient distributed situation assessment and dissemination. Information Extraction and Transport, Inc. (IET) anticipates that benefits from Phase I of the proposed SBIR effort include: 1) a methodology for learning a set of Bayesian networks that represent the posterior joint likelihood over a set of variables that are shared by BMDS elements; 2) measures for the impact of evidence on a BMDS' system model and for estimating the resources and bandwidth requirements given a particular Bayesian network for the posterior joint likelihood; 3) a strategy for choosing the best learned network structure given the evidence, available resources, and impact; 4) an approach for updating the system model at a remote BMDS element given the selected Bayesian network for the posterior joint likelihood; and 5) an experimental harness to support the evaluation of this approach. The technology proposed has significant commercial application. The market for battlespace sensor control and processing software will be significant within the DOD and Intelligence Community. Critical mission areas that could be supported include force protection, facility monitoring, and mobile target tracking. Commercial sensor markets could benefit as well including applications using microsatellites, terrestrial and extraterrestrial robotics, and unmanned vehicles (e.g., UAVs and UUVs).

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5250
Dr. Leonard Haynes
MDA 03-009       Selected for Award
Title:Agent-based Generic Battle Manager
Abstract:The innovation of this proposal is use of negotiating software autonomous agents to allow creation of a generic battle management engine that can be customized to a particular application. Our generic battle management agents have the ability to interact with each other in a contract net paradigm, bidding and negotiating based on generic protocols, independent of the particular application for which battle plans and schedules are being created. The agents are particularized to a specific application by defining multi-dimensional value functions and constraints for each agent based on what that agent represents in the specific application problem. IAI has been working in the area of negotiating software autonomous agents for over a decade and we already have foundational software which will allow the above development. In our current agent-based software systems, we routinely have 20,000 software agents executing simultaneously on 10 computers, all cooperatively functioning in a single system. To generate the agent-based system, IAI will also exploit a new Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool IAI is developing called Diva. Using Diva for this development will help insure that the results are generic and reusable as the system is built. The work will also result in improvements to Diva to better support development of more generic agent-based applications. IAI is currently working on many projects based on the success of its software agent tools and techniques. The proposed work will allow us to create that software in a more generic manner so that the results will be more generic, more reusable, and more easily adjusted as applications change. In addition to our own use of the generic battle management engine technology, IAI's agent infrastructure, called Cybele, has been acquired by over 350 people/organizations, and each of these is a potential user of the tools and techniques which will result from the proposed work.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6110
Mr. John E. Friskie
MDA 03-009       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Distributed Optimal Battle Management Environment (ADOBE)
Abstract:SYTRONICS and BALL are uniquely qualified to develop an Advanced, Distributed, Optimal, Battle Management Environment (ADOBE)--a phased solution to the problem of providing an effective infrastructure to support distributed, next generation battle management command and control (BMC2). Running an effective BMC2 operation takes more than merely knowing to "press button X on console C when message M arrives," for example. It requires a thorough understanding of why console C is even important given the context relayed in the message. This higher-level comprehension is needed to allow the BMC2 to collectively make superior decisions despite the time-compressed intensity of modern missile defense missions, where information uncertainty leaves even powerful knowledge-based BMC2 decision-aiding applications needing human input to overcome the knowledge gaps. To attain this effective, distributed, collaborative capability, our system contains key concepts and disciplines. This innovative combination of distributed workflow management, distributed simulation concepts, and supporting cognitive technology will provide a complete and effective solution, producing a feasibility demonstration of a prototype web-based BMC2 distributed battle management system and a thorough Phase I Final Report to include a high-level Phase II system design and preliminary commercialization analysis. The process of acquiring information and using it to make decisions for the good of an organization (the US military, a Fortune 500 corporation, or medical diagnostics center) is similar, and an investment in developing a BMC2 operations environment can be commercialized into a similar scenario-based decision-support environment for executives and their staff.

AKOS ZARANDY EUTECUS, INC.
c/o Hughes & Luce, LLP,, 111 Congress Ave. Suite 9
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 482-6816
Mr. Csaba Rekeczky
MDA 03-010       Selected for Award
Title:Image Processing Algorithms for Target Discrimination
Abstract:A cellular neural network (CNN) technology based adaptive multi-target track-ing and discrimination system with compact cellular visual microprocessor is pro-posed. Methodology: The primary motivation of the present proposal is to offer a to-pographic microprocessor architecture for multi-target discrimination with embedded sensors capable of operating in a process real-time manner. The performance of multi-target tracking (MTT) and discrimination systems can be significantly increased with stored program adaptive cellular array sensors. In the ongoing experiments the input data flow of array sensors is processed on an adaptive CNN-UM architecture consist-ing of both cellular nonlinear network (CNN) and digital signal processing (DSP) mi-croprocessors. The algorithms designed for this combined hardware platform use adaptive multi-channel CNN solutions for instantaneous position estimation and mor-phological characterization of all targets and the DSP environment for distance calcu-lation, gating, data association, track maintenance and dynamic target motion predic-tion. A special feature of the proposed architecture is that it allows an interactive communication between the sensor and the digital environment. The multi-channel adaptive target tracking system implemented on the CNN visual microprocessor makes possible to develop a robust and very fast target discrimination system. Deliverables: The hardware and software framework for these experiments is under development as an extended adaptive CNN architecture and as a prototyping system within the PC104+ industrial framework (Phase I). After theoretical foundation and set up the algorithmic framework for the discrimination, the system will be capa-ble of processing in a laboratory environment (Phase II). The compact version of this system - COMPACT CVM- (not exceeding 1 kg in weight) is currently under design and can be completed for a demonstration during Phase II. Full integration of the en-tire system will be completed in Phase III resulting in a module weighing less than 200 g. Technical content of the proposal: This proposal provides an overview of the core technology and a methodology used, describes the main architecture and the re-lated feasibility studies to be completed in Phase I-II, gives a detailed task description for Phase I, and concludes with an overview of the key tasks to be performed in Phase II-III. Within MDA/DoD: AnaLogic is already working on projects with the DoD through EAORD. We will use our presence in the United States through EUTECUS and the work that we will be doing under Phase 1 of this project to further the relationship. Phase 1 will investigate and decide the most effective way to utilize the CNN technology for the purpose of Target Discrimination and because it is an airborne application will benefit from the miniaturization and weight reduction - this will probably mean that we will take a further step toward a "system on a chip" approach. As well it is the aim of the project to find/suggest ways to enhance contrasts and sharpen details. If, during this phase, it is shown that the step towards placing more of the intelligent functions on the chip, then this new feature will be promoted throughout the DoD/MDA by both word of mouth and through giving presentations. AnaLogic, our associate company has worked on the early stages of a missile defense project through the EAORD. Through this we had occasion to make a presentation on the CNN technology to personnel at MDA on August 23rd. The meeting was chaired by Paul Koskey, Program Director for MDA Technology Transfer. Prior to that, in July, Messrs. Koskey and Richard Hu visited the AnaLogic lab in Budapest where Dr Csaba Rekeczky the CTO of the EUTECUS/AnaLogic and his team presented a paper called "Multi-Target Tracking with Adaptive Stored Program CMM-UM". In the commercial world the work undertaken in this project will aid law enforcement agencies to identify people by their features and pick them out of large crowds. Since 9/11 this has become an extremely important technology. The Bio nature of the CNN technology and the speed of information processing makes the CVM uniquely suited for this application. If the over-all security market is $4billion dollars then it is not unrealistic to think that the unique feature of the CVM based camera - the Bi-i could be sold for this purpose as long as the price/benefit ratio is realistic. If the quantity is going to be large enough for the price to be low then the Bi-i could be used for facial recognition in many security situations - recognition of user of a computer etc.. Digital video systems have the difficult task of retaining information selectively . This necessitates fast image processing with the CVM based Bi-i does processing in real time so there is no redundant information in the system's memory. This market is very competitive and at the lower end very price sensitive. It is likely that this market will be addressed by specialized distributors whose know-how and specialty is the security industry. At this point we must be very careful as the quantities can be rather great and CVM chips will not be available in such large quantities until 2004.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
201 N. Calle Cesar Chavez, Suite 203
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 962-1175
Dr. John Langan
MDA 03-010       Selected for Award
Title:Analog Image Processing Algorithms for Target Discrimination
Abstract:During Phase I, Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) will develop improved methods for discriminating among targets using an optimal wavelet filter bank architecture. Specifically, CSC will evaluate best basis search methods for choosing the optimal wavelet filters for target discrimination. Discrimination relies upon the ability to compute multiple useful target features based upon known target characteristics. To improve the discrimination results, the temptation is to calculate ever more specific features that rely heavily on a priori target knowledge. In this project, CSC proposes an evaluation of a more general, complete set of features derived directly from the outputs of a large wavelet filter bank. In previous work, CSC has developed an analog, massively parallel, real-time video processing system capable of bulk spatio-temporal filtering. The enabling device uses analog silicon retinas in multi-chip architectures for complex, agile, spatial-frequency filtering enabling the implementation of a wavelet-based filter bank. A good wavelet basis forms a filter bank that is a compromise between a completely specific, matched filter bank and a generic basis. In Phase I, methods for finding bases optimal for discrimination will be investigated. In Phase II, CSC will implement the most promising algorithms in hard-ware for hardware-in-the-loop testing. The spatio-temporal motion energy system previously developed by CSC has the potential to provide sophisticated wavelet discrimination of subtle target characteristics both spatially and temporally with an extremely large computational capability. Target analysis capabilities using non-linear motion energy image processing techniques integrated in analog VLSI image proces-sors are ideally suited for compact, low power, military applications ranging from remote sens-ing platforms to micro-unmanned aerial vehicles. The spatio-temporal motion flow processor being developed is enabling to Missile Defense Agency (MDA) program algorithms that flow down to major missile defense systems. The company's primary goal is to move this core tech-nology into the military market with products using this technology marketed to military labora-tories and aerospace corporations for missile defense applications.

DYMAS RESEARCH, INC.
2910 Fox Run Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 799-6297
Dr. Wei Hu
MDA 03-010       Selected for Award
Title:Polarization Imaging and Algorithm
Abstract:Polarization imaging system has been explored as a method to improve target detection capabilities in remote sensing and other applications. Polarization imaging can improve target contrast, reduce clutter, aid in the defeat of intervening scatterers, and provide orientation information about various target features. The feasibility of polarization technology application in separation of a boost or bus from the associated plume, target discrimination etc. has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Dymas Research proposes an innovative polarization imaging system using electro-optic material and an imaging processing algorithm designed specifically for our polarization imaging system. Our proposed polarization imaging system does not have moving parts, works very fast, and eliminates the misregistration issue. The algorithms proposed can enhance image contrast. We are confident that this unique polarization imaging system and algorithm will provide a promising solution for target discrimination. Success in the Phase I effort will lead to the fabrication of an advanced polarization imaging system. This unique polarization system has many critical advantages in terms of solid-state operation, speed, weight, and flexibility. The success of development of this polarimetric sensor will have great impacts on military, space, industrial, and biomedical sectors.

SAGE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1601 N Sepulveda Blvd, PMB 501
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 455-0665
Dr. Keith Norsworthy
MDA 03-010       Selected for Award
Title:Image Processing Algorithms for Target Discrimination
Abstract:This program defines, and evaluates, new and improved infrared-sensor image processing algorithms for assisting in ballistic missile target/decoy discrimination. The sensor uses a fast-sampled large-mosaic detector array to allow long image integration times that attenuate the rms value of sensor electronic noise. Other sensor and system noise components (e.g. FPA non-uniformities, and intra-frame and inter-frame pointing angle jitter) become dominant and are attenuated by novel image processing concepts developed jointly by Sage Technologies and its subcontractor, Boeing. Circuit transients and spatially distributed countermeasure effects are suppressed by a combination of novel Rank Order filtering algorithms and time dependent Change Detection algorithms. The sensor FPA is divided into two regions, one for wideband spectral measurements and the other for (narrow) hyperspectral measurements. In operation, the wideband spectral measurements are used to detect potential Targets and the hyperspectral measurements are used to help in discriminating between true Targets and cloud induced false detections. The proposed work includes the evaluation of new methods for characterizing closely spaced objects (CSOs), and for estimating the temperature differences between spatially unresolved CSO pairs. Image processing for Improved Discrimination between threat Re-entry Vehicles and Decoys despite optical countermeasures (chaff). Development and Commercialization of a Hyperspectral infrared digital Camera.

TEC MASTERS, INC.
1500 Perimeter Parkway, Suite 215
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 830-4000
Dr. Holger Jaenisch
MDA 03-010       Selected for Award
Title:Data Modeling Enabled Real Time Image Processing For Target Discrimination
Abstract:Image processing algorithms potentially contribute information that is not currently extracted from missile passive IR sensors measurements. These algorithms must be fast running and robust to work within current computation and memory constraints of missile guidance sensors. Textbook image processing methods as published cannot be performed within these limited computational and memory constraints. Data Modeling attempts to address this limitation by generating equation based models of complex image processing algorithms for real time use. This will enable real-time image processing for target discrimination on a missile. Phase 1 of this task will determine the suitability of applying this image segmentation and image enhancement scheme to images that are representative of the size and type that would me measured in a missile defense application. In addition, the computational complexity and memory resources necessary to implement each approach will be documented. This proposal demonstrates a novel approach to image enhancement and segmentation. Applications include commercial image processing software packages for X-Ray, mammography, MRI, astronomical imaging, and surveillance photography.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1160 Pepsi Place, Suite 300
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Dr. Mamu Sharma
MDA 03-011       Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Guidance, Control, and Estimation for Hit-To-Kill Interceptors
Abstract:Barron Associates, Inc. (BAI) proposes an aggressive Phase I effort to develop novel adaptive, integrated guidance, control, and estimation algorithms for ballistic-missile interceptors with stringent hit-to-kill requirements. The approach combines recent advances in nonlinear control (backstepping) and estimation methods, and leverages on-line neural network technology for rapid adaptation and robustness to parametric uncertainty. Integration is accomplished using (1) a backstepping formulation to provide seamless integration and construction of guidance and control commands and (2) a unified Lyapunov analysis to derive update rules for the guidance, control, and estimation loops that guarantee the stability of the overall, integrated, design. In Phase I, medium-fidelity simulations will demonstrate that the proposed integrated design method provides improved hit-to-kill performance against maneuvering ballistic missiles. Furthermore, it is expected that the method will enable shorter design times and more efficient designs by leveraging the on-line adaptation to eliminate a need for an iterative integration process. In Phase II, BAI will explore alternative integrated design methods, and perform a comprehensive performance analysis of the selected design. The main benefits of this work are development of an integrated guidance, control, and estimation system for (1) improved hit-to-kill interception performance for ballistic missile defense, and (2) improved design turn-around time. Phase II and III efforts will further develop and demonstrate the components of the integrated system, culminating in hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations and Phase III flight tests. Commercialization will consist of (a) providing expertise and consulting to industry in the area of integrated missile guidance, control and estimate, (b) developing software toolkits for an integrated guidance/control/estimation design method that benefits the MDA and other aerospace programs, and (c) applying the technology to other areas, including precision industrial controls.

ORINCON
4770 Eastgate Mall
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 795-1254
Dr. Stephen Stubberud
MDA 03-011       Selected for Award
Title:Neural Estimation Approach for Integrated Guidance and Control of Kinematic Missile Interceptor
Abstract:Kinetic missile interceptors can benefit from an integrated guidance and control law. Even with these benefits, however, variations in the missile dynamics and the ability of a missile to maneuver can still result in failure for this critical mission, even in midcourse interception. ORINCON proposes to develop a control law that employs a novel adaptive estimation routine that improves the internal mathematical model of the missile and trajectory of the target missile. Using the same measurements that are currently available, this approach will improve the a priori model. This reduces the uncertainty in the control law, which in turn can be used to improve performance in flight and improve the accuracy of the intercepting missile approach to ballistic missile defense. The control law we propose to use is based on ORINCON's novel Kalman filter development and proven control technology. Improved performance on-line of the control system will clearly benefit the program of the missile defense concept. However, improved control methodology can go well beyond missile systems. Autonomous systems such as UAVs and UUVs could also benefit. Satellites that can reconfigure on-line for variations in performance will save commercial enterprises and the government millions of dollars annually.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
23 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Dr. Triveni N. Upadhyay
MDA 03-012       Selected for Award
Title:Intercepting Boosting Missile Threats With Maneuver Capability
Abstract:This Phase I study proposes to address the objective of improving interceptor missile performance against boosting missile threats by improving the guidance law. This improvement in performance will be sought by applying a new concept for interceptor guidance specifically tailored to interception of ballistic missiles in their boost phase. This concept incorporates a booster classification function which provides access to a priori information about the fly-out characteristics of the booster types which are likely to be used in a given theater of operations. To this nominal fly-out data is added a general-purpose Markov model to represent maneuvers about the nominal which the booster may be exercising. The performance of the resulting interceptor guidance system is evaluated against non-maneuvering threats as a baseline, and against boosters performing both arbitrary jinking maneuvers and maneuvers which have been optimized against the steering law used by the interceptor guidance system. There is a clear national need for an effective approach to defense against ballistic missile attack. This program will study an innovative concept for guiding hit-to-kill interceptors against missiles in boost phase. The possibility of boosters performing maneuvers to evade interception will be specifically accounted for in the proposed intercept guidance system. We anticipate improved intercept performance as a result of this work.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 576-2321
Mr. Warren J. Boord
MDA 03-012       Selected for Award
Title:Intercepting Boosting Missile Threats
Abstract:TSC will assess the improved engagement performance opportunities against maneuvering boosting ballistic missile threats by improving the interceptor guidance laws. Both intentional and unintentional boost phase threat ballistic missile maneuvers will be estimated and characterized. Interceptor guidance law candidates will be selected from existing guidance laws and a new class of guidance laws developed at TSC. Candidate guidance laws offering the highest performance improvement opportunities will be chosen from among the candidates using engagement simulation evaluations and specific performance criteria. The results of this selection will provide the basis for developing optimal maneuver characterizations against the selected guidance laws for further evaluations. One of the most stressing and effective countermeasures employed by offensive missiles for defense penetration is the maneuver. Assessing, such as is proposed in this SBIR, guidance laws to counter this defense penetration technique will require a systems approach. Accordingly, during a Phase II effort TSC will develop a prototype generic BMD Interceptor Technology Test-Bed architecture and simulation environment aimed at countering the maneuvering missile threat. The test-bed will be capable of supporting a wide range of further studies in various Air Force and Navy programs for ballistic and cruise missile defense applications. This approach will provide the best opportunity to attract a wide scope of potential customers. We anticipate three approaches to commercialization. The first is using the Test-Bed study results from this SBIR to select guidance algorithms to be used in the U.S. Missile Defense program. This approach could result in revenue from the Missile Defense prime contractors or directly from the Government program. We expect that at the conclusion of a successful Phase II, a Phase III award will lead to guidance algorithm testing in an operational mission simulation. The second approach will involve marketing the Air Force and Navy to use this test-bed and our expertise to develop interceptor guidance technology to defeat the maneuvering antiship and land attack cruise missile threat. The third approach will involve the marketing of the simulation test-bed itself to potential prime contractors across the services.

LIGHTSPIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 30198
Bethesda, MD 20824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-8562
Dr. Eric S. Harmon
MDA 03-013       Selected for Award
Title:1.5 um SPAD for Ladar Detection
Abstract:A solid state photodetector will be developed for efficient detection of 1.5 um photons with single photon sensitivity, notably offering operation above 200 K without needing gating. The photodetector will be an avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode and fabricated using novel materials and a novel structure that blocks nearly all of the thermally generated noise in absorption region from reaching the gain region and multiplying. Computational simulations of the materials and structure predict thousand-fold greater sensitivity than heretofore possible. Phase I will design, build and test parts of an initial device to prove that the physics underlying the devices will support ladar applications. Phase II will extend the device to an 8 x 8 array format suitable for eye-safe ladar applications. The ultimate sensitivity detection of 1.5 um photons may be important to future LADAR needing to maintain eye safety at multi-Watt laser power, and to a number of commercial applications needing low cost, low power, high speed, and small size, without needing liquid nitrogen temperatures or time-gated operation. Commercial opportunities exist in passive plume imaging, atmospheric particulate sensing, telecommunications instrumentation, quantum communications systems exchanging single photons securely at high duty cycle, telescope adaptive optics, and tracking of space vehicle position.

VOXTEL, INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 243-4633
Mr. George Williams
MDA 03-013       Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard, Stacked LADAR Circuits
Abstract:To engender future developments in space-based ladar systems, innovative approaches to realizing high-density, radiation-hard readout integration circuits (ROIC) are required. The object of this proposed effort is to support space-based ladar sensing systems by developing a radiation hard, high-performance, ladar ROIC based on wafer-stacked, rad-hard, SOI CMOS integrated circuits that achieve high-density, mixed-signal processing circuitry in a reduced footprint such as required of interceptor LADAR receiver circuits with superior range resolution, range accuracy, dynamic range. The proposed stacked readout structure consists of two layers of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) semiconductor circuits that are bonded together and interconnected. The structure of SOI, which consists of a thin epitaxial layer on top of a buried oxide and handle substrate, makes it ideally suited for incorporation into stacked and interconnected structures. As the SOI stacked layers are less than 1-mm thick, alignment and via interconnection is straightforward. In addition to low capacitance, radiation hardness, and high transistor density, the isolation afforded by SOI materials allows high speed, mixed signal circuits to be implemented in a single circuit. In Phase I, we will develop the stacked circuit architecture, design and simulate the ROIC circuitry, detail the manufacturing processes, develop LADAR seeker performance estimates, and deliver a comprehensive Phase II development plan. The proposed innovation is an enabling technology that will engender the development of high performance LADAR systems for a wide range of military, autonomous navigation, electronic aviation landing systems, three-dimensional modeling, land surveying, atmospheric measurements, space docking systems, automotive safety systems, among others.

CRYSTAL RESEARCH, INC.
44531 Kadi Court
Fremont, CA 94539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 445-0833
Dr. Xiao Wang
MDA 03-014       Selected for Award
Title:A Miniaturized High Power Solid-State Laser System Using a Novel Laser Crystal
Abstract: Solid-state lasers present the most promising approach to achieve high power laser beams with high efficiency, high reliability, and great beam quality, which would be critical for many defense applications including airborne and space borne ladars, lidasr, and weapon guidance systems. In this Phase I program, Crystal Research, Inc. (CRI) proposes a miniaturized high power all-solid-state laser that uses a novel laser crystal and efficient laser resonator. This laser crystal has shown a very large stimulated emission cross section and also a very strong and broad absorption band around 880nm to facilitate direct pumping, which is not effective in conventional laser crystals Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4. Unlike high-gain laser crystal Nd:YVO4, the thermal conductivity of our novel crystal is about 3 times as high and comparable to that of Nd:YAG. The proposed laser would present a breakthrough in practical airborne laser applications for its high efficiency, high reliability, low thermal management requirement and compactness. The proposed laser output power can be scaled to 200W without using any water-cooling system. We will deliver a working prototype laser to the funding agency by the end of Phase I for proof of concept demonstration. Lasers are used for a wide variety of applications from basic scientific research to industrial processes. Miniaturized, high efficiency, high power solid state lasers have direct applicability to MDA laser programs.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. R. Radhakrishnan
MDA 03-014       Selected for Award
Title:Nanocrystalline Nd-YAG for Laser Generators
Abstract:Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd-YAG) is being increasingly used for laser applications both within the realm of National Defense Organizations and civilian technologies. Currently only single crystals of this material are used which are difficult to prepare and do not fully meet the extreme service requirements in many critical applications. Compacted polycrystals of Nd-YAG have not been prepared cost-effectively although they have been demonstrated in lab-scale to perform better than single crystal forms. In this SBIR Phase I research, Materials Modification Inc. (MMI) proposes to develop a novel scaleable procedure to prepare nanocrystals of Nd-YAG that will be sintered to full density using MMI's proprietary compaction process. Additionally, MMI will also prove that the nanostructured dense compacts that are prepared are qualitatively superior and can replace single crystal Nd-YAG in laser applications. Within the defense domains, polycrystalline Nd-YAG will find application in diode pumped solid state lasers used in sensors, weapons and missile guidance systems. They will also find applications such as range finders and target designators. Within the civilian domains the low-cost laser systems based on this material will find a plethora of applications notably in personal computers, CD-ROMs with laser diodes, laser printers, modems, 3D optical surface mapping, micro-machining, laser Doppler anemometers and imaging systems

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Michael Koechlin
MDA 03-015       Selected for Award
Title:Low Phase Noise Signal Generation
Abstract:A new generation of radars with distributed signal processing is being developed. A critical need in these new radars is for a low phase noise exciter that is significantly smaller than the exciters currently in use in existing radars. The exciters need to be small so that they can be distributed into the array. A novel method of low phase noise frequency synthesis is presented which yields very high performance in only a fraction of the volume of the current solution. Hittite Microwave Corporation has been developing low phase noise frequency generation products for several years and has developed many of the necessary building blocks to make this proposed synthesizer possible. Most notably, Hittite has developed a ultra low noise phase-frequency detector with phase noise floor performance that is 10 to 15 dB better than its nearest competition. In addition to being a key building block for many military radar and communication applications, the outcome of this research will be directly applicable to the point-to-point radio VSAT markets where ever higher modulation complexities have led to very demanding phase noise requirements on the LOs used.

OEWAVES, INC.
1010 East Union Street, Suite 101
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 449-5000
Dr. Danny Eliyahu
MDA 03-015       Selected for Award
Title:Radar-Optimized Opto-Electronic Oscillator for Missile Defense and Multi-Function Radar
Abstract:OEwaves, Inc. proposes to develop a novel radar-optimized opto-electronic oscillator (ROEO) that will generate reference signals in the X-band and at higher frequencies with extremely low phase noise. The ROEO will deliver the same performance as the best existing high-end laboratory oscillators-which are large, expensive, and fragile rack-mounted instruments-but in a robust module the size of a 9V battery that is inexpensive and consumes little power. At the end of Phase II, we expect a prototype ROEO to achieve phase noise of -150 dBc/Hz measured at a 10 kHz offset from the center of an 8-12 GHz oscillator. The ROEO's small size, power consumption, and cost will make it suitable for parallel deployment in every row of transmitter/receiver modules of a phased array radar. This distributed oscillator architecture can suppress the equivalent aggregate system phase noise to below -170 dBc/Hz (at 10 kHz offset). The need for oscillators with improved phase noise performance in smaller, less expensive packages extends beyond phased array radar to civilian aerospace radar, satellite communications, point-to-point ground-based microwave communications nodes, local multi-point distribution services (LMDS), mobile phone base stations, and scientific instrumentation and test equipment.

PIEZO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2525 Shader Road
Orlando, FL 32804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 298-2000
Mr. David Symonds
MDA 03-015       Selected for Award
Title:Low Phase Noise Signal Generation
Abstract:At the present state of the art it is not feasible to generate a signal directly at the microwave operating frequency having the required short-term or long-term stability The best is a high-performance crystal oscillator, usually realized as an ovenized crystal oscillator (OCXO). The OCXO forms the master oscillator for the system; from it, all required system frequencies are derived coherently by a combination of frequency multipliers, phase-locked oscillators, mixers, filters, and frequency synthesizers. If these components and subsystems are properly designed, both the short-term and long-term stability limitation is due to the master crystal oscillator. This proposal deals with methods for improving the master crystal oscillator. Two types of phase noise must be distinguished from one another: quiescent phase noise, arising from the various components of the system when stationary, and vibration-induced phase noise In a well-designed oscillator, the acceleration sensitivity is almost entirely due to the resonator(s). This proposal deals with improvements to the master crystal oscillator. Crystal oscillator phase noise can be improved by 1) resonator improvements, 2) use of multiple resonators, or 3) use of multiple oscillators. In addition, 4) oscillator phase noise might be reduced by phase noise negative feedback. The products resulting from this topic will make available low noise reference oscillators for use in radar exciters and other systems that require a frequency source with low phase noise under both static and vibratory environments.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8730
Mr. David Ludwig
MDA 03-016       Selected for Award
Title:Novel Sensor Technology for Booster Typing
Abstract:The objective of the SBIR effort is to develop sensor technology that facilitates precise typing of threat boosters as early as possible in the flight timeline. With the increased emphasis on engaging threat missiles early in the flight timeline, early determination of the threat characteristics such as booster type is critical. ISC proposal provides innovative approaches to sensor technology to provide early detection and booster type based upon decades of experience gained by the ISC team on various Air Force programs. The ISC team has conducted an initial investigation of the early booster typing and launch detection problems with initial positive results provided in Section 3.0. Achieving such a fast start by the ISC team on the proposed effort is due to prior funded feasibility work. ISC, with Mundkowsky Consulting, provide a unique history of contract experience to successfully fulfill the objectives of the MDA project. To satisfy the objective of Phase I, the ISC team will conduct the SOW tasks presented in Section 2.0. Successful completion of these tasks will satisfy the objective of Phase I, "Design and conduct analysis and/or experiments to provide proof of principle for improved performance of the sensor technology in the booster typing role." Technology developed under this program could be applied to other DoD programs such as SBIRs High and Low, and utilized in civil commercial systems for NASA.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
Nova Research, Inc. DBA Nova Biomimetics, 320 Alis
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
MDA 03-016       Selected for Award
Title:Long-Range Booster Typing Using Foveal Sensors and High-Speed Detection of Temporally Modulated Infrared Energy
Abstract:Nova Biomimetics has recently developed a family of novel two-dimensional imaging chips whose designs are based on properties exhibited by biological retinas. The "Variable Acuity" imager permits the user to program a unique spatial arrangement of "superpixels" that may be updated in real time. In effect, any spatial configuration of pixels in the imager may be realized by programming the device in a way that permits pixels to share their individually-collected photocharge with any or all of their neighbors. Single and multiple "foveal" configurations are possible, and these high spatial resolution regions may be "flown" around the FPA at the will of the controlling processor. Variable Acuity Superpixel Imaging (VASI) technology enables the implementation of future long-range boost-phase missile identification and typing systems that will make more effective use of available target information than is possible using conventional sensor techniques. This proposal outlines an engineering analysis and hardware demonstration/implementation effort that will seek to determine the means by which VASI technology may be most effectively applied to the problem of long-range booster typing through the atmosphere and in space. As demonstrated through this proposal, Nova's credible approach is based on the significant successes of existing, operational devices and systems. Dynamically configurable spatial features of VASI FPA devices will enable more capable, smaller and cheaper agile sensor systems to be developed for missile warning and long-range identification/detection applications for missile defense.

OMNICORDER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
12 Technology Drive, Suite 8
East Setauket, NY 11733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 689-3781
Mr. Mark A. Fauci
MDA 03-016       Selected for Award
Title:Novel Sensor Technology for Booster Typing
Abstract:Design, development and testing of a high resolution (1024x1024) four band IRFPA detector. Infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) technology has been identified as a critically important component of ballistic missile defense (BMD) (M.Z. Tidrow, W.R. Dyer ? Infrared sensors for ballistic missile defense ? Infrared Physics & Technology 42 (2001) 333-336). Specifically, analysis of the boosters thermal characteristics, discrimination from decoys and debris, and enhanced detection and tracking through booster burnout are some of the significant benefits a high resolution multiband detector can provide. Quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology offers a unique combination of characteristics including excellent sensitivity, uniformity, high operability, high uniformity and relative low cost. We propose to construct a four color 1024x1024 QWIP FPA with a pitch of 20um. Four adjacent pixels will each be tuned to a specific midwave or longwave spectral band. This configuration will provide an effective final resolution of 512 x 512 four color array. The ultimate goal of this entire project (Phase I, II and III) is to develop an integrated, portable IR camera system which will meet MDA?s mission needs and provide the next generation of commercial infrared medical imaging technology We believe that this detector will provide MDA with unique, reliable, cost effect means of detecting and analyzing ballistic threats. With regard to commercial applications, the applicant company is the leading developer of commercial, IRFPA, medical imaging applications. We have identified a number of unique characteristics of QWIP IRFPA's that make them uniquely suitable as medical imaging system for the detection and management of cancer and vascular disease. We have published the results of our clinical IR imaging research and development in leading medical venues and journals and have begun to market our FDA approved device. All of our work to date has been based upon a 256 x 256 single band (8-9um) QWIP FPA. We believe that a higher resolution multi-band detector will represent a major stride forward in the capability of our commercial product's capability and will further open a potential medical imaging market valued in excess of $20 billion.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Dr. James Murguia
MDA 03-016       Selected for Award
Title:Novel Sensor Technology for Booster Typing
Abstract:We propose to design and model a unique spectral-temporal sensor that will be capable of providing early detection of vehicle launch and early identification of booster type. The approach will utilize the unusually complementary dispersion characteristics of zinc sulfide (ZnS), Sapphire and calcium fluoride (CaF2) to create a sensor capable of unambiguously acquiring the spectral-temporal signature of boost-phase vehicles. The sensor will also be able to locate and track the vehicle throughout the boost phase. This sensor will operate in both the visible and MWIR bands, where the boost-phase signature is most pronounced. It will have no moving parts and a small physical form factor. The design and development of this sensor represents a unique opportunity in spectral-temporal sensing. This effort will benefit the development of compact sensors for exploiting time-evolving spectral signatures of point-like events. This spectral imager will be able to sample the data at rates in excess of 200 spectral signatures per second for un-cued events within a wide field of view. The sensor can be configured so that the spectral resolution is tailored to achieve optimal sensitivity of the sensor around phenomenologically important spectral regions. The proposed sensor will be capable of extracting the spectral-temporal signatures for a wide range of dynamic events due to the simple opto-mechanical design and the phenomenologically rich spectral band. This technology will lead to advancements in tactical and strategic missile threat warning, directed energy detection and warning, bomb damage assessment, and automatic location and identification of artillery and small-arms fire. The ability of the new sensor concept to rapidly acquire spectral signatures should provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate algorithms for dynamic event classification based on temporal spectral signatures. In addition, the small physical size of the sensor will demonstrate the possibility of placing an advanced spectral-temporal sensing capability in unconventional vehicles and locations, and provide tactical missile launch warning for both military and commercial aircraft. It may also find utility in bomb damage assessment and battlefield awareness of dynamic events.

GALILEO SYSTEMS
10905 West Ohio Dr
Lakewood, CO 80226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 333-2248
Mr. K. Mark Caviezel
MDA 03-017       Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, High Altitude, Unmanned Sensor Platform
Abstract:In response to the MDA requirement for low cost high altitude platform, Galileo Systems (GS) proposes to develop low cost zero pressure floating balloon systems capable of imaging missile launches and flights. Additionally, GS will develop systems for theatre deployable, tactically responsive balloon launching systems for very rapid launch and near-all-weather balloon launch capability. Significant experience with high performance balloon technology is already possesed by GS personnel. Balloon operations are hindered by surface weather. Proposed development aims to mitigate those hinderences. The high altitude platform has significant commerical potential for applications currently being served by conventional aerial photography and space based imaging. The extreme altitude possible with the balloon-based high altitude platform makes it more similar to space-based than airplane-based observations. The high altitude platform could be utilized by users of commercial space based imaging as a competitive source, and/or as a 'gap filler' in the event that a user has a requirement to image a specific geographic area on a time and frequency not served by the limited about of LEO imaging satellites. Additionally, the loitering high altitude platform make a perfect platform for low power VHF/UHF and higher frequency radio communications with an effective operational radius of over 400 miles. Additionally, in the event that an adversary develops technology to blind or disrupt LEO observation satellites, a region could be flooded with dozens long loiter time, observation balloons.

WORLDWIDE AEROS CORP.
8411 Canoga Avenue
Canoga Park, CA 91304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 993-5533
Mr. Igor Pasternak
MDA 03-017       Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, High Altitude, Unmanned Sensor Platform
Abstract:Worldwide Aeros Corp. will utilize the SBIR Phase I funding to complete a preliminary design for a reusable, low cost high altitude (up to 80,000 feet) unmanned airship sensor platform with a long operational life cycle based on Aeros' established airship technologies. The phase I preliminary design will demonstrate that COTS airship components and technology can be utilized to develop a cost effective platform contemplated for Phase II development with a manufacturing cost not exceeding $1,900,000. The proposal will identify suitable sensor payloads that can be integrated to the platform to fulfill the MDA's primary mission objective of observing and recording boost phase ballistic missile launches. Such missions will further the understanding of boost phase launches, enabling the design of detection and intercept methods that will directly contribute to the defense of the United States, its troops and allies. Phase I will be accomplished in house, utilizing design tools and tests that have been proven through Aeros' previous projects including the FAA certification of its Aeros 40B airship, and prototype stratospheric airship production. The Phase II prototype platform will demonstrate the performance and mission operational expectancy of the airship. Aeros has the facilities, equipment and human resources to accomplish the development with the highest degree of confidence for success at meeting MDA's mandate for this SBIR program. Beyond the immediate benefits of boost phase missile observance, it is anticipated that the unmanned sensor platform will have implication in other areas of military and para-military services. Any application that calls for high altitude, over the horizon surveillance will be an applicable candidate for the unmanned sensor platform. The platform payload will be versatile enough to allow it to carry communication, reconnaissance mission equipment, or air monitoring packages that could give an early warning against chemical, nuclear and biological releases by an enemy; as well as any other payloads in the weight range. The future civilian and non military government markets can be exploited as the platform is proven and the FAA sets the rules that will govern future UAVs.

CASE ENGINEERING, INC.
5925 Imperial Pkwy, Suite 226
Mulberry, FL 33860
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(863) 701-2822
Mr. John Shanahan
MDA 03-018       Selected for Award
Title:Air-transportable, Caustic Production System
Abstract:This proposal presents a general system concept for a rapidly deployable, air-transportable system capable of producing a mixed alkali hydroxide solution at any suitable location in the world. Using available dry lithium, potassium and sodium hydroxides and potable water, the system will be capable of mass flow rates at or above 2,204.6 lb/hr (1000 kg/hr). Using industrial mixing technologies, the best available instrumentation and controls technology and novel design concepts, the system will possess both batch and continuous mixing alternatives. After establishing feasibility of the mixing modules and considering the technical requirements set forth by the project monitor, the mixing method will be finalized during an interim review. The system will handle thermal loads and produce de-ionized water using potable water typically available at bases throughout the world. Control systems will allow for automated recipe selections and allow for any order of component addition. The phase I design will allow for detailed engineering, fabrication and prototype testing in phase II proposals. Applications include providing mixed caustic for MHP production supporting the chemical oxygen-iodine laser. It also may have application in industrial pilot testing facilities for specialty chemical production and neutralization / decontamination processes. Sub-system that can augment ground based units designed to make mixed base peroxide for the air-borne chemical oxygen-iodine laser. Transportable unit that can be used to pilot test various chemical mixtures enhancing battery performance or specialty chemical synthesis. Transportable unit that can be used for on-site decontamination / demilitarization applications Transportable unit that can be used for wastewater neutralization.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4181
Dr. Harris Gold
MDA 03-018       Selected for Award
Title:Development of an Air Transportable, Mixed Caustic Production System
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency of the Department of Defense needs to develop a system for the production of mixed-base (MOH) solutions from solid caustics. The MOH will be used to produce mixed-base hydrogen peroxide (MHP), a key reagent in chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) systems. Solutions of the three MOH components(LiOH, NaOH, and KOH), are to be prepared in separate solution tanks and then stored either separately or mixed as MOH. The production system must be air-transportable, configured for rapid setup on site, and produce MOH at 1000 kg/hr. In addition, the heat evolved on dissolving the solids must be dissipated. Challenges include provision of easily addressable automatic controls to produce solutions of any desired concentration, deliver them to the MOH tank in any desired sequence, and to achieve an accuracy of 0.5% of the specified formulation. Other challenges are to prevent the dry feedstock from absorbing moisture during storage and transfer, prevent caking while dissolving, and minimize acid gas absorption. Finally, the caustics are hazardous, so particular attention must be paid to dust control, the selection of materials of construction, explosion-proof electromechanicals, redundant key equipment, and emergency facilities. (P-030154) The ability to generate concentrated caustic solutions at remote sites will eliminate the need to transport hazardous liquid caustic. Applications exist in the process industry (oil-fields, superfund sites, waste disposal sites) and military (chemical and biological decontamination).

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2331
Dr. Bryan M. Smith
MDA 03-018       Selected for Award
Title:Portable, Modular System for Mixed Caustic Production
Abstract:The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a promising new weapon system with potential to rapidly vaporize missile casings in flight. Advanced testing of the system requires relatively large quantities of the oxygen source, a mixed-base hydrogen peroxide (MHP). Unfortunately, the MHP is unstable at ambient temperatures and must therefore be prepared on site at the COIL test facilities and, ultimately, at points of COIL deployment. To minimize the logistics burden, the various caustic solutions that are blended with the peroxide must also be prepared on site from locally purified water and solid hydroxides. Since the target mixtures are near phase boundaries, the concentrations of the various components must be accurately controlled to avoid precipitation. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) therefore proposes to design a fully automated, versatile, robust, modular, and portable facility for the production of accurate and precise concentrations of both individual and mixed caustics that are needed for the onsite production of MHP. The preliminary design incorporates redundant mixing capacity, allows for the accurate preparation of an infinite range of mixed caustic compositions, and allows continued operation even in the event of failure of or damage to any main component. At the end of the Phase I project, we propose to have a design ready for prototype construction in Phase II. COIL systems may also be used industrially for rapid cutting of large sheets of construction materials in, for example, shipbuilding and large aircraft manufacture. These applications will also require on-site production of MHP, and the same modular, portable caustic production facilities developed under this project would be ideal.

