---------- DARPA ----------

77 Phase I Selections from the 03.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
VI MANUFACTURING, INC.
6368 Dean Parkway
Ontario, NY 14580
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 265-0160
Mr. Michael Bechtold
DARPA 03-026       Selected for Award
Title:Finishing of Conformal Optics in Hard Materials
Abstract:Conformal optics is becoming increasingly important for military and commercial applications. New manufacturing methods are being developed through university, government and industry efforts. Unique finishing approaches are being investigated, some with more success than others, and each with specific limitations to overcome. Advancements in CNC motion control and multi-axis CAM Software, have greatly improved the deterministic micro grinding of atypical conformal optics. These new technologies allow once impossible shapes to be designed and transformed into machine tool code for the fine grinding process. After fine grinding, these conformal surfaces need to be highly finished while maintaining a precision surface figure. Materials such as AlON (Aluminum Oxynitride)with large grain structures, Sapphire,Spinel,deep concave surfaces, and mid spatial frequencies,render the existing finishing processes inadequate. There is a great need for a cost-effective optical finishing system for these problematic atypical conformal parts. This proposal will present the feasibility of applying a unique process for the ultra finishing of optics referred to herein as UFO. Research in the area of new compliant finishing tools utilizing a pressurized bladder concept in conjunction with removal functions, machine configuration, and optimized tool paths will be the key task areas of investigation.

MICROASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3065 Richmond Parkway, Suite 109
Richmond, CA 94806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 758-2600
Dr. Michael Cohn
DARPA 03-027       Awarded: 03NOV03
Title:Microsystems Vacuum Packaging
Abstract:Resonant MEMS sensors offer high sensitivity for military applications, and their development will address billion dollar markets for automotive, aerospace, robotics and condition-based maintenance applications. However, high-performance resonant MEMS require expensive vacuum packaging for high-Q and intimate electrical integration although MEMS and CMOS processes are quite incompatible. The proposed project addresses the largest cost component for resonant MEMS, often >95% of costs. MicroAssembly's vacuum packaging capability has demonstrated high yields on wafer and die scale. This bonding process has been successfully used to seal MEMS in vacuum. The Phase I work will focus on achieving long vacuum lifetimes on a chip-level.

SAN DIEGO RESEARCH CENTER, INC.
2831 Camino del Rio South, Suite 301
San Diego, CA 92108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 294-7372
Dr. Harry B. Lee
DARPA 03-028       Awarded: 25NOV03
Title:Next-Generation Modem Technology for High Threat Environments
Abstract:The San Diego Research Center, Inc. (SDRC) addresses the proliferated EW threat by means of a modem with 30 to 40 dB of degrees of freedom (DOF) that can support multiple antennas. The large number of DOF can be deployed to thwart proliferated EW threats, while enabling robust, high data rate, mobile tactical communications. It is now practical to build such modems leveraging the hardware breakthroughs referenced in the solicitation. Additionally high-DOF modems can provide capacity-enhancement and diversity benefits analogous to those offered by Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) signal processing architectures for commercial wireless applications. An ideal modem would support a full range of capability from comprehensive beamforming and nulling in multipath-poor scenarios, to MIMO performance in multipath-rich scenarios. The proposed work will formulate a high-DOF modem architecture that addresses the military objective of providing high data rate, LPD/AJ, MANET communications. The architecture will support an adaptive MIMO solution that readily can be specialized for best performance in diverse tactical scenarios. The SDRC also will formulate a baseline modem design, including an estimate of hardware requirements in terms of COTS digital signal processing devices and I/O bandwidths.

SICOMM
3862 Kim Lane
Encino, CA 91436
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 210-6888
Mr. Ahmed M. ElTawil
DARPA 03-028       Awarded: 08DEC03
Title:3-D Spread Spectrum Communication for High Threat Environments
Abstract:Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems have attracted a large amount of research since their introduction in the mid 1990s by Gans and Foschini, boasting several orders of magnitude improvement in capacity relative to current technologies. However, the ongoing research focuses on the application of MIMO to data communications. The creative research space of applying MIMO architectures to achieve high bit rate, anti-jamming, low probability of detection/interception (AJ/LPI/LPD) systems suitable for military applications has been largely ignored. We strongly believe that an architecture combining a MIMO structure with direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) techniques is the best architecture to provide sufficient flexibility and robustness to meet the demands of modern military systems. LPI/LPD communication is enhanced due to the three dimensional randomization process in the MIMO-OFDM-DSSS algorithm. Data randomization occurs in space, frequency and time via MIMO, OFDM and DSSS, respectively. Furthermore, MIMO provides interference suppression capabilities for additional AJ protection and increases the data throughput by several orders of magnitude, which will prove invaluable in the field. SiComm is uniquely poised to leverage the extensive MIMO experience existing within its staff to develop a next generation modem for high threat environments.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road, Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Mr. Jeff Nause
DARPA 03-029       Awarded: 17NOV03
Title:High Efficiency Green Emitter
Abstract:Cermet and researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology propose a high efficiency green emitter with significantly lower defect densities compared to current state of the art. This low defect density approach will reduce non-radiative recombination centers in the emitter, enhancing brightness at the target wavelength range of 555-585 nm.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
877 25th Street
Watervliet, NY 12189
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-3324
Dr. Keith Evans
DARPA 03-029       Awarded: 17NOV03
Title:Ultra-High-Efficiency Deep-Green LEDs Based on Quantum-Dots on Native AlN Substrates
Abstract:The proposed effort addresses the important need to develop an efficient direct emission source in the 555-585 nm (deep-green) wavelength range, corresponding to the peak photopic response of the human eye. Current limitations in extending the operating wavelengths of III-N devices beyond the blue-green region of the spectrum are overcome by combining the quantum dot approach, in which a red shift is achieved by increasing the amount of indium in the active region, and epitaxial growth on native AlN substrates, which provide for greatly reduced dislocation densities and the opportunity to utilize non-polar substrate orientations, which, in turn, may provide additional device operation efficiencies due to increase electron-hole overlap in the active region.

DOT METRICS TECHNOLOGIES
9005 Pleasant Ridge Rd
Charlotte, NC 28215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 604-0653
Ms. Rosanna Stokes
DARPA 03-029       Selected for Award
Title:Nanostructured active layers for deep-green light emitting diodes (LED)
Abstract:Dot Metrics Technologies' ultimate goal is to manufacture LED heterostructures using commercial luminescent quantum dots. This SBIR will develop deep-green LEDs to support full spectrum direct-emission illumination for spectroscopy, displays, and general illumination, on military platforms and for commercial applications. Commercial high-efficiency LEDs are typically fabricated from two classes of III-V semiconductor heterostructures. III-nitride (III-N) is used for the color range from ultraviolet to blue-green, and III-arsenide-phosphide (III-AsP) for yellow to near-infrared. The human eye response peak is between III-N and III-AsP, in the "deep-green" wavelength range 555 to 585 nm, where neither material has high-efficiency emission entitlement. Thus the efficiency of white lights based on mixing colors from red, green, and blue LED sources is limited by the low efficiency of the green component. Since deep-green luminescence can be attained from commercially available quantum dots, Dot Metrics will incorporate them into novel LED heterostructures. This SBIR is focused on (1) determining optimum conditions for incorporating luminescent quantum dots into LED heterostructures, and (2) demonstrating resulting prototype green LED devices.

ICONTROL, INC.
1299 Parkmoor Ave
San Jose, CA 95126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 282-3544
Mr. Earl F. Tubb
DARPA 03-030       Awarded: 03DEC03
Title:Application of Inexpensive Microsensors in the Battlefield
Abstract:To support system level analysis and optimization for micro-sensor networks, this project will identify commercial components suitable for battlefield sensors and produce a Battlefield Sensor Network Simulation. First principal models of micro-sensors, communication algorithms, and representative threat scenarios will be developed using advanced dynamic simulation tools. Models of physical systems (i.e. threats) and micro-sensors are generated using MATRIXx simulation tools. Algorithms representing AD-Hoc network algorithms will utilize either TinyOS or an iControl protocol simulator developed for network simulations. The integrated environment will allow parametric studies of sensor distribution density, sensor communication range, threat sensor sensitivity and message passing protocol performance. Three representative sensors will be simulated for Phase I. A US Marines Tactical Remote Sensor System (TRSS) UGS, an iControl micro-sensor, and a hypothetical mid-range micro-sensor.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
673G, Alpha Drive
Cleveland, OH 44143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 449-5785
Dr. Rich Kolacinski
DARPA 03-030       Awarded: 11DEC03
Title:Design of Unattended Ground Sensors Based upon Biologically Inspired Wireless Networking and Data Fusion Algorithms
Abstract:As recent experience has taught us, superior technology and sophistication is insufficient to protect our military forces from the attacks of individuals and small groups who can easily conceal themselves and deceive standard detection techniques. The danger that these attacks pose drives the need for novel approaches for their detection and identification. One approach that possesses great potential is the use of small, low power Unattended Ground Sensors (USG) networked together and cooperating with one another. This concept demands sensor and networking strategies that possess a level of flexibility, robustness and efficiency that far outstrip the capabilities of traditional techniques. In order to construct networking algorithms possessing the necessary attributes, decentralized algorithms that also address the sensor constraints are required. Nature provides numerous examples of distributed algorithms, which hold great promise for communications networking applications. Orbital Research proposes the development of a novel Intelligent Communications Architecture for a suite of networking protocols based upon group intelligence control algorithms and networking strategies for sensor networks. The proposed work will demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient and robust, spatially distributed wireless networking architecture imbued with the ability to achieve self-configuration and adaption in response to dynamically changing communications requirements and resources.

