---------- AF ----------

470 Phase I Selections from the 04.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
135 S. Taylor Avenue
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Mark Phillips
AF 04-001       Awarded: 16APR04
Title:Frequency-Agile Laser for Low Earth Orbit Satellite Velocity Compensation
Abstract:Frequency-agile lasers with ultra-narrow linewidth are required for several coherent laser applications, including correction for Doppler frequency shifts between satellite platforms in low earth orbit. Coherent Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a compact near-monolithic laser operating at 1.064 microns, tunable over its full range of 60GHz in 1ms. This tuning range allows correction for all possible relative velocities between platforms operating in low earth orbit. The tuning mechanism is a combination of electro-optic intracavity phase modulation and electro-optic tuning of a mode-selecting etalon, providing settling times that are commensurate with the 1ms tuning period. Power scaling from a previously demonstrated single frequency power value of 50mW to >100mW will be evaluated. The tunable laser developed on Phase II will be packaged in the form of CTI's standard METEORr product, with dimensions of approximately 3.5" long X 2.3" wide X 1.5" tall. This program leverages off CTI's previous work in frequency offset-locking of single frequency lasers for space-based platform compensation and laser frequency stabilization to ultra-stable reference cavities for long-range micro-Doppler measurements. The Phase I program will include a preliminary tuning demonstration of the frequency-agile laser and characterization of etalon requirements for power-scaling single frequency operation.

POLARONYX, INC.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 8
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 734-3048
Dr. Jian Liu
AF 04-001       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Alignment-free fast frequency-addressable fiber laser for OPC laser tracking systems
Abstract:Tunable single frequency high power lasers have been considered to be an enabling technology for Air Force's active laser tracking systems for space surveillance and control. PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, an ultra fast electronically tuned high power (100 mW) single frequency (< 1 KHz) fiber laser source to meet with the requirement of active laser tracking systems for fast and accurate frequency tuning. It is a specialty fiber based ring cavity, while the fast and wide tuning is achieved by using an electro-optical tunable filter. The tuning frequency can be addressed accurately and repeatedly without any hysteresis associated. A tabletop experiment will be demonstrated in Phase I time frame to show tuning speed of nanosecond over 30 GHz range centered at 1.06 Ym. A compact prototype will be delivered in Phase II.

RAINBOW COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2362 Qume Drive, Suite F
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 577-0109
Dr. Sean Zhang
AF 04-001       Awarded: 23APR04
Title:Innovative Solid-State Seed Laser With Non-Moving Parts and Random Access of Wavelength
Abstract:Rainbow Communications proposes to investigate an innovative solid-state seed laser without any moving parts and with random access of wavelength. The proposed seed laser will have the following unique features: (1) High output power (500 mW) with unique optic design and high quality lasing crystals; (2) Robust construction by using monolithic block resonator design without any moving parts; (3) Controllable frequency tunability over a range of 30 GHz by using electro-optic crystal LiNbO3 as both etalon and cavity-length adjustment component; (4) Precise frequency tuning (set-on accuracy of the output lasing frequency of less than 100 MHz); (5) Very fast lasing frequency tuning (switching) time of about 1 microsecond (ms); (6) High stability of frequency (better than 1 MHz/hr.) by using monolithic block resonator design, thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and electro-optic crystals LiNbO3 as cavity-length adjustment component; (7) Lightweight and compact by improving our commercial product with new optic and electronic design, miniature and high efficient optic and electronic components. Phase I will focus on the feasibility demonstration of the proposed solid state laser technology, and in Phase II a practical laser prototype with high power output will be developed to meet all Air Force seed laser application requirements.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Anatoliy Khizhnyak
AF 04-002       Awarded: 23APR04
Title:Adaptive Laser System for Space Control and Protection
Abstract:Space control missions require a high angular brightness and minimal jitter laser beam on the target. These characteristics are difficult to achieve on a real beam path through turbulent atmospheric conditions. MetroLaser's proposal outlines an innovative approach in designing a laser system based on a combination of linear and non-linear optical phase conjugation mirrors. This concept enables correction of the wavefront of a high-energy laser, resulting in a high Strehl ratio of the beam and significant increase of the energy density on the target. During Phase I, we will perform a systematic analysis of the phase-conjugate mirror based laser, and proof-of-concept experiments to characterize key system parameters. The operational limits and constraints imposed by spatial aberrations on the beam path and the delivered energy requirements will be identified and the projected performance envelope estimated. A design trade-off analysis of the prototype architecture will be conducted in order to provide the optimal concept appropriate to a more detailed design and experiment definition study. During Phase II, we will extend the performance capabilities of the proposed laser system, design and build a breadboard for verifying and optimizing the predicted system performance, demonstrate and refine laboratory operation, and estimate the working envelope.

PASSAT, INC.
720 N. Hammonds Ferry Road
Linthicum, MD 21090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 609-2006
Dr. Guerman Pasmanik
AF 04-002       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Laser System for Space Control and Protection
Abstract:This topic addresses the development of a phase conjugating laser system that is capable of neutralizing a surveillance or optical communication target system in space, air, or on the ground. The target system can be jammed using multiple wavelengths in-band to the passive sensors of the ground system using a conjugating laser system to deny the ground system to passively track the space craft. The main aim of the project is to develop physical principles of jamming based on optical phase conjugation, to build and test experimentally key parts of a prototype system: an amplifier providing gain of 10^7, low-threshold phase conjugation mirror, transceivers for generation of different wavelengths with amplification of a fixed wavelength.

NP PHOTONICS, INC.
UA Science and Tech Park, 9030 S Rita Rd Suite 120
Tucson, AZ 85747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 799-7438
Dr. Arturo Chavez-Pirson
AF 04-003       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:PANORAMIC OPTICAL POWER AMPLIFIER IN Yb-DOPED MULTI-CORE PHOSPHATE-BASED OPTICAL FIBER
Abstract:This project focuses on the development of compact, high electrical plug-in efficiency, and high gain panoramic optical amplifiers suitable for image amplification. Laser tracking and pointing of remote targets for space/air surveillance and control applications require a suitable image amplifier covering a wide field of view to improve signal to noise in image detection, leading to longer target range capability and/or stronger immunity to atmospheric disturbance. Our approach centers on a new phosphate glass and fiber technology that enables much higher ytterbium doping than previously possible - resulting in high gain per unit length and short fiber lengths (~10 cm). NP Photonics pre-form and fiber drawing technology makes possible the fabrication of two-dimensional arrays of doped cores embedded in a pump cladding layer -where each core represents a pixel in the image amplifier. Our preliminary calculations with 9 to 19 active cores arranged in a two-dimensional pattern indicate that it is possible for each pixel to have high gain (>20 dB) and large acceptance angle (>10 degrees), and for the amplifier to have high electrical efficiency (>40%) when pumped with commercially available 975nm multimode diodes.

ASTRALUX, INC.
2500 Central Ave.
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 413-1440
Dr. Randolph E. Treece
AF 04-004       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Portable E-beam Pumped UV/X-ray Bio-Decontamination System
Abstract:The malicious distribution of Bacillus anthracis spores through the U.S. Postal Service in the fall of 2001 demonstrated the vulnerability of the United States to biological threats. These events showed the need for improved decontamination methods for buildings and assets exposed to various biological agents, because the current methods rely on the application of a chlorine- or formaldehyde-based liquid and are toxic, corrosive, and harmful to papers, books, and sensitive equipment such as landing gear, brake assemblies, and aircraft interiors. The combination of a high-intensity 250-280 nm ultraviolet (UV-C) emitter and an x-ray radiation source within a single package would offer a clean, non-toxic, and non-corrosive alternative for the surface and subsurface multi-BW agent decontamination of buildings and equipment. Electron-beam pumping provides an efficient method to drive both types of emission. Astralux, Inc. is developing an electron-beam pumped semiconductor UV source technology, which when combined with suitable metal structures, will result in a UV/X-ray bio-decontamination unit that does not suffer from the shortcomings mentioned above. This UV/X-ray bio-decontamination device should prove useful in a wide range of settings requiring disinfection. These applications include mail disinfection, air and water purification, and medical sterilization.

NANODYNAMICS, INC.
34 East 29th Street
New York, NY 10016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 686-0759
Dr. Thomas Vullo
AF 04-004       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:UV/X-Ray Bio-Decontamination
Abstract:The threat of biological warfare has mandated the need for decontamination methodologies for the military and civilian sectors. Use of chemical agents for decontamination is unfavorable due to their residual nature and potential toxicity to humans and the environment. Both ultraviolet (UV) and x-ray sources have been used individually for bio-decontamination. Currently, there is no combined UV / x-ray source available for use either for bio-decontamintion or any other application. Recent advances in nanoparticle technology have produced nanophosphors which produce, with electron beam excitation, bright emissions in the UV energy range. Likewise, a highly efficient, compact and unique x-ray source has been developed having a flux output two orders of magnitude greater than standard, off-the-shelf x-ray tubes. The goal here is to use this exceedingly bright x-ray source to excite the novel nanophosphors to produce UV emissions, simultaneously resulting in intense UV and x-ray energies. Such a combined and compact UV / x-ray source will be portable and have major advantages for biological decontamination for both military and civilian applications.

STELLAR MICRO DEVICES
2020 Centimeter Circle
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 997-7778
Dr. Leonid D. Karpov
AF 04-004       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Flat Panel UV/X-Ray Bio-Decontamination System
Abstract:A novel flat panel decontamination system (FPDS) which can emit simultaneously in both the ultraviolet-C (200 - 280 nm) and X-ray spectra will meet DoD bio-decontamination needs. This system builds on two recent innovations - UV-C nanophosphors developed at the University of Michigan and robust flat panel cold cathodes -- which make possible for the first time a compact, efficient single source for both these spectra.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Dr. Igor Ternovskiy
AF 04-005       Awarded: 23APR04
Title:Analytical Photometric Manifold Modeling
Abstract:The Air Force is soliciting the development of innovative algorithms to produce 4D models of "uncooperative" objects in near real-time. This modeling would entail high-resolution 3D shape reconstruction and motion tracing of space objects from ground-based images. In response, Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a 4D reconstruction system based on an analytical photometric manifold modeling (APMM) algorithm. The proposed APMM technology will build on IOS's proprietary developments in the application of catastrophe theory to image modeling, and will utilize a Modeling Wave Set approach to implement rotationally invariant primitives as a building block for modeling. In Phase I, IOS will: provide proof of feasibility and develop the APMM algorithm to represent space objects as photometric polynomial models, initiate development of key 3-D concepts and relationships, and demonstrate the successful reconstruction of a 3-D structure from at least one sequence of space images. In Phase II, IOS will demonstrate a more robust prototype that will produce accurate representations under difficult conditions and will provide rapid 3-D model reconstruction and motion algorithms. In Phase II, IOS will also demonstrate verifiable prototype software.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
IT Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Stephen Kupiec
AF 04-005       Awarded: 05MAY04
Title:Spatio-Temporal Object Reconstructed Modeling System from Ground-Based Imagery of Space Objects
Abstract:The Air Force is seeking innovative algorithms that automate and expedite the process of extracting four dimensional (4D) space-time imagery of space objects from ground-based space imagery collectors. In response to this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Spatio-Temporal Object Reconstructed Modeling System (STORMS) based on a parallel genetic algorithm optimization engine (PGAOE), multiscale structure characterization (MSC), and spatial object dynamics (SOD) modeling. The concise framework of MSC for coarse-to-fine processing and the efficient and adaptive parallel genetic optimization algorithm engine for fast structural matching together enable STORMS to perform 4D modeling (3D spatial plus temporal) on space objects automatically, directly, and from an observed image sequences in less than 20 minutes. SOD modeling will coherently and accurately generate both the global motion dynamics and local dynamics of articulated space objects. The proposed STORM system not only meets the ARFL/DE needs, but has significant commercial applications in surveillance, homeland security, and autonomous robot navigation. In Phase I, POC will develop a prototype system for feasibility demonstration of 4D modeling from real image sequences of a space object. In Phase II, POC will optimize the STORMS to handle real data under less than ideal conditions.

STELLAR SCIENCE LTD.CO
401 Serenity Ct SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 453-2713
Dr. Conrad J. Poelman
AF 04-005       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Automated Techniques for Extracting Four Dimensional Space-Time Data from Ground-Based Imagery of Space Objects
Abstract:This project will develop techniques for processing sequences of images of a space object, taken from ground-based telescopes, to create a three dimensional model of the object and to calculate the object's attitude motion as a function time. This Shape from Motion problem has been studied since the 1980's, but the approaches have not been subject to rigorous performance testing, and the algorithms typically assume much higher image clarity and spatial resolution than ground-based space surveillance systems can deliver. First, we will create a prototype system that applies the most promising of the current shape from motion techniques, and evaluate its strengths, limitations, and feasibility using simulated and real imagery of space objects. This system will be delivered as a working tool for research and special mission analyses. Second, we will examine novel approaches to the shape from motion problem that are tailored to the characteristics of the space surveillance problem. One approach integrates feature identification with feature tracking to efficiently accommodate noisy data and features that move in and out of view. Another replaces the point cloud representation of object shape with a meshed surface or a set of voxels, making results more useful to other analysis tools.

FARR RESEARCH, INC.
614 Paseo Del Mar NE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 293-3886
Dr. Everett G. Farr
AF 04-006       Awarded: 06MAY04
Title:A Dual Polarized Tapered Slot Antenna Embedded into an Inflatable Wing
Abstract:Airborne UWB radar systems will require a receive antenna that can be printed or mounted onto the inflatable wing of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Such antennas need to reach as low as VHF frequencies, and must be positioned to look to the side of the aircraft. To satisfy this requirement, tapered slot antennas (TSAs) looking off the wingtip have been proposed. However, this antenna receives only a single horizontal polarization. No solution currently exists for either a dual polarized antenna or a vertically polarized antenna looking off the wingtip of an inflatable wing. To address this requirement for a dual polarity antenna, we will investigate a dual-polarized TSA that can be mounted onto a UAV with an inflatable wing. A vertical TSA will be added to the horizontal TSA in its plane of symmetry, so the two antennas do not interact with each other. We also consider the problem of a single vertically polarized antenna that is flush-mounted to an inflatable wing. To achieve this we propose a Conical Slot Antenna (CSA) printed onto the wing. During Phase I we will design, build, and test a dual-polarized TSA and a vertically polarized CSA.

PRO-TECH
11 C Orchard Court
Alamo, CA 94507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 552-0510
Dr. David V. Giri
AF 04-006       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Conformal Impulse Receive Antenna Arrays
Abstract:Conformal arrays are of great importance in a variety of applications. The ability of the antenna array to "conform" to the surface of a host platform is of great benefit primarily because of its compactness and non-obtrusiveness (reducing drag) and thus decreasing operational costs, implying that, for example, airborne platforms, such as fixed wing aircraft, including UAVs and helicopters can maintain their designed aerodynamic characteristics while hosting an array antenna. It should be pointed out at the outset that Pro-Tech's Phase I objective is to develop a conformal impulse "timed-array" antenna, operating in a transient regime and covering a wide frequency band spanning an approximately 200 MHz-2 GHz range. Our goal is to build and test two small-scale prototype impulse arrays capable of operating not only in a "receive" (passive) mode, but also in a "transmit" ("active") mode, thus significantly exceeding the requirements of this SBIR effort.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Mr. Kirk Hawkins
AF 04-006       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Conformal Impulse Receive Antenna Arrays
Abstract:The UWB radar operation is based on the transmission of an Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) impulse signal at the target of interest. The radar will initially receive the short UWB impulse reflected from the target followed by the late time "ringing" of the target at its resonant frequencies. The late time waveform, consisting of multiple damped sine waves, is used to detect and identify metallic objects of interest. In this application, it is vital for the transmit antenna to be non-dispersive over the entire bandwidth of the UWB impulse so that the transmitted pulse does not "spread-out" or "smear", which would mask the late time resonance signals. A non-dispersive UWB antenna maximizes the length of the late time signature used for analysis. We propose to develop a new class of highly configurable conformal antenna array to meet a wide range of UWB radar applications, including optimized performance with SARA's breakthrough channelized receiver technology, which gives AFRL the widest flexibility in terms of custom application development.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Mr. Chuck Miyake
AF 04-007       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Optical Fibers for High-Power, Mid-Infrared Laser Diodes Emitting in the 2.0 Micron to 5.0 Micron Wavelength Range
Abstract:Currently, mid-infrared lasers must be integrated into highly restrictive volumes near the outer surfaces of air platforms. Fiber coupling of mid-infrared lasers would enhance the tactical utility for such devices by enabling the laser to be remotely located from the pointer-tracker. The proposed work will demonstrate the efficient fiber coupling of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser in a low loss, low divergence, fiber optic consistent with typical IRCM system performance needs.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Ching-Fong Chen
AF 04-007       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:High Performance Fluoride Fiber for IR Optic Applications
Abstract:Fluoride glass has a very small loss compared to other fibers. The loss for fluoride glass fiber can be as low as 0.003 dB/m. Compared to silica, IR fibers usually have higher loss, larger refractive indices and dn/dT, lower melting or softening points, and greater thermal expansion. The higher dn/dT and low melting or softening point leads to thermal lensing and low laser induced damage thresholds for some of the fibers. The application of fluoride glass can be extended to a wide range of IR applications if a higher strength and high melting/softening material can be achieved. This program proposes an innovative fluoride fiber. The high melting point and high strength can enhance its bending radius, increase length, increase energy capability, and decrease diameter. The continuous process can also lower the cost.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Witold Kowbel
AF 04-008       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Lightweight SiC Composite Optics for High energy Applications
Abstract:SiC-composites offer a paradigm shift in the area of large aperture, very low aerial density optics. In addition, MER has found novel solutions to the print-through problem. The fundamental issue addressed in this proposal is the performance of lightweight optics under a laser beam. Small (4" diameter) mirrors with aerial density varying from 2 - 15 Kg/m2 will be fabricated, analyzed and tested under laser conditions. In addition, a projection to very high energy laser condition will be made.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 338-2865
Dr. William A. Goodman
AF 04-008       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Lightweight Optics for High Energy Applications
Abstract:The corrected system wavefront error (WFE) for tactical airborne and relay mirror systems can be minimized using low figure error/surface finish, low print-through, SLMST technology with high-reflectivity VLA coatings. The performance requirements of corrective mirrors in the system (DMs, FSMs) might also be relaxed as the result of the improved system WFE offered by SLMST. SLMST and Silicon Carbide SLMST (SiC-SLMST) have demonstrated the highest structural efficiency for high-bandwidth fast steering mirror applications (e.g. ABL). SLMST can exceed the 1st frequency of lightweighted beryllium. Vacuum-cryogenic testing (27 K) of SLMST at NASA MSFC demonstrated lower print-through than lightweighted fused silica, ULE, Zerodur, beryllium and silicon carbide mirrors, making SLMST ideal for the -20oC tactical airborne or -50oC high-altitude Relay Mirror operational environments. In Phase I, Schafer will perform thermal and structural analysis and estimate cost for SLMST in diameters from 5 to 33-inch. We shall fabricate a 5-inch plano SLMST mirror, polished to a figure of <HeNe/10 PV and surface roughness of <10 RMS, and coat it with a Very Low Absorption (VLA) dual-band (3.8 and 1.315 micron) high reflectivity coating deposited by the Air Force Optical Components Evaluation Laboratory (OCEL). This prototype would be suitable for high-power testing.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. William F. Fischer, III
AF 04-008       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:CVC SiC Mirrors Designed for High Energy Laser Applications
Abstract:This program targets paths that will improve the manufacturing process and further reduce Trex's fabrication costs and delivery schedule for the provision of high performance chemical vapor composite (CVC) SiC optical mirrors to any DoD program, with special emphasis in the area of high energy laser application. Trex's patented CVC fabrication process is a scalable, low cost, and rapid method for making SiC optical components. In addition to the ABL and ARMS programs, there are a large number of other programs within DoD that require high stiffness, lightweight, low cost manufacturing processes for optics. The Phase I technical objective is to establish the feasibility of Trex's advanced manufacturing process for meeting the specifications for a specific DoD program. To meet this objective, Trex will fabricate and coat coupons and mirrors for evaluation and testing. We will also provide a coating evaluation report and a recommendation on scaling the mirror manufacturing process to 0.75-1.5m class. The results above will establish the feasibility of the Trex process for meeting the goals of the program and provide a plan for manufacturing 0.75m mirrors during a Phase II program.

ASR CORP.
7817 Bursera, NW
Albuquerque, NM 87120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 830-3000
Mr. Michael D. Abdalla
AF 04-009       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:High Repetition Rate Pulsed Power Generators
Abstract:The ASR Corporation has developed an ultra-compact hydrogen-insulated triggered switch for use in high voltage, fast rise time applications. The objective of the proposed work is to incorporate the switch into a compact 5-stage Marx structure to enable evaluation of a compact, high repetition rate generator. The compact Marx generator will be designed, manufactured and tested.

RF ENGINEERING
157 North Reamstown Road
Stevens, PA 17578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 336-6721
Dr. Ronald J. Focia
AF 04-009       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:High Repetition Rate Pulsed Power Generators
Abstract:A high-voltage, high-current, and high pulse repetition rate (PRR) pulsed power generator is desirable for use as an ultra-wideband (UWB) source. Advances have been made with solid-state switches and pulse generation techniques allowing PRRs of tens of kHz. However, an all solid-state solution may not be a viable option for generating voltage pulses of over ~30 kV due to the large currents that the switches commonly available would be required to carry. A Marx generator using gas switches would be the most efficient way to generate voltage pulses of over 100kV. Typically, Marx generators are capable of operation at PRRs of only a few hundred Hz. This limitation is due to the methods used to charge the Marx bank capacitors and the recovery time of the spark gap switches. Recent research has shown that corona-stabilized gas switches can operate very reliably, with good repeatability, well into the kHz regime. Additionally, these switches have exhibited lifetimes in excess of 10^8 shots. This proposal outlines an effort to build a prototype high PRR Marx generator that is suitable for use as an UWB source. The prototype will incorporate a compact modular design, utilize optically-coupled and corona-stabilized gas switches, and use fast capacitor charging methods to achieve low jitter, good repeatability, and a high PRR.

EPIWORKS, INC.
1606 Rion Drive
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 373-1590
Mr. Quesnell Hartmann
AF 04-010       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Initial Demonstration of High-Brightness IR (1.8-1.9 m) Strain-Compensated InGaAsP/InGaAs QW Lasers
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate 1.8 - 1.9 m high-power, InP-based pump lasers.

LUTRONICS
28 Ruthellen Rd.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 387-9685
Dr. Yalin Lu
AF 04-010       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Novel Approach toward High Brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers
Abstract:Semiconductor lasers covering mid-infrared wavelength range have been receiving extensive attentions in recent years. Many primary challenges, however, have been impeding their development progress for many years. Brightness of those developed versions, for example, is still not high enough for practical uses. Brightness depends mainly on the output intensity and beam profile. Wavelength coverage, which is required to cover full mid-infrared range, is another concern. To widen this wavelength coverage, new material system is thus highly needed. In this program, Lutronics uses an innovative structural design and a new material system to reach the goal with effectiveness. The program will be fully grounded with Lutronics's advanced MBE facilities and strong expertise in semiconductor laser development.

HYPERTECH SYSTEMS
4 Dickens Court
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 477-1019
Dr. David Slater
AF 04-015       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Advanced Algorithms for Exploitation of Space-Based Imagery to Detect Targets against Structured Earth Backgrounds
Abstract:Signature-based hyperspectral detection algorithms have demonstrated encouraging results over a range of imagery. These algorithms require as input a reflectance or emissivity spectrum for the target material of interest. Signature-based detection algorithms are often demonstrated using a carefully measured laboratory spectrum for an ideal sample of a target material. In many situations, however, a laboratory spectrum will not be available for a target material. In some cases, we may have a remotely sensed radiance spectrum obtained by an image analyst for a target or multiple field measurements from different sources. A remote spectral measurement cannot be used directly for detection in other scenes because it depends on the environmental conditions at the time of measurement. In the most challenging cases, the remotely sensed radiance spectrum may be for a subpixel target or for a target that is concealed under trees. We have shown that the performance of signature-based detection algorithms has a significant dependence on the input target spectral model. Thus, the generation of optimized target models from different input sources is a critical issue for the success of target detection systems in operational environments. There is also an important relationship between the utility of a target model and the spectral properties of the background clutter in a scene. In this project, we will develop an innovative software product called MODGEN that produces target models that optimize contrast with the background using input laboratory, field, and remote spectral measurements. This product can be used in combination with signature-based detection algorithms such as HyperTech's invariant detection products to provide a system that can be used operationally for model selection and target detection. MODGEN will consider both the visible through short-wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) spectral range and the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range. As part of this effort, we will consider the important but previously unaddressed problems of model extraction for observed targets that appear at subpixel scale or that are heavily obscured by vegetation. The problem of subpixel targets is of particular importance for space-based hyperspectral systems that often have limited spatial resolution. We will assess MODGEN by evaluating the improvement in ROC performance that is achieved using the new optimized target models as compared against the use of standard models. The assessment will consider a range of VNIR/SWIR and LWIR hyperspectral datasets.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Steven Adler-Golden
AF 04-015       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Atmospheric Correction for Long Slant Path Imagery
Abstract:Earth-observing Hyper- and Multispectral Imaging (HSI/MSI) in the Vis/SWIR provides detailed spectral signatures of natural terrain and man-made objects. However, the present inability to accurately correct for atmospheric effects in long slant paths seriously degrades target detection and discrimination, thus limiting surveillance and reconnaissance opportunities. Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes to develop innovative, automated, fast and accurate atmospheric correction software for the highly off-nadir, long slant path scenario. In Phase I, the main building blocks for the correction algorithm will be generated and tested. A combination of real and Monte Carlo-simulated imagery from the SSI MCScene model will be assembled and used to evaluate the AFRL/SSI FLAASH atmospheric correction code in the long slant path scenario and identify the key sources of reflectance error. In addition, one or more new, advanced algorithms for retrieving detailed aerosol properties will be developed and demonstrated. Based on the results, plans will be made for development in Phase II of an enhanced Long Slant-path version of FLAASH that includes the new aerosol retrieval algorithm(s) and an aerosol and view/solar angle-dependent adjacency correction, and for a field experiment designed to validate the enhanced correction capability.

ADVATECH PACIFIC, INC.
2015 Park Avenue, Suite 8
Redlands, CA 92373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 307-6218
Dr. Deganit Armon
AF 04-017       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Advanced Cost Model for Space Concepts Development
Abstract:The Advatech Pacific, Inc. Team (API Team) will analyze historical programmatic data for selected space-system development programs that are representative of current programs of interest. These programs will be analyzed with respect to specific technologies that have gone through a technology maturity cycle. This analysis will define the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) at each point in the development cycle. This information will then be mapped to a set of normalized Technology Cost, Risk & Maturity curves that will illustrate the relationship between budgeted cost (i.e., funding available to the project managers) and the level of risk and/or probability of success for each given technology at each TRL for space programs. Differences in how the various historical space programs have been managed will lead to estimating error distributions for the technologies under study. Statistically summing all system risks, including those associated with technology development, will then result in a total cost/risk distribution for each space program whose cost is to be estimated. The cost model, based on this analysis, can then be used to predict the required investment needed to execute a space program that is pushing the technical state of the art. The total cost/risk distribution allows the decision maker to associate a degree of confidence in program executability with any proposed program budget. Simultaneously, the API Team will develop the plan for implementing this programmatic Life Cycle Cost/risk (LCC/risk) model strategy into a stochastic analysis code that will automate the computations required to translate the engineering analysis into a cost estimate. Further, this code would make use of the logic and capabilities of existing commercial and Government cost models where they are found appropriate. Most importantly, the plan will address how the stochastic analysis code (and the appropriate commercial cost models) will become an element of the technical design and analysis framework, called the Integrated Space Engineering Tool (ISET), currently being developed and used by AFRL/VSE at Kirtland AFB, NM. This will give ISET the capability to be used to direct technology investment during a program's conceptual phase.

GALORATH, INC.
100 North Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 1801
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-3222
Mr. Lee Fischman
AF 04-017       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Advanced Cost Model for Space Concepts Development
Abstract:While suitable estimating methods exist to cost the development and production of space systems planned for the near term, using understood technologies, concepts planned with still-immature technologies (Technology Readiness Level 3) are very difficult to cost. This already poses a significant challenge for advanced concept planning. As the pace of technological change increases, the horizon will continue to contract and concepts may become yet more difficult to cost. Galorath intends to develop a model for costing advanced space concepts containing critical technologies that are at low readiness levels at time of evaluation. The model will be automated except for pre-defined inputs. Potentially, it also will be able to accept customized inputs, reflecting expert knowledge of novel future configurations. The model would ideally be developed as a plug-in to Galorath's SEER-H hardware development and production costing model. This model currently is used to cost near-term space missions, and the SEER-H customer base would be receptive first adopters of this enhancement.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Mark S. Lake
AF 04-018       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Multi-Continuum Analysis Code for EMC Materials
Abstract:Composite Technology Development, Inc. proposes to develop a multi-continuum finite element analysis (FEA) code for highly strained EMC materials. The multi-continuum analysis approach will allow extraction of stress and strain fields for the composite matrix and reinforcement fiber, in the course of a routine structural FEA. This will provide energy output predictions for EMC components, and will imporove laminate failure predictions by providing independent stress and strain values for the matrix and fiber.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Mark S. Lake
AF 04-018       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:TEMBOT EMC Pultruded Longerons for Furlable Truss Booms
Abstract:Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) proposes to develop a high strength, high stiffness longeron incorporating CTD's TEMBOT Elastic Memory Composite (EMC) material, which could be used as the main structural element in a wide variety of furlable truss boom designs. The proposed longeron provides deployment force and dampening, and functions as the primary load carrying element in the deployed boom. The proposed EMC longeron is mechanically simple, highly reliable, and highly damped during actuation, and provides a high-precision deployment motion and high post-deployment stiffness and strength.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4368
Dr. Peter Warren
AF 04-018       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Structural Isogrid/Membrane for Packaging Large Efficient Reflectors (SIMPLER)
Abstract:The Air Force has a pressing need for large, structurally efficient reflectors for both radar and high bandwidth communication. Because launch volumes are limited, the larger aperture must be volume efficient as well. To meet the stated needs of future DoD missions, the reflectors must be very precise as well as large in diameter. The proposed program will combine ultra-efficient deployable isogrid structures with thin reflecting membranes to form large reflectors with the precise surfaces required for high frequency applications. Foster-Miller isogrid deployable structures have been shown to provide efficiency both in structural support and in packaging for launch. Membrane systems provide smoother surfaces with better electro-magnetic properties than mesh systems and require less tension to maintain their shape. By combining these technologies, the Foster-Miller team will provide the Air Force and other customers with large aperture, high precision reflectors. The Foster-Miller team will develop the Structural Isogrid/Membrane for Packaging Large Efficiency Reflectors (SIMPLER) system through a careful plan of technology transfer, design, modeling, and prototype manufacture and testing. Complete development of this technology will provide the DoD with a reflector system that will enable better, lighter, and less expensive antennae deployed from smaller packaged volumes. (P-040271)

LGARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Dr. Arthur L. Palisoc
AF 04-018       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Light Weight, Low Volume Deployable Antenna Structures
Abstract:Efficient future space-based military as well as commercial assets require large antenna apertures. These include space-based intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems such as the SBR (space-based radar). As spacecraft are severely power-limited, aperture is the most important trade space for increased performance. What is needed is a lightweight, low volume antenna structrue that enables an efficient stowage capability. This is where the L'Garde technology of rigidizable composite structures come in. We will carryout a conceptual design for very large, lightweight, low stowed volume deployable antenna support structures for use with electronically-scanned arrays (ESA) as well as other large aperture space applications. We will identify the appropriate RF technologies and spacecraft applications to provide the springboard for the derivation of requirements for candidate large deployable structures. The applications of interest include (but not limited to) communication, ground moving target indicator (GMTI)radar, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as desired for supporting future space-based ISR systems.

SEQUOIA TECHNOLOGIES
5021 Indian School Road, NE, Suite 300
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 232-4300
Dr. Jerry Alcone
AF 04-018       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:An Adaptive Disturbance Rejection Approach for Enabling Pointing and Shape Control of Highly Flexible Antenna Structures
Abstract:This effort investigates an adaptive disturbance rejection approach for improving attitude control performance of spacecraft with large flexible structures. The technique blends adaptive sensor fusion with closed loop adaptive filtering to improve baseline attitude controller performance. The effort focuses on application to systems with large radar structures, to enable lighter more flexible structures to be utilized in future systems. A key contribution in Phase I is a proof-of-concept demonstration of the adaptive disturbance rejection approach and development of a flight experiment concept for the Deployable Structures Experiment (DSX).

INFINERA CORP.
1322 Bordeaux Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 480-3820
Dr. Steve Grubb
AF 04-019       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Wavelength-Hopping, Multi-Channel Photonic Integrated Circuit Based Transceivers for Secure, High-Data-Rate Communications in Space
Abstract:In this project Infinera will create a multi-channel WDM transceiver based on novel photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The transceiver will be designed for the needs of a space-based military communications system, including a novel scheme to provide secure communications together with a strong anti-jam system. Overall satellite optical communication system requirements will be taken into account during the design phase. Phase I will include the design/development of the multi-channel communication link and provide a demonstration of the PIC based devices and novel architectural designs in order to establish the feasibility of the design.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Mr. Jeffrey Korn
AF 04-019       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Spread-Spectrum Secure Optical Communications
Abstract:In response to the solicitation to develop a Multiband Laser Communication system for space based communications, Q-Peak, Inc. proposes to develop a laser transmitter technology that has significant implications on physical layer security, as well as an impact on the networks architecture. Specifically, we propose to analyze and demonstrate a transmitter using an ultrafast pulse and encode the data stream at various points within the pulse spectrum. This approach will allow frequency-hopping spread spectrum communications that provides protection against unauthorized interception or jamming of the data stream. This type of format will provide a substantial barrier to the nefarious user relative to a more conventional WDM system. Furthermore, the use of an ultrashort pulse is applicable for both multiple access and backbone parts of the free-space satellite network.