VITOK ENGINEERS, INC.
10720 PLANTSIDE DRIVE
LOUISVILLE, KY 40299
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(502) 426-7770
Mr. Phil N. Hambrick
MDA 03-018       Selected for Award
Title:Air-transportable, Caustic Production System
Abstract:Mixed Base Hydrogen Peroxide (MHP) has been utilized and well documented in its application to Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) and Airborne Laser (ABL) systems. There is, however, a need to vary recipes of a variety of solid caustics with H2O and mix these in a system that is portable. Design of a small scale, air transportable unit, capable of mixing/blending a variety of solid caustic recipes will be completed in Phase I. This unit will be unique in its design in that the components, including instrumentation and controls, are sized/located in a novel manner to assure air transportability with simple and quick assembly/disassembly. Vitok has significant experience (35 years) in development of chemical processes, and incorporating these process designs with equipment selection to assure conformance to predetermined size constraints. Vitok has outlined a comprehensive Phase I plan for development of process and design of process system equipment to achieve good blending and mixing as well as air transportability. This system has the capability to easily be increased in size from 3000 kg per three (3) hours (Phase I parameters) to well over twenty (20) times this volume, which would apply to commercial production and applications. The development of a simple and quick setup, deployable crystalline solid caustic processing system will establish a system capable of being utilized at almost any location. The initial small-scale air transportable unit developed primarily for the military will be extremely useful and beneficial to commercial companies who desire to obtain a pilot (test) facility. This facility can be set up on companies' premises to test the concept of solid caustic production and allow for long-term evaluation of the system and its products(s) to determine applicability for each commercial application. Based on the initial design and success in prototype testing, commercial scale systems can be designed and developed. This system may be skid mounted (modularized) or, more likely, scaled up to much larger sizes, which would require larger scale, and permanently mounted components. While the government applications related to COIL and ABL and propulsion are well known, it is likely that the final products could achieve a wide variety of commercial uses in areas such as textile, polymers, foods, dairies, minerals, petrochemicals, waste water applications, and the like.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3969
Dr. Lee Goldman
MDA 03-019       Selected for Award
Title:Athermal Smart Windows for Laser Optics
Abstract:Bulkhead windows used in the airborne laser (ABL) system, besides being mechanically strong with very low absorption and scatter characteristics at the laser wavelengths (0.8-3.2 mm), should exhibit minimum thermo-optical distortion caused by temperature variation within the material. Fused silica is considered as one of the candidate materials for ABL bulkhead windows because of its favorable properties. However, the material suffers from positive thermo-optic coefficient, dn/dT, which contributes to optical path distortion as a result of laser heating. Combining the window with an adaptive optical element to compensate for the distortions seems to be a viable approach to overcome this problem. In the proposed research program, Surmet Corporation seeks to develop an innovative "smart window" to reduce thermo-optical distortion caused by the laser induced heating of the window. Fused silica, which is a well known, and extensively characterized material available in the required sizes, will be used rather than exploring an alternative window material. The thermo-optical distortion in the fused silica window will be compensated using a combination of "smart window" and the appropriate adaptive optics element so that the combination of the two remains optically flat during the operation of ABL system. In Phase I, a conceptual model for the `smart window' with adaptive optic combination will be demonstrated. A bench top demonstration of a subscale "smart window" will also be presented at the conclusion of phase I. The development of a fused silica based "smart window" in combination with appropriate adaptive optics will be of significant technological value in ABL systems being developed by the US Air Force (USAF) and the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). The proposed "smart window" is a radically different approach with potential to change an intractable materials problem into a solvable engineering problem. Once developed, the smart window/adaptive optic approach will find use in other areas such as high-speed missile windows, where optical distortion may be a problem. The proposed research will guide the way for future Phase II R&D work to further refine the "smart window" concept and to the commercialization of this technology.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-9809
Dr. Triplicane A. Parthasarathy
MDA 03-019       Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Polycrystalline YAG for Low-Distortion, Abrasion-Resistant, High-Strength IR Windows
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate that polycrystalline YAG is an ideal material of choice for High Energy Laser Windows mounted in pressure bulkheads. We will demonstrate that dense polycrystalline YAG can be fabricated at low cost and that this material is fully transparent with very low absorption and scatter characteristics at the laser wavelengths. Further we will demonstrate that dense polycrystalline YAG, which has lensing figure-of-demerit similar to low OPD glasses and fused silica, can be made to have far superior strength and stability with excellent resistance to abrasion, all of which are important for laser window applications. We expect that the low-cost dense polycrystalline YAG we develop will be used in many, if not all, applications that require laser and IR windows with minimal distortion, high abrasion resistance, high mechanical strength and extraordinary environmental stability. If successful, the technology could be transitioned immediately to one or more advanced DE weapon insertions of direct interest to the Air Force. Commercial benefits include improved competitive opportunities for providers of aerospace windows. These window materials would find commercial use in visual and IR transparencies for aircraft and launch vehicles, chemical processing windows, and high energy lighting element holders. This material is also likely to find application in several commercial areas such as in precision laser machining/welding.

AOPTIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
580 Division St.
Campbell, CA 95008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 583-1143
Mr. J. Elon Graves
MDA 03-020       Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Scintillation-Insensitive Curvature Wavefront Sensor
Abstract:Wave-front sensors are key elements of adaptive optics systems that compensate for aberrations encountered by a laser beam as it propagates through the atmosphere. Removing such aberrations are critical for applications such as high energy laser weapons, high bandwidth laser communication systems and precise target designators. AOptix has previously developed a wavefront sensor that directly measures wave-front curvature. Measuring wave-front curvature instead of the traditional practice of measuring wave-front slope offers significant advantages including immunity to scintillation and phase branch points (thus avoiding the need for wavefront reconstructors), absence of calibration and offset problems, higher efficiency and the use of one pixel per subaperture. When combined with a curvature deformable mirror, further benefits can be realized in the overall system performance. The proposed work will develop a novel curvature sensing wave-front sensor that is immune to branch-point errors, requires no reference calibration and will enable adaptive optic systems to operate with closed-loop bandwidth exceeding 1 kHz. The development of high speed wavefront sensors for adaptive optics has numerous potential commercial and military applications. Examples of such applications are: 1) High energy laser beam control for precise cutting, machining, surface heat treatment, marking and surface ablation, both in manufacturing and medical applications. 2) Laser communications through turbulent media. 3) Low energy laser beam control for scanning devices such as large format laser printers and 3D digitizers. 4) Focus and aberration control for confocal scanning microscopes. Applications 1) and 2) benefit from high speed, due to the intrinsic rapidity of processes to be corrected. Applications 3) and 4) benefit from high speed, since it allows for an increase in the scan rate of the devices. Utilization of AO for cutting and machining lasers, would allow more precise control of the tool spot size and shape. In AO-enhanced free space laser communications, quality of correction is currently limited by system speed. Higher correction speed will enable multi-gigabit military laser communications systems, such ground to air, air to air, and ground or air to space, and will enable robust commercial communications systems to work through a wide range of environmental conditions. For scanning applications, AO would allow for more precise beam control in the presence of thermal aberrations, turbulence aberrations, scanner induced aberrations or specimen aberrations. This could allow for a combination of cheaper optics, larger scan ranges, and enhanced resolution in a wide variety of applications.

G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Mr. Robert H. Dueck
MDA 03-020       Selected for Award
Title:Wavefront Sensing for High Scintillation Environments
Abstract:High scintillation environments pose additional sensor burdens on conventional wavefront sensors, mainly; impaired branch cut phase estimation particularly when used in closed loop AO systems. A Self Referencing Interferometer, which measures phase directly, is seen as potentially providing superior performance in these high scintillation discontinuous phase environments. The sensors use a single mode fiber to filter the reference beam, provide four-bin phase retrieval phase shifting, and provides a medium for amplification of the weak reference signal. A very high gain fiber amplifier is initially required before the AO loop is closed to increase the reference signal and improve fringe visibility to an adequate level allowing the loop to finally close. This original concept failed to work as well as hoped because the amplification introduced significant amplified spontaneous emission, high levels of shot noise, and reduced fringe visibility. This proposal presents alternatives to the high gain amplification by integrating a Hartmann sensor in a way that enhances the SRI measurement. This proposed hybrid sensor provides information that can be processed in either way. This Phase I effort proposes to explore the merits of direct phase measurements and study alternatives to further enhance the SRI sensor concept. It is anticipated that the resulting wavefront sensor would have greatly improved closed loop performance in the presence of high scintillation atmospheric environments over conventional systems currently used or recently proposed.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Naseem A. Munshi
MDA 03-021       Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Composite Chemical Storage Tank
Abstract:Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel hybrid composite material for application to lightweight chemical storage tanks for MDA applications. In Phase I, CTD will address the key feasibility issues for the novel hybrid material, including long-term compatibility with chemicals of interest, mechanical robustness sufficient to withstand pressurization, impact, and mission loads, and fabrication process development. If successful, the proposed effort will result in a new type of composite material that is suitable for fabricating lightweight, linerless, microcrack-resistant composite tanks for chemical storage and other applications. This new material technology will enable many commercial applications of lightweight, low cost composite tanks.

SORDAL, INC.
12813 Riley Street
Holland, MI 49424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 994-6000
Mr. Dale Danver
MDA 03-021       Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Innovative Composite Tank Concepts
Abstract:Sordal proposes to design and develop a novel composite material composed of polyimide foam filled into a honeycomb core structure. The resultant composite panel would be thermally stable from -300C to over +500C. It is be possible to heat set the panels to a specific radius and thereafter join them in a spherical or cylindical shape or combination thereof for use in tank construction. Fuel tanks for aerospace and space craft, cryogenic gas storage tanks

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 856-4159
Dr. Bryan Koene
MDA 03-021       Selected for Award
Title:Microcrack Resistant Materials for Composite Tanks
Abstract:In response to Missile Defense Agency need, Triton will develop a new lightweight carbon fiber composite for use for the Airborne Laser (ABL) Program. The replacement of the currently used aluminum tanks with composites for the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) in particular will result in up to 40% weight saving resulting in both fuel savings for the ABL (greater firing capacity) and jet fuel savings (extended flight range). Despite the cost and weight advantages associated with the use of composite structures for this application, several drawbacks have existed such as laminate microcracking from thermal cycling and infiltration of liquids and gases into the composite structure. Triton's innovative materials and design solutions will alleviate these problems by preventing microcracking. Our solution to the problem is a two prong approach using our nanomaterials: i) Use of thermally stable, low CTE nanomaterial-based resins to lessen the fiber-resin mismatch attributed to microcracking due to thermal cycling; ii) Use of high chemical barrier polymer films inside the composite tank that prevent infiltration of gases or liquids, which cause chemical or physical degradation of the composite structure. We have identified several commercial applications for matrix materials with high thermal stability and resistance to microcracking: Aerospace structures: chemical storage tanks, cryogen storage tanks, booster/orbiter aeroshell, standoff cones; Advanced vehicle concepts - under the hood applications for racing and passenger vehicles.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4368
Dr. Peter Warren
MDA 03-022       Selected for Award
Title:Isogrid Supported Nanolaminate Reflector (SNR)
Abstract:The MDA requires lightweight, stiff and stable mirrors for use in high quality, air-based and space-based optical observation and energy projection systems. The current state-of-the-art uses various types of honeycomb core material with glass and composite face sheets. The honeycomb material, while excellent in compression, does not transfer the bending shear loads efficiently enough for truly lightweight optical systems. Glass and composite face sheets are too thick and heavy to meet the mission needs. The results are structurally inefficient mirror systems that weigh too much and increase the mass of the surrounding systems as well. The proposed program will develop a novel mirror system that uses highly efficient truss structures to provide bending stiffness for a Nanolaminate mirror face sheet. The Isogrid Supported Nanolaminate Reflector (ISNR) uses purely axially oriented, high-modulus fibers to provide an efficient, dimensionally stable support structure. The nanolaminate face sheet further reduces the system mass by reducing the thickness of the reflective surface. Foster-Miller will develop the ISNR system through a careful plan of technology transfer, design, modeling, and prototype manufacture and testing. Complete development of this technology will provide a mirror system that will enable better, lighter, and less expensive optical instruments. (P-030096) In addition to the myriad of Missile Defense Agency and Air Force missions such as ABL, SBL and observation platforms that would take advantage of extremely stiff and lightweight mirrors, many NASA and private observatories would be ready customers of the ISNR mirror technology. Many industries, such as microchip and printed circuit board manufacturing, use large mirrors in their photolithography machines. While these mirrors are not subjected to the same mass restrictions as aerospace instruments, they still need to be extremely stiff so as not to vibrate in the factory environment. Reduction in manufacturing cost would enable the Foster-Miller team access to this highly lucrative market.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 242-9992
Dr. William Goodman
MDA 03-022       Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Athermal Silicon Innovative Telescope for Airborne Laser Relay Mirrors
Abstract:The Air Force is interested in lightweight, high-stiffness optical telescopes, capable of operating with geometric stability under varying thermal conditions (-55 to 50oC). NASA MSFC recently vacuum-cryogenic qualified Schafer's SLMS Athermal Technology to a temperature of 27 K and demonstrated figure stability of  /60 rms HeNe for an un-mounted f/3 mirror, and /13.6 rms HeNe for the mirror in a prototype mount. Schafer offers to advance the development of athermal high-energy laser telescopes for bifocal relays (ARMS), using a 3 Phase approach that provides high cost leverage to the Government. In Phase I we will design a 50 cm aperture Lightweight Athermal Silicon Innovative Telescope (LASIT) using ARMS specifications. The LASIT primary mirror will be fabricated using Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS) Athermal Technology produced under Phase II of Air Force SBIR Contract No. F29601-02-C001476 (COTR Dr. Robbie Robertson, AFRL/VSSV). In Phase II, the metering structure and mirror mounts will be fabricated using Vanguard lightweight, carbon fiber reinforced cyanate ester technology (M55J/954-3 is used as the ABL primary mirror reaction structure). The telescope would be integrated during Phase II, and would include interfaces with Brashear gimbals. The LASIT would be qualified in the Boeing SVS ARMS testbed during Phase III. Telescopes and other optical instruments operating in the high-altitude aerospace environment (50-65,000 feet), high-earth orbit (HEO) and geosynchronous orbit experience varying thermal conditions, which can adversely impact the performance of the instrument. Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS) Athermal Technology provides an athermal, lightweight, low cost solution for instruments used in these environments. Applications include telescopes and scan mirror assemblies for space imaging, weather monitoring, and surveillance satellites, and transmitter, receiver, and beam director telescopes for high-energy laser systems.

XINETICS, INC.
115 Jackson Rd.
Devens, MA 01432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-0352
Mr. Roland Plante
MDA 03-022       Selected for Award
Title:Low-Areal Density Meniscus Telescope Primary
Abstract:The space surveillance community needs lightweight, large aperture optical systems that can be quickly adapted to new or changing requirements - agile response. Large aperture systems require large, very precise, very stable, ground testable optical surfaces. Current State of the Art primary mirror technology is heavy and has limited mirror shape control. Passive, monolithic mirrors such as the Hubble Space Telescope have an areal density of 250-Kg/m2. In order to substantially improve the performance of primary mirrors, an active, thin meniscus mirror can be substituted. The meniscus mirror features a thin facesheet mounted onto an array of actuators directly attached to a stiff reaction structure. This configuration can reduce the areal density to 10-Kg/m2. Mirror design and materials limit areal density and aperture size. Xinetics proposes designing a 30-cm primary mirror that can be used in small, lightweight imaging satellites. This technology provides a very lightweight system with active control of the mirror. The active control can reduce the polishing requirements by correcting for errors. Also, the reaction-bonded silicon carbide fabricated by Xinetics is fabricated with mold technology lending itself easily to mass production techniques. Each year there is a growing need for advanced imaging systems for both defense and spaced-base imaging systems. Programs such as ABL and SBL on the government side will require light, fast, inexpensive components to meet the needs of a large fleet of ABL airplanes or SBL satellites. For either flight system, weight and performance are important parameters in the overall system design. Small, complete, silicon carbide telescopes will serve to provide that type of capability. These techniques could be applied to fabricated somewhat larger monolithic primaries that would be needed for programs such as this. In addition, small tactical imaging systems would benefit greatly. Satellite could be built for a fraction of what an imaging system costs now and be available quickly if tensions around the world increased. This type of technology would also serve space applications. NASA continues to develop orbital imaging systems for astronomical and earth resources applications. Moderate size imaging systems could be used for specific astronomical applications and also for earth resources applications. Again, a system that could readily correct inherent aberrations would offer a greater range of applications and provide significantly improved results over current systems. The systems would be less expensive to fabricate, maintain, and produce superior results.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Paul Rehrig
MDA 03-023       Selected for Award
Title:Single Crystal Actuators for Deformable Membrane Mirrors
Abstract:Single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed as a means of increasing actuator authority while maintaining strain precision for adaptive optics mirrors used in directed energy applications. These materials exhibit 5 to 10 times the strain of conventional ceramic piezoelectrics with equivalent deliverable force. Therefore, they offer a much broader design space for adaptive optics systems than is currently available with ceramic actuators, electric motors or magnetic devices. For the proposed program TRS Technologies will team with SRS Technologies to develop a variety of single crystal actuators for adaptive optics deformable mirrors. TRS will measure the performance of both stack and low-profile plate-type actuators, and SRS will model the impact of incorporating such actuators into state-of-the-art deformable mirror designs such those incorporating piston-type actuator arrays or edge control. Crystal actuators will offer either greatly improved authority (5X greater displacement at equivalent or greater force than conventional systems) or much smaller size (5X weight reduction) with performance equivalent to electrostrictive PMN ceramic actuator arrays. In addition, single crystals can yield these performance improvements without a loss in precision relative to ceramic PMN, and they are capable of operating over a much broader temperature range. Single crystal piezoelectrics will greatly advance the use of deformable mirrors in a broad variety of military and other government applications including directed energy systems, airborne and space based communications systems, and space based telescopes. In addition membrane mirrors also have applications in such broad range of commercial markets such as laser scanners, de-focus correction, wavefront corrector, precise pellicles, imaging auto-focus optics, technical vision, and ophthalmology.

XINETICS, INC.
115 Jackson Rd.
Devens, MA 01432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-0568
Dr. Maureen L. Mulvihill
MDA 03-023       Selected for Award
Title:Agile Textured Precision High Force Actuators for Mirror Shape Control
Abstract:The directed energy community needs lightweight, low power deformable mirrors that can be quickly adapted to new or changing requirements - agile response. The actuator is the key element to making this happen. Current actuator technology provides these qualities with a highly labor intensive process that requires specialized manufacture. We propose to create a new paradigm in mirror shape control actuators by combing the performance properties of single crystal ferroelectrics with automated textured materials processing. If developed, textured single crystal cofired actuators will remove weight, power, bandwidth, cost and production limitations inherent with current discrete, ceramic stack and discrete, single crystal bonded stack technology. It is our intent during this program to develop an actuator manufacturing process that combines the high strain performance of single crystal materials with the automated production capabilities of cofired multilayer fabrication. Using this production methodology, production quantities of ABL actuators could be made in a few weeks instead of the 6-month long process required now. It is the intent during this program to reduce the mass (deformable mirror and electronics) by an order of magnitude while increasing the gain bandwidth response 10X. This will be accomplished through innovative materials and process engineering at the nanoscale level. The maturity of a Nano-Textured Single Crystals (NANO-TSC) will lead to a new line of cofired devices for high authority applications. In addition, creating a lower cost single crystal option. The NANO-TSC material exhibits a high fraction of single crystal properties, with high compositional uniformity, enhanced mechanical toughness. The proposed Nano-Textured single crystal actuator development for shape control of adaptive optic mirrors in directed energy applications will provide a higher stroke (greater than three times currently achievable) at high spatial frequencies to a host of optical communities who have a direct and current need for such a device. The development of high strain low volume and low mass cofired DM actuators for laser communications systems to realize longer path lengths, beam delivery systems to deliver the required power densities at longer path lengths and the reconnaissance systems to achieve diffraction limited performance from space platforms will be enabled with the NANO-TSC technology. Several possible examples of advanced devices that could be commercialized with the maturity of this technology are as follows: Tip tilt mirrors, High density deformable mirror, Positioning stages, Unique shaped actuators, High strain/high bandwidth DMs, Cryogenic actuators, Ultrasonic imaging devices, Accelerometers and Sonar Devices.

QORTEK, INC.
2400 Reach Road, Suite 204
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
MDA 03-024       Selected for Award
Title:Matrix Switch Electronics Package for Deformable Mirrors
Abstract:The proposal is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a simplified prototype of a new concept that eliminates the complex wiring and most of the electronics of existing atmospheric correction deformable optic drive system. The new technology will not only be capable of replacing existing electronics packages, but will also be amenable to integration with future use of SCMA, MEMS and hybrid optical correction devices. The matrix switch architecture reduces the conventional power electronics and wiring to a single synthetic impedance power source. The result is a very compact and easily installed lightweight design. The unique design will enable increased gain-bandwidth performance and reliability while substantially reducing the need for heat removal. Of importance is the (very) high frequency capability this new technology will impart to adaptive optic devices. The ability simplify the assembly and enable easy installation combined with the dramatically reduction in cost of active deformable optical system (adaptive optics) will enable new widespread commercial viability to many optical and non-optical systems and products. The proposed technology also has immediate application to both portable electronics and electronic power distribution systems. Most immediate is that it finally offers a low cost easily assembled method for transferring adaptive optics technology capability to laboratory, university and institutional ground optical systems as well as future military space and airborne systems. QorTek is teaming with Northrop-Grumman to explore the commercial viability of the proposed technology to both these, commercial aerospace and military aerospace applications.

XINETICS, INC.
115 Jackson Rd.
Devens, MA 01432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-0352
Mr. Gene Kreda
MDA 03-024       Selected for Award
Title:Deformable Mirror (DM) Electronics Miniaturization
Abstract:The next generation of deformable mirror (DM) systems designed for airborne applications must be smaller, lighter and consume less power to be useful. Efforts to increase the flexibility of these systems are focused on redesigning the driver and control electronics. The technology that will permit the design of compact systems will include significant simplification or elimination of cabling and interconnect hardware, the reduction of driver volume by an order of magnitude, and a decrease in quiescent power to effectively minimize power consumption and thermally induced optical errors. Xinetics proposes to create a new paradigm for airborne adaptive optics systems through an innovative driver system designed to address immediate and future needs. This system will utilize an advanced switching technology applied in conjunction to an innovative trickle charging system. Specifically, the implementation of this approach will reduce the power consumption of a 256 actuator DM system from 1 kW to 100 W, the quiescent power from 751 W to 75 W, and the weight from 340 lbs. to 30 lbs. The resulting system will enable the driver system to be located behind the current ABL deformable mirror facesheet, while avoiding thermally induced optical errors due to the extremely low quiescent power. Low noise, high-density multiplexed electroncis are necessary to drive Photonex based Deformable Mirrors having several thousand channels of actuation with Angstrom level precision. Low noise is needed to maintain dimensional stability during long duration exposures. High-density is required for low power, low volume packaging anticipated for both space flight systems and commerical instruments. Mulitplexing is needed to substantially reduce the per channel cost of the dirver system. If selected, the proposed effort will produce a 512 and 1,024 channel driver board that is capable of driving mirror configurations having between 4,096 and 16,384 channels of actuation. It is the intent of this effort to produce a low noise hybrid platform and populate a flight qualifiable board capable in production of addressing a deformable mirror format having actuator spacings of 1 (NASA), 2.5 (Military) and 5 mm (Industry). Xinetics has reviewed the commerical industry in terms of optical precision and available finacial base. It is our belief that commericial opportunities exist in those fields that both need and can affort the high-value of a compact adaptive optics system. These targeted areas include: 1. Medical Imaging Instruments 2. Semiconductor Processing Equipment, and 3. Telecommunications Optical Processing. We anticipate business opportunities in excess of $2.5 million in each of these respective areas. It enables Xinetics to realize 20 to 30% growth per annum while maintaining its commitment to critical components to the Government.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 03-025       Selected for Award
Title:Light Weight Thermally Balanced Graphite Reinforced Mg Structural Substrates for Replicated Mirror Membranes
Abstract:Magnesium reinforced with a quasi-isotropic high stiffness graphite preform has the highest combination of specific stiffness (E/r) and thermal stability (thermal conductivity/CTE) of any material other than expensive CVD/SiC. This unique combination of properties coupled with ease of fabrication and machining makes it the most attractive candidate for light weight space and airborne mirrors. Mg/Gr can be CTE tailored to a replicated membrane material, machined to figure and bonded to a low cost membrane. The result will be a high performance, low mass mirror material with short delivery lead time. Polymeric and metallic nanolaminate replicated membranes will be attached to a tailored Mg/Gr structural substrate and examined for print-through and fidelity to the figure and finish of the master optical mandrel. With stiff Mg/Gr mirror substrate planes and planar-isotropic Mg/Gr core, the areal density is projected to be less than 6 kg/m2. The development of high stiffness graphite fiber reinforced Mg and Al would result in the lowest mass and lowest cost mirrors available without sacrificing performance. Lead time for manufacturing would be a few weeks rather than months to years once the master optical mandrel has been installed. A 5-10 kg/m2 areal density rigid space mirror material will become readily available to the space and missile defense community with short lead times. Cost of fabricating mirrors will be a fraction of that of glass, beryllium or other competitive materials. Innovative control of fiber architecture will result in low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity and high stiffness, and hence, in a highly stable mirror with high vibration dampening capacity. Economic benefits will be measured in launch weight reductions and increased system performance as well as system procurement savings. Immediate applications will be for EKV, CEKV, LEAP, directed energy applications, ABL as well as a number of AF, NRO and NASA applications. Alternative applications in electronic thermal management markets will also benefit from the concurrent development of the preforming technology developed for mirror substrates.

QED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1040 University Ave.
Rochester, NY 14607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 256-6540
Dr. William Kordonski
MDA 03-025       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Processing of the Optical Surface on Large Lightweight Mirrors
Abstract:Abstract In manufacturing of light-weight optics the most time consuming step is final polishing. This is a slow, iterative, expensive process and is often the pacing element in the program. Much of the problem is that known polishing techniques are slow or non-deterministic. The added complication is that unique mechanical properties of light-weight mirror design require significant attention to the manner in which a polishing load is applied. MRF, featuring determinism, sophisticated polishing algorithms, exceptional system stability, high removal rate and ability to control polishing loads has the potential to reduce manufacturing cost as well as improve optical performance. With typically better than an 80% convergence rate, MRF could save significant time in terms of both fabrication and metrology. Furthermore, MRF is relatively insensitive to z-axis positioning errors, thereby minimizing the appearance of "print through" distortion due to face-sheet deflections under polishing loads, which is a common problem in manufacturing of light-weight optics with honeycomb structure. Current machines are capable of polishing flats, spheres and aspheres to a surface figure accuracy of better than 30 nm peak-to-valley and microroughness better than 1.0 nm rms. The goal of the work proposed here is to evaluate the potential for applying MRF to polishing the optical surfaces in light-weight mirror production. Anticipated Benefits Extending the capability of MRF for use on light-weight optical structures would positively impact several commercial and research and development areas. This versatile, deterministic process, already used for photolithography, telecommunications and general optics applications, would be valuable for efficient fabrication of a wide range of military mirrors and systems, as well as civilian remote sensing applications. Successful implementation of this technique may also enable new light-weight optic designs, the use of thinner face sheets, and minimization of edge effects. Most importantly, it has the potential of dramatically accelerating the slow and expensive processes for manufacturing light-weight mirrors resulting in cost reduction while improving optical performance.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-9829
Dr. Tai-Il Mah
MDA 03-025       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Processing of the Optical Surface on Large Lightweight Mirrors
Abstract:The primary goal of the Phase I work is to explore two processing routes to produce mirror systems based on the replication technique using master mandrel. One processing route is based on the deposition of nano-laminates of ceramics to provide optical as well as mechanical integrity of the mirror. The other processing involves the construction of mirror system (both mirror and substructure) based on a unique ceramic composite uni-body fabrication technique. These two processing routes involve the replication technique, which is capable of providing fast and low-cost production of the high optical surface finish of the large mirrors. The ceramic nano-laminate mirror deposition will be followed various deposition techniques (Large Area Filtered Arc Deposition/Magnetron Sputtering/EB-PVD ). The composite bonding (between mirror and substructure) materials will be developed utilizing negative CTE nano-powder and geopolymer. The negative CTE nano-powder will be utilized to process ceramic composite uni-body using chemically driven densification (CDD) processing. Successful completion of Phase II will provide a solid technical foundation for fabricating a primary mirror at least one-meter in diameter. It will also provide a list of limitations and difficulties in scaling up to a 3 to 4 meter mirror segment with desired quality/performance. However, the Phase II research will demonstrate the optimum design/methodology for the rapid manufacturing of lightweight, low cost primary imaging and beam converging mirrors, which have a variety of DoD and commercial applications. A successful manufacturing technology for producing large quantities of negative CTE single-phase, nano-sized powder will allow for its use in a variety of applications from structural and electronic, to space materials. Using the composite concept of negative CTE powder with conventional materials will give tremendous opportunities for thermal management of these materials for various applications. The processes to be developed further under this program, geopolymerization and CDD, have much potential to be explored in the field of structural ceramics.

POCO GRAPHITE, INC.
300 Old Greenwood Road
Decatur, TX 76234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(940) 393-4357
Mr. Ronald Plummer
MDA 03-026       Selected for Award
Title:SiC Optical Bench and Telescope Assembly for SBIRS Low
Abstract:POCO and Raytheon have teamed up to develop a unique and enabling silicon carbide technology that has broad benefit to large, space-based optical systems. The title of this multi-project effort is Silicon Carbide Afocal Telescope for SBIRS Low (SCATS). The objective of this proposal (as part of SCATS) is to develop and cryogenically test a SiC optical bench assembly and integrate the SiC Mirrors from SBIR MDA 03-022. Ambient temperature and cryogenic performance testing, as well as environmental testing of the integrated telescope will be carried out. The emphasis and innovative engineering is on mounting issues, mechanical assembly and alignment. The focus is on the system as an assembly of components and interfaces. Mounting issues include mechanical stresses and strains, and distortion due to thermal impacts over the operating temperature range. Testing will focus on system level performance. Cryogenic Testing will focus on system level accuracy and will validate that the alignment and integration between component mounts is maintained over the operating temperature range. Poco and Raytheon have identified a number of benefits that will come from this effort. Benefits to SBIRS Low with SiC Optics 1) Reduced Track Sensor Recurring Cost 2) Dramatically Shortened Fabrication Leadtimes 3) Visible Quality Performance While Maintaining LWIR Sensitivity 4) Development of alternate to Be for high performance Optic systems Benefits to Poco Graphite Inc. 1) Accelerates data development on SuperSiC for space applications 2) Provides path for Validation of SuperSiC in a real optical system - the optical bench 3) Increases our probability of success in commercialization 4) Quicker transition of this SiC conversion technology to market for Space applications

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Joseph Robichaud
MDA 03-026       Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight, Segmented, Deployable Silicon Carbide Optical System
Abstract:SSGPO proposes a segmented, deployable mirror concept that utilizes lightweight, monolithic Silicon Carbide (SiC) mirror segments which can be phased together (tip, tilt, and piston control) to provide a large primary mirror surface. A number of concerns have kept the NGST program from adopting this type of mirror architecture. First, traditional glass optical materials are not stiff enough to support this type of design. Secondly, mirror manufacturing and polishing needs to be very low-cost and deterministic in order to support the large number of matched mirror segments that would be required for such a configuration. The application of SiC materials addresses the first concern. The SiC material has excellent stiffness and thermal stability, allowing the individual mirror segments to be controlled with fewer degrees of freedom than the current NGST mirror designs. The second concern is addressed by the combination of SSG's SiC slip casting forming process and SSG's Tinsley subsidiary's Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) process. These processes allow the fabrication of many matched mirror segments in a rapid, low-cost fashion. The work proposed here is based on some previous technology demonstration work done by SSG. Our technical approach has been strengthened by the addition of a number of deployment/latching schemes developed and demonstrated by TRW. In Phase I, we will develop the concept around an application of interest to MDA (i.e.; SBL) to perform a preliminary technical assessment of the approach and develop a manufacturing/program plan for implementation in Phase II. Our proposal will benefit from cost sharing from TRW in Phase I, with additional funding allocated for the Phase II effort. The lightweight, deployable optical architecture described will have application to a number of space-based remote sensing, atmospheric observing, and directed energy applications.

G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Glenn A. Tyler
MDA 03-027       Selected for Award
Title:Beam Control for Extended Range
Abstract:A study is proposed to compare conventional beam control approaches utilized in baseline ABL engagements with advanced concepts which utilize laser guide star technology, relay mirror technology and optimal esimator technology. The concepts developed during the proposed activity will be assessed for their feasibility in resolving the issues associated with extending the range and the class of targets addressable with an ABL weapon system. Key to the success of this effort is the wealth of experience and capabilities that have been developed by the Optical Sciences Company in precisely the areas indicated above that are required to advance the state of the art. As an example of our expertise in this area, optimal estimator technology is put into proper perspective to give insight. An analytic two DM system control algorithm is developed which illustrates that two angularly separated paths, one to a finite conjugate laser guide star and one to a distant object, can be compensated simultaneously. This approach may be critical in the utilization of TILL data and laser guide stars with ABL. The extensive experience and capability developed over the past twenty-five years at the Optical Sciences Company in the areas of beam control, adaptive optics technology, laser guide star technology, relay mirror technology and optimal estimator technology will be applied to develop a concept that can be used to extend the range and target set of a conventional ABL system.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5479
Dr. Mikhail Belenkii
MDA 03-027       Selected for Award
Title:Beam Control for Extended Range
Abstract:Intercepting of fast targets early in their flight at very long range by using laser weapon is important for national missile defense. A direct attack of such targets from the Airborne Laser (ABL) platform places stressing requirements on the adaptive optics system. An engagement of these targets by means of propagation through an intermediate airship-based or space-based Relay Mirror (RM) significantly simplifies the beam control tasks. However, even in this case servo lag, time of flight anisoplanatism, as well as tilt anisoplanatism and beacon anisoplanatism degrade the ABL performance. We propose to develop novel methods for adaptive optics and tracking for propagation over extremely long ranges, which mitigate the impact of servo lag and time of flight anisoplanatism in the ABL to the RM engagement, and tilt anisoplanatism and beacon anisoplanatism in the RM to the target engagement. An implementation of these approaches will extend the operational range of the ABL up to 1500 km. In the Phase I program we will validate the proposed techniques by using a wave-optics code and identify scaled down experiments for implementation of these methods at the MIT/LL Atmospheric Compensation Laboratory and/or at the AFRL North Oscura Peak facility. The novel concepts for adaptive optics and tracking over very long ranges developed under this program will have applications in future ABL like systems. The novel concepts for improved beam control including a method for mitigation of tilt anisoplanatism and beacon anisoplanatism can be used in astronomy, laser communication, laser power beaming and survey.

VOXTEL, INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 243-4633
Mr. George M. Williams
MDA 03-028       Selected for Award
Title:High Reliability, Radiation Hard, Electron Bombarded SOI CMOS Image Tubes
Abstract:Electron-bombarded sensors have been researched for over thirty years and the general theory of operation has been proven and prototype devices demonstrated. However thus far, they have yet to be manufactured in a cost effective manner with optimized performance characteristics. Furthermore, the state of the art EBCCD device has no proven reliability. In this Phase I program, we propose to develop a high-reliability, high-performance, 128 x 128 element, 10kHz EBCCD design that leverages high volume, commercial semiconductor processes and radiation hardened SOI CMOS processes from which to significantly quantify and manage reliability growth. The design implements a <1-micron electron absorption region formed from fully-depleted, n-type epitaxial silicon. We thus achieve increased resolution, high bandwidth, reduced radiation cross-section, higher gain, and enhanced stability. Significantly, our design dispenses with custom back-thinning operations, which are unreliable and incompatible with CMOS processing. Instead we use the unique properties of SOI to obtain the <1-micron thick back-thinned silicon layer. The high-speed, mixed-signal SOI circuits include anti-blooming, gain modulation, random readout, windowing, and non-destructive readout. The design significantly increases radiation performance, provides better outgassing characteristics, and greatly enhances image tube performance and reliability. EBCCD devices satisfies applications requiring high data rates, high resolution, and low light sensitivity that cannot be satisfied with traditional image intensifiers, silicon CCD, or CMOS imagers. Applications include: ladar/lidar, microscopy, neuroscience, calcium ratio imaging, fluorescence studies, high-energy physics scintillator readout (calorimetry, fibre tracking), Cherenkov light detection. Additionally, the proposed imager without intensification can be used as a radiation hard visible imager for EUV through NIR applications that include solar studies, star tracking, and surveillance.

LI CREATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
225 Runnymede Parkway
New Providence, NJ 07974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 508-0239
Dr. Qi (Peter) Li
MDA 03-029       Selected for Award
Title:Data Driven Prognostics
Abstract:This proposal is to describe a unique and promising solution for data-driven prognostics called the hidden-Markov-model (HMM) based prognostic (HBP), and to study the feasibility of using the above solution to build products for military and commercial markets. Data-driven prognostics have been studied for many years; however, the performances of existing systems do not meet the requirements of military and commercial applications because of inherent limitations in the approaches. We note that the prognostic is a dynamic-pattern recognition problem, but most existing approaches only use techniques and models developed years ago for steady-pattern recognition, which is not adequate in terms of accuracy and lacks true and full replication of operating machines. From our current and previous research, we know that speech signals have characteristics similar to the signals collected from operating machines or equipment. The HMM techniques developed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) are indeed for dynamic-pattern recognition and have provided a solution for ASR successfully; therefore, the proposed HMM approach has the potential to solve the problem and to develop products for data-driven prognostics for commercial and defense applications. We will develop prognostic products including software and hardware through this research and development. The products will be introduced to DoD first, and then provided to commercial aircraft and engine companies in the private sector market, such as Boeing, GE, and other system manufacturers. The size of the potential market is quite large since virtually every aircraft engine or weapon system needs a prognostic system to predict the failure, fault, or errors, and to ensure the safety of complex aircraft and weapon systems. We expect to sell significant number systems during the first year after finishing Phase II, and also expect a significant increase per year following the first year since we will have new products, such as chips for prognostics, at that time.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Kenneth Blemel
MDA 03-029       Selected for Award
Title:Expert System for Diagnostics and Prognostics
Abstract:While detection of degraded states and failures using dataset signatures would appear straightforward, creating a product solution is problematic. Algorithms for signature analysis and data mining are needed to locate the boundaries between "normal" and "abnormal" conditions. Because the process of monitoring of signals and signatures is inexact, probabilistic separation methods are needed to distinguish emerging problems from normal variations. We will develop and demonstrate a set of Diagnostic and Prognostic (D&P) engines to detect and identify early symptoms leading to faults, failures and other events of complex electro-mechanical systems. These D&P engines will be based upon extensive experience by MSI and its partners in the application of Bayesian logic and related expert systems and artificial intelligence to diagnostics and prognostics. MSI recommends the Digital Data Download (D3), being developed for NAVAIR and the F/A-18 aircraft, as the computational platform for these D&P engines, but the engines can be executed on any appropriate platform as desired. The D3 provides an advantageous platform for execution of these engines as it is a real time data-centric multipurpose box designed specifically for such a purpose. The D&P engines operating on the D3 platform will provide an on-aircraft robust decision support system capable of determining the health status of machines and estimated remaining useful life. These engines will be extensible and adaptive so as to be able to support the system throughout its service life.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
100 Great Meadow Rd., Suite 501
Wethersfield, CT 06109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 257-8014
Dr. Somnath Deb
MDA 03-029       Selected for Award
Title:Data Driven Prognostic techniques for airborne laser systems.
Abstract:Qualtech Systems, Inc. and HR Textron, Inc., team seeks to provide data-driven prognostic models and techniques for predicting system malfunctioning events prior to their occurrence in airborne lasers. The events of interest include lasing, spectral, tilt, calibration, calorimetric, polarization, and wavefront, range, range rate, and pointing errors, beam jitter/smearing effects, thermal blooming phenomenon, engagement geometry errors, and turbulence effects caused by incipient fault conditions and system disturbances. The end product of the proposed effort is not just a collection of new data-driven prognostic techniques for residual generation, residual evaluation for emerging malfunction detection and isolation (i.e., time and location of faults), fault diagnosis (i.e., nature and cause of faults) and residual life estimation of the airborne laser (ABL) theater missile defense system; it is a complete and generic diagnosis and prognosis solution that utilizes the sensing capabilities that already exist in the system to the greatest extent, while identifying new software capabilities that can be easily added onboard or on support equipment, to achieve maximum system availability within reasonable cost. In most systems, the initial cost of the hardware and software of the monitoring system is easily offset by the savings in support and maintenance costs within a year. The product resulting from Phases I and II of the research proposed herein will be a ready-to-use plug-in module for use in commercial and military condition assessment and health monitoring systems. It will be marketed to the defense industry for applications in missile defense systems (ABL, AAS, THAAD), unmanned combat vehicles (UAVs, UCAVs,USVs), shipboard and aircraft systems, and to commercial industry for use in applications such as commercial aircraft, power, manufacturing, chemical processes, transportation, and industrial machines/equipment

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Mr. Steve Braun
MDA 03-030       Selected for Award
Title:Ribbon Fiber Optic Bus for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:This proposal presents an approach to reducing mass and volume of aerospace subsystems by using optical fibers and low cost off-the shelf optical components. This leads to reduced launching cost, particular as it applies to microsatellites. Added benefits of fiber optics, in addition to cost and weight reduction are greatly improved performance because of their inherent immunity to ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) and ElectroMagnetic Pulses (EMP), radiation tolerance, and a data rate capability several orders of magnitude above that of electric wires. Finally, optical fibers combined with Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) lend themselves to efficient configuring of a bidirectional fiberoptic bus that eliminates costly electronic or electro-optic switches by incorporating all-passive glass nodes for data transmission and health status monitoring. In addition to the military Avionics market, fiberoptic buses as presented in this proposal have wide application in the commercial telecommunication market, specifically, Fiber To The Business (FTTB) and Fiber To The Home (FTTH).