WAVETEK ENGINEERING, INC.
2465 Centreville Road, J17 Ste. 208
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 871-3908
Mr. Richard Krinsky
DARPA 03-030       Awarded: 18DEC03
Title:Application of Inexpensive Microsensors in the Battlefield
Abstract:As sensor technology advances to where sensor system size has shrunk and cost has lowered, it becomes apparent that these systems can be applied in many more military situations, including attacks by individuals from hostile forces. The proliferation of sensor systems, however, calls for more discriminatory and specific evaluation of these systems. A useful tool in the evaluation of sensor systems lies in the computerized modeling of these systems, and input/output simulation by introduction of key parameters. Another tool is the empirical assessment of these systems under field-test conditions. This proposal will define and describe some battlefield modeling/simulation techniques that would appraise sensor systems that include acoustic, magnetic, seismic, thermal, chemical, radiation and others. Methods of sensor deployment such as by air drop, projectile, vehicle and human would also be explored. Sensor specifications such as range, power requirements, communication modes and protocols will be analyzed for optimum values. Low false alarm rate of the sensors would be a key objective of these simulations. The modeling and simulation techniques, as well as subsequent empirical validation, would likely produce valuable information on sensor system groups, resulting in improved system design and deployment, and therefore more effective human and asset protection.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Thomas R. Brogan
DARPA 03-031       Awarded: 17DEC03
Title:The RVMHD-A Re-entry Air Driven MHD Power Supply
Abstract:In SBIR Topic SB032-031, DARPA has identified its interest in power generation on a re-entry vehicle using the air encountered by the vehicle as the working fluid for the generator. In response, this Proposal, based on an extensive 1964-1968 USAF program to develop a high power Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) re-entry vehicle using a 450 kilowatt MHD generator driven by the re-entry heated air is submitted. Busek staff served as Principal Investigator for most of this USAF program. Detailed Technical Reports from this program were declassified in late 2002. The proposed Phase I is a logical continuation of the USAF program which achieved significant progress toward the goal of using MHD to generate high levels of power on a re-entry vehicle. In Phase I, analytical techniques will be updated and three different re-entry scenarios employing MHD will be studied. US test facilities capable of supporting a Phase II RV MHD prototype test program will be identified and characterized. The Proof of Concept (POC) RV MHD demonstrator will be designed, and the Phase II Test Plan and POC Performance estimates will be prepared. Phase II should lead directly to a RV MHD prototype. MIT Fusion Center will be our subcontractor for the development of the appropriate magnet.

CELLULAR MATERIALS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2015 Ivy Road, Suite 6
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 977-1405
Dr. Yellapu V. Murty
DARPA 03-031       Awarded: 30DEC03
Title:Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Multifunctional Structures for Space Re-entry Vehicles
Abstract:Cellular Materials International, Inc. (CMI) proposes to develop and manufacture a prototype structural panel for testing and further optimization incorporating multifunctional features with structural stability at elevated temperature, thermal protection, and addressable magnetic elements. Local magnetic fields can be tailored to control the flow in the conductive boundary layer; control may be used to delay the transition from laminar to turbulent flow and prevent excessive premature heating of the vehicle surface. Similar concepts can later be used to design larger MHD devices for power generation or virtual control surfaces. CMI's proprietary designs and manufacturing know how will be incorporated in designing these MHD Tiles.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 580-0080
Mr. John F. Kline
DARPA 03-031       Selected for Award
Title:A "Smart Skin" Array for Reconfigurable Hypersonic MHD Effects
Abstract:Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI), with the aid of Princeton University, proposes to use an innovative sensor/actuator package to provide a critical component for multifunctional hypersonic vehicle structures. An integrated array of microfabricated pressure sensors and ionizers will provide a "smart skin" atop a reconfigurable magnetic array. The high-bandwidth sensors will detect development of instabilities or other changes in the flow, and the ionizers will compensate by increasing the local conductivity, and thereby the MHD-generated body force. The sensor/actuator array will use an elegant approach: the same membranes and same transmission structures will be used for pressure sensing, electron beam windows, fiber optics, high voltage lines, and pumping. This will keep the system completely integrated: sensors and actuators will be interchangeable in arrays that will provide precision flow control. The MEMS-based "smart skin" arrays will be of great interest in next-generation hypersonic and space access strike craft. These arrays will allow vehicle designs to be optimized for criteria other than aerodynamic performance while maintaining extremely rapid response times. This investigation will demonstrate the "smart skin" concept and develop the knowledge and technologies needed for Phase II experiments. This will allow for Phase II experiments with large scale arrays.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Andrzej J. Przekwas
DARPA 03-032       Selected for Award
Title:Multiscale Model of Lung Injury and Personnel Protection from Blast Overpressures in Confined Areas
Abstract:A high fidelity multiscale computational biophysics toolset will be developed to simulate the blast wave propagation throughout a fully defined model of the human thorax and lung alveoli. Medical imagery data, such as MRI and CT, will be used to create a 3D geometry and computational mesh model of the thorax. A Hierarchical Adaptive Mesh Refinement (HAMR) approach, developed to model the blast wave propagation within urban environments, will be modified to account for the thorax/lung tissue material properties and wave propagation physics. The displacement and shear work performed by the wave on alveolar and vascular capillary bed will be used to derive a first-principles based lung injury model, which will be correlated with experimental data. The model will be validated against experimental animal data of blast wave injury. Several new concepts of chest protective composites will be investigated and optimized. The effectiveness of protective measures will be evaluated within the fully defined thorax/confined space model framework. Phase II will; extend the model to other organs via dynamic structural mechanics models, investigate physiologically based sub-models, including multi-scale models of vasculature and pulmonary structure, validate the models to a series of experiments, and develop a virtual prototyping framework of blast injury protection armor.

MD BIOTECH, INC.
511 Burrough St.
Morgantown, WV 26505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 598-1101
Dr. Lance Molnar
DARPA 03-032       Selected for Award
Title:Ocular Scanning Instrumentation Diagnosis of Induced Trauma from Thermobaric Weapon Detonation
Abstract:US military warfighters are in critical need of technologies/equipment which provide expedient, reliable and non-invasive diagnostic capabilities to aid in the evaluation and treatment of battlefield trauma. By providing quick and accurate diagnosis of the type and extent of trauma, such equipment would allow warfighters to more rapidly assess and implement the most effective course of action. Of particular concern are soldiers exposed to thermobaric blasts or other factors that may cause internal trauma within the theater of operation. Early diagnosis of internal trauma induced by a primary blast wave via a field-deployable, rapid, and non-invasive technique will provide an invaluable tool in the subsequent success of treating such conditions. The current Phase I proposal seeks to establish and validate the feasibility of using ocular biomarkers for the diagnosis/detection of specific, unapparent internal traumas resulting from overpressure exposure. Eventually, algorithms which quantitatively evaluate the determined biomarkers may be incorporated into our Ocular Scanning Instrumentation (OSI) technology. The OSI technology has thus far been developed around the capability of diagnosing exposure to chemical and biological threat agents. The resulting system will serve as an early-diagnostic system for theater of operation casualty assessment based upon generalized information obtained from ocular biomarkers.

SCIPERIO, INC.
5202 N. Richmond Hill Rd.
Stillwater, OK 74075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 624-5751
Dr. Anatoly M. Kachurin
DARPA 03-032       Selected for Award
Title:Surrogate Lung Tissue as a Platform to Test TBX Weapons
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is the production of a designer engineered tissue construct (ETC), a surrogate lung patch-like structure, which will be used to assess the damage induced by thermobaric (TBX) weapons. The information garnered from surrogate-lung-patch tests will be used to help devise effective countermeasures against TBX weapons as well as to reduce the need for costly and often controversial animal studies. The result of this work will be the development of an enabling technology platform that will create new material "patches" not only as surrogate constructs to test TBX blasts, but also as regenerative constructs for a variety of lung damages that may result from TBX blasts.

ACTIVE SIGNAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
13027A Beaver Dam Road
Cockeysville, MD 21030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 547-0293
Dr. Keith Bridger
DARPA 03-033       Selected for Award
Title:Pulse width modulated servo valve enabled by single crystal piezoelectric
Abstract:Active Signal Technologies and Moog propose to demonstrate a solid state pulse width modulated pilot stage for a servo valve enabled by single crystal PMN-PT. The basic mechanism and labor intensive fabrication processes used to build conventional servo valves remain largely unchanged since the device was launched in 1951, resulting in high cost and limited bandwidth. A digitally controlled valve has been long sought but has not materialized because of the limitations of available drivers -- low frequency capability of magnetic torque motors and solenoids, and stroke limitations of "high strain" solid state materials such as Terfenol and PMN. However, the advent of single crystal PMN-PT with over 2 times the strain of conventional solid state materials and low hysteresis can supply the 10X bandwidth improvement needed to realize a truly digital valve. The new servo valve will not only be smaller and low cost, but will be more readily integrated with digital control, especially for adaptive structural control using distributed actuation. In Phase I we will build a working pilot stage valve and demonstrate its switching speed capability, and in Phase II we will develop a fully integrated high speed servo valve using this technology.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Dr. Sean O. Fahey
DARPA 03-033       Selected for Award
Title:Piezoelectric Single Crystal Hybrid Actuators
Abstract:The feasibility of a device that exploits the key properties of piezoelectric single crystals will be demonstrated. The device is a power-by-wire hybrid actuator incorporating a piezoelectric pump. The actuator will be effective in shipboard applications and in UUVs or UAVs that use conventional control surfaces or more exotic morphing control. The actuator will benefit directly from high strains, high electromechanical coupling and high energy density typical of single crystal materials. The single crystals will contribute to significantly increased efficiency and power density in the core piezoelectric pump, resulting in an actuator that exceeds the power density of electric motors. By leveraging ongoing developments in DARPA's Compact Hybrid Actuator Program, this research will make a directly relevant comparison with devices that use conventional smart materials. It will also use hardware, analyses and test techniques already developed to accelerate progress. A single pump-based hybrid actuator will be designed and tested against mechanical loads representative of control surfaces. The benefits of the single crystal material will be quantified in terms of increased power output per unit mass and volume. In Phase 2, CSA and its large shipbuilding industrial partner, will develop the actuation further and test it in a full scale system.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Paul W. Rehrig
DARPA 03-033       Selected for Award
Title:Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators for Adaptive Structures
Abstract:Single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed as a means of significantly increasing the stroke of a smart actuator to control the trailing edge flap of a helicopter rotor for vibration control and noise suppression. Conventional piezoelectric ceramic actuators have exhibited inadequate levels of stroke and/or force required to produce an angle of rotation of 8 at 40 Hz. Single crystals based on (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) represent a revolutionary advance in piezoelectric actuator technology. These materials exhibit 5 to 10 times the strain of conventional ceramic piezoelectrics with equivalent deliverable force. Therefore, they offer a much broader design space for adaptive systems than is currently available with ceramic actuators, active fiber composites, electric motors or magnetic devices. The objectives of this project are: 1) to fabricate complete actuators of three leading actuator types using new single crystal piezoceramic material technology. Specifically, a d33 stack, and d32 bender, and a d15 induced shear tube will be addressed, 2) to measure and characterize piezo-coupling coefficients under electromechanical conditions representative of smart rotor and airframe applications, 3) to conduct a performance analysis quantifying the projected gains in actuation capability given the measured single crystal element characteristics.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. David Guaspari
DARPA 03-035       Awarded: 08JAN04
Title:SPRINT: Secure Programming Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Abstract:To meet the demand for more "intelligent" applications-in web services, enterprise software, network management, etc.-developers are turning to the AI technique of rule-based programming. But the very things that make rule-based programming attractive-its flexibility, its introduction of complex and dynamically changing control structures-raise serious security concerns. ATC-NY, in collaboration with Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC), will develop SPRINT, a tool to support secure programming in the rule-based language CLIPS. SPRINT can be thought of as a sophisticated type-checker for a modest extension of CLIPS. The extensions, which take the form of structured comments, provide a way for programmers to indicate more precise constraints on intended execution, and thereby provide "checkable hints" to SPRINT. A program that passes SPRINT type checks will have eliminated many potential security flaws. Since CLIPS is broadly similar to many other rule-based languages, we expect that the techniques and principles developed in this work will be generally applicable.