COHERENT LOGIX, INC.
101 West 6th Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. David Gibson
AF 04-020       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Radiation-Hard Parallel DSP (RH-PDSP)
Abstract:Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes to develop a radiation-hardened, highly efficient, parallel digital signal processor (PDSP) integrated circuit. For non-radiation-hardened applications, CLX is developing a new, revolutionary, highly-efficient, ultra low power signal processor based on its patent pending HyperX,. architecture. The HyperX architecture is exceptionally well-suited to the digital signal processing requirements of Space-Based Radar. Based on simulation studies, including SAR algorithms mapped to it, HyperX processing solutions provide orders of magnitude improvement in computation and energy efficiencies when compared to other current state-of-the-art approaches. Thus, radiation-hardened HyperX processors will provide the performance, programmability, and ultra-low power required for spacecraft applications (fewer solar-cell panels to hoist into orbit). In the Phase I program, Coherent Logix will work with the customer to determine the appropriate algorithms and scenarios to be implemented in an operational prototype solution for Phase II. Throughout the Phase I and Phase II, Coherent Logix will look to partner with leading space computer developers and spacecraft integrators to maximize radiation-hardened applications, to increase unit volume which will drive down costs.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING ARCHITECTURES, INC.
7902 NE St. Johns Rd., Bldg 102
Vancouver, WA 98665
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 573-4084
Mr. Michael Fleming
AF 04-020       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Radiation Hardened, Low Power Digital Signal Processors
Abstract:An overdue standardized and programmable chip level approach will move Space based DSP into ultra-efficient frequency domain vector processing and allow high resolution, high sample rate, and multi-dimensional signal and image processing with minimal power dissipation and minimal software engineering. Current DSP processors take a "business" computing microprocessor architectural approach to DSP, ignoring the complex vector and data flow nature of digital signal processing applications. Our approach centers DSP around a unique multi-dimensional FFT centric structure that scales almost endlessly through cascading identical step and repeat macro library building blocks while maintaining signal precisions of 24 bits binary and beyond. By applying deterministic data flow techniques and a latency insensitive system approach our processors will efficiently maximize the final DSP resolution, precision, and sample rate of any chip geometry required by an application. Additionally, our chips can signal process "stand alone" or look like simple high level instruction set extensions to any host microprocessor, allowing the host to do what it does best simultaneously in parallel with the signal processing.

SEAKR ENGINEERING, INC.
6221 S. Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 784-7736
Mr. Paul Murray
AF 04-021       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Light Weight, High Density Space Qualified Bulk Memory
Abstract:Present space based memory storage system technology cannot accommodate the performance requirements of some future missions. Three critical areas need to be addressed in order to bring the next generation memory system to fruition. These areas are power, storage density, and backplane speed. Present Solid State Recorders (SSR's), which are presently the de facto standard for space memory systems, generally uses large arrays of SDRAM memories with a shared bus backplane architecture. These systems are ideal in terms of cost, reliability, and modularity. Commercial SDRAM technology is cost effective and readily available. Shared buses allow flexible modular configurations with simple protocols, and single point failure immune systems with graceful degradation of the memory array provides tremendous reliability. Unfortunately, these technologies do not support the performance required for next generation systems. This proposal develops a modified system architecture that uses high speed network interfaces to provide a modular, flexible, and memory independent system architecture. Memory and stacking technologies will be investigated and network based memory boards based on the selected memory technology will be designed.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Joe Priest
AF 04-021       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Development of a Hyper Memory System
Abstract:As Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance systems continue to be developed with increased capabilities, the amount of data to be processed and stored becomes a growing concern. Likewise, disseminating the volumes of data for interpretation by the user becomes increasingly difficult. A need exists for an integrated processing and storage system that will allow on-board data processing to effectively "filter" the data that is eventually sent to the user. Likewise, a system with increased memory capacity is required to allow more data to be captured and processed before down linking to the user. This system should be low power, maximize memory density (Gbytes/in3) and be extremely lightweight. Of course, for such a system, reliability is a number one concern. For space based operations, the system must be space radiation hardened and implement appropriate error detection and correction to efficiently correct for radiation induced errors. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) is in a unique position to propose an extremely innovative solution to this problem by leveraging our on-going, leading edge data acquisition, storage, and System on Chip (SoC) activities to develop an integrated data processing and storage system to develop the Hyper-Memory System (HMS), proposed herein.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. James D. Trolinger
AF 04-022       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Advanced, Integrated Multi-Sensor System for Space Situation Awareness (AIMS for SSA)
Abstract:This is a Phase I SBIR proposal to develop an advanced, integrated multi-sensor system for application in space situation awareness. The proposed system integrates laser tracking technology with advanced/emerging visible imaging and infrared search and track and radar technologies to produce an integrated multi-sensor system for space object detection, tracking, characterization, discrimination and event detection. Radio frequency radar can provide the initial state vector and cueing information, which is further enhanced with other sensor information as it becomes available. Because this system will use active imaging technology, it can operate in both day and night and for "dark pass" tracking of satellites through the Earth's shadow. Additionally, active illumination provides a means for optical signal gating, which can greatly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in an acquired image. The system will also operate with several different illumination wavelengths simultaneously to acquire high-quality multi-spectral images of space objects, including data that can be strongly diagnostic of the composition of target objects and aiding in identifying them. The resulting ability to improve the diagnostic quality of such images by exploiting the entire data set will greatly enhance the capabilities of present imaging systems.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Frank Traut
AF 04-023       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:High-Efficiency Phased -Array Antenna Power Amplifier Modules
Abstract:The power dissipation in amplifiers becomes a practical limit to the transmitter output power. One critical design goal for T/R modules, therefore, is maximization of the power-added efficiency (PAE) of the transmitter power amplifier. As more sophisticated modulation waveforms are introduced, however, power amplifiers in (or near) saturation introduce non-linear distortion of the signal in the form of amplitude and phase distortion and accompanying spectrum spreading and growth of unwanted side bands. In space-based systems, those limited assets available in space must be utilized to the maximum benefit, and it becomes necessary to contemplate the use of radar systems for multiple applications using multiples of carriers. As the prospect of using space-based assets for expanded applications with more than one carrier materializes, it becomes imperative to develop practical methods of reducing non-linear distortion and associated efficiency problems in power amplifiers. This proposal is addressed to those requirements, and novel circuit techniques such as pre-distortion circuits and the Doherty type amplifier circuits aimed at reduction of signal distortion and efficiency enhancement of power amplifiers are described.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Christopher E. Hay
AF 04-023       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:7 GHz SiGe High-Efficiency Power Amplifier Module (PAM) for Phased Arrays (9662)
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop a SiGe Power Amplifier RFIC with high efficiency and high linearity for use in the 7 GHz downlink multiple-beam antenna (MBA) on the Transformational Satellite (TSAT). The power amplifier will provide a minimum linear output power of 500 mW at 7 GHz, with an ultimate goal of 1 W. Design techniques will be implemented to simultaneously maintain a high average power-added efficiency (PAE) and low IMD while operating with multiple carriers to meet the requirements of the 7 GHz MBA. The power amplifier will be implemented in IBM's advanced SiGe BiCMOS technology to maximize integration onto a single chip. This will reduce the size and weight of the power amplifier, as well as improve its reliability. During Phase I, an assessment of the RF output power and PAE capability for a power amplifier developed in IBM's SiGe will be performed. Architectures for increasing average power-added efficiency and linearity will also be developed, resulting in the conceptual design for the complete power amplifier. In Phase II, the power amplifier will be realized in SiGe BiCMOS, and then tailored to additional military and/or commercial applications in Phase III.

PLANET EARTH COMMUNICATIONS
1983 San Luis Ave. #31
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7456
Mr. Michael J. Maybell
AF 04-024       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Multi-Beam Phased-Array Antenna Beamformers
Abstract:A Novel Multibeam Phased Array Beamformer technology development is described suitable for Transformational Communications applications. The beamformer will be designed for Advanced EHF satellite downlink and uplink payloads and create many simultaneous high gain pencil beams feeding a planar array of 2,000 or more elements from geostationary earth orbit. The beamformer uses row and column two dimensional Rotman lens stacks feeding sub arrays of contiguous more closely spaced elements. Radiating sub array elements each have phase shifters for beam fine steering and shaping within the equilateral triangular beam lattice of the Rotman lens stacks capable of covering the entire 17.4 earth disc. The sub arrays are arranged in a triangular (hexagonal) element lattice to minimize the number of elements and hence passive and active components needed. The Rotman lens stacks themselves feed the sub arrays directly through each of their array ports. At each beam port of the Rotman lens stack, a narrow pencil beam is formed that has frequency independent beam pointing angle due to the true time delay nature of the Rotman lens phase excitation creation. Within each of these beams, the sub array phase shifters provide fine steering.

SARASWATI ASSOC.
1291 E Hillsdale Blvd, Suite 305
Foster City, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 288-8070
Mr. James Coward
AF 04-024       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Multi-Beam Phased-Array Antenna Beamformers
Abstract:Saraswati Associates is pleased to submit the following Phase I proposal. In this proposal we present our approach to develop technology for very large phased array antennas with many simultaneous beams and flexible wide bandwidth operation. Saraswati has developed the innovative CORONA beam forming concept under a DARPA Phase 1 SBIR contract). The CORONA system is very efficient for very large wide bandwidth phased array antennas because it scales with the square root of the number of elements whereas other concepts scale with either linearly with the number of elements or even the square of the number of elements. We have completed key risk reduction laboratory evaluations in a Phase 1A program and currently are in negotiations for the Phase II effort to develop the key elements of the basic beamformer. The basic CORONA beam forming architecture supports 4 simultaneous beams in X band. Also, in the basic CORONA system, the 4 beams have identical properties (eg. beamwidth, bandwidth, waveform, etc.). We propose to investigate enhancements to the CORONA architecture that allows for a high number of multiple beams (~16) with a flexible wide range of independent control of the beam properties: . Independent simultaneous waveforms for GMTI, AMTI, and acquisition . Independent control of bandwidth and center frequency . Independent control of beamshape and scan/track parameters . Multi-band operation Increasing the number of beams usually scales the beamformer linearly with the number of beams. Because CORONA scales as the square root it is well suited for multi-beam operation. We will utilize the analytic models and computer simulations that we have developed to design a flexible Multi-Beam CORONA (MB-CORONA) concept to have the above capabilities. The models include: Beam properties Bandiwdith and frequency response properties Main lobe beamwidth and gain Sidelobe performance Dynamic range Individual link performance Full scale antenna performance Phase control and time delay allocation budgets Allocation models down to individual components Size, weight, and power (SWAP) models Roll-ups for complete beamformer SWAP performance

B & B CONSULTING
9713 West Long Drive
Littleton, CO 80123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 548-6109
Dr. Bernie Carpenter
AF 04-025       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Novel Methods to Improve Efficiency of Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide Solar Cells
Abstract:Diverse mission requirements and advanced capabilities from defense spacecraft are placing demands on power subsystems beyond that which can be delivered by current state of the art solar arrays. Although cell level specific power has increased, similar advancement is necessary in the deployment system to take full advantage of future high power arrays. State of the practice systems have specific power values of 80 watts/kg or less, more advanced arrays have increased this value as high as 150 watts/kg. The proposed system is expected to be greater than 200 watts/kg based on 7% efficient cells deposited on thin stainless steel substrates. In addition, flexible structures combined with thin film absorbers reduce stowage volume requirements enabling power levels greater than 17kwatts (conventional arrays are limited to this level by the payload fairing envelop). Two-dimensional structures such as this are preferred over 3-D concepts as they offer an order of magnitude improvement in packaging. Our proposed array shown in offers scalability to 40kwatts, is based on cost effective subcomponents and can be ground tested multiple times without deployment device refurbishment.

INTERPHASES RESEARCH
166 N Moorpark Rd, Suite 204
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 497-2677
Dr. Shalini Menezes
AF 04-025       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Engineering the Defects in CIGS films to Enhance Photovoltaic Efficiency
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project addresses Air Force requirements for lightweight, flexible, photovoltaic arrays for high specific power in space. Photovoltaic devices based on copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) coated metal foil promise low cost, lightweight, high reliability and radiation hardness. But certain critical performance, processing, size and cost issues remain unresolved. This project will devise a single chemical processing step to reconfigure the deep defects in CIGS films. This processing step could potentially enhance the device performance, reduce air sensitivity and replace the hazardous processes used in state-of-the-art CIGS modules. Phase I will develop a surface engineering step to manipulate the CIGS defect density. Photocurrent and spectral response of modified CIGS films and devices will demonstrate proof-of-concept. The treatment step will use a remarkably simple but ingenious aqueous solution dip at room temperature. This step will precisely correct the defects that cause efficiency losses in defective or damaged CIGS films without etching off the material or depositing toxic cadmium sulfide buffer. It will be designed for easy and inexpensive implementation into existing CIGS photovoltaic manufacturing line.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5198
Dr. Garth Jensen
AF 04-025       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Defect Passivation for Production-Quality and High-Bandgap CIGS and CIAS Solar Cells
Abstract:A major factor that detracts from the many advantages offered by thin-film flexible CIGS PV for non-terrestrial applications is that it currently provides substantially lower solar conversion efficiencies than crystalline PV technology. While CIGS device efficiencies exceeding 19% have been produced in the laboratory, efficiencies of devices produced in large-scale production have been substantially lower. Recent work has identified the presence of electronic atomic-level defects in the CIGS material as a primary factor responsible for the gap between laboratory and production efficiencies. Also, the drop-off in efficiencies with increasing bandgap has been attributed to a higher density of defects serving as recombination centers or a higher sensitivity to such defects. Such defects must be eliminated or passivated to achieve the potential of CIGS technology. While all manufactures of CIGS have put considerable effort into minimizing formation of defects through optimizing process parameters, another approach to controlling defects is to "passivate" them by adding constituents that eliminate their electronic activity or alter it in a way that reduces the detrimental effect. ITN Energy Systems, Inc. proposes to conduct a thorough study of defects and potential defect passivation methods in production-quality CIGS and high-bandgap CIGS and CIAS (copper-indium-aluminum-diselenide).

DYMAS RESEARCH, INC.
2910 Fox Run Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 865-1103
Dr. Wei Hu
AF 04-026       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:A high-performance phase shifter for phased array antenna
Abstract:Recently, expanding wireless communication systems have presented new challenges to design and produce high quality miniature tunable phase shifters with low cost. Dymas Research proposes a novel RF phase shifter fabricated on high-performance ferreelectric films to provide tunability for adaptive microwave devices. This tunable microwave device has the advantage of achieving frequency or phase tunability as well as small size. It is expected that the proposed structure will be attractive for developing miniature tunable microwave devices with fully planar fabrication technology. This is especially of benefit to monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) and growing microwave superconductive circuits.

PEREGRINE SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
6175 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-0660
Dr. Ron Reedy
AF 04-026       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Multifunctional Phased Array Antenna Modules
Abstract:The project will enable flexible use of the highest performance active devices such as PHEMT and HBT GaAs or InP by means of a novel chip-on-chip (COC) flip-chip integration technique. The project will include design; manufacture and test of one integrated circuit each for transmit and receive sides, with each chip providing amplification, phase shifting, signal power routing and control logic. The chip will be manufactured in an advanced silicon on sapphire (SOS) technology called Ultra Thin Silicon (UTSi) CMOS. By flip-chipping GaAs or InP transistors onto the UTSi device (which will contain all passive matching circuits along with active current and temperature control circuits), the highest available performance can be achieved in a monolithic structure. Choice of CMOS on sapphire is necessary to keep high performance passive devices at the 10-20 GHz frequencies typically used in phased array antennae. Use of a commercially established CMOS on sapphire process ensures that the devices will be highly manufacturable (which is necessary for the large number of antenna elements required for all applications) and that the performance and cost constraints of both commercial and military requirements will be met.

AERONIX, INC.
1775 W. Hibiscus Blvd., Suite 304
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-1671
Mr. Jeff Fisher
AF 04-027       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:A Radiation Tolerant Cryptograhic Architecture Using COTS FPGA's
Abstract:Communications security (COMSEC) role in space continues to grow as the available bandwidth expands. The DOD Transformational Communications (TC) vision will transform the space, air, and ground networks into a fully integrated internet-like network. This vision requires cryptographic architectures that satisfy Crypto Modernization requirements, can host current and future cryptographic algorithms, and comply with the High Assurance Internet Protocol Interoperability Specification (HAIPIS). In addition, the architecture can be capable of taking advantage of the rapid rate of commercial FPGA technology development. These advances in technology are available at a much lower NRE cost than comparable custom designed crypto ASICs. In order to take advantage of these technology advances, crypto architectures are required that are robust enough to operate in the presence of semiconductor effects related to total dose, device latch-up, and single event errors. These errors could result in the space based crypto device either becoming inoperable, performance impaired, or potentially susceptible to transmitting erroneous information. This SBIR proposes a cryptographic architecture that utilizes various techniques to detect, correct, rollback, and continue operation in the presence of faults. The methods proposed include enhancements to circuitry, crypto control state machine logic, crypto control software, and algorithm implementation structures.

SITUS LOGIC
1442 Lomita Drive
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 799-7830
Mr. Alain J. Martin
AF 04-027       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Asynchronous Architectures for Large-Integer Processors with Applications to Security
Abstract:The proposed research is concerned with the design and implementation of asynchronous architectures for a large integer processor (LIP) able to perform arithmetic operations, in particular multiplications, on integers of a size that current synchronous architectures cannot handle efficiently (say, 5000~bits). The main application is security, in particular public-key and mixed private-key/public-key cryptography. A LIP will be a large processor array used as a coprocessor. A LIP-based system will be able to perform public-key encryption at a fraction of the runtime and/or energy consumption of current hardware platforms due to the use of asynchronous techniques. The LIP will be software-reconfigurable for different cryptographic protocols and different phases in each protocol. We will include finer-grain reconfigurable hardware (such as that found in FPGAs) in order to accelerate certain cryptographic protocols (especially those including private-key cryptography). The architecture will be evaluated for its radiation-hardness and several designs may be presented (non-hardened, radhard-by-design; different levels of reconfigurability) in order to match user requirements. Phase~I will implement unclassified algorithms. For Phase II, we are considering moving to classified algorithms in collaboration with Mykotronx. The LIP architecture will leverage work done at Caltech on clustered architecture for asynchronous FPGAs, and work done at Situs Logic on radhard-by-design asynchronous VLSI and CAD tools for asynchronous VLSI.

MICROLAB
341 E Alamo Dr
Chandler, AZ 85225
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 926-9500
Dr. Charles Wheeler
AF 04-028       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:MicroElectroMechanical Systems Based Electronically Steerable Antenna
Abstract:A packaged DC-12GHz magnetic latching MEMS switch will be produced in phase 1 that will provide the enabling componenet to design and build a 3-bit phase shifter circuit for phased array antenna applications. Also in Phase 1, the phase shifter circuit will be designed and a production plan enumerated to implement a 10-element phased array antenna based on the reulting MEMS phase shift circuit.

RADANT MEMS, INC.
255 Hudson Road
Stow, MA 01775
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-3866
Dr. John Maciel
AF 04-028       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:MicroElectroMechanical Systems Based Electronically Steerable Antenna
Abstract:The performance benefits to satellite communication and other systems employing an Electronically Steerable Antenna are numerous. These include rapid beam scanning, increased beam agility, the performance of multiple functions, lighter weight, no angular momentum impact during beam scan and increased reliability. These improvements are typically obtained at the expense of large increases in overall RF insertion loss and cost when conventional MMIC phase shifters are employed. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) phase shifters have been recently demonstrated that show significant reductions in insertion loss, size, and cost as compared to conventional GaAs and PIN diode phase shifters. The goal of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop a low loss, low-cost and high reliability MEMS phase shifter based on the proven Radant ohmic MEMS RF switch. Two leading organizations, Radant MEMS with its demonstrated high lifetime MEMS switch and Professor Rebeiz's (University of Michigan) group of distinguished RF MEMS designers, will team to design a MEMS phase shifter that achieves low insertion loss, long lifetime, small size, light weight, low cost and consumes less prime power than currently available phase shifters.

BLUE WAVE SEMICONDUCTORS, INC.
6208 Three Apple Downs
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-0706
Dr. Ratnakar Vispute
AF 04-029       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Combinatorial Library of Radiation-Resistant Optical Coatings for Solar Cell Coverglass
Abstract:This Small business innovation research Phase I project proposes to develop innovative radiation-resistant multilayer coatings for coverglass protection or directly solar cell protection while operating in the high radiation environment. Exceptional high radiation hardness of the multilayer coatings makes our approach a potential alternative for replacing cover glass for solar cell protection. Novel combinations of radiation hard optical coatings can maintain a high degree of spectral transmitivity in the visible region, withstand UV exposure which can also be tunable from 400nm-200nm and possess relatively high index of refraction. In Phase I we will evaluate optical properties as a function of radiation dose, demonstrate the feasibility of the coatings for solar cell application and provide samples for investigation. In Phase II we will extend the technology to scale up to larger area, free standing optical coatings integrated with transparent and electrically conducting bottom contact bondable to solar cell directly, and process development for manufacturing radiation hard optical windows in anticipation of Phase III transition.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4170
Dr. Nese Orbey
AF 04-029       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:A Novel Coverglass System with Enhanced Radiation Resistance
Abstract:The service life of coverglasses used to protect photovoltaic cells on spacecraft is limited by darkening caused by ionizing irradiation. This decline in transmissivity significantly reduces solar-cell power output toward the system's end of life (EOL), which ranges from 15 years for satellites in geosynchronous orbit (relatively low radiation doses), to 10 years for those in low Earth orbit (moderate radiation). Coverglasses with improved radiation resistance are required to reduce or eliminate darkening at EOL for satellites in intermediate orbits that are subject to high levels of irradiation. Cerium, commonly used to impart radiation hardening to glasses, functions by absorbing protons and electrons by redox type reactions. Its effect is limited by practical constraints on the maximum doping concentration, as well as by constraints imposed by redox equilibria. A program to determine the feasibility of using alternative glass types in a novel coverglass system with enhanced radiation hardening properties is proposed here. The glass will accommodate increased amounts of radiation absorbing dopants that provide concurrent oxidation and reduction pathways. Further, the new glasses can be engineered to broaden band gaps and so further enhance performance of modern, high-efficiency III-V solar cells. (P040286)

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Matthew E. Thomas
AF 04-030       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Turbo-Hybrid-Rocket Propulsion for Small Launch Vehicle Operations
Abstract:CFDRC, in conjunction with support from Orbital Sciences, Allison Advanced Development Corporation and NASA Ames Research Center proposes a novel Turbo-Hybrid Rocket (THR) for the first stage of a responsive and cost-effective small launch vehicle system. This work will leverage CFDRC's extensive experience and leadership in tactical missile ATR technology and NASA Ames breakthroughs in hybrid rocket fuel research to conceive an air-breathing booster engine that could revolutionize small launch vehicle propulsion. During Phase I a comprehensive assessment of THR performance in small launch vehicle applications will be completed. Two key enabling technology issues to be focused upon during Phase I will be (1) an overall system analysis layout assessment and (2) combustion performance of a NASA Ames paraffin fuel in a turbo hybrid rocket afterburner installation. A technology risk mitigation plan that addresses rationale and test exit criteria for both a small scale engine and full scale afterburner demonstration will be prepared. In addition, a sub-orbital design analysis of the THR concept will be conducted in the Orbital Sciences Pegasus SLV or an appropriate equivalent. Preliminary mission-performance assessment, launch response and cost/benefit tradeoffs will be completed. The ultimate result of this effort will be definition of a THR propulsion system capable of answering the Air Force's need to rapidly, flexibly, and cheaply place small satellites into low earth orbit.

ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
184 CEDAR HILL STREET
MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. Dmitry Fomitchev
AF 04-031       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Si-N-B-C Aerogels for Thermal Protection System of Reentry Vehicles
Abstract:The Air Force has an interest in new designs and new materials for TPS of hypersonic reentry vehicles. Military hypersonic vehicles will reenter the atmosphere according to trajectories that are more aggressive than that of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and expected to be able to maneuver in the atmosphere at speeds around March 20 for more than 4100 seconds. This will result in the extremely high temperatures and large heat fluxes (>12 Btu/ft2xs) at some areas on the vehicle's surface. Currently available TPS designs and materials are incapable of providing the level of protection required by the Air Force without significant increase in TPS weight and volume. Aspen Aerogels proposes to develop a new class of super insulation aerogel materials - Si-N-B-C aerogel composites for applications in TPS of the hypersonic reentry vehicles. Proposed insulation will have high temperature limit of 1400C in air and will have thermal conductivity 20-30% lower than that of currently available materials. During the Phase II project the aerogel composites will be tested at the conditions similar to the conditions of reentry and TPS lay-ups development, fabrication and testing will be performed.

POWDERMET, INC.
24112 Rockwell drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 404-0053
Mr. Andrew Sherman
AF 04-031       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Thermal Protection System (TPS) for Agressive Reentry Trajectories of Space Vehicles
Abstract:Structural C foam lightweight heat shield sandwich panels for use in a next-generation, high-performance thermal protection systems have been previously tested at NASA Ames Research Center under the pullout and glide portions of a simulated extended-range reentry trajectory. Outstanding performance has been demonstrated, with no ablation of the heated surface to heat fluxes of 150-450 Btu/ft2xsec and durations of 255 seconds using a SiC composite non-ablative coating on a lightweight structure. Unfortunately, pore size and density control of these materials is currently inadequate, and facesheet bonding and water adsorption resulted in reliability issues and areas for improvement. The proposed low-cost, lightweight thermal protection system will utilize a SiC composite coating as the hot side ablation resistant coating, deposited directly on low thermal conductivity carbon and/or glassy silicon carbo-nitride foam, yielding a final areal density of 1.0-1.2 lb/ft2. The innovation to be demonstrated in the proposed program is the integral production of a castable, rigid, microcellular carbo-nitride foam structure having optimizable thermal and mechanical properties which can be coated directly to a SiC composite ablation resistant coating system.

THOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2415 Princeton Dr. NE, Suite B
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 830-6986
Dr. Stuart T. Schwab
AF 04-031       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Refractory Matrix Composites for CAV TPS
Abstract:The Common Aero Vehicle requires sharp leading edges on the forebody and control surfaces to maximize down- and cross-range capability. Current thermal protection structure materials do not posses the thermochemical stability to withstand the high aerothermal loads of sharp leading edges. Thor Technologies will leverage the results of recent and on-going material development programs to demonstrate a novel ultra-high temperature material and an innovative processing method, along with a simple and effective inspection technology.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. Colby A. Foss, Jr.
AF 04-031       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Chemical Vapor Composite Materials for Thermal Protection Systems in Aggressive Reentry Space Vehicles
Abstract:A study of the application of the Chemical Vapor Composites (CVC) process to thermal protection system (TPS) fabrication is proposed. CVC offers the benefits of conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in terms of high material purity and related high temperature performance, but without the high residual stress associated with CVD. The CVC process also allows net shape deposition of complex geometries, thus reducing the costs associated with non-CVC ceramic processing. Trex Enterprises Corporation has developed CVC fabrication technologies for silicon carbide (SiC) components. Trex CVC SiC has demonstrated high temperature performance that is superior to other SiC materials. The proposed Phase I study thus focuses on: 1) the design and modification of a CVC SiC reactor for the manufacture of monolithic TPS components; 2) fabrication of test TPS component items; 3) analysis of the material properties; and 4) theoretical evaluation of the thermal profile of monolithic CVC SiC and ultra-high temperature (UHTC) components under aggressive reentry heating conditions. The potential benefits of the proposed study include improvements of current TPS technologies based on silicon carbide, and a knowledge base that will allow the extension of the CVC process to TPS based on ultrahigh temperature ceramics such as zirconium diboride (ZrB2).

AEROASTRO, INC.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 723-9800
Mr. Thierry Guichon
AF 04-032       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Programmable Satellite Transceiver (PST) for Dual Band Command and Control
Abstract:The development of a fully programmable space borne Transceiver is offered. This Transceiver builds on existing digital technology and adapts it to the space environment. This is done with a very careful analysis of potential problems both in the technical area and in the manufacture area. An innovative sales and production approach for this type of product is proposed. Frequency, waveform, protocols are programmable either on the ground or over the air.

RT LOGIC!
1042 Elkton Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 598-2801
Mr. Bill Sward
AF 04-032       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Programmable Satellite Transceiver (PST) for Dual Band Command and Control
Abstract:Ground-based transmitters/receivers used for satellite telemetry, command, and range communications have leveraged FPGA-based digital signal processing technology to support multiple waveforms. Technology advances have allowed this equipment to become programmable. An integrated satellite operations concept requires similar advances for the satellite's on-board transceiver. FPGA technology has become "flight-ready" by virtue of configuration scrubbing, periodic reloading, and triple-modular redundancy techniques to overcome single event radiation effects. The ability to implement multiple waveform processing algorithms in on-board FPGAs supports the goal of a programmable satellite transceiver. Direct conversion RF techniques and high speed analog conversion technology allow SGLS and USB waveform processsing to be done with digital signal processing techniques in FPGAs. An S/L Band I/Q Modulator/Demodulator offers a novel technique for DSP-based processing of telemetry and command links. Benefits include modularization, direct conversion of RF to samples and samples to RF, low power, and a small form factor. These technologies enable the design and development of a programmable space transceiver (PST). This SBIR proposal develops a specification for a PST, constructs a prototype, conducts performance and engineering analyses, and develops a top-level design for a demonstration unit that would be produced in Phase II.

3TEX, INC.
109 MacKenan Drive
Cary, NC 27511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 481-2500
Mr. Donald Wigent
AF 04-033       Awarded: 16APR04
Title:Hybird 3-D Textile Gradient Density and Fluted Preforms for C-SiC Structural TPS
Abstract:Thermal protection materials have been largely parasitic materials adhered to airframe structural materials beneath. Attachment of such disparate and largely non-load-bearing materials incurs weight penalties and encourages failures. Integrated preforms providing enhanced thermal management, improved shock resistance/integrity and thereby enable more efficient re-entry profiles. This project will pursue the formation of Carbon/SiC composites with integrally 3D Braided and 3D woven single ply 3D preforms having a combination of functionally gradient densities, hollow cores, and planned thermal management, using ceramic and non-ceramic fiber types. The preforms will provide continuous fiber connecting the ceramic outer and non-ceramic inner segments of the structure, while internal flutes of the core allow for insulation and/or cooling. With guidance from Northrop Grumman, composite test specimens relevant to known hypersonic TPS and hot structure problems will be designed and fabricated, exploiting the flexibility of the 3BraidTM and 3WeaveTM processes to produce multi-density, and complex shaped hybrid preforms. Partner Starfire Systems will perform ceramization with proven methods for the infiltration of such fiber preforms with gradient ceramic matrices. The preforms will eliminate spalling and de-bonding altogether due to both mitigation of thermal misfits, and by the inherently integral single ply nature of the 3D woven fiber architectures themselves.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. James Gorman
AF 04-033       Awarded: 16APR04
Title:Robust and Re-Useable MCMC TPS(1000-461)
Abstract:Triton Systems will demonstrate self-healing, controlled thermal expansion carbon fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (CMCs) enabling oxidation and damage resistant components for hypersonic vehicle TPS and engine hot sections. Triton's unique materials system design approach to oxidation protection and self-healing behavior focuses on the entire system and not just a surface coating. Our approach also allows innovative design concepts using Triton's hybrid CMC and MMC materials (MCMC). Engineered microstructures for the fiber-matrix interface, mixed oxide glassy matrix modifiers imparting self-healing behavior to the basic SiC based matrix, and impregnation materials sealing the composite from oxygen ingress at temperatures over 4000F makes this TPS concept ideal for reusable TPS. Triton's self-healing micro-engineered CMC materials include alloyed and combined particle inclusions in the matrix that form an array of mixed oxide glassy phases when exposed to oxygen. The combination of these approaches provides novel TPS concepts in many long life applications needed to meet AF space vehicle goals. Triton's innovative MCMC also has significant load carrying capability, allowing integrated TPS/structure concepts to improve vehicle packaging while enhancing flight envelope performance. Triton will work closely with its four major system integrator team members to incorporate novel designs into emerging prototype TPS systems.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
110 Gibraltar Road, Suite 223
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 692-5400
Dr. Jim Marder
AF 04-034       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) for Future Multiple Entry Vehicles
Abstract:The development of durable thermal protection systems is one of the critical technologies to enhance performance and reduce operational costs of the next generation reentry space vehicles. k Technology Corporation (kTC) proposes development of an integrated thermal and structural thermal protection system (TPS) with low maintenance. The concept is to develop a leading edge TPS that is a load-carrying, high thermal conductivity k-Core monocoque shell that surrounds a phase change material. The concept provides efficient radiation cooling along with high thermal inertia to absorb heat during reentry so that peak temperatures are limited. The phase I effort will include transient finite element analysis and limited testing of key material combinations.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Bryan V. Bergeron
AF 04-035       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Energetic Polymeric Nanomaterials for Satellite Power Systems Design
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a flexible, solid-state, photovoltaic device, for spacecraft with inflatable solar arrays and high altitude airships. Typically, the I3-/I- redox mediator, and Ru(dcbH2)(NCS)2 sensitizer are used for liquid based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). PSI will alter the identity of the redox mediator in order to increase cell voltage. We will also use a sensitizer with electrochemical potentials appropriate for use with this mediator, while maintaining an absorption spectrum comparable to that of Ru(dcbH2)(NCS)2. Solid-state devices will be processed using an inert polymer containing the redox mediator. They will be lightweight and flexible, easy to manufacture, applicable to large surface areas, and inexpensive. These attributes give DSSC advantages over other photovoltaics since they can be accommodate the spacecraft's size and shape. During Phase II, PSI will evaluate the influence of other components, filter incident UV light, and increase efficiency.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 331-6322
Bill Jorch
AF 04-036       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Efficient Techniques for Construction of Radar MTI Simulation Databases
Abstract:The enormous potential for a space based radar (SBR) ground moving target indicator (GMTI) systems has fostered continuing interest in the fielding of a GMTI SBR by the U.S. Air Force, the Air Force Research Laboratory and by other Government agencies. Advanced physics based modeling and simulation will play a critical role in various aspects of SBR development including design, systems engineering and assessment of military utility. Sophisticated SBR simulations exist, but in order to be useful, extensive databases which represent the simulated terrain background under consideration are required. Three essential elements must be captured in these databases: a mapping of ground clutter, topography and a delineation of highly reflective linear features. Information which can be used to generate these databases is available directly from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency in the form of pre-processed GIS coverage layers which can be merged with DEM's to create regional scale simulation databases. However, creating the large databases required to address SBR problems remains difficult and time consuming. Our approach is to build tools to simplify and automate these processes by creating task specific enhancements for the industry standard ArcMap product; a path which will also provide a means to readily commercialize the product.