ODYSSIAN TECHNOLOGY, L.L.C.
15270 Timber Trail
Mishawaka, IN 46545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(574) 255-6183
Mr. Barton Bennett
MDA 03-030       Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional Structures with Structurally Integrated Circuitry for Use on the Airborne Laser (ABL)
Abstract:Multifunctional structure encompasses a revolutionary level of integration that improves performance and reduces cost. Subsystem functionality is integrated into structural members to eliminate the need for subsystem interconnecting wires, cables, lines, and supporting brackets. Avionics support racks can be eliminated. Large modular structure with embedded subsystem functionality will eliminate the cost and complexity of subsystem interconnects and components found in conventional air and space vehicles. Odyssian Technology proposes to develop multifunctional structure with structurally integrated flex circuitry that supports the Airborne Laser (ABL) vibration and beam control systems. Boeing, the prime contractor on ABL, will participate in this program to provide guidance and input on ABL requirements. A conceptual design study, impact analysis, and proof-of-concept demonstration will occur in phase I to identify the feasibility and benefits of implementing multifunctional structure onto the ABL. During phase II, prototype hardware will be developed and demonstrated. Multifunctional structure with structurally integrated flex circuitry will reduce purchase price or acquisition costs of land, air, and space vehicles by eliminating part count and the cost of protective jackets (i.e., harnesses), support brackets, clips, assembly, and installation In addition, weight and volume is reduced to improve system performance and operating efficiencies. Commercial applications exist in both the military and private sectors. Several emerging military platforms, such as the ABL, Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAV), have an immediate need to minimize weight, volume, and cost. Private sector applications that are particularly sensitive to weight, volume, and cost include automobiles, recreational vehicle, satellites, and commercial aircraft.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Mr. Corey Clark
MDA 03-030       Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional Structures for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:This proposal describes the advancement of Multifunctional Structures (MFS) for Aerospace Applications in order to create a more efficient and capable system in terms of payload mass fractions. The proposed system, known as Flexible Electronics and Structure Integration System (FESTIS), continues the expansion of work performed in the MFS area by solving problems not yet overcome by state-of-the-art MFS technology. The basic approach to MFS is to reconfigure the cabling to improve the way they integrate into the aerospace vehicle structure, minimize mass and volume requirements, and to simplify the cabling manufacturing process. This proposal addresses these issues by focusing on the advancement of high density interconnects (EMI and RF considerations) and its application to advanced flexible circuitry. The principal behind WPI's concept is to take the developed technology and overcome problems encountered by detailing a new system. FESTIS will be capable of integrating new solutions and advancing MFS to a full-scale working product that could be used for numerous aerospace vehicle electronic systems. Following technology development, WPI will commercialize the FESTIS using a 5-part process. The first step is to host a product demonstration at WPI's in-house laboratory for the involved DoD agencies. Second, our system will undergo a field test on ABL subsystem with the resulting feedback guiding product improvement. The third step involves the trial production of a small number of the FESTIS for interested DoD agencies. Fourth, WPI's marketing department will investigate alternative product applications. The final commercialization step is full production and product launch. Initially, the primary transition target for our product launch is ABL equipment. However, this technology easily lends itself to future aerospace, aircraft, and ground vehicles. WPI estimates the annual market potential of FESTIS to be $6.5 billion.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7874
Dr. Manish Gupta
MDA 03-031       Selected for Award
Title:Singlet Oxygen Analyzer for COIL Applications
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research proposes to develop an ultrasensitive gas analyzer to directly measure the concentration of singlet oxygen in COIL applications. This analyzer, which based on our proprietary Off-Axis ICOS technology, will provide unprecedented sensitivity in a compact, robust instrument that can be readily integrated into the COIL platform. In Phase I we will demonstrate technical feasibility by generating singlet oxygen and measuring its absorption spectrum directly at 1.91 microns and 1.505 microns and, in conjunction with high-level theoretical calculations provided by AFRL, accurately deducing its state-specific density. The prototype will be multiplexed to allow for simultaneous measurements of three key COIL species: singlet oxygen, ground state oxygen, and water vapor. We will also evaluate the possibility of adapting the instrument to measure excited state species for AGIL applications (i.e. singlet delta NCl). In Phase II, we will integrate the instrument into the COIL platform and deliver a final, working prototype to the Department of Defense (AFRL). Beyond COIL applications (both military and commercial), the development of a robust, ultrasenstive gas analyzer also has significant commercial application in industrial process control, medical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. LGR is actively collaborating with several industrial partners, including Dow Chemicals, Metabolic Solutions, and ITT Technologies to transfer our innovation to the marketplace. In Phase III, we project revenue generated by sales of our industrial process control monitor alone to exceed $10M by 2007, with additional revenue generated from our medical and environmental diagnostic instruments.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Mr. William J. Kessler
MDA 03-031       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Chemical Iodine Lasers
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) describes a program to develop and demonstrate a diagnostic for imaging atomic iodine peak absorption/gain and translational temperature for chemically pumped atomic iodine lasers. This diagnostic will provide a unique, sensitive tool for developing advanced iodine lasers. This diagnostic will provide the first multi-point spatially resolved gain and temperature maps that can be directly compared to advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. The imaging sensor is based upon PSI's successful IodineScan tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) diagnostic that has been applied to COIL systems worldwide. During Phase I PSI will demonstrate this new gain imaging capability by making measurements in PSI's discharge flow reactor facility. In the Phase II program PSI will develop a compact, portable system that will be tested at COIL facilities and then delivered to the Air Force Research Laboratory. Later versions of this system developed in Phase II and III programs could readily be extended to HF overtone lasers and non-chemical laser industrial applications. Successful Phase I and Phase II programs will lead to the development of a new class of imaging TDLAS sensors. These sensors will have direct application to Air Force chemical laser development programs (COIL and AGIL) and the ABL and SBL programs. Potential industrial applications include the petrochemical, fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries as well as atmospheric monitoring, natural gas pipeline monitoring and academic research.

ENERGY SCIENCE LABORATORIES, INC.
6888 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 552-2034
Dr. Timothy R. Knowles
MDA 03-032       Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Low Contamination Laser Beam Dump
Abstract:This SBIR proposal is to develop lightweight, compact, and low-contamination laser beam dumps suitable for airborne and space-based high-energy laser (HEL) applications. The concept is based on a novel refractory-fiber radiation absorber that has low reflectivity (<1%) and high ablation threshold (>10 J/cm2 in 1 ns) and is suitable for use with either pulsed solid-state lasers or continuous chemical lasers. The absorber can sustain high temperature (2500K) and can serve as a radiation-cooled high-energy dump. It can also be integrated with high-capacity phase-change heat sink materials to remain cool in environments where the maximum dump temperature is limited and the laser is operated intermittently. Phase 1 will investigate concept feasibility and suitability for tactical HEL environments. Beam dump requirements for current DoD HEL programs will be defined. Novel fiber absorber configurations designed for those requirements will be fabricated and laser tested. The weight, size, and performance of laser beam dumps integrated with candidate thermal control options will be assessed. Recommendations for Phase 2 development will be identified. Phase 2 would further develop the materials and design of a full-scale engineering test unit for characterization at HEL facility. Lightweight compact low-contamination laser beam dumps have military applications in airborne and space-based HEL systems, in inertial fusion research, in laser machining and materials processing, in opto-electronic communications, and in laser surgery.

BLAZETECH CORP.
24 Thorndike St.
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0700
Dr. N. A. Moussa
MDA 03-033       Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Fuel Tank Ullage Fire/Explosion Modeling
Abstract:We propose to perform a series of scoping calculations to determine the propellant and conditions most likely to lead to lethality enhancement under laser heating. For these conditions, we will develop a model to quantify the pressure rise inside the tank due to chemical reactions. The model will account for key processes such as laser heating, temperature gradient across the tank wall and in the gas phase near the wall, circulation inside the ullage, thermal decomposition, combustion and venting. Comparison of the predicted tank pressure with that found experimentally to produce tank burst will establish whether lethality is enhanced. Parametric calculations over a range of conditions will establish the viability of lethality enhancement by chemical reactions. The proposed model will benefit government agencies involved in laser weapon development and lethality assessment such as MDA, the Army, Air Force and Navy and their defense contractors. It can be used in pre-test design to reduce costs and speed up technology development. It can be used by the warfighters to increase weapon effectiveness by determining optimal strategies in the selection of aimpoints (fuel versus oxidizer tank), laser intensity, heating area and dwell time.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Alton J. Reich
MDA 03-033       Selected for Award
Title:Laser Lethality Assessment via Advanced Multi-Physics Simulation
Abstract:Directed energy weapons are being developed for both short and long term introduction into the U.S. arsenal for boost phase missile defense. A key to understanding the effectiveness of these weapons is a tool to assess modes of missile failure. Fracture mechanics based models exist, but under certain engagement conditions these do not predict clear, catastrophic failure. CFD Research Corporation proposes augmenting existing tools with a missile failure prediction tool that is based on a multi-physics simulation based approach combining fluid flow, heat transfer and combustion analysis. During Phase 1, we will demonstrate the use of our commercial CFD-ACE+ software for modeling the fundamental processes and consequences of laser heating of missile fuel tanks, and the consequences of laser induced venting of a fuel tank. The physical consequences predicted by the model will be assessed to determine if the missile system fails. The focus during Phase 2 will be on adapting the framework provided by the CFD-ACE+ package into a customized tool for failure assessment. The process of running simulations will be automated as much as possible to allow assessment to be performed by users with wide ranging technical backgrounds. The development of directed energy weapons is in its early stages. Within a few years initial programs will bear fruit and result in fielded weapon systems. Additional designs will follow. Each of these programs will need tools for assessing the effectiveness of the weapon system against targets. The product of this project will be one of these tools. It will find a wide market among directed energy weapon system designers, and evaluators. Additional utility may be found among designers of liquid fueled aerospace vehicles for assessing the ability of their designs to withstand an attack by directed energy weapons.

BELFORD RESEARCH, INC.
386 Spannish Wells Road, Building B, Suite 3
Hilton Head Island, SC 29926
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 681-7688
Dr. Rona E Belford
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:Gallium Nitride (GaN) Device Technology Enhancements Leading to Advanced Transmit/Receive (T/R) Modules for Radar Performance Enhancement
Abstract:We propose to increase the mobility of both n- and p-type GaN by applying tensile strain and fixing the strain by bonding to an appropriate heat sink material. Straining in other semiconductor materials is now recognized as a viable route to higher performance. We have demonstrated in these systems how low-level strain (0.05%) can increase mobility by a factor of two. Increases were larger for p-type material than for n-type. In GaN systems p-type mobility is poor due to reduced material quality arising from requisite large doping densities. Enhanced mobility would offset the need for such high doping and give an even greater benefit than that of the strain enhancement alone. The piezoelectric polarization within these systems indicates they would be prime candidates for low-level-uniaxial strain enhancement. A conservative estimate of increased electronic performance using our technology is a factor of 4. This translates directly to circuit/system speed. This will be facilitated in part by the alleviation of the major weakness in GaN systems, i.e. that of poor quality p-type GaN. Our technology could facilitate p-type performance required for bipolar devices as well as complimentary circuits.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
25 Cord Dr.
Latham, NY 12110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-2593
Dr. Jon Whitlock
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:Feasibility of a-face bulk growth of AlN for fabrication of improved RF devices for Radar Performance Enhancement
Abstract:GaN/AlGaN devices offer outstanding potential for high power, high frequency, and low-noise devices for severe-environment applications. Realization of these benefits for DoD systems is compromised by existing substrate quality and high substrate costs. In addition, the use of polar interfaces is believed to cause a number of reliability and performance problems due to interface states and defects. A better understanding and possible elimination of these problems would be obtained by eliminating interface polarization effects through the use of high-quality a-face bulk-grown aluminum nitride substrates. This effort explores the feasibility of high-rate a-face bulk growth of AlN where growth rates may be 5-10x higher than the 0.5 - 1 mm/hr and < 1000 dislocations per cm^2 already obtained for c-face growth. In addition, AlN substrates offer the possibility of superior epitaxial growth because of the better lattice match and thermal expansion match as well as superior thermal conductivity (>3 W/cm-K). Improved high power, high frequency nitride devices will result from improvements in nitride substrate technology. These improvements will lead to better radar systems for the DOD as well as commercial application in wireless base stations.

III-N TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2033 Plymouth Road
Manhattan, KS 66503, KS 66503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 770-7814
Dr. Hongxing Jiang
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:High Power III-Nitride Heterojunction Field-Effect Effect Transistor Development
Abstract:The research proposed here is built on the recent successful fabrication of metal oxide semiconductor heterjunction field effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with very high drain-current-driving and gate-control capabilities as well as unprecedented high breakdown voltages by the P.I.s research group at Kansas State University. III-nitride HFETs have great promises in microwave/millimeter-wave electronics applications. However, one of the critical issues in the development of high performance devices is the degradation of the gate that leads to the premature breakdown and hence a deficient device performance with a reduction of output power, the RF efficiency and noise figure. Much improvement in epitaxial materials quality and device structure design is needed. The proposed research targets at the aforementioned issues. The objectives are to further optimize AlGaN/GaN HFET material and structural quality by employing innovative approaches such as barrier delta doping to enhance the drain-current-driving and gate-control and hence power/current delivering capabilities, while increase breakdown voltage and reduce leakage current as well as the current collapse effect. develop innovative approaches for processing III-nitride HFETs, including e-beam- and deep UV photo-lithography patterning, plasma dry etching, and contact metallization; fabricate HFET devices for extensive testing under RF power (~10 GHz - X-band) conditions. The technologies based on GaN high power electronic devices will be extremely important for future DOD technologies, including radar and microwave/millimeterwave communications (terrestrial, airbone, and space-based). In a broad sense, semiconductor electronics play an important role in the overall functioning of national defense and military weapons systems. In the area of civilian applications, modern microelectronic devices based on semiconductor HFETs have a wide range of applications, including communications such as radar links, direct broadcast satellite television, cellular telephone, cable television converters, and data processing applications. The HFETs devices fabricated in other technologies (e.g. AlGaAs) have been in production for many years. However, the modern microelectronic industry is constantly face demands for higher performance as well as lower costs. III-nitrides are emerging as one of the most important electronic materials for these applications due to their very high peak electron velocity, high saturation velocity, high breakdown voltage, low noise, and thermal stability of the system.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:Gallium Nitride Devices on Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride Substrates for Advanced T/R Modules
Abstract:Existing T/R modules are based on gallium arsenide (GaAs) transistors and power amplifiers. Current and future XBRs would benefit from improved resolution, enhanced discrimination, and increased power. Significant XBR performance enhancement can be achieved by developing T/R modules that incorporate gallium nitride (GaN) -based power amplifiers. High-performance GaN-based devices, such as HEMTs, have been demonstrated on sapphire and silicon carbide substrates; however, their device performance has been limited due to growth on non-native substrates. The limiting factors in many high performance microelectronic applications based on GaN and GaN-related materials can be attributed directly to material defects in heteroepitaxially grown layers on non-nitride substrates. This program will utilize semi-insulating gallium nitride wafers to produce high-performance GaN microelectronic devices for X-band radar applications. Kyma will develop and demonstrate novel device designs based on semi insulating GaN substrates. Growth on a native GaN substrate will yield lower defects resulting from, improved device design, including features such as gate recess and passivation layers, and device cooling. The main goals of the Phase I program include proof of concept epitaxial growth, device fabrication, and testing. Phase II work will focus on the further development of devices and integrated power amplifier modules. GaN-based FET technology with high device efficiency, stability, and reliability will benefit commercial electronic applications throughout several industries, including wireless communications infrastructure and mobile phones, commercial radar, and satellites. Demonstration of the applicability of GaN substrates in these applications will expand their implementation in other technological areas, such as improving the performance of GaN-based optoelectronic devices.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Xuhong Hu
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:High Power AlGaN/InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Recessed Gate Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor with InGaN as the RIE Etching Stop Layer
Abstract:We propose to a new approach AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors (HFET) technology for reliable, stable, high-power microwave amplifiers using novel recessed gate/active passivation design. Under certain process conditions of BCl3 RIE etching for optimized InGaN films, the In etch product InCl3 will be formed on the surface stopping any further etching. The RIE etching rate of InGaN is much lower than the etching rate of AlGaN or GaN layers. Hence, InGaN can serve as RIE etch stop layers. The thin InGaN film can be wet chemically etched by diluted KOH. The etching rate and etching pattern can be well controlled. The BCB passivation or Si3N4 passivation will be used to prevent AlGaN oxidation. Our approach will be used to improve the breakdown voltage and output power for microwave power amplifiers, which is a key for the Transmit/Receive (T/R) module.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Qhalid Fareed
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid Growth of High Quality AlInGaN-based Transistor Wafers on 6H-SiC
Abstract:We will develop and scale-up a hybrid AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) wafer growth technology, which combines conventional MOCVD growth with our novel Pulsed Atomic Layer Epitaxy (PALE) deposition technique. In PALE deposition of AlGaN-based heterostructures the metalorganic precursors TMA (Al-source), TMG (Ga-source) and NH3 (N-source) are alternately introduced in the low pressure MOCVD reactor. An ammonia pulse always follows the metalorganic pulses. Our InGaN-based layer from PALE deposition demonstrates the advantages of improved mobility of pre-cursor species on the surface and better incorporation of the atoms into the growing crystal. The semi-insulating GaN buffer will be grown by conventional MOCVD followed by the PALE deposition of the device channel (GaN, InGaN) and AlGaN barrier. The proposed technology would combine the advantages of high temperature and low temperature deposition in a single growth chamber. Our approach will be used to develop commercially viable epitaxial wafer technology for manufacturing of reliable high microwave power transistors and amplifiers for new generation of Transmit/Receive modules.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Xuhong Hu
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:GaN-AlInGaN Induced Base Transistors for High Power Microwave Amplifiers
Abstract:We propose to develop a new majority carrier device, Induced Base Transistor (IBT), which will use a very high density of the two-dimensional electron gas in GaN in order to dramatically reduce the base spreading resistance. We will use selective area growth technique for the deposition of emitter. The devices will be grown on bulk conductive GaN substrates (collector contact). The use of homoepitaxy will yield a much better materials quality (dislocation free) and will greatly enhance collector-emitter breakdown voltage. In an IBT, the polarization induced electric field controls the barrier for the electron injection from the emitter into the base. We will design and optimize the device structure using the strain control by adjusting composition and doping profiles in AlInGaN/GaN material system (Strain Energy Band Engineering Approach). Our approach will be used to increase transistor current density and microwave power level. We expect that IBT devices can become the key component for the MMIC modules. This technology will also have numerous commercial applications in low noise amplifiers for wireless communications.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Qhalid Fareed
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:Growth of thick AlGaN epitaxial layer for High Power Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors On Semi-insulating 6H-SiC Substrates
Abstract:Increasing the GaN and AlGaN thickness is crucial for improved material quality and, thus, increased microwave output and enhanced reliability of high-power devices. We will use our proprietary growth technology and unique buffer layer design to deposit thick GaN and AlGaN templates for quaternary AlInGaN-based Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) structures on semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates supplied by II-VI, Inc. This will allow us to combine the advantages of thick GaN template with superior thermal properties of epilayers grown over 6H-SiC substrates. We will develop a fast growth MOCVD technology and perform detailed material/substrate interaction studies to optimize growth conditions in order to achieve thick high quality material to obtain maximum RF output power along with lowest RF power degradation. The proposed technology would combine the advantages of thick GaN template with superior thermal properties of epilayers grown over 6H-SiC substrates. Our approach will be used to develop commercially viable thick GaN and AlGaN epitaxial wafer technology on semi-insulating 6H-SiC for manufacturing of reliable high microwave power transistors and amplifiers for new generation of radars and wireless communication systems.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Amir M. Dabiran
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:Novel P-Type Al(In)GaN Superlattice Structures for High-Performance Bipolar Transistors.
Abstract:For ultra-high power, high temperature electronics, III-N wide-bandgap materials offer substantial advantages over other semiconductor material systems. Remarkable power densities have been achieved in AlGaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for operation at high frequencies. Even higher power densities, with lower noise and better linearity, have been projected for AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The main issues preventing the realization of such high-performance HBTs are 1) the problem with the p-type doing of the base region and 2) the emitter to collector current leakage. We are proposing a new HBT design with a novel structure in the base layer, to solve the first problem, in conjunction with growth on substrates with low density of treading dislocations to address the second issue. We will design and fabricate these HBTs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for high-frequency operation at high temperatures and very high power densities (>10 W/mm). SVT Associates has already demonstrated high temperature (425 oC) operation of nitride---based heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The proposed new HBT design would eliminate some of the main problems in the high-power and high-frequency operation of these devices. These HBTs will offer high transistor linearity and low phase noise, inherent in bipolar designs, that are required for economically significant digital transmission applications. The chemically and thermally stable, high-power transistors would have numerous commercial applications in aerospace, automotive, geothermal/oil drilling, portable computation and digital communications industries.

TRISTAN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6185 Cornerstone Court East, Suite 106
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 550-2722
Dr. Tatiana Starr
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:Development of a resonant microwave technique for characterization of the electronic properties of wide bandgap semiconductors used for RF application
Abstract:Electronic properties of wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN), used for RF microwave/millimeter wave devices, are currently characterized at DC or low frequencies. We propose to develop a novel, non-destructive, non-contact microwave instrument and technique for the characterization of wide bandgap semiconductor substrates and epitaxial layers used in high frequency transistors and amplifiers. The goal of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of resonant cavity microwave techniques (both confocal Fabry-Perot resonator and near field resonant cavity) for the electromagnetic characterization of SiC substrates and GaN epilayers. The proof-of principle measurements will be performed on an optimized and modified 94 GHz Fabry-Perot resonator. Experimental studies will be combined with 3D electromagnetic simulations to enable quantitative interpretation of the measured physical parameters. To understand the microwave properties of wide bandgap semiconductors and identify the important loss mechanisms, we will cross compare high frequency EM properties of the studied materials with their low frequency and DC electronic properties, and correlate them with the wafer growth/processing parameters. Near field cavity designs will be optimized by numerical simulation. Phase I will result in a conceptual design of a non-contact microwave mapping test system in the X-band with a variable temperature platform (25 to 600C). Based on systematic studies of loss mechanisms in wide bandgap semiconductors at microwave frequencies, we will provide a feedback from the wafer/epilayer evaluation to the material/device manufacturers, which will be used in the optimization of the wafer, epi and device production processes. Successful implementation of the results and data obtained in Phase I and Phase II will help to improve the quality, long-term stability and reproducibility of GaN/SiC-based devices. It will be beneficial for the development of advanced processing technologies and for the establishment of novel characterization principles for the wide bandgap semiconductors, aimed at high frequency device applications. As a result of the Phase II effort, a standard technique and a prototype instrument for non-contact rapid EM characterization of wide bandgap semiconductors in the microwave frequency range will be developed. This instrument will be useful for the high frequency EM characterization of a wider range of materials.

VIATRONIX
40 Amherst Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-6924
Dr. Phil Lamarre
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:Novel GaN HBT for Advanced T/R Modules for X-band Radar Performance Enhancement
Abstract:This proposal addresses Topic MDA 03-034 under the heading "Gallium Nitride (GaN) Device Technology Enhancements Leading to Advanced Transmit/Receive (T/R) Modules for Radar Performance Enhancement " and describes a novel approach to the objective of developing an X-band High Power Amplifier (HPA) for Radar applications. This new amplifier is an innovative application of advanced materials to improve Radar and RF system capability and reliability. Our proposed technology will deliver fast, high-power solid state amplifiers using a Hetero-Junction Bipolar Transistor approach. Our unique, patent-pending approach will yield amplifiers of superior performance to existing technologies. Viatronix proposes development of a new technology for production of fast, high-power amplifier using a heterojunction bipolar transistor approach. Our unique, patent-pending GaN/AlN approach will yield amplifiers of comparable performance and price to existing technologies, but which will exhibit improved performance today's products.

WAVEBAND CORP.
375 Van Ness Ave, Suite 1105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 212-7808
Dr. Vladimir Litvinov
MDA 03-034       Selected for Award
Title:AIN-barrier Field Effect Transistor
Abstract:Mobile and space-borne platform applications require high power, compact, light-weight, efficient components. This is particularly true for high-power transistors. Existing technologies do not meet these stringent performance requirements. To solve this problem, WaveBand Corporation proposes to design, grow, characterize, and test high-power GaN-based metal insulator semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFET). High-power transistors are key to simplifying and improving the design and performance of amplifiers. These improvements are achieved by decreasing the number of devices (complexity and weight) that are needed to maintain the specifications (gain) for certain applications. WaveBand's Phase I project is also directly targeted at satisfying the MDA's requirements for high efficiency, GaN power amplifiers, for use in mobile and space-borne applications, particularly, for use in transceiver/receiver (T/R) modules for X-band ballistic missile defense radars. The key feature of the project is optimized growth technology, which will enable the optimal wide bandgap AlN barrier that forms the low-defect density interface and provides improved device performance, in terms of breakdown voltage, speed, power, power added efficiency, and temperature of operation. Phase II's goal is to fabricate, test, and optimize a high-power MISFET based on an AlN/GaN heterostructure. The availability of high electron mobility will bring the MISFET operations beyond the X-band frequency. WaveBand proposes to commercialize the results of the proposed project to meet the needs of both defense and commercial markets. Specifically, High Power Amplifiers (HPA) for X-band Transceiver/Receiver modules and Transmitters for Communication applications.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
135 S. Taylor Avenue
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Phil Gatt
MDA 03-035       Selected for Award
Title:High-Resolution Solid-State Range-Doppler Ladar
Abstract:CTI proposes to develop a novel range-Doppler imaging ladar based upon an efficient, compact, solid-state, 1 um, 25 Watt, ladar technology for Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicles (EKV). This technology will be capable of unresolved target detection and discrimination at ranges in excess of 300 km. The laser transmitter contains an efficient MOPA architecture, using just one active resonator to increase sensor structural integrity and a frequency offset-locked local oscillator to minimize receiver bandwidth requirements for high velocity engagements. The sensor employs an adaptive coherent array receiver, providing single-pixel diffraction-limited long-range performance. At shorter ranges, where single pixel SNR is large, the transmit beam divergence is increased, enabling additional receiver pixels for a wider field-of-view and precision angular error estimates. This approach, results in the most efficient use of the available laser power for a fixed waveform repetition frequency. A novel high-PRF transmitter waveform, optimized for range-Doppler imagery, has been designed. This waveform extends the waveform range ambiguity interval, beyond cueing target state estimator errors. Multiple-target interference attenuation (i.e., clutter rejection) is accomplished through combinations of pulse-interval modulation and discrete frequency switching. In Phase I CTI will conduct performance analysis trade studies to develop an optimal Phase II brassboard design and demonstrate the first stage of the laser transmitter. The sensor technologies developed here will have dual commercial applications. One key application is detection, characterization and tracking of unresolved space debris.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place Bl
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7892
Dr. Alfred Goldsmith
MDA 03-035       Selected for Award
Title:Incoherent Optical Radar for Simultaneous Range and Velocity Measurements
Abstract:The U.S. Missile Defense Agency is developing an exo-atmospheric interceptor based on a ground based midcourse defense. Once separated from its booster, about 140 miles above the earth, the exo-atmospheric kill vehicle (EKV) will use passive middle-wavelength infrared or long wavelength infrared sensors to acquire and track the target. These sensors, however, cannot supply range and line-of-sight velocity information; range resolved, Doppler laser radar (LADAR), or equivalent is, therefore required to provide three-dimensional imaging for final targeting. Because the EKV uses only its kinetic energy to destroy the incoming missile, its aim must be extremely precise. Therefore, to improve target detection, discrimination, and aimpoint selection, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a novel advanced active seeker based on determination of Range and Velocity by Incoherent Optical Radar (RAVIOR). POC's RAVIOR seeker will have the capability of using high-power, incoherent or quasi-coherent light sources (including but not limited to lasers) to simultaneously yield range and velocity data. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate a proof of concept system. In Phase II, POC will design, fabricate, and demonstrate a proof-of-concept laboratory prototype RAVIOR seeker. In Phase II, POC will develop an engineering prototype RAVIOR seeker and demonstrate its performance in a simulated flight environment. POC's RAVIOR seeker will open the door to the use of high power laser radar (LADAR)-like systems for other military branches, police, and commercial applications. For example, it could be incorporated into ground and air vehicles for collision avoidance. It would be especially useful at airports and runways, especially in areas of heavy traffic.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Kris Kosakowski
MDA 03-035       Selected for Award
Title:High Performance Optical Coatings for Advanced Seeker Systems
Abstract:Future advanced seeker systems for endo- and exo-atmospheric applications will utilize not only the passive and invisible infrared signature of ballistic threats but also LADAR based ranging imaging and discrimination information for improved identification, discrimination, and tracking. The present optical instruments for seekers utilize beryllium (Be) optics for lightweight IR performance. The integration of ranging and imaging LADAR and combined passive IR and visible imaging will require two critical changes to the optics in these applications: (1) the use of alternative optical materials to enable visible quality optical performance, and (2) high energy, low stress induced, low absorptive laser coatings with very high reflectance at the LADAR wavelength and additionally acceptable performance for IR and visible wave bands. The high reflectance coatings also need to be survivable to advanced nuclear environment, as well as be very durable to maintain performance over long term storage in a silo. SSGPO is currently working with Raytheon to develop a lightweight silicon carbide (SiC) based advanced seeker optical architecture, which incorporates LADAR, and visible and IR imaging channels with visible image quality. A SiC demonstration mirror is being fabricated as a pathfinder for this effort with bolt together capability. In this Phase I, SSGPO will develop a very low absorption reflective coating design and fabrication approach with optimized performance for the HEL line and visible and IR bands. Phase II will leverage the ongoing SiC mirror demonstration program with Raytheon to produce and test the developed coating on the ADLT SiC primary mirror. Applications for bolt together SiC passive/active systems with performance in the visible and IR include next generation seeker systems critical to missile defense (e.g., ADLT, CEKV, MKV), laser-based defense like the space-based laser (SBL), air-borne last (ABL), and advanced tactical systems using LADAR. Private sector applications include earth resource mapping, law enforcement, disaster relief, optical lithography, and other applications in which the improved situational awareness provided by combined active passive sensors is of value.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Dr. Holger Luther
MDA 03-036       Selected for Award
Title:Fast Steering Mirror Technologies for Active Exo-Atmospheric Seekers
Abstract:Developing architectures for EKV active seekers call for a number beam steering devices to perform a variety of functions and to be constrained within tight packaging constraints of the EKV vehicle. SSG proposes the incremental development of its Fast Steering Mirror (FSM) technologies to address these beam steering needs and to meet the anticipated requirements of several kHz BW and <10 millisecond settling times over a 2 degree FOR with a 20-30mm aperture while mitigating the challenging EKV environment. The current state of SSGs FSM technologies can nearly achieve these requirements. SSG recently developed a FSM for a Lasercomm application with 3.7 cm aperture capable of ,b0.57,a FOR, <1 microradian pointing repeatability and 2kHz BW. Further work in the key technologies of SSGs Optical Position Sensor (OPS) and Voice Coil Motors (VCM) to meet EKV active seekers is outlined in this proposal. SSG is working with Raytheon and Boeing SVS, the primary systems integrator and the active channel systems integrator for the Advanced Discriminating LADAR Technology (ADLT) program. The work described in this proposal complements SSGs FSM technology development goals and fits well with the anticipated ADLT requirements. Advances in Fast Steering Mirror (FSM) technologies are necessary for meeting the developing architectures of active seeker sensors in EKVs. Programs such as the Advanced Discriminating LADAR Technology (ADLT) program call for at least one and perhaps multiple FSM units of different aperture sizes and capabilities for each system. Other space-based missions have a need for similar beam steering capabilities. These include the large commercial potential of space Lasercomm where there are estimates of hundreds to thousands of network nodes. Other airborne and space based beam steering applications include fine tracking mechanisms in remote sensing and targeting systems as well as high energy laser delivery systems for NASA and DoD. However, as the technology matures and becomes less costly, these capabilities will also improve the performance of commercial ground based free-space optical communication systems. As an added opportunity to these commercial potentials, SSG anticipates that wave-front correction will be an added requirement for these applications and is developing a combined Deformable Mirror and Fast Steering Mirror (DFSM).

VOXTEL, INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 421-4389
Mr. James Gates
MDA 03-036       Selected for Award
Title: Multi-Modal LWIR/VLWIR Focal Plane Array
Abstract:We propose to optimize the design of a highly versatile active/passive multi-color focal plane array (FPA). The device integrates, within a single pixel, both avalanche photodiode (APD) and two-color LWIR/VLWIR sensing capabilities. The design is based on well proven HgCdTe heterostructure techniques and manufacturing methods. In Phase I, we will investigate both two-terminal and three-terminal, back-to-back photodiode configurations for sequential-simultaneous active/passive dual-band infrared imaging. Using advanced TCAD tools, we will optimize the design of the active/passive, multi-wavelength infrared HgCdTe semiconductor image sensor to enable high-performance, high-pixel-density focal plane arrays to be manufactured, with high yields, and in a cost effective manner. By using common optics, electronics, and cryo-cooling, monolithically integrating a 3D LADAR imager with a two-color IR imager, in a single focal plane array, offers enhanced target acquisition, discrimination, and aimpoint selection, while reducing EKV mass, volume, and power budgets. The market for non-defense based IR photo-detectors is expected to grow rapidly over the next 10 years. The characteristics that make multi-color IR photo-detectors suitable for defense applications also benefit many industrial and scientific applications. Several applications include: environmental monitoring, ladar, chem./bio. hazard detection, IR spectroscopic applications in medicine and science, dual band tomographic non-destructive test, remote sensing, and thermography.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Barry Ambrose
MDA 03-037       Selected for Award
Title:Robust Adaptiive Coder for Optimizing Error Detection/Correction
Abstract:MDA requires optimized error detection/correction methods that permit highly-robust communication in nuclear or jamming environments. In this proposal, Broadata Communication Inc (BCI) proposes a unique Adaptive Trellis/Turbo Coding with 8-DPSK (Differential Phase Shift Keying), or ATT-D scheme that will significantly outperform the traditional coding schemes in a severe fading channel scheme. The ATT-D is a combined coding and modulation technique that uses signal-set expansion to provide redundancy for coding. The ATT-D can achieve significant coding gain without sacrificing data rate or requiring more bandwidth. To increase the bit error rate performance while maintaining the same bandwidth requirement, the ATT-D further uses adaptive linear prediction. Using the recursive least-square algorithm, the prediction coefficient can be adapted to changing channel condition. By combining the Trellis coding scheme with the Turbo coder, the proposed ATT-D system will have a robust performance in both low SNR (signal to noise ratio) and high fading channels. The superior performance of this system has been demonstrated with preliminary simulation results. A software demonstration will be fully conducted and the results will be demonstrated upon the completion of the Phase I project to show the feasibility and potential of the proposed ATT-D for MDA applications. In addition to MDA's In-Flight Interceptor Communications System (IFICS) application , this technology is also applicable for many military, real-time, sensor data collection/processing operations and mission critical military/government communication network applications. The proposed technology is also applicable to any commercial network applications that can benefit from robust mission critical multimedia networks. Potential applications include, but are not limited to, robust commercial airline communications, collaborative security networks, robust interactive wireless network operations, and remote crisis management networks.

EFFICIENT CHANNEL CODING
600 Safeguard Plaza, Suite 100
Brookyln Hts, OH 44131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 635-1610
Dr. William Thesling
MDA 03-037       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced In-Flight Interceptor Communications System (IFICS) Error Detection/Correction
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR to optimize Efficient Channel Coding's (ECC's) advanced and flexible turbo code Forward Error Correction (FEC) solutions to improve the robustness of the In-Flight Interceptor Communications System (IFICS) link performance. This includes the evaluation of a range of turbo code options in the fading channel environments as produced by nuclear weapons effects in the ionosphere. It also includes the customization of ECC's turbo code implementation technology that is suitable for receiver implementation in a Ground Based Interceptor (GBI). Additionally, the turbo codes developed under this SBIR will also find applications in commercial satellite-based and terrestrial communications systems. ECC's turbo codes are advanced and flexible in the sense that the algorithms that are employed for decoding have been designed and implemented to performance within 1 dB of the theoretical limit in reasonable complexity hardware across a range of applications. This allows ECC to customize the turbo code to span from very low data rates to Gbps rates with implementations ranging from software to full-custom semiconductors. As a recognized leader in turbo coding technology and products, Efficient Channel Coding (ECC) has been developing turbo code hardware and software for government and commercial applications since 1996. Our expertise includes selecting the appropriate turbo code approach for the specific type of communications channel from both the hardware and performance. ECC has pioneered the use of turbo codes in satellite communications and has applied turbo codes to approximately 20 different commercial and government communications systems. Turbo Code solutions that are suitable for the IFICS system can be applied to additional markets where low power consumption, small footprints, and excellent performance in fading channels are important. As such, ECC feels that the work completed as part of this SBIR has the potential to open up additional markets, much in the same way that our original implementation turbo codes did. General market areas include consumer satellite communications, corporate satellite communications, government communications, and commercial broadband terrestrial communications.

PETANETWORKS
249 Church Street, # 2
New York, NY 10013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(917) 705-2049
Dr. Vijitha Weerackody
MDA 03-037       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced In-Flight Interceptor Communications System (IFICS) Error Detection/Correction
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project addresses the design of an advanced channel error correction and detection scheme for the In-Flight Interceptor Communication System (IFICS). This proposal improves the performance of the current state-of-the-art system. Extensive research work is currently carried out in the areas of iterative channel coding schemes such as turbo coding and low-density parity-check (LDPC) coding. Recent results show performance gains obtained from these codes to be very close to the optimum limits. In this proposal both turbo codes and LDPC codes are employed in the IFICS link. Specifically, superorthogonal turbo codes which are well-suited for low-rate channel codes and LDPC codes suitable for low-rates are examined. Simulation results are used to determine the optimized codes for the IFICS link in Rayleigh and Rician fading channels. Computer simulations will be given to demonstrate the gains obtained from these proposed codes over the current state-of-the-art system. This research will be useful in low data rate communication systems such as sensor communication networks and telemetry applications.

XENOTRAN LLC
898 Airport Park Road, Suite 205
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 761-2445
Dr. Kevin J Page
MDA 03-037       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced In-Flight Interceptor Communications System (IFICS) Error Detection/Correction
Abstract:Xenotran proposes to develop a forward error correction (FEC) device for use in Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems for ensuring survivable and robust communications between the Battle Management, Command, Control, and Communications (BM/C3) elements and an Exo-Atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) during flight. Communications in this channel is known to be subject to Rayleigh and Ricean fading, intentional jamming and the communications deterring effects of nuclear detonations. Several new algorithms based upon iterative decoding have arisen in recent years that closely approach the Shannon limit for communications capacity and allow unparalleled FEC ability in these adverse channels. Yet, practical implementations of these algorithms are lacking. Xenotran anticipates that development of advanced FEC technologies for heavily faded environments will have large commercial applicability both in military space communications and in commercial Terrestrial 3G systems.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 03-038       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Signal/Data Processing Algorithms
Abstract:The proposed SBIR project will demonstrate the feasibility of using ground- based or sea-based radars to detect, track, and discriminate reentry vehicles from decoys, penetration aids, and other clutter. MARK Resources has developed a radar signal processing technology that is broadly applicable to these tasks. This technology has the potential to perform more complete, accurate, and rapid measurements than have been made previously, leading to superior discrimination performance by these radars, which will significantly reduce the demands on terminal missile sensors. The proposed SBIR project will demonstrate that this potential can be reached. Lockheed Martin has joined us in this project, to effectively transition the technology into existing and planned missile defense systems. Although detecting, tracking, and discriminating missile targets is primarily a military application, the basic signal processing technology is applicable in all situations where details about man-made objects are to be obtained remoately by radar, and for discrimination of one type of scatterer from another.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
R.K.Mehra/B.Ravichandran
MDA 03-038       Selected for Award
Title:Unified Bayesian Detection and Tracking in Hostile Radar Environments
Abstract:Scientific Systems Company, Inc. (SSCI) and its subcontractor Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems (LMTS) propose to develop and demonstrate a concept-feasibility algorithm capable of optimally detecting and tracking air and TBM targets in the presence of a hostile radar sensing environment such as background clutter, jamming, and Electronic Counter-Measures (ECM). We propose to do this by using a novel generalized recursive Bayes nonlinear filter in which single-target detection has been fully, systematically, and rigorously unified with single-target tracking; and in which real-time algorithmic implementation is accomplished using state-of-the-art particle-systems filtering. The proposed work is partially based on basic research in multisensor-multitarget data fusion, detection, tracking, and identification conducted by LMTS and funded over the last six years by the U.S. Army Research Office. This work will also be greatly facilitated by existing development in nonlinear filtering and joint detection, tracking and discrimination being conducted by SSCI and LMTS for agencies such as the Missile Defense Agency and the Air Force Research Laboratory under four different R&D contracts. The major objectives of Phase I will be to: (1) provide a sound Bayesian nonlinear filtering paradigm for the general investigation of joint detection and tracking in hostile sensing environments; (2) develop new Bayes-filter concept-feasibility algorithms which account for target non-existence, clutter, jamming, ECM, etc.; (3) perform simulation, analysis, and limited-complexity proof-of-concept demonstrations using simulated radar data; (4) select one or more of these candidates for further implementation in a potential Phase II effort; and (5) document the results in a Final Report. Phase II will emphasize the development of more sophisticated prototype versions of the integrated data fusion and sensor resource management algorithms developed in Phase I. Commercial applications of the approach will also be investigated by SSCI and LMTS during Phase I and fully developed during Phase II. Detection and tracking are some of the key technologies for global surveillance, precision strike, air superiority and defense, which are three of the seven science and technology thrust areas identified by the Director of Defense Research and Engineering. The current limitations are due to poor understanding of how to model, fuse, and filter data from multiple sources. The proposed R&D addresses all of these problems.