COVERITY
3723 Haven Avenue, Suite 113
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 980-3408
Dr. Andy Chou
DARPA 03-035       Awarded: 15JAN04
Title:Secure Programming Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Abstract:Through this project, Coverity will demonstrate the effectiveness of automated source code analyses in improving the security and reliability of critical software. Coverity will develop and apply source code analysis checks that will automatically detect common causes of security vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflows, as well as application-specific security problems in various critical code bases. Coverity will also detect other types of software defects, including memory and resource leaks, which affect overall reliability. Although the idea of source code analysis is not new, the tools that have come to market are prohibitively difficult to use or fail to scale to the size of commercial applications. Coverity's solutions successfully overcome these barriers with novel, state-of-the-art technology. The prototype for Coverity's patent-pending source code analysis technology was originally developed by a team of researchers in the Computer Systems Lab at Stanford University. Initial applications of this technology in the research setting resulted in the successful detection of over 2000 defects and hundreds of exploitable security holes in the Linux and OpenBSD operating systems. Coverity's current analysis engine uses interprocedural data-flow analyses coupled with sophisticated abstraction techniques that may be used to uncover a wide range of software defects including Security holes Buffer overruns Memory corruption Memory/Resource leaks Deadlocks and race conditions API misuse Violations of coding standards Unlike other tools that have surfaced over the years, Coverity's solution scales to millions of lines of code, achieves 100% path coverage, and requires no manual modifications or testing. Coverity's technology can pinpoint hundreds to thousands of critical defects out of the box with orders of magnitude less noise than other source code analysis tools. A unique feature of Coverity's tool is its extensibility. Company specific rules, custom security policies, or errors detected by QA can be easily turned into checks that can be plugged into the analysis platform. Furthermore, statistical learning and data mining techniques can be used to automatically retarget the tool to different code bases with differing coding conventions, styles and idioms.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
DARPA 03-035       Selected for Award
Title:Static Analysis of AI Systems
Abstract:Toolkits for Artificial Intelligence (AI) are increasingly being used in government and industry. If such systems have access to sensitive information, it is important to know their security properties. A toolkit may contain low-level flaws, such as buffer-overrun errors that allow an attacker to gain control of the host system. Or, there may be flaws in the rule base of a system implemented with the toolkit that allow unauthorized access to sensitive information. We propose the detailed study of the security properties of CLIPS, a widely used expert-system shell in two parts. The first part will be a detailed analysis of the source code of the system using static analysis tools and other methods to find low-level flaws. The second part will be a study of the CLIPS language and the exploration of static and dynamic approaches to create secure CLIPS programs. A promising approach is to model the CLIPS system as a weighted push down system, and to use model-checking techniques to implement a range of security analyses, including termination analysis and information flow. The results will include a design for a tool to be prototyped in Phase II, and guidelines on how to write a secure CLIPS specification.

FETCH TECHNOLOGIES
4676 Admiralty Way, 10th floor
Marina del Rey, CA 90292
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 448-9148
Dr. Greg Barish
DARPA 03-037       Selected for Award
Title:Advisable Web Assistant for Extraction of Time-Critical Information
Abstract:We will develop an advisable, self-learning "assistant" capable of monitoring, extracting and assessing data from multiple heterogeneous sources. The system, called InTIME (Intelligent Trainable Information Monitoring and Extraction system) will be built on top of the Fetch Agent Platform, a commercial system for building and executing software agents that extract and integrate data from Web sites. Through the use of machine learning, users can train the system to extract data from Web sites "by example." We plan to extend our existing machine learning approach so that a user can train the system to learn what information is valuable, why it is valuable, and how and when to notify the user when new information is available.

REALTIME METHODS
NASA Ames Research Center , MS 566-108
Moffett Field, CA 94035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 944-7594
Mr. Kevin Yurica
DARPA 03-037       Selected for Award
Title:Advisable Information Agent for Real-time Data Monitoring
Abstract:This research is focused on the development of an advisable agent platform that performs real-time information monitoring using machine learning techniques. This advisable agent is based on an approach which combines reinforcement learning with data flow-based analysis methods. The machine learning model proposed relies on prior knowledge, reinforcement learning and vector-based data analysis techniques. Relying on advice, a knowledge-based application is easily configured with an initial knowledge set which is then incrementally improved using rules, advice and induction. These machine learning capabilities are integrated with a real-time data analysis model which supports data filtering, extraction and monitoring for items of interest. This foundation for time-critical event processing and time series data analysis is derived from a data stream perspective that abstracts a series of discovery, delivery or learning events as a data flow. This data flow processing model may ultimately result in a number of potential benefits including; efficiency, scalability, and ease of deployment.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner''''s Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. Terrance Goan
DARPA 03-037       Awarded: 05JAN04
Title:Exploiting Diverse Forms of Advice to Guide the Discovery and Extraction of Time-Critical Information
Abstract:We propose to address the primary challenges to the timely distillation of time-critical data into actionable information by exploiting the synergies amongst information discovery, extraction, and fusion processes. The proposed advisable assistant concept, Sentinel, will be comprised of three primary elements: (1) a user centered approach to context modeling and agent guidance; (2) a unified probabilistic model of information discovery/retrieval, extraction, and fusion; and (3) a predictive model of "interestingness", including representations of time criticality that will effect if, when, and how the user should be alerted. The resulting system will reduce existing barriers to the tasking of an agent through user interfaces that integrate into existing problem solving workflows and through the exploitation of active learning techniques that can make optimal use of any (potentially imperfect) guidance provided by the user. Further, the use of tightly intertwined probabilistic models in which discovery, extraction, and fusion decisions are made with a common pool of evidence and inference procedures will allow much richer forms of inference than possible with the current state of the art. Phase I research and development of a limited prototype will provide a solid foundation for the complete implementation of Sentinel in Phase II and its commercialization.

ADVANCED INTERFACES, INC.
403 S. Allen Street, Suite 104
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 867-8977
Dr. Rajeev Sharma
DARPA 03-038       Selected for Award
Title:Non-intrusive Multimodal Emotional State Monitoring
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal will conduct an exploratory study to establish the feasibility of a multimodal framework for monitoring the emotion of a person using an non-intrusive sensor suite that includes video, audio, and thermal sensing. This will lead to the development of a portable gauge for robustly monitoring the emotional state of people in operational environments. The following five dynamic features will be considered in the multimodal framework: (a) facial expression, (b) facial temperature distribution, (c) facial perspiration pattern, (c) head movement, (d) hand gesture, and (e) speech prosody. It is expected that the multimodal features will give greater visibility and a more accurate estimate of the emotional state than the observation of any one feature, especially in situations involving suppression of expression. The proposed research will be carried out by a multidisciplinary team from Advanced Interfaces, Inc., Artis, LLC, and the University of Pittsburgh.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Jason Geng
DARPA 03-038       Awarded: 16DEC03
Title:A Novel Integrated Emotional State Recognition System Using 3D Imaging and Thermal Analysis
Abstract:A critical drawback of existing automatic facial expression classification, gesture analysis, and emotional state recognition technology is the lack of integrated and complimentary measurement modalities to perform reliable cognitive and emotional state assessment in operational environment. The purpose of this SBIR is to develop a novel, integrated sensor that incorporates three sensing modalities for the human face and body. This unprecedented capability adds one more dimension, literally and figuratively, to state-of-the-art emotional state recognition technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no research effort or commercial product available today that is able to achieve this capability, at any cost.

LI CREATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
225 Runnymede Parkway
New Providence, NJ 07974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 508-0239
Dr. Qi (. Li
DARPA 03-038       Selected for Award
Title:Robust and Sequential Recognition of Emotional States Using Hidden Markov Models and Integrated Speech, Video, and Thermal Features
Abstract:This proposal defines unique and promising solutions for robust and sequential emotional and stress state recognition in military operational environments. The solutions are non-invasive, multi-modality approaches, including speech, video, and thermal images. The feature sets are selected automatically based on the operational environments. For example, when the environment is too noisy, the system focuses on image features; when the lighting condition is too bad, it focuses on speech features; when both acoustic and lighting conditions are good, the system uses both speech and image features. This will provide the military with a degree of system versatility and allow broad applications to many operational scenarios. Multi-layer hidden Markov models are defined as the statistical models to characterize the emotional states. The recently developed sequential detection algorithm is proposed to detect the changes from one emotional state to another. Furthermore, a multi-modality database will be collected to study the feasibility of detecting at least the following emotional states in this project: anger, drowsiness, anxiety, fear, confusion, disorientation, and frustration. The new feature extraction and recognition algorithms will be developed and implemented through this project to discriminatively recognize those states. The developed system will be portable and can be operated in military environments automatically and continuously.

ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS, INC.
2020 Alameda Padre Serra, Suite 123
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-3331
Dr. Roger Stettner
DARPA 03-039       Awarded: 05JAN04
Title:Ultra-Compact, High Range-Resolution LADAR for the Individual Soldier
Abstract:Using ASC's current 128 x 128 3-D imaging system, off-the-shelf optics and in-house compact laser designs a demonstration LS3DIS will be configured and tested. Practical issues will be addressed, and data will be used to tune a system performance model. System trade studies will be made using this model. The LS3DIS ReadOut Integrated Circuit will be a 320 x 320 to 400 x 400 unit cell array and the associated unit cell will be designed, simulated and laid out in Phase I. In Phase II a full-scale or nearly full-scale ROIC will be fabricated and this ROIC, together with the Phase I system analysis, will be the basis for fabrication and testing of a LS3DIS compact system for delivery to DARPA.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1, Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 524-0257
Dr. J. C. Dries
DARPA 03-039       Selected for Award
Title:An Ultra-Compact, Man-Portable FLASH Laser Radar system
Abstract:Sensors Unlimited will develop and deliver a portable flash laser radar system in the eye-safe 1.54 micron wavelength band. The system will consist of an InGaAs avalanche photodiode based focal plane array with a novel in-pixel digitized architecture. The system will display range and return intensity data for 320x256 pixels across a 40 degree field of view. The maximum number of laser shots required to image a 40 degree field of view for all 320x256 pixels using a compact 4 mJ 1.54 micron laser source will be four. During Phase I we will develop the single pixel readout integrated circuit architecture to accommodate both the range resolution and intensity goals. The pixel will be modeled and fabricated using the MOSIS prototyping service in Phase I. During Phase II, the fabricated pixel will be evaluated, and spun into a full 320x256 or scanned 320x64 focal plane array as dictated by the modeling in Phase I. We will field test the camera in a "flash LADAR" system that is man portable with a minimum 4 mJ, < 5 ns pulse eye-safe laser that is suitable for transport by a single soldier.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Brad Sallee
DARPA 03-039       Selected for Award
Title:Individual Soldier LADAR (ISL)
Abstract:The Systems and Process Engineering Corporation (SPEC) will develop the Individual Soldier LADAR (ISL) which will use a proven high accuracy phase detected range circuit to determine range profiling to 1/8-inch accuracy. This circuit allows the ISL to operate as a Class I eye-safe device and still achieve the needed range. The ISL also utilizes ultra short pulse lengths, allowing improved signal to noise level, while still maintaining eye safety and low power dissipation. By carefully choosing the operating frequency of the ISL with respect to the other sensor suite frequencies of the Multispectral Adaptive Networked Tactical Imaging Sensor (MANTIS) system, the ISL output can be fused with the MANTIS sensors to provide sharp discrimination of plants, rocks, painted objects, and advanced camouflaged targets. A display of the three dimensional shape, not distorted by perceived shadows or patterns, allows targets to be easily interpreted. The ISL concept is based on the L-VAS (LADAR Vehicle Alignment System), which uses low cost thumb size LADARs with 3mm range resolution yielding the ILS for individual soldier use with up to 3mm range resolution, .5km range, and a field of view up to 90,a at video imaging rates (30Hz).

BRAIM IMAGE TECH, INC.
9700 Dixie HWY, Suite 1030
Miami, FL 33156
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 361-5459
Mr. Craig M. Snoeyink
DARPA 03-040       Selected for Award
Title:Novel Airborne Video Sensors
Abstract:Current generation of panoramic imaging systems are based on three types of technologies: 1) Catadioptric sensors, as in omni-directional cameras, using combination of lenses and mirrors in a carefully arranged configuration relative to a standard camera; 2) Alignment of single-line scans or strips as a single camera rotates; 3) Alignment of images from multiple cameras with negligible baselines relative to scene distance, each camera covering a small section of the entire view. This project explores the multi-camera design to achieve super-resolution panoramic motion imagery for UAV deployment. Among several attractive advantages, including simplicity, flexibility, reconfigurability, and robustness of the design, this is a solution based on a low-cost technology. A detailed investigation of various design parameters and how they impact system performance (accuracy, resolution, and achievable frame rate) for target detection and tracking, visually-guided positioning, and terrain mapping from UAVs are investigated. The deliverables comprise performance graphs and charts where critical system parameters can be identified, configurations most suitable for targeted applications at multitude of operational altitudes can be chosen based on quantitative measures, and guidelines are established for system design and construction in the 2nd phase, which also involves the deployment for collecting real data (onboard suitable UAVs).

VEXCEL CORP.
4909 Nautilus Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 583-0228
Dr. Jeffery D. Collins
DARPA 03-041       Awarded: 17DEC03
Title:Bistatic Target and Clutter Characterization for ISR Radar Systems
Abstract:Vexcel proposes to make measurements and perform analysis regarding monostatic-bistatic equivalence phenomenology using a unique data set that has not been considered in the past for this purpose. Almost simultaneously acquired bistatic and monostatic imagery along the bistatic bisector direction will be compared. Comparison results will be analyzed so as to understand the implication of the monostatic/bistatic equivalence theorem on using "virtual phase centers" as components in clutter-cancellation moving target detectors. A new means of target detection through the exploitation of the breakdown of monostatic-bistatic equivalence will be investigated.

AETC, INC.
8910 University Center Lane, Suite 900
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 450-1211
Dr. Donald Miklovic
DARPA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Passive Broadband Acoustic Imaging Network for Urban Warfare
Abstract:The current situation in Iraq is making it extremely clear that the urban environment is a chaotic and dangerous battlespace. Currently available technology cannot provide the level of real-time situational awareness needed by each individual soldier. DARPA has determined that Sparse Conformal Acoustic Network (SCAN) technology, or soldier-worn acoustic-array "vests," is a potential solution to this problem. AETC proposes to utilize its expertise in this area to demonstrate the utility, practicality, and affordability of the SCAN concept. The proposed work focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-gain acoustic array and associated algorithms that will improve the ability to hear and recognize distant sounds by an order-of-magnitude. This will be an important advance over today's state-of-the-art that is limited to small microphone arrays of only a few sensors, and processing designed for sound-quality enhancement and automatic speech recognition. Our approach emphasizes experimental measurements of the critical unknowns effecting design and performance of SCAN, and on actual demonstration of limited capability, low-cost prototypes. The final product will be a preliminary system design and experimental demonstration of feasibility and performance.

CARDINAL RESEARCH LLC
860 Lathrop Dr
Stanford, CA 94305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 857-9151
Dr. Bernard Widrow
DARPA 03-042       Selected for Award
Title:Wearable Sparse-Conformal-Acoustic-Networks for Tracking & ID of Urban Targets
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research is to develop wearable acoustic array technology to enable a wirelessly connected squad of soldiers in an urban battlefield to detect, localize, track, and categorize acoustic target signals. The goal is to give foot soldiers real-time situation awareness, thereby assisting them in attacking enemy targets while avoiding ambush, unintentional civilian casualties, and friendly-fire accidents. Each soldier will be equipped with a conformal acoustic array connected to an adaptive filtering network for localization and enhancement of speech and other acoustic signatures buried in noise. Each soldier will thus become a ``node'' in a wireless smart sensor network. The acoustic information will be shared among neighboring nodes of the network. Each soldier will wear a fast computer to process his or her acoustic data, to supply processed data for wireless transmission to neighboring nodes, and to generate a display showing the location and identification (friend or foe) of surrounding acoustic targets. The research proposed for Phase I consists of seven tasks whose objectives are to develop and demonstrate a single SCAN node, to conceptualize an eight-node SCAN system for development under Phase II, and to provide written monthly progress reports and a final report.

CODETRONIX LLC
5940 Buena Vista Avenue
Oakland, CA 94618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 282-1108
Dr. Per Ljung
DARPA 03-043       Selected for Award
Title:Handshake Circuits for RHBD Systems
Abstract:Fault-tolerant synchronous handshaking circuits are synthesized that avoid, detect and recover from radiation induced faults. This approach is suitable for commercial deepsubmicron CMOS processes. Every computation uses error detecting codes. If a computation output shows no errors, then handshaking signals are asserted allowing data and control information in preceding and following nodes to propagate. If an error is detected, then recovery is attempted by re-trying the computation. If the fault was a glitch, then the re-try is successful. If a re-try is unsuccessful, then a permanent fault is assumed and the computation is re-tried on a redundant hardware module(s). Once the computation shows no errors, then the handshaking signals are asserted as in normal operation. Since all circuits use delay insensitive handshaking circuits, no other circuits are effected by the extra time required to recover from the fault. No checkpoints or rollback re-initialization are needed since handshaking is utilized. As a result, the use of handshake circuits provides an efficient low-cost error recovery mechanism for CMOS circuits.

MIXED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., LLC
2600 El Camino Real
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 493-6729
Dr. Klas Lilja
DARPA 03-043       Awarded: 14JAN04
Title:Hierarchical CAD Tools for Radiation Hardened Mixed Signal Electronic Circuits
Abstract:Mixed Technology Associates propose a Phase I project to explore a new method of automating the synthesis of rad-hard-by-design analog circuits. A powerful new technique for the automatic optimization of analog circuits, maximizing a number of simultaneous goals under a variety of simultaneous constraints, has recently been developed. Optimal ADCs, DACs, OpAmps, and PLLs have been synthesized using the method and the technique has been commercialized. The key to the new method is the formulation of objective functions and constraint functions in a particular mathematical formulation suitable for geometric programming. MTA believes that the constraints imposed by radiation hardness can be introduced into this framework, and can become an integral part of the design process. This phase I proposal would develop the formulation of goal functions and constraint functions for radiation sensitivity of MOSFETs and CMOS analog circuits. The methodology for fitting such functions to the technology will also be developed. If the procedure is successful, it will be extended to a range of analog components, including PLLs, VCOs and ADCs, in a phase II proposal, and circuit designs optimized for radiation hardness will be demonstrated using the new technique.