POLATIN CORP.
57 Janet Terrace
New Hartford, NY 13413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 731-9433
Dr. Paul F. Polatin
AF 04-036       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:An Optimal Scene Generation Tool for Space-Based Radar Simulations
Abstract:The research described in this proposal is intended to provide a basis for the development of advanced scene generation software tools for use in space-based radar simulations. The specific purpose of the proposed work is to formulate realistic and computationally efficient methodologies and test-bed codes for generating wide-area and global MTI radar scenes in the frequency region extending from 100 MHz to 20 GHz or above. Using the software that is the intended product of this proposed SBIR effort, it should be possible to quickly produce a wide variety of useful radar scenes that may be readily interfaced with Air Force simulation activities.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Mark S. Lake
AF 04-037       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:TEMBOT EMC Deployable Components for the PowerSail Solar Array
Abstract:Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) will work jointly with Lockheed Martin Astronautics Company (LMAC) to develop innovative, high-efficiency Elastic Memory Composite (EMC) structural components, such as deployment hinges and booms, for the PowerSail system. These hinges and booms will be both mechanically simple and mass efficient.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Mark S. Lake
AF 04-037       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:FalconSat-3 EMC Boom Deployment and Packaging Optimization
Abstract:Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) proposes to optimize the deployment, packaging and control of an Elastic Memory Composite (EMC) deployable boom for the FalconSat-3 mission. In Phase I, CTD will optimize the deployment, packaging and control of the EMC boom longeron through the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of prototype longerons and booms. In Phase II, CTD will develop a deployable boom using the EMC longeron, for flight on the FalconSat-3 spacecraft.

HONEYBEE ROBOTICS
204 Elizabeth Street
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 966-0661
Mr. Shazad Sadick
AF 04-037       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Innovative Rapid Satellite Prototyping, Integration, and Manufacturing
Abstract:The overall objective of this proposal is to establish the feasibility of a lightweight, universal precision gimbal that provides excellent structural stiffness, low weight and allows for vibration isolation and on-and off axis control of small payloads of a range of shapes and sizes during launch and on-orbit deployment.

MICROSAT SYSTEMS
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5138
Mr. Dave Newman
AF 04-037       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Protocal Converter
Abstract:The Protocol Converter (PC) autonomously converts data from one standard or protocol to another. It is intended to allow a variety of payloads and devices that have incompatible interfaces to connect to the standard satellite bus interfaces. It may be sold as a commercial product for other satellites, for UAV's or for industrial applications. Currently, if a payload was incompatible, the C&DH must be customized and re-qualified. The PC is a pre-qualified stand-alone hardware/firmware design, rapidly configurable to accommodate payloads. The PC is reconfigured through a programming port without replacing hardware, eliminating the need to repeat qualification. Tremendous savings in time and money can thus be realized. Generally, the PC uses two printed circuit boards, each designed for a particular protocol with a PCI interface between the boards. Phase I will develop an architecture to support the general PC as well as the particular application of a binary-to-ternary converter. Phase II will build a prototype binary-to-ternary converter, which has immediate cost-saving application to allow use of any generic low-cost command receiver to connect to a decryptor device. The binary-to-ternary converter is unique because it fits on a single PCB, rather than a pair of boards (the normal architecture).

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Dr, Suite 400, Reston Plaza I
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 242-7840
Mr. Dan Cohen
AF 04-037       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Modular Rapid Response Spacecraft Integration Using an Open Standard Network Architecture
Abstract:The current state of the art methodology for satellite development and integration relies on highly customized payload designs. The Air Force has identified an operational need for the capability to launch spacecraft on demand for a variety of DoD missions. A critical missing enabling technology is needed to achieve this goal is the ability to rapidly integrate and launch these spacecraft. To address this critical need, we propose to develop a network based standard for spacecraft payload and bus components describing the command, control, signal, data, and software interface requirements that suppliers of equipment must conform to. We will leverage and extend from work performed on the Network Data Acquisition System (NDAS) for the Deployable Structures Experiment (DSX) to develop a core network infrastructure from which satellites could be rapidly configured, integrated, and tested. To address the space access aspect of the rapid-response problem, we will examine use of the EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) capability as a platform for highly-capable small and medium free-flying satellites (or ESPASats) that have plentiful and relatively inexpensive launch opportunities on EELV as secondary payloads.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Dr, Suite 400, Reston Plaza I
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 242-7840
Mr. Dan Cohen
AF 04-037       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:General Purpose Payload Mount for Structural System Identification and Isolation
Abstract:The Air Force has an operational need to launch satellites on demand for a variety of missions. One critical capability required to achieve this goal is the rapid fabrication and integration of satellites. As spacecraft designs increasingly emphasize small buses and large deployable payloads, it is critical to develop multi-purpose interfaces that can isolate the flexible dynamics of the payload from the bus attitude control system. It will also be crucial to have the capability to identify these payload dynamics during flight in order to diagnose anomalies as well as to verify and tune performance. To enable the rapid integration of payloads using this interface, its design must incorporate simple attachment methods and modular data communication features. We propose to design a general-purpose active payload mount that can be used as an excitation source and/or isolator for a general class of payload, with the Deployable Structures Experiment (DSX) deployed solar array (PowerSail) used as the reference mission for Phase I. Our design of the ISOHEX (ISOlating Hexapod EXciter) is founded on existing PSI technologies and capabilities that include experience in developing active isolation hardware, adaptive control algorithms, and networked data acquisition hardware performed for the DSX program.

ATA ENGINEERING, INC.
11995 El Camino Real, Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 792-3965
Dr. Paul Blelloch
AF 04-038       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Controlling Stability and Load Limits of Aerodynamically Induced Forces on Very Large Assymetric Fairing Designs
Abstract:The proposed program addresses the development of a very large asymmetric fairing that will allow considerably larger payloads to be launched than is currently possible with cylindrical fairings. This fairing would be usable on existing launch vehicles without extensive modifications of those launch vehicles and would minimize in-flight instability conditions, reduce lateral force induced peak stresses in the fairing, and minimize the effects on the launch vehicle GNC system. An analysis-driven design approach will be used to evaluate a series of geometric concepts for the fairing before selecting one for further development in a Phase II program. Extensive CFD analysis and shape optimization of these concepts will be carried out to identify one or two geometries which result in the desired aerodynamic and launch vehicle interface loads. The dynamic load response of these geometries will then be evaluated and a preliminary structural design defined. Panel flutter and buffet concerns will also be addressed. The result of this Phase I program will be a very large asymmetric fairing design concept which shows a very high probability of meeting all requirements and which can serve as the basis for a more detailed Phase II design effort, including prototype development.

NIELSEN ENGINEERING & RESEARCH, INC.
605 Ellis Street, Suite 200
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-9457
Dr. Robert E. Childs
AF 04-038       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Large Asymmetric Launch Vehicle Payload Fairing
Abstract:This work seeks to develop the technology needed to launch oversized payloads using nonconventional asymmetric payload fairings. These fairing present significant challenges with respect to stability and control, structural integrity, and payload environment. The Phase I effort will involve preliminary feasibility evaluation work in several key areas. Aerodynamic optimization of the fairing shape and a stability analysis will be performed. The need for nonconventional aerodynamic controls will be assessed. The weigh of a suitably strong fairing will be estimated. The technologies needed to address all technical challenges of this concept will be identified and evaluated for suitability.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Dr, Suite 400, Reston Plaza I
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 242-7840
Mr. Dan Cohen
AF 04-039       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:A Statistical Approach to Advanced Space Technology Cost Estimation: Modeling the Stochastic Component of the Projected Cost
Abstract:The advancement of space systems and technology to a large extent depends on our ability to cost-effectively progress from early technology conceptualization to development, maturation and implementation. While advanced space technology development is almost always a risky endeavor, it is critical to be able to asses the risks, costs, and benefits associated with these efforts. History has shown that it is often very difficult to accurately estimate the cost of such development activities. The ability to accurately estimate the cost of space technology programs, as a function of Technology Readiness Level (TRL), is key to effective cost and risk management of such activities. The underlying assumption for the proposed effort is that the overall cost of a complex project has a strong stochastic component, which originates from many unaccountable factors, such as human productivity, synergistic and nonlinear effects, external interference, and many others effects. Therefore we propose to look at the space technology development cost estimation problem from the statistical point of view, i.e. to treat the evolution of the project cost as a process with a stochastic component.

NORTHWEST RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 3027
Bellevue, WA 98009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 889-3661
Dr. Susan Rao
AF 04-040       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Plasmaspheric and Enhanced Ionospheric Total Electron Content Monitoring
Abstract:The integrated charge density through the ionosphere and plasmasphere along a line-of-sight, denoted Total Electron Content (TEC), is a quantity that influences the operation of various radio-frequency systems. Measurement of TEC is utilized in order to assess environmental or system impacts, with possibilities for correction or mitigation. The current primary source of TEC measurements is dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver systems. These measurements contain contributions from the ionosphere and the plasmasphere, as well as biases arising from instrumental sources. While plasmasphere charge densities are considerably less than those of the ionosphere, the large extent of the plasmasphere can produce a significant integrated contribution relative to that of the ionosphere. The instrumental biases can be of any magnitude. To achieve highly accurate TEC measurements, of the order of one TEC unit (1016 electrons/m2 for the integrated charge density), a highly accurate calibration technique, to eliminate the bias effects from the GPS TEC measurements, is required. Developments of a mathematical technique, based on observed characteristics of the ionosphere, have presented the opportunity for conducting separate measurements of the ionosphere and plasmasphere contributions to TEC. This proposal presents efforts to be undertaken for further developments and validation of this technique.

SCION ASSOC.
439 Fillmore Street
Port Townsend, WA 98368
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 530-9751
Mr. Peter Ning
AF 04-041       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Distributed Optical Imaging of the Upper Atmosphere
Abstract:Optical imaging of sub-visual emissions is an invaluable tool to study the upper atmosphere. A distributed network of all-sky imagers, preferably with overlapping coverage, can monitor and feed real-time data to forecast space weather and tropospheric phenomena. Establishing these networks has been limited by cost and deployment logistics. Traditional research grade low-light level imagers were often custom built, bulky, and required expensive components to meet their sensitivity and scientific requirements. An innovative all-sky imager designed for production and exploiting modern advances in sensor and computer technologies should significantly make it affordable while retaining sub-visual sensitivity and simultaneous imaging at multiple wavelengths necessary for scientific applications. A functional prototype will be built with no moving parts and use COTS based embedded computing components designed for reliability, low power, and ruggedized field operation. GPS and environmental sensors will monitor instrument health and position. Open source platform-independent software will be utilized for both stand alone and remote network modes of operation. Live automated all-sky images and instrument status are to be displayed over the network to any web browser, demonstrating a low-cost solution to support a distributed network of imagers are both logistically and economically viable.

YANKEE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
101 Industrial Blvd.
Turners Falls, MA 01376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 863-0200
Mr. Mark C. Beaubien
AF 04-041       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Distributed Optical Imaging of the Upper Atmosphere
Abstract:This proposal describes an automatic sky imager capable of remotely and automatically imaging sub-visual optical emissions from the atmosphere. The USAF is charged with monitoring space weather, as well as modeling and forecasting space weather phenomena including equatorial plumes, auroral arcs, or polar cap patches. Surface observations are one of the few means available to determine upper atmospheric conditions over large regions. While space weather forecasts exist, they are frequently inaccurate and real time observations remain critical to assessing the earth-space environment. Ground-based environmental imaging systems are affordable, flexible, and accessible compared to space-based instruments, but are currently limited in operational utility primarily by tropospheric weather conditions and light sensitivity. If the field of view of a ground-based upper atmospheric imager is greater than the decorrelation distance for terrestrial cloud cover, a network of multiple imagers distributed many km apart, but with overlapping fields of view, could provide high-quality real-time space environment information. When favorable conditions allow for multiple overlapping observations, such a network could also provide products including tomographic reconstructions, ionospheric drift measurements, unambiguous emission heights, neutral density determinations, detection of clouds, and wind speed at the cloud base, a feat that currently requires costly radiosonde launches.

ADVANCED SCIENCE & NOVEL TECHNOLOGY
28119 Ridgefern Court
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 377-6029
Dr. Vladimir Bratov
AF 04-042       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Multi-channel, bi-directional, user-programmable, radiation-hardened, high-speed voltage level converter.
Abstract:Expandability and upgrade abilities of commercial and military command and control electronic systems are extremely important to minimize cost and efforts required for integration of novel components and subsystems into existing infrastructures. Voltage level converters are the key components for integration of subsystems operating from different voltage baselines. Their importance increases with migration of modern electronics to lower supply voltages in attempts to reduce the power consumption. Though approaches to interconnection of different input/output interfaces are well developed, the design of a universal level converter presents a great challenge due to poor compatibility of these interfaces not only in voltage levels but also in termination schemes, operational speed and other major parameters. Spacecraft and military applications require radiation-hardened devices, which further complicates the task by limiting the applicable technological and schematic decisions. We propose a novel concept of single-chip universal electronic voltage level converter based on proprietary level shifting technique and reconfigurable input/output buffers controlled by a special tri-level switching logic, implemented in a radiation-hardened technological process. The unique combination of these features leads to realization of user-programmable, low-power, bi-directional, radiation-hardened universal converter with speed characteristics defined only by activated input/output devices.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-9184
Mr. Erik Lange
AF 04-042       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Rad-Hard Reconfigurable Level Shifters
Abstract:As new technologies trend towards lower supply voltages to reduce power consumption at higher speeds their interfaces become less compatible with older legacy systems. In space electronics the challenge is greater since components and systems must also be radiation hardened. Therefore, there exists a need for unique radiation hardened interface devices that transparently convert from one type of electrical interface to another. This phase I program investigates the feasibility of developing fully integrated reconfigurable radiation-hardened level shifters. The program identifies old and new I/O standards common to the space industry and from these develops a component design specification. Radiation hard fabrication processes and techniques are investigated. Finally, feasibility is demonstrated through circuit design and analysis. A novel galvanic isolation technology employing on-chip coils and magnetoresistive sensing elements is introduced. This technology is inherently rad-hard and simplifies the level shifter design. A variety of reconfigurable I/O circuits compatible with this isolator technology is evaluated. Component designs are finalized and integrated circuit layout performed per the design rules of the selected fabrication process. Fabrication will occur as part of the Phase II follow-on effort.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-9295
Mr. David J. Strobel
AF 04-042       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Rad-Hard Reconfigurable Level Shifters
Abstract:With the rapid move away from the long held industry standard of 5 Volt level logic, it has become increasingly more difficult to manufacture, support, maintain and interface to legacy hardware. Most affected are industries with very long life cycles such as the military, power generation and telecommunications. It affects industries where regulatory requirements make it difficult to make hardware changes without re-qualification such as the aircraft and medical industries. It also means that many devices for military and space applications with established reliability and behavior are either no longer available or have become difficult to interface to with more current technology. The primary objective of Phase I is to create in silicon, a breadboard design that while not radiation hardened, or necessarily built in the optimum process, will demonstrate all the key functional and performance objectives. This will provide proof of concept and provide a roadmap to Phase II for fabricating a radiation hardened version in an optimal HBD COTS wafer fabrication process.

ALPHION CORP.
4 Industrial Way West, 3rd Floor
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 676-7070
Dr. Boris B. Stefanov
AF 04-043       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:High Bandwidth Optoelectronic Data Interfaces for Satellites
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project proposes the feasibility study of integrated all-optical 2R regeneration and 3R optical signal regeneration devices for use as high-speed interfaces in satellite applications (solicitation AF04-043). Currently available products achieve regeneration of signals by resorting to Optical to Electrical and then Electrical to optical conversion (OEO), which results in costly, bulky, format and bit-rate dependent electronics. The suggested approach consists in using original concepts based on monolithic integration of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and resonant Distributed Feedback (DFB) lasers with Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) structures to achieve the re-amplification, re-shaping, clock-recovery and re-timing of optical signals. The project will evaluate the performance requirements and trade-offs for Photonic 2R (P2R), Photonic Clock Recovery (PCR), and Photonic 3R (P3R) devices for use in high-speed applications. Detailed consideration will be given to application-specific requirements stemming from the requirements of the emerging transformational communications architecture (TCA). The reliable operation of the proposed devices in harsh environments typical of space applications will be evaluated as well. A prototype P2R module will be delivered at the conclusion of the project.

OPEL
22 Quail Run Road
Storrs/Mansfield, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Jianhong Cai
AF 04-043       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:High Bandwidth Optoelectronic Data Interfaces for Satellites
Abstract:Satellite data interfaces require optoelectronics for lower power, higher speed and radiation-hard components. The highest speed function is the transponder consisting of the photoreceiver ( detector , TIA and decision circuit), the clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit consisting of a phase locked loop incorporating a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a deserializer circuit. When implemented with state-of-the-art integrated circuits, the power dissipation is excessively high (typical numbers are 5W at 40GB/s). Achieving low jitter with known VCO circuit designs is very difficult . OPEL proposes a novel solution based upon an optoelectronic thyristor combined with integrated complementary electronics. The thyristor is a four terminal device electronically but it is thresholded optically. The unique ability to perform as both a laser (the on state) and an optical switch (the off state) enables a novel optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with extremely low pulse jitter associated with optical path delay. By combining the OEO with a second thyristor performing in the role of a phase discriminator, the complete photoreceiver and CDR function are implemented with approximately 15 components and a total dissipation of less than 30mW. This SBIR program will develop the integrated optoelectronic circuit to achieve a fully functional transponder at 40GB/s.

GRATINGS, INC.
2700-B Broadbent Pkwy., NE
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-9564
Dr. Saleem H. Zaidi
AF 04-044       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Low Voltage, High Current Nanoscale Si Field Emission Arrays for Operation in Air
Abstract:This phase I SBIR proposal addresses development of low voltage (< 10 V), high current (~ 10 A/tip) nanoscale Si field emission deveices capable of operating at atmospheric pressure. Earlier work has demonstrated the feasibility of low-voltage operation in air, however, either the currents were too low (~ 10 nA/tip), or separation between cathode and anode was > few ms. We propose application of nanofabrication methods to form closely spaced arrays of Si field emitters (tips and wedges). Using reactive ion etching, wet-chemical etching, and hermal oxidation, the tip radius is reduced to ~ few nms and cathode-anode separation to ~ 50-250 nm range. Since, the mean free path of electrons in air is ~ 250 nm, this separation coupled with emitter radius will allow low-voltage operation in air at high current. Vertical and lateral field emission devices are proposed. Wherass vertical devices use conventional nanofabrication methodology, the lateral device configuration incorporates an innovative configuration comprising of vertically stacked independently controlled emitters to significantly enhance current per unit area. Finally, these structures can serve as templates for cold cathode emitters by suitable deposition of metal and removal of Si.

QXWAVE, INC.
1313 Goddard SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 980-2620
Dr. Tony Long
AF 04-044       Awarded: 15APR04
Title:Field Emitters by Nanovacuum GaN Pyramids
Abstract:The III-V nitrides with outstanding thermal and chemical stability are promising materials systems for vacuum microelectronics and field emission devices applications such as Flat Panel Displays (FPD) because of their high emission current, long life time, negative electron affinity, ability of n-type doping, high temperature and irradiation-resistance. The objective of this proposal is to grow and characterize wide band semiconductors GaN/AlGaN/BN nanoscale tips on nanopatterned Si-wafer by MOVPE. Vacuum electronics devices such as Flat Panel Displays will be demonstrated by GaN tip arrays. Nanopatterned Si-wafers will be employed as substrates for growth of GaN nanoscale tips. The nanometer pads for selective growth will significantly reduce the dislocation defects of grown films. The larger area of nanpatterned Si wafer area plus the ability of integration with Si microelectronics also will significantly reduce the cost of manufacture. The Scanning Electronic Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope and X-ray will be used to characterize the crystalline and microstructure of the tips. Electrical testing of I-V emission Fowler-Nordheim (F-P) relationship for the emitters is performed in high vacuum chamber. Successful accomplishment of Phase I will lead to a follow-on Phase II effort where further development and commercialization of devices such as Flat Panel Displays will take place.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Paula deWitte
AF 04-051       Awarded: 20MAY04
Title:Pattern Recognition for Aircraft Maintainer Troubleshooting
Abstract:A significant maintenance problem is to prescribe the best corrective action for a problem; thus requiring a system to be capable of reasoning about a history of symptoms and corrective actions. Considerable time and cost savings could occur if maintainers were provided with the best corrective action given a problem. Since much of the symptoms and corrective actions are recorded as free-form text, a solution must be able to interpret that text, reason about the knowledge presented in the text, and select the best corrective action. COLLT (Computational Language and Learning Tool) will be a robust and extensible natural language and learning technology for CAMS that re-uses the Corrective Actions based on the same or similar Discrepancy. COLLT is built on computational linguistics, inductive logic programming, and machine learning technologies. COLLT derives normalized representations of the discrepancy/corrective action fields from CAMS and uses these to pattern match between Corrective Actions and Discrepancies. These normalized representations form the example set where machine-learning algorithms can compute generalizations about discrepancies and corrective actions based on CAMS. Hence, COLLT becomes more proficient over time. This innovative integration of technologies will result in a significant new capability for the aircraft maintainer in identifying the appropriate course of action.

DESIGN INTELLIGENCE, INC.
8901 72nd St.
Noble, OK 73068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 514-7365
Mr. James L. Grimsley
AF 04-051       Awarded: 08JUN04
Title:Pattern Recognition for Aircraft Maintainer Troubleshooting
Abstract:The CAMS/GO-81 databases contain massive amounts of historical maintenance data that is unusable in the present form. The primary barrier to effectively using this data for troubleshooting purposes is the "free form" nature of the text fields that describe discrepancies and corrective actions. These text fields contain a wide array of "noisy" data and artifacts that prevent the effective query and search of the database without pre-processing and filtering of the data. The proposed approach seeks to develop a system that functions as a middleware application and enables the maintainer to retrieve useful legacy data in a format that is most useful for the maintenance environment. By using a data mining approach that is a hybrid collection of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques along with concepts from the field of natural language processing (NLP) it is possible to extract useful information from CAMS/GO-81. A combined hybrid approach is proposed since no single technique alone will provide the functionality that is necessary. The proposed approach will enable the Air Force to leverage this legacy data and to deploy a system that will evolve in strength as the system "learns" from the maintainers cognitive processes.

D & R TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
28 Washington Avenue
Endicott, NY 13760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 754-2200
Mr. Darren Ashman
AF 04-052       Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Repair Level Analysis (RLA) Agent Technology
Abstract:The effort will consist of all activities required to identify the relevant elements that will be used to develop a current, state of the art, repair level analysis model. The next generation model will supersede the current USAF NRLA model and will be used to help determine the appropriate maintenance concept for USAF equipment. The effort will include reviewing existing and in-process models to determine the best approach to meeting the primary objective as well as the development of the prototype concept.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
AF 04-053       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Effects-based Evaluation of Logistics Capabilities
Abstract:Logistics capabilities are essential for the outcome of military campaigns, yet they often remain difficult to assess and integrate in the operational decision-making process. In response to this challenge, we propose a framework for the Effects-based Evaluation of Logistics Capabilities, which will quantify critical logistic factors based on their effect at the operational level. Specifically, we will conduct a detailed domain analysis and knowledge acquisition to describe current processes, methods, and criteria used to convey the availability of logistic capabilities to operational decision-makers, we will uncover difficulties encountered by logistics planners in making operational commanders aware of critical constraints and opportunities, and we will analyze the terms under which operational leaders and planners would be able to easily assimilate and integrate logistic criteria into their decisions. We will then assess a range of qualitative decision-support formalisms which support the assessment of logistic decisions and capabilities in operational dimensions under incomplete and/or uncertain information conditions specific to military engagements. We will propose visualization techniques to make the logistic effects easy to assimilate by operational planners, and we will present a functional architecture to implement the overall approach. The feasibility will be assessed based on the implementation of selected functional components.

KELLEY'S LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEMS, INC.
2091 Exchange Court
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 879-3483
Mr. Michael Clark
AF 04-053       Awarded: 21MAY04
Title:Quantification of Logistics Capabilities
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to provide theatre and headquarters level logistics planners with an efficient, effective, and highly repeatable method of relating logistics capabilities to operational capabilities. When logistics challenges arise, planners cannot accurately assess the impact these challenges will have on their operational taskings and often have to use inefficient methods to overcome any logistics deficiencies. Planners need a tool that allows them to easily translate operational requirements into specific logistics needs and also be able to assign values to those logistics capabilities needed to support an operational end item such as bombs on target or Army Divisions in place. These values will then assist planners in prioritizing logistics movements and provide insight into likely shortfalls in operational requirements resulting from logistics challenges. KLSS proposes to develop a set of algorithms that will allow for a translation of logistics capabilities into operational capabilities. It will be a rule-based set of algorithms providing a commonly accepted set of weights to the various portions of logistics. These rules will utilize a value-centered approach to provide an adaptable set of operational capabilities based upon changing logistics constraints.

KELLEY'S LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEMS, INC.
2091 Exchange Court
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 879-3483
Mr. Steven T. Powers
AF 04-054       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Weapon System Design Simulation
Abstract:System Program Offices (SPOs) and System Managers at Air Logistics Centers (ALCs) have a need to evaluate design alternatives and quantify life cycle costs. Most development opportunities seek to increase operational capability, correct a known problem and/or increase reliability. Each design alternative carries with it life cycle cost implications which include the cost of logistics and maintenance. A tool is needed which will provide these program offices with ways to evaluate these alternatives before monies are spent on acquisition. KLSS proposes to develop a design prediction model that can support SPO logisticians in evaluating various design decision alternatives for new weapon systems and for upgrading existing weapon system components. The tool will utilize the latest technology and, when applicable, COTS and existing tools, and be built with enough flexibility to evaluate alternatives at any level of fidelity needed. The tool will allow for the evaluation of the impact of design alternatives on logistics and maintenance requirements, as well as the impact of logistics resource availability on the design requirements. KLSS proposes to use our existing simulation model, SIMFORCE, in Phase I to provide initial information on the impact of design alternatives on operational and maintenance needs.

TECHNOSOFT, INC.
11180 Reed Hartman Highway
Cincinnati, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 985-9877
Mr. Adel Chemaly
AF 04-054       Awarded: 01JUN04
Title:Software Framework for Modeling and Simulation of Weapon Systems Design and Logistics
Abstract:An innovative modeling and simulation framework is proposed. It captures the operation aspects of a weapon system logistics in support of design optimization for life cycle maintenance, support, and cost management. It facilitates trade studies to evaluate the effectiveness, affordability, and performance of the design and technology alternative of a weapon system. It employs an underlying object-oriented architecture supporting the rapid development of detailed process models, integrated with product design, enabling the assessment of the operational implications of design alternatives through simulation. Discrete events with prescribed distribution can be incorporated to assess uncertainties in model operations, the resulting states, and the requirement for sustainment through out the life cycle of the system. Ultimately it supports design evaluation and optimization at all the stages of the product engineering life cycle - design, production, deployment, and support. The functional specification of the modeling and simulation environment will be developed through the detailed study of the air force and DoD logistics requirement for weapon deployment and life cycle sustainment and cost management. Ultimately, it aids in the strategic design decision for design optimization and logistics planning, resulting in improved system performance with significant reduction in cost of weapon system acquisition and ownership.

KELLEY'S LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEMS, INC.
2091 Exchange Court
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 879-3483
Mr. Richard D. Iannacchione
AF 04-055       Awarded: 07MAY04
Title:Maintenance Mentoring
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to identify data display technologies and define requirements for the graphical user interface (GUI) of an enhanced interactive maintenance mentoring job aid. The GUI design will address the following capabilities: adapt to the user's skill and experience level, provide interactive instructions to the user on how to troubleshoot and repair a problem, and provide insight to the user on the decision points that are taken into consideration during the troubleshooting and repair process. Solutions will be developed by working closely with Human Factors engineers and psychologists, system experts, and functional experts. KLSS proposes to meet the Maintenance Mentoring objectives by developing an initial concept design and modeling key elements of an interactive electronic maintenance mentoring job aid during Phase I of this effort. KLSS will also provide a prototype of the tool and work with AFRL/HEAL to identify a command sponsor to transition the technology. With approval from AFRL/HEAL, KLSS proposes to work closely with the Aircraft Maintenance Intuitive Troubleshooting (AMIT) team in all research and development associated with this SBIR. We feel that this work will be a significant risk reducer for the AMIT project by providing initial design concepts for the GUI.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin Aye
AF 04-056       Awarded: 13MAY04
Title:Optical Amplifier Based on Liquid Crystal Holographic Fabry-Perot Etalon
Abstract:To address the need for an optical amplifier for advanced night vision systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new device based on Amplifiction of Light by Liquid Crystal Etalon (ALLICE). This device will be based on a holographic Fabry-Perot etalon with an optically sensitive dye-doped liquid crystal cavity, which will react to NIR radiation but will be largely unaffected by visible light. The two Fabry-Perot Bragg reflectors will be produced holographically using a coherently coupled recording technique, which ensures that any variation in the LC modulating medium is compensated for in the holographic mirrors, allowing high etalon finesse and contrast without expensive, bulky, and heavy optical plates. This will result in a device with high spatial resolution and spectral selectivity, overcoming the drawbacks of the image intensifier tubes, and allowing see-through for most of the cockpit light. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of ALLICE through modeling and system design, culminating in a proof-of-concept demonstration. System characteristics such as size, weight, power requirements, sensitivity, gain, dynamic range, and image quality will be analyzed. In Phase II, POC will develop a prototype optical amplifier that will be demonstrated in the laboratory and in the field.

ZIVA CORP.
6160 Lusk Blvd, C-206
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 550-0596
Dr. Pengyue Wen
AF 04-056       Awarded: 04MAY04
Title:Optical Amplifier for Night Vision Imaging
Abstract:Ziva proposes to identify the most promising optical technology for imaging under low illumination conditions which does not suffer from the inherent problems of the image intensifier tube. The resulting improved image quality and the ability to be adaptable to a wide range of wavelengths promise to make this technology broadly applicable not only to military applications but also to the civilian sector in applications ranging from astronomy to medicine, law enforcement and homeland security. Ziva's novel approach uses Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Amplifiers(VCSOA) in a unique configuration called Semiconductor Optical Image Amplifier (SOIA). This approach not only allows a dramatic reduction in the amplifier array size but also radically reduces the overall power consumption and enhances the image quality compared to conventional approaches. Under this program Ziva proposes to study the feasibility of using VCSOA device arrays as effective pixel or pixel array amplifiers to improve the system performance of next generation Night Vision Imagers. The device design tradeoff and array related device issues are the focus of this study. We also propose to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of using one VCSOA to amplify a small image pixel array and analyze system design tradeoff in Phase I.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1782
Ms. Sabrina Hannah
AF 04-057       Awarded: 03MAY04
Title:Self-Assembled Nanoporous Anti-Reflective Coatings for Image Intensifier Tubes
Abstract:The proposed Air Force SBIR program would develop antireflective coatings for image intensifier tube faceplates. Such coatings would improve the performance of military night vision devices by allowing more light to enter the image intensifier tube and simultaneously reducing the "veiling luminance" caused by light scattering. NanoSonic Inc. has extensive experience in the manufacturing of thin film coatings using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA). The ESA process, licensed by NanoSonic, is a low cost and environmentally benign process allowing deliberate control of film properties at the molecular level. Recently, NanoSonic researchers have successfully applied ESA to prepare nanoporous films having effective refractive indices in the range of 1.2 to 1.5. Due to their low and controllable refractive indices, such materials are ideal for use in antireflective coatings. Moreover, ESA is an ideal process for fabricating low index AR coatings directly on the faceplates of fully assembled image intensifier tubes. During Phase I NanoSonic would; apply various methods to fabricate nanoporous films and evaluate their optical and mechanical properties; develop and apply theoretical analysis capabilities to evaluate coating effects on image intensifier tube performance; and demonstrate design feasibility, including fabrication of prototype coatings, and estimation of life cycle cost.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(402) 212-7474
Mr. Jeffrey Hicks
AF 04-058       Selected for Award
Title:Exemplar-based Latent Semantic Analysis Rational-agent Ontological System (ELROS)
Abstract:There is a need to automate training, performance evaluations, and knowledge formation for personnel but especially expeditionary forces. The immediacy and high levels of performance required of expeditionary forces can push training tools and techniques to their limits. In response to SBIR AF04-058, 21st Century Systems, Inc. is pleased to leverage our considerable agent-based decision support environment and knowledge representation expertise to rapidly develop an agent-based automated knowledge formation and training system using LSA and rational agent technology. Our system concept is entitled "ELROS", meaning an exemplar-based latent semantic analysis rational-agent ontological system. In our exemplar-based approach to LSA, a populated knowledge repository is used to boost the results of the LSA. Our exemplar-based approach goes beyond concept-based boosting approach by using modal perception categorization and belief statements. ELROS rational agents will provide ready-made training SME's to guide both trainers and trainees through their tasks and amplify their effectiveness by increasing the completion of the highest valuation of tasks first. ELROS rational agents will learn in a passive unsupervised manner, but can also be instructed. Rational agents are proxies for humans and take on their human's needs matrix to build and execute plans within ELROS.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2486
Dr. Paul Allopenna
AF 04-058       Awarded: 03JUN04
Title:Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis of Verbal and Behavioral Data in Dynamic Mission Operations
Abstract:Recent efforts to automatically assess cognitive state from communications data using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) have produced impressive results (Gorman, Foltz, et al., 2003; Freeman, Thompson, and Cohen, 2000). However, these efforts (1) leveraged only the linguistic data available in simulations, not the rich behavioral data (such as maneuvers, sensor use, and weapons use), and (2) they failed to use new advances on the LSA algorithm. We propose to combine linguistic and behavioral data as input to a recently developed, highly robust statistical technique - Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) - to assess performance in Distributed Mission Operations. In particular, we propose to develop a model of knowledge and skills associated with F16 and AWACS training. The proposed model will take linguistic and behavioral input in the form of verbal exercise communications and discrete behavioral measures. This integrated linguistic/behavioral model will output assessments of trainee knowledge and skills. It will be the foundation for the development, in Phase II, of a performance assessment module for the DMO entitled DECA2DE: Dynamic Embedded Communication & Action Assessment in Distributed Environments.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 832-4407
Mr. Richard Flanagan
AF 04-060       Awarded: 01JUN04
Title:Team-based Aircraft Maintainer Support (TAMS)
Abstract:Keeping the Air Force assets flying is difficult enough at depot level where there are extensive facilities and expert help but in austere environment these advantages aren't present. A recent innovation, the Portable Maintenance Aid (PMA), is a new tool to the help the human through these situations. PMAs are mobile computing devices that can be used at the point of maintenance and are becoming more widespread. PMAs range in size from hand-held devices weighing only ounces to bulky items weighing up to 25 pounds. There remain many issues including usability in the field, interoperability, cost, and more. In response to SBIR AF04-060, 21st Century Systems, Inc. is pleased to propose researching and developing a state-of-the-art maintenance support system. The concept is entitled "Team-based Aircraft-based Maintainer Support", or TAMS, System. TAMS provides the individual maintainer a virtual workshop of tools, manuals, and connections to remote team members while at the aircraft. The collaboration tools for multi-media interaction with technical experts located near or far away are avatars (a computer representation of a human). The virtual workshop with avatars provides an interpersonal session but greatly reduces the video requirements. Avatars can also spawn analysis tasks in support of the maintenance session.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Joseph Tesar
AF 04-060       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:A Personal Virtual Collaborative Maintenance System (PVCMS)
Abstract:This proposal describes a Portable Virtual Collaborative Maintenance System (PVCMS) that can support maintenance personnel in austere locations. Efficient communications between personnel is especially important when maintaining the complex machinery currently used by the military. In addition to technical documents and schematics, technicians frequently need support from other maintainers that have more experience with a given problem. Our proposed system will allow multiple technicians to collaborate on a technical problem, which is vital in an era of reduced manning. The PVCMS is termed "virtual" since collaboration takes place over wireless networks. Regardless of location, the technician has access to a variety of resources, ranging from central databases for technical bulletins to Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs). Graphical data is displayed on handheld, high-resolution displays. The PVCMS ties the technician to existing data networks via wireless links, which provide the ability to dynamically access a central database of information. Most importantly, the technician can share real time audio and video with other personnel, which means that technicians with differing levels of knowledge and expertise can all share in the solution to the problem.