ADVANCED DEVICE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
8 Raymond Ave, Suite #4
Salem, NH 03079
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 894-1402
Dr. Peter J. Kannam
MDA 03-039       Selected for Award
Title:Multi-spectral VLWIR Focal Plane Arrays for EKV Seekers
Abstract:We propose to develop Multi-Spectral VLWIR Focal Plane Arrays for Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) Seekers. The innovative features are: 1) Detector structures are grown on Type II Strained Layer Superlattices (SLS) material in a Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) reactor by using Migration Enhanced Epitaxial Technique. 2) Detailed analysis is conducted by using 8- band k.p. model to design SLS structures for Very-Long Wavelength (24um) range. 3) Co-Located SLS Structures are grown for VLWIR1 (10-16um) and VLWIR2 (16-24um) waveband ranges with Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/InAs SLS layers. 4) The readout circuitry and the interconnect scheme are designed to detect the two waveband signals in a simultaneous fashion during each frame. 5) 320 x 256 element Dual Band Detector array is integrated with high speed and low noise ROIC arrays. 6) The ROIC device is designed to operate at 77K, since the SLS technology is capable of producing VLWIR detectors to operate at a comparatively higher operating temperature of 77K. Si-based VLWIR focal plane array, on the other hand, requires extra design features to cool the detector array and to operate the ROIC array at very low temperature level of 20K with the associated cost and design complexities. 7) SLS structures are grown on GaSb substrate and the detectors are fabricated with Silicon-Nitride passivation. These structures are expected to produce higher radiation-hardened devices as compared HgCdTe wafers grown on CdZnTe substrate and fabricated with Silicon Diode passivation. High Performance Al(x)Ga(1-x)Sb/InAs detectors were already fabricated and tested for SWIR(1-3um) waveband. The results showed: Detectivity (cm-Hz (1/2)/W) = 1E12 at 77K, 1.4E11 at 250K, 2E10 at 300K and quantum efficiency (n) = 72% at 300K. During Phase 1, the growth of Al(x)Ga(1-x)Sb/GaSb SLS structures will be optimized and wafers will be grown for VLWIR1 (10-16um) and VLWIR2 (16-24um) wavebands and detector fabrication will be initiated. Also during Phase 1, methods to improve the speed and lower the noise of the ROIC will be investigated. During a potential Phase 2, 4 x 4 element Co-Located Dual Band Detector Arrays will be fabricated and integrated with high speed, low noise ROICs. Also during Phase 2, 320 x 256 element VLWIR focal Plane Arrays will be designed. During a potential Phase 3, IR Camera will be designed and built with Dual Band VLWIR focal plane arrays to operate at 77K temperature levels. ADT is presently working on a Phase 1 SBIR Contract for MDA entitled "Co-located Dual Band (VLWIR1/VLWIR2) Focal Plane Arrays for Space Applications". Under the on-going project, Co-located Dual Band Detector Arrays are being developed on SLS material to cover VLWR1 (10-16 um) and VLWIR2 (16-24 um) wavebands. Under the proposed project, Dual VLWIR detector arrays will be integrated with high speed, low noise ROICs. The proposed approaches will give state-of-the-art Multi-color VLWIR detectors for advanced missile seekers High performance, Multi-spectral VLWIR focal plane arrays on low cost, large area substrates is a basic requirement for several programs in the commercial and military sectors. The growth of SLS structures on GaSb substrates allows the development of FPAs with mature fabrication methods and uniform material properties. The large size of the substrate will allow the development of very large format focal plane arrays. The military applications include: 1) EKV missile seekers, 2) airborne remote sensing 3) the combined threat warning and reconnaissance applications, 4) target discrimination, 5) counter-measure rejection and 6) clutter rejection. The commercial applications include: 1) medical imaging 2) night vision equipment for law enforcement agencies and for navigation, 3) environmental monitoring and 4) process control for manufacturing.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. Honnavalli R Vydyanath
MDA 03-039       Selected for Award
Title:Dual Wave Band VLWIR HgCdTe Focal Plane Array Technology
Abstract:In Phase I, we plan to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach to develop a dual wave band VLWIR HgCdTe focal plane array technology via demonstration of dual color VLWIR detectors with minimal crosstalk and high performance ion both the VLWIR colors Applications in geophysics, geology, and remote/environmental IR sensing by NASA and civil airspace users.

EPIR, LTD.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Ms. Hye Son Jung
MDA 03-039       Selected for Award
Title:Multi-color VLWIR Focal Plane Array
Abstract:Infrared focal plane arrays that are capable of simultaneously detecting more than one wavelength are critical for improved clutter rejection, target identification, and range. Future infrared systems applications would greatly benefit from multi-color sensors by replacing the current DoD technology that uses separate focal plane arrays with different cutoff wavelengths. We propose to design and develop a multi-color infrared detector array technology based on HgTe/CdTe superlattices grown by molecular beam technology. Such superlattices offer the flexibility to produce detectors with various combinations of wavelength sensitivity, for example MWIR-LWIR, LWIR-VLWIR or VLWIR1-VLWIR2. The proposed technology overcomes the compositional uniformity problems and excessive dark currents of detectors that employ VLWIR mercury cadmium telluride alloy material. If this project proves to be successful, it will enable the commercialization of multi-color FPAs based on heterostructure HgTe/CdTe superlattices for various space-based earth and atmospheric condition imaging, environmental monitoring and natural resource assessment and management applications.

FORUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1 Serina Drive
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 720-1181
Dr. Chang H. Qiu
MDA 03-039       Selected for Award
Title:Multi-color VLWIR Focal Plane Array
Abstract:There is a need for multicolor far infrared detection with increased operating temperatures, resolution, and dynamic range. We are proposing to develop a dual band infrared detector based on transfer-doped multi-quantum wells made of III-V nitride semiconductors. During Phase I, the proposed detector will be designed and fabricated. Dual band far infrared absorption will be demonstrated at low temperatures. In Phase II, the design and the growth conditions will be optimized and prototype multicolor very long wavelength infrared focal plane array will be built. The responsivity in far infrared wavelengths, resolution, dynamic range, and spatial uniformity will be evaluated. Successful completion of the project may provide low-cost sensitive VLWIR focal plane array operating at higher temperatures than prior art. Infrared imaging and space surveillance; Public safety and security; Medical equipment, Search and Rescue.

MAUNA KEA INFRARED, LLC
159 Kalanikoa St. Suite 103
Hilo, HI 96720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 933-1814
Mr. Douglas W Toomey
MDA 03-039       Selected for Award
Title:Multi-color VLWIR Focal Plane Array
Abstract:The Spectral Signature Imager(SSI) described in this proposal is a broadband LWIR or VLWIR imager with a quickly changable programmable filter that functions as a multi-sensor seeker for a variety of applications. It is coupled with a high speed processor capable of realtime optimization of sensor parameters to maximize detection sensitivity. The programmable filter camera can simplify seeker design while adding significant improvements in detection and discrimination of targets. This design is suitable for missle seekers and astronomy applications.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Peter Chow
MDA 03-039       Selected for Award
Title:Dual Wavelength Infrared Detector for VLWIR Applications
Abstract:High performance very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) detectors play a critical role in the early detection of long range missiles. However, a single spectral wavelength (color) detector may be inadequate due to target spectral complexity and background interference. A multi-spectral focal plane array could provide important information that enhances target tracking and discrimination ability of anti-missile systems. The current technologies for detection in this wavelength regime have serious material performance issues or require cyrocoolers that are bulky with limited lifetimes. InAs/GaInSb type II superlattices show great promise as an alternative technology for Very Long Wavelength Infrared (VLWIR) detectors. They have higher operating temperatures and greater detectivity than current technologies. We plan to investigate the development of a dual-color focal plane array (FPA) for detection in the > 15 mm range. The Phase I work will lead to better understanding of the material growth and detector performance. This material system has detection capability from 2-30 um. Within the infrared range various products can be developed including thermal and medical imaging, and pollution monitoring.Dual-color detectors offer greater discrimination.

ATEC, INC.
387 Technology Drive
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 403-1744
Dr. John Lawler
MDA 03-040       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Two-Phase Heat Spreader For X-Band T/R Modules
Abstract:We propose to develop a T/R module housing that incorporates two-phase thin-film evaporators adjacent to each T/R module in order to increase greatly the lateral spreading within the housing. Our unique thin-film evaporators remove large amounts of heat via ultra thin-film evaporation of a working fluid. After evaporation, the fluid's vapors pass through a semi-permeable membrane and condense on a surface in contact with the T/R module board. The lower thermal resistance of our T/R module housing will reduce the operating temperatures of future higher-power MMIC's, which will increase the reliability of the radar system. Our proposed design has many advantages. The cooling mechanism is ideal for the limited space available inside a T/R module housing. The thin-film evaporators will be able to remove heat at rates of up to 200 W/cm2, which is comparable to spray cooling methods but with lower power and space requirements and fewer ancillary components. Our thin-film evaporators incorporated into the T/R module housing will reduce the thermal gradient across the housing and allow the operation of the radar system at high power densities and frequencies. Similar active cooling packaging systems could be designed for other high-heat flux electronic devices, such as solid-state lasers, electronic power modules, computer network servers, and computer workstations with multiple processors. ATEC is currently working on developing a potentially high volume electronic cooling product utilizing our thin-film evaporator technology.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2134
Mr. Merrill Wilson
MDA 03-040       Selected for Award
Title:Development of a SiC Micro-Evaporator for Evaporative Cooling of GaN Power Amplifiers
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase 1 project will develop novel devices capable of actively cooling high power electronics using ceramic micro-channel evaporatos. Microelectronics with demanding thermal management characteristics are used predominantly as microprocessors and power electronics (HDTV modules, higher power logic and power transmit/receive). The number of microprocessors sold each year now exceeds a billion. These novel cooling devices can be integrated with semiconductor device manufacturers and do multi-cooling tasks. The potential market size exceeds ten million units per month in the US. The miniaturization of active cooling systems allows for high power electronics to be cooled in an efficient manner and minimize thermal gradients within the electronic devices. These ceramic (silicon carbide) materials have been proven to be thermally and mechanically compatible with integrated circuits. Through this Phase 1 effort, micro-coolers will be developed that increase the gas, fluid and heat transport within the system; yielding higher cooling rates. The research will examine and optimize, through fabrication and characterization, a micro-channel based evaporator capable of cooling high power GaN based power amplifiers. The advancement of electronics has progressed to the point where heat dissipation is becoming the limiting factor in design. By utilizing these novel micro-coolers, high power electronics (such as power amplifiers, communication electronics and computing electronics), performance can be increased and new technologies explored. Additionally, where space is a premium as in portable electronics found in transmit and receive modules, notebook computers and cell phones, more efficient cooling leads to smaller packages and more powerful electronics.

IJ RESEARCH, INC.
1965 Blair Avenue
Santa Ana, CA 92705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 253-8522
Dr. Rick Yoon
MDA 03-040       Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Management of GaN Based Power Amplifiers for X-Band Radars (XBR)
Abstract:Advancements in high heat flux thermal management technology and its successful integration into future GaN-based microwave amplifiers are imperative to meet the long-term requirements of future radar systems. The GaN-based devices will operate with a high heat flux up to 1000W/cm2. However, the currently available technology is limited to around 200 W/cm2. In this project, IJ Research proposes a novel hybrid double side cooling (HDSC) technique. It is based on a unique integration of an innovative microchannel and microjet design along with the use of high thermal conductivity materials and a high latent heat coolant. We also will demonstrate our propriety 3-dimneison network microchannel cooling (3DNMC) and microjet cooling, and compare with this new proposed concept. These thermal management approaches will be able to offer a heat flux capacity of more than 1 kw/cm2 with a junction temperature increase less than 20C, a heat-removal capacity far better than the market-available product. They are also cost-effective and lightweight. This new approach will provide an extremely efficient heat dissipation method, significantly enhancing heat-flux capability to more than 1,000 W /cm2. It is also a low-cost, compact, flexible thermal management solution. Its applications include high power amplifier, advanced radar, power module and motor-control for power conditioning electronics, various power system and hybrid electric drive. Its applications also include laser diodes and solid-state lasers, etc. The potential benefits are not only for the Navy, but also for other DoD agencies and commercial sectors.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P. Scaringe
MDA 03-040       Selected for Award
Title:Demonstration of a High Thermal Conductivity Air Cooled Heat Sink using Carbon Nanotube Composite
Abstract:This proposal will demonstrate a composite material containing aligned carbon nanotubes with thermal conductivity far in excess of traditional copper or aluminum. A unique process for fabricating the aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) into to a very highly loaded CNT porous composite will be demonstrated in Phase I. Limited thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer experiments will be performed to demonstrate the improvements. The aligned Carbon Nanotube Composite (CNC) will be fabricated into an air-cooled heat sink and demonstrated. In addition to the potential for a thermal conductivity that approaches graphite (6600 W/mK, compared to 390 W/mK for copper), the CNC heat sink is ideal for direct chemical bonding to solid-state electronic devices, thereby eliminating interfacial thermal resistance. This extremely high thermal conductivity material is ideal as a heat-spreading device, which can ultimately be fabricated into air-cooled heat sinks and chemically bonded directly to GaN components as well as other high energy density electronics. Phase I will demonstrate a high thermal conductivity composite heat sink composed of aligned carbon nanotubes with enhanced thermal conductivity, enhanced convective heat transfer, and improved interface thermal conductance. Phase I will include manufacturing techniques, design specifications, experimental data and cost analysis. This effort will experimentally demonstrate the performance of a thermally conductive material that can be fabricated into air cooled heat sinks and related thermal devices to provide a heat flux capability that far exceeds traditional copper or aluminum materials. The proposed material would be applicable to all types of air-cooled heat sinks. In addition to the MDA applications, other potential applications include commercial or military electronics cooling (high-power electronics, supercomputers, electronic switchgear, and avionics). Mainstream has performed a commercialization study and the commercial potential is tremendous. A commercialization partner has been secured as well as Phase II matching funds.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 03-040       Selected for Award
Title:Super High Thermal Conductivity CTE Matched GaN and SiC Power Amplifier Packaging: Hybridized Graphite Fiber Reinforced Al and Cu Alloys
Abstract:An order of magnitude increase in heat flux of multi-die passive heat sink materials is proposed. High performance graphite fiber reinforced aluminum and copper alloys are precisely CTE matched to diverse substrates such as CVD diamond, SiC, Si, GaN, GaAs, alumina and beryllia, by varying the volume loading of planar-isotropic graphite fiber preforms prior to infiltration with molten matrix alloy. By strategically locating oriented thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG) inserts within the preform, through-plane conductivity is increased more than a factor ten (1300 W/mK). In-plane conductivity to the system sink is increased by a factor of >5 to 1100 W/mK while maintaining CTE matching to the die or substrate. In a second approach, an array of highly conductive K1100 graphite fibers formed into stiff wires are inserted into a planar-isotropic graphite preform below the die mounting location prior to metal infiltration. A small volume fraction of K-1100 "Z" inserted wires will increase the through-plane conductivity to ~400 W/mK in Cu matrix systems. In this option, "Z" conductivity is enhanced while CTE matching is maintained. Since reinforcement is selectively applied only to die-mount locations, heat transport is increased by a factor of two while additional materials costs are minimal. Expensive active thermal management systems are eliminated in advanced radar systems. A 10 fold increase in heat transport capacity increases the possible number of dies in a package by a factor of 10. This translates to a tenfold decrease in cost. Current troubled designs with hot spots can be cured by selective application of option B. This technology enables WBG materials insertion into advanced radar systems. Lightweight aluminum versions of the hybridized solutions will enable lower launch weights and lower system weights in airborne or lighter-than-air-borne applications.

MEZZO SYSTEMS
LBTC, Rm D-104, South Stadium Dr.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 334-6394
Mr. Andrew B. McCandless
MDA 03-040       Selected for Award
Title:Micro-jet Impingement Boiling Array
Abstract:This is a proposal for developing a novel boiling system to remove heat fluxes of up to 1kW/cm2, using an array of impinging micro-jets. The use of an array of micro-jets with diameters in the range of 200-500 microns, allows for removal of large heat fluxes at coolant flow rates, which can be up to one order of magnitude less than the coolant requirement for conventional-size (diameter of order of 2-5 mm.) impinging jets. Furthermore, each jet is configured to act independently of neighboring jets. Thus, the array size can be made arbitrarily large to match the size of the target area. Very high heat fluxes are generated in applications such as air- and space- based lasers, power generation systems, and high power T/R modules. These heat fluxes must be removed while maintaining the maximum temperature of cooled devices below a critical value. This, in turn, translates to a maximum temperature at the device/heat sink interface. In boiling systems, the temperature at this interface can be controlled by the saturation temperature of the coolant, which can be varied over a wide range through proper selection of the coolant type as well as the operating pressure of the system. Once developed, MIBA will provide low weight, low cost, compact heat exchangers with extremely high heat removal rate per weight and volume. We believe that MIBA will find applications in a wide range of technologies in both the military and commercial sectors such as electronic/photonic cooling and aerospace. Innovations in high-powered electronics/optics result in ever increasing demands on the cooling system. These demands require higher power densities, higher frequencies, increased functionality, improved reliability, lower cost, and are pulled by user demand for higher power rating. The MJCA is able to reverse fit into many existing systems with little modification and will provide the system increased functionality, reduced cost, and improved reliability. In addition to the radar application targeted under this proposal the technology has applications in turbines, mechanical seals, hybrid electric vehicles, electric actuator drives, radar systems, and direct energy weapon/ high power lasers.

MICROWAVE BONDING INSTRUMENTS
2400 N. Lincoln Ave.
Altadena, CA 91001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 296-6482
Dr. Nasser Budraa
MDA 03-040       Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Management of GaN Based Power Amplifiers for X-Band Radars (XBR)
Abstract:Based on the gallium (GaN) devices provided from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and from CREE, Inc., the Phase I objective of this proposal is to design and prototype and (for Phase II) implement die-level thermal management solutions readily adaptable to MDA X-Band radar electronics. This effort will be targeted at dissipating the high thermal loads generated by GaN-based power amplifiers for transmit/receive modules. Microwave Bonding Instruments (MBI) will study and verify the performance of its "direct heat dissipation" innovation with the GaN devices gathered from its sources. MBI is presenting a "direct heat dissipation" design that can be attached at the die level using our proprietary localized heating and bonding process. The two innovations that MBI is introducing are: (1) A method for direct attachment of a silicon carbide (SiC) heatsink to the backside of a GaN power device, usually on a SiC substrate. SiC has the best thermal conductivity, when compared to GaAs, Si, GaN, and AlN. Thermal expansion matching is optimum. MBI is bonding two identical materials, a SiC substrate to a SiC heatsink; with extremely thin film of refractory metal. (2) Flip-chip attachment via MBI's thin-film, metal bonding technique. MBI bonding will have excellent properties for both the mechanical strength and electrical signaling consideration. Depending on the MDA needs, both solutions can be utilized independently or combined to achieve the best result. Microwave Bonding Instruments, Inc., was founded to commercialize microwave wafer bonding technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, California). Our bonding service is listed on the MEMS Exchange, a B2B network for the IC and MEMS research fabrication community. In addition, we have provided prototype-bonding services for more than a half dozen commercial customers ranging from IC, MEMS, and optical applications. MBI is under contract to deliver bonding instruments to university research laboratories. MBI's entry strategy for entry into the high temperature GaN power amplifiers market is through existing relationships with IC, MEMS and optical R&D projects. In 2002, GaN market share is merely 4% of all the compound semiconductor market, but it is growing with the same path as the overall market at roughly 10 to 20% yearly. GaN devices are predicted to have a big impact in the wide areas of traffic control, large area displays, automotive, medicine, illumination, mass data storage, and wireless communications. Among these industries, MBI intends to collaborate with major domestic U.S. GaN components makers, such as Agilent, CREE, Emcore, HRL Laboratories, and Xerox for future Phase II and Phase III projects. And, industry analysts estimate that the market for high-temperature-tolerant electronics will reach $15 billion in the next couple of years. Currently, though, the market is quite a bit smaller (about $1 billion) because of component scarcity, component cost, the lack of semiconductor fabrication facilities capable of producing these devices, and immature packaging and material technology. All these point out that the market for high temperature GaN power modules is at its infancy with a tremendous upside; microwave bonding will be focusing on becoming one of the primary high power modules providers to the military as well as to the commercial industry after phase II efforts.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Xuhong Hu
MDA 03-041       Selected for Award
Title:Solving Reliability and Stability Problems for AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors using BCB Passivation Technology
Abstract:We propose to develop a new technology to AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors (HFET) using benzocyclobutene (BCB) surface passivation process to improve microwave power and power added efficiency for the development of reliable and stable high-power AlGaN/GaN HFET microwave amplifiers. We will use this proprietary technology of the GaN-based BCB passivation for the fabrication of a more reliable and stable AlGaN/GaN HFETs. Similar to photoresist process, the BCB pattern can be well controlled in the device fabrication. Comparing with conventional passivation, the BCB passivation technology has advantages of simple manufacturing process, low dielectric constant, no plasma-induced surface damage and no surface oxidization problem. Our approach will help to increase the power levels, and solve reliability and stability problems for GaN-based transistors, which is a key for the Transmit/Receive (T/R) module.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Xuhong Hu
MDA 03-041       Selected for Award
Title:Trap Engineering Technology for High-Reliability AlInGaN-based HFETs
Abstract:The goal of this program is to develop commercially viable epitaxial wafer technology for manufacturing of reliable high microwave power transistors and amplifiers for new generation of Transmit/Receive modules using trap engineering technology. The new generation of III-Nitride HFETs will be less prone to current collapse and stability degradation. Deep traps are responsible for the current collapse and affect long-term stability of GaN devices. However, the quantitative understanding of the role of traps in III-nitrides is limited. The proposed combined approach of technology CAD (TCAD) simulations and transistor testing will enable us to develop GaN device technology virtually immune to trap induced degradation. Our approach will be used to develop quaternary AlInGaN-based epitaxial wafer manufacturing technology for fabrication of reliable high RF power transistors, which is a key for the Transmit/Receive (T/R) module.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
12214 Plum Orchard Dr
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 572-7834
Dr. Vladimir Dmitriev
MDA 03-041       Selected for Award
Title:Novel growth and processing techniques for production of stable, reliable, high-performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to develop epitaxial growth technology and device processing technology for GaN-based HEMTs with stable and reproducible operations. TDI recently demonstrated the first-ever nitride HEMT grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Due to intrinsic advantages of HVPE technology, these results open an opportunity to develop nitride high-power high-frequency devices with stable and reliable operations. We also propose to apply novel processing technology to improve nitride HEMT operations. Combining these growth and processing technologies provides an innovate approach for fabrication of reliable devices for stable operation at 8-12 GHz. For the DoD and entire US military, commercialization of nitride based HEMTs grown by HVPE with novel passivation films will allow development of stable and reliable components designed for X-band operation based on high-performance nitride HEMT devices with the reliability of current GaAs technology. High performance nitride HEMT devices will find a host of applications in civilian electronics for wireless communications.

AETION TECHNOLOGIES LLC
1275 Kinnear Road
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 975-0341
Dr. John Josephson
MDA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Evidential Reasoning Based Data Fusion for Improved Acquisition, Tracking and Discrimination
Abstract:To develop algorithms, software, and/or hardware necessary to collect, process, and fuse information from multiple sensors based on multiple platforms (XBR, SBIRS, EKV, UEWR) in real time in order to improve acquisition, tracking and discrimination of threat objects in a cluttered environment, advanced sensor fusion techniques will be investigated. Automated abductive inference (best-explanation reasoning) will be used to create a changing, "best interpretation" representation of the situation from incoming data. Modeling and simulation will be used by the abductive inference software for automatic generation of predictions from hypotheses, enabling the continual generation of predictions to support: hypothesis evaluation, sensor tasking, planning, and detection of anomalies that may be valuable indications of deception, modeling errors, or sensor failure. Abductive inference will work tightly with predictive inference to provide a reliable, self-correcting representation of the situation, based on current evidence, using domain knowledge encoded as causal-model fragments. Aetion will work with Teledyne Brown Engineering to agree upon a specific test which will begin the process of creating capabilities beyond anything currently available. During phase I we will work on models to use them to solve that problem. Aetion's technology will enable people to make better decisions, build more useable models and use computers to explain data. People will have a greater understanding of the range of alternatives and the value tradeoffs. Potential commercial applications include: rapid route re-planning and sensor tasking for the Air Force and Navy; other military planning, re-planning and simulation; civilian planning, re-planning and simulation; military and civilian engineering design; and infrastructure vulnerability analysis (anti-terrorism, Homeland Defense, targeting).

EAST WEST ENTERPRISES, INC.
524 JORDAN LANE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4782
Mr. Paul Cox
MDA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Bayesian Network of Support Vector Machines for Robust Threat Identification
Abstract:For any real world pattern classification system (detection, identification, and tracking), there is an inherent problem of optimizing the algorithm's performance for a wide range of scenarios. This is due to a large dynamic range of variables (solar loading, solar reflectance, atmospherics, background, target condition, countermeasures) which will impact the target's feature set. The variability of the feature set is very complex and will depend on time of day, local environmental conditions, previous weather conditions, signature reduction techniques to name a few. East West Enterprises Inc. proposes a novel approach for an adaptive fusion/discrimination algorithm architecture which integrates Bayesian Networks and Support Vector Machines (SVM). SVMs have been used for a variety of applications including detection, classification/recognition/identification, regression and density estimation. In many applications, the SVM has been shown to have superior performance over classical statistical and neural network algorithms. The structure of the SVMs incorporates the training sample size, number of features, and desired performance in order to give optimal generalization performance. A fusion architecture is proposed based on integrating a network of SVM classifiers a Bayesian Network to allow for the adaptive processing/fusion of data from multiple sensors. High fidelity fusion algorithms. These will provide great benefit to military and commercial applications involving target detection, identification, tarcking and discrimination. Potential benefits include MDA/GMD/THAAD, military reconnaisance, surveillance and site monitoring. Commercial applications include homeland defense, medical, and industrial inspection

INNOVATIVE RESEARCH, IDEAS, & SERVICES CORP.
1350 Highland Dr. Suite E
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 677-3604
Mr. Steve Havens
MDA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Data Fusion for Improved Acquisition, Tracking and Discrimination
Abstract:This proposal will suggest using an experimental Sensor Model. This model is currently being developed under an Air Force Phase II Fastrack SBIR effort sponsored by NIMA for imagery systems. The sensor model developed will theoretically characterize every type of sensor, not just imagery sensors. By researching possible implementation of the sensor model with other applications we can ensure that this technology will be directly applicable. This proposal suggests researching the applicability of the sensor model to solve sensor fusion and interoperability problems. We are confident this technology will enhance the interoperability, timelessness, accuracy, and fusion of multi-sensor data. This sensor model will enable a common way of characterizing any sensor and a means to be able to precisely fuse of sensor data. The parameters of the sensor model are generated typically at the sensor collection systems automatically. The parameters typically are transported with the sensor data enabling a common sensor processor to process any sensor data without knowing any sensor characteristics prior to processing. This implementation requires sensors to be calibrated in a common fashion. The implementation of this model will provide data interoperability among all sensor systems, while enabling rapid precise geo-location of sensor data with error measurements. Some of the advantages realized to developing a common sensor model and capturing sensor data in terms of that model are: 1)increased mission effectiveness through increased interoperability with other sensor systems across services and nations 2) increased precision and accuracy of sensor data, 3) increased ease of adoption of new sensor systems, 4) increased fusion capability with other sensor systems, 5) reduced onboard sensor processing requirements, and 6) reduced overhead and bandwidth requirements.

OPTELLIOS, INC.
250 Phillips Blvd, Suite 255
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 671-2786
Dr. Zhizhong Zhuang
MDA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Data Fusion for Improved Acquisition, Tracking and Discrimination
Abstract:The optical information content of a scene is encoded in intensity, spectral composition, and polarization of the light incident on the viewing sensor(s). There is an increased demand for using all available channels of information in imaging applications, to enable efficient detection and identification of various objects by human or machine vision. The multitude of information channels necessitates new approaches to fusion, delivery, interpretation, and exploitation of the optical sensor data. Although the benefits of polarization imaging have been demonstrated at the conceptual level, development and deployment of military operator-oriented polarization imaging products have been thwarted by the low speed of available prototype systems. This limitation results from the inherent requirement to perform and combine at least four intensity measurements in order to obtain complete polarization information. The focus of this proposal is to investigate and develop a novel imaging system architecture, which will allow the four intensity measurements to be performed in parallel. The core of the system will be a patterned multi-domain polarization analyzer module. This project will lay the groundwork of a real-time polarization imaging device, to be used to investigate different approaches to fusion and exploitation of the polarization data for targeting applications in the military. Polarization imaging is a promising technique that can distinguish objects normally obscured in low-contrast situations or in intensity-cluttered backgrounds. Since most man-made objects reflect a larger percentage of polarized light than natural objects, a polarization imaging device would be able to resolve an object from its natural background and could readily complement traditional imaging sensors, detectors, and devices that would otherwise be hampered in `noisy' environments. The capability to use polarization as an imaging technique is anticipated to have widespread commercial and military applications such as target identification and tracking, and identification of partially submerged landmines.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Andrew Kostrzewski
MDA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Real-Time Data Fusion System
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is seeking innovative sensor fusion algorithms and software/hardware systems for target acquisition, tracking, and discrimination in a cluttered environment. The goal is to develop a real-time fusion system that provides accurate data from disparate ground-based midcourse sensors to targeting systems. To meet MDA requirements, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a unique and innovative Advanced Real-Time Data Fusion System (ART-DFS) to perform spatial and temporal data registration, real-time data processing and communication, and online sensor calibration. ART-DFS will have three major components: a data fusion algorithm, data fusion hardware, and real-time system monitoring software. The data fusion algorithm consists of modules for spatial and temporal data fusion, which will interact to compensate and calibrate the sensor data in real time to produce accurate data. Spatial and temporal registration of the sensors will be achieved through an accurate self-calibrating systematic approach. Image processing hardware will be built to achieve real-time performance. Real-time system monitoring software will manage target information online. In Phase I, an ART-DFS prototype will be developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. Phase II will focus on building an engineering prototype to work in real time in a high clutter environment. The proposed ART-DFS technology will enhance radar, lidar, and infrared target recognition and detection with real-time sensing, including day or night reconnaissance, surveillance, mine detection, and targeting in complex environments. The improvements in ATR and target detection/identification made possible by ART-DFS will have numerous applications in drug interdiction, air traffic control, industrial inspection, and manufacturing automation. ART-DFS will also have a wide range of applications in real-time imaging, machine vision, robotics, telemedicine, object recognition, telesurveillance, spectral medical imaging, remote sensing, and medicine.

SEAKR ENGINEERING, INC.
6221 S. Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 649-1863
Mr. Douglas Walquist
MDA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Data Fusion for Improved Acquisition, Tracking and Discrimination
Abstract:Target discrimination is the ability to select a desired target in the presence of multiple targets. Unfortunately, current passive infrared (IR) missile sensors are not adequate to discriminate between decoys, penetration aids, and targets based upon an individual sensor signature. Acquiring a target in a noisy or cluttered environment is a difficult task. Sensor noise and background clutter can mask the target. If information is available from only one sensor, targets can be obscured and hidden from the sensor. SEAKR Engineering will develop and conduct proof-of-principle demonstrations of advanced data fusion concepts that aid in the target acquisition, tracking, and discrimination problem. While taking into account the variety and disparity of sensor platforms, algorithms will be chosen and developed that effectively fuse the information from ground, satellite, and onboard sensors. The following algorithms, software, and hardware will be evaluated during Phase I of this SBIR: Optimal Nonlinear Filtering, Automatic Multisensor Feature-based Recognition System, Distributed Multisensor Fusion, Loglikelihood Data Fusion, Sequential and Parallel Implementations, Software Sensor Control and Management, Distributed and Centralized Processing, and SEAKR's Re-configurable Computer. Multisensor, data fusion algorithms are of use in many fields including medical imaging, air traffic control, tactical air defense, robotics, computer vision, and other systems where measurements from multiple sensors are used to estimate the states of multiple objects. During Phase I of this research, SEAKR Engineering will define and develop potential data fusion concepts that aid in the target discrimination problem

SPECTRUM ASTRO, INC.
1440 N. Fiesta Blvd
Gilbert, AZ 85233
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 892-8200
Mr. David A. Price
MDA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Sensor Image Processing for Acquisition, Tracking, Discrimination, and Targeting of Closely Spaced Objects
Abstract:This project will investigate the feasibility of combining information from multiple focal-plane sensors on a single observation platform to produce improved target line-of-sight measurements for use in acquisition, tracking, discrimination, and targeting. In particular, consistent measurements are sought for clusters of closely spaced objects whose images may overlap on the focal planes, and whose intensities may be only slightly above the background noise in some bands. A method has been developed for extracting closely spaced target measurements from a single focal plane under challenging conditions. It is anticipated that by combining multiple focal planes of data, even better measurements may be produced. This will make a significant difference in the ability of missile defense systems to meet their mission objectives. It is anticipated that by combining multiple focal planes of data, even better measurements may be produced. This will make a significant difference in the ability of missile defense systems to meet their mission objectives.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Kenan O. Ezal
MDA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Dynamic and Intelligent Sensor Tasking for Data Fusion, Target Acquisition, Tracking and Identification
Abstract:Toyon proposes to develop algorithms that will dynamically task GMD sensors to support data fusion for improved acquisition, tacking and identification (ID) of time-critical ballistic targets. We treat the problem as a closed-loop feedback system where a fusion-aided continuous ID process works with a dynamic sensor tasking (DST) module to maximize the information contained in the track database. The amount of information is quantified using an information-theoretic definition of the expected entropy in the track database given a candidate sensor schedule. The domain of sensor tasks involves a range of different sensor modes so that the fusion and tracking (FT) module may best be serviced for different values of the expected signal-to-interference ratio, resolution, background clutter, drag coefficient, object classification and radar cross-section. In Phase I, Toyon will develop GMD sensor models within our SLAMEM(TM) simulation. We will then implement the DST module to control the new sensor models and evaluate the resulting performance. In Phase II, Toyon will improve the algorithm and the fidelity of the sensor models and will demonstrate the operation of the algorithm in real time for a scenario approved by the MDA. This could include participating at a future military exercise like Millennium Challenge 2002. The successful completion of this research will result in the development of a sensor manager that supports the improved acquisition, location and identification of ballistic targets. This will be useful for many military sensor tasking and fusion and tracking applications in addition to civilian uses such as border patrol, counter drug and counter-terrorist operations, and environmental law enforcement. Furthermore, the models and algorithms developed under this effort can be implemented into the Hercules program as requested.

AVANZA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
12028 Philadelphia St.
Whittier, CA 90601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-7820
Mr. Philippe Richard
MDA 03-043       Selected for Award
Title:Project ROAD Proposal
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to design a metalanguage-formatted distributed database architecture as outlined in MDA SBIR topic MDA03-043. Avanza has already completed Phase I development of a secure data repository project called Secure Communication Object Repository Environment (SCORE) that creates a foundation for a distributed database application as envisioned in the topic description for MDA03-043. It is not difficult to imagine the commercial applications for an architecture that provides tools for handling processor-intensive tasks securely on off-the-shelf hardware. Avanza envisions a number of partnerships with certified developers who will license ROAD-derived technology to create specific solutions to meet individual client needs. Veriscape's patent-pending NVSI technology allows companies to significantly improve the value and business impact of their existing business applications and services. The revolutionary NVSI approach also delivers to our customers the mechanism to create new and differentiated products and services for their marketplace. NVSI technology offers a unique design approach and systems architecture that provides solutions to challenging business problems, many of which today are otherwise computationally intractable, and thus lack economic viability. The origin of this unprecedented approach to solving business problems is based on years of research and development by a team of world-class computer scientists, neuroscientists and mathematicians. NVSI adapts existing hardware into a virtual supercomputer, and uses innovative application software and networks to create unprecedented access to information. This access maximizes a corporation's technology investments and allows for the creation of unique value-maximizing products and services.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
MDA 03-043       Selected for Award
Title:SOAPi Services - Real-Time Data Management and Systems Integration for Ground-based Midcourse Defense
Abstract:Daniel H. Wagner Associates will demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale, real-time data management, especially of real-time target discrimination data, on a distributed, extensible, standards-based architecture capable of supporting Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) requirements during missile testing and research and, eventually, during missile defense operations. This Phase I project will leverage ongoing work for the Missile Defense Agency (MDA), in which Wagner Associates is developing the SOAPi ServicesT architecture. When completed, this architecture will provide 1) real-time translation of large amounts of heterogeneous data from multiple sources into a coherent stream of metadata-enriched information in a common format, making use of high-performance computing hardware as necessary, 2) real-time aggregation of heterogeneous data into useful information (i.e., specialized data complexes), 3) real-time syndication of customer-relevant information to systems and end-users anywhere on the network (e.g., SIPRNET, MDAnet), and 4) near-real-time data archival using existing data management assets (e.g. databases, storage devices). SOAPi ServicesT will provide military, other government, and commercial end-users with the right information, at the right time, and in the right format by utilizing specialized software agents and Web Services that operate based on domain-specific data models (i.e., schemas). Immediate benefits to GMD include 1) improved information management, especially of real-time target discrimination data, through domain-specific data modeling and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) data management products, 2) improved access to real-time and archived research and development (R&D) and missile test data through automated translation, aggregation, and syndication of GMD-specific data to GMD information systems and end-users, and 3) reduced software lifecycle costs through the use of specialized software agents and Web Services providing distributed, efficient access to existing and emerging systems on a plug-and-play architecture.

DIGITAL SYSTEM RESOURCES, INC.
12450 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 800
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 263-2800
Mr. Joe Murray
MDA 03-043       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Real Time Discrimination Architecture
Abstract:This research is focused on a proof-of-principle analysis that demonstrates the capacity to aggregate disparate sources of target-complex and associated data into a metalanguage database, and syndicate the information to missile defense battle management and weapons system nodes in real time. A real-time discrimination software architecture design based on an XML database and XML transport layer will be analyzed for its capacity to provide cross-discipline, fusion, correlation, aggregation, and integration of data from heterogeneous sources. Technological innovation is centered on: 1) high-speed XML transport; 2) Plug-and-play cross-discipline fusion / correlation; 3) real-time enabled distributed XML databases. The research accounts for asynchronously evolving global networking / data distribution schemas requiring use of adaptive "fusion bridges" enabling information collection and definition of fusion algorithms across disparate disciplines. Design techniques will be analyzed for their capacity to streamline fusion / sensors related XML processing (e.g., document parsing, data conversion/translation), and eliminate redundancies to enable real-time use. Other techniques analyzed include: creation, storage, real-time query and retrieval, and use of publish/subscribe multi-cast data distribution within a COTS RDBMS multi-layered architecture that incorporate XML in a COTs layer for non-real-time insertion / update, and near-real-time query and retrieval from distributed databases across heterogeneous platforms. A real-time XML technology can be easily adapted to other applications requiring real-time data exchange. Clearly, it enables a better interface mechanism that provides the potential to enhance efficiency and synergy for inherently dissimilar commercial real-time system applications. Moreover, this technology has significant potential to provide a more efficient way of transporting XML documents in general. While many commercial benefits are expected to accrue from this SBIR effort, the most salient application of this technology will manifest in the commercial sector in the following areas; climate monitoring and control, manufacturing control, emergency response, security, surgical and pharmaceutical, and real-time e-commerce.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8809 Sudley Road, Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Gary J. Sikora
MDA 03-043       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Real Time Discrimination Architecture
Abstract:We offer the innovated concept of Discrimination Templates that provide target data sources such as radar systems or imagery warehouses a unified method to register their capabilities, information models, and interfaces with the Discrimination Infrastructure. The idea is to allow units to quickly connect to the GMD Discrimination Infrastructure (GMD-DI) with little or no manual reconfiguration. Lessons learned from other similar prototyping efforts identified the need to show that diverse coalition forces can seamlessly connect our military systems instead of demonstrating US-only systems, information and networks. The work required goes beyond marshalling database elements into standardized discrete objects. It also segregates information to more appropriately assigned classification levels and enables classification downgrade so information can be distributed to coalition members. Our offered innovation is to develop a mediator technology that: unifies information representation across disparate information sources including coalitions; defines schema representations to register entities; clients and passes; and provides a mechanism in which Agents can be used to downgrade information classification for distribution to coalition partners. We plan to develop a Discrimination Template toolkit comprising standards, libraries, engines and tools as a result of this effort. We believe that the team offered and related experience provides sound technical background in heterogeneous databases, information retrieval, mediator technology, information exchange and universal syndication to provide the innovation required. Progeny Systems has been working on network-centric warfare applications for five years - the last two years the key personnel offered here, Gary Sikora, developed a USAF Scientific Advisory Board initiative, Joint Battlespace Infosphere (www.infospherics.org) reference platform that was focused on implementing information exchange across disparate data sources. Our developed JBI reference platform, Universal Message Router (UMR), is being commercialized in a Navy network-centric initiative called Common Undersea Picture (CUP). We feel strongly that the component developed under this effort will be commercialized on CUP because they also will benefit from this added capability. Other commercialization efforts will be sought through collaboration with Boeing, the GMD Integrator which we had begun talks with, and within the commercial sector by being the Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM) or teaming with a Value Added Reseller (VAR). We are currently negotiating with Sonic Software to VAR our UMR.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. William C. Snyder
MDA 03-044       Selected for Award
Title:Physical Model-Based Target Discrimination in Clutter using Surface-Based Radar
Abstract:With the appropriate processing algorithms, surface-based radar has the potential to discriminate reentry vehicles from other threat objects in the presence of clutter, which is a critical part of the BMD problem. Discrimination is based on resolving the objects in range, and characterizing each object's shape and motion. The algorithm we propose is the model-based approach, which applies a hypothesize-and-test loop to compare radar data with a physical model of the data. In this approach, features extracted from the collected radar data are matched with features predicted from a series of scene hypotheses. The predictions use a physical model of the scene objects, including motion and shape, and run this through a signature prediction code. The hypothesis search proceeds until an optimal shape and motion match for each object is found. Our other applications indicate that the model-based approach will offer several distinct advantages over rule-based and template methods, such as robust performance in clutter. In this SBIR, we propose to develop algorithms to extract radar features and compare them with match metrics that perform well in the presence of countermeasures. We will then evaluate the discrimination performance of the model-based approach with simulated clutter scenarios in Phase I. The technology developed under this program will contribute directly to the MDA objective of improving threat object classification from radar data for a variety of targets and under a variety of conditions. Specifically, the model-based approach will improve discrimination and kinematic parameter estimation of threat objects in the presence of countermeasures such as chaff. Furthermore, we anticipate that the development of the model-based methods in this SBIR will provide advanced capabilities for commercial and law enforcement applications in high noise environments such as communications, surveillance, industrial and medical image processing, and civilian radar systems.