ORORA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
17371 NE 67th Court, Suite 205
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 702-9196
Mr. Monte Mar
DARPA 03-043       Selected for Award
Title:Hierarchical CAD Tools for Radiation Hardened Mixed Signal Electronic Circuits
Abstract:Orora Design Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate a behavioral-modeling-centric design flow and supporting CAD tools for the automated analysis, synthesis and migration of radiation-hardened mixed-signal integrated circuits and systems, based on IEEE standard VHDL-AMS. Parasitic-aware behavioral modeling methods and models will be developed to characterize radiation effects on circuit blocks, interconnect and layout structures. Orora will develop tools for encapsulating and quantifying known techniques for rad-hard circuit layout and architecture, as well as tools to predict routing sizing adjustments needed for radiation induced events. The existing Orora Arsyn tool suite will be extended to support hierarchical synthesis through topology selection under radiation, physical, and electrical constraints through parameterized VHDL-AMS netlists. VHDL-AMS facilitates simultaneous simulation and evaluation of electrical, thermal, and radiation effects, and encapsulation of design knowledge for rad-hard process migration. Teaming up Boeing Solid State Electronics, the proposed design flow and tools will be validated and demonstrated on some military electronic designs.

RIDGETOP GROUP, INC.
7070 North Oracle Road, Suite 120
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
Mr. Mark Rencher
DARPA 03-043       Awarded: 17NOV03
Title:Hierarchical CAD Tools for Radiation Hardened Mixed Signal Electronic Circuits
Abstract:Currently available RF/Mixed Signal design kits and tools do not provide the necessary precision to accurately predict integrated circuit performance when exposed to total ionization dose (TID), single event effects (SEE) and prompt dose (PD) environments. Specifically, the parametric variation of key performance indicators (KPI) is not accounted for at the device modeling, circuit and system levels. Current engineering practices use adhoc and unpredictable methods to converge on a product KPIs. This adhoc method is generally referred to as silicon bread boarding". The results is multiple design/manufacturing/test passes to converge on the KPI satisfaction with process distributions and environmental (Voltage, Temp, TID, SEE, PD) distributions. Financially, the current adhoc method produces up to fifteen million dollars ($15M) in cost over runs, loss profits and delayed projects. To rectify the current adhoc approach, a precision, robust modeling and characterization methodology based on statistical methods is proposed. This statistical Rad Hard by Design solution provides the necessary accuracy to predict KPI parametric performance with in the process distributions and environmental (Voltage, Temp, TID, SEE, PD) specifications. The two principle methodologies [1] employed in the Rad Hard by Design kit are ,h Correct by design ,h Correct by construction Correct by design are the techniques where electrical characteristics are described by geometric and statistical process parameter relationships. Correct by construction is the techniques where the geometric relationships defined in the correct by design methodology are used to create the physical descriptions.

SILVACO DATA SYSTEMS, INC.
4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 654-4362
Dr. Christopher Nicklaw
DARPA 03-043       Selected for Award
Title:Hierarchical CAD Tools for Radiation Hardened Mixed Signal Electronic Circuits
Abstract:Development of an integrated radiation capable design environment for mixed signal applications. Incorporating transistor level simulations (TCAD), compact and behavorial modeling using Verilog-A, circuit simulation (SPICE and Verilog), and the creation of radiation enhanced models for circuit design.

CANYON SEMICONDUCTOR
3925 W. Braker Lane
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 305-0970
Dr. Craig W. Farley
DARPA 03-044       Selected for Award
Title:Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices
Abstract:The research project proposed to DARPA in this document will investigate novel device structures for maximizing the linear power density of microwave and mmwave GaN HFET transistors by examining innovative device structures to improve thermal management. These innovative structures will include device layouts, epitaxial layer structures, and device fabrication processes. This investigation will involve theoretical evaluation of thermal and EM characteristics of innovative structures using state-of-the-art simulation tools. Innovative device structures, including both one- and two-dimensional arrays will be investigated to determine the most effective in minimizing the operating temperature differences of transistor elements in these arrays. EM simulations will be carried out on the device structures to assess limitations on operating frequency. After a clear assessment of the thermal management and operating frequency capability, innovative approaches to minimizing any limitations on operation at mmwave frequencies will be investigated, including novel biasing schemes. The primary objective of this Phase I proposal is to define device structures which afford the maximum linear power density at both microwave and mmwave frequencies for GaN HFET device technology. Phase I activities will be followed by experimental evaluation of the most promising approaches at L-, X-, and V-band for GaN HFET power transistors.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
877 25th Street
Watervliet, NY 12189
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-3325
Dr. Jon Whitlock
DARPA 03-044       Selected for Award
Title:Preparation of ultra-low defect AlN surfaces for OMVPE
Abstract:Now that very low defect density (<1,000 dislocations per sq. cm.) native AlN substrates are available from Crystal IS, it may be possible to realize nitride device applications with high Al content where low defect densities are critical.. However, to realize this potential, a systematic effort to provide improved and reliable surface preparation of aluminum nitride substrates prior to the OMVPE growth of nitride epitaxial layers is needed. This need will be addressed by the proposed effort.

INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
22660 Executive Drive, Suite 101
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 437-4000
Dr. Cengiz Balkas
DARPA 03-044       Awarded: 09DEC03
Title:Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices
Abstract:Development of ultra pure silicon carbide (SiC) substrates that are electrically insulating will be pursued under the SBIR Phase I program. The Company has developed a unique and proprietary technique for making such substrates. A number of characterization tasks will also be performed on the wafers produced under to proposed effort.

INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
22660 Executive Drive, Suite 101
Sterling, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 437-4000
Dr. Nikolay Yushin
DARPA 03-044       Awarded: 09DEC03
Title:Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices
Abstract:Development of high quality 4H silicon carbide (SiC) substrates will be pursued under the SBIR Phase I program. The Company has developed a unique and proprietary technique for making such substrates. A number of characterization tasks will also be performed on the wafers produced under to proposed effort

MAGELLUS CORP.
c/o For-e-tel, 1406 Camp Craft Road, Suite 800
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 947-4623
Dr. Russell D. Dupuis
DARPA 03-044       Selected for Award
Title:ADVANCED HFET DEVICES AND CIRCUITS FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE, HIGH-RELIABILITY RF ELECTRONICS
Abstract:In this program, Magellus will employ metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and novel device processing technologies to develop large-area III-nitride HFET devices and RF circuits that are capable of operation at high frequencies (above 20GHz), high powers and power densities (above 10W total power and 10W/mm power density), and high temperatures (above 300C). Magellus has developed several unique nitride HFET device structures that will be employed in this program. One important application for these devices will be the realization of high-performance transmit/receive RF circuits for high-efficiency radar systems. The theoretical performance of the novel Magellus HFET device structures is estimated to be at least a factor of three above the best values for nitride HFETs currently reported in the literature. By using novel AlGaN/GaN HFET device designs (developed in an MDA-sponsored Phase I STTR program recently completed by Magellus) combined with the use of proprietary novel device passivation procedures (initial work performed under a second MDA Phase I SBIR which Magellus has recently completed) and Ohmic contact designs, we will develop high-performance RF power devices, which will be incorporated into high-power RF circuits in Phase II of this SBIR.

SEMISOUTH LABORATORIES
One Research Blvd., Suite 201B
Starkville, MS 39759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(662) 324-7607
Dr. Jie Zhang
DARPA 03-044       Awarded: 11DEC03
Title:Thick SiC Epitaxy Development for MegaWatt Switching Applications
Abstract:In this proposed work, methods to increase the growth rate for thick, low-doped drift region epilayers required for MW power switch devices are examined. Changing the process parameters (carrier and feed gas ratios, gas flow rates, pressure, temperature) to increase the growth rate are balanced with keeping process parameters such that surface morphology is not compromised is the primary goal of this work. Additionally, maintaining dopant control, low background impurity, and the possibility of closing micropipe defects are examined to maintain the quality of the thick epitaxy layers. This work is done in a horizontal configuration reactor, designed for SiC epitaxy growth.

TECHNOLOGIES & DEVICES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
12214 Plum Orchard Dr
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 572-7834
Dr. Vladimir Dmitriev
DARPA 03-044       Awarded: 14JAN04
Title:Novel low-cost technology for UV LEDs based on HVPE grown AlGaN structures
Abstract:Historically, hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) was the first technique to produce high quality thick GaN epitaxial layers. Resent progress in growing of multi-layer structure by HVPE in TDI make it possible to develop this technique to fabricate multi-layer GaN- AlxGa1-xN and AlxGa1-xN -AlyGa1-yN heterostructures for light emitting diodes (LEDs) in UV spectral range with operating wavelength up to 280 nm. Additionally, TDI is going to clarify possibility to growth AlGaN-based structure capable of 230 nm light emission. Currently, only metal organic vapor phase deposition is employed to III-V nitride devices production including light emitters and high-power microwave devices. HVPE is another epitaxial method known to deposit high quality GaN layers and AlGaN-GaN heterostructures. Recently, we demonstrated multilayer AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN p-n structures grown by this method on SiC substrates. Operated wavelength under current injection was varied from 340 to 350 nm. The results obtained give us opportunity to develop a new method of the AlGaN materials growth on sapphire substrates based on HVPE technology. Phase I objective is to prove the concept and demonstrate GaN-AlGaN structures grown on 2 inch sapphire by HVPE and suitable for UV LEDs fabrication. In the Phase II TDI will focus on the development of manufacturing technology for UV LED's.

ANVIK CORP.
6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-2442
Dr. Marc Klosner
DARPA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Maskless Nanolithography with Sub-Pixel Resolution for Microelectronics and Biomolecular Devices
Abstract:Maskless technology capable of sub-100 nm patterning is attractive for manufacturing of many microelectronic and biomolecular devices. In numerous military applications, the number of different types of electronic modules required is large, whereas the quantities needed of each type of module are small, making the mask costs prohibitive. Previous maskless lithography approaches of imaging a spatial light modulator array by a reduction lens are fundamentally limited in resolution by an individual micromodulator size and put great demands on the projection lens. Thus, a maskless technology would be highly desirable that overcomes the basic limitation of the micromodulator pixel size (14-16 m) and the projection lens reduction ratio (100-200), and is configurable as a massively parallel scanning system, thereby delivering moderate throughputs (2-10 wafers (200 mm) per hour) at very high resolutions (50-100 nm). This proposal presents such a technology: a novel sub-pixel maskless nanolithography system that provides the capability to pattern very high-resolution features without using a physical mask; enables rapid programmability of the patterns to be imaged for quick prototyping and moderate-volume production; and provides high-throughput imaging on large areas. This system will be attractive for numerous military as well as commercial applications in microelectronics and biotechnology.