INSIGHT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3 Technology Drive
Londonderry, NH 03053
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 626-4800
Mr. John Tantillo
AF 04-061       Awarded: 05MAY04
Title:Future Night Vision System
Abstract:Trade studies will be completed on new sensors and microdisplays for the purpose of selecting candidate techologies for the Future Night Vision System. Optical and mechanical designs for a head-mounted system will be completed using the selected devices.

OPTICS 1, INC.
3050 E Hillcrest Drive, Suite 100
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 296-0469
Mr. John Hall
AF 04-061       Awarded: 14MAY04
Title:Future Night Vision System
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to design and develop a future night vision system (FNVS) that will incorporate advanced sensor, display, and other electro-optical technology within one, two, and four channel configurations. This type of system will not only enhance the warfighter's direct-view night vision capability but will also allow for simultaneous overlay of other sensor and symbology information provided by the aircraft or similar systems capable of supplying a proper electronic signal. Key considerations such as operational effectiveness and suitability will also be at the forefront of the FNVS design effort. For this reason the FNVS will be designed with state-of-the-art optical performance in a package that has an extremely low profile and weight. As a result, this type of system will be easily adaptable to many tasks for land, air, and maritime operation.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 300
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 906-7906
Mr. George M. Williams
AF 04-061       Awarded: 28MAY04
Title:Future Night Vision System
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR program, a Voxtel, Inc. led team proposes to develop the design of an ultra-lightweight, future night vision imaging system. During Phase I, we will perform the necessary performance, anthropometric, reliability, and safety tradeoff analysis, and we will optimize an approach to realizing a lightweight new generation night vision system (NVS) using advanced sensor technology. Our approach, based on hybrid and solid-state night vision sensors and helmet-mounted displays, will provide war fighters with a lightweight new generation night vision system that can be a standalone device and accept onboard sensor imagery for information fusion so as to increase situational awareness.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5238
Dr. Chiman Kwan
AF 04-062       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Expanded Speech Recognition to Include Foreign Accents
Abstract:Current speech interfaces in many military applications may be adequate for native English speakers. However, recognition rates drop for users with foreign accents. Non-native speakers demonstrate large temporal (duration of each phoneme) and intra-phoneme (exact shape of speech signal) variations when pronouncing the same words. This problem is compounded by the presence of environmental noises from tanks, helicopters, etc. Intelligent Automation, Inc., with Prof. Richard Stern of Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) propose a novel integrated system to improve speech recognition performance for people with foreign accents. It is emphasized that this team has rich experience in understanding the speech characteristics in non-native speakers. Some adaptations are needed to update speaker models for non-native speakers. The proposed system uses state-of-the-art techniques and consists of the following five parts: 1) a speech enhancement module to eliminate background noise; 2) a speaker verification algorithm to identify the speaker; 3) a speaker adaptation algorithm that uses a small training data set to update the speakers' models in both the speaker verification and the speech recognition areas; 4) a speech recognition system to recognize speech; and 5) a speech coding module to compress speech for storage or transmission.

PERL RESEARCH LLC
4800 Whitesburg Drive #30-136
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 651-8169
Mr. Paul G. Cox
AF 04-062       Selected for Award
Title:Expanded Speech Recognition to Include Foreign Accents
Abstract:PERL Research, LLC proposes to design and implement a computationally efficient algorithm to recognize a particular foreign accent. This algorithm will map the input speech on to a normalized speech that is highly recognizable by one of the most widely used off-the-shelf speech recognition systems such as IBM ViaVoice, Dragon NaturallySpeacking, Philips FreeSpeech, or L&H Voice Express. Although our initial algorithm is intended to recognize Russian accent, with additional research, it could be improved to include additional accents, speaker authentication, and improving real-time communication across foreign language. In addition, research will be performed on feasibility of mapping a normalized speech to a particular accent.

ATMOSPHERIC GLOW TECHNOLOGIES
924 Corridor Park Dr.
Knoxville, TN 37932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 777-3776
Dr. Kimberly Kelly-Wintenberg
AF 04-063       Selected for Award
Title:New Decontamination for Aircraft Cargo Interior
Abstract:Atmospheric Glow Technologies proposes to develop the Plasma Agent Neutralization Elimination (PLANE) System based upon its patented One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) technology. When developed, this advanced design will serve as a stand-alone system for decontamination of large frame aircraft and assoicated cargo. AGT has demonstrated the success of the OAUGDP in decontaminatng various substrates against biological and chemical warfare simulants. Phase I efforts will focus on decontamining materials common to cargo and aircraft (including sensitive materiels) with PLANE technology in an open environment. Work will also focus upon examining the material for any changes following atmospheric plasma exposure.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
14230 Timberedge Lane
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-2408
Dr. Jeffrey W. Bacon
AF 04-063       Selected for Award
Title:Prototype Singlet Delta Oxygen Decontmination Device For Aircraft Cargo Interior
Abstract:Directed Energy Solutions (DES) proposes to deliver a prototype portable decontamination device which delivers high concentrations and fluxes of molecular singlet delta oxygen (SDO) for rapid decontamination of interior spaces. SDO, which has a lifetime of 0.1 - 0.25 seconds in air, is entrained in nitrogen and projected through a wand, allowing the decontamination of inaccessible spaces. SDO is noncorrosive and may be used on sensitive equipment. DES will leverage its expertise in the generation of high concentrations of SDO to build and test a prototype device in Phase I.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4439
Mr. Christos Athanassiu
AF 04-063       Selected for Award
Title:Aircraft Cargo Space Decontamination Using an Electrostatic Aerosol Decontamination (ECADS) Process
Abstract:Decontaminating large aircraft cargo interiors poses unique challenges. The large volume requires a decon system that can effectively address all of the complex cargo surfaces. The solution can't endanger the personnel using it, nor impact on-board equipment, cargo, or aircraft structure. Logistical implications demand ease of transport to address needs around the world. Foster-Miller, with EnviroSystems and others, offers demonstration of an available decon process for near-term biological threats, and a development program aimed at a complete range of chemical and biological threats. The program addresses each challenge to large aircraft cargo interior decon. The system employs Foster-Miller's Electrostatically Charged Aerosol Decontamination (ECAD) technology delivering a biocide called EcoTru, which is both safe to humans and non-corrosive. Phase I provides the Air Force with a ready means of addressing threats posed by the majority of biological agents. Demonstration of this capability is combined with development efforts addressing critical issues of effectiveness, safety, transportability and system design to meet requirements for effective rapid, single decon application. Phase I prepares for continued development in Phase II which expands the safe, non-corrosive decon approach to a broad range of biological and chemical reagents and develops the large aircraft interior delivery system. (P-040176)

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Sys Div, 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Gregory Zeltser
AF 04-063       Selected for Award
Title:Cold Plasma Decontaminator
Abstract:To meet the Air Force need for decontamination, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to design and develop a novel Cold Plasma Decontaminator (CPD) for use in aircraft cargo interiors without affecting the aircraft or its contents, and that can be applied in 15 minutes or less and not require reapplication. The novel CPD discharges a nonthermal, ambient-pressure plasma in an effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species carried by dehumidified air. The key innovation is preionization of the ambient air, decreasing dielectric barriers to triggering the glow plasma discharge. Preliminary theoretical analysis shows that high concentration of the reactive species in the outflowing air plus the high permeability of the aircraft cargo materials to air will make it possible to achieve the Air Force required efficiency of decontamination, equal to off-gassing of the chem-bio agents at rates less than 0.0018 mg-min-m3 (GD), 0.018 mg-min-m3 (HD), and 0.00061 mg-min-m3 (VX). In Phase I, POC will design and fabricate a CPD benchtop prototype for a laboratory proof-of-concept demonstration of destroying chemical and biological agent simulants. In Phase II, POC will develop and test a system prototype capable of decontaminating a full aircraft cargo interior in a short time without need for reapplication.

COMPUTER GRAPHICS SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT CORP.
2483 Old Middlefield Way #140
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 903-4922
Mr. Roy latham
AF 04-064       Selected for Award
Title:Algorithms for Run-Time Terrain Deformation
Abstract:Traditionally, the terrain surface has been accepted as "truth" and features have been forced to conform to the terrain surface. The features are changed in elevation to conform to the surface. However, the locations of key features related to targeting may be known with greater accuracy than the underlying terrain surface. Target data may be time-critical so that the off-line processing is unacceptably time consuming. In this study, the objective is to identify and demonstrate real time algorithms that meet the constraints of (a) adjusting the terrain surface to meet the specified features, (b) appearing smooth and continuous so that the adjustments appear natural, (c) not distorting aspects of the database that must be preserved, and (d) accommodate adding terrain as in becomes viewable without changing terrain currently in view. A protoype algorithm is discussed, and an open source implementation is proposed.

DIAMOND VISIONICS LLC
400 Plaza Drive, Suite-A, PO Box 1276
Vestal, NY 13851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-8526
Mr. Graham Upton
AF 04-064       Awarded: 02JUN04
Title:Algorithms for Run-Time Terrain Deformation
Abstract:In recent years, the volume and accuracy of data available for use in synthetic environments has increased exponentially. Current tools and techniques for utilizing this data have not evolved at the same pace, however. Traditional approaches to database modeling still require a significant amount of manual effort. Although it is a seemingly simple and necessary task, currently available tools do not support making small changes at run-time to the topography to correlate with feature data. Furthermore, as new and better data becomes available, re-incorporating this data with existing tools is cumbersome and costly, often requiring large portions of a database to be regenerated. In cases where sensor databases are also required, the cost of regenerating correlated sensor-encoded databases must also be considered. Finally, traditional tools and techniques for database development do not scale with hardware advancements. As new hardware capabilities rapidly become available, databases must be regenerated to incorporate additional content in order to take advantage of these advancements. Diamond Visionics will provide useful solutions to address the challenges stated above based on our extensive background in the instant construction and deformation of databases for visual simulation. In Phase I, Diamond Visionics will develop a proof-of-concept PC-based IG capable of automatically adjusting topography to correlate with feature data where provided. This system will greatly reduce the amount of effort required to update the visual database as additional and improved data becomes available

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Ms. Cecy Pelz
AF 04-066       Selected for Award
Title:Next Generation Visualization Tools for Mission Planning, Briefing and After Action Review
Abstract:Systems Technology, Inc. proposes to create the Combat Airspace Visualization and Planning System (CAVAPS), a deployable battlespace visualization system that will run on PC-based notebook computers, under the Windows, operating system. This system will bridge the gap between 2D mission planning intelligence data and 3D flight simulation by importing flight planning data from the Portable Flight Planning System (PFPS) and displaying the data as 3D elements superimposed over a high fidelity 3D terrain model, providing out-of-the-cockpit pilots eye-view and other views of the anticipated battlespace. In addition, CAVAPS will provide the ability to add simulated hostile and friendly air and ground forces to the visualized battlespace. CAVAPS will also accept flight data (i.e. aircraft trajectories, threat encounters, combat and other events) from completed simulations and display it in the same fashion, to enhance post-simulation mission analysis and debriefing. The Phase I work will result in system requirements for CAVAPS, as well as a concept demonstrator that will exhibit the feasibility of integrating the CAVAPS with existing mission planning tools and simulation databases. The concept demonstrator will also illustrate some of the added functionality that can be included in CAVAPS to enhance mission planning and rehearsal.

VISUAL TRAINING SOLUTIONS GROUP, INC.
620 Herndon Parkway , Suite 320
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 464-5891
Mr. Frederick Rody
AF 04-066       Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Flight Mission Preparation System
Abstract:Effective training for aviation combat missions requires a system that offers practice and feedback in all phases of employment: planning, rehearsal, execution and debriefing. It should build knowledge of all mission elements. It should be available when needed at the home bases and temporary airfields where aviators most need to rehearse critical missions. Current training rarely meets these requirements. Our objective is to create a software application that does. This project will prototype the integration of current preflight planning software tools with a PC based flight simulation. This is a first step towards a complete air combat mission preparation tool that will integrate flight planning information into 3D flight simulation for mission rehearsal and mission review. This project will also define measures of essential competencies in mission planning, highlight critical deficiencies that demand training or tool support, and define concepts for planning tools that can be built into the simulation system in Phase II.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Boulevard, Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
AF 04-067       Awarded: 02JUN04
Title:DecisionEdgeT: Achieving Decision Dominance In Information Operations
Abstract:Information superiority can be a source of potential advantage in warfare. To realize the benefits of information superiority, data and information need to be rapidly transformed into actionable knowledge, the key to decision superiority in Information Operations. Decision superiority requires a sound understanding of the C2 decisionmaking processes and the C2 information systems that support the decisionmaking process. This R&D effort is concerned with the design and development of a scenario-based interactive training system for C2 decisionmaking processes and C2 information systems usage. Phase I of this effort will demonstrate the feasibility of designing and developing this scenario-based process training system. This system will employ sound instructional strategies in teaching decision processes and C2 information system usage as they relate to the C2 political-military function.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Perakath Benjamin
AF 04-067       Selected for Award
Title:Battlespace Superiority Through Better Decision Making (SuperCision)
Abstract:The goal of this effort is to design and successfully deploy the methods and tools to i) more accurately assess individual decision-making effectiveness, and ii) help train military decision makers to dramatically, and predictably, improve their decision-making skills . The envisioned tool supporting these capabilities is referred to as SuperCision, reflecting its support for Battlespace Superiority Through Better Decision Making. This technology will provide decision-makers with the decision-making skills needed for decisive victory. The approach involves the innovative use of Bayesian nets to determine key decision maker evaluation factors (e.g., decisiveness, situational awareness, avoidance of decision traps), evaluate decision maker areas of potential strength and weakness, generate specialized training and experience-building exercises, and predict expected decision-making performance from incremental investments in that training.

REFERENTIA SYSTEMS, INC.
4429 Malaai St., Suite #104
Honolulu, HI 96818
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 423-1900
Mr. David Tribble
AF 04-067       Awarded: 02JUN04
Title:Developing A Dynamic And Effective Command And Control Decision Trainer (C2DT)
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to investigate the concept of a Command and Control Decision Trainer (C2DT) that would "wrap" a multi-student scenario-driven training system inside a user interface that simulates common command and control (C2) systems. This C2DT technology will allow military decision makers to practice and train on the processes required to achieve information and decision superiority using realistic scenarios that simulate the actual tools used to support decision making processes. The system will allow one or more students to assess a dynamic tactical picture on a C2 simulator and make decisions via the system's simulation environment, just as if it were an actual crisis situation using the actual decision support and information management tools. Different "skins" will be created as necessary to simulate the appropriate C2 systems. Student actions will be collected for scoring, review and playback, with the possibility of storing score and progress information in a Learning Management System (LMS). Instructors will be able to input various aspects of political-military scenarios, then monitor and control the evolution of the scenarios as necessary to maximize the learning value of training sessions on a per-user and a group basis.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Mark L. Hanson
AF 04-068       Awarded: 03MAY04
Title:Agent-based Satellite Attack Analysis System (ASAAS)
Abstract:Recent military operations demonstrate the heavy reliance of U.S. military operations on space assets for intelligence, surveillance, communications, and targeting. Using anti-satellite methods such as lasers or kinetic energy vehicles, potential adversaries have the capability to attack space assets and severely degrade the U.S.'s military superiority. To maintain dominance, defensive counterspace techniques and attack detection algorithms are aggressively being developed. Due to the complexities and limitations in current techniques and algorithms, improved user work-centered interface systems are needed to assist operators in analyzing the provided information (e.g. interpreting neural network outputs) in order to decrease decision and reporting time, thereby by enabling operators to intelligently and efficiently filter data to verify the output of the detection algorithm. To address this problem, we propose to construct a prototype Agent-based Satellite Attack Analysis System (ASAAS) for satellite operators or national asset managers who are in off-nominal situations due to anti-satellite attacks. Our approach is to use a work-centered support system design that combines cognitive task analysis with intelligent agents. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing current and planned Air Force Rapid Attack Identification, Detection, and Reporting Systems (RAIDRS) approaches and technologies.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia Drive, Suite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Mr. Michael Szczepkowski
AF 04-068       Awarded: 13MAY04
Title:Intelligent WCSS for Counterspace, (IWC)
Abstract:An increasing dependency on and criticality of space capabilities represents a significant and growing vulnerability. Defensive Counterspace Operations (DCS) to protect these capabilities against enemy threat are now a top DoD priority. In particular, attainment of DCS will require operators to fuse, analyze and exploit critical information from a wide array of sources within a large and complex network under dynamic and time-pressured conditions. As part of the process of developing USAF counterspace capabilities, it is necessary to develop workstations that are capable of supporting the operators who will perform the unique counterspace work. Rather than adapt legacy ground systems, this information-intensive job would benefit immensely from the adoption of new technologies for manipulating, interpreting, and managing information. CHI Systems proposes to develop a work-centered support system (WCSS) for counterspace operations that takes advantage of technology in ways that will optimally benefit operator effectiveness, focusing the human-computer interface on the work needs of the operator instead of the functionality of existing tools, databases, and other system components. CHI Systems proposes to develop this WCSS, called the Intelligent WCSS for Counterspace, or IWC, using a work-centered design methodology and toolkit based on 15 years of research and development of user interfaces.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
1909 Bartley Road
Dayton, OH 45414
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 602-8340
Dr. James R. McCracken
AF 04-068       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Work-Centered Support System for Counterspace Operations
Abstract:The Design Knowledge Company, Inc (TDKC) and SRA, International, Inc. present a unique and commercially viable solution to the problem. Our Satellite Threat Evaluation Environment Development (STEED) program applies several innovative and key technologies to support development of tools for intelligence analysts. Specifically, we propose the application of TDKC knowledge of relevant programs such as RAIDRS and Satellite Toolkit, augmented by the knowledge and reach of our partner SRA within a Work-Centered System Support analysis approach to analyst work and TDKC's knowledge-based intelligent agent technology and proven cognitive engineering methods to develop usable tools for analysts.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2451
Dr. Michael Garrity
AF 04-069       Awarded: 02JUN04
Title:M-PORTAL (Multi-Player Operational Readiness Trainer for Advanced Leadership)
Abstract:The focus of this proposal is to create a model-based proof-of-concept for a scenario-based, on-demand trainer to enhance and extend current on-the-job training focused towards the development and maintenance of Operational Readiness in senior AOC leaders. The training will be based on an updated model of the leaders' work environment, the knowledge and skills needed to perform effectively in that environment, and will leverage lessons learned collected to date to provide content for a contextually rich scenario-based training. In Phase II a prototype trainer and effectiveness metrics for a single position, JFACC, will be developed and models and a detailed plan as to how to extend the trainer to include other key leadership positions such as (AOC-Director, Chief of Combat Ops, Chief of Combat Plans, Chief of Strategy, Chief of Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance, etc.) will be provided. Throughout the process, there will be a heavy reliance upon both existing documentation and SME review to ensure the appropriate levels of fidelity and accuracy of both content and context within the training environment.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
185 Alewife Brook Parkway
Cambridge, MA 02318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 758-1956
Mr. Jim Lunsford
AF 04-069       Selected for Award
Title:Enhancing Commanders' Cognitive Readiness at the Operational Level of War
Abstract:Today's fast-paced, dynamic war environment is driving a requirement for a better training capability targeted at senior Air Force leaders in critical command & control (C2) positions, specifically the Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC) and senior leaders within the Joint Air and Space Operations Center (JAOC). The Air Force needs, as a key component of a new instructional strategy, a realistic, interactive training simulation environment that can mimic the operational level of war while creating decision-making opportunities for these senior C2 leaders to gain experience prior to, and in conjunction with, on-the-job training. To solve this problem, MK Technologies will work with the Air Force and our supporting subcontractors, Zel Technologies LLC and Klein Associates, to design (Phase I) and develop (Phase II) a prototype training system that will provide easy access to lessons learned via a knowledge management system combined with an effective, realistic, PC-based training simulation environment to support improved senior leader operational C2 training.

MCDONALD RESEARCH ASSOC.
3452 Lake Lynda Drive, Suite 114
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 644-1900
Dr. Bruce McDonald
AF 04-070       Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Planning, Debriefing, and After-Action-Review Capability
Abstract:The objective of this proposed program is to define the causes of reduced training effectiveness over long-haul lines and develop mission planning, debrief and AAR technology to mitigate or eliminate these problems. During this Phase I effort we will define the causes of reduced training effectiveness and develop a proof of principle demonstration of a sample of these technologies. In Phase II we will further define the proposed technologies, implement prototype mission planning, debrief and AAR technologies, conduct training effectiveness studies in long-haul training exercises, and modify the technologies and procedures based on test results. One way to conduct this project would be develop only the technology that is totally new and ask the user to evaluate its effectiveness as a stand-alone tool. Users often have trouble envisioning the functionality of the tool in a vacuum, leading to poor ratings of potentially useful approaches. We propose to take advantage of existing planning, debrief and AAR tools and develop innovative new technology to make these tools effective in the long-haul environment. Then when we ask users to evaluate the new technology, they will be able to appreciate its contribution to an effective package.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Mr. Mathew Archer
AF 04-070       Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Planning, Debriefing, and after-action-review Capability
Abstract:The aims and opportunities of the Joint-NEXWARS-Web-Module (J-NEXWARS) are to provide an effective capability for trainee collaboration in support of mission planning/briefing and/or trainee/instructor interaction for monitoring, debriefing and after-action-review of long-haul, distributed, computer-driven, simulations in support of team coordination training. Uniquely, OSD/AFRL and ONR/USMC support of integration of SDS' Decision-Skills-Training-Web-Module(DST-WM) and NEXWARS products already provides the foundational basis for near-term evolution of J-NEXWARS capacities. Currently, operational USA/USMC C2PC software interfaced to and augmented by DST-WM enhanced versions of the NEXWARS 3D-Viewer; Microsoft's Netmeeting; and GOTS Marine-Digital-Voice are provided as the baseline tools for trainee collaboration during USMC distributed mission planning/briefing, exercise monitoring and simultaneous replay of simulation exercises at geographically-separated sites including both the simulation visual display and selected trainee/instructor communications occurring during the exercise. This basis enables near-term development of advanced J-NEXWARS features such as new composite types of interactive control including jointly viewing live/simulation or replayed time-slices via master/multiple-slave shared 3D Stealths, web movies, snap-shots, timelines, and tables/graphs illustrating outcomes of mission planning and simulation training/rehearsal exercises. J-NEXWARS features-set also includes SMARTr board integration options, plus direct production from distributed exercises of Advanced-Distance-Learning content (i.e., SCORM-Sharable-Content-Objects); Case Studies; "Take-Home-Lessons-Learned" packages; Virtual-Reality-Space-Time- Mapping of scenario-based training events.

BIG FUN DEVELOPMENT CORP.
620 Lakeshore Drive
Duluth, GA 30096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 806-5428
Dov Jacobson
AF 04-071       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Adaptive Levels of Automation for UAV Supervisory Control
Abstract:Problem UAVs hold great potential for force multiplication and increased functionality. To deliver on this potential, future UAV systems must include reliable and flexible autonomous control. UAV autonomy is limited. The desireable level of autonomy depends on many factors. Ideally, the level is dynamic, raising and lowering in response to the mission phase and realworld contingencies. This project will develop an Adaptive Level of Autonomy (ALoA). The system itself continuously determines the appropriate balance of control. Approach 1. Begin with existing successful mulit-UAV simulation. 2. Articulate components, define autonomy levels. 3. Develop variable levels of autonomy. 4. Define cooperative UAV protocol. 5. Develop adaptive mechanisms. 6. Create human interface. 7. Test and iterate. Result Phase I results in a functioning ALoA design. This design manifests itself in three distinct deliverables: 1. A sophisticated realtime simulation demonstrates the ALoA system in operation. The simulator offers supervisory control of several overlapping missions. To each mission is assigned a single UAV or a cooperative UAV group. A variety of different UAV profiles are modelled in the simulator. 2. A whitepaper reports on the research and declares a set of ALoA principles. 3. A sophisticated DVD summarizes Phase I in presentation-oriented format.

IA TECH, INC.
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 474-3568
Dr. Kam S. Tso
AF 04-071       Awarded: 14MAY04
Title:Automation Architecture and Testbed for UAV Supervisory Control
Abstract:This research will result in an architecture and the associated testbed for the implementation and evaluation of methods of managing automation in UAVs under supervisory control. The architecture will support varying native UAV capabilities and ground station automation, as well as the presentation of various user interface components. This will allow the implementation of both adaptable and adaptive automation support, and the exploration of approaches that make the automation support both comprehensible and predictable. The architecture will be realized in a testbed that simulates operations of multiple UAVs in a battlefield environment. The testbed will also support the creation and presentation of differing yet repeatable mission scenarios and the logging of the necessary data for evaluating the performance of a human operator executing a mission. These goals will be accomplished by extending and integrating two existing systems. The first is the MIIIRO human factors testbed which is already being used to examine operator performance of multi-UAV missions. The second is Playbook which uses a delegation approach for controlling automation and has been demonstrated on UAV and other robotic systems.

OR CONCEPTS APPLIED
7032 Comstock Avenue, Suite 100
Whittier, CA 90602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-6700
Dr. Rubin Johnson
AF 04-071       Awarded: 19MAY04
Title:Adaptive Levels of Automation for UAV Supervisory Control
Abstract:Several unmanned air vehicle (UAV) programs are investigating ways of automating UAV control system functions to increase the number of aircraft controlled by a single operator. However, research indicates that implementing high-levels of automation and putting the human operator in a passive monitoring role can leave the operator out of the loop and unable to intervene effectively when required to take control of system tasks. Also, significant workload increases can occur as the human assumes system control tasks. To counter these problems, a human-centered approach to automation has been proposed, in which the human and the machine work together as a system. The goal is to keep the human in the loop by having the human perform meaningful tasks and to keep the workload manageable at all times. Two complimentary approaches have been developed that address the OOTL performance problem: Level of Automation and Adaptive Automation. Tools are needed to investigate the feasibility of implementing adaptive levels of autonomy in a UAV control station context. The goal of this SBIR program is to devise an architecture suitable for a multi-UAV control station simulation test-bed that will allow testing and evaluating different methods for adaptive levels of autonomy.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Michael Silver
AF 04-072       Selected for Award
Title:Identifying cultural factors affecting the use of non-lethal weapons
Abstract:Non-lethal weapons (NLWs) provide useful options to military commanders in operations other than war such as those currently underway in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, commanders are not well-informed about the psychological and behavioral effects of these weapons on their targets. Relevant data are simply in short supply. Even less known are differences in the reactions to NLWs by members of different cultures; using a particular weapon in one culture may de-escalate violence whereas using the same weapon in a similar situation in another culture may escalate violence. This project will use structured interviews and focus groups with US and non-US personnel experienced in the use of NLWs to identify differences in the reactions of individuals and groups to the use of NLWs between cultures. Phase I will provide some of the information necessary for commanders to make the right decisions regarding the use of non-lethal weapons in a variety of cultural settings. The output of Phase I can help guide the development of tactics, techniques, procedures, and tools that will improve US performance in crowd situations and other situations that could see the use of NLWs. Results may also guide future research on cultural differences and NLW effects.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. North
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Dr. Winston Sieck
AF 04-072       Selected for Award
Title:Law Enforcement Across Cultures: How Culture Impacts the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons
Abstract:While assumptions can be made about the behavior of Westerners in response to law enforcement actions, we cannot assuredly say the same for non-Western cultures. Tactics used for crowd control in the U.S. can be interpreted and responded to much differently in diverse cultures. This Phase I will focus on the differences in cognition across cultures and how these dissimilarities influence how individuals interpret the use of non-lethal weapons. To accomplish this, we will first investigate crowd control techniques currently used in the civil and military law enforcement domains. Using our existing Cultural Lens Model we will make predictions of how these tactics may be perceived in different cultures. The Cultural Lens Model is a framework for understanding, explaining, and potentially predicting reasoning and decision-making behaviors of members of different cultures. This model has been used in a range of domains to develop recommendations for training U.S. forces for missions in multinational environments. We will also leverage our work in sensemaking and decision making to strengthen our understanding of which crowd control techniques may be the most effective across different cultures. Finally, we will explore strategies for training and technologies for building just-in-time training tools for law enforcement personnel.

QUANTSUPPORT LLC
6034 Richmond Hwy, Suite 218
alexandria, VA 22303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 960-1106
Mr. akwasi apori
AF 04-072       Selected for Award
Title:Cultural Factors Influencing the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons
Abstract:This proposal describes the opportunity created by using strategic personality typing to assess and diagnose the effectiveness of different non-lethal weapons on various cultural groups. This proposal also addresses the feasibility of using strategic personality typing to create a commercially viable training program and field software application for military use.

INTELLITE
1717 Louisiana, NE, Suite 202
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 268-4742
Mr. John Dee German
AF 04-073       Selected for Award
Title:Aberration-Corrected Retinal Spot Projector and Imager (ARSPI)
Abstract:Intellite, Incorporated will team with the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona to develop an adaptive optics system that will project a diffraction-limited spot on the retina by pre-correcting the laser beam for all significant optical aberrations of the specific eyeball under test. The system will use real-time feedback from a low-power laser reflected from the retina to measure the aberrations and modify the shape of a membrane deformable mirror. Furthermore, the proposed system will include a retinal imaging subsystem which will employ the same deformable mirror technology to produce a very high-resolution image of the retina and the laser spot. This imaging system can also be used to determine the nature and extent of retinal laser injuries occurring in the field. These functions will be integrated into a prototype design for an Aberration-Corrected Retinal Spot Projector and Imager (ARSPI) that will provide AFRL/HEDO the tools needed to advance the state of knowledge and understanding regarding laser safety.

IRIS AO, INC.
2680 Bancroft Way
Berkeley, CA 94704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 849-2375
Dr. Nathan Doble
AF 04-073       Selected for Award
Title:Focused Delivery of Laser Energy to the Eye Using Adaptive Optics
Abstract:The overall goal of this effort is to design and model an adaptive optic system that satisfies all of the technical, size, and cost requirements for diffraction limited delivery of laser energy to the retina through an aberration-corrected system. The adaptive optics (AO) system will also be designed such that it will be capable of imaging cells on the retina of a living eye in addition to delivering a laser pulse. Phase I will focus on proving feasibility through tightly coupled design and analysis of the complete AO system. Iris AO proposes to investigate different imaging modalities to find an optimized design. This will result in a new instrument that fulfills the requirements of the Air Force. Questions regarding overall system design, next generation deformable mirror design, efficient mirror control, and optical system integration will be answered. This will have widespread use for a host of biomedical imaging applications.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Daniel X. Hammer
AF 04-073       Selected for Award
Title:Focused Delivery of Laser Energy to the Eye Using Adaptive Optics
Abstract:Characterization of the mechanisms of retinal damage from ultrashort pulsed lasers requires measurement and correction of ocular aberrations because many prevalent non-linear optical effects dominate this regime. Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to construct an adaptive optics system to deliver aberration-corrected laser pulses to the eye. In Phase I, a wavefront sensor will be designed and constructed for high-speed measurement of aberrations in artificial and live human eyes. A novel compact line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) will be added to the wavefront sensor for wide field, high contrast retinal imaging. In Phase II, a wavefront compensation mirror will be added and dynamic closed-loop correction of aberrations will be achieved. In addition, the imaging component will be altered for simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution retinal images. The complete system will be a valuable tool for investigation and direct in vivo imaging of laser pulse damage.

BIO-BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS SYSTEMS, LLC
7472 Woodlawn Colonial Lane
St. Louis, MO 63119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 961-6321
Dr. John A. Stern
AF 04-074       Selected for Award
Title:Real-time Bio-Sensors for Enhanced C2ISR Operator Performance
Abstract:We have selected three technologies for the remote monitoring of bio-behavioral events. Camera based measures of gaze, including eye and head movements, pupil diameter, vergence, and blink parameters; Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) based measures of cardiovascular and muscle activity; and behavioral measures including movements of body parts as well as keyboard operations will be utilized. Our collaborator, J.W. Rohrbaugh, has been instrumental in the development of the application of LDV technology for these measurements. We, as well as others, have demonstrated the utility of gaze control measures for indexing aspects of loss of alertness and performance lapses. There is a reasonable literature attesting to the utility of cardiovascular and muscle activity in this regard. We propose to continue our development of software to reliably abstract relevant measures. Procedures for developing software appropriate for the on-line monitoring of specific measures and combination of measures will be developed for implementation in the phase II effort. Since little work has been done on utilizing fine head movements as reflectors of attentional demands, we propose a pilot investigation to evaluate this measure.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC.
5764 Pacific Center Blvd, Suite 107
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 373-0832
Dr. Robert Matthews
AF 04-074       Selected for Award
Title:Real-time Non-Invasive Monitoring of C21SR Cognitive Performance Using Off-Body Sensors
Abstract:This program combines state-of-the-art (SoA) expertise in the relationship between physiologic variables and cognitive performance with pioneering knowledge in the development of high- impedance bioelectrodes. The recent development of these new electrodes enables accurate measurement of bioelectric signals without contact to the skin, and opens up the possibility of a wearable sensor suite for operational environments. The goal of Phase I is to relate the number and placement of electrodes and their required fidelity with accuracy in monitoring performance. The study will be done using existing EEG and heart rate data collected by conventional wet electrodes on subjects performing mentally challenging tasks and undergoing physical and mental stress during military training exercises. To augment these, the benefit of adding a near infrared measurement of oxygen usage in the brain will be assessed via SoA physiologic models. The result will either be a clear argument that these core sensors are sufficient or a case for additional sensors. In Phase II, a prototype sensor array and algorithms for assessment of C2ISR operator performance will be demonstrated. The target configuration is a noninvasive array of the new bioelectrodes and infrared sensors mounted on the inside of a helmet with in-clothing ECG sensors.