APPLIED OPTIMIZATION, INC.
8801 Windbluff Point
Centerville, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-5100
Dr. Anil B Chaudhary
MDA 03-044       Selected for Award
Title:A Midcourse Discrimination Algorithm Based On Solar Radiation Pressure
Abstract:Applied Optimization proposes a new midcourse discrimination algorithm to identify a RV, which is concealed in a balloon, from an empty decoy balloon, for the situation of daytime missile attack. The algorithm is based on a calculation that a sunlit balloon, when vented, will collapse by over fifty percent of its size within two minutes, due to solar radiation pressure. We show that a baseline decoy balloon can be vented with a laser that can input 1.9 Joules/cm2 onto the balloon surface. For a balloon that conceals a RV, the collapsing skin will drape over the RV surface, and this balloon will have a different signature in the infrared and visual spectrum, as compared to an empty balloon. We propose to determine the rate of balloon collapse for eight different missile trajectories, and then fuse the simulated signature data as a function of time. Next, we will compare the difference in the fused data, for a concealed RV and a decoy, with the SBIRS-Low capabilities. The result would be the duration of time after which the SBIRS-Low will be able to identify the concealed RV. We expect this time to be about two minutes. The benefit of the proposed algorithm is that it will deprive the balloon decoys of their `laser sump' ability, and enable the high-energy laser assets within NMD to conserve themselves for real targets. The software for signature calculation and data fusion has commercial applications as a non-contact technique for accurate determination of a part size, while it is being manufactured.

EAST WEST ENTERPRISES, INC.
524 JORDAN LANE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4782
Mr. Paul Cox
MDA 03-044       Selected for Award
Title:Physics Based Discrimination Algorithms with New OPTISIG
Abstract:East West Enterprises Inc. (EWE) proposes to develop physics based discrimination algorithms to improve GMD's ability to identify target objects in cluttered environments. Robust discrimination ability can be facilitated with a high-speed, high fidelity, signature code that can rapidly simulate all of the assumed threat objects, as seen from multiple sensor locations. This high-speed code would rapidly generate the assumed threat picture as seen by each of those sensors, and the results would be compared with the actual threat being viewed. If they don't match, new threat simulations are quickly generated and compared with the threat in an iterative scheme, until a good match is achieved. This approach requires (1) a high-speed, high fidelity, signature code and (2) an intelligent discrimination algorithm set, to rapidly converge the simulated threat to a good match with the actual threat. EWE proposes to use a new, enhanced version of OPTISIG, (called TSI-OPTISIG), as the high-speed, high fidelity, signature code, and we propose to develop an intelligent discrimination algorithm set (based on the physics models within that signature code) that will rapidly match the simulated threat to the actual threat. The technology proposed here and the algorithms to be developed will be of great benefit to the Project Hercules, THAAD, GMD and other military programs

OPTELLIOS, INC.
250 Phillips Blvd, Suite 255
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 671-2786
Dr. Zhizhong Zhuang
MDA 03-044       Selected for Award
Title:Physics Based Discrimination Algorithms
Abstract:Target detection, identification and tracking are highly complex tasks that are necessary for threat analysis, and weapons guidance. The speed and accuracy with which threats are determined can often be the most significant factor in determined the level of casualties. Polarization imaging is a promising technique that can distinguish objects normally obscured in low-contrast situations or in intensity-cluttered backgrounds. However, the use of polarization in traditional imaging has gone relatively underutilized in part due to the low speed inherent in the currently available class of mechanically driven prototype devices. Optellios, Inc. proposes to begin development on a fast-imaging, electrically controlled polarimetry device utilizing a unique liquid crystal based technology. The focus of this proposal is to investigate liquid crystal materials and optical architectures which comprise a polarization analyzer module. The goal of this project is to lay the groundwork for the development of a high-speed liquid crystal based polarization imaging device. Such a device would be more effective than traditional imaging techniques in enhancing details normally inaccessible in low-contrast or intensity overlap situations. Polarization imaging is a promising technique that can distinguish objects normally obscured in low-contrast situations or in intensity-cluttered backgrounds. Since most man-made objects reflect a larger percentage of polarized light than natural objects, a polarization imaging device would be able to resolve an object from its natural background and could readily complement traditional imaging sensors, detectors, and devices that would otherwise be hampered in `noisy' environments. The capability to use polarization as an imaging technique is anticipated to have widespread commercial and military applications such as detection of decoys and other threat objects.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6110
Mr. Timothy J. Choate
MDA 03-044       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Depleted Phase Array Technique (ADEPT)
Abstract:SYTRONICS proposes an Advanced Depleted Phased Array Technique (ADEPT) Program which will apply significant experience and familiarity with the radar, target discrimination and countermeasures to provide a unique and innovative discrimination system employing space assets in a revolutionary discrimination paradigm - a multi-satellite depleted phased array which will increase the detection and discrimination capability of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) by orders of magnitude. The Phase I Program includes: (1) modifying an innovative sparse array algorithm to prove the algorithmic feasibility, (2) performing systems analysis to define optimum satellite configurations and transmission links, and prove the operational feasibility, and (3) determining the appropriate modeling data and models to be used in performance evaluation in Phase II. ADEPT's key innovation is a solution to the phased array satellite problem, which is getting the radar resolution from a constellation of satellite receivers without requiring high tolerances that make the system impractical. Phase I deliverables will be: (1) requirements developed through our research and Government communications, (2) a summary mission scenario (satellite and data link configuration) description, (3) simulation prototype test and analysis results, (4) a preliminary simulation design for Phase II, and (5) an initial product plan with commercial application coordination. The ability to enhance discrimination will be a substantial asset to the GMD Program, as well as to other DoD or Government programs. In the commercial sector, ADEPT techniques can improve the effectiveness of commercial satellite-based detection endeavors, in support of agriculture, mining, construction, waterway management, and a multitude of other uses. The ADEPT solution will appeal to military and commercial organizations alike.

COHERENT LOGIX, INC.
101 West 6th Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Jeffrey Campbell
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Integration of Novel Processor Architecture in Remote Environments for Data-Fusion (INPARED-F)
Abstract:This proposal introduces the potential for an improved processing system for the EKV and SBIRS anti-ballistic missile modules. Integrated circuits capable of meeting today''''s performance objectives require much power and are still not optimal for digital signal processing. Power hungry chips often require heavy batteries and complex cooling units in environments where weight and space are at a premium. Today''''s Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicles (EKVs) and the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) use off the shelf processing components that are limited in their capabilities. Coherent Logix proposes to develop a complete system, similar in function to that which is already in use, translated for use in its massively paralleled HyperX integrated circuit technology to achieve far superior computation efficiency at a small fraction of the current required power. Superior data fusion processing is the main anticipated benefit of this proposal. Commercial applications include medical imagery, satellite surveillance, and any other application where multiple waveband imagery is used. The target market for the algorithms and software/hardware technologies being proposed is military systems requiring enhanced target acquisition, tracking and discrimination performance. The primary application is to improve the sensor platforms contributing to the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) systems. The developed computation intensive technologies and capabilities will be applicable to the data fusion of multiple sensors in real time that these systems will require, such as the next generation theater missile interceptors for the Navy Theater Wide (NTW) systems and the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The technologies will also be applicable to other military needs such as hyperspectral image processing, image data compression and transfer, automatic terrain mapping, battlefield damage assessment, and future combat systems supporting the Network Centric Battlefield, Unattended Ground Sensors, Robots, and UAVs. Coherent Logix will seek industrial military partners to help leverage the developed technologies into the next generation military systems. Raytheon has provided a letter of support. The digital signal processor software and hardware that will be developed is also applicable to the commercial markets where there is a predicted explosion of video signal volume over the next decade, including such consumer products as digital broadcasting, personal video recorders, HDTV, advanced medical imaging and video enabled PDAs. Coherent Logix will initially target the digital television market for MPEG processing, image format conversions, and signal processing to address the multi-path and Doppler effects associated with implementing the ATSC 8-VSB demodulation standard.

EAST WEST ENTERPRISES, INC.
524 JORDAN LANE
HUNTSVILLE, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 534-4782
Mr. Paul Cox
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Novel Integrated Software Tool for Feature Selection and Data Visualization
Abstract:Data analysis and feature selection for discrimination are, for the most part, very manual and time consuming tasks which are non-optimized. While an experienced algorithm developer will have reasonably good success in the selection of robust features, it is impossible to manually analyze the many sets of actual test and simulated data and select the truly optimal set of features for discrimination. The process requires the algorithm developer to spend weeks or months in the analysis/selection of features. Another challenge is the viewing/analysis of multidimensional features simultaneously. Standard visualization techniques include scatter plots and histogram mapping are dimensionally limited. There is an inherent need to quickly process large sets of multidimensional data/features (across a wide range of scenarios, lethal, non-lethal, and countermeasures) and automatically select the optimum set of features. EWE proposes a unique software tool for data analysis, feature selection, and visualization. This integrated tool will allow the algorithm developer to process a wide range of data sets (visible, infrared, radar, ladar); incorporate classical and modern techniques for feature selection/clustering; and provide a variety of visualization options and will directly translate into a more robust discrimination algorithm with improved performance. The technology proposed here will have wide range of applications for all projects involving feature selection and discrimination in Government as well as private commercial sector. Potential DOD applications include, project Hercules, THAAD, GMD.

GREAT LAKES SCIENCES, INC.
4244 Ridge Lea Road
Amherst, NY 14226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 832-1001
Mr. Arthur.J.Cecere
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:An Advanced Signal Processor Design for Clutter Suppression
Abstract:With advances in modern radar hardware technology, large instantaneous bandwidths, and even larger frequency-agility bandwidths, are now becoming commonplace. When faced with the standard problem of target detection in highly cluttered environments, conventional range-Doppler signal processing techniques have directly benefited from the improvements in instantaneous bandwidths, but have not been designed to capitalize on gains in frequency agility bandwidths. The objective of this Phase I proposal is to develop and demonstrate a proof-of-principal design for effectively integrating this third dimension into existing range-Doppler designs for clutter suppression. With such a 3-dimensional filter design, clutter suppression improvments are expected whenever the frequency agility bandwidth of the radar exceeds the coherence bandwidth of the clutter, which fortuitously is the most commonplace situation. Essentially all military and commercial radar systems would benifit from a more effective solution to the cluttered target detection problem.

GREAT LAKES SCIENCES, INC.
4244 Ridge Lea Road
Amherst, NY 14226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 832-1001
Mr. Robert A. Padgug
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Signal Processing for Active Decoy Mitigation
Abstract:A key component of an integrated ballistic missile defense system is a Ground Based Radar that can discrimiante warhead reentry vehicles (RVs) from nonthreatening decoys. Active Decoys (AD) are a particularly potent threat to a ground radar. A false target generator (FTG), located on or near an RV, receives the radar pulses then retransmits a stream of identical or slightly modified pulses. Additional FTGs may be located on other vehicles widely dispersed within a threat cloud. GLS proposes to investigate potential AD designs then develop and analyze mitigation schemes using simulated sensor data. The signal/data processing techniques to be developed have broad application to military/civilian radar systems. Similar countermeasures can be envisioned for use against a variety of military systems requiring mitigation schemes. Similar problems arise for civilian systems due to perturbed environments such as multipath.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
8130 Boone Blvd., Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Dr. Katsumi Ohnishi
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Time Sidelobe Reduction for Pulse Compressed Radar Signals
Abstract:In pulse compressed radars such as those used for missile defense, time sidelobes associated with pulse compression can obscure objects of interest which are smaller than but close to the tracked target. Under this SBIR, ISL will develop a computationally efficient but highly capable algorithm to reduce the time sidelobes of compressed pulses. We will apply a Radar-Clean Method (RCM) adapted from the classic "Clean" method used to detect small objects in astronomy. Although time consuming, the astronomy "Clean" method is effective, and ISL avoid the need to identify delta functions corresponding to point sources on a one-by-one basis by addressing collections of delta functions corresponding to targets, e.g.; a target "field". The RCM will be made robust against both hot and cold clutter by accounting for the pulse shape distortion caused by adaptive signal processing. A simple prototype RCM has already been developed by ISL, and Phase I will extend and refine this algorithm as described above. In Phase II, the RCM will be tailored to a selected missile defense radar (UEWR and AEGIS appear to be good candidates) and high fidelity simulations conducted to demonstrate performance. Phase III will involve field tests on actual radars. ISL's RCM can be tailored to individual radars to allow detection/discrimination of small, closely spaced targets (or individual features of a large target) otherwise obscured by the time sidelobes attendant to pulse compression. RCM has immediate application to situations where mission performance depends on target resolution, including exo and endo atmosphere discrimination and accurate count of closely spaced objects. RCM has application to missile defense, theater defense radars, battlefield (e.g.; counter morter) radars and possibly air traffic control.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 852-5763
Dr. James D. Brasher
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Linearly Constrained Minimum-Variance Algorithm for Radar Jammer and Clutter Suppression
Abstract:We propose an augmented linearly constrained minimum-variance algorithm for radar jammer and clutter suppression. The basic LCMV algorithm is augmented to extend the simple target detection capability to target classification. In general, received radar returns are comprised of a linear superposition of the target return signal and mainbeam and sidelobe jammer signals and clutter returns, which corrupt or obscure the desired signal. One of the objectives of signal processing algorithms is to extract and amplify the target returns and reject or suppress the jammer signals and clutter. We propose to develop and apply a real-time algorithm for isolating target signals from jammer and clutter interference, while minimizing the output variance of the receiver response to the latter. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)is expressed as a Raleigh quotient and its optimization leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem. The solution yields a linear transformation which, when applied to the receiver response, maximizes the SNR. The result is the strongest (in the SNR sense) signal as far removed from jammer signals and clutter as possible, for maximum detectability. The results are expanded to enable target classification. The algorithm we propose has potential applications in remote sensing tasks in government and private industry, planetary surveying and mapping, and in private and commercial civilian aviation, as well as in military scenarios.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Signal Processing
Abstract:The proposed SBIR project will demonstrate the feasibility of using ground-based or sea-based radars to detect, track, and discriminate reentry vehicles from decoys, penetration aids, and other clutter. MARK Resources has developed a radar signal processing technology that is broadly applicable to these tasks. This technology has the potential to perform more complete, accurate, and rapid measurements than have been made previously, leading to superior discrimination performance by these radars, which will significantly reduce the demands on terminal missile sensors. The proposed SBIR project will demonstrate that this potential can be reached. Lockheed Martin has joined us in this project, to effectively transition the technology into existing and planned missile defense systems. Although detecting, tracking, and discriminating missile targets is primarily a military application, the basic signal processing technology is applicable in all situations where details about man-made objects are to be obtained remotely by radar, and for discrimination of one type of scatter from another.

MIGMA SYSTEMS, INC.
1600 Providence Highway, Suite 211
Walpole, MA 02081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 660-0328
Dr. Bo Ling
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:A Target Detection and Tracking System with Model-Based Clustering and Discrimination
Abstract:The mission of the GMD system is to defend all 50 United States against a limited strike of Intercontinental-class Ballistic Missiles by adversaries from rogue nations. The system must perform detection, discrimination, battle management, and intercept functions, which require the integration of multiple sensors, communications, command and control, and weapon systems. Multi-sensor data fusion is a technique by which data from several sensors are combined to provide comprehensive and accurate information. In Phase I, we propose an advanced signal processing system suitable for sensor platforms such as XBR, SBIRS, UEWR and EKV seeker. Since a single feature detection is inadequate in dealing with the complex nature of radar images, especially those in high clutter environment, we propose to develop two independent feature detectors, namely, (1) statistical image model for feature detection and clustering in a high clutter environment, and (2) neural network-based unsupervised clustering for extraction of topological features. In particular, we will develop a prototype system with innovative technologies including (1) mixture statistical image model for feature detection in high clutter environment, (2) a new unsupervised neural network used for extraction of the topological spectral features, (3) multi-classifier fusion based on statistical evidence theory. The advanced signal processing system developed in Phase I and II has a great potential of commercial success. Although the technology developed in this project is specific to the missile defense system, the overall architecture is applicable for many other government agencies (Air Force, Navy, DOT, NASA) and various industries. For example, the core technologies developed can be used in process industry where field data of heterogeneous sensors are collected in the central control room, displayed and analyzed.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 331-6322
Dr. Folkert Tangerman
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Single and Multi-Sensor MUSIC Algorithms for CSO Super-Resolution
Abstract:PRA proposes to develop a super-resolution fusion algorithm for midcourse detection and tracking of closely spaced objects as observed by single and multiple IR sensor systems in the SBIRS Low system. This algorithm will be based on application of the MUSIC algorithm to optical sensors, and combined with novel filtering algorithms. It will provide super-resolution, while operating under minimal hypotheses about the IR signatures of the objects in the CSO cloud, a key requirement. The super-resolution gained for single sensor platforms can be further enhanced using multi-sensor platforms. The multi-sensor algorithm will be designed to use the distributed IR sensor system as a distributed computing platform, minimizing intra-sensor communication requirements. The proposed algorithms address a critically important detection and tracking problem in missile defense as the scenario's under investigation involve rapidly increasing numbers of objects with wider signature ranges. This requires signal processing methods which are as much as possible prior-free. Similar requirements also abound in multi-sensor surveillance platforms and in multi-source medical imaging, but with different geometric constraints and noise sources. The algorithm developed here for single sensor and its distributed extension to multi-sensor platforms can be migrated to other such arenas.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 331-6322
Mr. Anthony Sommese
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Midcourse Clutter Mitigation Using Multi-spectral Adaptive Signal Processing
Abstract:A key midcourse discrimination problem for space-based, optical sensors is the detection of an RV in a cluttered environment, where the clutter characteristics are not well characterized. Typical clutter scenarios include a dense fuel fragment environment as well as a chaff cloud. PRA proposes to apply adaptive signal processing techniques to operate on multi-spectral measurements to suppress the clutter. The algorithm assumes that the clutter is the dominant contributor to the focal plane intensities and uses the measurements to spectrally characterize the clutter and then removes the clutter component from the signals. The algorithm uses minimal a priori assumptions and adapts directly to the clutter statistics. Preliminary results using a prototype algorithm indicate that the RV is consistently detected in dense fuel fragment and chaff environments with few false alarms. For this effort we are proposing to add new functionality to the algorithm, analyze which bands are best suited for the different missions, and provide a detailed performance assessment against a number of scenarios. One key algorithmic addition proposed here is the incorporation of intensity estimation logic, which would enable the potential for multiple objects in clutter to be discriminated. The immediate benefit will be to make midcourse discrimination algorithms more robust by reducing their dependency on a priori information and extending their operation to highly cluttered environment. This technology is directly applicable to systems such as SBIRS Low as well as GBI. It offers the commercial potential of developing a programmable logic array that would be a key product in a low cost interceptor system.

PIXON LLC
100 North Country Rd.
Setauket, NY 11733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 227-2739
Dr. Richard C. Puetter
MDA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:PixonVision ASIC for Guided Munitions
Abstract:Vision systems of guided munitions must contend with these critical issues: 1. Distant targets, which give intrinsically low signals, 2. Strong backgrounds (visible or infrared), which elevate sensor noise and reduce target contrast, 3. Atmospheric turbulence and instrumental diffraction, which blur tracker images, further reducing signal-to-noise ratio and tracking fidelity, 4. Rapidly moving targets, which require real-time scene evaluation, and 5. Small munition platforms, which require a compact, power-efficient imaging system. The performance of current vision systems in guided munitions would benefit greatly if electronics could be developed to mitigate these problems. Pixon LLC and DigiVision have recently developed and demonstrated a general-purpose, real-time image processor-implemented in field-programmable gate arrays-that offers a theoretically optimal solution to issues (1)-(4). This hardware provides a factor of 1.5 to 2 improvement in resolution, a factor of 3 to 4 reduction in noise, and optimally remaps the dynamic range of the image for the human eye or machine vision systems. The objective of this proposal is to augment this powerful processing hardware by adding a multi-frame averaging capability, and solving problem (5) by developing a design plan for Phase II implementation of the improved processor in an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The proposed technology development would provide significant increases in senstivity, image resolution, and tracking fidelity in guided-munitions applications. In particular, the small-footprint, low-power ASIC platform greatly expands the range of applications from national and theater missile defense to other defense applications such as night-vision equipment, targeting sights, and other compact real-time displays. In the consumer and profession video arena, the device may find dual-use applications in security systems, home and professional camcorders, television monitors, and digital theater. Such commodity-oriented applications hold the prospect of significantly reducing per-unit costs, thereby conferring parallel advantages to a broad range of potential defense applications.The proposed technology development would provide significant increases in sensitivity, image resolution, and tracking fidelity in guided-munitions applications. In particular, the small-footprint, low-power ASIC platform greatly expands the range of applications from national and theater missile defense to other defense applications such as night-vision equipment, targeting sights, and other compact real-time displays. In the consumer and professional video arena, the device may find dual-use applications in security systems, home and professional camcorders, television monitors, and digital theater. Such commodity-oriented applications hold the prospect of significantly reducing per-unit costs, thereby conferring parallel advantages to a broad range of potential defense applications.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0863
Mr. Peter A. Kiss
MDA 03-046       Selected for Award
Title:Scalable Engagement Coordination Test Bed
Abstract:Sentar has teamed with SPARTA to design and develop a Scaleable Engagement Coordination (SEC) Test Bed for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). The SEC test bed will interface Sentar' scaleable BMC3 prototype with SPARTA's Monte-Carlo Object Oriented System Evaluator (MOOSE), the EADTB, and the BMD Benchmark Tool. This combination will provide the government with an integrated system capable of supporting metrics based evaluations of engagement coordination within a hierarchical battle management architecture. This SEC Test Bed will also be able to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of GMD engagement planning by utilizing advanced algorithms and methods for coordinating with other layers of defense, as well as for exploiting sensor, weapon, and communication coordination. The combination will lead to an easily scaleable capability within which to explore BMC3 alternatives that will lead to information superiority, higher levels of battle space awareness, and better distributed dynamic decision making. The direct benefits of the SEC Test Bed will include a capability for BMDS to explore the trade space of engagement coordination. This will be possible due to the flexibility of the proposed KnoWebr based architecture coupled with well-calibrated simulations and providing metrics based performance data. The SEC Test Bed will be applicable to the more general study and evaluation of Network Center Warfare (NCW) within the military. Commercial extracts of the capability will be useful in the evaluation of dynamic decision making environments in industry. One such environment is the management of Hedge Funds, which has many characteristics in common with command and control.

STARMARK, INC.
P. O. Box 270710
San Diego, CA 92198
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 676-0055
Dr. Franklin S. Felber
MDA 03-046       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Engagement Planning for Nuclear Environments
Abstract:The Phase I objective is to identify and parameterize the engagement tactics that will be most effective in the nuclear environments of salvage-fuzed and impact-fuzed ballistic missiles. Engagement tactics to be analyzed will include innovative firing tactics, such as shoot-no-look-shoot with variable laddered-down salvos, and flyout patterns that minimize redout backgrounds and exploit atmospheric shielding. Comparisons of engagement tactics with hardening will be done parametrically with respect to ballistic missile threats and to the operational capabilities, hardness, and inventory of interceptors. Probability of zero leakage will be the figure of merit. Starmark will use the missile-defense performance and engagement code, National Missile Defense Operability (NMDO), developed for DTRA by the PI, which performs engagement analysis, calculates nuclear environments self-consistently with detonation upon intercept, and calculates the resulting degradation of missile-defense operability and probability of zero leakage. The Phase II objective will be to delineate the conditions under which the various innovative and conventional engagement tactics can supplant hardening for current and projected missile defense architectures and scenarios. We anticipate teaming in a classified Phase II program with an MDA aerospace/defense contractor. The immediate benefit of this program for MDA will be an analysis of innovative operational alternatives to nuclear hardening that can be planned to be used effectively at no cost and with savings up to $20 million per $1 billion cost of the ground-based interceptor element to be deployed. The methodology to be used might have commercial applications in finding operational work-arounds to costly retrofitting and upgrading of capital equipment.

STILMAN ADVANCED STRATEGIES
1623 Blake Street, #200
Denver, CO 80202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 490-2701
Dr. Vlad Yakhnis
MDA 03-046       Selected for Award
Title:Linguistic Geometry Concepts for Advanced Engagement Planning
Abstract:We propose to utilize Linguistic Geometry (LG), a revolutionary wargaming technology, to dramatically improve the GMD engagement planning capabilities. The most significant advantages of the LG approach are modeling of the intelligent enemy and extraordinarily fast automatic generation of best strategies and tactics for all the sides of a conflict. On SBIR Phase I, we will develop LG based concepts for the engagement planning with nominal sensors, missile and threat parameters. We will develop metrics for capturing the amount of performance improvement and a methodology to "prove" the LG-based concept will work. We will investigate theoretical and computational limits of applicability of LG to GMD engagement planning. We will also develop the operational specs for a software prototype of an advanced engagement planning tool, LG-PLANNER. In addition, utilizing our proprietary software LG-FRAMEWORK as well as our existing prototypes for cruise missile defense, SEAD missions, and effect-based operations (EBO), we will demonstrate a proof of feasibility of the concepts embodied in LG-PLANNER. The full-scale LG-PLANNER (to be developed in Phase II) will plan the entire operation, allocate resources with minimal cost to achieve certain probability of success (defined by a planner), generate and assess possible courses of actions (COA) for all sides, select counteractions, control operation by re-planning in real time, and play and re-play various "what-if" scenarios. LG-PLANNER will be a highly scalable tool to accommodate increased threat numbers and expanded weapons capabilities. LG-PLANNER will be compatible with the BMC2 infrastructure in a form ready for integration with the system. Revolutionary new wargaming dynamic planning tool, aiming to dramatically improve the GMD engagement planning capabilities; New comprehensive decision support, management, and allocation of scarce resources for air traffic management (ATM); New products for interactive entertainment software (IES) industry; New solutions for Communications/Network Management Systems, modeling and simulation, automated logistics and transportation system, etc.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 655-7242
Mr. Richard Stottler
MDA 03-046       Selected for Award
Title:Engagement Planning Based on Proven, Advanced Techniques for Planning, Resource Selection, and Constraint Satisfaction
Abstract:We propose the development of an advanced, intelligent, robust engagement planner for the Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system. Ultimately the improved GMD engagement planning capability will allow better quality plans; faster planning; larger, more complex threats; additional defense system capabilities; increased planning problem space; and better accuracy, reliability, maintainability, growth potential, and adaptability of the engagement planning system. In Phase I we will investigate integration requirements, elaborate the heuristics, algorithms and techniques for improved engagement planning, analyze them as to their feasibility in several dimensions, define the metrics for planning performance, define the process to clearly demonstrate the performance improvement, further prove the feasibility of the techniques through prototype development, and develop the Phase II system and high-level Phase III design. We are confident of our ability to improve upon the current GMD Planner and to accomplish this ambitious scope within Phase I because we will leverage our existing highly customizable intelligent planning architecture with its existing planning infrastructure; existing, proven, superior algorithms; and capability to develop and implement new ones. Our foundation includes 15 years of advanced planning, scheduling, resource selection, constraint satisfaction, and optimization experience involving a variety of application areas, including tactical engagement planning. Beyond use by the GMD Program, the Engagement Planner will be applicable to several other military engagement planning applications, including existing Stottler Henke customers. Combined with our existing product, Aurora, the algorithms developed here can be marketed for commercial resource-dominated scheduling problems.

TECHFINITY, INC.
18345 Ventura Blvd., Suite 509
Tarzana, CA 91356
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 654-9701
Dr. Phillip W. Dennis
MDA 03-046       Selected for Award
Title:MD Advanced Engagement Planning and Scheduling within a Probabilistic Framefork
Abstract:A key algorithmic component of a BMC4I is the software that decides what to intercept, where to intercept, when to intercept and how to intercept. The key pieces of information that drive the decision as to the "what," "where," and "when" of the Engagement Planning and Scheduling algorithms are: 1) threat lethality and damage to defended assets, and 2) the probability of kill. Because of uncertainties in the engagement problem it is clear that the assignment function can, at best, only compute assignments that minimize expected loss. Existing systems perform weapon-to-target assignment using estimates of probability of kill based primarily on mean parameter values (such as threat state vectors), along with hard-constraints. These systems approach the assignment problem using a limited probabilistic approach (such as evaluating p-kill along a trajectory) with additional deterministic ("crisp") constraints to solve a constrained non-linear optimization problem and perform intensive computational resources to find an "exact" or "near optimal" solution that is on average sub-optimal. These systems typically do not systematically and holistically consider the associated uncertainties and how proper sensor resource management can mitigate the uncertainties and reduce the adverse effects on the overall engagement planning and scheduling problem. This study will focus on a probabilistic formulation of the many-on-many engagement problem in an integrated approach to include both sensor and interceptor allocations. It proposes to systematically take into account uncertainties and errors across the BMD systems and how multi-shooter, multi-shot allocation, multi-sensor scheduling within a global stochastic framework that maximizes expected success can be solved in an "almost always" optimal way using statistical heuristics. This is a systematic and consistent way of treating the problem since many of the constrained m-on-n engagement problems are at best NP-complete. TechFinity proposes to complement its other research in probabilistic methods to investigate the feasibility and performance of stochastic algorithms that solve the engagement problem in a "mixed strategy" like paradigm. Techniques to be investigated include relaxation approach to equilibrium, simulated annealing and other methods that converge to assignments that are maximal expectation values. Our proposed solution is a rigorous probabilistic approach to the many-on-many engagement problem with universal applicability to BMD BMC4I, and is a robust, advanced alternative to replace the unnecessarily complex and brittle many-on-many engagement approaches of current implementations that employ constrained mixed integer linear programming heuristics. Our approach will be computationally efficient, thereby accommodating greater number of threats, and increasing overall system effectiveness with no hardware modifications. MDA programs that could benefit from this approach include GMD, Sea-based Midcourse, THAAD, SBL, and ABL. Our approach has wide applicability and benefits to resource allocation and planning under uncertainty within many domains including DoD transportation and logistics planning, FAA air traffic flow management, Coast Guard Deepwater resource allocation, and allocation of resources to asymmetric threats.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Shengji Peng
MDA 03-047       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Distributed Real-Time Database Management System
Abstract:The ability to integrate and manage vast amounts of data from distributed, heterogeneous sources is critical to decision makers using Battle Management Command and Control systems (BMC2). For this purpose, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Advanced distributed Real-time Databases Management System (ARDMS). ARDMS introduces dynamic data encoding and dynamic data decoding technology for real-time data transfer. Instead of using conventional TCP data delivery, which is inefficient for a tightly coupled low-latency network, ARDMS innovatively builds on an efficient and reliable data transfer technology with robust handling of missing or imprecise data, and will greatly improve the speed and reliability of communication between sensors and ground stations. ARDMS uses the universal XML data format as its basic data format, and efficiently handles the fusion of data from heterogeneous sources. Phase I will demonstrate the laboratory ARDMS prototype capable of managing real-time distributed databases and the feasibility of its integration into an existing BMC2 system. Phase II will further advance this technology, and demonstrate ARDMS applicability to selected military and commercial applications. Management of distributed real-time databases based on the proposed ARDMS system has significant commercial potential. This potential for telecommunication alone represents a huge market. Key commercial applications for ARDMS include electronic commerce and almost any Web-based data rich application.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway, Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Robert McGraw
MDA 03-047       Selected for Award
Title:Management of Distributed Real-time Databases
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is looking for technologies to support the management of advanced real-time distributed databases that are required to enable an optimal environment for tight coupling, low latency, and real-time database solutions for Ground-based Midcourse Defense applications such as those found in Battle Management Command and Control (BMC2) systems. Decision makers utilizing BMC2 systems require the capability to integrate and manage large amounts of data from heterogeneous sources over distributed environments. BMC2 for missile defense requires the coordination of widely distributed processing elements and high-speed scalable communications. RAM Laboratories will build real-time distributed data management and processing software by implementing a software architecture based on RAM Laboratories' state of the art WarpIV software framework. This effort will leverage parallel data mining capabilities, data latency reduction over wide area networks, and cluster analysis algorithms that are being developed through other efforts. The Phase I effort will involve integrating these technologies together to address BMC2 applications as a rough proof of concept. The resultant framework will be used to conduct experimental efforts to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for this technology with respect to real-time databases used by MDA in support of BMC2. This SBIR is viewed as having excellent commercial potential. Naturally, this SBIR and its real-time distributed data management capability it will develop have far reaching implications for the MDA. The technology will allow for performance and management of data for all collaborative environments. This technology will augment an existing technology that already inherently supports parallel and distributed computing over heterogeneous networks. While improving collaborative applications, this technology will also greatly improve the state of the art with respect to all applications using high volumes of data. While improving support for collaborative applications in many areas addressed by the MDA, this technology also has far reaching applications to commercial industry. The electrical, computer, banking, telecommunications, medical and transportation industries will benefit from this advancement in technology. RAM Laboratories can apply this technology to the commercial arena using its WarpIV Simulation Engine. The real-time distributed data management capability this technology will possess can be used to improve the search capabilities for a number of applications. This technology would be well place in the enterprise markets for each of these domains. For example, the enterprise simulation market for each of these industries is vast. The enterprise EDA market is a $20B market with 20% annual growth. The enterprise bioinformatics market is a $200M market with 35% annual growth. We are currently engaged with several Bioinformatics companies to use our base WarpIV technology as a host for their applications.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0863
Ms. Betsy A. Leigh
MDA 03-047       Selected for Award
Title:A Real-Time Distributed Database Manager for GMD Applications
Abstract:In this proposal, Sentar presents its plan for applying its multi-agent technology to the management of distributed real-time databases. The proposed capability, called the Real-time Distributed Database Manager (RDDM), will provide an innovative solution for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) applications. Sentar will leverage recent improvements to its KnoWebr and Work-Centered Interface (WCI) technologies to provide the basis for RDDM. These enhancements include re-host of the technology to Sentar's LapisT agent platform and re-implementing core agents using a tightly coupled message protocol. WCI enhancements include new support agents and optimization of the XML interface to use streaming nodes for improved performance. These modifications make the KnoWeb-WCI ideally suited for the proposed GMD RDDM. Phase I tasks include design of the RDDM and development of the proof of principle to leverage Sentar's technology to current GMD requirements. Sentar will demonstrate feasibility by integrating the RDDM technology into an existing KnoWeb-WCI prototype. The demonstration will coordinate heterogeneous data sources to provide intelligent situational assessment and decision support. Successful completion of Phase I will establish the feasibility of the RDDM and provide a foundation for an accelerated Phase II development. The RDDM will provide military and commercial organizations with a capability to integrate diverse data resources that are distributed, heterogeneous, and real-time. The RDDM approach to integration combines generic intelligent information processing with advanced situational awareness and decision support. No such capability exists today. The primary market for the RDDM will be real-time database applications in both the military and commercial sectors. In the military, applications include GMD, BMC3, homeland security, and C4ISR systems and subsystems. In the commercial sector, there is a wide range of potential applications including industrial control, security applications, power generation networks, and financial systems.

CERACOM, INC.
200 Turnpike Road, Suite 4
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 856-4164
Dr. Frederick Lauten
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:Ceramics and Composites for Beryllium Replacement
Abstract:Beryllium is a lightweight, highly temperature-stable, stiff and strong material that has proven to be excellent for extreme duty, dimensionally critical applications such as mirror structures for space-based optics. Beryllium, however, is expensive and extremely hazardous. Beryllium dust is one of the most toxic substances known, and causes Chronic Beryllium Disease, and cancer. There is a push by federal and local government regulatory and health agencies to phase-out all beryllium use by 2007. Ceracom's novel Metal-Ceramic Matrix Composite (MCMCTM ) materials are safe and affordable, and meet or exceed the mechanical characteristics of beryllium for critical defense and aerospace applications. Ceracom proposes to leverage its proprietary ENVIT technology, developed to manufacture advanced CMCs, and expertise in ceramic materials to develop affordable and high performance MCMCTM materials to replace Be and Be base alloys. Ceracom has already established base processing and materials, and an extensive database has been developed with NASA and Air Force under major programs such as Integrated High Performance Rocket Technology (IHPRPT), and Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET). These MCMCT materials meet or exceed the attributes of beryllium, including stiffness, hardness, strength, stability, fatigue-resistance, in a broad range of temperatures from cryogenic to 1500C. The current market for beryllium based materials for performance drivent applications is quite significant, while there are many commercial applications that would benefit from a high performance material like beryllium but the health problems proibit insertion. Ceracom''s novel MCMCTM materials can be directly inserted into the beryllium based components and will offer a higer performance alternative for commercial applications that would like to use beryllium.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4125
Mr. Uday Kashalikar
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:Beryllium Alloy Replacement Materials for Missile Optical Structures
Abstract:Foster-Miller will demonstrate two classes of innovative, low cost and health hazard-free composite materials - metal matrix composites (MMC) and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) towards their utility to effectively substitute beryllium and its alloys in several critical military and commercial applications, without compromising systems' performance. We have previously demonstrated affordable and scalable routs to both MMC and CMC materials with excellent performance parameters. During this program, we will optimize and adopt these innovative materials and their corresponding fabrication processes to produce lightweight electro-optical structure elements. Foster-Miller has teamed up with a major developer of the military electro-optical components, extensively employing beryllium alloys, and a major developer and supplier of advanced ceramics to be used in the proposed program as a reinforcement for both MMC and CMC candidate materials for beryllium replacement. The proposed manufacturing technology is well suited for advanced optical structures where performance, weight and cost efficiency are extremely important. One goal of DOD/MDA electro-optical systems is to increase the thermal stability of the benches while maintaining a low weight. The space environment service temperatures, high dimensional control, and service time requirements are ideal for use of metal and ceramic matrix composites with SiC reinforcement. (P-030242) High-stiffness and thermal conductivity, low cost and net-shape capabilities make MMCs and CMCs the ideal health hazard-free materials to a number of military and commercial ground and airborne electro-optical systems. These include sensor mirrors, optical bench components, and shades. Additional targeted applications include automotive and rocket engine components and substrates and packages for thermal management.

M CUBED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
921 Main St
Monroe, CT 06468
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 454-8600
Mr. Michael K. Aghajanian
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:Define/Demonstrate Beryllium (Be) Substitute Material
Abstract: An extremely capable team of M Cubed Technologies and Fraunhofer USA is proposing to replace high cost, toxic Be-based metals with innovative, Mg metal matrix composites (MMCs) in stiffness critical structural applications. In short, the program will evaluate processing of Mg MMCs via both pressureless infiltration and squeeze casting. Variables to be studied will include processing parameters, Mg alloy composition, and reinforcement type (e.g., B4C, SiC and Al2O3). In all cases, the reinforcement will be particles (i.e., not fibers) to provide attractive economics and isotropic composites. After fabrication, the novel composites will be characterized and their utility as replacements for Be-based metals will be analyzed. The strengths of the team members will be utilized, such as M Cubed's expertise in developing, characterizing and commercializing advanced materials; and Fraunhofers's expertise in designing new materials and working with an international network of Universities and labs to understand material behavior and optimize performance. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of producing low cost, high performance Mg MMCs as replacements for Be-based metals. In a subsequent Phase II program, processing parameters will be optimized, a full compliment of property data will be generated, and a full-scale demonstration component will be fabricated for MDA. Military and commercial applications for cost effective, light weight, high performance materials to replace Be-based metals abound, including space structures, airframe components, mirror supports, and stages for semiconductor manufacturing.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James C. Withers
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:The Development of Be/Be Alloy Substitute Material for Optical Applications
Abstract:Beryllium and beryllium alloys have been used in a wide variety of military/defense applications because of its ultra-lightweight and other inherent properties. However, because of its health hazards its use will be phased out in the next few years, thus requiring an affordable substitute with similar profile/characteristics. Optical applications are one of the most demanding substitute applications. There are several intermetallics and isotropic composites, which have densities equivalent, to lower than Be/Be alloy, that can be utilized as optical components substitutes. This program will investigate select intermetallic and isotropic composites materials that can be polished to mirror quality as substitutes for Be/Be alloy. Concurrently, a literature survey will be performed as well as a first principles analysis to identify other materials as possible substitutes for Be/Be alloy. A small mirror will be produced and directly compared with a Be mirror. A systems supplier wil be used in Phase II for direct application of the developed technology. A material with the profile/characteristics of Be/Be alloy without health hazards will have applications not only as a substitute for Be/Be alloy in military/defense but substantial uses in aerospace and general industry.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC.
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:Graphite Fiber Reinforced Magnesium as a Beryllium Replacement Material for EKV Seeker Mirrors and Substructures
Abstract:Graphite fiber reinforced Mg alloys with quasi-isotropic architecture has nearly the same specific stiffness (Young's modulus/density) as beryllium and 12 x the thermal stability (thermal conductivity/coef. thermal expansion). Compared to beryllium, Si coated and polished Mg-Gr mirrors will be lighter, less expensive, and will not be encumbered with toxicity and environmental liabilities associated with manufacturing and processing beryllium components. In addition Mg/Gr composites will always be available whereas the future availability of beryllium is doubtful due to toxicity and litigation concerns. Thermal seasoning experiments will result in heat treatments designed to produce dimensional stability after thermal cycling associated with the application. The proposed research will result in an optimized architecture that results in a rigid mirror that weighs less and cost less than beryllium and can be quickly manufactured. Feasibility will be demonstrated by manufacturing a prototype mirror body with the desired thermal stability, stiffness, mass and potential cost reduction to replace beryllium. The data generated will enable the design of optical benches and other substructures now manufactured from beryllium. A 5-10 kg/m2 areal density space mirror material will become readily available to the space and missile defense community with short lead times. Cost of fabricating mirrors will be a fraction of that of beryllium or other competitive materials. Innovative control of fiber architecture will result in low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity and high stiffness, and hence, in a highly stable mirror with high vibration dampening capacity. Economic benefits will be measured in launch weight reductions and increased system performance as well as system procurement savings. Immediate applications will be for EKV, CEKV, LEAP, directed energy applications, ABL as well as a number of AF NRO and NASA applications. Alternative applications in electronic thermal management markets will also benefit from the concurrent development of the preforming technology developed for mirror substrates. Gr/Al materials are non-toxic.