LUMARRAY LLC
60 Vassar Street, Bldg. 39, Room 427
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 253-6865
Dr. Henry I. Smith
DARPA 03-045       Selected for Award
Title:Maskless Lithography for Fabrication of Microelectronics with 100 nm Features
Abstract:We propose to investigate the feasibility of achieving a throughput of at least one 200 mm diameter wafer per hour, while incorporating a sub-200nm wavelength source into a maskless lithography system of the Zone-Plate-Array Lithography architecture. We will evaluate sources at 193, 157, 121, 13 and 4.5 nm, as well as a variety of sub-200 nm lamp sources.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division, 20600 Gramer
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
DARPA 03-045       Awarded: 23DEC03
Title:Subwavelength Maskless All-Light Lithographic System
Abstract:DARPA is seeking tools to fabricate advanced semiconductor devices with 100 nm features without the need for masks, avoiding the high front-end fixed costs associated with photomask fabrication. Current processes for producing features smaller than the wavelength of the light require complex mask structures anad phase shift masks, and have low yield. To overcome these limitations and meet the DARPA requirements, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new and cost-effective Subwavelength Maskless All-Light Lithographic (SMALL) system based on near-field nanobeam array direct-writing, capable of writing beyond the diffraction limit at 100 nm or less, at a rate of several wafers per hour. In Phase I POC will fabricate a SMALL system to demonstrate feasibility of maskless lithography for subwavelength resolution without bulky vacuum charged-particle systems. In Phase II POC will develop a prototype that shows the feasibility of writing features 100 nm and smaller at a rate of several wafers per hour.

AGILITY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
475 Pine Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 690-1762
Dr. Michael Larson
DARPA 03-046       Awarded: 24NOV03
Title:Adaptive Self-Monitoring of Widely-Tunable Universal WDM Transmitter
Abstract:A widely tunable universal wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) transmitter will be a key technology for advanced battlespace platforms requiring the interconnection of a large number of sensors, data processors, and data storage equipment. In such a dynamic WDM network, wavelengths are allocated to carry specific signals, adapting continuously to the information traffic conditions and the status of each piece of equipment. Semiconductor laser sources, capable of rapid and accurate programmable wavelength switching or sweeping functionality independent of a fixed frequency grid, address both the communications needs of dynamic WDM networks as well as the optical sensor units themselves and their transparent integration into the network. Requirements of sub-picometer absolute wavelength accuracy and low noise over harsh ambient conditions place stringent demands on transmitter performance that can be guaranteed only with extensive self-monitoring and feedback control within the transmitter module itself. We propose a complementary suite of self-monitoring technologies for widely tunable transmitters that targets three key areas: laser wavelength, laser noise, and transmitter noise. These self-monitoring techniques allow robust dynamic networks to be deployed in which digital signals, analog signals, and optically interrogated analog signals can be transmitted simultaneously to interconnect heterogeneous network elements.

INFINERA CORP.
1322 Bordeaux Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 572-5433
Dr. Radha Nagarajan
DARPA 03-046       Awarded: 6JAN04
Title:Uncooled, Full C-Band, Multi-Wavelength DWDM Transmitter enabled by Adaptive Self-Monitoring
Abstract:This project uses adaptive self-monitoring to enable uncooled operation in a harsh environment of a full C-band, wavelength selectable, multi-wavelength DWDM transmitter. The program will utilize novel sensors integrated into the transmitter module to intelligently monitor and provide feedback to adaptively and independently control the key parameters of the transmitter array. The design will operate over a wide temperature range (0 to 70C) without the use of a thermo-electric cooler (TEC). Phase I will research the feasibility of the approach, including design of sensing elements and appropriate algorithms, experimental verification of sensor concepts and temperature effects on device performance and reliability, and initial design and modeling to create the uncooled Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC). Phase II will include detailed design and fabrication of the sensors and uncooled PIC, packaging of these devices, and adaptive algorithm development to ensure optimum transmitter performance over the full temperature range.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Mehran Pazirandeh
DARPA 03-047       Awarded: 03NOV03
Title:Biological Degradation of Chemical Agents
Abstract:Current methods used for the destruction of CW agents are cumbersome, require extensive capital equipment such as incinerators and water reactors and pose potential environmental problems themselves. A novel approach for the destruction of CW agents involves genetically engineering microorganisms to produce recombinant enzymes that can efficiently degrade CW agents. Such a system would allow these toxic compounds to be efficiently degraded to harmless products. There are a number of advantages to a biological based system for degrading CW agents. First, a properly designed biological system would be easy to use by non-science personnel, such as Special Operation units of the armed forces. Also, a biological-based system would be cost effective because it would be self-generating, and due to their catalytic nature, each enzyme molecule can degrade many molecules of a CW agent. Agave BioSystems proposes to develop a biologically based system for the efficient and safe destruction of CW agents, particularly the non-volatile persistent substances such as VX. This effort involves the development of a genetically engineered microbial system based on the efficient CW degrading enzyme organophosphate hydrolase (OPH).

TRANSMEMBRANE BIOSCIENCES
145 North Sierra Madre Blvd., Suite #5
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 791-1774
Dr. Hiep-Hoa T. Nguyen
DARPA 03-047       Awarded: 01DEC03
Title:Biological Degradation of Nerve Gas Agents
Abstract:The broad spectrum organophosphorous hydrolase (OPH) from Pseudomonas diminuta MG and Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 is a leading bioremediation candidate for large-scale detoxification of insecticides and nerve gas agents including sarin, soman and VX. However large scale applications of the enzyme depend on our ability to utilize the protein in efficient and convenient formulations. Recombinant bacterial strains overexpressing different hydrolase versions (a native membrane-bound form, soluble N-terminus deletion and fusion proteins) will be created and examined for organophosphorous compound degradation ability. Preliminary experiments to create fieldable and ready-to-use formulations will also be investigated.

BEACON POWER CORP.
234 Ballardvale Street
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 661-2065
Mr. Ward Spears
DARPA 03-048       Selected for Award
Title:Optimization of Flywheel Energy Density Utilizing a Composite Hub
Abstract:The proposal objective is to develop a flywheel energy storage system capable of achieving its maximum theoretical specific energy density, while being capable of repeated high peak-power demands. The key to achieving this objective is the development of a composite hub capable of supporting an optimized high-speed composite rim. A flywheel offers significant advantages for short duration peak loads, multiple cycles, deep discharges and rapid recharges. Under these conditions, the batteries energy/weight ratio will be significantly less, possibly less than half of the 130 watt-hr/kg, where as the flywheel's energy to weight capacity would remain constant under these same conditions. Initial calculations indicate the maximum theoretical specific energy density that the proposed flywheel could obtain is approximately 110 watt-h/kg using a high modulus carbon fiber for the composite rim in conjunction with a composite hub instead of our standard commercial grade carbon fiber rim and metallic hub currently design, which is purely cost driven.

NPL ASSOC., INC.
912 W. Armory Ave.
Champaign, IL 61821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 356-5402
Dr. Nie Luo
DARPA 03-048       Awarded: 29DEC03
Title:Hydrogen Peroxide Based Fuel Cell for High Energy Density Space application
Abstract:The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of a unique high energy-density space power system based on a direct hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. Such a power system has an energy density 10 times higher than that available from the most advanced battery systems today and meets the requirements for Unconventional Space Power set forth in DARPA SB032-048. Unlike conventional fuel cells that employ oxygen, this radical new type of hydrogen peroxide fuel cell uses H2O2 directly in the cathode. This direct process eradicates the energy loss and weight penalty associated with prior attempts to develop H2O2 fuel cells where oxygen was generated via the catalytic decomposition of H2O2. The result is a highly efficient, high power density unit that is ideally suited for a variety of demanding space applications. The proposed study would demonstrate operation of such a small prototype cell and characterize its operational performance and efficiency.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Jeffrey L. Boehme
DARPA 03-048       Awarded: 03DEC03
Title:Unconventional Space Power
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop new electrochemical supercapacitor materials for high power space applications that will complement current photovoltaic/battery space power systems. PI will synthesize polymeric supercapacitor materials that will provide double the energy density of current state-of-the-art supercapacitors by incorporating electron withdrawing substituents along the polymer backbone. Through proper choice of substituents, the operating voltage of the supercapacitor is increased, and the resultant the power density will exceed 14 kW/kg. Furthermore, the substituents will expand the charging/discharging lifetime with out loss in peak power performance. PSI will synthesize the new polymer-based materials, evaluate their electrochemical performance, build supercapacitor tee-cells for testing, and design a space power system concept capable of delivering > 30 kW of power. During the Phase II program, coin cell devices will be fabricated and tested.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Dr. David Cavanaugh
DARPA 03-048       Awarded: 11DEC03
Title:Unconventional Space Power Using Gas Turbine Systems
Abstract:Developing a long endurance, high energy power supply for space based systems that is reliable, capable of high voltage generation, and with significantly better weight to performance characteristics than current photovoltaic systems is the goal of this effort. Surface Optics Corporation proposes development of a novel gas turbine system based on an innovative thermal energy source, the Greenhouse Balloon (GHB). In addition to offering superior weight-to-performance characteristics, a GHB based system will offer the advantages of high reliability, high power density and excellent compatibility with high voltage systems. One of the principal design issues in any space-based turbine power system is the thermal energy source. Nuclear thermal energy sources have safety concerns associated with them. Focused solar collection systems are excellent energy sources, but require accurate pointing and tracking and may not work under certain conditions. The GHB, a solar collection system using spherical collectors, removes the need for accurate tracking and pointing, and provides the necessary thermal energy to drive the turbine. In this effort SOC will evaluate the GHB concept relative to focused solar and nuclear sources, and present a preliminary system design with trade matrices based on the GHB concept.