SAM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
425 Bush Street, Fifth Floor
San Francisco, CA 94108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 837-1600
Dr. Michael Smith
AF 04-074       Selected for Award
Title:Biosensor System for Real-time Detection of Operational Fatigue and Cognitive Overload
Abstract:Cognitive overload, fatigue, stress, and injury or illness can degrade operational readiness. Early detection of such conditions could provide an opportunity to implement countermeasures, improving effectiveness and minimizing performance errors. We have developed component technologies that are prerequisite to the capacity to automatically sense cognitive overload and/or operational fatigue, and have begun to demonstrate such tools in individuals engaged in console-based activities roughly analogous to those common in C2ISR environments. The technologies include wearable physiological data acquisition hardware that integrates quick-application headsets with wireless amplifiers and disposable sensors for measuring signals of brain function, eye-movements, and heart activity. They also include powerful signal processing algorithms capable of extracting cognitive load- and fatigue-sensitive neurocognitive signals in near real-time while minimizing artifactual contaminants. Here we propose to extend and integrate these advances to create an automated neurocognitive assessment system for C2ISR operations. In Phase I we will determine feasibility by analyzing existing neurophysiological data to identify optimal methods for making such measurements quickly and reliably in Air Force operational contexts. These methods will be tested and validated in a small experiment in which cognitive workload and state-of-alertness are varied. An integrated prototype system would be implemented and field tested in Phase II.

INFORMATION IN PLACE, INC.
501 North Morton Street, Suite 206
Bloomington, IN 47404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 856-4202
Dr. Sonny E. Kirkley
AF 04-085       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Military and Civilian Air Traffic Management Information Exchange and Visualization
Abstract:This proposal outlines a comprehensive plan to apply an emerging technology, augmented reality (AR), to provide military and civilian air traffic controllers with the capability to integrate information from various data sources in ways that are easily and rapidly interpretable. The ultimate objective of this project is to present controllers with an effective, reliable tool with which they can maintain situational awareness and make rapid, accurate decisions in their potentially high-stakes, high stress work environments. The proposal describes the methodology for defining the need, then sets out how the proposer, Information in Place, Inc., (IIPI) will design and build a prototype system and interface to exploit the advantages of augmented reality. AR can electronically overlay the real environment with information via see-through head-worn displays. To the user, this information appears to exist in the same three-dimensional space as the real world objects it identifies and highlights. This capability has the potential to greatly simplify the controller's most challenging tasks. The proposing organization, Information in Place, Inc., is uniquely qualified to perform this project because of its strengths in augmented reality software development, human factors engineering, and aviation subject matter expertise.

SSS RESEARCH, INC.
650 Warrenville Road, Suite 100A
Lisle, IL 60532
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 281-4507
Dr. Stephen G. Eick
AF 04-085       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Air Traffic Management Information Exchange and Visualization System
Abstract:Air Force Command and Control systems have access to a wide variety of real-time Air Traffic Management data that, if suitably packaged, could help DOD and Civilian Agencies improve flight safety in the vicinity of Air Force operations. In this project we will define an XML schema for ATM data, create a system that collects and fuses Air Force ATM data, and will publish information products using the data that preserve security while increasing situational awareness. The information products will include both raw XML data dumps and new, novel air traffic visualizations.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Paul Lanzkron
AF 04-086       Awarded: 07MAY04
Title:Fast Detection and Location of Spoofing ADS-B
Abstract:The use of ADS-B to determine safe navigation of airspace is an important feature in the upgrade of the FAA NAS. This upgrade to the NAS will provide a far more accurate location system for aircraft, allowing safer and closer separations in the airspace. At the same time, reduction of the use of radars will allow the FAA to decommission old, costly to maintain radars. ADS-B transmits the location of the transmitter, using the navigation system of the aircraft. An adversary can use the system against itself by transmitting false locations, or transmitting many false ADS-B messages with arbitrary locations, making the airspace seem unsafe for travel. In addition to the ability to create a safer airspace, the system's future includes TIS-B. TIS-B has the potential for significant improvement over the old TCAS system, allowing dangerous situations to be dealt with by the pilot, preventing a mid-air collision. Spoofed targets could cause pilots to take dangerous actions in response to non-existent potential collisions. The goal of this work is the fast determination of whether an ADS-B reporter can quickly be determined to be false, and then to locate the position of the transmitter accurately enough that it can be engaged.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Paula Dewitte
AF 04-087       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:Expert Intelligent Match of Requirements and Solutions
Abstract:Ex-PERT, proposed under this SBIR, will aid a human decision maker in filtering contractor proposed solutions that match requirements, reducing the time to select an appropriate solution and hence, reducing the overall system development cycle-time. The work effort will 1) develop a capability to match textual descriptions of requirements to relevant textual descriptions of contractor proposed solutions to achieve improved efficiency in the system development life-cycle and 2) implement that capability in the Ex-PERT tool. The innovations include 1) a functional grammar and ontological lexicon based on the sublanguage of the Requirements, 2) an ontology of the notion of an appropriate solution, 3) an ontology of the application domain, and 4) a functional grammar and ontological lexicon based on the sublanguage of the contractor-proposed Solutions which differs from that of the Requirements. The application domain for demonstrating Ex-PERT will be the intrusion detection area. Phase I will develop the prototype based on proven computational linguistics technology in several complex areas including 1) text extraction for both the Requirements and proposed Solutions; 2) knowledge representation techniques and ontological representations for representing the Requirements text in a normalized form as well as the notion of a good solution; and 3) inference methods to determine the suitability of the matches between Requirements and Solutions. Ex-PERT will produce a score for matching of the Requirements and Solutions based on metrics of the solutions to provide a scale for comparing possible solutions.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Ms. Laurie Spencer
AF 04-087       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Accurately Matching Requirements to Solutions through the Accumulation and Exploitation of Background Knowledge
Abstract:We propose an innovative yet pragmatic approach to the matching of information warfare requirements to solutions. The proposed system concept, Resolve, will be fashioned from an eclectic set of proven technologies with the goal of both improving search precision and recall, and dramatically reducing the effort required to find matching solutions. Resolve will exploit a unique capability to extract requirement-descriptive terminology from proposal documents that, through a series of processing steps, can fuel the autonomous collection of supplemental requirement-related documents from the Web and local repositories. This additional textual material will then be used to facilitate a query expansion process that will in essence mediate between a user's query and the body of indexed solutions (mitigating the terminology mismatch problem). Resolve will offer further improvements by utilizing a proven context-enhanced process that exploits user feedback and pseudo-feedback to autonomously scour a topical search space, reducing the need for countless query reformulations. By exploiting a number of existing technological components Stottler Henke will be able to make rapid progress, yielding a limited yet fieldable prototype in Phase I. This prototype and its evaluation will provide a solid foundation for the complete implementation of Resolve in Phase II and its eventual commercialization.

QUIMBA SOFTWARE, INC.
2672 Bayshore Parkway, Suite 618
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 625-1950
Mr. Bob Dourandish
AF 04-088       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Automated Data Sharing Across Functional Boundaries
Abstract:The objectives of this proposal are (a) to build a data sharing mechanism that can be deployed across diverse functional boundaries; and (b) to do so in such a way that existing software, databases, or platforms can interface to the resultant system with minimal modification. This effort combines Web Services and Ontologies to accomplish its research objectives.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Mark Keaton
AF 04-089       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Modular Gateway Architectures Study (MGAS)
Abstract:Our SBIR goals include 1) assessing architectural alternatives for future interoperability gateways that facilitate component testing, certification, and reuse, and 2) taking initial steps to implement selected alternatives. Historically, interoperability gateways required each link interface to implement translation rules for all other supported links types, yielding an O(N2) maintenance, testing, and certification problem. More recent architectures (e.g. our XML-Defined Gateway) incorporate a neutral data format to remove link interdependencies, so that link interfaces need only support translations between its native format and the neutral format. This allows testing and certifying interface implementations individually, and assembling gateways from pre-certified interface modules: i.e., a toolbox architecture. Although attractive, a neutral format approach has the overlooked problem of generating translation rules between neutral and native formats that are complete and consistent with MIL-STD rules expressed only in native formats. We propose to design automated approaches for: decomposing native-to-native translation rules into native-to-neutral and neutral-to-native translation rules; verifying the original rules are mathematically correct compositions of the decomposed rules; and identifying when translation rules from different rule sets induce inconsistencies. We also propose to extend the engineering cost model developed under our previous SBIR to compare architectural trades and select the best overall approach.

COMMAND & CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
1425 Chaffee Drive, Suite 1
Titusville, FL 32780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 264-1193
Mr. Greg Hupf
AF 04-089       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:Generative Gateway Toolkit for Heterogeneous C3I Systems
Abstract:CCT proposes a model driven composable architecture for C3I gateway systems that will provide a generic platform independent software toolkit for creation of communication gateways. This new approach will simplify interoperability of new and legacy systems by leveraging transport and semantic exchange standardization. Use of product line architecture methods will be employed to ensure large-scale system reuse, enabling component-based gateways to be generated from high-level specifications. Central to the scope of the gateway architectural approach is accommodation for variation and evolutionary extension of communications and exchange services. This dual focus on architectural strategy and standards is critical to dealing with the historical problems of stove piped architectures and N(N-1) interfaces between systems. The benefits of this approach include simplification of creation of domain specific gateways, and improved interoperability between systems. Phase 1 of the research will evaluate alternative architectural strategies and methods for generation of gateways from the toolkit, culminating in a proof of concept prototype. Phase 2 will create a fully functional toolkit of reusable gateway components that can be automatically composed into operational configuration, demonstrating both systems interoperability of heterogeneous systems and method of instance specific generation.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mrs. Charles J. Cohen
AF 04-090       Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent Distributed Decision Management for Avionics Systems
Abstract:The Air Force requires a system that connects multiple onboard systems and provides a translation mechanism to allow all of them to effectively speak one language. This Intelligent Distributed Decision Management system will be designed to minimize the cognitive load on Decision Makers and Shooters. This system will: 1) Provide a mechanism that can read from and write to multiple hardware and protocol interfaces. 2) Create a translation layer that converts to and from device data formats. 3) Develop a network distribution system that distributes the avionics data. 4) Develop a sensor fusion layer that distills and aggregates the raw data to avoid cognitive. 5) Develop a system that notifies the decision maker when the factors used to determine a target priority change or when the factors used to determine a potentially higher priority target change. 6) Develop a network distribution system that distributes the avionics and decision. 7) Adapt the fusion layer to facilitate the presentation of pertinent sensor and decision data. We propose to create an Intelligent Distributed Decision Management architecture for Flight Systems and will work with Ball Aerospace to integrate their KnowledgeKineticsT system into OpenSkies to facilitate scenario creation and testing of the entire system.

LAKOTA TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
PO Box 2378
Ellicott City, MD 21041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 725-2727
Mr. J. Robert Pence
AF 04-090       Awarded: 07MAY04
Title:Improved Situational Awareness in the Cockpit
Abstract:Improved situational awareness in the cockpit is only accomplished when the right information is available to the warfighter at the right time. Currently, Department of Defense (DoD) sensors and systems have useful information, but lack the capability to share that information with each other. The DoD Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) initiative has spurred the development of Sensor and Command and Control (C2) networks. As a result, the infrastructure for ubiquitous information sharing is quickly becoming a reality. What is lacking is 1) services to access this information in a timely and efficient manner and 2) services that allow emerging and future networks to operate with legacy networks. Within DoD aircraft, a Real-Time Information into the Cockpit (RTIC)-to-Avionics Gateway (RTAG) can provide these services. Lakota's solution is based on developing a comprehensive information model from which RTAG services will be derived. Our research and development will concentrate on leveraging information technologies developed to address similar problems encountered during the development of the Internet.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2453
Mr. James Melhuish
AF 04-091       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:CASSIE: Complex Adaptive System Strategy Interplay Environment
Abstract:At the core of the Joint Force Air Component Commander's (JFACC) responsibilities is the need to understand the enemy, and the enemy's Courses of Action (COA) to enable successful operational decision-making and to develop a comprehensive air strategy for the Aerospace Operations Center (AOC). Effects-Based Operations (EBO) has widened the scope of the problem, requiring analysis of the enemy as part of a broader interconnected system. JFACC decision-making and blue COA development have typically been aided by analysts with expertise in enemy strategy, by wargaming, and more recently by computer simulation of enemy response or behavior. However, as Paul Davies writes "Current methods of analysis and modeling are inadequate for representing EBO.. Addressing the challenge will require changes of mindset, new theories and methods, and a new empirical base." (Davies, 2001) One solution is to use Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) theory to create simulation models that portray friendly and adversary as a complex dynamic system with emergent counter-intuitive behavior. CASSIE - Complex Adaptive System Strategy Interplay Environment - provides the tool necessary to examine, predict, and learn potential enemy strategies and courses of action. CASSIE simulations will show the unexpected consequences that occur from interactions of blue and enemy strategies.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 04-091       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Complex Adaptive Systems-based Toolkit (CAST) for Dynamic Plan Assessment
Abstract:The Air Force requires C2 systems that support full spectrum of operations. This is specifically relevant to the air campaign mission planning and analysis community where there have been several recent concept changes, advancements in information technology, sensors, and weapons, and the expansion in the diversity and capabilities of potential adversaries. To fully support campaign plan development and analysis in this new environment, there is a need for systems and tools that enhance understanding of the behavior of battlespace entities, assess potential threat capabilities and vulnerabilities, perform C2 system trades, and provide methods to identify macro-level novel or emergent combat tactics and behavior derived from simpler micro-level rules. Such systems must also be interactive, collaborative, and semi-autonomous, providing the planning analyst with the means for exploration and potential exploitation of novel combatant behavior patterns. To address some of these issues, we propose to design and prototype a Complex Adaptive Systems-based Toolkit (CAST) for Dynamic Plan Assessment to support Air Force air campaign operations. Our proposed CAST integrates: a graphical environment for the development and specification of combat agent behavior models, a scenario generation component, a simulation engine, and an agent adaptation mechanism employing a genetic algorithm based optimizer.

DOLPHIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
474 Phoenix Dr.
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 838-7035
Mr. James Marcinkowski
AF 04-094       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:XML Guard
Abstract:The adoption of XML as the underlying paradigm by which a wide range of commercial, Government and Military systems communicate is fundamentally changing the way in which systems interact. Since many mission critical data flows for government, DoD, and commercial systems occur across security domains or organizational boundaries, XML-enablement of cross domain controlled interfaces, to include Guard systems, is a pertinent research and development endeavor that, once proven, will likely find itself on the fast-track to producing an operational commercially viable capability. Operational cross domain solutions, like the ISSE Guard, are already successfully utilizing XML technology to include XML DTD-based and schema-based validation techniques. However, more R&D is needed. The Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), XML Path Language (XPath), Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), and XML Access Control Language (XACL) are but a few of the XML technologies which appear to have applicability to the controlled interfaces of tomorrow. This effort will focus on: determining if, and where, these technologies can be employed, assessing what the potential security, infrastructure and performance related implications are of their integration into future controlled interfaces, and demonstrating, via one of more prototypes, the use of leading edge XML technology in a guard application.

SOPH-WARE ASSOC., INC.
624 West Hastings Road, Suite G
Spokane, WA 99218
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 468-8264
Dr. Ronald C. Turner
AF 04-094       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:XML Cross-Domain Guard
Abstract:It is currently nearly impossible to define, manage and deploy the rules for secure information access in an agile and consistent manner. Moreover, there is no robust rules-based implementation for cross-domain message filtering (higher-security to lower-security transfers). Without the ability to enact and deploy XML-based security policy (rules sets) quickly, easily, and with a minimum of man-in-the-loop, security authors and administrators cannot hope to achieve the Air Force's currently stated advanced technology goals for XML tagged and signed information. XML Cross-Domain Guard (X2DG) provides man-machine interfaces (MMIs) that allow policy authors and certificators to develop and manage access rules and transformation rules (especially for down-transfer) quickly and without programming skills. Once these policies and transformations are safely in place, X2DG executes reliable high-to-low cross-domain transfers without human intervention. Uniform (XML) security tagging and signed information objects as strategic investment areas are only part of the cross-domain information sharing (CDIS) solution. X2DG leverages that investment with (1) programmer-free policy management and (2) unmediated (no-man-in-the-loop) policy deployment (filtering and sanitization). Applying XML and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) to security problems is not new. Eliminating the programmer and the message-handling man-in-the-loop is a significant breakthrough.

CHILIAD PUBLISHING, INC.
44 Belchertown Road
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 253-7430
Mr. Paul McOwen
AF 04-097       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Metadata Generation
Abstract:Chiliad proposes a research effort to enhance and extend its advanced software for analysis, metadata generation, dynamic knowledge discovery, real-time situation awareness, instant alerts, and task-specific collaboration from de-centralized information sources and servers distributed across an enterprise or multiple organizations. The further development and scaling of this technology will enable automatic indexing and tagging of text and multimedia intelligence documents for ease of retrieval, context sensitive summarization, and global awareness of Homeland Security information. Chiliad's recent developments with one of these agencies is pushing the technology envelope for text based analysis using concept recognition and association, Metadata generation, and correlation with structured data in a relational database, deployed to an analyst community in an operational system that is in use daily for national security applications. Specific enhancements are designed for dynamic analysis and real-time filtering across distributed repositories located on multiple decentralized host machines. These dynamic and real-time techniques are adaptive and discerning, provide capabilities for instant alerts and immediate response. Specific enhancements are targeted to further scalability testing and tuning and further refinement of techniques to merging search and analysis results effectively by relevance across distributed collections.

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
12530 Parklawn Drive, Suite 300
Rockville, MD 20852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 446-9234
Ms. Heather Burnett
AF 04-100       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Achieving Ubiquity: Technologies to Make Intelligence Available Everywhere on Demand
Abstract:This research proposal is directed at the development of intelligent agent software infrastructure designed to support the near real-time situational awareness information requirements of warfighters anywhere on the globe. Our focus is on the development and ubiquitous delivery of user-focused "actionable intelligence" (as opposed to the dissemination/publication of large volumes of raw ISR data without context) to mobile warfighters (e.g. tactical air control, special operations, airborne) with limited in situ processing and communications capabilities. The envisioned infrastructure will support the dynamic formation of autonomous data/services "discovery" capabilities tailored to specific user's protocol/routing/format needs, and provide the ability to disseminate "information in context" resulting from a dynamic "focus", at the network level, on warfighter-specific time critical activities and requirements. This proposal will establish the feasibility of achieving this net-centric focus in near real-time via a system of autonomous, intelligent software agents driven by user profiles, automated triggers, action rule sets, active ontologies and association logic that serve as intelligent intermediaries between critical information sources, transformational applications (sensor tasking, registration, fusion, etc.) and globally distributed users with a broad spectrum of mobile-class processing and communications equipment (palm/lap tops, avionics mission computers/displays, mobile image transceivers, UHF LPI/LPD digital radios, SATCOM broadcast terminals, etc.).

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Mr. James Utt
AF 04-101       Awarded: 16MAY04
Title:F-22 Data Compression
Abstract:The F-22 Raptor aircraft has been re-designated as the F/A-22 to reflect its expanded ground attack mission. This critical mission is supported by a targeting system with an image database. The F/A-22 is arguably the most sophisticated weapon system in the world. Its ground attack capability is not limited by aircraft or weapon characteristics, but by the amount of imagery that can be transmitted to and stored by the targeting system. Compressing the data can alleviate this limitation, provided that the compression technique does not degrade the image data to the point where it is not useful. The DRA team has developed revolutionary compression technology that will substantially improve F/A-22 ground attack capability. DRA will prove the concept is viable by compressing data from the synthetic aperture radar and showing that image quality as measured by appropriate metrics is not substantially degraded in the reconstructed image. DRA will then design an embedded software implementation of the compression algorithm suitable for integration into the radar processor during Phase II.

RNET TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
555 Bryant Street , #578
Palo Alto, CA 94301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 248-3371
Mr. Ram Balasubramanian
AF 04-101       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Data Compression
Abstract:The AF04-101 topic solicitation states that the objective of this SBIR is to develop image and video compression techniques that will significantly increase the transmission capability of current data links by providing greater compression ratios without additional degradation relative to current techniques for targeting and tracking. In response, a completely new approach known as virtual object based compression is proposed for data compression. This new approach is an evolving version of the ultimate object-based approach. It is feasible to implement this new approach using today's computing technologies. A virtual object is a segment of a video frame in terms of some features, but it does not need complicated segmentation and classification algorithms to track. We also propose to use the wavelet transform to extract features of virtual objects and use the wavelet transform again for virtual object based compression in the temporal domain. The new approach will increase the compression ratio significantly without degrading the image quality. It is hoped that this new approach will theoretically and practically push the data compression technology to the next level.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Adel El-Fallah
AF 04-102       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Unified Bayesian Situation Assessment Sensor Management
Abstract:Sensor management in support of situation assessment (SA) presents a daunting theoretical and practical challenge. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. of Woburn MA and its subcontractor, Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems (LMTS) of Eagan MN, propose a foundational, joint control-theoretic approach to SA and SA sensor management that draws upon basic research currently being conducted by us for AFOSR. It is based on three innovations: (1) a ``dynamic situational significance map'' that mathematically specifies the meaning of tactical significance for a given theater of interest at a given moment; (2) an intuitively meaningful and potentially computationally tractable objective function for SA, namely maximization of the expected number of (ordinary or group) targets of tactical interest; and (3) integration of these two concepts with approximate multitarget filters (specifically, first-order multitarget moment filters and multi-hypothesis correlator (MHC) engines). Under this approach, sensors will be directed to preferentially collect observations from targets of actual or potential tactical significance, according to an adaptively modified definition of tactical significance. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of sensor management technologies.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Mark R. Meloon
AF 04-102       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:An Information-Theoretic Approach to Sensor Resource Management for Situational Assessment
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop algorithms for the active management of multiple sensors necessary for a situational assessment (SA) system. In our approach dynamic sensor resource management is cast as an optimization problem where the goal is to minimize the information-theoretic entropy of a target database subject to sensor usage constraints. Choosing an appropriate partitioning of database entities into classes is the key to using existing sensor resource manager (SRMgr) technology to provide data of importance to a SA system. Our system representation is based on probability mass and density functions. As a result, a Bayesian algorithm will be used for transforming the system state from individual targets to entities of interest to SA. Toyon will demonstrate the effectiveness of this SRMgr using our software testbed SLAMEMT on an example problem requiring tracking and identification of enemy units. If we are selected to continue development of the concept in Phase II, we would work to extend our algorithm and test it on a variety of situations and perform system demonstrations to evaluate the performance of the resulting SA system.

K3 TECHNOLOGY
36 Battle Flagg Rd
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 760-2828
Dr. Katherine Hall
AF 04-103       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Enabling Technologies for Free Space Quantum Cryptography
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of two novel optical subsystems within a new optical embodiment for quantum key distribution. The configuration is potentially scalable for space-based implementations of quantum key distribution. The proposed technology utilizes optical control systems that substantially improve the practicality of quantum key distribution. If proven feasible, the technology can also lead to potential improvements in speed and link-budget with reduced transceiver size, weight and power for future free-space laser communication systems, which will also benefit the application of QKD to satellite communications. The proposed technology is a modification of proven multiplexing techniques recently developed by the principle investigator to achieve ultra-long-distance and ultra-high-bit rate communications for commercial fiber optic systems.

NUCRYPT LLC
7727 Kildare Ave
Skokie, IL 60076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 841-7817
Dr. Gregory S. Kanter
AF 04-103       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:Enabling Technologies for Free Space Quantum Cryptography
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase-I project we aim to exploit a new invention in quantum cryptography to secure free-space optical links and networks. Unlike the techniques based on single-photon states that are limited to low bit rates and short distances, our approach is based on coherent states emitted by ordinary lasers, permitting scaling to high speeds and deployment over realistic distances. We have already demonstrated single channel speeds of 0.25 Gbps over 100 km distance in optical fiber. In this SBIR we aim to scale this technology to 2.5 Gbps over free-space distances spanning LEO and MEO spacecrafts and ground networks. We believe this technology is also applicable to encrypting data over emerging commercial free-space-optics (FSO) networks. Specifically, in Phase I we will perform the following tasks: 1) Determine optical power budgets required to achieve 2.5 Gbps encrypted data rate over LEO and MEO distances. 2) Build a laboratory prototype free-space encryption link working at 622Mbps with streaming data propagating 20-200 meters. 3) Explore combining this encryption technology with free-space quantum key distribution to achieve fully secure high-speed data transmission between spacecraft and ground stations. 4) Explore opportunities with commercial FSO equipment vendors for encrypting data on FSO networks.

EFFICIENT CHANNEL CODING
600 Safeguard Plaza, Suite 100
Brookyln Hts, OH 44131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 635-1610
Dr. William Thesling
AF 04-104       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:High Data Rate Error Correction
Abstract:In this SBIR, Efficient Channel Coding (ECC) will develop an innovative Forward Error Correction (FEC) architectures that are optimally suited for burst error correction and feasible for 40 Gbps data throughput applications. Design goals include improving BER performance, minimizing decoding latency, and lowering codec complexity / power consumption for on-satellite processing. Today's 40-Gbps FEC solutions are mostly RS code based, contrasting to ECC's product code technology that uses innovative iterative (turbo) decoding to obtain higher coding gains, while keeping the complexity practical for Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) implementation. Among such codes, RS product (RSP) codes are extremely suitable due to their inherited burst error control capability, significantly improved BER performance, and complexity advantages Some other iterative FECs will also be investigated with Hard Input Hard Output (HIHO), or simplified Soft Input Soft Output (SISO) decoding algorithms. A range of suitable codec will be selected in Phase I and the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of a selected codec(s) will be developed and tested in Phase II. Eventually, a radiation hardened ASIC device will be developed in Phase III to operate at 40 Gbps.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-9295
Mr. Peter Nolan
AF 04-104       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:High Data Rate Error Correction
Abstract:Space Micro, Inc. proposes to develop a radiation hardened forward error correction (FEC) codec ASIC for use in very high data rate, space-based, laser communication systems. Our proposed codec uses an innovative combination of a Reed-Solomon code concatenated with other short binary block codes, and a variable-depth interleaver. The code achieves outstanding error correction performance: 10 dB or more of net coding gain for random errors (at BER = 1E-12), and extremely long burst error correction - the duration of correctable burst errors is effectively limited only by the size of the codec's interleaver memory. Our innovative codec hardware design has a relatively low computational complexity that is feasible for implementation in FPGA and ASIC technology at data rates up to 40 Gbps and above. Radiation hardening is provided through a comprehensive "hard by design" approach, including the use of an innovative, inherently rad-hard decoder architecture and other logic design techniques, as well as a rad-hard ASIC process. Space Micro's extensive experience in both FEC coding and radiation hardening of microelectronics makes us particularly well qualified to perform this R&D, and insert the resulting IC product into DoD and NASA programs.

ADAPTRUM, INC.
P.O.Box 60205
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 768-2187
Dr. Haiyun Tang
AF 04-105       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Dynamically Sensing and Adapting Wireless Network
Abstract:In this project, we propose an integrated effort to develop a new radio technology, which we call adaptive spectrum technology, that is capable of dynamically sensing and locating the unused spectrum segments for use of communication in a way that causes no harmful interference to the designated users of the spectrum. The new radio technology improves spectrum efficiency and operation flexibility and has significant commercialization potential in both military and civilian applications.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Richard E. Cagley
AF 04-105       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Dynamically Sensing and Adapting Wireless Network
Abstract:For many wireless systems, such as satellite communications (SATCOM), capacity is limited by a lack of available spectrum. However, studies have shown that at any given time only a small percentage of the active wireless spectrum is used. Since its inception, wireless transmission has been regulated by allocation of frequency bands. While straight-forward to administer, this allocation of wireless resources is a poor method of adapting to varying system demands. One method of increasing efficiency is sensing available resources and dynamically allocating channels in open bands. In this Phase I SBIR, Toyon proposes to apply this strategy to demand-assignment multiple-access (DAMA) SATCOM networks. These systems are designed to provide data communication access to remote sites. While the system typically operates on assigned UHF bands, during emergency situations it is desirable that unused bands could be utilized thereby providing increased capacity. Toyon will research technical areas of this problem: modifications to messaging of existing standards to support emergency channels and providing algorithms for determining which unallocated portion of the spectrum would be most satisfactory. Building on this research, Toyon will present a modified architecture for DAMA SATCOM that provides surge capacity of emergency transmission while providing maximum backward compatibility with existing systems.

JJW CONSULTING, INC.
455 commack road
Deer Park, NY 11729
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 595-6602
Mr. Henry Paczkowski
AF 04-106       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:Q/V/W-band High Powered Amplifiers
Abstract:JJW is proposing a development of MMIC chips for Q/V/W-Band High Powered Amplifiers for the MILSATCOM marketplace and other phased array systems. The development of phased array systems have been hindered due to the high cost and poor performance of the high power MMIC chips that are an integral part of the system configuration. The MMIC chips will have a power output of 100mw, a PAE of 40%, with 25dB of gain. This two stage MMIC will have a production cost of approximately $3.00 per chip compared to a present day cost of about $16.00. We will also be generating designs for a 2watt version of the high power amplifier with a PAE of 35% and a gain of 20dB.

VT SILICON, INC.
75 5th Street NW, Suite 244
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 526-6169
Dr. Vikram Krishnamurthy
AF 04-106       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Q/V/W-band High Powered Amplifiers
Abstract:This proposal describes the impetus and relevance of the development of SiGe based low-cost and low-power millimeter-wave (mmwave) power amplifier ICs for phased array transmit applications for both the 49-51 GHz band and the 71-78 GHz band. In addition to providing novel mmwave design topologies, this proposal describes a work plan for further analysis, design, and development of a high frequency and high performance SiGe power amplifier technology. Development of millimeter-wave IC components has traditionally proven to be a costly exercise of exotic semiconductor process development and optimization, without much emphasis on innovative circuit design techniques. This has resulted in development of costly compound semiconductor power processes with low manufacturability and yield, and in turned, eliminated the commercial viability of millimeter-wave ICs, most specifically power amplifier ICs. Currently, the cost of millimeter-wave components is one of the major hurdles in deployment of millimeter-wave commercial communications systems, and military radar, communications and electronic warfare systems. VT Silicon is proposing the development of a low cost, and high performance mmwave power amplifier utilizing silicon germanium (SiGe).

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
500 Wynn Drive, Suite 504
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(228) 688-1077
Dr. Walt Smith
AF 04-107       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:A Family of Decision-Centric Software Applications for the Future ISR Network
Abstract:Military planners and operational decision makers are currently levering the power of information technology to apply force multipliers for shock, action and response to the myriad of threats. However, they have yet to obtain and employ robust, verifiable decision aids and decision support systems that can work across the entire planning domain. The current set of Command and Control systems, although responsive to current operational requirements, do not have premier and forward decision-making tools for planning or the analysis to conduct the detailed and "real-time" planning. Radiance Technologies in cooperation with its team members, Diamond Data Systems, NVision, and the University of Southern Mississippi proposes to design a prototype decision making software toolset and "workbench" for the tactical military decision maker. Our prototype solution will heavily leverage our combined strengths in sensor data processing, information system development, decision support system development and geospatial systems information development.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-9836
Mr. Bruce McQueary
AF 04-107       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:A Family of Decision-Centric Software Applications for the Future ISR Network
Abstract:Dynamic Intelligence Anticipation, Prioritization, and Exploitation System, or DIAPES. DIAPES combines an innovative application of ontology modeling, intelligence data integration; artificial intelligence techniques; and visualization to allow analysts to rapidly solve intelligence requirements in support of complete Predictive Battlespace Awareness (PBA) while compressing the ATO cycle. The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate a prototype system.

PEERLESS TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
Suite 117, Suite 117
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 222-1330
Mr. Brad Power
AF 04-109       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Disseminating ISR Products, Including Real-Time Moving Imagery, as a Multi-Service Enterprise
Abstract:This effort is to develop an overall system design for automated dissemination based on information content and provide a proof-of-feasibility demonstration. The DoD is moving from centralized thinking and planning to net-centric planning. The current Task, Process, Exploit, Disseminate (TPED) concept used in many services to provide information from the producer to the consumer is giving way to a new paradigm, Task, Post, Process, Use (TPPU). The transition from the TPED concept to the TPPU concept leverages information technology and connectivity to improve the speed and quality of DoD decision making. The resulting prototype will: Support posting data to shared spaces Provide users with the capability to pull whatever data they need, whenever they need it, from wherever they are Automatically notify users when new data is available

PRESEARCH, INC.
8500 Executive Park Ave., Suite 400
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 872-8553
Dr. Jon Michel
AF 04-109       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:Disseminating ISR Products, Including Real-Time Moving Imagery, as a Multi-Service Enterprise
Abstract:Success on the modern battlefield requires commanders to see first, understand first, and execute first. This is particularly true in unconventional operations where enemies are using asymmetrical threats to defeat our overwhelming combat power. Combat information is currently being provided by far ranging sensors of every sort in every intelligence discipline (IMINT, HUMINT, SIGINT, etc), all the way from space-based collection systems to battlefield interrogations. The ability to fuse that information and draw sound conclusions is dependent on automated applications that wade through the masses of information, culls out the relevant data, and is organized to present a coherent picture to the decision maker. This proposal explains the development of an automated system for information extraction and dissemination. The core of the system is a semantic ontology knowledge store. This knowledge store is utilized to extract concepts for automatic generation of metadata. By creating the potential for capturing domain knowledge in a semantic ontology, we furnish the basis for significant advances at the system level: 1.) automated concept extraction and 2.) metadata labeling and search capability. While this data mining capability is a potent technology advantage on the battlefield, this work expands the commercial potential in exploring business information.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 244-3946
Mr. Lynn Lehman
AF 04-110       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Campaign Level Adversarial Modeling System
Abstract:An innovative framework to support adversarial modeling -- entitled Emergent Adversarial Modeling System (EAMS). EAMS leverages the Securboration team's past experience in knowledge integration, scenario generation and adversarial modeling to address the difficult problems facing the adversarial modeling domain

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 746-7032
Dr. Daniel Fu
AF 04-110       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Intelligent, Authorable Adversary Modeling System for Course of Action Assessment
Abstract:We propose to build for the Air Force a next-generation adversary model that can dynamically generate realistic adversary actions in an operational-level predictive simulation. This system will use advanced artificial intelligence behavior modeling techniques to capture the full range of potential adversary actions and decisions. It will also model the effects of culture and other extra-cognitive factors on behavior. The proposed system consists of two components: an adversary authoring tool and a model execution engine. The authoring tool will permit military analysts to customize all aspects of the adversary model without the assistance of a programmer. This tool will feature an intuitive visual editor in which the user can assemble models from basic building blocks by manipulating graphical elements. Giving analysts direct control over the adversary models will encourage the development of better models. The model execution engine will use the resulting models to control adversary forces in a simulation. The engine will include an execution monitor allowing the analyst to observe the changing "mental state" of the adversary as well as to ask for an explanation of any action or decision. We will absolutely demonstrate the feasibility of our ideas through the development of a Phase I prototype.