POCO GRAPHITE, INC.
300 Old Greenwood Road
Decatur, TX 76234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(940) 393-4468
Dr. Abuagela Rashed
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:A Low-Cost Innovative Approach for the Fabrication of Net-Shape SiC Components for Mirror Substrate Applications
Abstract:Beryllium, with its light weight and exceptional characteristics, has been the preferred material for different demanding applications including sensor mirrors. Beryllium, however, is now facing bigger challenges including growing health hazard concerns and the increasing production cost. It is expected that beryllium will not be available within the next seven years and a substitute material with matching characteristics is now needed. Based on a comprehensive review of many potential candidate materials and their properties resulted in the selection of silicon carbide (SiC) as the new material of choice and best substitute for beryllium due to its superior mechanical and thermal properties as compared to other materials. Conventional processes for the manufacturing of SiC, however, lack the capability for complex shape fabrication and tend to be expensive due to the processes involved and the extensive post machining. It is, therefore, proposed here to utilize POCO's chemical vapor reaction (CVR) process for the manufacturing of complex net-shape SiC parts with 18-20% porosity followed by an innovative approach to achieve full densification. In this proposal, the densification approach is described in detail and supported with some preliminary results including strength and other physical and chemical properties. Poco has identified a number of benefits that will come from this effort. 1. Elimination of health hazard issues caused by processing of beryllium 2. Shorter fabrication leadtimes 3. Reduced cost for manufacturing dense silicon carbide 4. Increased capability for the fabrication of complex SiC shapes 5. New opportunities for dense SiC where CVD SiC and hot-pressed SiC too expensive. 6. This project will support Poco's commercialization effort for copnverted SiC products.

POWDERMET, INC.
9960 Glenoaks Blvd, Unit A
Sun Valley, CA 91352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 768-6420
Mr. Dean Baker
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:Define/Demonstrate Beryllium (Be) Substitute Material
Abstract:Be replacement is a growing conern both nationally and internationally. Be toxicity and other availability concerns in coming years makes it a liability for any program at this time. In this Phase I progam various materials will be evaluated and tested against Raytheon EKV constraints to determine the apporiate replacement material. Commercially there are many computer and other components made from Be- computers, elecgtronic heat sinks, lightly loaded structures.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. Michael Dingus
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:Define/Demonstrate Beryllium (Be) Substitute Material
Abstract:Beryllium is an elemental metal that is used as a pure metal, alloying element, and oxide ceramic. Its main uses are for mirror systems, structural and electrical beryllium-copper alloy, and microchip substrates, respectively. Beryllium also causes deadly chronic beryllium disease, which occurs in 1 to 10% of personnel exposed to beryllium containing dust. Although dust is controllable in manufacturing facilities, the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD activities must deal with the cradle-to-grave liabilities including in-service dust production and final disposal- much more difficult tasks. With an expected future unavailability of beryllium, suitable substitutes must be found. Fortunately, the toxicity of beryllium has driven a significant substitute market. TRI/Austin will identify the most defense-critical and the greatest volume uses of beryllium containing materials, then determine the properties required by these applications. TRI will then identify substitute materials that have and have not already been identified previously. TRI will then examine properties, toxicity, manufacturing, and cost issues of these materials to determine the overall best replacement materials for each specific application. TRI will incorporate its unique experience replacing lead in U.S. Army bullets with a tungsten/nylon composite to carry out this challenging task. The successful identification of beryllium substitutes will result in the ability of the MDA to eliminate the liability caused by continued use of toxic beryllium-containing materials. The MDA has taken a leadership role in industry by establishing a cradle-to-grave mentality when procurement decisions are made. The cost of any item does not merely consist of the purchase price of an item, but in all the social and economic costs involved in the production, use, and disposal of that item. Continued use of beryllium has been determined to be a liability that the MDA is no longer willing to accept, and this work will enable that decision to be carried out with minimal impact.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Mr. Rob Kolozs
MDA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid Composites for Beryllium Substitute Materials
Abstract:Many industrial and aerospace applications use beryllium extensively due to its lightweight, high strength, thermal capabilities and other attributes. Missile defense interceptor, space, and optical sensor systems use beryllium in electronics, optical sensor mirrors, and support structures to provide lightweight, high performance solutions. However, beryllium presents environmental, cost, and producibility issues for future interceptor production programs, including it may become unavailable from a domestic source in the next few years. No single material is likely to substitute for beryllium due to its unique characteristics. Composites, both polymer and metal matrix, have unique characteristics and many of the attributes of beryllium. The ability to tailor the composites design and use manufacturing processes such as resin transfer molding to integrate other materials with the composites results in a class of "Hybrid Composites" that can be designed and manufactured to provide a beryllium substitute for a range of applications. The Hybrid Composite is a candidate for replacement of beryllium in missile defense interceptor electronics and optical sensors to provide lightweight, lower cost, and more producible alternatives. An example Hybrid Composite is a high modulus polymer composite carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) integrated with a lightweight mirror material such as Carbon/Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) composite for optical sensor mirror and support structures. This example Hybrid Composite combination has a heritage for dimensionally stable space structures such as telescopes, reflectors, and relay mirrors. The use of this type Hybrid Composite in missile defense interceptor and optical sensors will improve performance by providing key attributes of lighter weight, higher strength, high stiffness, optical performance, and nuclear hardness. A program is proposed to investigate define, develop, and demonstrate a class of Hybrid Composites as beryllium substitutes for missile defense interceptor electronic and optical sensor applications. The proposed Hybrid Composite class of materials will provide a lightweight, low cost, and more producible alternative to current beryllium components for missile defense interceptor electronics and optical sensor applications. Composite materials provide a lighter weight and higher strength and stiffness design that reduces overall system weight. RTM manufacturing processes allow for incorporation of integral composites and tailoring of materials to optimize thermal management, weight, and cost. RTM composites manufacturing processes provide aerospace quality parts, and reproducible parts. The technology base will be applicable for other industry and aerospace beryllium replacement applications.

2PHASE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 730, 33 River Vista Drive
Dayton, NV 89403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 246-0505
Dr. Linda L. Clements
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Rapid, Low-Cost, Reformable Tooling for Prototyping and Short-run Manufacturing of Advanced Composite Structures
Abstract:A major obstacle for BMD systems to the introduction of new structures and designs using high-performance composites is the time and cost of the tooling required both to prototype and test new components and to transfer accepted designs to manufacturing. The development of reformable, reusable tooling based on 2Phase Technologies' patented state-change materials will reduce the time, cost and effort associated with conventional or alternative tooling. It will also provide the flexibility for prototyping and short-run manufacture of advanced composite structures. State-change materials are produced from mixtures of liquids and solids and can be selected to permit tailoring of the required properties. They can be switched from the liquid state to the consolidated state at room temperature with no change in volume. Once in the consolidated state they can be hardened to a ceramic phase. After processing the state-change materials can be returned to the liquid state for reuse and tool reformation or modification. Building on the demonstrated capabilities for the state-change materials and reformable tooling systems, 2Phase Technologies proposes in Phase I to enhance both scale and complexity of tooling that can be created to enable the prototyping and manufacture of complex composite structures for BMD applications. The results of this research will contribute to reduced development cycles in going from "art to part" and greatly reduced costs in the procurement of tooling for prototyping and short-run manufacturing. It will have numerous commercial applications in the transportation (automotive), commercial aerospace and marine industries where this technology will decrease time-to-market, reduce per-part cost and increase short-run production efficiencies and reduce supplier costs for maintenance and repair of tooling.

ADIANT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
522 E. Jasper Dr.
Gilbert, AZ 85296
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 239-2149
Mr. Chengping Wei
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:On-Chip Optical Interconnector
Abstract:The objective of this proposed SBIR phase I work is to design, build and therefore demonstrate the feasibility of an on-chip optical interconnector. This proposed device contains a molded plastic optical connector, a fiber ribbon, an on-chip optical receptacle, VCSEL, PIN diode (arrays for multiple-channel applications), and necessary electronic circuits, all in one compact unit. The design targets high bandwidth, low-cross talk, and low mechanical profile for on-chip implementation in today_s and next generation high-performance computing systems. This device is expected to open up a new avenue for data communication and link between, e.g., central processing unit (CPU) and its peripheral counterparts at a speed and bandwidth otherwise impossible with the traditional printed circuit board (PCB). The proprietary design of this optical interconnector allows easy reconfiguration and manufacturing at low cost. With its superior data-link performance, the device is expected to find critical applications in a wide range of computing and smart electronics systems. The proposed on-chip optical interconnector is expected to find both commercial and military applications in a wide range of computing and smart electronics systems.

AET, INC.
1600 W. Eau Gallie Blvd., Suite 103
Melbourne, FL 32935
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 253-9221
Dr. Thomas J. Sanders
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes - Cost Trade-offs for Radiation Hardened Integrated Circuits
Abstract:The greatest problem that the government has in securing integrated circuits that meet its radiation hardness requirement is the extremely high cost of these parts. The cost per unit is primarily driven by two factors, unique processing requirements and low volume. Unique processes arise from the fact that many process steps used in commercial integrated circuit fabrication causes the parts to fail in a radiation environment. This leads to special, high-cost processes to be developed and this cost must be passed onto the government. AET?s solution to the problem of high cost of radiation hardened IC's is to give the government a tool necessary to understand much of the cost issues associated with these circuits. This tool will be an easy to use software program aimed at systems engineers and program managers. It will be based on detailed models for IC fabrication and cost issues. In addition, it will involve statistical analysis to facilitate performance optimization and cost reduction of IC's. AET is uniquely qualified to perform this work because of the long experience that its engineers have in radiation effects on integrated circuits. In addition, AET has vast experience in software tool development and cost modeling of semiconductors. AET is developing for MDA an easy to use software tool that will not only estimate the cost of radiation hardened IC's but will allow systems engineers and program managers to investigate alternate approaches to the affordable acquisition of new technologies for components of the ballistic missile defense system.

ALTAIR CENTER, LLC.
1 Chartwell Circle
Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 845-5349
Dr. Sergei Krivoshlykov
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturing of composite nanomaterials for MDA applications
Abstract:Employing of nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes opens new avenue in fabrication of new nanocoposite materials exhibiting quite a number of unique physical properties. ALTAIR Center proposes to develop an innovative process suitable for manufacturing of a large variety of the nanocomposite materials for various applications in MDA missions. The proposed general technology is applicable to fabrication of many materials with quite different characteristics. The simple and cost-effective process can be performed at room temperature. It does not require any expensive clean room facilities. In Phase I of this project we will prove feasibility of the proposed concept by demonstrating the innovative process. In the Phase II of the project the developed technology will be completely optimized and incorporated into a commercially viable manufacturing process. By the end of the project a prototype system for manufacturing of various nanocomposite materials ready for immediate commercialization will be developed and delivered to DoD. In addition to immediate military applications, the proposed universal technology and system for manufacturing of the nanocomposite materials will find important applications in several markets including: aerospace and automotive industry, ship building, optoelectronic and photonic, medicine, etc.

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
184 CEDAR HILL STREET
MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. George L. Gould
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Aerogel Enhanced Thermal Management Systems for STSS
Abstract:Aspen Aerogels, Inc proposes to develop and demonstrate improved insulation materials for thermal management systems in missile launch and detection platforms such as the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS). The launch weight of the STSS and operational reliability will be enhanced by flexible aerogel super insulation developed at Aspen Aerogels. New, non-dusting composites will be optimized during the Phase I program for thermal performance at 160 C at the lowest areal weight in a form that is mechanically resilient to vibrational, acoustic, and shock loads common to vehicle launch. The advantages of the proposed core material over other available insulation materials for LEO applications are: Ease of installation and retained performance for complex shapes Density less than 3 pounds per cubic foot and reduced thickness (and launch weight) Multifunctional characteristics - thermal insulation, micrometeorite protection, shock mitigation In this Phase I program Aspen Aerogels will establish key thermal performance properties of candidate thermal management stack-ups (combined thermal insulators and conductors) relevant to STSS electronics payload designs being investigated by Raytheon Corporation. In the Phase II program, various designs for integrating aerogel super-insulation materials into the STSS thermal management sub-systems will be investigated and encapsulated prototypes tested. The benefits and commercialization opportunities of this Phase I proposal include: demonstration feasibility of aerogel thermal protection material in a space flight application, translating to launch weight savings and improved operational reliability for many space platforms. The proposed technology will be applied to a broad range of military aerospace platforms as well as commercial shipping containers and avionics protection structures.

BFD, INC.
1275 Kinnear Rd.
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 487-3689
Mr. Michael Breslin
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:On Demand Rapid Tooling
Abstract:On Demand Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping are relatively new technologies that have generated significant excitement and accelerated product development. These technologies have had relatively little impact on the tool and die industry however, due to the fact that there are few (if any) techniques that produce items with acceptable strength and surface finish. Over the past decade BFD, Inc. has developed a unique material family and near-net shape processing profile (ONNEX technology). These materials have not been tested in tool applications, but based on measured high hardness, fracture toughness and thermal conductivity they should be excellent for this application. This technology shows promise for: . Rapid die turnaround (design to use in days instead of weeks), . Substantially lower die costs, . Die life competitive with tool steels, . Improved heat extraction compared to tool steel due to: - higher thermal conductivity, - optimal cooling line placement, This proposed work will focus on development and optimization of critical process technology necessary for demonstrating the applicability of ONNEX technology for tool and die applications. Phase II will further apply this technology to functional prototypes for use in commercial environments. If successful this technology should revolutionize the tool and die industry. Successful development and demonstration of ONNEX tooling for use in the plastic and metal forming industries will greatly change the fundamental rules defining these industries. ONNEX tools and dies have distinct advantages over existing tooling technology and exhibit the following characteristics: . Rapid die turnaround (design to use in days instead of weeks), . Substantially lower die costs, . Die life competitive with tool steels, . Improved heat extraction compared to tool steel due to: - higher thermal conductivity, - optimal cooling line placement. ONNEX tooling will allow more frequent design changes in metal and plastic parts to accommodate frequent model changes, and low-volume production runs enabling short lifecycle products to be marketed. These advantages will drive additional market entry opportunities with strategic partners and customers who want to exploit these valuable benefits in multiple market segments. Furthermore, tooling amortization will be lower, increasing the competitiveness of manufacturers who use these tooling systems and allowing the U.S to once again become competitive in the tooling market.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Lawrence Byrne
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Propulsive Attitude Control System on a Boom
Abstract:The DoD is currently developing advanced deployable structures for applications such as large solar arrays, large radiators, deployable booms, and radar antenna structures. Reliable, low-mass deployment actuators are considered a significant technical challenge in each of these applications. Analysis of the guidance, navigation and control requirements also show these structures to generally require integrated propulsion to maintain attitude, pointing accuracy, or provide orbit transfer capability independent of the host spacecraft. Responding to this need, Busek Co. Inc. teamed up with Composite Technology Development Inc. (CTD) to develop micropropulsion attitude control system (MPACS) integrated with a multifunctional elastic memory composite (EMC) deployable boom. Micro pulsed plasma thrusters (MPPT), integrated into MPACS cluster, offer 10-fold mass reduction relative to conventional ACS devices such as momentum wheels and torque rods and up to 1000 times greater pointing accuracy. Placing the MPACS on a deployable boom augments these advantages by increasing the actuation moment torque which in turn increases the achievable s/c roll, pitch or yaw rates while conserving propellant and power. In Phase I, Busek will focus on the MPACS development. In Phase II the MPACS and a boom fabricated by CTD will be integrated and demonstrated. The proposed development will benefit, and at times enable, various government and commercial missions, particularly those that require rapid reorientation of the s/c, and very precise pointing such as high resolution imaging and control of large space structures. Development of the boom structure that contains power and signal wiring will benefit the general field of multifunctional composites. Development of novel techniques for multifunctional EMC structure fabrication will pioneer the field.

CENYMER CORP.
2410 Trade Centre Ave
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 652-9835
Dr. Scott Joray
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturing Process for Polymer Precursors to Diamond and Diamond-Like Carbon
Abstract:A critical problem facing the electronics industry is dissipation of thermal energy. Since diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an excellent thermal conductor and electrical insulator, it is ideal for use in electronics for heat dissipation. Many prototypes have been fabricated using DLC to verify the performance improvement it offers, but the costs and practical difficulties inherent in the fabrication of DLC by other means have prevented any wide-spread market adoption. Cenymer has developed a polymer that can be converted into DLC. The polymer is applied as a fluid, then converted in an inert atmosphere at ambient pressure and low temperature to a DLC film. The key benefit of the Cenymer polymer is that it can be applied using common semiconductor manufacturing methods and rapidly converted in an inexpensive oven. This method is less expensive to our customers in capital and time and is equal in properties to CVD DLC. We can currently manufacture sufficient quantities in one day to coat a single 200 mm wafer. In Phase 1, we will build a pilot plant that will increase the quantities by 10-fold. In Phase 2, we will build a plant that can increase the output by an additional 8-fold over Phase 1. Benefits: A novel, low cost method for making polymer precursors to diamond and diamond-like carbon thin films will be made capable for pilot volume manufacturing. Applications: These diamond thin films have properties that are beneficial to the semiconductor, magnetic recording, life sciences, micro-electro-mechanical ("MEMs"), optical, metal coatings, solid lubricant and military markets.

CERACOM, INC.
200 Turnpike Road, Suite 4
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 856-4170
Dr. David Marchant
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Ceramic Composite Missile Fins
Abstract:Ceracom is developing manufacturing capabilities to produce ceramic matrix composite (CMC) fins for the PAC3 missile upgrade. This CMC fin is lighter weight, stiffer, and less expensive than the current metallic fin. Ceracom has developed an innovative enhanced vapor infiltration process to make CMC products that is significantly faster than other gas reactant processes. The ENVIT process can produce fins in various sizes in days instead of the usual weeks. Our improved manufacturing will lower the cost of fins while improving the performance. Ceracom is implementing a plan to facilitate product transition from an R&D environment to a manufacturing environment. This proposal develops the manufacturing road map to have fins available at critical times matching the needs of the PAC3 upgrade over the next several years. Because Ceracom's proposed manufacturing facility is modular and based on off-the-shelf equipment, the process can be ramped up quickly to meet urgent needs as they arise. The flexible manufacturing process will enable Ceracom to quickly scale-up many products of interest to the Missile Defense Agency, such as deployable and hinged fins. In addition, the manufacturing modules can be used to make thruster and structural members. Our project will stimulate input of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) into the missile defense programs. The manufacturing modules are for flexible, which leads to expanded capabilities of making many types of CMC products. Availability of CMC products in the marketplace can make a significant impact on commercial and government acceptance and use of CMC materials. Ceracom's manufacturing puts us in a cost competitive basis with other technologies that are currently used in fins, rocket nozzles, control surfaces, and thermal protection surfaces. Even though CMCs have superior properties for some of these applications, they have not historically been used because of restrictions on manufacturing capabilities and technologies. Ceracom's flexible manufacturing helps solve the availability issues and the technology issues to produce large parts in a timely manner.

COMPOSITE TOOLING CORP.
10909 Acoma Rd. SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 294-8120
Mr. David A. Lawrie
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Composite Tooling Corporation has investigated the potential for a modular line of high-preformance two-axis gimbals fabricated from advanced composite materials. These gimbals are based upon standard drive units that can be scaled for a particular application, allow for multiple gimbal configurations, allow for both off-axis and on-axis control technologies, and allow for dynamic performance increases through the use of alternative bearing types and precision and alternative advanced composite material selection and lamina orientations. CSA Engineering has developed an innovative control system based on Adaptive Filtering and Disturbance Feedforward (AFDF). This approach offers significant potential for improving gimbal performance over conventional gimbal control systems through real-time identification and removal of the feedback disturbance effects from the feedback signal, with no effect on the feedback signal. AFDF potentially offers reduction of structural disturbances by several orders of magnitude, and naturally adapts to variations in various disturbance paths. An innovative modular gimbal design, utilizing advanced composites, when used with an advanced AFDF control system, offers a more timely and economic high-performance gimbal system for the multitude of threat detection and response sensors now under development. A high-performance line of advanced composite two-axis gimbals for airborne and space applications incorporating advanced AFDF control systems.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Stephen D. Vining
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Production Technology for Replica Seeker Mirrors
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to integrate advanced materials and processes into a fabrication technology system addressing the drawbacks of conventional materials and fabrication processes for mirrors used in seeker optics for interceptor missiles. In this new approach, mirrors will be produced by replicating an optical quality master mold. Grinding and polishing steps to achieve optical figure and finish will be accomplished on the mold, rather than the actual mirror. This will dramatically simplify the mirror fabrication process, thereby enabling dramatically less expensive tooling than current practice for mirrors composed of glass, metal, or advanced materials. Further, in production lots of identical mirrors (e.g., for interceptor missile systems), the replication approach to fabrication will provide radical reduction in cost by eliminating the lengthy, expensive grinding and polishing processes for individual mirrors. The replica fabrication therefore will provide an affordable approach to using advanced structural materials (e.g., SiC, metal matrix composites) to attain reduced mirror mass while achieving strength, stiffness, and thermal properties optimized for interceptor seeker optics. Development of this new replica fabrication technology will exploit and extend recent advancements in polymers, advanced structural materials, and process technologies resulting from CRG's and its partner's SBIR and commercial R&D. Operational Benefits: (1) Reduced cycle time for producing mirrors: In production runs of identical mirrors, fabrication rate will be on the order of mirrors/day instead of the current days/mirror; (2) Simpler grinding and polishing processes: Accomplished on easily-processed mold material (glass or metal) instead of on difficult-to-process mirror materials (e.g., SiC or metal matrix composites); (3) Affordable exploitation of advanced mirror materials: Removes cost barrier to using advanced materials with lower mass density and better structural and thermal properties than glass or metals. Commercial Applications: (1) Sensor optics for aerospace systems; (2) Transmission optics for directed energy systems; (3) Lightweight inexpensive research and consumer-level telescopes.

COVA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5061 North 30th Street, Suite 105
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 538-9030
Dr. Viorel Olariu
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:MFMISFET based memory cell
Abstract:Nonvolatile semiconductor memory is critical in many DOD applications - particularly when radiation hardening is required. Ferroelectric memory technology offers superior performance, notably better write-endurance and write-speed, lower power consumption and it is not subject to the scaling limitations of other technologies. We propose to develop a ferroelectric memory cell based on the MFMISFET device using both metal layers as control terminals. While the MFMISFET technology is somewhat more complex than MFISFET technology, the innovative design proposed will result in a much more reliable memory cell. In Phase I, COVA Technologies will develop a simple experimental circuit to validate the fundamental technology. A comprehensive circuit model for the MFMISFET will be developed and validated using test data from the experimental circuit. The model will also be used to simulate several memory array architectures with MFMISFET cells to validate reliable programmability and readability. In Phase II we will build a test chip. We will fully characterize these devices and determine the write/read performances, endurance, retention and particularly the disturb limits of the proposed cells. In Phase III we will commercialize the technology with the assistance of a Strategic Partner by designing and manufacturing high-density ferroelectric memories based on the MFMISFET cell. The nonvolatile semiconductor memory market is very large (~$10 billion), currently dominated by flash memory. However, it is recognized in the industry that flash will run out of steam in about two technology generations. Ferroelectric memories are one of the most attractive next generation technologies. The proposed ferroelectric technology with one transistor as the only element and a MFMIS structure (metal-ferroelectric -metal-insulator-silicon) has the potential of penetrating the flash memory market since it will preserve the cost advantages of a product with a small cell size based on a single ferroelectric transistor, but increase the robustness and reliability of the memory cell with the addition of an extra electrode. The proposed technology is inherently radiation hard, an important attribute for military applications.

DIAMOND MATERIALS, INC.
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 885-0805
Dr. Oleg A. Voronov
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Carbon Ceramic Composites for Thermally-resistant Bearings
Abstract:We propose improvements in the high pressure sintering of fullerenes-derived carbon ceramics and composites, known as Diamonites(TM), for thermally-resistant, non-lubricated, high-temperature sliding fits and high-speed roller bearings. Our measurements show that the new carbon ceramics are thermally stable to 3000C, harder than hardened tool steel, and lower friction coefficient than graphite and diamond. Our latest results demonstrate that Diamonite(TM)-B, synthesized from mixed fullerenes, is more amenable to scaling and is lower cost than Diamonite(TM)-A, which is synthesized from phase pure C60. Moreover, Diamonite(TM)B-bonded composites, including C/C, C/hydrogen, and C/diamond, can be processed economically on a relatively large scale. In Phase I, we will focus on proof-of-principle development of composite rollers and sliding fits for precision bearings. The technology developed in Phase I will enable implementation of new lightweight thermally-resistant, low friction C-base composites into a wide range of bearing applications in Phase II and III, including space vehicles and aircraft. This work will be carried out in collaboration with leading producers of bearings. Carbon composites will also benefit solid fuel booster nozzle inserts and re-entry-body thermal protection.

DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Mr. Matthew W. Thompson
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional Titanium-(Titanium-Aluminide) Metallic-Intermetallic Laminate Composites for Tough, Low Cost, and Lightweight Missile Components
Abstract:High performance metallic structural materials, such as aluminum, titanium, steel, and beryllium, are used in many missile defense interceptor subsystem components to provide high structural and thermal performance for the lightest weight and lowest cost design approaches. Each metallic material has strengths and weaknesses to meet an interceptor component's key performance design requirements, such as stiffness, strength, toughness, temperature capability, thermal management properties, vibration damping, etc. It is difficult to select a single metallic material to provide the optimum solution for combined structural and thermal management applications. Beryllium comes the closest, due to its lightweight, high strength, thermal capabilities and other attributes. However, beryllium presents environmental, cost, and producibility issues for future interceptor production programs. Aluminum provides higher thermal conductivity and a good alternative for thermal management applications, but at reduced specific stiffness. Titanium provides a tough, high strength structural alternative, especially for higher temperature applications, but at a reduced thermal management cost. Steel provides a low cost, high modulus and strength structural alternative, but with significant weight penalties. Composites, including fiber reinforced metal, polymer, and ceramic matrix, are advanced alternatives, but lower cost manufacturing processes are required. Recent research has demonstrated technology for a new class of metallic structural materials called Metal-Intermetallic Laminate (MIL) composites that allows the synthesis of multifunctional composites tailored to optimize structural, thermal, and other properties. A Titanium-(Titanium-Aluminide) MIL (Ti-Al3Ti MIL) composite has the desired properties of toughness, high specific stiffness and strength, thermal management, and vibration-damping properties for multifunctional materials applications for missile defense interceptors. The Ti-Al3Ti MIL composite is a candidate for replacement of beryllium, titanium, aluminum, and steel components in missile defense interceptor airframe and electronic subsystem structural and thermal management components. A program is proposed to demonstrate the Ti-Al3Ti MIL composites concept's multifunctionality and weight payoffs, scale-up of the manufacturing technology to representative missile components, and low cost manufacturing potential for missile defense interceptor applications such as EKV and THAAD. The proposed Ti-Al3Ti MIL composite materials concept will provide a lightweight, low cost, and more producible alternative to current advanced metallics such as beryllium, titanium, aluminum and steel components for missile defense interceptor airframe and electronics support structures applications. The Ti-Al3TI MIL composite concept combines the best attributes of titanium and aluminum in a low cost materials and manufacturing approach, with the added advantage of the resulting aluminide having significantly higher specific stiffness and thermal properties than either Ti or Al alone. Multifunctional materials solutions are expected to meet combined structural, thermal management, vibration damping, and other design requirements. The technology base will be applicable for other industry and aerospace applications for missiles and electronics packaging.

EBARA SOLAR, INC.
13 Airport Road
Belle Vernon, PA 15012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 379-2004
Dr. Daniel L. Meier
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes - Bifacial Web Cell with Reflector
Abstract:Solar cells are used as power sources for air platforms and space platforms in ballistic missile defense systems. EBARA Solar, Inc. (ESI) currently manufactures solar cells from its thin (100 mm) dendritic web silicon crystals. These cells offer an attractive combination of low cost and high specific power (W/kg) for stratospheric applications. ESI is partnering with Worldwide Aeros to provide lightweight solar modules for the High Altitude Airship (HAA) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration program. ESI is also supplying Global Aerospace Corporation with custom-designed modules for its NASA-sponsored stratospheric satellite (balloon) demonstration. An opportunity exists to improve the performance of the dendritic web silicon cells by allowing them to receive light from both sides (bifacial) rather than from the front side only, as is the current practice. This proposed Phase 1 SBIR project is aimed at expanding ESI's manufacturing process to produce, at minimal additional cost, bifacial cells and modules which exploit the benefits of these cells. An embodiment which will receive particular attention is the incorporation of a reflecting surface into a module having dendritic web silicon bifacial cells. This reflector/bifacial cell combination increases the power output by allowing the cells to absorb more light while running cooler. Immediate benefits of the bifacial cell with reflector technology could be realized by the MDA High Altitude Airship program. By using dendritic web, the cost and specific power are already attractive. With the subject technology development, specific power would be further increased, and cell temperatures would be significantly decreased leading to lower airship temperatures and possible reliability and cost savings in the airship envelope (lower temperature/pressures). The timing of the HAA program is such that a successful Phase II would enable production of these cells for the full airship array deployment. Benefits to other DoD and NASA applications such as low earth orbit satellites, drone planes, stratospheric balloons, and high altitude reconnaissance planes would be apparent due to the low cost, high specific power bifacial cells in a non-reflector mode. These applications would essentially benefit from addition power by collecting albedo as well as primary sunlight. Both commercial and government terrestrial applications could benefit from these cells. Applications where these bifacial cells could be used to improve performance over standard flat panel modules include concentrator modules, bifacial cusp reflector modules, and polar / maritime applications where a reflective background can be used to direct additional power to the back of the modules. Both efficiency and cost per watt for these modules would be projected to be lower than conventional flat plate power modules.

ESSEX CORP.
9150 Guilford Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 953-7875
Mr. Keith Frampton
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes: Advanced Optical Processor Insertion
Abstract:The projected ballistic missile defense (BMD) threat environment is extremely challenging. The linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveforms used by current radars have limitations in these projected environments. The use of advanced waveforms is desired for these imaging tasks, but they require both wideband analog-to-digital converters and intensive digital processing. Optical front-end receivers have been shown to have significant advantages over wideband all-digital processing. Under previous efforts, Essex developed an opto-electronic radar signal processor, called the Advanced Optical Processor (AOP). The AOP permits the use of advanced waveforms, such as pseudo-random number (PRN) codes and chaotic waveforms. A second generation AOP is currently being developed and soon to be tested at both MIT/LL and KMR with the ALCOR radar. The AOP characteristics indicate that this radar image formation technology can be used to support the challenges posed by modern ballistic missile defense threat environments in the near future for both discrimination and kill assessment. In anticipation of a successful KMR test, this proposed work is needed to determine the desired requirements of selected Missile Defense Agency (MDA) radars for insertion of the AOP technology. Essex will also determine the short-term and long-term costs associated with this insertion. The commercial use of this product could be of benefit to all imaging radars where high fidelity is needed, particularly in dense object and interference environments. This technology is projected to be extremely useful in most missile defense radars. Essex has received interest in this technology from Lockheed-Martin (Moorestown, NJ and Syracuse, NY) for both US Navy and European radar systems. Raytheon and Boeing are also being contacted to discuss inclusion of this technology into future radar systems.

FMW COMPOSITE SYSTEMS, INC.
168 W. Main Street
Clarksburg, WV 26301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 842-1970
Dr. William Hanusiak
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:The development of titanium matrix composites (TMC) provides the MDA with an ideal lightweight material for lowering missile inert structure weight; thus, improving performance. This material has the strength of steel at approximately half the weight. One attractive application is the propellant tanks of divert and attitude control systems. The advantage of additional strength over conventional titanium propellant tanks allows decreased weight or higher pressure capability. This proposal combines a promising low-cost TMC approach, one that uses aligned discontinuous TMC wind in a filament wound configuration to provide a lightweight, high-pressure tank. Combining this technology with a promising green propellant approach, the resulting system provides higher performance than the conventional hydrazine: +25% on a density impulse basis and 6.7% on an Isp basis. The proposed program will establish the technical feasibility of the proposed concept and provide a detailed system design for Phase II fabrication. The basic technical feasibility will be demonstrated in the Phase I activity and a full-scale unit fabricated and tested in Phase II. The system will then be marketed to all MDA primes (Boeing, Raytheon & Lockheed) for incorporation in Navy ABM and ground-based systems under the spiral development concept. After the concept is successfully tested, it will also have broad application to space launch and commercial satellite ACS markets as the concept is expanded into a bipropellant configuration. SBIR or IHPRPT funds will be sought for this transition. The concept ultimately has the potential to replace hydrazine systems for the entire launch and satellite market.

H&R TECHNOLOGY, INC.
95 Rock Street, 3d Floor
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 453-6400
Mr. Joshua Rabinovich
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Solid and liquid rocket propulsion systems including hot gas generators, liquid bi-propellant thrusters and Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS) are used in commercial space applications and by the department of defense. These propulsion systems require components, such as for example hot gas valves and trust chambers, which must operate at high temperatures, pressures and often extremely oxidizing environments. Rhenium and Columbium alloys offer attractive high-temperature properties for use in these aerospace applications. However, traditional methods of manufacturing with powder metallurgy and CVD are time consuming, have high production costs and rejection rates. The advanced manufacturing process that can offer net shape fabrication of rocket engine components from rhenium and other refractory metals promises to revolutionize the cost and time of development of these complex components by eliminating the need for fixed tooling and high running costs associated with existing processes. The proposed PMD low heat input flat metal wire laser deposition process shows promise in addressing issues with current technologies and has the potential for rapid net-shape manufacturing of refractory components with improved micro-structural characteristics in exotic high temperature metals such as Rhenium or Columbium. The nation will benefit from a United States manufacturing base for an advanced process and a system capable of low heat and low distortion net shape rapid manufacturing. Such a system will enhance capabilities for manufacturing of components, with high temperature properties, for use in missile, rocket, space vehicle and satellite propulsion systems.

INTEGRATED MICRO SENSORS
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston, TX 77096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 743-3621
Dr. David Starikov
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:The objective of this project is to improve bonding of dissimilar materials by employment of micro column arrays fabricated by laser ablation. Applications of ceramics have been limited because the stability and hardness that makes them so desirable, also limits the ability to attach them to other components such as: titanium, beryllium, tungsten, nickel alloys, and even diamonds. Mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion of metals and ceramics is critical for any method utilized in making the metal-ceramics joints since elevated temperatures are usually required. We propose here a solution to the problem that relies on increasing the joint area by orders of magnitude via laser-assisted formation of self-organized periodic micro column array structures. The proposed technology will significantly improve methods based on adhesives and epoxies or methods based on high-temperature brazing. The method is applicable to a large variety of both ceramics and metals. Laser-assisted enhancement of the bonding and heat dissipation properties is easily scalable. Improvement of the bonding strength can be easily estimated quantitatively.

INTERMAT
389 Hill St.
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 283-1156
Mr. Timothy E. Dominick
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost, High Performance Small Nozzle Carbon-Carbon Materials
Abstract:The proposed program will investigate the application of advanced manufacturing processes to the development of low-cost, high performance 3D C/C for small nozzle materials. Through the use of automated weaving, pultruded rods, and accelerated processing, it is anticipated that a minimum cost reduction of 25% can be achieved for manufacturing costs. A sample 3D C/C billet will be manufactured and densified that demonstrates the advanced manufacturing techniques and the associated cost reductions. The sample billet will produce two test articles, which ATK/Elkton will test fire to provide a data point for comparison to standard processed C/C. Finally, Phase I will produce a plan for Phase II that will look to identify further cost reductions and expand on the application and knowledge for these new materials. The direct benefit of this Phase I SBIR will be the demonstration of significant cost reduction in the manufacture of 3D C/C materials for small nozzles. The use of innovative manufacturing methods will facilitate faster introduction of these materials into BMD systems. Commercial and DoD systems alike will benefit by being able to introduce higher performing materials in applications where cost previously prohibited the use. Furthermore, it is expected that this research will be the initial step in the development of a family of low-cost, high performance C/C nozzle materials.

INTUITIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 240
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-9300
Mr. Harold Brewer
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Real Time Missile Health Monitoring System
Abstract:The objective of this project is to study the feasibility of transferring the RRAPDS technology onto the THAAD missile system. The Remote Readiness Asset Prognostic and Diagnostic System (RRAPDS) is being developed by the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, Research, Development, and Engineering Center to provide an integrated health/condition monitoring system delivering advanced asset diagnostics/prognostics while tactically deployed, stored, and/or being transported. Smart diagnostics/prognostics strategies improve reliability, maintainability, availability and enable predictions of critical system failures initiating supply and maintenance actions streamlining logistics, determining missile/munitions shelf life and providing information needed for reduced sustainment costs. This Phase I effort will leverage off the current RRAPDS design to develop the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Missile System RRAPDS. The THAAD RRAPDS will utilize existing, emerging and future technologies to achieve parametric condition. This effort and these technology advancements enable real-time access of source data and create higher efficiency mission planning/performance. This project and the benefits derived upon a successful Phase II implementation have a strong endorsement (See Attachment 1) by the THAAD Project Office. The results will significantly increase reliability and demonstrate the feasibility of applying RRAPDS across all MDA systems providing opportunities for reduced operating and support costs. RRAPDS offers the DoD community the capability to detect the elements that cause degradation and facilitates true predictive deterioration analysis. RRAPDS would significantly improve the stockpile management process and improved efficiencies will reduce operation and support costs. Current inspection procedures are largely visually based. Although all stocks may not be exposed to the same environmental extremes, without accurate data, a worst-case scenario must be applied across the board. High mainte-nance costs are therefore incurred when stocks must be labeled as returns. Through implementation of RRAPDS, history can be obtained for the entire stockpile. An important element of RRAPDS is its tie in to predictive engineering accelerated aging studies and models with the objective of providing early prediction of whether an item will survive the unique 20+ year life cycle environment of Army material. Predictive engineering provides tools and methods aimed at reducing premature degradation and/or failure of weapon systems in storage or operational use. The key is to provide products that are optimized (i.e. safety, performance and longevity) for an entire life cy-cle thereby reducing the total ownership cost. This is accomplished by (1) ensuring that the product de-sign and production processes will yield robust products insensitive to both storage and use environments, and (2) extending shelf/service life, improving stockpile management through applications of proactive models, and providing more efficient product evaluation after products are fielded. Through the use of predictive technologies, data collected from RRAPDS will provide designers with a better understanding of an asset's environment when tactically deployed, in storage or in transit. Predictive engineering will reduce the total cost of ownership by helping to identify, eliminate, or mitigate critical design weak links, sensitive processes and operational and storage sensitivities/incompatibilities that precipitate the degradation of systems in storage or operational use. Accelerated conditioning can be used to simulate the aging phenomenon. Feedback from the field will enable continuous munition reliability and design improvements by assisting in identifying failure mechanisms. Models can be developed that predict shelf/service life impacting future safety, reliability, and performance of weapon systems.

INVENTEK CORP.
320 Willow Street
New Lenox, IL 60451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(815) 483-9564
Mr. Thomas D. Kaun
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:This SBIR provides an opportunity to reduce unit cost by 25% and improve reliability through production of thermal batteries by a continuous process. This process uses Inventek's ceramic fiber separator CFS to act as a carrier for the fabrication of thin thermal cells through a tunnel kiln. CFS fiber paper exhibits about 20 times greater strength than the standard pressed MgO pellet. Thin separator is required to take advantage of thin electrode. CFS has also demonstrated high power performance that is not limited by cell size. This process will first be adapted to conventional pellet electrode production. Thin (0.25 mm), flexible, ceramic fiber paper can be a substrate for the application of electrode materials by alternative methods (e.g. tapecasting). The modulus of rupture, MOR, of our typical CFS fiber paper exhibits about 20 times greater strength than the standard pressed MgO pellet. With the high-strength CFS separator, continuous electrode production methods are also enabled. Our recent market evaluation found that about 50% of thermal battery costs are a result of slow pellet component production and "hands-on" assembly. Automated assembly is limited by the handling strength of pressed-pellet components. By taking advantage of the unique properties of its ceramic fiber separator (CFS), InvenTek is developing techniques for continuous pellet production for a 25% reduction in thermal battery component cost. Modest-sized equipment, at 75% reduced floor-space, can increase production rate by 40 fold over pellet pressing methods that are currently used. Other features, automated pellet inspection for chips and cracks will improve battery reliability. A system of sensors, automated transfer, tunnel kiln, and computer control must be user friendly for adaptation. The Phase I project assesses integration of CFS into current process and proposes options for continuous electrode production. We will collaborate with a thermal battery manufacturer to demonstrate cost-effective, continuous process for battery production in Phase II. Continuous manufacturing of thermal batteries can improve missile defense systems with higher performance and greater reliability for strategic defense (such as Patriot/PAC-3 and THAAD) and with 25% reduced battery cost. New low-cost manufacturing techniques can address future requirements for emerging applications in antiterrorism and generate commercial uses as in emergency power systems, such as for aircraft.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8785
Mr. James Yamaguchi
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Thin Film on Stack (TFS) FPA
Abstract:The objective of the Phase I SBIR effort is to develop and demonstrate novel Thin film on Stack (TFS) FPA detector concepts that will enable economically feasible acquisition of smaller, lighter, more powerful imaging/processing components for the ballistic missile defense system. Irvine Sensors proposes to combine its stacked silicon technology with photo-conductive coating technologies from TREX Enterprises Corporation. The photo-conductive coatings are not only lower cost than conventional detector arrays, but offer promise of easier alignment and processing of staking technology. On the other hand, stacking technology offers the promise of extensive signal processing and easy fabrication of curved focal planes and large arrays made of buttable modules. By accurately curving the focal plane, optics designs can in some applications be simplified leading to lower overall sensor size weight and cost. The combination of both technologies have promise for small, inexpensive, powerful, very high resolution, sensors with less than 7 micron pixel size. The proposed innovation will find use in image systems on all platforms, for military space, Air Force, commercial aviation, ATR, and commercial space.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
110 Gibraltar Road, Suite 223
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-6580
Mr. Mark Montesano
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Space-Based Radar is a new major defense acquisition program started in 2001. The main program objective is to field, beginning in 2008, a space borne capability for theater commanders to track moving targets. The 2003 focus includes technology risk reduction and concept development. Consistent with this focus, k Technology (kTC), under contract to a systems prime, has performed trade studies for development of a manufacturable and affordable high performance cold shield for satellites. The shield is designed to satisfy both the structural and thermal management requirements of a space based platform. These studies show use of encapsulated annealed pyrolytic graphite (APG) for cold shield panels reduces weight and delta temperature relative to aluminum panels by up to 31% and 69%, respectively. However, the relatively large (1m x 1m) APG panel assemblies have substantial manufacturing process risk. To enable their use, kTC proposes to develop and verify a low-risk process to make large panels and concomitantly develop structurally efficient panel joints with low thermal resistance. To this end, working with the systems prime, kTC will develop cold shield requirements, identify viable designs/processes, develop a joining technique, design and build a assembly for salient tests, and demonstrate the viability through testing. Under the proposed effort, the successful fabrication of a portion of a satellite cold shield will show that large, high thermal conductivity panels can be produced and assembled into high performance structures such as the cold shield. The evaluation of the panels will provide actual performance data of the concept. This data will be used to improve the design, analysis, and fabrication process of flight panels. The design and analysis of a cold shield panel joint will provide know-how to efficiently manufacture and join two large flat panels of encapsulated APG. Moreover, the evaluation of the joints will provide actual performance data of the concept. In doing the foregoing, the cost and risk of fabricating and assembling large panels with high thermal conductance will be reduced. Consequently, the high payoff technology will become attractive to system primes for specific targeted MDA space programs. In addition, these data will be used to improve the design and analysis of future panel assemblies. The large panels assemblies can be used in a wide variety of aerospace applications such as telecommunications satellites and therefore have a significant market potential.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Mr. Drew Hanser
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturng Process for Production of Doped GaN Crystals
Abstract:Kyma Technologies will use its proprietary manufacturing technique for growth of bulk GaN doped substrates. We propose to develop gallium nitride (GaN) substrates with n- and p- type dopants for device fabrication. Attempts to grow low defect density gallium nitride (GaN) thin films on substrates such as sapphire and silicon carbide (SiC) have had limited success. As such, homoepitaxial GaN thin film growth is of great interest. GaN wafers manufactured by Kyma Technologies will be used as the seed for growing doped GaN crystals. Doped GaN wafers will be useful in developing various types of microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. The limiting factors in many high performance applications based on GaN and related materials can be attributed directly to material defects in epitaxially grown layers. The development of a low defect density doped GaN substrate will result in improved properties of epitaxial GaN films, and subsequently will improve the performance of GaN-based devices. Achieving low defect density, free standing GaN layers will enable many of these technologies to be commercialized. Single crystal gallium nitride will be the future building block for many commercial devices. Low defect density gallium nitride films will benefit many microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. This material will lead to the commercialization of blue lasers in data storage and solid state white LED lighting. Homoepitaxial growth of gallium nitride on single crystal gallium nitride substrates will result in improved device performance such as increased lifetime and brightness in optoelectronics and increase power and frequency in microelectronic devices.