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
184 CEDAR HILL STREET
MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. Je K. Lee
DARPA 03-049       Awarded: 13JAN04
Title:Nanostructured Poly-DCPD Based Aerogels as Low Cost Thermal and Acoustic Insulation for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:Aspen Aerogels (AAI) proposes to develop low-cost, lightweight nanostructured poly-DCPD based aerogel composites for aerospace, military, and commercial insulation applications. Alone, the poly-dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) exhibits exceptional properties, including room temperature curable fast processing, good mechanical and physical properties, low cost, and durability. Similarly, the nanopore structure of aerogels presents several unique properties, including low density, and highly effective thermal insulation and acoustic attenuation. Combining Aspens' novel aerogel nanotechnologies with the excellent properties of poly-DCPD will generate low cost and lightweight nanostructured poly-DCPD based aerogel composite materials that have the benefits of both the base polymer and aerogel nanostructure. On Phase I, nanostructured poly-DCPD aerogels will be produced via sol-gel processing followed by either supercritical drying or the chemically induced phase separation (CIPS). Facile ring opening metathesis polymerization reaction of cyclic unsaturated structure of DCPD monomers will be applied to gel monomer within a suitable solvent. The pendant double bonds in poly-DCPD will readily allow for surface modification to augment the capabilities of the new materials. Phase II will scale up development and demonstrate the performance in aerospace and transportation insulation application conditions. The final poly-DCPD aerogel product can be transitioned to production through Aspens' current manufacturing facility.

CYMETECH, LLC
7629 S.H. 75 South
Huntsville, TX 77340
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(936) 295-4040
Mr. James O. Frost
DARPA 03-049       Awarded: 25NOV03
Title:Adhesive Formulation for Poly-Dicyclopentadiene Components
Abstract:Poly-Dicyclopentadiene (Poly-DCPD) is a polymer that offers potential as a material of construction for defense and non-defense items. An adhesive system that would have similar or greater strength than the poly-DCPD polymer substrate would enable the construction of complex items from simple low cost shapes. Currently, only conventional mechanical means such as fasteners may be employed for such application. Tanks, for example, often require internal and external components. The use of conventional fasteners would penetrate the tank shell or would produce areas of high stress concentration. An adhesive would allow attachment without penetrating the shell or creating unnecessarily high stress concentrations on the vessel wall. An adhesive offers a safe and effective manner in which to make repairs or to reinforce areas where failure might occur. The greatest benefit of an adhesive system is that it allows the fabrication of complex objects from simple components. This is important for production of small volume parts where mold cost to produce the finished item would otherwise be prohibitive. Using an adhesive, it would be possible to join sheets with structural shapes for production of high strength, low volume materials. These shapes can be molded in low cost, significantly reducing market entry barriers.

RENEW POWER
60 Hazelwood DR
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 328-9850
Mr. Brian Adams
DARPA 03-050       Awarded: 12NOV03
Title:Micro Fuel Cells Based Meso-Sensor Power Supplies
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will entail critical research to enable meso-scale fuel cells being developed at the University of Illnois Urbana Champaign(UIUC) and Renew Power Incorporated (RPI) to be used in military meso sensor packages. Our existing prototype pumpless, room temperature, meso-scale fuel cells already generate enough net average power, but not enough peak power to meet the goals in the request for proposals (RFP). We believe that with modification, our existing devices can meet all of the size and power goals outlined in the RFP and have a lifetime 5 times longer than batteries.

The Objective of the proposed Phase I will be to do the critical studies to determine how to best meet the goals: In particular, we will:

(i) Modify the existing devices to determine how various design changes affect the peak power and to determine the power limits that can be practically obtained.

(ii) Test the existing devices with a series of alternate "designer fuels" to see if any of them give improved performance in the existing devices.

(iii) Explore energy storage technologies to identify practical alternatives that have the capability to improve the peak power with consuming too much space.

(iv) Explore power harvesting opportunities.


TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4427
Mr. Charles D. Ph.D
DARPA 03-050       Awarded: 12NOV03
Title:Power Supply for Meso-Sensors
Abstract:Wireless sensors and active r.f. ID tags have a critical need for small power supplies. TPL proposes to develop a meso-scale power system that exploits volumetric microbatteries and micro-supercapacitors to maximize energy and power densities. These three-dimensional microdevices are a unique feature of our approach, and deliver superior performance compared with conventional thin film batteries. The proposed effort will evaluate a limited lifetime device that uses a high energy density zinc-air primary microbattery combined with micro-supercapacitors; and a rechargeable system consisting of micro-supercapacitors and a solar cell. In both cases, the primary energy storage and power delivery device is the micro-supercapacitor. These rechargeable devices with high energy density, high specific power, low equivalent series resistance, ESR, and low cost are uniquely capable of meeting the power needs of meso-scale sensors. Our volumetric micro-devices have capacitance densities an order of magnitude higher than macro-scale COTS devices. By exploiting the properties of carbon nanotubes a further 50% increase in capacitance, a decrease in the ESR by a factor of 1000, and a four-fold increase in power density will realize the necessary power delivery capabilities. This approach will deliver a unique minimum footprint, minimum volume solution for integration with meso-scale sensors.

AEROASTRO, INC.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 723-9800
Mr. Zeno Wahl
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 18NOV03
Title:Modular S-Band Radios
Abstract:Radios are required for every spacecraft mission, yet spacecraft radios truly suited for nanosatellites currently do no exist. AeroAstro's proposed Modular S-Band Radio Suite (MSBRS) will solve this problem and make inexpensive spacecraft in the 1 to 30kg class feasible. In this SBIR program AeroAstro will develop a set of miniature radio modules specifically intended to allow the spacecraft developer the flexibility to tailor the radio system to their specific mission requirements. The radio system assembly will be on the order of 3" x 2" x 1" in size, mass 0.2 kg or less, and will support industry standard interfaces such as RS-422. To achieve a small size and mass, and high power efficiency the MSBRS will incorporate several radio architecture innovations such as the elimination of the antenna-diplexer. AeroAstro's modular approach, use of COTS technologies, and a careful eye towards the space environment will make possible nanosatellites radios that are both robust and low cost. Leveraging its extensive experience in spacecraft radio technology, AeroAstro will design, breadboard and demonstrate, in Phase I, a prototype MSBRS. This will lay the foundation for the development of flight hardware in the Phase II program.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. Charles Gasdaska
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 17DEC03
Title:Autonomous Field Emission Cathodes for Electrically Propelled Nanosats
Abstract:The objective for this Phase I program is to lay the foundation for the development of an autonomous electron source for use with electrically propelled nanosats. Electric propulsion offers high specific impulse, and in the case of electrodynamic tethers, "propellant-less" operation. The electron source will be based upon field emission from C-nanotubes. It will function as a "drop-in" component with simplified interface to nanosat power supply and controls. The project will develop a low-cost fabrication technique for field emitter arrays and integrate the array in a small package that combines power and control electronics. Cost will be as important a benchmark as performance. Current capabilities are expected to range up to 1 mA and operating voltages should be < 100 volts, depending on the electrical current requirements. For nanosat applications, where currents in the microamp range will be needed, operating voltages < 50 volts should be obtained. The unit will be capable of operating from a low voltage spacecraft power supply.

COMPOSITEX, INC.
11815 Littler Road
Sandy, UT 84092
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 501-0562
Mr. Daniel J. Moser
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 17NOV03
Title:High-Performance Chemical Propulsion Technology for Nanosatellites
Abstract:Compositex proposes to develop and demonstrate of a simple, low cost, high-performance chemical propulsion system for very small spacecraft sizes of 1 to 10 kilograms (nanosatellites). This system combines the ISP performance of a bipropellant system with the simplicity and ease of operation of a monopropellant system. When compared to today's operational vehicle propulsion systems, it offers improvements in safety, reliability, performance, and cost effectiveness. Both the fuel and oxidizer are storable, non-toxic, non-hypergolic, low-freezing point liquids. The high-density propellants can be contained within a single, lightweight filament-wound composite tank, enabling propellant mass fractions of over 90%. The propulsion system retains high ISP and high propellant mass fraction performance characteristics across a very wide range of sizes. This system can effectively provides both main propulsion and attitude control system (ACS) functions. The proposed effort includes a prototype system design, fabrication and static testing of two rocket engines, 20 Newton and 2 Newton thrust levels.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Alex Margomenos
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 17NOV03
Title:Components for High Performance Nanosatellites
Abstract:The overall goal of the proposed two-phase SBIR project is to develop a low-cost, reliable, miniaturized RF component suitable for nanosatellites, in order for them to achieve functionality similar to larger spacecrafts. EMAG Technologies proposes to develop a novel multi-chip module (MCM) technology based on revolutionary concepts in packaging and integration that will reduce the RF communication package size and volume by two orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate these new technologies by building and characterizing a Ka-band steerable sub-array. The proposed transmit module will be fabricated on high resistivity silicon wafers using mature micromachining technologies which can produce: multilayer interconnects, on-wafer packaged RF MEMS, phase shifters, monolithically integrated passive elements, cavity filters, and photonic band-gap substrates for parasitic resonance reduction. All these architectures can be integrated on a single chip thus forming miniaturized multi-chip modules with high performance and functionality. The proposed work will be based on our extensive completed work on three-dimensional integration and silicon micromachining for RF applications which resulted in 3D RF transitions, filters, low-loss interconnects, distribution networks for arrays, on-wafer packaged RF MEMS and photonic band-gap silicon substrates for operation up to W-band.

FACE ELECTRONICS, LC
427 WEST 35TH STREET
NORFOLK, VA 23508
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 624-2121
Dr. ALFREDO V. CARAZO
DARPA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:High Power Density DC-DC Piezo-Converter module for Small Satellites
Abstract:Face Electronics, LC proposes to design an innovative high power density, radiation-resistant, space-qualified, DC-DC converter module using Face's proprietary technology. This technology includes a new high power density piezoelectric transformer, Transoner?, which is designed to replace the conventional magnetic technology. Transoner is smaller, weighs less and significantly reduces magnetic interferences, as is required for small satellite applications. The novel DC-DC Piezo-Converter is proposed as an alternative to the current DC-DC converter modules used to drive satellite payloads. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of this innovation, Phase I will be focused on the preparation of two DC-DC converter modules to demonstrate the step-up and step-down capabilities and thus the potential standardization of the technology. The step-down demonstrator will be a 15W DC-DC converter from 28V input to 5V output. The step-up demonstrator will be a 15W DC-DC converter from 28V to 100V output. Results of the Phase I will quantitatively validate the design feasibility, and provide the basis for refinement, miniaturization and packaging in Phase II to standardize the novel DC-DC concept to the requirements of nanosatellites.