NATURAL SELECTION, INC.
3333 N. Torrey Pines Ct., Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-6449
Dr. David B. Fogel
AF 04-111       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:An Integrated COA versus eCOA Tool
Abstract:Current course of action (COA) planning is predominantly a manual ad hoc process where the mission planner seeks to maximize the immediate effects of his COAs while reacting to the opposition's known COAs, and possibly countering the enemy's immediate anticipated response. Long-term moves and countermoves are not considered, nor are objectives achieved in a calibrated quantitative manner. There is a need to search for optimal COAs by considering multiple friendly COAs in light of multiple potential enemy COAs (eCOAs) and "dovetailing" the effects of each side's actions into a chain of moves and countermoves, actions and reactions, that defines the overall sequence of unfolding events in combat. This Phase I project will develop and test software that uses an upgraded JANUS simulation to address this need within the context of UAV (or other vehicles) mission planning in light of enemy defenses. The Phase II effort will treat scenarios involving scores to hundreds of units on multiple sides, and be demonstrated within an EBO context. The software will be applicable to all branches of the military, and to the software entertainment industry. Natural Selection, Inc.'s sister company, Digenetics, Inc., is already well positioned to effect a successful commercial transition.

SYNERGIA LLC
2400 Broadway, Suite 203
Redwood City, CA 94063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 569-4999
Dr. Gregg Courand
AF 04-111       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:An Integrated COA versus eCOA Tool -- Decisive Engagements
Abstract:We present a technology for COA versus eCOA analysis. It provides for modeling the adaptive capacity of human systems at the level of practices, individuals, and multi-actor systems. COAs are realized as restrictions on actors' general performance capacities. We introduce the concept of a decisive engagement. This is one that both informs us as to relative risks and opportunities, and more importantly, controls outcomes so that they sharply favor friendly objectives, and minimize adversary success. We employ normative calculations to manage simulation experiments (COA versus eCOA engagements) so that we discover and redesign action toward decisive engagements. Both calculations limit the computational complexity of multi-actor simulation.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5248
Dr. Philip Goetz
AF 04-112       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:New Information Technologies for Crisis Operations
Abstract:The innovation of this proposal is using our novel software agent-based tools and techniques to provide a tool that will simulate the behavior of groups of people in crisis situations, and a decision support tool that will perform real-time planning, scheduling, and resource allocation for crisis management. We will also integrate a robust and flexible wireless ad hoc mobile network capability into the same structure. The primary components to achieve this system already exist and we will be able to demonstrate a functional system operating for a single crisis scenario by the end of Phase 1. The system will execute on a set of commercial off the shelf hand held PDAs and/or laptop computers. This is only possible within the time and resources of a Phase 1 SBIR because IAI has been developing software agent applications for over a decade and we have an extensive set of tools and techniques that essentially implement the required capabilities already. Our work will also include both analytical and simulation capabilities to assess the stability, probability and magnitude of events of clustered volatility that will effect the behavior emerging from a crisis situation.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Dr. Tamitha Carpenter
AF 04-112       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Integrating Decision Support and Knowledge Capture for Crisis Operations
Abstract:Stottler Henke proposes an innovative approach to supporting crisis response operations that will allow for the amassing and exploitation of lessons learned during the resolution of previous incidents while simultaneously providing an advanced situational awareness capability. To accomplish these goals, we must necessarily address the fundamental challenge of knowledge capture since much recent research into the failures of various knowledge management initiatives highlights the fact that it is difficult, even in military organizations, to motivate personnel to codify their knowledge for the greater good. In recognition of this fact, the proposed Athena system will be designed so as to provide immediate benefits to the user that significantly outweigh the effort they expend. In particular, Athena will utilize the incremental description of an incident and its response to retrieve previous related cases as well as provide context-aware information retrieval, dissemination across the organization, and monitoring that can cut through information overload and thereby reduce cognitive burdens. Captured knowledge will not only benefit future crisis resolution, but also provides valuable content for scenario-based trainers. Phase I development of a limited prototype will provide a foundation for the complete implementation of Athena in Phase II and its commercialization.

ISX CORP.
760 Paseo Camarillo, Ste. 401
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 484-6100
Mr. Justin Donnelly
AF 04-113       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:J-DASP: JBI Dynamic Administration, Simulation and Policy
Abstract:ISX and its subcontractors, three researchers associated with the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), propose to design J-DASP, the JBI Dynamic Administration, Simulation and Policy toolkit. J-DASP will play a key role in enabling the Network Centric Warfare vision by enhancing existing Joint Battlespace Infosphere capabilities with an administration toolkit that will provide dynamic policy management, visualization of infosphere operations, and simulation of changes to the state of the infosphere. J-DASP policy will determine access control, prioritization of information flow, as well as parameters of the platform's persistence and caching mechanisms. Its simulation capabilities will allow administrators to predict the effects of changes to the platform from administrative actions, the introduction of new clients, or changes in client behavior. These capabilities will be based on mature research products and commercial tools, including IHMC's KAoS Domain and Policy Services, which have been used to provide dynamic policy management for a variety of software environments including the DARPA CoABS Grid and the DARPA ALP/UltraLog Cougaar agent framework, and the AFRL JBI v1.1 Platform Services. The maturity of these research results will allow to us produce immediate Phase I results and to provide a design for advanced Phase II capabilities.

STANFIELD SYSTEMS, INC.
718 Sutter Street, Suite 108
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 608-8006
Dr. Timothy M. Jacobs
AF 04-113       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Information Management Staff Toolkit
Abstract:Successful management of information is crucial to effective operation of the JBI. Unlike traditional management applications that focus on physical aspects of a network, the information management staff toolkit must manage information for the functional end user. This requires insight into which information is required for a particular function and how that information is collected and transformed as needed by the end user. To ensure critical information is delivered to decision makers in a timely manner, policies controlling delivery of and access to information must be defined and enforced. To assist in administering the JBI, we envision user configurable visual representations of management information that can be directly manipulated by information staff. Effective visualization will enable high-level overviews of system activity along with detailed views of specific information paths. Staff members can use these visual representations to monitor and reconfigure information delivery policies and transformation paths. To be effective, these visual representations must accurately depict current status of frequently changing information. This requires that appropriate information be collected in real-time to update the visual presentations. We plan to use collaborative agents that monitor information paths and synthesize relevant information from JBI infrastructure applications.

ARGON ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
12701 Fair Lakes Circle
Fairfax, VA 22033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 828-2250
Mr. Scott Mason
AF 04-114       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Physical Layer Information Assurance for Wireless Networks
Abstract:It is temping to leverage the tremendous power and rapid evolution of commercial wireless communications, although the vulnerability of this technology to intrusion, spoofing, and jamming remains a frustrating obstacle to their use in sensitive environments. Argon Engineering proposes to investigate augmentations and modifications applicable to these COTS products to provide improved information assurance, allowing these much-needed capabilities to reach the Military end-user while retaining low cost. Argon will draw upon our extensive background in SIGINT to develop RF fingerprinting techniques allowing the unique identification of each node in the wireless network. Active means of imprinting a distinctive RF and physical layer signature on client and access point hardware will further enhance user authentication. Previous research and knowledge on the subject of electronic warfare will be used to study physical layer changes aimed at addressing the threat of denial of service through jamming. Argon has embraced the software defined radio concept and will use this as the basis for eventual Phase II prototyping efforts. The reconfigurable approach will allow us to explore changes to the physical layer protocol through an all-software implementation. Such relatively low cost implementations ultimately allow for the broad deployment of integrated wireless network security, authentication, and anti-jam capabilities throughout the military as well as commercial enterprises.

FIDELITY COMTECH, INC.
5485 Conestoga Court, Suite 237
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 786-8048
Mr. Joseph M. Carey
AF 04-114       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Physical Layer Information Assurance for Wireless Networks using Phased Array Technology
Abstract:Commercial wireless local area networks provide the Air Force the opportunity to lower network infrastructure costs, while allowing the user increased mobility and flexibility. The key factor limiting deployments of these IEEE 802.11 standard based networks is security. In this Phase I project Fidelity Comtech is proposing an innovative physical layer solution that will integrate an IEEE 802.11 compliant access point with an extremely low-cost phased array. This competitively priced solution will limit the physical access to the wireless network.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 04-115       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:On-line Situation Awareness and Knowledge Acquisition (OSAKA)
Abstract:Recent military operations illustrate the importance of information dominance and the need to provide enhanced battlespace situation awareness (SA) to our warfighters. Enhanced battlespace situation awareness ensures our warfighters have the requisite information to enable timely and accurate decision-making. Advances in information and communications technologies have facilitated enhanced sensing and fusion of intelligence information, rapid processing, display, and visualization of information, and enhanced joint services and coalition communication, command, and control. The associated application and assimilation of these technologies provides a tremendous opportunity to enhance decision-making capabilities within Air Force Air Operation Centers (AOCs). Here, we propose a system for On-line Situation Awareness and Knowledge Acquisition (OSAKA). Our novel approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) SA models with an on-line model adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Model construction is supported via a cognitive task analysis based approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based SA models. On-line SA and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing Air Force AOC SA requirements and addressing future information dominated battlespace requirements.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5087
Dr. David Lee
AF 04-115       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Innovative Approaches to Fusion 2+
Abstract:Fusion 2+ as it relates to air-to-air engagements involves pressing real time constraints and very large amounts of imperfect data. Real-time data acquired under an air-to-air engagement will have different types of imperfection; two representative classes of imperfection are vagueness and ambiguity in the data. However, the current available approaches of Fusion 2+ are limited when utilizing vague data or ambiguous data. The challenge of this proposal is to explore the prototyping of a hybrid processing model that can formally process both vague (fuzzy) and ambiguous (probabilistic) data types. The challenge is to integrate heterogeneous data where the fuzzy domain is defined as "possibility" and the probabilistic domain is defined by traditional "probability". This research provides a hybrid model by exploring and adopting a transformation method between probability and possibility domains.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Mr. Mathew DePasquale
AF 04-117       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Coalition Shared Database Implementation
Abstract:Black River Systems Company, Inc. proposes to research, design and demonstrate a cost effective, bandwidth efficient information storage and dissemination system to provide a more robust awareness of the battlefield and fully exploit the capabilities of coalition systems. Targeted towards the CAESAR program, the system will facilitate interoperability between coalition data generating entities, exploitation stations, and command and control assets. Modern distributed data sharing networks, dissemination architectures, registered data formats, security techniques and generic software layer methodologies shall be investigated and selected for use in the creation of a software specification and implementation plan for transitioning towards Phase II. Specifically, the primary emphasis of Phase I will be to: (1) identify current shortcomings of data information sharing among NATO coalition systems, (2) investigate current technology products, concepts and methodologies which apply towards solving these issues, (3) design a system solution to exploit the full capabilities of these systems, and (4) demonstrate efficient information sharing within a controlled laboratory environment such as the AFRL Fusion Facility. The Phase I results will be leveraged towards the development of a Phase II prototype with sufficient maturity to be integrated into a future CAESAR exercise for validation and refinement.

TIA RESEARCH
800 Turnpike Street, Suite 300
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 686-0311
Dr. John J. Fox
AF 04-117       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Coalition Shared Database Implementation
Abstract:TIA Research will develop an approach for supporting the efficient storage, dissemination and retrieval of Ground Moving Target Indicator and Synthetic Aperture RADAR imagery within a distributed database. We will achieve this by a comprehensive research agenda that addresses the key elements of the problem: (1) the design of data structures for supporting efficient queries against data that representing rapidly moving points, (2) the design of a distributed database management system for efficiently managing the storage and retrieval of this data and (3) the development of a novel query mechanism for supporting spatio-temporal queries against this data. In all cases, the developed data structures and interfaces will adhere to the relevant commercial standards, such as XML. In Phase I, we will design and prototype tools demonstrating each of these capabilities. In Phase II, we will focus on maturing the resultant software components and, if desired, integrate the tools into the MTIx workstation.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Ms. Karen A. Harper
AF 04-119       Awarded: 26APR04
Title: JFACC Agent-based Mentoring System (JAMS)
Abstract:Recent military operations have clarified the benefits of a centralized aerospace control concept under the authority of the Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC). However, these potential benefits can be compromised by the sheer complexity of the JFACC's responsibilities, and the lack of available training resources to support effective performance. As a result, the JFACC is expected to learn largely "on the job". We believe that this on the job learning experience can be enhanced by an on-line, software-based mentoring environment, which monitors JFACC activities and provides "advice" to help him achieve his objectives. This mentor is not a typical decision aid - it does not provide specific guidance with respect to operational decision-making. Rather, it provides the JFACC with in-depth insight into his own business processes, allowing him to track current objectives, task status, and performance. We propose to develop a JFACC Agent-based Mentoring System (JAMS), comprised of three components: 1) a set of mentoring agents encoding the task space for JFACC operations; 2) a dynamic user model that estimates user state and adjusts the interactions between the user and mentoring agents; and 3) an intuitive human/system interface (HSI) supporting the JFACC's understanding of his current objectives, tasks, and performance.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. North
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 561-2010
Mr. William A. Ross
AF 04-119       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Learning in the Hot Seat: Mentoring Software to Support JFACC Command
Abstract:Centralized command and control of air assets has been a goal of many major military operations since the end of World War II. With the ever-increasing importance of air support in modern warfighting tactics, the commander of these assets (the JFACC) must be effective. This is a lofty goal, considering that formal training for this position is brief, and on-the-job training is often unmentored and relatively unstructured. The challenge is to provide a software tool that will mentor a novice JFACC and allow him or her to rise to the new challenges of this command. The same program should also support the command styles of more experienced, senior JFACCs. Klein Associates will leverage its experience with JFACCs and proven methodologies to extract the core decision-making skills in this domain of expertise, and use these to create the concept for an intelligent, flexible software advisor. Based on in-depth Cognitive Task Analysis interviews, a collection of heuristics and knowledge will be elicited. An appropriate architecture for the implementation of the mentoring system will be proposed, along with design recommendations for interface and usability, based on a decision-centered notion of operator support that has proven effective for high-level commanders.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. James B. McKeon
AF 04-120       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Automated Targeting for Precision-Guided Munitions in Flight
Abstract:Analysis and experimentation suggests that the Phase 1 goal, to develop an integrated process and systems architecture that automatically passes mensurated-targeting information to Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs) in flight, is feasible using existing systems. Our innovation builds upon related ALPHATECH weapon-target pairing (WTP) work successfully demonstrated at multiple Joint Expeditionary Force Experiments (JEFX). WTP employs many features relevant to PGM targeting including mensuration tool interface, Joint Effectiveness Munitions Manuals (JMEMs) data usage, time on target, fuel, and threat calculations. The primary WTP product, J9.0 command messages, is transmitted to execution authorities that divert designated assets to targets. We developed and demonstrated a WTP to Rapid Precision Targeting System (RPTS) interface. RPTS, with WTP information, created and forwarded target folders (including imagery and mensurated coordinates) to launch platforms in flight. Our innovation leverages our previous efforts and investigates direct interface processes for JMEM/Air-To-Surface Weaponeering System (JAWS), or Weapons Effects Analysis & Probability Software (WEAPS), or other front ends. We will investigate interface improvements to mensuration tools, Launch Acceptability Region (LAR) calculations, and formatted data generation and transmission for launch platforms and PGMs. The process establishes paths to automated generation and transmission of PGM pairings and consideration of different PGM options.

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
12530 Parklawn Drive, Suite 300
Rockville, MD 20852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-5258
Dr. Neil Beer
AF 04-120       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Technologies for Injecting Targeting and Re-targeting Data in Precision-Guided Weapons in Flight
Abstract:This research effort will investigate the feasibility of an automated end-to-end sensor-to-weapon environment, within which user-specified rules of engagement can evolve from today's manual targeting and weapon-target pairing processes to highly automated real/near real time `kill chain' operations, thus enabling automated generation and delivery of targeting and retargeting data from an operator/analyst workstation to a precision guided weapon in flight. The software process to establish this targeting capability will require the application of agent-based technology and the integration of (1) software tools developed to support time-critical targeting operations, the air tasking order generation and update process, and weaponeering (weapon effectiveness and damage assessments), and (2) "final mile" tactical digital communications links to specific weapons in flight.

SPATIAL DIGITAL SYSTEMS, INC.
23600 Telo Ave, Suite 118
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4433
Dr. Donald C. D. Chang
AF 04-121       Awarded: 12APR04
Title:RA-2 Over the Horizon (OTH) Communications for Small UAV's
Abstract:An enabling technology to accomplish OTH communications systems architectures for small UAV_s is identified. In addition two small-UAV based communications architectures are highlighted for theater applications. One utilizes multiple small UAV_s for disadvantage users with hand held terminals; the other is UAV-based communications systems with ground beam forming for ground mobile users with small directional antennas. SDS, with support from AOptix, proposes a tri-band solution that combines the best of all three communication technologies. This TRI-Band Universal-aperture Terminal (TRIBUTE) supports FSO, millimeter wave, and RF bands all in one robust and compact common-aperture package. In addition, it utilizes recent innovations at AOptix and SDS. AOptix FSO Terminals incorporate unique curvature-based Adaptive Optics (AO) optimized specifically for long distance atmospheric FSO. AOptix AO subsystems exhibit size, weight and power (SWaP) orders of magnitude lower than traditional AO systems, servo bandwidth high enough to mitigate atmospheric optical turbulence and scintillation effects, and packaging robustness suitable for battlefield use. SDS Digital Beam Forming (DBF) technology provides agile RF beam forming features that are not possible or practical with current phased array technology. The proposed enabling technology and two communications architectures will be evaluated in phase I study.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Geoff Meltzner
AF 04-122       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Development of a hybrid modified MELP/LPC-10e speech coder
Abstract:Low bit rate speech coding is vital for communication in today's military environments. Currently, the Link-16 waveform uses the LPC-10e speech coder to perform this task at 2.4 kbs. However, Link-16 speech communication can potentially be improved with an upgrade to the newer Mixed Excitation Linear Predictive (MELP) speech coder, which produces higher quality speech and was chosen as the new military standard 2.4 kbs speech coder. Taking advantage of MELP's capabilities requires upgrading the systems which use Link-16. However being a more complex speech coder, MELP may introduce unwanted computational delays in the system. Moreover, because not all communications equipment will be upgraded simultaneously, there remains a need to retain backwards compatibility with LPC-10e. ALPHATECH proposes to develop a modified hybrid MELP-LPC-10e speech coder/decoder that will implement MELP within Link-16 and retain backward compatibility with LPC-10e, even improving LPC-10e speech. This Phase-I effort will focus on: (1) modifying the MELP vocoder by simplifying or removing certain analysis steps to reduce computation time without affecting the speech quality, (2) developing a hybrid decoder that can seamlessly decode both encoding schemes, and (3) testing the new speech coder to ensure it meets the required Quality of Service (QoS) standards.

LUMIDIGM, INC.
800 Bradbury SE, Suite 213
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 272-7406
Dr. Robert Rowe
AF 04-123       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Study to Improve Finger Print Sensors with Liveness Detection
Abstract:For the past six (6) months, Lumidigm has conducted basic research on an anti-spoofing deep tissue sensor for detecting live tissue under a Research and Development Task Order through Unisys funded by the Department of Defense for Biometrics R&D support for NSA. This project is yielding a research prototype sensor which will be delivered by March 12, 2004 to NSA. The research prototype sensor will be used to test for biological skin substitutes, animal tissue, and thin films of material applied to living human skin that could be used for creating a false finger print,. Based on this basic research, Lumidigm is proposing to conduct a feasibility study to reduce the sensor size and determine how to tightly integrate it with a finger print touch sensor and/or finger swipe sensor. This study will also determine the limitations of commercially available fingerprint sensors, the potential characteristics needed to test for liveness simultaneously when a finger is place on the finger print sensor and will determine the size and functional requirements to create a prototype finger print anti-spoofing sensor to be built in a follow-on project.

WETSTONE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
17 Main Street, Suite 237
Cortland, NY 13045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 756-6086
Mr. Chester D. Hosmer, Jr.
AF 04-123       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Biometric Liveness Authentication Development Environment (BLADE)
Abstract:Our ability to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of biometric devices deployed in mission critical environments is of paramount importance. In order to rapidly develop and deploy new testing and validation methods we must create a development environment that combines a sophisticated set of software tools with a carefully crafted database of sample biometric templates (both legitimate and imposters). This database will be generated from a broad demographic base and be accessible via a plug and play interface of both legacy and state-of-the-art biometric devices. The BLADE provides a secure and extensible environment for the advancement and development of sophisticated methods and techniques for rapidly advancing the state-of-the-art in biometric liveness testing.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Zbigniew Sikorski
AF 04-124       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Bio-CAD Tools for DNA Computing
Abstract:Emerging interdisciplinary field of biomolecular computing explores new paradigms to perform calculations using molecules. Simulation/design tools are required for development of the molecular computing algorithms and its biophysical bio/nanotechnology implementation. In Phase I, CFDRC together with Prof. A. Macula will develop the Bio-CAD tools for this innovative field, starting from our commercial ACE+ software already successfully used for biotechnology problems. The ACE+ software has incorporated coupled multiphysics solvers and CAD capabilities including excellent geometry creation, visualization and GUI tools. New developments will include multiphysics model of hybrid bio-electronic DNA-silicon interface, model-based extraction of time constants for molecular computing processes: DNA transport, mixing, immobilization, hybridization, washout, PCR, new powerful method of DNA library generation, spatio-temporal model of dielectric properties of multicomponent DNA solution (for dielectric spectroscopy untagged electronic readout), physical model of ultrafast DNA hybridization using short (high-frequency) electric pulse. We will demonstrate the tools on the data mining problem of identification of maximal frequent sets and simulation of simple computing operations using nanoslot DNA-silicon interface. In Phase II, CFDRC with UC Berkeley will perform experimental demonstration of simple operations involved in DNA computing in DNA-silicon chip. CFDRC and Prof. A. Macula will develop compact models for system-level simulations.

EAGLE EYE, INC.
3112 Devon Rd
Durham, NC 27707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 493-7978
Dr. Scott Norton
AF 04-124       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:A DNA Taggant Watermarking System
Abstract:We address a key challenge in many military and commercial systems: the tracking of materials and/or documents, and the certification of their origin(watermarking). We use libraries of taggants composed of synthetic DNA, where: (i) the number of distinct taggants are scalable to the millions and more, (ii) the taggants are not easily detectable without certain secret information, but (iii) with this information only a few taggant molecules are required for detection. Our project team has PI Dr Scott Norton with prior extensive experience in metallic-optical taggants and Dr John Reif, with a prior small scale demonstration of our DNA barcode taggant system.

AVIATION SAFETY FACILITATORS CORP.
30 Amethyst Street, PO Box 498
Elmont, NY 11003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 282-7747
Mr. Fred Workley
AF 04-126       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Development of On-line Fuel Tank Oxygen Sensor for Aircraft
Abstract:Aviation Safety Facilitators Corp (ASF) will further the scientific results of a prior PhaseI SBIR using data accumulated from November 2002 to date. Said data includes information from Shock & Vibration Mil Std 810 enviromental test. Altitude & Temperature cycling ranges of -5o to+60C at various altitudes up to 45K feet in both FAA and ASF enviromental test chambers. This will help to greatly improve areas of concern focusing primarily on (i)improving existing electronics signal to noise precision to achieve a goal of +/- 1% accuracy (ii)investigate sensor signal discontinuity at temperatures below -20 up to -60C (iii)investigate long term stability of sensor in Jet fuel vapor and liquid, determine stability of sensor calibration, prediction of sensor drift in a 5 year period (iv)investigate calibration protocol for calibration coefficients in range of 0-25%Oxygen and -50 to +60C. The results of studies in this PhaseI will be used in PhaseII to finalize a developement of a flight worthy Fiber Optic Oxygen Sensor to be used with an Onboard Inerting System protecting Fuel Tanks from explosions caused by Ballistic, Lightning, MANPADS, Small Arms Fire and other Unknown Sources of Ignition.

INTERSPACE, INC.
7113 Copperwood Ct.
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 527-0606
Mr. Matthew Price
AF 04-126       Awarded: 09MAR04
Title:Development of On-line Fuel Tank Oxygen Sensor for Aircraft
Abstract:Aircraft fuel tank safety is a growing concern in light of several explosions of flammable vapors in center wing tanks. This danger is increasing due to the threat of ballistic impact to both military and civilian aircraft. To combat this safety issue, inerting systems are in development that pump nitrogen enriched air (NEA) into the fuel tank to purge oxygen content to safe levels. Critical to this system is a rugged, reliable oxygen sensor that can operate in an aircraft's fuel tank environment. InterSpace, Inc., proposes to develop a sensor based on the magnetic susceptibility of oxygen for this application. This sensor overcomes problems associated with optical sensors targeted for this use. Our sensor is inherently simple and can withstand the high vibration, temperature, and pressure extremes required for aircraft operation.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Brian Hennings
AF 04-126       Awarded: 09MAR04
Title:An Inexpensive, Absorption-Based Optical Oxygen Detector for Use in Aircraft Fuel Tanks
Abstract:To prevent unwanted fuel ignition and possible explosion, it is critical to maintain the oxygen content in the headspace of fuel tanks to concentrations in the 9 to 12 percent by volume. Existing real-time oxygen sensors either cannot withstand the harsh JP-8 liquid/vapor environment or the lower temperature extremes experienced by aircraft or are too expensive and too bulky. Lynntech proposes to develop an inexpensive, reliable, lightweight, absorption-based oxygen sensor to be used for the real-time detection of oxygen levels in the headspace of aircraft fuel tanks. The proposed sensor will operate at a wavelength where hydrocarbon vapors are transparent, will be compatible with the fuel and fuel vapors, will be easily flight qualified, and will not interfere with electrical or electronic devices. The proposed sensor also does not contain sensing polymers or electrolytes, which do not perform properly at low temperatures. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed sensor. Phase II will develop, demonstrate, and deliver a prototype oxygen detection system (fuel tank sensor and cockpit display) suitable for thorough field-testing and commercialization.

PHOTOSENSE LLC
1880 S Flatiron Ct Suite B
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-8349
Mr. Nathan T. Baltz
AF 04-126       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Unibody, zero maintenance, oxygen sensor for jet fuel environments
Abstract:PhotoSense, LLC proposes to design an oxygen measurement system for use in jet fuel tanks based on the selective quenching of the luminescence of certain dye molecules by oxygen. The system will require no wiring or optical paths inside the fuel tank, no heaters, will be lightweight, compact, and consume under 1 watt of power. Construction is entirely solid state, employing no liquids, valves or other moving parts. In order to calculate oxygen percentage from oxygen partial pressure, tank pressure and temperature will be measured. The unit can be constructed in a single, solid, molded package for high impact resistance, stability and ease of replacement. Each measurement includes a self-calibration to compensate for long-term drift in the electronics or optics and gives a 10 flight-year operational lifetime. The unit would require no maintenance or in-situ calibration. At the end of its life it would simply be replaced.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Richard T. Wainner
AF 04-126       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:On-Line Aircraft Fuel Tank Oxygen Sensor
Abstract:Military aircraft protect fuel tanks from explosion following ballistic impact by reducing the O2 content of the gases in the head space above the fuel, conventionally known as ullage, from typical ambient levels of 21% to about 9%. Reliable sensors are needed to monitor and control the ullage O2 under the widely variable aircraft operating conditions. To meet this need cost-effectively, Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to build on our previously installed F-18 sensor by adapting a 3 kg battery-powered near-infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) platform technology. With this optical technique, only passive materials contact the fuel. A few low-power intrinsically-safe opto-electronic components mount externally to the fuel tank. These components communicate electrically with a compact control unit, installed in the aircraft electronics stack, which provides outputs to the O2 control system and to a cockpit indicator. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of implementing the necessary innovations and the ability to measure O2 throughout the ranges of temperature and pressure associated with military aircraft flight envelopes. Phase II will result in a deliverable prototype.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4114
Dr. Robert Kovar
AF 04-127       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:High Temperature Camouflage Coating for 700 degF and 1200 degF Surfaces of Advanced Aircraft
Abstract:Traditional camouflage coatings contain low gloss pigments in polymer-based binder resins that degrade at temperatures above 250F and future Mach>3 aircraft surfaces may reach temperatures approaching 1200F. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a MIL-SPC-85285-compliant, dual use, high temperature camouflage coating (HTCC) system that comes in two different forms - a high temperature polymer-based HTCC for use on 700F aircraft surfaces and a self-healing, fusible, preceramic polymer-derived HTCC for use on 1200F surfaces. Thermally-stable camouflage pigments, capable of meeting FED-STD-595 color code, will be combined with high temperature resin and fusible glass binder precursor solutions to produce the HTCC coating solution for each use-temperature. These low viscosity precursor solutions will be spray-applied to the appropriate regions of the aircraft surface and then cured at elevated temperatures to form the HTCC. An engine run will be used to generate the appropriate temperature on each respective hot zone surface for coating cure. In Phase I, Foster-Miller will demonstrate performance and thermal stability for thermally stable camouflage pigments as well as the 700F and 1200F use temperature HTCCs. The Foster-Miller team includes a high temperature polymer resin supplier, a preceramic polymer and sol-gel glass expert and an aircraft company. (P-040158)

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. John Bulluck
AF 04-127       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Development of High-Temperature Aircraft Camouflage Coatings
Abstract:New thermally and visually stable camouflage coatings are needed for the C-17 and other aircraft programs. Over 75% of the hazardous wastes generated by the Air Force are directly related to the painting/depainting process. TRI/Austin proposes the development of unique preceramic coatings that will exceed the thermal stability requirements in the engine vicinity, providing camouflage for C-17, and other new aircraft. To accomplish this TRI/Austin will use a lucid experimental design approach to optimize the thermally stable camouflage coating compositions. We will characterize the performance on selected MIL-PRF-85285C and supplementary testing. These preceramic camouflage coating formulations will incorporate new resin materials and custom camouflage pigments. Only recently have these new preceramic resins become commercially available. Phase II will focus on further optimization of the new preceramic camouflage coating and product scale up, thorough field application studies, and laboratory testing. This will lead to early commercialization and military deployment during Phase III. These new high solids camouflage coatings will result in significant initial savings and life cycle supportability costs. Increased savings will be realized due to reduced waste, decreased production time, decreased labor expenses, and lower maintenance costs. Considerable savings can be also realized on other military and civilian aircraft.

ANAUTICS, INC.
One North Hudson, Suite 200-W
Oklahoma City, OK 73102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 228-4985
Mr. Joe McEndree
AF 04-128       Selected for Award
Title:Pilot Extraction Tool
Abstract:The air force is phasing out the F-15 a very successful fighter jet but in a constant pursuit of air supremacy the air force has invested in a new fighter that will take its place. The f-22 will replace the F-15, it has been designed to have more stealth capabilities and be quicker and more agile than its predecessor.

QUOIN INTERNATIONAL, INC.
1331 N. Inyo
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 446-4052
Mr. Michael D Jacobson
AF 04-128       Selected for Award
Title:Powered Ascender for Pilot Extraction
Abstract:The Air Force has identified a need for a system that provides improved firefighter and rescue personnel access to cockpits and speeds pilot extraction under ground emergency conditions. Emergency personnel must be able to open the canopy, accomplish engine shutdown, make the ejection system safe, and extract the pilot during ground emergencies. The proximity of engine inlets to the cockpit and the toughness of modern canopies prevent successful application of traditional approaches to pilot extraction. There is a significant risk of damage to high value-aircraft components and low-observable surface finishes during recurring live aircraft training involving simulated pilot extraction. The required system must be easily carried by one person, be fire resistant, and compatible with aircraft and high-value aircraft parts. The system must also be safe for fire or rescue personnel to use for emergency situations Quoin proposes to develop and demonstrate a fully-fieldable lightweight (approximately 6 pounds) powered ascender that will meet all requirements for safe pilot extraction from modern aircraft during a ground emergency without damaging sensitive finishes.

KEYSTONE SYNERGISTIC ENTERPRISES, INC.
1458 S. E. Ocean Lane
Port St. Lucie, FL 34983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(772) 283-3502
Mr. Bryant Walker
AF 04-129       Awarded: 19MAR04
Title:Direct Manufacturing of Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Diffuser Cases
Abstract:This phase I SBIR program will investigate the feasibility of direct manufacturing of nickel base IN 718 diffuser cases using unique metal deposition and machining approaches. A conceptual design and sub-element demonstration will be completed. Value Stream Analysis and process cost modeling will be conducted to confirm the anticipated cost and manufacturing cycle time reductions of 35% and 50%, respectively. A technology roadmap to develop the process to TRL 6 and a commerciallization plan will be completed.