LINDEN PHOTONICS, INC.
270 Littleton Road, Unit #29
Westford, MA 01886
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 392-7985
Dr. Amaresh Mahapatra
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened Electronics
Abstract:Missile seekers, avionics and other sophisticated weaponry rely on innovations in electronics such as faster processors, greater memory capacity and MEMS reconfigurable switches. However, these systems are required to survive and operate in hostile radiation environments. Since 1994 DoD has relied Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) based procurement of electronic components. The goals of this effort have been to buy more commercial products to reduce cost. The problem is that parts acquired through the COTS system are not necessarily radiation hardened. While defense electronics was once 60 to 70 % of the electronics industry in the early 1960's it is now less than a % of the $150 billion market. Clearly COTS needs to be used to reduce cost. Therefore innovative techniques to increase the radiation hardness of COTS acquired components without eliminating the cost reductions of COTS are needed. Hardening techniques that change the wafer level design of the component defeat the whole point of COTS since there is no longer the economy of scale. We propose a novel technique for use of novel materials for localized, wafer conformable coatings that dramatically improving the radiation hardness without degrading device performance or requiring wafer design and simultaneously providing hermetic sealing Will enable silicon microcircuit and MEMS deployment in space using radiation hard packaging. Dual use in low cost hermetic packaging of optoelectronic components for telecommunication systems -- EMLs, arrayed waveguides, tunable lasers.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Jennifer Hoyt-Lalli
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Thermally Conductive Nanocomposites for Missile Electronics Packaging
Abstract:The objective of the proposed program is to develop and transition thermally and electrically conductive nanocomposites for improved packaging and thermal control in missile defense electronic modules and systems. During Phase I, NanoSonic would work with a major U.S. military electronics manufacturer to analyze potential improvements in performance and reductions in cost associated with the manufacturing of electronic systems using these materials. Novel random poly(dimethyl-co-methylhydrido-co-3-cyanopropylmet hyl)siloxanes, containing controlled concentrations of pendent crosslinkable sites and functional groups capable of complexing noble metal and metal oxide nanoclusters or carbon nanotubes, would be synthesized. Such highly-filled networks could be crosslinked by platinum-catalyzed hydrosilations or room temperature vulcanizations. Importantly, these novel low modulus nanocomposite adhesives can be used to bond materials having highly mismatched CTEs, and would 1) offer superior chemical resistance, 2) remain flexible well below subambient conditions, and 3) provide significantly greater adhesive strength than typical polysiloxanes. Recent work by NanoSonic has demonstrated very high electrical and thermal conductivities in polyorganosiloxane-based nanocomposites incorporating Ag and AlN nanoclusters, respectively. Since thermal and electrical conductivity through bondlines depends upon bond thickness, nanosized inclusions lead to high conductivity. Materials would be evaluated by our defense electronics partner for Phase II transition into its current manufacturing systems. Potential Commercial Applications The primary commercial application of these materials is as low-cost, lightweight polymer-based replacements for high-temperature and environmentally-unfriendly lead-based solders for electronic component, module and system electrical interconnection, and physically heavy metals for thermal management. Military, industrial and consumer products that are soldered together or that use metal heat sinks and vias could benefit in lower weight and lower cost. Low temperature curing of such conductive nanocomposites would allow the electrical and thermal interconnection of materials and devices that may be damaged by thermal dwell times required for electronic dip solder processing.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
DBA Nova Biomimetics, 320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Low-Noise Evaluation of Missile Intercept Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:This proposal describes the development of a new class of test equipment designed specifically to quantify performance of 3rd generation FPA devices. The test equipment will have the capability of measuring 16 bit or better noise performance, with noise floors in the range of 100 microvolts, whereas current systems can only achieve noise floors of 160uV. The program will: (a) Estimate performance requirements of test hardware required to produce a accurate assessment of 3rd generation 2-color FPA performance. (b) Evaluate potential options that achieve the goal of developing and assembling low-noise, high-performance test stations. (c) Outline specific implementations for test systems that meet the needed low noise performance. Nova Biomimetics is uniquely suited for the implementation of such low-noise test systems based on our recent development of very flexible test and evaluation electronics for various infrared FPAs. This program will analyze and define the test hardware configuration to be developed and implemented under Phase II. The developed low-noise test system will satisfy critical 2-color focal plane testing requirements in support of MDA's Seabase Light-Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) 2-color effort. These new test sets will represent an important element in the advancement of this technology and future FPA advancements. The resulting test equipment developed through the course of the Phase II effort will meet the low noise requirements for the evaluation of both present and future LEAP 2-color focal plane arrays (FPA).

NOVAWAVE TECHNOLOGIES
40 Burgoyne Ct.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 341-3948
Dr. James J. Scherer
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:In-Situ Precision Reflectometer for ABL Coating Systems
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a sensitive, in-situ coating metrology instrument that is capable of characterizing very low absorption (VLA) coatings during deposition. The new instrumentation will be capable of rapidly and accurately determining the quality of VLA coatings in real time during the coating process. The Phase I research will determine feasibility for the system by demonstrating a bench top version of the core platform as well as identifying suitable subcomponents that will be required for the Phase II Prototype. The ability to measure and quantify critical optical parameters in high-energy infrared optics will be directly demonstrated, and the expected performance of the Phase II prototype will be inferred from the Phase I results. The proposed instrument will assist in the development, quality control, and optimization of high-energy laser (HEL) optical components. The technology will impact government, military, and commercial sectors, providing a valuable new diagnostic capability for thin film coating systems.

PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES
10070 Carroll Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 578-9400
Mr. Eric B. Takeuchi
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Thin-film optical coating processes for ABL/SBL platforms
Abstract:The proposed program has been constructed to develop an anisotropic multilayer coating technology that offers to revolutionize a broad range of optical components; such components extending to normal-incidence polarizers and phase shifters, variable laser output couplers, and antireflection coatings for birefringent substrates. When developed, this technology can offer a reduction in the number of components required for laser and optical systems, thereby improving manufacturability and reducing size and cost. The applicability of anisotropic technology to the Airborne Laser (ABL) is self-evident. Anisotropic coatings for the ABL Track Illuminator Laser, for example, will eliminate two elements from the laser beampath while, simultaneously, effecting a highly beneficial reduction in beampath length. Applied by e-beam bideposition, coatings explored to date involve refractory oxides and silicon-on-silicon. Oxide coatings provide ruggedness together with low absorption and high laser damage threshold. Meanwhile, silicon-on-silicon coatings form a natural bridge between the fields of photonics and semiconductor electronics. Furthermore, this technology also blends with the exciting new field of nanophotonics and devices. Successful development of anisotropic dielectric coatings, particularly those employing silicon-on-silicon, will enable a host of novel optical devices and will improve the performance of numerous devices that now employ conventional coatings. As such, we expect such coatings to form the basis of an entirely new segment of the optical fabrication industry. Additionally, we believe that this technology will enable us to produce nanometer-scale structures; those structures being applicable in the field of nanophotonics.

QUICKFLEX, INC.
8409 Cambria
Austin, TX 78717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-3703
Ms. Chreyl Eslinger
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:One-Size-Fits-All Hardened Electronic Design and Test Platform
Abstract:Modern FPGA design methodology can aid engineers in the creation of circuit architectures capable of detecting radiation-induced failures and reconfiguring on-the-fly. However, verification tools are not presently available to validate the hardened design. QuickFlex proven, standardized, system-level management of FPGAs will be used to create a hardware testing platform combined with ASC's design optimization software. Benchmark testable designs will validate the system. The innovative system can reconfigure hardware to enable rapid correction of errors due to transient single-event upset (SEU). During Phase I we will specify the requirements for the design software, the test platform and the integration process to create a "one size fits all" standardized platform. The platform can be used for large and small designs. This innovative platform can also be used for rapid redesign and test of mission critical circuits for the space environment. In Phase II the hardware and software for developing and testing radiation-hardened electronics will be fully developed beyond the proof of concept. This standardized design and test platform will produce tested hardened circuits, with the same SEU tolerance as circuits made by traditional methods, with less weight, cost, and power. This innovative solution for hardened design and test provides a reusable standardized platform for all contractors and developers. The production units will deliver a consistent testing platform for future design and redesign of mission critical missile and space electronic systems. This solution is in the Electronic System-Level Design (ESL) market. The big story for the next decade will be the move to ESL solutions (Dataquest, 2000). The combination of the standardized test platform and triple modular redundancy (TMR) hardened design tool gives DOD contractors and commercial businesses the key solution to produce hardened designs with less weight, cost, and power.

REMETAL
132 Bartlett Avenue
Belmont, MA 02478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 489-8671
Dr. Maxim Seleznev
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Novel technological process for manufacturing of layered composite materials for electronic thermal management applications
Abstract:Directly Bonded Copper (DBC) is one of the CTE matching materials that is being widely used for IGBT power modules, power hybrids, smartpower building blocks, solid state relays, electronic heating devices and as building blocks for automobile, military and aerospace electronics. Existing methods for fabrication of that material are very expensive. A new method for fabrication of copper/AlN/copper is proposed. That method will allow significant reduction in cost without sacrifice in thermal and electrical properties of that material. This method will also have significant technological advantages over existing methods. These two factors combined will not only allow to substitute DBC with the copper/AlN/copper composite material produced by using this new method in existing applications but will also enable to use that composite for new products. The main anticipated benefit is development of a new process for fabrication of copper/AlN/copper layered composite materials. New fabrication process will allow significant cost savings compared to the existing methods of fabrication for that composite material.

SOUTH BAY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
7525 W. 81st St.,
Playa del Rey, CA 90293
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 337-7230
Mr. John Ikegami
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:Cryocoolers are an enabling technology for many space-based infrared (IR) sensors. With industry-wide improvements in lifetime and reliability, closed-cycle mechanical cryocoolers have become the accepted baseline technology for most cryogenically-cooled sensors. The IR sensor community has found that the majority of cryocooling needs are best met with a modified Stirling refrigeration cycle. These reciprocating cryocoolers are available in two basic embodiments at present, the Stirling and the pulse tube. The Stirling cryocooler utilizes a mechanical displacer piston to create the expansion (refrigeration) power, while the pulse tube creates expansion power passively through the oscillation of a "gas piston" that simulates the function of the Stirling's mechanical displacer. However, these long-life units remain costly to procure. Design changes to the cryocooler that ease the sensor integration and thereby reduce the design impact on the system yield producibility improvements at the sensor level as well. Such cryocooler design changes include reduced weight and/or size, easily accessible thermal and mechanical interfaces, and reduced vibration output. The proposed program will identify the cost drivers and provide solutions that will reduce the production cost while preserving the reliability and performance of the cryocoolers with the ultimate goal of improving IR sensor producibility. Space cryocoolers are an immediate need to the military for space-based thermal imaging sensors. The recent War on Terror, have accentuated the need for space-based surveillance and reconnaissance. There are also important civilian applications of producible cryocoolers. Substantial cost reductions may make the Oxford class technology commercially viable for gas liquefaction, magnetic resonance imaging, laboratory and university research labs, and other such non-military, non-space applications. Producibility improvement, cost reduction, and size reduction in the cryocoolers may also open up opportunities for Oxford class cryocoolers in the military tactical marketplace.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Jay Schwartz
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Silicon Carbide Steering Mirrors for High Energy Laser Applications
Abstract:SSGPO proposes the demonstration of a cost effective process for producing SiC optics for high thermal load mirror applications. SiC optics provide the combination of high specific stiffness for highly lightweighted mirrors and high thermal stability for dimensional stability and thermal management under extreme thermal loads. The fabrication process utilizes two advanced manufacturing techniques to produce rapid turn around/cost effective optics. SSGPO's slip cast forming process provides near net shaped mirror substrates that require minimal post-machining. In addition, the casting process allows multiple components to be produced using the same tooling. The second technique is computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) for achieving highly accurate surface figures through a deterministic, computer controlled sub-aperture polishing process. In Phase I a SiC fast steering mirror will be designed for the Airborne Laser Program. SiC provides an excellent solution for this requirement. The high specific stiffness enables the bandwidth of the steering mirror to be increased in comparison to the present Si mirror. The high thermal load imposed by the ABL laser demands high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion. The combination of near-net shape casting and CCOS polishing provides the fabrication of a SiC mirror which meets these demanding requirements in a cost effective manner. In Phase II, SSGPO will work with a prime contractor to fabricate and test a 12" diameter prototype fast steering mirror for ABL. This teaming arrangement will allow SiC mirror technology to be rapidly transitioned to flight hardware for ABL and other MDA applications. SiC materials provide a unique combination of high specific stiffness and thermal stability for high energy laser beam control and steering for Department of Defense programs such as ABL, SBL and future HEL systems including advanced seekers. Lightweight, dimensionally stable high-speed stages for the semiconductor industry would benefit from improved performance over present components including a cost effective manufacturing process.

SYSTEM DESIGN, LLC
31 Conant St.
Acton, MA 01720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 901-2108
Dr. David S. Cochran
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Collective Design of the PAC-3 Product Delivery System Environment
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to define a system design process to minimize PAC-3 Program All Up Round (AUR) production costs. This proposal is targeted toward achieving signficant reductions in the unit cost and cycle time in the high-volume missle production environment of the PAC-3 AUR facility and its PAC-3 supply-chain relationships. The Production Delivery System (PDS) is the result of a Collective System Design process developed by Dr. David Cochran. To use the PDS, system designers use a Database evaluation form (questionnaire) in a structured process that defines system stability as a Tier 1 competency. Systemic variation and resulting instability are embedded in actuals quantified by historical learning curves. Since learning curve history is used as the estimating basis to prepare RFP responses, the effects of systemic variation are included in DoD contractor proposals. Learning curve history documents company reactions to system instability. The PDS defines specific activities and decision interfaces that are controllable by or influenced by manufacturing system designers (ie: the engineers, managers, and operating personnel) to minimize sources of systemic variation. As a result, the PDS offers a unique, standardized method of evaluating and focusing Lean/Six Sigma (LSS) and Value Stream Mapping (VSM) implementation activities to minimize the adverse effects of instability. The objective of this proposal is to define a state-of-the art system design process to minimize PAC-3 Program All Up Round (AUR) production costs by achieving the objectives of a systemically defined and implemented Lean Six Sigma environment. This proposal is targeted toward achieving significant unit cost and cycle time reduction in the high-volume missle production environment of the PAC-3 AUR facility. Resources allocated and invested in achieving a PDS defined systems solution are expected to provide radical improvements in future PAC-3 program cost projections. Successful implementation of the PDS will enable operations within the Spiral Development acquisition process by significantly reducing manufacturing cycle times.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Michael Emerling
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process for Passive E-O Sensors
Abstract:High numbers of miniature interceptors will be widely used during ballistic missile mid-course intercepts to counter reentry vehicle (RV) decoys, IR countermeasures and penetration aids. To implement any miniature interceptor concept cost-effectively will require access to superior hardware at low-cost in many key areas. Two high-cost areas that can be significantly reduced by an intelligent manufacturing approach, facilitated by modern high-level integration, include: implementing a multimode, multicolor micro seeker system; and, embedding within the seeker system the multifunctional signal processing used for interceptor guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) that simultaneously detects, tracks and intercepts a very dim point target. Tanner Research will leverage ongoing MDA (cooled and un-cooled hyperspectral micro-seekers) and AFRL/MNGI (neuromorphic and biomimetic SP) contracts to define the high-level integration needed to implement low-cost seeker concepts with integral target detection, track and intercept SP. Our goal is to demonstrate, in our clean room, the mass fabrication techniques needed for volume manufacturing of highly integrated low-cost miniature interceptor seekers. Leverage ongoing development of mass fabrication techniques being perfected in the Tanner Research MEMS clean room in support of low-cost high quality manufacturing of multifunctional E-O seeker systems for use in endo-atmospheric and exo-atmospheric miniature interceptor applications. Mass fabrication, with high-level integration, provides the process technology to implement near-term a $1000 multifunctional seeker system, supporting the MDA goal of fielding a $15,000 miniature interceptor concept.

TESSERA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3099 Orchard Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 383-3623
Mr. Philip C. Damberg
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Producibility of Higher-Density Avionics
Abstract:Tessera Technologies will demonstrate the feasibility of applying stacked package and system-in-a-package designs to FPGA and RAM devices for single board systolic arrays for next generation missile defense. Working with Lockheed Martin, Tessera will develop a detailed system-in-a-package design for the FPGA and RAM combination properly configured for high density and functional connectivity to the systolic array architecture developed by Lockheed Martin. The design goal is to develop an array module design that achieves a 4X increase in density over current planar designs. Electrical, thermal and physical simulations will be used to optimize the design for high reliability and performance. It is common for applications that employ FPGAs to also require memory. There is growing interest from FPGA device suppliers and from electronics manufacturing suppliers for modular products that combine FPGA and memory. Full development of the FPGA plus memory module for this systolic array application will lay the groundwork for future standard product offerings able to penetrate military, medical, and communications markets. Compact FPGA plus RAM modules will find markets in image processing, sonar signal processing, portable ultrasound and other signal processing applications.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Mr. Rick D. Lucas
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative CFOAM Tooling
Abstract:Construction of aerospace structures such as aircraft fuselages, missile surfaces, rocket motors, and satellites is moving to carbon fiber-reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic resins, resulting in higher strength-to-weight ratio and becoming less subject to corrosion and fatigue. Composite production methods replace more difficult techniques which required precise surfaces and an exact fit of mating parts for precision molds and tools. Original composite forming tools were made from aluminum, steel or electroformed nickel, adjusted to compensate for differences in expansion rates between tool materials and the composites. Recently, Nickel-Iron alloys have been used to address CTE mismatch issues, but they are still heavy and require much energy to heat the molds. Tools and selection of construction materials are critically important. Tools must be rigid, durable and offer a CTE that matches the composite piece. Being carbon-based, CFOAMr has CTE values close to the carbon fiber-reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic resins. Unlike current materials, CFOAMr CTE values can be precisely controlled and matched. CFOAMr can be easily spray-coated with metals or covered with carbon fiber-reinforced resins and epoxies, providing hard, durable surfaces. CFOAMr densities are much lower than aluminum, steel, and nickel-iron alloys. The tool''s mass reduction offers tremendous advantages over the current process including easier tool handling and shorter machining and curing times. CFOAMr composite tooling pricing will be orders of magnitude lower than current available methods. Shorter tooling lead times and lower cost will reduce MDA major program''s cost, technical, and schedule risk involving composite part manufacturing. Precise control of the CFOAMr CTE, will result in better, more reproducible parts with less scrap and reduction in manufacturing costs. The technology will be utilized in all DOD composite manufacturing programs providing the same cost, technical, and schedule benefits. The commercial market is substantial including commercial aerospace manufacturing, recreational boat building, and any other composite part manufacture requiring tooling mandrels or molds.

WAVEFRONT RESEARCH, INC.
616 West Broad Street
Bethlehem, PA 18018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 694-9778
Dr. Thomas W. Stone
MDA 03-049       Selected for Award
Title:ALIGNMENT TOLERANT DENSE BOARD-TO-BOARD OPTICAL INTERCONNECTS FOR SIMD PROCESSOR APPLICATIONS
Abstract:The goal of this Phase-I effort is to establish the feasibility, performance, and advantages of a novel alignment tolerant dense board-to-board optical interconnect for application to SIMD architectures. Advantages of this technology include: the ability to extend a high performance SIMD processors onto multiple boards; compact high density multichannel interconnection; practical alignment tolerances that do not require extensive modifications to commercial computer structures; high speed; EMI sensitivity reduction; and potentially low cost. The Phase I effort includes modeling of the new device technology, the construction of an experimental feasibility demonstrator, optimization of the technology for SIMD architecture benefits, and the design of a high performance prototype interconnect for demonstration in Phase II. The anticipated benefit from this research is the development of a high performance alignment tolerant dense board-to-board optical interconnect that enables higher performance SIMD processors. This novel technology offers benefits including: the ability to extend a high performance SIMD processors onto multiple boards; compact high density multichannel interconnection; practical alignment tolerances that do not require extensive modifications to typical computer structures; high speed; EMI sensitivity reduction; and potentially low cost. Commercial applications include special purpose processing such as graphics rendering and medical imaging.

CAPRARO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
311 Turner Street Suite 410
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 733-0854
Dr. Gerard T. Capraro
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Operating Software
Abstract:This effort examines the merit of using Semantic Web technology, as developed by the World Wide Web Consortium and DARPA, to reduce the time and money required by MDA to acquire and maintain software. MDA has a large collection of legacy software and algorithms in a variety of programming languages. These same algorithms are useful throughout MDA, yet the cost of rewriting code is enormous. We propose to investigate the use of eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and ontologies to develop a framework for language translation. This framework will reduce the resources required to build new software with tools like MATLAB and to reuse legacy software by translating from original languages and MATLAB to a variety of programming languages. The framework is robust, as it extends to new input and output languages easily. The heart of the framework is the definition of an abstract language, CodeML. By translating legacy or MATLAB languages into CodeML as an intermediate step, the languages can then be analyzed and optimized. MDA can then share algorithms and tools across platforms. We propose a library to store source code and its CodeML representation. This library will have an intelligent search capability using Semantic Web technology. The results of this effort will benefit MDA and other Government agencies by fielding and maintaining quality software faster and cheaper than is required today. MDA will be able to share algorithms across systems, not just programs. It will be less costly to maintain over the life cycle of the system. There are many commercial applications, wherever language translation will reduce software development costs and time.

HARMONIA, INC.
1700 Kraft Drive, Suite 1100
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5910
Mr. Jonathan Shuster
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Using UIML to Improve Product Quality and Reduce Cost of Transitioning Prototypes to Production
Abstract:Harmonia proposes an innovative approach to improving product quality and reducing time and cost of transitioning prototypes to production. This approach uses the User Interface Markup Language (UIML), an open specification language being standardized by OASIS, as a user interface design language that can be rendered to usability prototypes, tactical HCI code, and object model representations. The proposed approach centers on defining an enhanced, UIML-based user interface design process, and then defining tool support needs for this process. The intent is to span the gap between usability and object-oriented software engineering by supporting rapid prototyping of user interfaces for usability engineering, while providing the ability to generate object design data for the overall system's object model and tactical HCI code for deployment. UIML and its associated tools form a bridge between the user interface designer and the application modeler, allowing early and frequent integration of the user interface design process and the application development life cycle. A process that simplifies the creation of user interfaces by facilitating the transition from usability prototypes to tactical HCI software will improve product quality and reduce development time. This process will further allow access to multiple applications, possibly including legacy applications, through a single user interface, and also allow multiple user interfaces tailored to users' roles, responsibilities, even the computing devices used to access the application. Potential commercial applications are with any software development activity with a human/computer interface.

MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL, INC.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 550
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 522-7177
Mr. Christopher B. Robbins
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Operating Software
Abstract:Management Communications and Control, Inc. (MCCI) proposes application of software productivity tools to MDA high performance software engineering. MDA applications will be specified as data flow graph software architectures. Computer aided design and automatic code generation tools will generate high performance compilable code for parallel computing architectures from the graphical architectures. Rapid prototyping tools will enable import of MATLABr algorithm designs and realization of workstation or local area network prototypes for functional verification and performance assessment. Reuse will be supported at the application component and math library levels. An approach to incorporation of fault testing and isolation into graphical architecture specifications will be developed. If successful, the effort will produce an open programming environment for high performance software that features a public domain graphical specification methodology, CAD and automated generation of ANSI C and Ada source code, and execution on commercial operating systems and/or middlewares. Successful application of graphical software architecture methodology to specification of new MDA applications and capture of legacy and R&D codes will create target independent, reusable software specifications. High performance implementations may be created for supported targets using computer aided design and automatic code generation tools. The architecture specification methodology with tool support will provide a seamless path from MATLABr algorithm design to finished production code. Order of magnitude productivity gains will be enjoyed in developing and maintaining MDA application software.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
8809 Sudley Road, Suite 101
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Gary J. Sikora
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Operating Software - Open Architecture Software Using Middleware Isolation Layers
Abstract:The history of computer technology has shown that future technology trends are impossible to predict. For example, CORBA may fall out of favor by 2020 or take on more functionality that changes its API. Unfortunately, MDA cannot control this evolution. There are many advanced research activities being conducted within academia, industry and the services that will mothball present middleware substrate technologies. However, MDA can control software reuse by defining an API abstraction layer that meets the needs of an embedded, real-time system application, using middleware substrates as the underlying implementations of this API. With this approach the underlying substrate can change (e.g. from CORBA to Java Remote Method Invocation) with no impact to the application software. The MDA BMC3 Middleware Framework defines this domain-specific API.We offer to apply our innovated middleware layered architecture to MDA BMC3 processing systems to enable software reuse through middleware substrate technology refresh cycles (for example migrating from CORBA to MPI) and across systems, from data processors to real-time signal processing systems. This provides a tremendous cost savings as realized by our customers - we currently develop middleware for the USS Virginia Class Submarine systems and have a contract to provide a similar solution to JSF. The commercialization strategy is low risk because we will be able to apply components developed to our on-going projects, particularly, USS Virginia Class Submarine systems and Common Undersea Picture (CUP). We currently are building several subsystems for the submarine: Tomahawk Weapon Simulator; Multi-Sensor Active Intercept; and Information Insurance. Each of these can benefit from the middleware layers potentially developed under this effort. Newly developed middleware substrate bindings can be applied as a technology refresh cycle at minimal cost because the application layer middleware implemented on these systems enable software reuse.The CUP program is a network-centric warfare application that has many disparate systems in which we need to integrate our common services for information exchange and quality of delivery. The developed middleware substrate bindings will enable new integration opportunities.We plan to continue pursuit of opportunities within the Navy, Air Force and MDA. In addition, we plan to continue working with prime contractors such as Lockheed Martin, Boeing and Northrop Grumman. Our symbiotic relationship and our reputation to perform have built strong relationships.We have several products that are showing interest within the private sector. Our approach thus far is to offer our products through Value Added Resellers (VAR). This provides us great visibility through many different distribution channels. We plan to do the same here with Operating System (OS) companies like Mercury Computer Systems and Green Hills Software. We are currently working with Sonic Software to VAR our Universal Message Router - a Internet-based publication/subscription/query information system.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0860
Mr. Andrew N. Potter
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Agent-based Knowledge-design Assistant (AKA) Technology for Computer Network Defense (CND)
Abstract:In this proposal, Sentar presents its plan for applying its Agent-based Knowledge-design Assistant (AKA) technology to Computer Network Defense (CND). This work will leverage two Sentar Phase II SBIR projects: the AKA currently in development and the proposed Work Centered Interface (WCI) Phase II capability, which will focus on Computer Network Defense (CND) for the US Missile Defense 04 Test Bed. By leveraging these two efforts, the resulting AKA-CND will provide security managers with a powerful tool that will allow them to respond rapidly and flexibly to changing hostile network conditions. Security managers and their commanders will be able to adapt the system to maintain continuity of operations in the face of unforeseeable circumstances, perform post-attack forensics flexibly and creatively, and quickly implement policy revisions on short notice. To ensure success in this project, Sentar is teaming with SYColeman, whose experienced understanding of the problems of network security will provide expertise, focus and depth to the project. In Phase I, the team will establish the feasibility of the AKA-CND by defining appropriate AKA knowledge representation technologies and designing the integrated CND user interface to include both work-centered and knowledge authoring capabilities. The AKA-CND will increase the military and commercial potential for the proposed Phase II WCI-CND by providing its users with greater autonomy in adapting the CND capability to new and evolving requirements in areas such as post attack forensics, security policy revisions, and continuity of operations. By enabling security managers to adapt and evolve the CND capability to new and unforeseen conditions, the AKA will enhance the ability of missile defense systems to withstand cyber-attack. Potential applications include CND, command and control (C2), anti-terrorism intelligence, and customer relationship management in a wide variety of industries, including Financial Services, Computers & Peripherals, Software & Internet Technologies, and Utilities.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0863
Mr. Gordon S. Streeter
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Secure Agent Based Platform for Computer Network Defense
Abstract:When under conditions of cyber attack, all aspects of a computer network are vulnerable, including the base platform on which network defense applications execute. To ensure an effective defense, the platform must be capable of monitoring itself, defending itself, and healing itself while maintaining a secure operational environment for CND applications. In this Phase I SBIR proposal, Sentar presents its plan for designing and prototyping a Secure Agent Based Platform for Computer Network Defense (SAB-CND). This effort will establish the feasibility of the SAB-CND technology and will define the requirements and architecture for a SAB platform designed specifically to host CND applications. To ensure success in this project, Sentar has teamed with SYColeman whose experience with the problems of network security will provide expertise, focus and depth to the project. The SAB-CND Platform will integrate conventional security measures with innovative intelligent analysis and response measures based on IBM's concepts of autonomic computing. Opportunities for deployment include military CND applications for the Ground Mid-course Defense System (GMDS), Theater Missile Defense (TMD), and Regional Missile Defense (RMD), as well as any mission critical system network. In the commercial sector, as commercial reliance on the Internet grows, the same pattern of opportunity exists. The proposed SAB-CND Platform, when fully developed, will produce a robust environment for hosting GMD CND applications. Developing this secure agent platform will greatly improve the security of the military and commercial applications developed on top of this platform. A key feature of the secure agent-based platform concept is its broad applicability. The SAB-CND Platform will be valued for network defense on both military and commercial systems. In addition to CND applications, the general secure agent-based platform is applicable to such areas as Network Centric Warfare (NCW), emergency management, electronic market places, and the semantic web. Thus, in addition to the opportunity of inserting the platform into missile defense systems, there is a clear path to commercialization in the business world.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0863
Mr. Andrew N. Potter
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Agent Enabled Advanced Intrusion Detection System
Abstract:Current commercial Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) have several major shortcomings. These include low detection rates of 20 percent or less, the inability to detect previously unseen or new attacks, and high false alarm rates. Frequent false alarms often prompt Computer Network Defense (CND) operators to disable or disregard sensor warnings. Current IDS are also inflexible, because of their monolithic design, and non-adaptable, new sensor capabilities cannot be added without rebuilding the IDS. Innovative approaches are required to provide a new generation of flexible, scalable, high quality Intrusion Detection Systems to overcome existing shortfalls. Sentar proposes to leverage ongoing NSA and DARPA research to develop an Agent-Enabled Advanced Intrusion Detection System to protect the GMD network against attacks. The proposed architecture combines DARPA's advanced intrusion detection techniques with Sentar's previous work in intelligent agents which combines intelligent agents, statistical anomaly detection, and model-based profiles to provide high attack detection rates (up to 80 percent), the ability to detect previously unknown attacks, and acceptable false alarm rates. The overall result will be a user friendly, flexible infrastructure capable of rapidly adapting new intrusion detection capabilities to enable GMD security managers to stay out in front of the growing and ever-changing cyber threat. The commercial potential for advanced intrusion detection systems is extensive. Virtually every company in the U.S. relies on the Internet to conduct business. Because of the growing and ever changing threat posed by hackers and malicious insiders, commercial companies need high quality, state of the art, low cost advanced intrusion detection protection. In addition to government applications, potential application areas include eCommerce, logistics, business operations, transportation, supply chain management, and entertainment.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-0863
Mr. Andrew N. Potter
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Mission Critical Software and Database Guard
Abstract:A major challenge for the management of mission critical software and associated databases is the trustworthiness of data and code. To meet this challenge, Sentar proposes the Software and Database Guard (SDG) to secure Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) mission critical software and databases from malicious code. The proposed approach provides attack sensing and situation awareness of trust status discrepancies in GMD databases and software. This approach will use advanced technologies such as proof carrying code, statistical anomaly detection, artificial diversity, nested processes, and security wrappers in combination with intelligent sensor agents to provide indications and warnings of malicious data corruption or code tampering to Computer Network Defense (CND) managers. For this SBIR, Sentar is teaming with SYColeman. SYColeman brings extensive experience in Computer Network Defense and DoD related software development to the team. In Phase I of this SBIR, the team will draw upon its previous experience with intelligent multi-agent systems and network defense. The team will perform a critical evaluation of state-of-the-art trusted software technology and use that assessment to create an SDG design and development plan for the management of mission critical software and associated databases. The Software and Database Guard will provide military and commercial organizations with a capability to secure a wide range of applications against malicious data corruption or code tampering. No such capability exists today. Anticipated military use of the Software and Database Guard capability includes improved network defense and information superiority for BMC3, GMD, homeland security, intelligence systems, logistics, and C4ISR systems and subsystems. The commercial potential for the Software and Database Guard is also extensive. Virtually every company in the U.S. relies on the Internet to conduct business. Because of the growing and ever changing threat posed by hackers and malicious insiders, commercial companies need high quality, state of the art, low cost advanced protection from malicious data corruption or code tampering. Potential applications include industrial control, security applications, power generation networks, financial systems, and supply chain management.

TECHNOSOFT, INC.
11180 Reed Hartman Highway
Cincinnati, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 985-9877
Mr. Adel Chemaly
MDA 03-050       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Operating Software
Abstract:Proposed herein is a collaborative engineering environment based on an object-oriented, web-enabled, multidisciplinary, distributed computing framework supporting application development for integrated product and process engineering. It supports specification of software elements through UML diagrams and detailed graphical composition of object hierarchies and process schematics for comprehensive application development. It provides a visual environment supporting object-oriented application development, user interface customization, legacy tool integration, and knowledgebase population. Legacy software tools can be updated into object structures and associated with newly defined objects for composing and developing large scale applications. It facilitates distributed object computing enabling the interoperability among distributed applications on a network of heterogeneous computers. It supports concurrent engineering through a web-enabled environment linking multiple users collaborating in real-time in the engineering process. Classes, models, and process structures can be organized within knowledgebases providing support for application development. Model patterns can be organized in knowledgebases providing the foundation for knowledge management and information processing for design exploration and trade studies. It provides a comprehensive visual environment for software engineering and development, and incorporates utilities for packaging and deployment of multidisciplinary applications. Ultimately, it reduces the time and cost of custom application development and maintenance from concept to deployment. The development of the proposed architecture will result in an open, visual and modular collaborative engineering framework with an underlying object-oriented architecture. The framework employs a unique and innovative approach to product and process application engineering, development, deployment, and maintenance. It will provide maximum interoperability among application programs. The proposed framework's web-enabled modeling environment will facilitate real-time collaboration among participants, from various disciplines, both within and outside of an organization and including various suppliers and consultants, all of whom will have the opportunity to engage and draw on each other's expertise. The successful development of this framework will reduce application software development time and cost, enabling quick response to the fast-paced development of new engineering systems. The defense industry will benefit from the framework in the development of custom applications from concept to the validation stages, capitalizing on investment in legacy tools while adopting new methods for updating and development of new applications. The framework will also have a great impact on the various applications in the design-to-production automation of complex systems in the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as major equipment manufacturing. After a successful Phase II project TechnoSoft will productize the proposed framework and market it as a part of its product offering. The payoff for the US industry will be substantial resulting from rapid-to-market software deployment and reduced life-cycle cost. Together with its current customers TechnoSoft will deploy the framework in the engineering of the DoD applications.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Dr. Marc Klosner
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:High-Efficiency, Large-Area Curved Diffraction Gratings for Remote Sensing Applications in the Infrared
Abstract:Infrared detection systems play a key role in national security, where they are used in aerial and satellite reconnaissance to identify potential targets and detect enemy weapons. While multispectral infrared imaging systems have greatly enhanced remote sensing capabilities, current systems have been optimized for the visible and shortwave infrared. Longwave infrared detection would also be of great benefit, but extending this technology to the longwave region requires the development of new curved grating fabrication techniques. In this program, we will develop a novel process for fabricating large-area diffraction gratings on curved surfaces. This process will exploit a unique curved-surface projection lithography technology that has been developed at Anvik. This technology will enable high-throughput fabrication of large-area curved diffraction gratings for applications in the long wave infrared. Anvik's curved grating fabrication technology offers a number of advantages compared with currently available fabrication techniques, including the capability to pattern on substrates having large sags, up to 12 mm, and also the capability to pattern with high resolution, down to 1 m. Additionally, it is a high-throughput projection lithography technique, and is therefore suitable for large-scale production. Anvik's curved diffraction grating technology will lead to high performance gratings operating at long wave infrared wavelengths. This will enable the development of high spectral-resolution, compact, airborne remote sensing instrumentation serving the military and civilian sectors.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. Honnavalli R Vydyanath
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturable, high operability, high performance process for SWIR HgCdTe detectors
Abstract:In Phase I, we plan to demonstrate the feasibility of elements of our approach to develop a technology to fabricate SWIR HgCdTe detectors with higher yield and higher performance at lower costs. Phase II will focus on optimizing the approach for large arrays, in a production set up. industrial and auto emission monitoring, tumor detection, environmental monitoring

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
135 S. Taylor Avenue
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Ms. Amy Sullivan
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Electro-Optic Products
Abstract:The MDA has identified a need for applications or or modifications to existing products whether Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) or Military-off-theshelf (MOTS) that are applied in creative ways to MDA systems, subsystems, or component requirements. CTI proposes an innovative improvement to its commercial METEORT product by integrating the METEORT with CTI's innovative self imaging technology applied to high power amplification to provide a high power, high quality laser source for laser radar applications. The proposed laser source implements a proprietary self-imaging process in a large core fiber to retain the high efficiency, diffraction-limited beam quality and excellent thermal handling of a single-mode fiber laser, while scaling the aperture to handle much higher peak power levels. This system can be made more compact than more complicated laser radar laser sources while retaining the quality and power needed for laser radar applications. During Phase I, CTI will perform proof of concept and risk reduction experiments. During Phase II, CTI will build and test a prototype system. The E-O technologies developed here will have dual application in both defense and commercial manufacturing processes by reducing cost, improve producibility, and enhance performance of products. This compact laser/amplifier source has potential applications in laser radar systems including a UAV surveillance craft, kinetic energy intercept (KEI) and a variety of commercial and military diagnostic systems examining highly cluttered targets in difficult environments, such as the systems desired to diagnose ordinace delivery damage assessment.

NANOHMICS, INC.
4302 Rimdale Dr.
Austin, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 349-0835
Dr. Keith Jamison
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Novel Host Material for Solid State Lasers
Abstract:Wide bandgap semiconductors highly doped with optically active ions are a promising system upon which to base a new class of solid state lasers and optical devices. Due to their ruggedness, wide bandgap and high thermal conductivity, these devices can operate at higher power densities and shorter wavelengths than conventional solid state host crystals allow. In this SBIR program, Nanohmics proposes to produce a laser based on highly doped aluminum nitride films. This solid state laser system would operate at a variety of wavelengths depending on the dopant used and high energy densities. In Phase I aluminum nitride films doped with optically active elements will be grown and characterized. Phase II will take the most promising materials systems and produce a prototype solid state laser. Solid state lasers using wide bandgap semiconductors as the host material have the advantage of high thermal conductivity and insensitivity to thermal shock. These properties open the door to production of compact lasers that can operate at higher energy densities, high repetition rates, and shorter wavelengths than current solid state lasers allow. Development of new laser materials will possibly open up new laser wavelengths for UV storage of information on CD ROM's. Other areas include compact lasers for optical communication, lidar and other applications where higher power density smaller lasers are required.