INTELLITECH MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
2009 Huntcliff Drive
Gambrills, MD 21054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 362-3187
Mr. Doug Freesland
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 29DEC03
Title:Miniature Reaction Wheels an Enabling Technology for High Performance Nanosatellites
Abstract:Current nanosatellite designs are limited by the lack of small, low cost attitude sensing and control components. Although activities are underway to develop sensor technologies, precision pointing and agility also requires miniature reaction wheels. Presently no such wheels exist. We propose to develop a wheel that fills this void, enabling nanosatellites to perform an array of missions requiring precision attitude control (0.01 deg) including: on-orbit rendezvous, docking, servicing, formation flying, inspection, imaging, remote sensing and communications. Our target is an order of magnitude reduction in momentum storage capacity (< 0.1 Nms) and a factor of 5 reduction in cost (< $20,000 per wheel). During Phase I we will develop and deliver the requirements for a miniature low cost reaction wheel, scalable to support a range of nanosatellite masses (1-10 kg). A conceptual design of the wheel and associated drive electronics will be developed and delivered. We will procure and begin preliminary testing of motor and bearing assemblies as a risk reduction effort. We will also validate and deliver our cost model as part of our Phase I final report. During Phase II we will complete the design, build, test and deliver an engineering model wheel and drive electronics.

MEVICON, INC.
2534 W. Middlefield Rd
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 969-2675
Mr. Eric M. Flint
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 17NOV03
Title:Geometrically Shape Stiffened Thin Film Shells: An Approach to Enable Nanosatellite Subsystem that Require Large Surface Areas
Abstract:A family of geometrically shape stiffened thin film shells that will enable large deployable surface areas components for nanosatellite applications is proposed. These thin film shell substrates, based on space rated polyimide materials, offer the ability to enable large surface area systems that are extremely light weight, stow compactly, deterministically and passively self deploy upon release, and self rigidize in the desired shape. These structures will enable many common satellite functions on nanosatellites that 1) rely on surface area and/or diameter for improved performance, and 2) would otherwise be infeasible (due to cost, volume, or mass constraints) to implement. Some examples that could be enabled include deployable thin-film solar arrays, parabolic communication apertures, sun shields, thermal radiative cooling surface, etc. In Phase I we will review the possible applications, downselect to one to focus upon, establish the feasibility of the design through computer simulation, engineering analysis, and simple testing. In Phase II, we will demonstrate a brassboard test item using non-flight hardware and conduct testing in a simulated space environment (microgravity and in vacuum deployment, thermal-vac, etc.). This activity will prepare the way for flight demos and Phase III transition to DoD and commercialization opportunities.

MICROCOSM, INC.
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Dr. James Wertz
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 20NOV03
Title:Miniature Star Sensor Using "Camera-On-A-Chip" CMOS Arrays
Abstract:Microcosm, with Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC), proposes to design a new, high-precision, very compact star sensor weighing less than 100 grams, with 3 independent 4-degree-square fields-of-view. Advanced processing capabilities of complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) "camera-on-a-chip" arrays allow the sensor to consist of an optical head and 3 arrays feeding star data directly to the spacecraft processor for star identification and attitude determination. A prototype sensor head has been designed and built by Microcosm. Several commercially available CMOS arrays will be evaluated for applicability to star sensing in space. MAC will perform image chain analysis to determine the required optical system design parameters. Advanced array on-chip functions will provide key lower-level functions, such as analog-to-digital conversion, windowing, velocity and spatial filtering, multi-frame averaging, star centroiding, high dynamic range, and individually addressable pixels. The system will dramatically reduce the mass and parts count of the sensor and uses the high-level processing capability of modern spacecraft computers and CMOS arrays. Phase I will yield the overall system design, define essential signal processing functions, and determine the radiation tolerance of the sensor. Phase II will result in the fabrication of a prototype sensor that will be bench tested in a laboratory.

NELSON ENGINEERING CO.
3655 Belle Arbor
Titusville, FL 32780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 269-1113
Mr. David Ratliff
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 17NOV03
Title:Components for High Performance Nanosatellites
Abstract:This proposal outlines the research and development of a Command and Data Handling (CDH) subsystem for a nano-satellite platform. The general strategy proposed in this document is to develop a cheap, reliable, and effective nano-satellite CDH subsystem that can be standardized to meet a wide variety of future missions. The CDH architecture must use state of the art technology, be scalable and expandable, be open to future developments, have wide availability of capabilities, conform to existing software and hardware standards, and have a proven reliability record.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Prakash B. Joshi
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 17NOV03
Title:Self-Regulating, Variable Area, Passive Radiator for Nanospacecraft Thermal Control
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and MicroSat Systems Inc. (MSI) propose a heat dissipation radiator suitable for a nanosatellite thermal control system. This unique approach utilizes a variable area bellows that can be self-regulated depending on internal (electronic components) heat generation and external (solar and earth radiation) heat input to the spacecraft. This device can be fabricated from extremely lightweight materials and controlled without external power sources. In addition, variable area radiators can be distributed on the spacecraft to reject locally generated heat efficiently. In the Phase I program, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and fabricate a pre-prototype radiator. This radiator will be tested in vacuum and will include the key elements of the design. In Phase II, we plan to build a functioning prototype radiator. Such a system could be tested in space as a Phase III activity.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Brad Sallee
DARPA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Nanosatellite Sensor Suite
Abstract:A full 6 Degree of Freedom (D0F) control system for Nanosatellites would expand the functionality and potential uses of these small vehicles. This same technology can be used in the controlled deployment of targets and countermeasures for the MDA programs. The key component in a Nanosatellite 6 DOF control system is an earth referenced 6 DOF sensor suite. This allows long term, accurate pointing in addition to short-term high-speed maneuver sensing capability. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes to demonstrate an earth referenced 6 DOF sensor suite, combining their existing miniature 6 DOF high-speed data acquisition sensor system with a sensor concept developed for use on station keeping Satellite countermeasures. The result is a 3.75 cubic inch, low power dissipation, suite of sensors capable of short term, high speed lock down, inertial space positioning accuracy within 1 meter, and long term, zero drift, angular orientation to .3 degrees. The package uses MEMS accelerometers and a digital compass combined with GPS and uncooled 4 earth horizon sensing.

TESSERA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3099 Orchard Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 952-4361
Mr. Stuart Wilson
DARPA 03-051       Selected for Award
Title:Miniature Command and Data Handling Digital Subsystem Module for High Performance NanoSatellites
Abstract:Tessera, Inc. will design a miniature Command and Data Handling (C&DH) subsystem module for use in nanosatellites. Working with requirements information supplied by nanosatellite systems experts, Tessera will apply stacked chip scale package (CSP) and system-in-a-package (SiP) designs to C&DH digital components to produce a module design for a very small, very dense C&DH digital subsystem building block that is flexible to be deployed to support a range of nanosatellite configurations. The module will significantly reduce complexity of the CD&H system, and hence demonstrate a highly effective approach to making nanosatellites more productive and cost-efficient. Package substrate designs for chip scale packages for the core subsystem components will be detailed. A SiP module substrate will be designed to accept and connect the component chip scale packages and provide interconnect to nanosatellite systems. The designs will be optimized using physical, electrical and thermal performance simulation modeling software. Tessera will develop cost estimates for the module using substrate and chip cost quotes from suppliers based on the package and module designs and manufacturing costs using an industry verified cost model.

TOWNSEND SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
1 Oak Hill Road
Fitchburg, MA 01420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 345-9090
Mr. Harry Clark
DARPA 03-051       Awarded: 09DEC03
Title:Components for High Performance Nanosatellites
Abstract:In this program we will mate the recent advances in thin film solar energy technology with state of the art, thin film capacitor technology to produce a monolithically integrated thin film solar rechargeable ultracapacitor. Our program will result in a device that will store large quantities of energy that will be recharged by the sun. We will succeed by monolithically fabricating dye sensitized solar cells with thin film ultracapacitor technology. To the best of our knowledge no other group in the world is working on this concept. This program will result in a commercial product that will have wide appeal for military, civilian and non-military government projects. Townsend Science & Engineering has reduced this technology to practice on Lexan thin film plastics. Even at modest efficiencies up to 1 kilowatt per kilogram charging capacity is possible in the near future

AEROASTRO, INC.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 723-9800
Mr. Scott McDermott
DARPA 03-052       Awarded: 23DEC03
Title:Self-Contained Deorbit Package for Spacecraft
Abstract:There was a time when the calculated probability that a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) spacecraft might be struck by space debris was relatively small. Today that is not the case. With the quantity of debris presently in orbit, a spacecraft remaining in LEO for any appreciable length of time will be struck by space debris, most likely several times. At best the impact will simply puncture a non-essential piece of structure or perhaps degrade a solar array slightly; at worst it will cause a catastrophic failure of the spacecraft and generate additional debris. AeroAstro's solution is a robust, self-contained deorbiting aerobrake which will retire a space asset at the end of its useful lifetime. The Aerobrake Deorbiting System (ADS) would be attached before launch or on orbit to decommission a target spacecraft. In this Phase I effort, AeroAstro proposes to develop a conceptual design for a complete ADS including the aerobrake and other requisite systems.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
8130 Boone Blvd., Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Mr. David Kirk
DARPA 03-092       Awarded: 15JAN04
Title:Advanced Monostatic and Bistatic Target Location Estimation Techniques
Abstract:GMTI radar systems have long been plagued by poor cross range (azimuthal) resolution due to the long standoff range of the sensors and the limitations of aperture size and beamwidth. This problem is especially true at UHF frequencies due to the large physical aperture required to achieve reasonable beamwidths. ISL proposes a coherent sparse sensor network that will vastly improve both angle and range resolution of GMTI systems while limiting the required system bandwidth. In fact, a key advantage of the proposed technique is that the target localization achievable, both in range and cross range, is not limited by the bandwidth or aperture of the individual receiver systems employed in the sensor network. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate improved target location estimation based on coherent sparse aperture techniques for UHF GMTI radar. This will include an analysis of the expected system performance and the impact of system errors and real-world propagation and scattering on this performance. Phase I will conclude with a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept based on site-specific simulations.