NANOHMICS, INC.
4302 Rimdale Dr.
Austin, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 349-0835
Dr. Keith Jamison
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Silicon Based High Efficiency Near Infra Red Detector
Abstract:Silicon continues to be the material of choice for most microelectronic applications. Unfortunately, silicon is not a good material for high efficiency near IR photo-emission or detection because it has an indirect bandgap. Recently, studies of b-FeSi2 have shown that it can be grown into silicon and has a direct bandgap of ~0.87 eV which corresponds to a wavelength of 1.5 microns. This wavelength is ideally suited to many applications in the fiber optic communication and near IR thermal sensing. Since this material is silicon based, it could be directly integrated into silicon electronics. Unfortunately, current production methods to form b-FeSi2 have proven inconsistent. In this program, Nanohmics in collaboration with the University of North Texas, propose to demonstrate a novel epitaxial deposition method to produce high quality, consistent direct bandgap b-FeSi2 that has emission at 1.5 microns a reproducible manner. Development of direct bandgap silicon based optoelectronic devices will spur development of source and detector devices in the 1.3-1.6 micron range where silicon-based fibers have the lowest losses and development of directly integrated focal plane arrarys in the near infrared range. This technology will also enable optical interconnects in silicon devices opening the possibility of stacking chips on top of each other without the need for hard wiring the devices together.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9380 SW 72nd Street, B-180
Miami, FL 33173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. Jame J. Yang
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Dynamic Spectral Selective Optical Limiter for Infrared Imaging of Missile Defense Applications
Abstract:There are numerous military and commercial applications of dynamic spectral selective optical limiter for infrared imaging. Infrared imaging sensor is an "eye" for various military applications including terrestrial and space based LIDAR for space weather sensing, target identification and tracking, optical counter-measure. However the infrared imaging sensor is often blinded or confused by enemy's laser beams or decoy through saturation of sensor response. To keep the "eye" open there is a need of dynamic optical limiter with the properties of proper spectral rejection band with variable attenuation in this band, high transmission for other bands, accurate tuning, large tuning range, relatively wide field of view, and large-aperture. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes herein an all-optical controlled dynamic spectral selective optical filter to achieve all the required characteristics for infrared imaging of missile defense application. The realization of the such dynamic optical limiter is based on our newly developed photochromic film that can change its transmission property instantly and is able to return to original transmission state with fast response. Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dynamic spectral selective optical limiter. Phase II will develop a compact prototype system for infrared imaging application. The successful development of dynamic spectral selective optical limiter will benefit military applications including terrestrial and space based LIDAR for space weather sensing, ground-based and airborne remote sensing, target identification and tracking, and laser counter-measure. Commercial applications include optical network communications, optical remote sensing for weather forecast, agriculture, and astronomy observation.

OPTICAL HORIZONS
12340 Santa Monica Blvd, Suite 251
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 979-3292
Dr. Daniel Mahgerefteh
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Electro-Optic Products
Abstract:We propose a simple directly modulated laser transmitter which is compatible with existing communication standards and extends the reach of commercially available directly modulated diode lasers by an order of magnitude to the important 10GHz, >80 km range. More than fifty percent savings in cost and size, power consumption and weight are anticipated relative to the predominant LiNbO3 based technology. Furthermore, the new technology results in reduced number of optical components at the transmitter side thereby improving the reliability and ruggedness needed in government secure communication systems. Terrestrial DOD data communication systems, high bandwidth fly-by-light and on-ship communication systems, fiber-based missile guidance systems, phased array radar systems as well as The performance and functionality of fiber optical components have improved significantly in the last few years due to a significant surge in this market. In the current status of the market however improvements in cost, power consumption and size are compelling value propositions as carriers are avoiding any new infrastructural investment such as central offices etc. The proposed project significantly benefits this market by essentially eliminating external modulators in large segments.

PHOTERA TECHNOLOGIES
10070 Carroll Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 578-9400
Dr. Maurice Pessot
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Coherent Ladar Source with 85 GHz Frequency Sweep
Abstract:Photera has developed a technology base which supports a family of diode-pumped solid-state laser design concepts for highly functional, compact, low-cost, electronically tunable laser sources. A particularly innovative combination of these technologies yields a wideband, rapidly chirpable, narrow-linewidth laser with characteristics ideal for eyesafe Doppler imaging LADAR. The proposed laser produces an optical carrier frequency which is swept in direct response to an applied voltage. Most importantly, the laser can be chirped continuously over a range far beyond its cavity free spectral range at chirp rates well in excess of 30 GHz/ms. Moreover, analysis indicates that the same laser can be configured with a chirp bandwidth as high as 85 GHz; i.e., with a chirp range sufficiently large for application to range-resolved Doppler imaging LADAR. Breadboard lasers of similar design, but more limited functionality, already have exhibited free running linewidths as low as 2.5 kHz. We expect to reduce this linewidth to the 1-kHz regime and, in so doing, satisfy the coherence length requirements of a high resolution imaging LADAR. A Doppler LADAR based on this device has the potential for range resolution as small as 1 cm. Successful demonstration of the proposed laser will provide a foundation for the development of advanced laser transmitters and integrated systems. Potential applications for such technology include telecom-munications, optical networks, wireless communications, phased array radar, precision metrology, LADAR, and optical fiber sensors for acoustic and seismic sensing.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Dr. Richard Nelson
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:An Innovative Multi-Spectral Sensor For Ballistic Missile Defese Systems
Abstract:Solid State Scientific Corporation proposes to design and model a unique spectral imaging sensor that will be capable of simultaneously imaging nine color bands at video rates. The approach will use existing technology to improve multispectral imaging capabilities for ballistic missile defense systems by utilizing recent developments in micro-optics to create a nine-channel spectral imager based on a single focal plane array. The resulting spectral imager will operate in multiple electro-optic bands, including short wave infrared (SWIR) and medium wave infrared (MWIR), incorporate a 3'3 micro-lens array, and use a 512'512 staring imager to capture one 168'168'9 spectral data cube during each integration time. The new sensor will have no moving parts and a small physical form factor. The design and development of this sensor represents a unique opportunity in multispectral sensing and imaging. This effort will benefit the development of algorithms for exploiting time-evolving spectral signatures. This spectral imager will be able to sample the data at rates in excess of 200 multispectral data cubes per second with moderate spectral sampling. The sensor can be configured so that the spectral resolution varies independently of the sampling, allowing the sensitivity of the sensor to be optimized around phenomenologically important spectral regions. The proposed sensor combines staring imaging technology with recent developments in micro-lens technology from telecommunications to advance the state of the art in multispectral imaging. The ability of the new sensor concept to rapidly acquire multispectral data cubes should provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate algorithms for dynamic event classification based on temporal spectral signatures, countering CC&D, and evaluating surfaces. In addition, the small physical size of the sensor will demonstrate the possibility of portable multispectral imaging. Potential applications for defense purposes include buried mine detection, real-time bomb damage assessment, target tracking, and missile threat warning. In addition, we anticipate possible applications in medical diagnostics and medical imaging.

VOXTEL, INC.
2640 SW Georgian Place
Portland, OR 97201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 243-4633
Mr. George Williams
MDA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Rad Hard, Back-illuminated, SOI CMOS Star Tracker
Abstract:To satisfy the demand for a reliable, high sensitivity, radiation hardened imager for space vehicle navigation star tracking tasks, we will design, simulate and optimize a radiation hard, silicon-on-insulator (SOI), fully-depleted, back-illuminated startracking sensor with enhanced sensitivity and centroiding capability. The device is unique in its performance and its radiation hardness. Radiation performance is enhanced through a reduced cross-section charge-collection region, sub-pixel/sub-frame radiation event mitigation, n-type epitaxial silicon, and SOI CMOS materials and processing. The mixed-signal SOI CMOS star tracker functionality includes random readout, non-destructive readout, binning, windowing, and Fowler/slope sampling for event and noise removal, and the imager is operated at app. 2,500 fps with 40 star tracks. The back-illuminated imager is made cost-effective, manufacturable, and robust, by implementing commercially available materials and standard semiconductor processes, including those required for back thinning, which is performed in a very simple manner in the semiconductor fab and requires no post-processing. Unique to this program is the ability of the APS device to be radiation hard with high, wideband sensitivity from the EUV through to the NIR spectral range. These characteristics make it ideal for the growing market for commercial satellite startrackers. Additionally, the nearly ideal responsivity benefits a broad range of optical microscopy, spectroscopy, nondestructive test, surveillance, autonomous navigation, remote sensing, and astronomy applications. The EUV response of the detector benefits submicron photolithography, x-ray spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and nuclear physics.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-1192
Dr. Alan Grieve
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Low Temperature Sintered Conductive Adhesives for use in the Packaging of High-Power Electronics
Abstract:There is a growing need for improvement in the performance of thermally and electrically conductive polymeric adhesives used in electronic packaging. In particular, there are few polymeric materials that are suitable for replacing eutectic solder bonding in electronic devices used in high-temperature environments, such as the operating environment of high power wide bandgap electronic devices. Polymeric electrically conductive adhesives are usually comprised of silver flake dispersed in a polymer resin. The high level of silver flake required to impart the material with good electrical and thermal conductivity properties significantly impacts the long term reliability of the material, particularly when exposed to harsh, high-temperature environments. We have developed a low-temperature sintering adhesive that, with some modification, will address these performance issues. Our unique formulation incorporates a novel polymeric resin that can be tailored to cure rapidly over a varied temperature range. It is solvent-free and easily processed. Incorporation of a combination of suitable alloy powders in this resin formulation will also allow the preparation of composite adhesives capable of forming metallurgical connections to a variety of metal surfaces. Such adhesives will have electrical and thermal conductivity properties similar to solder materials but with the processing advantages of current polymeric adhesives. There is an immediate need for adhesive materials with improved high temperature performance in a myriad of high volume consumer and defense products, particularly those materials that have improved thermal and/or electrical properties. The market today exceeds over $100 Million annually. This demand is increasing with the development of advanced high power electronics systems used for the processing and control of high-energy electrical systems.

AZTEX, INC.
360 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 622-5529
Mr. John J. Harris
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Z-Fiber for Improved Through Thickness Thermal Conductivity of MMC's
Abstract:Aztex has developed a technology to reinforce composites called Z-Fiberr insertion. Normally standard carbon fiber pins are inserted through the thickness of an uncured carbon prepreg laminate using ultrasonic energy. The resulting product has superior damage tolerance. It is possible to adapt this process to use thermally conductive pins and to insert them in the Z direction through a pitch based precursor prior to infiltration of the precursor. We expect that the result will be to produce an MMC plate which will have excellent x, y and Z thermal properties. Aztex will team with MMCC to research this concept. Aztex will refine the insertion technology and MMCC will make the final plates and measure the thermal properties. MDA are seeking innovative approaches to improve baseline technologies. A particular problem is thermal management for concentrated local heat sources. Typically through the thickness, i.e. Z properties are not so good as x/y properties. Aztex has a proven concept that is already being used on the F/A 18 E/F aircraft when multiple carbon fiber pins are being inserted using Ultrasonics through the thickness of composite structure. It is anticipated that if thermally conductive pins are used the thermal properties of an MMC laminate can be substantially improved. Aztex already has a proven track record of commercialization.

INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
11160-C1 South Lakes Drive, #624
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(571) 332-3258
Dr. Cengiz Balkas
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Radar and RF Products
Abstract:Development of ultra pure silicon carbide (SiC) substrates is proposed. The Company has a unique and proprietary technique for making such substrates that will be used. Such substrates will be used in development of gallium nitride device technologies. Furthermore, a number of characterization tasks will be performed on the wafers produced under to proposed program. Ultra pure SiC substrates will have a wide range of use both in military and commercial applications. Next generation radar systems that require higher power densities devices will benefit from such electrically insulating SiC substrates. Both SiC and GaN based transistors can produced on SiC wafers.

MAGNOLIA OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
52-B Cummings Park, Suite 314
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 376-1505
Dr. Ashok K. Sood
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Processing for the Manufacturing of High - Performance and High - Reliability GaN-based Devices for High Power RF Applications
Abstract:GaN and AlGaN-based devices have demonstrated versatility in RF electronic applications which is practically unmatched by any other material system. Several device structures are good candidates for power amplifiers. These include HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor), HFET (Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor) and MOSHFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor). In order to demonstrate RF devices capable of PAE of 40-50 percent and high power density for operation at 10 GHz or greater ,with reliability , will require Porcess inprovements in material growth and device fabrication. The proposed effort aims to develop and implement process technology innovations that have the potential of a major impact on the performance, reliability and manufacturability of GaN and AlGaN based RF electronics. These innovations utilize equipment modifications and design changes, process parameter control and metal contact optimization in order to improve RF nitride device manufacturing. By addressing this crucial aspect of the unique problems of manufacturing technology for GaN/AlGaN high performance, devices, we aim to develop solutions that will directly contribute to the important goals of reliability for WBG amplifier components and manufacturing cost reduction. As the field of high-power RF devices based on nitride semiconductors matures, Magnolia will be able to develop a product portfolio for addressing the nitride processing . The innovations incorporated in processing equipment by Magnolia will be readily applicable to the nitride industry. Currently, the market for nitride-based products encompasses blue-green light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, ultraviolet detectors, lighting, traffic signals and instrument panel lighting usage and displays. In addition to this existing market, RF nitride devices are needed for future cellular phone base stations and other applications in wireless communications. The ability of efficient, rugged nitride-based devices to function properly at temperature as high as 350 oC makes them particularly attractive for application in high temperature environments.

MICROCOATING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-2424
Mr. Pat Marry
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:FREQUENCY AGILE DEVICES USING FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS
Abstract:MCT PROPOSES TO USE FERROELECTRIC BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE (BST) THIN FILMS TO DESIGN MONOLITHIC FREQUENCY-AGILE MICROWAVE BANDPASS FILTERS THAT CAN BE DYNAMICALLY ADJUSTED IN FREQUENCY BY THE APPLICATION OF A DC VOLTAGE. THIS ENABLES SYSTEMS THAT OPERATE AT MULTIPLE FREQUENCY BANDS THROUGH SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING ONLY. IN ADDITION TO FREQUENCY-AGILE FILTERS, MONOLITHIC PHASE SHIFTERS FOR RADAR APPLICATIONS AND MICROWAVE DELAY LINES FOR COMPLEX LINEAR TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS ARE NOW ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE FOR COMMERCIAL AS WELL AS MILITARY APPLICATIONS. DIRECT APPLICATIONS INCLUDE TUNABLE MICROWAVE FILTERS FOR CELLULAR HANDSETS, POLICE/FIRE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS, MILITARY RADARS AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS. THE CORE BST TECHNOLOGY CAN ALSO BE APPLIED TO PHASE SHIFTERS FOR WIRELESS LAN'S, GPS ANTENNA ARRAYS, CELLULAR BASE STATIONS, MILITARY RADARS AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS. ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS INCLUDE PROGRAMMABLE HIGH FREQUENCY DELAY LINES, ADAPTIVE MATCHING CIRCUITS AND POWER DETECTORS.

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10386B Democracy Lane
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 293-8910
Dr. Jose E. Velazco
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Compact Nanotube-Driven X-band Amplifier
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will involve the development of a very compact high-efficiency nanotube-driven X-band microwave amplifier (NDXA) for radar and rf communications applications in ballistic missile sensor systems. The NDXA is a compact vacuum tube that uses a rugged carbon-nanotube cold-cathode and a compact two-cavity system to produce X-band microwave radiation with very high-efficiency, making the NDXA ideal for airborne applications. The entire device is about 1-inch long and should be able to produce hundreds of watts of X-band radiation with an outstanding efficiency of 85 %. The NDXA will be very well-suited for Ground-Based Midcourse X-band Radar (XBR) applications. Phase I is aimed at theoretical and numerical study of the NDXA, as well as particle-in-cell computer studies to establish credible estimates of output power, efficiency, gain, and other key parameters. Once fully developed, the NDXA should be capable of replacing conventional traveling-wave tubes in future MDA radar and communication systems by offering substantial improvements in size, weight, and, especially efficiency over its counterparts. This compact source should be able to efficiently produce hundreds of watts of electromagnetic radiation in the X-band GHz regime with electronic efficiency as high as 85%. If successful, this microwave source will efficiently provide coherent high average-power millimeter-wave radiation for many civilian and military applications that require high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

NANOHMICS, INC.
4302 Rimdale Dr.
Austin, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 349-0835
Dr. Keith Jamison
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:High Flux Atomic Nitrogen Source for GaN Growth
Abstract:Current gallium nitride epitaxial growth systems suffer from low atomic nitrogen flux density, yielding materials having high intrinsic conduction due to nitrogen deficiencies or defects. A number of atomic nitrogen sources exist for MBE epitaxial growth of gallium nitride but the flux density is relatively low and these sources still contain a significant percentage of molecular nitrogen in the beam which can lead to defects. Nanohmics proposes to use a high-flux-density atomic nitrogen source for defect free epitaxial gallium nitride (GaN) growth. This unique nitrogen source uses using supersonic beam technology. This technology will greatly increase the atomic nitrogen flux density striking the surface during growth. Supersonic beams have a number of advantages over conventional gas sources. First, the mean free path is longer than the source-to-sample distance eliminating gas-gas interactions therefore the atomic nitrogen will not recombine. Secondly, supersonic beams are monoenergetic and the kinetic energy of the incident beam can be varied by changing the input gas temperature. Therefore this source can deliver a very high flux density of monoenergetic atomic nitrogen to the sample which can influence the surface mobility and the defect density. The anticipated benefits of a high-flux-density atomic nitrogen source are improved gallium nitride growth with lower intrinsic carrier densities. The improved gallium nitride will lead to improvements in detectors for space communications, space-based missile launch detectors, UV search and track, environmental monitoring, engine combustion, UV diode lasers, and flame detection. Additional benefits will be in high power electronics using GaN based devices.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Daming Li
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Improved Thermal Management by High Growth Rate Diamond Layers
Abstract:This Phase I project addresses the development of a process for the thermal management of semiconductor devices with diamond films grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). Thermal management of electronic and optical devices is one of the most critical areas for high power applications. Due to its unmatched thermal conductivity diamond is the ideal candidate. Currently HFCVD diamond growth is <1 um/hour. To reach the full economic potential of CVD diamond this rate needs to be increased significantly to realize large reduction of the cost. The goal is to develop a process suitable for manufacturing applications that significantly increases the HFCVD diamond deposition rate over large areas. In the follow-on program we will achieve even faster growth rates by further optimization. Since diamond is extremely hard, chemically and thermally stable, and optically transparent in a wide spectral range, it can also be used in many other critical applications such as windows and in orbital spacecraft. This technology could lead to low cost manufacturing of these high performance products. CVD diamond can be used as a thermal spreader for high power and high temperature semiconductor devices. The development of a high growth rate CVD diamond process would greatly reduce cost and benefit users of high power devices. Applications of CVD diamond heat spreaders include submounts for laser diodes, microwave power devices and substrates for MCMs.

SYNCRODYNE SYSTEMS CORP.
9250 Bendix Road North
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 964-3326
Dr. Scott T. Hayes
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Radar and RF Products
Abstract:The use of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics in rf engineering is still in the research stage, but the payoff for successful applications could be great. We have developed and prototyped a new type of amplifier that uses a nonlinear operating point and has remarkable power conversion efficiency, but is capable of the linear amplification of common waveforms. The focus of this SBIR is to use computer models and experiments to obtain larger effective bandwidths for wideband radar applications. Since Syncrodyne is already geared up to develop and prototype an 800 MHz HBT-based device, we will perform theoretical work towards a true distributed-element wideband amplifier design meeting the requirements in the solicitation. We stress that the idea of using a nonlinear oscillator as an amplifier may sound unusual, but requirements for wideband military systems and 3rd generation commercial wireless applications are becoming so demanding that major changes in amplifier design approaches must be considered. Our approach is based on carefully controlled nonlinearity, so that we can achieve linear and stable transfer characteristics while maintaining the efficiency advantage of a nonlinear operating point. Broadband amplifiers tend to highly inefficient, especially if they used to amplify signals with large peak-to-average power ratios. Our approach has a direct market in the wireless personal communications area, and if successfully broadbanded, the market, both military and commmercial, would widen considerably. In personal wireless devices, for example, the efficiency of the rf power amplifiers for signals with large variations in the amplitude envelope remains extremely low; 20 percent power-added efficiency is not uncommon. (Standards adopted for the next generation of cellular communications use signals with high peak-to-average power ratios. Such signals are necessary to increase bandwidth efficiency.) Because it is not possible now to change the standards, the only option available to achieve comparable battery life to voice-only handsets is to radically change implementation architectures. In the RF domain, this means that linear circuit approaches must be abandoned in favor of nonlinear designs. Strongly nonlinear RF architectures are possible with amplifiers based on chaotic dynamics, but the system itself can have a linear transfer function, thus allowing for high power-conversion efficiency as well as low signal distortion for non-constant envelope signals.

TERAVICTA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2535 Brockton Drive, Suite 500
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 684-8700
Dr. Robert F. Miracky
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Band Antenna
Abstract:We propose to design (in Phase I) then build (in Phase II) a novel multi-band antenna for L-, S-, C- and X-band data using a reconfigurable aperture architecture and low-loss RF MEMS switches. The combination of this design approach and new component technology will allow a single antenna aperture to be used to receive data at multiple frequencies spanning several octaves, without physical reconfiguration. RF-MEMS-based reconfigurable aperture multi-band antennas will yield considerable cost and size reductions for military communications antennas. A single antenna will be able to replace multiple antennas used today. Multi-band antennas also have commercial application to wireless local area networks and broad-band wireless access.

THERMAL FORM & FUNCTION LLC
74A Summer St.
Manchester, MA 01944
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 526-4645
Mr. Martin Pitasi
MDA 03-052       Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Radar and RF Products
Abstract:A pumped liquid two-phase cooling system is proposed for use in active radar thermal management systems. The technology pumps liquid refrigerant (R-134a) to offset strip fin heat exchangers that are in thermal contact with the power amplifier coldplates. The refrigerant evaporates and removes heat isothermally from active components. A two-phase mixture leaves the offset strip fin heat exchanger where it is condensed and returns to the pump inlet. Significant improvements in heat transfer coefficients, reduced pumping requirements, and isothermal operation are expected when compared to existing single phase thermal management systems in active radar applications. Two of the MDA radar systems that may benefit from this type of thermal management system are Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) program and X-Band Radar (XBR) program. Due to performance and reliability requirements, channel temperatures and the amplifier-to-amplifier temperature gradients must be kept low. Modifying the THAAD and XBR cooling systems to be pumped liquid two-phase systems will: 1) Increase thermal performance 2) Maintain isothermal operation 3) Reduce each system's flow rate, which will reduce the required pumping power and allow for smaller coolant distribution systems 4) Since R-134a is a dielectric fluid, a leak will not cause an electrical short circuit. High performance cooling of digital and power electronic components is applicable to many commercial market segments. The enterprise computer and server market in particular has been seeking cooling technologies to replace air cooled heat sinks in high density applications. The proposed pumped liquid two phase cooling technology has already been demonstrated to one large computer company and more have expressed interest. Pumped liquid two phase cooling has the potential to drive greater packaging densities while at the same time improve the cooling performance of servers and enterprise computers. In the power electronic segment of the commercial market, some applications are approaching the limit of single phase liquid cooling. Particularly, high power density motor controls could benefit from the high performance low pumping power of a pumped refrigerant two phase cooling system.

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS CORP.
650 Vaqueros Ave., Suite A
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8648
Dr. Behzad Moslehi
MDA 03-053       Selected for Award
Title:Reflective Arrayed Waveguide Gratings for Dense Communication, Sensing, and Signal Processing Systems
Abstract:IFOS proposes to design and simulate photonic integrated circuits for dense communication, sensing, and signal processing systems. Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) are key elements of modern optical communication, sensing and signal processing. Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWGs) are state-of-the-art optical devices that are built on a PIC chip. They are used for multiplexing and demultiplexing, and as a building block for more complicated devices such as, variable optical attenuator, thermo-optic switch, optical channel monitor, etc. AWGs can also be optimized for specific systems such as multi-channel optical sensors and signal processors, making them ideal for multiplexed long-range sensing networks that require high volumes of data traffic. Such networks can be highly useful in applications such as missile tracking and detection systems. IFOS proposes a novel silica-on-silicon design of Reflective AWGs (RAWGs) that is suitable for fabrication on commercial fab facilities. In addition, a conventional Transmissive AWG (TAWG) is designed and simulated. The RAWG proposed here offers attractive benefit by reducing chip size to almost half of that of a TAWG and exhibits improved device performance. The developments anticipated in this proposal will result in a smart design of optimized photonic integrated circuit structures that can be fabricated with the help of a commercial fab facility. Two different class of structures will be investigated: a conventional, two-slab, transmissive AWG (TAWG) and a novel reflective AWG (RAWG). The RAWG structure proposed here will reduce the chip size by almost 50% and thereby significantly increase the yield of device per wafer. The proposed RAWG structure is unique and will allow more reliable packaging arrangement with improved product specification. The unique design and technological advantage offered by this product is expected to gain significant market potential in the optical communication industry, as well as for defense and space based applications.

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS CORP.
650 Vaqueros Ave., Suite A
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8648
Dr. Behzad Moslehi
MDA 03-053       Selected for Award
Title:High-Temperature Fiber-Optic Sensor System
Abstract:Fiber Bragg gratings are key components for multi-point sensor systems. However standard gratings start to lose their properties above 250C. Herein, we propose the development of a system based on special gratings that can operate up to nearly 1200C. The required optical signal processing system is significantly different form that for processing information from standard gratings. Applications include multi-point temperature, strain and vibration sensing. In Phase I, we will focus on high-temperature grating design, simulation and inital demonstration, high-temperature fiber coatings and a system suitable for processing the sensed information. For aerospace vehicle health monitoring applications, high-temperature stability will significantly extend the applicability of grating-based fiber-optic sensors systems. Further applications include instrumentation for jet and other high-temperature engines, fire warning systems, furnaces and nuclear power plants.

NUONICS, INC.
3361 Rouse Road, Suite 170
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 381-1663
Dr. Nabeel Riza
MDA 03-053       Selected for Award
Title:Range-Doppler Photonic Signal Processor for Wideband RF/Laser Radar
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project deals with a unique wide instantaneous bandwidth photonic signal processing technology applicable to MDA TMD and NMD RF and laser radar program activities such as the PATRIOT Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile system, Navy Area Wide AEGIS/Standard Missile System, the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) System, Differentrial Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System, and Cruise Missile Advanced Guidance (CMAG). This wideband processor uses solid-state optical device technology that can provide wide instantaneous processing bandwidths to 1 GHz . It is assembled from in-line bulk active and passive optics. The module features simultaneous independent range/Doppler bins for creating multiple simultaneous independent RF/laser radar receive beams utilized for fast search and tracking of missiles. Phase I research will concentrate on the basic proposed processor and its proof of concept experimental demonstration. Groundwork will be laid to indicate technical concept feasibility that will lead to a Phase II plan for prototyping and development. Apart from use in TMD-mode wideband laser and RF radar range-Doppler processing, the proposed processor can be used in: (a) wideband RF spectrum analyzers, (b) UnderSea Depth Sounding, (c) Space exploration, (d) Industrial Inspection, and (d) Remote Sensing.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Donald L. Herman, Jr.
MDA 03-053       Selected for Award
Title:Wideband ADC (9630)
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a wide bandwidth, monolithic, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using advanced silicon-germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technology. State-of-the-art commercially available, wide band ADCs are represented by the MAX108 at 8 bits and 1.5 Gs/s with 2.2 GHz signal bandwidth (the fastest commercially available ADC); and, the AD9410, a 210 Ms/s, 10-bit ADC with 500 MHz signal bandwidth (the fastest 10-bit commercial ADC). Q-DOT proposes a 10-bit ADC designed to operate at 6 Gs/s with 6 GHz bandwidth. The ADC will be fabricated on IBM's SiGe BiCMOS production line; thus, its production cost will be comparable to other silicon BiCMOS parts. The wide bandwidth, high resolution, and ability to add flexible signal processing using dense CMOS logic cells, ensures simplified product insertion into multiple applications, both military and commercial. Flexible sampling rates and on-chip output demultiplexing will enable insertion into a variety of systems, both over- and under-sampled. The on-chip CMOS can be used to design a programmable controller to facilitate fast transition from one mode to another via software alone. This will enable a single ADC to perform well in applications ranging from broadband monitoring to extracting narrowband voice and data channels. There are many potential partners for this development, both military and commercial. Q-DOT has established relationships with several leading aerospace, defense, and commercial firms who have expressed interest in this technology and specifically a next-generation ADC for advanced radars, data communications systems, telecommunications systems, and test instruments. Major commercial applications for a 10-bit, 6 Gs/s ADC include wideband communication systems (e.g., basestations) and next generation test instruments. Digital oscilloscopes (DSOs), spectrum analyzers, communication system analyzers, and mass spectrometers will benefit greatly from the ADC.

SYNCRODYNE SYSTEMS CORP.
9250 Bendix Road North
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 964-3326
Dr. Scott T. Hayes
MDA 03-053       Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Signal Processing, Data Fusion and Imaging Products
Abstract:We propose the concept of multiple waveform discrimination using a predictive filter approach, eliminating the need for correlation detection entirely. There is existing interest in the radar community in the use of chaotic waveforms because of their signal characteristics. There is furthermore a perhaps even more important technologically-relevant attribute of these signals that is often overlooked: They are the output of nonlinear deterministic dynamical systems. This means that, for example, they can be produced by a circuit as simple as a nonlinear Colpitts oscillator. It also means that they can be predicted in time. Imagine two or more radar systems producing signals that are different dynamically, that is, they do not follow the same deterministic equations. The processors on the two radars should be able to independently track their respective signals. There is no precedent for this application of predictive filter theory, because there is no history of the use of deterministic waveforms in radar. If this approach can be carried out, we could produce a simple device to replace much of the electronics in the radar signal processor. The military and commercial potential for an radar signal processing technology that reduces cost and complexity, and is capable of operating in real time is enormous. We anticipate that these benefits are within reach, and believe that the application of dynamics-based methods is critical to achieve them. There is also a need for new modulation techniques that increase flexibility in transmission and reduce receiver complexity. This is of primary concern in multiuser systems. Our proposed modulation technique allows flexibility at a pulse by pulse level, and greatly reduces receiver complexity. The goal is an increase in overall system capacity and spectral efficiency. The commercial implications of these improvements are considerable.

AEROMET, INC.
112 Beechcraft Drive
Tulsa, OK 74132
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(918) 477-6850
Mr. James Kidd
MDA 03-054       Selected for Award
Title:One Meter Class Airborne Optical System Architecture Study for Missile Defense Applications
Abstract:Airborne open port optical systems have been in use for many years for gathering data on ground, airborne, and space targets. The requirement for ever-greater sensitivity is driving developers toward much larger telescopes and more massive support structures. The mass of the system rises roughly proportional to the square of the aperture diameter. This proposal will focus on development of optimal structural architectures for the one-meter class open port optical systems. By using actively controlled structures and optics with innovative mounting approaches, the installed mass of the systems may be minimized Light weight, large aperture airborne optical system architecture suitable for high altitude airships conduction missile defense support, environmental monitoring or astrometry research

CERAMIC COMPOSITES, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-3435
Mr. Christopher Duston
MDA 03-054       Selected for Award
Title:Structural Improvement of High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Foam for Ballistic
Abstract:Ceramic Composites Inc. has increased the elastic modulus of high thermal conductivity carbon foam heat exchanger material, making it possible to consider the material for improving sub-system thermal management. The material already provides significant potential for weight and volume reduction, but has inherent issues in strength, friability and dustiness. The strength enhancement was accomplished by taking commercially available high thermal conductivity carbon foam material supplied by POCO Thermal Materials, processing the open cell foam with Starfirer, a polymeric silicon carbide precursor, and pyrolyzing the structure to form an amorphous silicon carbide coating upon the ligament structure of the foam. The friability, dustiness, and erosion susceptibility of the foam was also decreased. The use of a silicon carbide coating will allow the use of conventional epoxies and brazes to bond heat sources and containment shells to the foam, and improve the oxidation resistance. Under this proposed study, we will evaluate Starfirer and KionT International VL20 silicon carbide precursors, optimize their processing conditions, and establish the relationship between the infiltrant/processing parameters and the resultant material property enhancement of the carbon foam. Based upon requirements inputs from contractors, CCI will focus on tailoring the Enhanced Carbon Foam properties for specific allocations in the latter stages of Phase I. Prototype testing and optimization will occur Phase II with the support of The Boeing Company and others. Carbon foam heat exchangers offer: -Significant weight reduction -Volume efficiency improvement. - Structural support - Complex forming capabilit The composite material is expected to possess such favorable properties as: -Greater flexural strength -Greater compressive strength -Greater thermal conductivity -Greater oxidation resistance -High electrical resistivity -Higher strength-to-weight ratio - Good Fire resistance - Reduced friability - Reduced dustiness - Increased ability to be brazed - Reduced erosion in fluid heat exchangers The composite material can be incorporated into a wide range of heat exchanger and structural applications such as: - Electronics cooling - Heat exchangers (solid/gas, solid/liquid, solid/solid, liquid/gas, liquid/liquid, gas/gas, and gas/liquid) - Heat dissipation -Engine cooling -Catalyst supports - Heat Pipes - Fuel Cells The innovation is broadly applicable. The process of using a liquid precursor to form a silicon carbide coating is appropriate to any open celled carbon foam structure and would augment the benefits of a structurally tailored foam structure. The polymeric silicon carbide precursors are available from multiple sources. The viscosity of the precursor, the number of infiltration steps and the number of pyrolysis steps present a variety of tailorable coating properties. The process is scalable using commercially available equipment and technologies. Replacement of existing heat exchangers has been demonstrated with graphite foams and the SiC coating is expected to enhance the foam's performance for multiple applications.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Dr. David A. Kienholz
MDA 03-054       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Manufacturing of Optical Bench Isolation Systems for Airborne Laser
Abstract:Vibration control is critical for directed energy weapons such as Airborne Laser. Vibration aboard the weapon platform is a limiting factor both for generating the energy beam initially (dynamic alignment control of the laser resonator optics) and for final beam-directing accuracy. A unique active-passive system has been developed for resonator alignment control of Airborne Laser. It allows dynamic control of the rigid-body modes of entire optical benches at low frequency (i.e. dynamic alignment) while simultaneously isolating the benches from the airframe at higher frequencies to avoid exciting their local resonances. However this optical bench isolation system has been, for the first ABL aircraft, manufactured and hand-built largely by prototype manufacturing methods, without benefit of systematic design-for-manufacture. It has proven to be a capable performer but costly and time-consuming to build and test and somewhat heavy. It is proposed to optimize the design with respect to present and potential manufacturing methods. Objectives are to rework the first-generation design for cost, weight, and time-to-build improvements. This will be accomplished by adapting the design to more automated methods of manufacture and test, and by adapting it to use lightweight composite materials. The proposed development will make a potentially enabling new vibration-control technology suitable for production in the quantities expected for deployment of Airborne Laser. It will reduce the cost both directly and through weight reductions.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Benjamin N. Dwyer
MDA 03-054       Selected for Award
Title:Characterization and Reduction of Vibration and Shock for an Integrated Composite Structure
Abstract:Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) teamed with Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) proposes an engineering evaluation of airframe materials and composite constructions to analytically assess the anticipated fundamental natural frequency of co-processed interceptor missile airframe structures, and to investigate the feasibility for improving airframe response to shock and vibration in a cost effective manner consistent with co-processing techniques. Promising manufacturing approaches have been previously demonstrated using high temperature resin matrix materials that are suitable for both heatshield and substrate components. These types of matrices eliminate the traditional bonding operation and the associated need to fabricate and cure the components separately. With a co-processing approach, a structural airframe with heatshield is produced in a single molding step. Co-processing is an enabling technology for integrated composite airframe structures that are envisioned to incorporate additional functional features such as vibration and shock control. This study will include an investigation to understand how the response of the one-part structure changes with time as the heatshield ablates. An assessment will be performed to identify and define advanced vibration/shock reduction technologies appropriate for integrated composite airframes, and project the level of their benefits. Optimization of the fundamental natural frequency and vibration/shock reduction will provide technical enhancement for a one-piece interceptor airframe structure. This capability will result in a multi-functional composite material system that represents lower cost and weight. Following successful completion of a Phase I effort, the results would be applied to proposed activities for development of an advanced THAAD mid-body structure. These efforts are planned to execute co-processed materials development and demonstration of functional integrated airframe structures. This technology is also applicable to other missile systems that require mitigation of vibration and shock to minimize seeker line-of-sight error.

INNOVATIVE BUSINESSS SOLUTIONS, INC.
301 Concourse Boulevard, Suite 120
Glen Allen, VA 23059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 812-5555
Mr. Edward J. Jans
MDA 03-054       Selected for Award
Title:Low Shock, Shroud Separation System
Abstract:One of the key BMD system approaches is the use of hit-to-kill vehicles (KV). Shrouds are used to protect the KV's IR homing seekers. These protective shrouds need to be tightly held to the kill vehicle during flyout and then upon command, quickly released to expose the seeker. The shrouds have to be released with sufficient energy to prevent them from recontacting the KV. Conventional shroud release/ejection systems typically rely on pyrotechnic devices to release the shroud halves. The pyrotechnic shocks imparted to the KV by the shroud removal system can create design and performance problems. The shroud separation pyroshocks can damage/misalign the relatively fragile seeker head of the kill vehicle and/or cause problems with the kill vehicle's IMU sensors. Efforts to make the seeker and IMU strong enough to withstand these shocks add KV weight and complexity while reducing KV performance. Innovative Business Solutions, Inc. (IBSi) is proposing a shroud separation system that would greatly reduce the shroud separation induced shocks. The low shock shroud separation technology proposed by IBSi is applicable to a wide range of military and commercial missiles deploying shrouds. This effort has been coordinated with LockMart and has the support of the THAAD program. Operation of current technology, shroud separation systems induce large shocks into the kill-vehicles. These shocks create design and operational problems for the kill-vehicle's seeker and IMUs. These shocks can damage or misalign the seeker creating targeting problems. Similarly, these shocks can overwhelm IMU sensors (accelerometers, rate sensors, etc.) creating control problems and requiring more robust (and accordingly less sensitive) sensors. Efforts to minimize the problems caused by the shroud separation shocks increase kill vehicle weight, increase system complexity, reduces system performance and can reduce targeting and control accuracies. The Low Shock, Shroud Separation System (LSSS) reduces/eliminates these issues by greatly reducing shroud separation shocks imparted to the kill vehicle. The LSSS system is also applicable to protective shrouds of commercial missile launch vehicles. Induced pyroshocks associated with shroud removal are key design drivers for both commercial launch vehicles and their payloads. The LSSS shroud separator reduces launch system parasitic weights (i.e., allows larger/heavier payloads to be carried) and reduces launch stresses (increased payload reliability).

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Jerome Fanucci
MDA 03-054       Selected for Award
Title:Pultrusion-Based Production of Next-Generation Composite Missile Canisters
Abstract:KaZaK Composites and our commercialization partner, EDO Marine and Aircraft Systems, will design a missile canister system of significantly reduced cost compared to a filament wound canister for systems such as Patriot PAC-3. Phase I will initiate consideration of all aspects of a complete canister system, but primary focus will be on design and demonstration of technology for a pultruded composite shell, the primary component of the canister system. A pultruded shell will significantly reduce cost of this critical structural part compared to other manufacturing technologies such as the current baseline, filament winding. After completion of requirements definition, materials selection, analysis and trade study tasks, pultrusion tooling will be designed and fabricated, and process development initiated to demonstrate ability of pultrusion to make composite laminates with required mechanical properties. Samples will be tested to ensure ability to support loads associated with normal operations, including overpressure and high temperature effects associated with launch, and loads from day-to-day tactical operations. In Phase II KCI will demonstrate and test a PAC-3 canister that is fully compatible with all current performance requirements. Cost reduction 25% or more are expected, a more than $100-million savings over the expected run of these missiles. The proposed, highly automated composite shell production system, when successfully developed, will provide MDA with a significant cost reduction over current missile canister systems. The high performance composite shell manufacturing technology that will be used by KCI to make the canister shell component of the launch system is generically applicable to a wide range of commercial and military products. For example, KCI has been actively involved with the development of sandwich panel pultrusion technology for production of military shelters, including ISO sheltes. An ISO shelter is simply a militarized version of a common international 8x8x20 or 8x8x40-foot shipping container, made in quantities approaching 1-million per year. There have been many attempts in the past to produce a cost-competitive composite ISO container because the weight savings would allow significantly more cargo to be shipped in each one. Shells for missile containers can be accurately viewed as approximately 1/5-scale models of ISO containers. A process that is developed and demonstrated for pultruding single piece canister shells can provide convincing evidence for venture capitalists that the technology can be used to produce ISO containers, and with slight modification tractor-trailer bodies as well, in a cost-effective manner.

MENTIS SCIENCES, INC.
150 Dow Street, Tower Two
Manchester, NH 03101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 624-9197
Mr. Michael Favaloro
MDA 03-054       Selected for Award
Title:Mentis Sciences Ceramic Composite Materials and Structures
Abstract:This proposal presents a unique opportunity to develop low cost innovative manufacturing processes with the specific goal of complementing radome composite technology previously developed under SMDC Contract DASG60-98-C-0027, under which Mentis Sciences, Inc. (MSI) developed and evaluated composite radome materials for RF, specifically Ka band applications. The projected cost for the MSI's prototype PAC-3 radome is 1/10th of the total cost of the PAC-3 radome. The intent of this effort is to evaluate novel higher temperature composite radome materials for X to W-band applications for future high performance missile platforms and offer the community a low cost alternative for these systems. These composites will be fabricated using commercially available, high purity ceramic powders and fillers, and will be produced using novel processing methods developed for the production and fabrication of parts with similar shapes to missile radomes developed at MSI during the past year. The composite radomes will be produced using low cost ceramic slurry mixing techniques and a novel process to manufacture green radomes. The green body is nitrided freestanding in a furnace, eliminating the need for expensive tooling and hot pressing. Multiple parts can be nitrided at the same time, reducing production cost. The proposed ceramic composite material is expected to exhibit excellent electrical and mechanical performance at a greatly reduced cost when compared to conventional silicon nitride radomes, and with equivalent or higher use temperature and rain erosion performance.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Mr. Richard Andrew Guth
MDA 03-054       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Composite Cores Utilizing High Strength Carbon Foam
Abstract:Touchstone Research Laboratory and its partner, Alliant Aerospace Company (ATK), propose to investigate the utilization of lightweight carbon foam cores in composite load-bearing structures. CFOAMr has the potential to be a revolutionary material in aerospace structures, significantly reducing costs and improving mission capabilities. Aluminum Honeycomb is the targeted material for replacement. The study will address three focus areas: design, manufacturing, and life cycle costs. Current techniques will be analyzed to show a manufacturing payoff of carbon foam utilization, especially in bonding operations to proven facesheet materials. Carbon foams developed from bituminous coal at Touchstone Research Laboratory are the basis for this improvement effort. The Phase I effort will produce a sample sandwich composite system for evaluation of fabrication feasibility, material property requirements, and manufacturing process cost benefits. Phase II work will examine the replacement of a rocket honeycomb composite or satellite bus structural system. This effort will produce a prototype component th