OPTOMEC DESIGN CO.
3911 Singer NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 761-8250
Dr. Richard Grylls
AF 04-129       Awarded: 19MAR04
Title:Direct Manufacture of Diffuser Cases by Laser Deposition
Abstract:Optomec proposes to develop the capability to use the laser deposition process to provide an alternative for investment casting of advanced diffuser cases. Previous data suggests that laser deposition can be a viable manufacturing route for these components. We will develop the process parameters to deposit features of the diffuser case, and will demonstrate the ability of laser deposition to make the diffuser case with the required shape, properties and economics. Advanced features of Optomec's laser deposition process, including multi-axis deposition and closed-loop control, will be used to optimize geometry and microstructure. A cost model will be developed, and manufacturing plans established, such that a business case can be made to proceed to Phase II. The outcome will be an assessment of the process relative to casting, and an identification of methods to successfully develop and introduce the technology to the Air Force.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-4572
Mr. Wei Shih
AF 04-130       Awarded: 12MAR04
Title:CMC Material Optimization for Aircraft Brake Application
Abstract:Carbon-carbon (C-C) composites are the state-of-the-art friction material for aircraft brakes. Generally speaking, C-C brake offers low wear and provides excellent frictional performance at high energy conditions such as rejected take off (RTO). The use of C-C aircraft brakes adds safety, increases payload and reduces life cycle cost of aircraft operation. However, C-C begins to oxidize at 800 F. C-C brake also yields lower frictional coefficient and tends to vary widely under different environment and landing energy conditions. Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer an alternative to C-C composites. In specific, C-SiC has been demonstrated as a possible next-generation brake material. Although the brake performance data of C-SiC are very limited and often kept proprietary, there are enough evidences indicating C-SiC brake may ameliorate many deficiencies associated with their C-C counterpart providing reduced wear rate and improved volumetric heat capacity. Under this proposed effort, carefully selected C-SiC candidates will be fabricated using production-ready materials and processes. Experience gained in the past on optimizing C-C brake materials will be leveraged. Candidate materials will be tested on dynamometer under realistic conditions. Performance trends will be established and used for further optimization. Brake configuration will be analyzed and optimized under this proposed effort.

HYPER-THERM HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES, INC.
18411 Gothard Street, Unit B
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 375-4085
Dr. Robert J. Shinavski
AF 04-130       Awarded: 15MAR04
Title:Low Cost Boron Carbide Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Brake Friction Materials
Abstract:Boron carbide matrix composites have been demonstrated to have superior heat capacity as well as a desirable fricion coefficient for application as the friction material in next generation military and commercial aircraft brake systems. Improvements in thermal conductivity and reduction in fabrication costs have been identified as being critical needs for the utilization of these materials. The proposed Phase I program presents a significantly lower cost approach to fabricate carbon fiber-reinforced composites with a high boron carbide matrix fraction. The incorporation of a high conductivity carbon as the balance of the matrix will result in both enhanced thermal diffusivity and a lower cost material. The Phase I effort will evaluate the mechanical, thermal, and tribological properties of these hybrid matrix composites. Sub-scale dynamometer testing will be performed to obtain dynamic frictional characteristics and wear rates.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-9809
Dr. Triplicane A. Parthasarathy
AF 04-130       Awarded: 09MAR04
Title:Oxide-Oxide CMCs for Aircraft Brake Friction Materials
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate that oxide-oxide composites are the preferred material of choice for use as brake friction materials in aircrafts. We will demonstrate that oxide-oxide composites that are 90% dense can be fabricated at low cost and that this material has higher specific heat per unit volume and better balance of thermo-mechanical properties than other competing non-oxide materials. Further we will demonstrate that these materials perform satisfactorily as brake disks using sub-scale dynamometer tests with the help of an end-user as collaborator.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Charles L. Tennakoon
AF 04-131       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:A Novel Erosion Resistant Coating for High-Temperature Composites
Abstract:High-temperature polymer matrix composite (HTPMC) components for gas turbine engines have significant advantages over the currently used metal components, including weight savings, strength improvements, lower part counts, and reduced manufacturing costs. However, HTPMCs have a critical need for developing an improved metallic bond coat with a highly erosion resistant top coat before they can be widely used. Lynntech, Inc. proposes a novel process to deposit a functionally gradient metal matrix ceramic composite coating on a metallic bond coat followed by a surface modification process to produce a highly erosion resistant crack-free coating. Both coating and surface modification steps are suited for implementation on HTPMC surfaces. In Phase I, appropriate coating compositions will be determined by erosion resistance measurements conducted in an independent laboratory. The erosion test results will be submitted to the engine manufacturer supplying the HTPMCs; optimization work will be done with their consultation. The successful completion of this Phase I study will enable the coating process to be implemented on engine components to be tested by an already identified turbine engine manufacturer during a possible follow-on-Phase II project.

PLASMA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1754 Crenshaw blvd.
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3373
Dr. Satish Dixit
AF 04-131       Awarded: 17MAR04
Title:Erosion Resistant Plasma Spray Coatings for HTPMC Applications
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I Project objective is to develop an erosion resistant coating system on HTPMC (High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composite) substrates. HTPMC's have tremendous potential to reduce the weight and cost of military aircraft turbine engines if their durability in service environments can be demonstrated. High temperature and the impact of erosive particles combined with the presence of oxidizing environments pose severe operating conditions for aircraft turbine engines. Although prior research has shown that metallic or ceramic coatings prevent oxidation, there remains a need for erosion-resistant coatings that protect PMC's from high-velocity particulates in the engine flow path and are suitable for use in hot engine fan cases or second stage stator components with service temperatures of up to 600 - 650F. This research effort is to develop affordable coating systems (materials and processes) that are compatible with candidate HTPMCs.

APPLIED POLERAMIC, INC.
6166 Egret Court
Benicia, CA 94510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 747-6738
Dr. Brian Hayes
AF 04-132       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Innovative Resin for Non-Autoclave Resin Film Infusion Composites Repair
Abstract:Composite aircraft structures can be damaged and require field repair to make operable and safe for flight. Field repairs have typically been accomplished using two-part liquid resin systems or prepreg materials that require cold storage. These current technolgies are limited due to void formation in the composite, slow curing, and material cold storage requirements. An alternative resin film infusion (RFI)process can alleviate some of the problems associated with current repair materials. With the use of new and/or traditional cationic curing agents and innovative toughening mechanisms, fast cure speeds and ambient shelf-life in excess of two years can be realized without sacrificing composite performance. This novel technology as a system will provide the capability of using RFI effectively for repairing aircraft.

ROBERT STRATTON
865 Chestnut Lake Dr
Marietta, GA 30068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 579-0368
Mr. Robert Stratton
AF 04-132       Awarded: 17MAR04
Title:Encapsulated Resin for Non-Autoclave Resin Film Infusion Composites Repair
Abstract:A new process for repair of composites will be developed for BMI materials. This process will solve the problems associated with Film Infusion by allowing for air evacuation before cure. Material will stabilized so that it can be stored at room temperature for extended periods of time. The process will be suitable for both depot and field repairs. Testing will be completed to demonstrate that the properties of this repair laminate will be equal or nearly equal to that of standard BMI material.

GMA INDUSTRIES, INC.
20 Ridgely Avenue, Suite 301
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 267-6600
Dr. David Adebimpe
AF 04-133       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Luminescent Coating for Indicating Composite Impact Damage
Abstract:This proposal describes work in developing a luminescent coating for the passive monitoring of impact sites on composite airframe structures. Despite high strength to weight ratios, graphite fiber composite materials are susceptible to significant internal damage due to impact from runway debris, human carelessness, and bird strikes. Identification of these impact sites is vital to aircraft performance and lifetime. During Phase I, we will demonstrate a luminescent coating that will indicate impacted sites as well as the magnitude of the impact sustained. The result of impact is a change in the coating's emission properties, which can be detected through an imaging or spectroscopic system. Maintenance and inspection ground crew would easily be able to carry out this task. Phase II research will involve the development of a prototype system comprised of the coating, detection hardware, and processing software.

LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6145 Scherers Place
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 718-3000
Dr. David W. Sokol
AF 04-133       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Development of a Compact Laser for Damage Detection and the Laser Bond Inspection (LBI) Process
Abstract:To reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency, composites are being using in aircraft construction at an accelerating rate. The presence of material defects in these composite structures can lead to disastrous failure under flight loads. Many types of defective regions are undetectable by conventional NDI techniques such as ultrasonic probing. A revolutionary new inspection technology invented at Boeing and under development at LSP Technologies, Inc., offers a practical solution to locating composite damage/defect regions in laminate and laminate-adhesive bonds in aircraft structures. This inspection technique, known as Laser Bond Inspection (LBI), is a proof-testing method that applies a well-controlled dynamic stress to the composite structure, and senses the failure of weak laminate or weak adhesive bonds in response to the stress. The LBI process has been developed using a research laser device that is not optimized for the process. The innovative aspect of the proposed SBIR Phase I program is to develop an advanced laser device architecture configured specifically for the LBI application that will reduce both the size and cost of the presently used research design. This advancement is essential for rapid insertion of the LBI process into aircraft manufacturing plants operations and aircraft maintenance depots.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-4280
Dr. Martin Rogers
AF 04-133       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Impact Indicator Paint for Composites
Abstract:Luna Innovations proposes to develop impact indicator paint for use on graphite composites. Microencapsulants incorporated into the paint burst at an impact level capable of causing damage to the underlying composite and resulting in the generation of a colored mark. A color change in the composite coating alerts maintenance personnel to the potential damage and identifies a specific area for further detailed inspection to determine if repairs are needed. The marker can be designed to be visible to only aircraft maintenance personnel. The microencapsulants will be incorporated in a one component aqueous based flexible coating with good mechanical properties and adhesion to composites. A one component system will simplify coating applications, and an aqueous based system will greatly reduce the use of hazardous solvents and materials. The proposal addresses the Air Force's need to develop a graphite fiber composite damage detection method which improves rapidity and cost of post-damage inspections.

MESOSCRIBE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Long Island High Technology Incubator 25 E Loop Rd
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6455
Dr. Jeffrey Brogan
AF 04-133       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Passive Detection of Damage and Strain in Aerospace Composites
Abstract:MesoScribe Technologies proposes to apply a newly developed Direct Write conformal electronics fabrication technology to pattern sensor arrays directly onto composite aircraft structures with suitable polymer protective coatings. This will produce robust, well bonded, structurally sound and environmentally protected elements, which can sustain the harsh environments associated with aircraft operation. The passive sensor arrays can be distributed over the structure and interrogated by ground personnel to asses strain and cracking in fiber filled polymer composites. An additional embodiment of the technology will allow protecting/camouflaging the sensor elements within a coating, which can be either a paint appliqu or a high performance thermal sprayed liquid crystalline polymer coating. This will be achieved in a completely passive mode with little or no disturbance or impact to the airframe structure. The measurement will rely on all passive strain and damage detection using custom tunable RF elements and conductor patterns. The RF circuit can be applied conformally onto the aircraft structure, either in the field or at the depot level using portable tools and coupled with non-contact measurement concepts which will measure damage through frequency shifts. There will be no power or active electronics involved with the whole system which is made portable, easy to use and at low cost.

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS TESTING TECHNOLOGIES
2501 North Loop Drive, Suite 1610
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 296-5328
Mr. Yushi Sun
AF 04-134       Selected for Award
Title:Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) of Fastener Holes in Thick Multi-Layer Structure
Abstract:Innovative Materials Technologies, Inc. (IMTT) teaming Boeing West is proposing Flat Geometry Remote Field & Super Sensitive Eddy Current (FG RFEC & SSEC ) technique for inspection of fastener holes in thick multi-layer structures. To detect cracks in a multi-layer Ti-Al-Ti VAl structure with two thicknesses, 0.38"+2.0"+0.38"+0.65" and 0.9"+0.9"+0.9"+0.5", as described in the Topic AF04-134, is a big challenge to any exiting or emerging NDI techniques. Examples include: 1. Ultrasonic techniques (UT), including guided UT, are incapable of penetrating through air gaps between two adjacent layers without sealant. 2. Most eddy current techniques (ECT), including these emerging techniques, such as MOI, MWM, EC array, Rivet Check, etc., have inherently limitation in penetration depth from their working principle V the Skin Depth. They have little potential in further extending their penetration depths. 3. Super-conductive Quanta Interface Device (SQUID) can have deeper penetration with the help of super conducting materials working at extremely low temperature. However, the cooling system and the low temperature itself create problems, such as large size and weight, high cost, high noise, etc., which are not acceptable in practical aircraft NDI applications. Among all ECTs the FG RFEC & SSEC is the only one that its penetration depth is not limited by Skin-Depth, because the signal received by its receiving unit has penetrated through the object wall twice and carries clean signal about the wall conditions. Therefore, FG RFEC & SSEC is the most promising technique in reaching the goal set in this project topic description. Current FG RFEC & SSEC technique uses only about 0.4 watt for driving a probe and is capable of detecting flaws that are 0.8" below surface in multi-layer aluminum structures. There is not any question to increase the driving power to 10 or even 100 times and further extend its penetration depth many times. Replacing the currently used coil sensor with a magnetic sensor, such as GMR, would make more increase in the sensitivity of the FG RFEC & SSEC technique. In this project IMTT will be responsible for the development of the proposed technique, while Boeing West will provide guidance, the NDI experiences working with B1-B airplane, tests specimens and validation of the technology development. The Phase I objective is to prove the potential and feasibility of the proposed technique in detecting cracks deeply hidden in thick and multi-layer structures described in Topic Description. Two approaches, numerical simulation and experimental test, will be conducted in parallel. By the end of Phase I a presentation/demonstration will be performed to show the simulation and experimental test results on specimens provided by AFRL/Project Sponsor. Mr. Sun, Yushi, President of IMTT and Principal Investigator, has more than 18 years experiences in R&D of FG RFEC & SSEC technique, as well as in finite element modeling of electromagnetic NDI phenomena. He is an active and Founder Member of International Computation Electromagnetics Society, COMPUMAG and was a Session Chair and a member of the Editorial Board for a number of international conferences in computational electromagnetics and electromagnetic NDI. Dr. Masood A. Zaidi from NDE Materials and Processing Technology, Boeing West at Long Beach, CA, will be the Co-Principal Investigator.

POSITRON SYSTEMS, INC.
6151 N. Discovery Way
Boise, ID 83713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 520-6269
Mr. Doug Akers
AF 04-134       Awarded: 05MAR04
Title:Nondestructive Taper-Lok Fastener Hole Inspection Without Fastener Removal for Thick, Multi-Layer Structures
Abstract:The ability to detect cracks within Taper-Lok fastener holes associated with thick, multi-layer wing structures without removing the fastener presents significant challenges to existing nondestructive inspection technologies. Critical fastener hole inspections for sections of the B-1B wing structures require removal of the Taper-Lok fasteners followed by eddy current inspection, at a cost projected at $1 million per aircraft. These widely-deployed aircraft have been facing unanticipated near-term fatigue inspections of flight critical areas on the wings and wing carry through locations due to extensive operations beyond predicted. A new, advanced Nondestructive Inspection technology, Photon Induced Positron Annihilation (PIPA) has demonstrated the capability for thick, multi-layer damage detection and could enable rapid, low-cost inspection of B-1B wing structures without removal of the Taper-Loks, limiting risk to the aircraft structure. PIPA is capable of multi-layer analysis and measurement of fatigue, pre-cracking, and micro-cracks in metal alloys at a much earlier stage and with far better accuracy than any other technology, and can perform in-situ measurements on otherwise inaccessible structures, such as the multi-layer B-1B wing configuration. The basis for this project is to validate Positron Systems' new material inspection technology to detect operational fatigue damage in representative B-1B wing splice configurations.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
26 Castilian Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
AF 04-135       Awarded: 05MAR04
Title:Lean Techniques for Project Management in the Acquisition Environment
Abstract:With pressure to shorten acquisition cycles, provide more capability, and reduce costs, the DoD has initiated acquisition reforms, which in part focus on reducing acquisition cycle times. Managers involved in acquisition processes are routinely estimating project task completion dates. In large projects, the uncertainty of these estimates, various customer constraints, and resource limitations can combine and lead to unrealistic predictions. "Lean" concepts adapted from the manufacturing environment, such as Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) from the Theory of Constraints, are simple concepts that can be effectively applied to the way work is scheduled rather than performed and significant reductions in cycle times may be achieved The use of simulation models can help verify the benefits of these innovative management techniques. Ensuring managers understand the benefit of these techniques is a difficult issue. This effort will focus on establishing low-cost educational modules, including a simulation capability for creating effective scenarios, which can be made available to managers throughout the Government and Industry acquisition community. FTI has an extensive relationship with industry and experience developing acquisition tools for the DoD, which involves cost, utility, risk and scheduling. This experience base makes FTI uniquely qualified to conduct and commercialize the proposed research.

ROBUST DECISIONS, INC.
1655 Hillcrest Dr.
Corvallis, OR 97330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 754-3609
Dr. David G. Ullman
AF 04-135       Awarded: 05MAR04
Title:Lean Techniques for Project Management in the Acquisition Environment
Abstract:The objective of the proposed work is to develop Lean Project Management (LPM) training material beneficial to government program management and procurement professionals. LPM is the synthesis of traditional Lean techniques enhanced by Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM), and both supported by recent developments in Uncertainty/Decision Management. Recent work by the Robust Decisions Inc. has focused on how to manage uncertain information and monitor risk when making decisions critical to CCPM and Lean success. The proposed work first identifies the factors that underlie LPM through literature search and questionnaires. The goal is to develop a uniform set of success measures that, when combined with a Current Reality Tree (CRT), describes the acquisition environment in terms of the behaviors necessary to achieve reduced project cost and development time. Next, the tools needed to bring lean techniques to acquisition training will be specified. Project simulation and uncertainty/decision management support tools are available to the RDI and subcontractor. Based on all of the above, the specifications for an LPM training program will be developed. This training will have modules tailored for both the executive/general audience, to gain their commitment, and application courses for project management/supervisors and planning/scheduling teams.

ACTON MATERIALS, INC.
1331 Upland, Building 2
Houston, TX 77043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 463-6400
Mr. Eric Bauer
AF 04-136       Selected for Award
Title:Waste Disposal/Waste Management System for Low Observable (LO) Composite Materials
Abstract:Since the feedstocks used to make LO materials are themselves the products of chemical reactions, they're susceptible to decomposition or further chemical reactions, for convesion to either - Recyclable feedstock for LO manufacture or - Beneficial use in other products by destroying their LO characteristic, masking their original composition and eliminating the listed or characteristic constituents that make them susceptible to LDR regulation. ACTON Materials proposes a novel high-temperature gas-solids reactor, the mechanically fluidized vacuum (MFV) system, as an effective means for converting large volumes of LO waste to non-identifiable, non-hazardous, commercial equivalent material or non-restricted disposable waste. The reactor, currently used to formulate RAM filler material, is a general-purpose system for controlling high-temperature reactions used to manufacture advanced materials. It is the first system to independently and simultaneously control all process parameters in gas-solids reaction. The reactor capabilities have been proven across a broad range of manufacturing applications. Phase I investigation will determine its feasibility for waste processing by converting a high-priority waste to a metal carbide or oxide suitable for commercial sale. The reactor operates within the definitions of EPA regulation 40CFR 261.2.e.1.i and ii, and 40CFR261.3.c.3, which remove the reactor feedstock (e.g., LO material) from LDR oversight.

PENDULUM ELECTROMAGNETICS, INC.
6304-E Westgate Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 272-1279
Mr. Thomas A. Hunter
AF 04-136       Selected for Award
Title:Pyrolysis process for disposal and recycling of scrap LO composites
Abstract:The disposal of low observable composite (LOC) wastes generated during the production and maintenence of Air Force aircraft is made difficult because LOC wastes contain potentially classified information about the LOC materials, formulations, and/or low observable properties. This prevents the ready disposal of these wastes by normal means of solid waste disposal, such as landfilling. This proposal will investigate a novel pyrolysis process for destroying the classified value of LOCs. The solid pyrolysis products from this process should be suitable for solid waste disposal or possible recycling/reuse. If this process is proven feasible at the bench scale, a prototype processing machine will be constructed and tested during Phase 2 of this project.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Matthew C. Everhart
AF 04-137       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Reusable Shape Memory Polymer (SMP) Mandrels
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group proposes a novel reusable mandrel system utilizing shape memory polymer (SMP). This technology leverages CRG's previous R&D from both commercial and governmental programs. In Phase I, CRG will develop a lab-scale prototype SMP mandrel system. The SMP mandrel will offer the Air Force a solution to the current composite fabrication and repair issues. Our goal is to provide a single mandrel system design that will allow quick transition to multiple desired mandrel shapes, maintain structural rigidity through filament-winding conditions, and then offer a simple and rapid extraction process. The proposed mandrel system would function similarly to a rubber inflatable mandrel during insertion and removal, however would offer structural rigidity like current melt-out and breakout systems during fabrication. This type of mandrel system can only be offered by using a material capable of sharp, controllable, transitioning properties. CRG's shape memory materials possess these unique property traits. CRG will begin to develop designs and calculate the forces the tooling will experience during the composite fabrication at a lab-scale to demonstrate feasibility for Phase II scale-up. The part will contain design aspects that will demonstrate the SMP mandrel system capabilities.

PRECISION DESIGN, INC.
P.O. Box 2064
Weatherford, OK 73096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(580) 772-2140
Mr. William Craig Easter
AF 04-137       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Reusable Internal Mandrels For Composites Repair or Fabrication
Abstract:R4 (Rapid, Reusable, Repeatable, Removable) tooling system. In this project a method of making and using a reusable mandrel, which can be made rigid for use as a tool for formation of the internal surfaces of composite parts, will be developed. This closed system makes it environmentally safe and eliminates cure times. In this project the intension is to provide a reusable mandrel for forming internally-sized parts, such as ducting, that can be made at a reasonable cost, can be reused many times, is quick to reset, produces higher quality composite material products, and produces no waste product for disposal. This system may be adapted for use with existing systems and has the potential to increase production and produce an improved working environment.

SURFX TECHNOLOGIES LLC
3617 Hayden Avenue
Culver City, CA 90232
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 558-0770
Dr. Steven E. Babayan
AF 04-138       Awarded: 17MAR04
Title:Environmentally Friendly, On-Aircraft Repair of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Thermoplastic Components
Abstract:An environmentally friendly, on-aircraft repair process for poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) composite materials is proposed. This process takes advantage of a new atmospheric pressure plasma technology for activating the PEEK surface prior to bonding. The plasma is generated in a rugged handheld device that is easily deployed in the field, and can treat any object, regardless of size and shape. Preliminary tests of this device in the presence of combustible gases have shown that it should not pose a flammability risk. Furthermore, no hazardous chemicals are used in this process. Research on surface treatment and bonding will be conducted in collaboration with the Center for Composite Materials at the University of Delaware. The mechanical strength and durability of the bonds will be assessed using standard lap shear, fatigue and wedge tests. It is expected that this new process will meet Air Force specifications for lap-shear strengths exceeding 6000 psig at 70 F. The plasma will be rigorously tested in simulated aircraft environments, to prove it does not present a fire or safety hazard. This project represents a significant opportunity for the Air Force to commercialize a low-cost, environmentally friendly and field deployable technology for repairing PEEK parts on fighter aircraft.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. J.S. Thornton/Mr. R. Rushing
AF 04-138       Awarded: 17MAR04
Title:Improved Processes for Joining of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Thermoplastic Components
Abstract:A new chemical surface treatment is proposed that will prepare the surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) components for traditional structural adhesive bonding. This low viscosity treatment is easily applied to the adherend in an ultra-thin layer, cures quickly, and is adaptable to a field repair scenario. In-house studies of this material resulted in cohesive failure of a lap shear bond between PEEK/carbon composite test coupons. This data supports the observation that the adhesive bond of the surface treatment to the PEEK/carbon composite surpasses the strength of the adhesive. The surface treatment is free of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and will be an environmentally-friendly alternative to other more aggressive surface treatments such as chromic acid etching. The Phase I effort will be devoted to progressing the development of this surface treatment and testing its ability to bond IM7/APC-2 composite material. Mechanical testing will include wedge test adhesion analysis, lap shear adhesion testing, and environmental durability analysis using standard adhesion test methods such as ASTM D1002. TRI/Austin will be teaming with a leading aircraft repair training facility during the Phase I effort in order to utilize their expertise of the necessary requirements for Air Force field repair.

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
455 N. Jackson Ave.
University City, MO 63130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 878-8327
Mr. William T. Fujimoto
AF 04-139       Awarded: 09MAR04
Title:Improved Technology for Cold-working of High Strength Al Alloys
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop and validate an improved technology base for the cold-working of high strength aluminum alloys. The improved technology base consists of the following three legs: 1. A test-validated CAD/CAM tool for performing virtual cold-working and for virtual fatigue testing. 2. An improved design mandrel to achieve the full life improvement potential of cold-working. 3. Industry implementation via strategic partnering. The CAD/CAM tool for performing virtual cold-working and virtual fatigue testing will allow models of complex multi-layer joints and control system components to be constructed using drag-and-drop modeling. It will be useful for manufacturing process development by graphically portraying the stresses and strains induced during the mandrel pull-through process, as well as the residual stresses. With such a tool, premature shear or tearing failures during mandrel pull-through in high strength anisotropic alloys or in members with shy e/D can be avoided. The CAD/CAM tool will also be useful as a general design tool for lean manufacturing environments by helping to establish, via analytical simulations, the optimal interference level and the tolerance band for maximizing the fatigue life of the joint while preventing premature failures.

STRESSWAVE
12932 SE Kent-Kangley Road, #528
Kent, WA 98030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 395-1011
Mr. Eric Easterbrook
AF 04-139       Awarded: 12MAR04
Title:Fatigue Life Enhancement of Fastener Holes Manufactured from High-Strength Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:Split sleeve cold working has been used for many years to enhance fatigue and crack growth life of holes. Holes cold worked in high strength aluminum alloys such as 7050 and 2297, however, have shown a tendency to crack in the short transverse grain direction, as reported by Burt and Minarecioglu. They showed that these cracks are the result of exceeding the alloy's ultimate shear strength, and that reducing the amount of applied expansion is not sufficient, in all cases, to eliminate these cracks. This investigation will use 3D post-yield finite element models to characterize and understand the mechanisms that cause these "static shear fractures" in 7050 and 2297 aluminum. The models contain all aspects of the split sleeve cold working method, including the sleeve, the sleeve split, and segmented nosecap. OEM experience and StressWave's preliminary investigation have demonstrated that elimination of SSF's will be problematic, however, if not impossible using split sleeve cold working, and a new technique will be required in order to achieve the desired benefit. A new process has produced comparable fatigue and crack growth performance to the split sleeve method in conventional aerospace alloys. Process mechanics are different than the legacy methods and can be tailored to mitigate SSF's. Testing by Boeing, Alcoa, and others have verified effectiveness.

WEST COAST INDUSTRIES
14900 Whitman Avenue North
Seattle, WA 98133
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 365-7513
Mr. Anthony Leon
AF 04-139       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Fatigue Life Enhancement of Fastener Holes Manufactured from High-Strength Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:The split-sleeve process is a standard life enhancement procedure. Advances in material science are producing new materials (e.g., 7050 and 2297) that are replacing legacy alloys (2024 and 7075). However, coldwork technology has not kept up with material advances. Coldworking the new aluminum alloys, particularly in the short-transverse grain orientation, with the split-sleeve process creates cracks at holes. The split-mandrel process is a simpler, faster, more cost effective coldworking process. Process tooling and life-enhancement results are similar to those of the split-sleeve process. More important, the process is currently being used to successfully coldwork 7050 and similar alloys, in the short-transverse orientation. Similar behavior to split-sleeve coldworking between the two materials indicates that split-mandrel coldworking should effectively coldwork 2297 and other high strength aluminum alloys. West Coast Industries proposes the first comprehensive process characterization of the split-mandrel process. During Phase I, Air Force and industry expectations will be determined, process parameters will be developed, a large quantity of holes will be coldworked and examined for the presence of holes, and modifications for computer models will be developed to differentiate between the two coldworking processes.

KEYSTONE SYNERGISTIC ENTERPRISES, INC.
1458 S. E. Ocean Lane
Port St. Lucie, FL 34983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(772) 878-1701
Mr. Raymond M. Walker
AF 04-140       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Enabling Materials Processing Technology for Low-Cost Fabrication of Integral Bladed Rotors (IBR)
Abstract:The cost of manufacturing integrally bladed rotors for large gas turbine engines is high driven by the cost of raw material, rough machining, and airfoil machining. This project will address these cost drivers by identifying methods to reduce forging weight through aggressive near-net shape forging methods, exploiting the use of fine-grain processing to improve forgeability, and demonstrate enhancements to electrochemical machining of airfoils to eliminate hand finishing operations. These improvements will be applicable to large and small engine IBRs.

THIRD WAVE SYSTEMS, INC.
7900 West 78th St., Suite 250
Minneapolis, MN 55439
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 832-5515
Dr. Troy Marusich
AF 04-140       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Enabling Materials Processing Technology for Low-Cost Fabrication of Integral Bladed Rotors (IBR)
Abstract:IBR manufacturing is an essential part of gas turbine fabrication for modern fighter aircraft, yet remains a significant cost component. Stringent dimensional (distortional) tolerance and surface finish requirements necessitate the need for precision manufacturing. Currently, F-135 and F-119 IBRs are initially forged from bar stock titanium or nickel alloy, ultrasonically inspected, rough machined and subsequently electro-chemically machined (ECM). The ECM process is chosen since it allows machining of complex features. However, the process itself is expensive due to significant amounts of material removal and surface finish requirements, driving per-part processing times to 40-50 hours or more. In Phase I of this project we will demonstrate innovative forging and high speed machining (HSM) technologies the Air Force needs which enable affordable fabrication of IBRs resulting in a 35-50% cost reduction. Teaming with Pratt and Whitney and Ladish, and our experience in successfully implementing innovative metal manufacturing techniques ensures the success of our program. We will assess the feasibility of our innovative and proven physics-based predictive modeling approach to ultimately combine near-net shape forging and HSM technologies with fine-grained materials and low noise titanium to reduce raw material consumption, cycle times, and reduce or eliminate ECM.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mrs. Michael J. Roemer
AF 04-141       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Intelligent Damage Identification and Prognosis for Composite Structures
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) and GE Aircraft Engines, propose to develop a practical yet innovative damage identification and prognosis system for composite structures that uses an optimized suite of reliable COTS sensors/actuators coupled with advanced damage detection and modeling algorithms. Robust and low-cost sensing systems such as piezoelectric devices, acoustic emission sensors, inherent resistivity measurements, and strain-based sensors will be assessed and down-selected to provide comprehensive insight into the structure's observed health state. Next, the measurements will be complemented with both micro- and macro-scale structural models to both provide virtual measurements for critical locations not directly measured and to represent the baseline health state of the structure to be used in the fault detection and isolation process. The proposed modeling methodology will also be augmented using adaptive model updating techniques that will use the available (or virtually sensed) measurements on the structure to continually assess the current damage state and predict future damage based on historical loading profiles. Specifically, model-based data fusion and an extended Kalman filter are proposed to continually update the FE and composite models so that the currently identified model parameters (potentially damaged) can be assessed against the healthy baseline model. Advanced statistical and neural network classifiers will be used to determine damage type, location and severity. A Phase I demonstration is planned that utilizes an integrated sensor suite and model-based structural health monitoring (SHM) process to detect, isolate and predict damage in a realistic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminate.

ARCOMAC SURFACE ENGINEERING, LLC
6575 Butler Creek Road
Missoula, MT 59808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 522-7620
Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky
AF 04-142       Awarded: 12MAR04
Title:Robust Bearings and Gears
Abstract:Critical gears and engine bearings in our newest vertical thrust aircraft must operate with absolute reliability under high loads, high heat, corrosive salt air and intervals without any lubricant whatever. Current materials and coatings that meet some of these conditions fail when subjected to the others. Now a breakthrough in surface engineering technology can precisely control deposition of coatings at the level of vaporized atoms. It can deposit an atomically bonded, multiple layered, integrated coating combining different metal and ceramic materials, each with a different desired property. Engine parts with the multiplex coating that will be perfected and rigorously tested in this program will be durable and reliable under all of their extreme operating conditions. There is an enormous opportunity for future application to a wide range of military and civilian mechanical components that operate in severe, corrosive environments.

ENGINEERED COATINGS, INC.
P.O. Box 4702
Parker, CO 80134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 593-0588
Mr. Norman Nicholas
AF 04-142       Awarded: 12MAR04
Title:Demonstration of Graded Nanocomposite Coatings For Robust Gears and Bearings
Abstract:The Air Force requires technologies that will improve the performance and lifetime of emerging bearing and gear materials used in complex jet-engine nozzle and lift/vectoring components. Stringent operating requirements indicate these alloys may degrade from PFPAE lubricant fouling, require surface strengthening, and require an improvement in high-temperature friction/wear resistance. The team of Engineered Coatings, Inc., CSM/CSU, and lubricant formulator DuPont propose to demonstrate a multifunctional thin-film coating for advanced gear/bearing steels. We propose to investigate: 1) amorphous nanocomposite SiC/Ni coatings, which should offer good corrosion resistance to PFPAE and chloride salt-fog and demonstrated durability to high contact stress and 2) either SiC or TiC / a-C:H nanocomposite coating which has been demonstrated by ECI to provide excellent toughness and dry-sliding wear resistance through a graded coating architecture. Coated coupons will be screened in PFPAE oil at elevated temperature to establish corrosion resistance. Standard tests will include scratch, indentation, friction/wear and RCF in PFPAE fluid to establish tribological performance under simulated operating conditions. A gear section will be coated to demonstrate tooth root coverage from an unbalanced magnetron source for the metal species in the background gases. Hohman Plating will serve as our larger coating vendor with established quality control/assurance programs.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Steven C. Arzberger
AF 04-143       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Shape Recovery Polymer Nanocomposites
Abstract:In Phase I, we will identify baseline PNC capabilities and fabricate promising shape recovery PNCs. We will evaluate shape recovery performance, force exerted, energy recovery efficiency, strain recovery, actuation energy, operating temperature range, and reproducibility. We will also explore novel actuation mechanisms. In Phase II, the effort will be expanded to include manufacturing of shape memory PNCs in various forms, such as foams, monoliths, films, and fibers. Phase II will also include demonstration of a PNC material in a structural component.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Dr. Tat H. Tong
AF 04-143       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Hierarchical Shape Recovery Polymer Nanocomposites (PNCs) for Next Generation Aerosystem Applications
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. proposes to develop hierarchical shape memory (recovery) polymer (SMP) nanocomposite material technologies and demonstrate their performance enhancement in terms of efficiency of energy recovery, extent of strain recovery, energy budget (power) necessary for actuation, temperature range of operation, and reproducibility upon deformation cycling. In addition, novel triggering mechanisms of actuation beyond direct thermal heating will also be explored. This program will design and experimentally characterize multiple candidate formulations to develop SMP nanocomposites. It will establish correlation between material formulations and processing conditions with performance and demonstrate feasibility of employing nanoparticles to enhance the performance of shape memory (recovery) polymers. The proposed SMP nanocomposites provide the means to enhance performance of current SMP and enable alternative triggering mechanisms for actuation. This suite of new material technologies will address the drawbacks of current shape recovery materials.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Kathy Wojtas
AF 04-145       Awarded: 09MAR04
Title:Environmentally Friendly Luciferase-based Illumination Technology
Abstract:Current technologies for marking of landing zones as well as areas for search and rescue have significant drawbacks ranging from the additional weight of batteries for some systems to plastic and metallic debris left behind. There are clear advantages both operationally and environmentally to utilizing bioluminescent materials that can be lighter and do not leave behind non-biodegradable debris. In this Phase I, Agave BioSystems proposes to demonstrate the use of bioluminescent technology in biodegradable packaging as a stable, easy to use and effective illumination system to replace current chemical and electrical systems. To accomplish this, we propose to genetically manipulate yeast so it is capable of producing luciferase, the enzyme that is produced by fireflies, and package the yeast in a stable form. The yeast can then be "activated" and luciferin (the substrate for luciferase) added to them, with the subsequent production of light to mark the desired area.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4173
Dr. Suneet Chadha
AF 04-145       Awarded: 11MAR04
Title:Engineered Material Systems for BioLume Development
Abstract:Bioluminescent organisms possess their unique properties of photon emission entirely from intrinsic molecular energetics. These bioluminescent reactions offer biomimetic pathways for designing materials that chemically generate luminescence, and may be engineered to provide efficient and transient light for various applications envisioned for Search and Rescue operations. The potential also exists for light sources made entirely from biodegradable materials. Foster-Miller proposes to develop a generic system of materials that exploits the properties of bioluminescence, and can be formatted to a range of applications with the bioluminescence emission controlled through engineered protocols. The proposed work will develop innovative ways of stabilizing the components required for the phenomenon of bioluminescence through application of the methods and rigor of materials science. Phase I of the proposed work will involve synthesis of the first set of materials containing intrinsic bioluminescence, and demonstration of luminescence upon demand. Successful development will enable materials that offer low power and low polluting luminescence, that could ultimately be integrated into numerous applications requiring transient, dedicated lighting. (P-040173)

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Melanie Tomczak
AF 04-145       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Biologically Inspired Luminescent Technology
Abstract:Technologies for security marking and anti-tamper devices are effective, however current devices leave behind evidence that Air Force personnel were in a specific zone and can add a considerable weight to the load carried by Air Force personnel. Taking inspiration from nature, we propose a biodegradable marking and anti-tamper device that utilizes firefly luciferase and its natural substrate, luciferin, to emit light through bioluminescence. Luciferase and luciferin will be physically separated in a light weight, biodegradable matrix and will luminesce only after proper activation.

FRACTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
200 9th Avenue North, Suite 100
Safety Harbor, FL 34695
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 723-3006
Dr. Ozlem Yavuz
AF 04-146       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Biomaterial-based IR Detection
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop lightweight, low-cost and environmentally friendly biologically inspired thermal detection technology for military and commercial applications. To meet such requirements with biologically inspired molecules, we plan to develop and show with a materials perspective, how these materials can sense thermal/infrared (IR) radiation to be used and produced in uncooled imaging systems. Fractal Systems, Inc. proposes to investigate the usefulness of a carotenoid-crustacyanin, which exists in nature to use for uncooled IR detectors through their dehydration and rehydration processes. Thin films of the material will be fabricated using the self-assembly technique, which is very simple, and cheap compared to techniques currently used for conventional materials such as chemical vapor deposition, pulsed laser deposition or laser induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. The biomaterial films will be fully characterized to demonstrate their effectiveness as IR sensing materials. Upon successful conclusion of the Phase I feasibility program, Fractal Systems Inc. plans to take this effort further in Phase II with incorporation of the material into IR microbolometers. The qualification procedure will take place once we have completed the characterization effort and demonstrated that the developed design can be effective for uncooled infrared imaging.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Sys Div, 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Michael Reznikov
AF 04-146       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Thermoelectric Ionic Detector
Abstract:Current thermal detectors (TDs) based on solid-state technology are costly and brittle, and require extraordinary materials and processes to manufacture. To overcome these problems and to address the Air Force need for a low-cost, bio-inspired thermal detector, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Thermoelectric Ionic Detector (TEID). This proposed device is based on the heat-sensitive ion conductivity of polymer-electrolyte composites. The TEID flexible polymer structure can be fabricated without vacuum, ionic implantation, or photolithography, in contrast to current solid-state devices. The combination of POC's proprietary thermal embossing to produce the microprofiled polymer film encapsulated electrolyte will make TEID manufacturing inexpensive. The absorbing layer can be deposited by silk screening, followed by galvanic fabrication of electrodes. The TEID will be a low-cost and lightweight flexible thermal detector with potentially high sensitivity. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the TEID approach by fabricating and testing a preliminary prototype. In Phase II POC will develop a preproduction prototype to demonstrate TEID performance with high sensitivity, environmental stability, and excellent power budget.

ATEC, INC.
387 Technology Drive
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 403-1744
Dr. John Lawler
AF 04-147       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Heat Flux-Based Calorimeter for Active Thermal Coatings
Abstract:We propose to develop a calorimeter for accurately measuring the performance of active thermal control materials that can be easily deployed on spacecraft and satellites. Our calorimeter will be based on thin film heat flux gauges, which measure heat flux by determining the temperature difference across a thermally insulating film. The temperature on each side of the film is measured via an array of thin film conductors. These conductors can be accurately deposited in a complex pattern, so a large number of individual heat flux sensors can be incorporated in a small area. This technique provides a direct measure of the heat flowing through the surface, so the performances of the thermal control materials mounted on these sensors are obtained directly. The low thermal capacitance of these heat flux sensors will provide good temporal resolution of the heat flux. The small size of the sensors will allow the necessary spatial resolution to resolve the performance of several different coatings or active thermal control materials on one of our calorimeters. The ability to test multiple samples will allow the testing of multiple samples of the same device or the monitoring for spatial variations across a single thermal device.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Prakash B. Joshi
AF 04-147       Awarded: 09MAR04
Title:Active Calorimetry Development for Testing of Active Thermal Control Coatings and Devices
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a calorimeter designed specifically for accurately measuring the solar absorbance (alpha) to long wavelength infrared emittance (epsilon) ratio, alpha/epsilon, of spacecraft thermal control coatings that can actively and controllably change their alpha or epsilon in response to the thermal environment. Additionally, we propose approaches to determine absolute values of alpha and epsilon on orbit. The unique feature of our calorimeter is that it is autonomous, incorporating its own processing and control electronics, which is highly miniaturized and integral with the sensor itself. The unit is lightweight (~ 150 g), compact (~ < 5 cm diameter x ~ < 5 cm long), low power (~ < 100 mW without heater, ~ < 500 mW with heater), and provides real-time measurements and digital output to the spacecraft data system. It requires a small mounting area (~ < 5 cm^2), can be readily distributed over the spacecraft, and can be easily integrated, requiring only a digital communications line and regulated power. In Phase I we will design, fabricate, and calibrate a proof-of-concept calorimeter, and also develop proof-of-concept breadboard electronics and determine the required miniaturization level. In Phase II we will develop prototype calorimeters with integral miniaturized electronics.

INVOCON, INC.
19221 IH-45 South; Ste. 530
Conroe, TX 77385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 292-9903
Mr. Brian Roberson
AF 04-149       Awarded: 04MAR04
Title:Wireless Crack Propagation Embeddable Sensor
Abstract:In the recent past, the use of composite materials in aircraft has increased. While composite materials offer many benefits, they are not perfect materials. Micro-cracking can occur in the cooling process of laminate construction. These cracks can spread and new cracks can even form during temperature cycling. Monitoring crack propagation in key locations can increase the safety and reliability of aircraft while reducing the cost to maintain them. An embeddable, remotely powered, miniature, wireless system is what is required. There are two types of crack propagation measurement currently on the market - parallel resistance, and continuity gages. While INVOCON has developed a multitude of miniature wireless systems based on technologies similar to the parallel resistance and continuity gages, there is another approach. It is possible to measure the length of a crack propagation gage using reflected Radio Frequency (RF) energy. This technology can be used to follow two-dimensional or even three-dimensional crack propagation. This method, while more difficult to produce for a Phase I demonstration, provides a simpler path to the Phase II embeddable solution. In addition, the technique can be extended to measure laminate strain with the same sensor, making a much more commercially viable system.

XENOTRAN CORP.
898 Airport Park Road, Suite 205
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 761-2445
Dr. Kevin Page
AF 04-149       Awarded: 08MAR04
Title:Low Cost Inductive Sensors for Vehicle Health Monitoring
Abstract:Xenotran proposes to develop a Vehicle Health Monitoring (VHM) sensor based on inductive coupling for detecting failure initiation, and crack propagation in composite materials. The VHM system consists of a very low cost crack sensing transducer that can be interrogated and powered wirelessly from a portable RF interrogator. The proposed Xenotran sensor consists of minimal components resulting in maximum reliability. Using this methodolgy as well as Commercial Off-The-Shelf technology (COTS), both development and manufacturing costs of the sensors and interrogator are kept low resulting in true easily implemented and disposable sensors.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Mr. Francis L. Keohan
AF 04-151       Awarded: 09MAR04
Title:Nanophase Shear Thickening Additives for Transparent Polycarbonate Armor
Abstract:A new nanoscale polymer composite additive having shear thickening properties is proposed for improving the ballistic properties of polycarbonate-based transparent armor. The proposed research explores the feasibility of modifying conventional polycarbonate thermoplastics with nano-dispersed inorganic ceramics and novel copolymer additives to enhance the ballistic resistance of these transparent armor materials. The nano-scale ceramic phases dispersed within copolymer micromatrices will improve the ballistic impact resistance of the plastic armor through a non-Newtonian flow behavior. The proposed additives will be designed to preserve the hardness and transparency of the polycarbonate while improving the overall ballistic survivability. The ultimate objective is to develop an easily processed nanoscale ceramic reinforced polycarbonate hybrid with high toughness, the transparency of virgin polycarbonate and enhanced ballistic resistance. In the proposed study, the methodology for preparing these novel shear-thickening hybrids will be developed and structure-property profiles determined. The ballistic properties of selected hybrid materials and polycarbonate controls will be determined. The resulting material property relationships will be used in the design and fabrication of new toughened transparent armors with high survivability.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3969
Dr. Lee M. Goldman
AF 04-151       Selected for Award
Title:Light Weight/High Performance ALON Transparency for Ballistic Protection
Abstract:Improved protection from hostile environments and ballistic threats is essential for enhanced survivability of the operational forces in low flying conditions. Weight restrictions on aircraft put a severe limitation to the degree of protection that can be provided. Polycrystalline aluminum oxynitride, ALONTM Optical Ceramic, has long been identified as the premier transparent armor material. However, until recently it was expensive and available only in small pieces, which prevented its wide spread use in transparent armor applications. In this effort, Surmet will develop and optimize the performance of light weight ballistic laminates containing layers of ALON, and evaluate the ballistic performance of its lower cost commercial grade CG-ALON. The ability to improve ballistic performance through surface modification of ALON layers and by employing novel laminate constructions will also be evaluated. In Phase I, the fabrication of the ALON transparencies with various degrees of surface finish will be followed by the deposition of Surmet's SixNy coating by Surmet's proprietary plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PA-CVD) technique. Ballistic laminates containing ALON layers will be fabricated, and tested for durability, ballistic resistance and optical properties. Prototype ballistic laminates will be delivered at the end of Phase I for further evaluation.

LIVEWIRE TEST LABS, INC.
4229 w. Paskay Dr.
West Valley City, UT 84120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 865-8041
Dr. Paul Smith
AF 04-153       Awarded: 19MAR04
Title:Wiring System In-Situ Health Monitoring Diagnostics
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to create and deploy a complete in situ wire fault location system for aging aircraft utilizing low power spread spectrum sensing methods. These methods have been demonstrated for accurate fault location on wires carrying power or digital data signals. This method is highly accurate despite noise caused by the external environment, switching of motors, lights, etc. and related noise associated with realistic loads. The ability to test during flight can help eliminate "can not duplicate" (CND) and "re-test OK" (RTOK) failures, providing on-board systems and maintenance personnel with the necessary information to quickly pinpoint and repair intermittent electrical faults.

MINNESOTA WIRE & CABLE CO.
1835 Energy Park Drive
St. Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 659-6721
Mr. Jim Jensen
AF 04-153       Awarded: 23MAR04
Title:Wiring System In-Situ Health Monitoring Diagnostics
Abstract:Lockheed Martin delivered the first operational F-16 Fighting Falcon to the United States Air Force in January 1979. With more than 10 miles of wiring packed into an aircraft just 49 feet long, the aging F-16 suffers from intermittent power wire failures that pose a significant fire hazard. These failures often occur when a cable's degraded jacket enables a water droplet or metal shaving to temporarily form a conductive bridge between two wires. Frequently misdiagnosed by aircraft maintenance personnel, these wet and dry arcs lead to the unnecessary and costly insertion of line replacement units (LRUs) into the maintenance supply chain. To address this problem, Minnesota Defense partnered with Lockheed Martin and the University of Utah to develop and demonstrate a rugged, compact Smart Connector prototype for in-situ detection and isolation of wet and dry arcs on energized aircraft power wires. The Smart Connector uses a spread spectrum reflectometer (SSR) to inject a pseudo noise (PN) code into live wires and to record the resulting reflections, a peripheral interface controller (PIC) to analyze the reflectometry data and perform fault detection and isolation, a radio frequency (RF) wireless transmitter to report fault types and locations, and a lithium battery for power. The Smart Connector meets MIL-C-26482 interface and test requirements.

COMPUTHERM LLC
437 S. Yellowstone Dr, Suite 217
Madison, WI 53719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 274-1414
Dr. Shuanglin Chen
AF 04-155       Awarded: 25MAR04
Title:A Tool for the Simulation of Thermal and Chemical Effects on Turbine Engine Component Parts
Abstract:CompuTherm, LLC proposes to develop a tool that integrates thermodynamic and kinetic models for the simulation of the formation and growth of undesired phases in turbine engine component parts during heat treatment and service. The proposed innovative tool will enable calculation of the amounts of detrimental phases accumulated after each heat treatment cycle. This information is crucial for assisting engineers to evaluate the condition of an engine component and estimate the maximum number of times it can be re-heat treated. Such a tool is critically needed in reducing expensive testing, which involves the parts having to be cut up and assessed. This will result in significant cost savings for the USAF and the aerospace industry. In addition, the tool will be valuable for materials design and development. CompuTherm, LLC has significant capabilities for developing such a tool from its experience with Pandat and WinChem software, and the thermodynamic databases for nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys. In Phase I, CompuTherm, LLC will examine the feasibility of developing such a tool from the thermodynamic aspect, whilst kinetic models for the prediction of phase growth will be integrated in Phase II.

RNET TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
555 Bryant Street , #578
Palo Alto, CA 94301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 248-3371
Mr. Ram Balasubramanian
AF 04-155       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Modeling and Simulation for the Accelerated Development of Materials
Abstract:AF04-155 proposes a reduction in the maturation time between the identification of a novel material and its entry into service, in part through improved experimental characterization and evaluation. The development of a monitoring system capable of acquiring and processing full-field data from the surface of a material, and simultaneously detecting the presence and location of short fatigue cracks, would promote a more rapid understanding of the fatigue behavior of the material and thus expedite fatigue testing programs. RNET proposes the development of an advanced Infrared Damage Detection System (IDDS) capable of such real-time analysis. Using a staring-array infrared detector to record the thermal emission from a material surface, the system will allow the continuous inspection of a fatigue test at temperatures which are representative of the in-service conditions for gas turbine materials. An operator will be able to view, via a computer system, full-field visual feedback from algorithms which will indicate the presence of both fatigue cracks and other infrared signatures, whilst differentiating between them. The IDDS developed during this SBIR will comprise an infrared camera and lens system, associated cabling and computer interface cards, a desktop computer, and software suite for `turnkey' infrared damage monitoring and short crack detection.

SC SOLUTIONS
1261 Oakmead Pkwy
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 617-4532
Dr. Sarbajit Ghosal
AF 04-155       Selected for Award
Title:Modeling and Simulation for the Accelerated Development of Materials
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project proposes a product development effort for an integrated system for optical deformation measurement and material model calibration. The system consists of advanced analysis software integrated with a commercial Digital Image Correlation tool. The system is intended to acquire full-field, two-dimensional strain data for regions of interest of 200 mm or greater at elevated temperatures, and use nonlinear optimization algorithms for automated and efficient estimation of model parameters from vast amount of data. This innovative product will be an enabling tool for accelerated evaluation and development of new materials. SC Solutions, Inc., a leader in providing modeling, model-based control and optimization solutions has teamed with Correlated Solutions, Inc., the leading provider of optical deformation measurement products. In Phase I, the feasibility of the overall approach will be demonstrated by measurements on a relevant alloy at moderately high temperatures, visualization of the experimental data, and the application of parameter estimation methods for linear and nonlinear models. In Phase II, the system capabilities will be enhanced, the software product fully prototyped, and the entire process automated. There is potential for wide-ranging commercial application of this technology in aerospace and materials processing industries.

TEST DEVICES, INC.
6 Loring Street
Hudson, MA 01749
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-6017
Mr. H. Eric Sonnichsen
AF 04-155       Awarded: 10MAR04
Title:Development of an Optical Strain Evaluation Tool for Materials Research
Abstract:This proposal addresses section 2 (Multi-scale integration and visualization of materials modeling and experiments) of the SBIR topic. It covers the development of a system to measure the full field strain distribution of a test sample being stressed dynamically at very high temperature. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the measurement using high resolution optical data acquisition with a distance-measuring telescopic microscope.

TRILION QUALITY SYSTEMS
200 Barr Harbor Drive, Suite 400
West Conshohocken, PA 19428
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 722-5100
Mr. Timothy Schmidt
AF 04-155       Selected for Award
Title:Modeling and Simulation for the Accelerated Development of Materials
Abstract:The rapid development of Air Force technology is in part limited by the timely development and implementation of advanced materials. Sequential, iterative approaches to modeling and experimental testing are no longer adequate, and multi-scale approaches are increasingly common. The overall goal of this proposal is to fully exploit the intrinsic properties of 3D image correlation photogrammetry, a full-field optical test method, in support of accelerated insertion of materials (AIM) programs. Successful accomplishment of the Phase I objectives would provide a strong foundation for development of a fully automated and integrated multi-scale data acquisition and visualization system. The system would be capable of automatically acquiring experimental 3D deformation and strain data and comparing it to model results. Multi-scale for this system would refer to both space and time; fields of view from 2 meters to less than 1 mm, and data acquisition timeframes from days to microseconds. The Trilion Quality Systems team, a developer of optical and machine vision measurement technologies for more than twenty years, has a strong coalition of DoD customers and University Centers of Excellence uniquely organized to support the development of this powerful optical inspection technology to meet the measurement needs of the Air Force and many other potential users.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3808
Dr. Kiet Nguyen
AF 04-155       Awarded: 22MAR04
Title:Modeling and Simulation for the Accelerated Development of Materials
Abstract:The proliferation of lasers in military applications requires R&D on optical limiters to protect against accidental and adversarial exposure to personnel and equipment. Thus, optical limiting materials are in great demand. The integration realistic modeling and simulation from first principles computations with experiments provides a fundamental understanding of materials and accelerate the task of developing materials for laser protection. Our goal is to develop practical tools and apply them in the optical characterization in a condensed phase of two important classes of optical limiting materials, reverse saturable and two-photon absorption materials.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, INC.
934 Sand Court
Ventura, CA 93001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 320-3976
Mr. Jonathan Geske
AF 04-156       Awarded: 28MAY04
Title:High-Power VCSELs for Military Applications
Abstract:Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) have demonstrated themselves as a commercially viable technology. Recent technology developments have lead to a new class of commercial VCSELs designed for high power operation. These devices appear to be favorable candidates for high power military applications. In this Project, Aerius Photonics will determine the feasibility of using high powered VCSELs in military applications such as pulsed laser radar and target ranging and detection applications. The goal is to produce a lightweight, low-cost, small form-factor pulsed laser module capable of producing 225 micro-Joule pulses significantly less than 20 ns long at a repetition rate of at least 15 kHz. The module will use VCSEL devices with stable, high quality beam profiles that can be well collimated. To accomplish this objective, Aerius will characterize commercially available high-power 980-nm VCSELs and develop a model for predicting VCSEL response under short-pulse excitation conditions. This predictive model will include critical performance attributes such as final beam shape and spectral properties, pulse width, pulse energy, and pulse repetition rate. The model developed will also allow for the generation of device designs that may be considered for use in the Phase II project to meet specific application requirements.

PHOTODIGM, INC.
1155 E. Collins Blvd. #200
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 235-7584
Dr. S. David Roh
AF 04-156       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Coherent, High Power Grating-Outcoupled Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Laser Arrays
Abstract:Investigation of coherent, high power, 1550 nm Grating-coupled Surface-Emitting (GSE) laser arrays for military applications are proposed. The proposed innovative approach will enable the rapid development of coherent, high-power long-wavelength surface-emitting lasers while circumventing major technical issues associated with conventional long-wavelength vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers.

KVA ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
PO Box 64948
Burlington, VT 05406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 878-9001
Mr. Jasper Morrison/Ken Morrison
AF 04-157       Awarded: 24MAY04
Title:Innovative Technologies for Reducing Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)
Abstract:The development of Innovative Technologies for Reducing Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) provides critical technology to eliminate Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) with the potential to maim and kill. Once deployed, if the fuze did not function as designed, it would become safe and unable to detonate. The proposed technology would eliminate the highly sensitive nature of UXO's that exist today and eliminate the hazards to personnel.

RADIATION EFFECTS RESEARCH ASSOC.
4075 Judee Dr.
Bloomington, IN 47401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 388-7293
Mr. Stephen Maegerlein
AF 04-157       Awarded: 03JUN04
Title:Innovative Technologies for Reducing Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)
Abstract:This proposal will develop technology that will render cluster bomblets, such as the BLU-97, safe to handle and dispose of individual bomblets that have failed to explode. As this technology will be of small size due to the volume constraints of a bomblet fuze, the technology resulting from the research & development of phases I & II will have an equal utility to gravity bombs of much larger size weapons. The focus of this proposal will be to develop a method to neutralize the safe/arming, energetic mechanism in a bomblet's fuze. Within seconds after impact should the primary arming fuze fail to detonate the bomblet, the primary detonation feature will be neutralized. The action of the neutralizing device will not in anyway affect the normal function of the weapon's detonating device. The goal of this SBIR is to develop a global neutralizing design that can be incorporated as a drop in feature in any weapon fuze. It will have a function indicator that can be viewed on the outside of the weapon that will indicate the weapon has been neutralized. This a joint proposal of Radiation Effects Research Associates and Maegerlein Materials Investigations, Inc

UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORP.
11150 Olympic Blvd., Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Dr. Michael Baer
AF 04-158       Awarded: 14MAY04
Title:An Intelligent and Adaptive Class-Based Compression Technology for Weapon Seekers Suitable for Minimum RF Bandwidth
Abstract:The quality and quantity of information directly available to command authorities is becoming an increasingly dominant factor in modern force projection. The increasing demand for information of digital imagery and real time video has exposed the severe bandwidth limitation of RF data link resources. This limitation becomes more severe as the future smart weapons will be integrated into warfighting networks. To minimize RF bandwidth requirement (and thus minimize cost), the solution is to intelligently and adaptively compress the data without destroying too much critical detail. Current Data-driven compression schemes do not have the capabilities to take advantage of recognizable conceptual primitive patterns such as edges, corners, strips, which can be modeled by strongly adaptive intelligence based schemes using machine-intelligence. For significant compression improvements, a paradigm shift to a pattern-driven approach is required whereby images are considered as relational entities, classifiable according to the presence of patterns, their relationships and their frequency of occurrence. UC technology will offer real-time image/video codec with a 400% improvement in compression performance compared to current codecs. The objective of this proposal is to develop a class-based codec with embedded security offering substantial reduction in volumes of rich content for real-time RF communication of mission-critical applications.

SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES & SYSTEMS, INC.
8900 E. Chaparral Rd., Suite 1000
Scottsdale, AZ 85250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 483-1997
Dr. Kirk Thompson
AF 04-159       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Shock Hardened High Bandwidth Through Media Transmission Technology
Abstract:Penetrator bomb damage assessment is particularly difficult to perform since traditional visual reconnaissance methods do not reveal damage below the surface. The AFRL is currently engaged in developing a survivable, low-bandwidth transmitter that will be capable of real-time delivery of penetrator bomb fuze sensor data. This low-bandwidth system will provide the first new tool in the assessment of penetrator bomb damage. The proposed project seeks to investigate advanced technology for the development of a high data rate Penetrator Bomb Damage Assessment System (PBDAS). The data rate is specified at 250,000 bits per second minimum, with transmission through an aggregate soil and concrete media, while experiencing shock loads of up to 20,000 g. A further goal is to evaluate the implementation of a command and control (C2) link to the bomb-mounted components for use during flight and penetration time. Penetrator bomb C2 offers the opportunity for remote arming/disarming, command destruct, sensor control, return sensor data selection, and weapon operational status requests. It is even possible this capability could be used to interrogate unexploded ordnance. See the proposal for more detail.

US POSITIONING GROUP, LLC
Williams Gateway Airport, 5865 S.Sossaman Rd.
Mesa, AZ 85212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 988-1000
Dr. Steven M. Shope
AF 04-159       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:Spread-Spectrum Electromagnetic Penetrator Data Link
Abstract:On current Air Force penetrator weapons, hard-target smart fuzes in the tail receive information from sensors in the nose. Future weapons are expected to incorporate additional sensors, which will greatly increase the data available, to more than 250 kilobits per second, which must be transmitted through the earth to a surface receiver or to an aircraft receiver. This proposal describes a CDMA spread spectrum wireless penetrator data link with multiple channels to transmit the high-rate data through the earth between underground targets and surface or airborne receivers. Phase I effort will analyze and model electromagnetic radiation patterns and signal propagation through the earth. US Positioning will accommodate high-bandwidth data by using a CDMA spread-spectrum system with high process-gain, along with orthogonal codes to separate data onto many parallel channels and process the data simultaneously. We will analyze, simulate, and test the performance of the through-the-earth data link under high g loads and will characterize important system parameters, including latency, reliability, security, operating frequency, modulation scheme, and transmit output power. We intend to emphasize the use of 433MHz UHF band for this through-the-earth penetrator data link.

DE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3620 Horizon Drive
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 595-6954
Ms. Lucia Kuhns Shan
AF 04-160       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Improved Trajectory Control for Penetration into Soils at 4000 ft/sec
Abstract:We propose to investigate two approaches to improve earth-penetrator trajectory stability during high-speed penetration: hardening the nose and cleverly shaping the penetrator. An analytical and computational study will evaluate the merit and potential payoff of each approach, and specific means of implementing each approach will be selected for further development and testing.

MULTIPLEX, INC.
5000 Hadley Road
South Plainfield, NJ 07080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 757-8817
Dr. K.-Y. Liou
AF 04-161       Awarded: 02JUN04
Title:Ultra-High Speed Analog Lightwave Components For Ladar Scene Projection
Abstract:Compact arrays of ultra-high-speed analog laser sources or lasers integrated with modulators are needed for LADAR sensors and scene generation. Multiplex, UCLA and UCSD propose a novel Monolithic Injection-Locked Analog Transmitter Array (MILATA) for wide frequency range (>2GHz) operation with greater than 60 dB optical extinction ratio. MILATA is a versatile technology platform that is built on our recent success in monolithic injection-locked lasers funded by DARPA RFLICS program. The monolithic injection locked laser we invented is the most compact and practical injection-locked semiconductor laser. It can be packaged in industry standard module with an output fiber pigtail. For LADAR scene generation, the injection locked laser will be monolithically integrated with electroabsorption modulators (EAM). A selective area growth method for InGaAsP based materials will be optimized for chip-scale transmitter array manufacturing. The output of Phase I of this program will be prototype MILATA chips packaged with discrete injection-locked lasers and EA modulators that are fully characterized to demonstrate the device design and performance. A novel quarter-wave shifted DFB laser with strong gratings will be fabricated for high device yield, which is necessary for array integration. Scalability for high-density array on the chip and packaging with electronics will also be investigated in Phase I for selecting the best approaches for an 8-channel transmitter array in Phase II, with the potential for 2-D integration up to a 256 by 256 element array. The proposed MILATA is a general-purpose, application-specific photonic IC technology that can be tailored to both DOD (LADAR scene generation, RF photonic links, phased array radars, millimeter wave generation) and commercial applications (CATV, high speed digital networks, WDM transmitter arrays for long-haul and metro/access systems). The technology fits Multiplex's continuing marketing roadmap, and the ability for different applications to share the same technology platform is the key to cost reduction.

SRICO, INC.
2724 SAWBURY BOULEVARD
COLUMBUS, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Dr. S. Sriram
AF 04-161       Awarded: 17MAY04
Title:Ultra-High Dynamic Range Optical Modulators For Ladar Scene Projection
Abstract:Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) scene simulators are an important tool for characterizing the LADAR systems used by missiles and aircraft. The scene simulator is used for incremental and final testing of the embedded hardware and software that enable real-time operation of the LADAR system. An important component in the scene simulators is a large 256x256 array of optical sources or pixels that deliver nanosecond wide optical pulses with the high dynamic range that is typical of real scenes. This dynamic range requirement is greater than 62 dB. This proposal addresses the design of an enhanced dynamic range modulated optical source based on a compact Mach-Zehnder (MZI) intensity modulator. The novel design will ensure that the dynamic range available is more than ten thousand times greater than what is obtainable from conventional MZI modulators. The MZI device will be capable of bandwidths in excess of 1 GHz, and can be integrated onto a larger optical chip containing 8, 16 or 32 such devices. The array of optical pixels in the scene generator must also provide 4096 levels of gray, equivalent to 12-bit linearity. This linearity requirement may be satisfied by pre-compensation distortion in the external driving electronics.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James C. Withers
AF 04-162       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Refractory Metal Processing for Warhead Applications
Abstract:Enhanced ballistic performance and lethality of warheads is materials limited. High density materials with high flow strength, strain to failure ductility, texture, and lethal energy release as well as with nono-structure are desirable. The refractory metals as a class meet many of these requirements but are difficult to produce in the desired microstructure and in layers which is a desirable configuration for optimum warhead performance. A novel plasma process has demonstrated the refractory metals can be produced with amorphorous to nanostructures, in multilayers with energetic surface layers in sizes upto two feet at virtually any thickness. This plasma system will be utilized to develop refractory metals identified in coordination with the Air Force with defined microstructures, characterized and delivered specimens including multilayer specimens to the Air Force.

NANODYNAMICS, INC.
901 Fuhrmann Blvd.
Buffalo, NY 14203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 528-8398
Mr. Douglas P. DuFaux
AF 04-162       Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Nanostructured Tantalum for Armor Piercing Ammunition/Warheads
Abstract:Explosively Formed Penetrators (EFPs) are an important component of today's military. They are capable of penetrating many inches (even feet) of armor. Needless to say, high performance is of critical concern and continued improvement requires advanced materials that can perform under severe conditions. For example, EFP liners undergo extreme plastic deformation when fired, involving strains up to 300% at strain rates on the order of 10^4/s. Budget and other practical concerns make finding a solution difficult, but a recently identified class of materials, called nanostructured materials, holds great promise. However, to-date, exploitation of nanomaterials has been hindered by a lack of suitable production technologies and high costs. This SBIR program will lead to a new generation of low-cost, tantalum, and other materials, through a radically new, yet simple, approach that is greatly superior to competing technologies. High-velocity deformation (HVD) using industrial machining equipment has been shown to produce micron-sized particles composed entirely of nanocrystalline structures. As such, these materials can be processed with commercially available consolidation equipment, processes, and handling procedures, and thereby avoid the expensive equipment and procedures required for nano-sized particles. Phase I will demonstrate the efficacy of the approach through production and testing of nanocrystalline tantalum.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 832-4407
Mr. Richard Flanagan
AF 04-163       Selected for Award
Title:ArmaNet
Abstract:At the start of one new weapon development program, the projected cost of integration was more than the weapon development program itself. It resulted in killing the program. It's better now, thanks to the development and widespread use of a standard interconnection system. MIL-STD-1760 capable aircraft have ameliorated the situation but have not attained the "plug-and-play" capability for weapons like that of today's PC components. There has been, and remains today, little commonality, intercommunication, and interoperability with air vehicle stores management systems. That is to say, one does not port code for a weapon type from one aircraft system to another. In response to the challenge of SBIR AF04-163, 21st Century Systems, Inc. is pleased to propose researching and developing a universal plug and play system concept of a network of intelligent agents (software) for the system segments of interoperable aircraft and stores. Our system concept is entitled "ArmaNet." We propose a system approach to enable universal plug and play of weapons. This project will culminate in a state-of-the-art distributive process for employment of new stores resulting in safe, universal use while reducing weapon integration costs through standardization efforts of the US Government and industry.

WINTEC, INC.
220 Eglin Parkway SE, Suite 4
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 664-6203
Mr. Fred L. Benedick
AF 04-163       Awarded: 07JUN04
Title:Software Architecture for Universal Plug and Play of Weapons
Abstract:The Air Force has begun an initiative termed Universal Armament Interface (UAI) to address decoupling of store integration from the aircraft software upgrade cycle. While UAI offers promise for a reasonable level of plug and play capability at the aircraft/store interface, it is based on the premise that each aircraft will provide the standard UAI messaging services through its platform-specific software architecture and processing environment. This approach will not, however, provide a common application programming interface (API) for such upgrades, meaning that unique software must still be separately developed for each platform to provide the same application level functionality. For UAI to have the maximum payoff, it must be retrofittable to as many existing platforms as possible with minimum required avionics upgrades and delivered via a common API. Assuming some minimal level of processing throughput, it is believed that UAI with a common API can be implemented on many of these platforms through an adaptation layer of software, which we refer to here as the Platform Adaptation Layer (PAL). This proposal is to provide a Platform Adaptation Layer for integration into existing platform processing environments, along with features to ensure adequate real-time performance and safety features in weapon employment applications, effectively allowing all future weapons upgrade software to reside in a common API.

FIRST RF CORP.
1200 28th Street, Suite 302
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 04-164       Awarded: 06MAY04
Title:Unitary Warhead Airburst Fuzing Capability
Abstract:The lack of an active sensor for ranging eliminates the airburst capability on many existing conventional weapons used for impact and penetrating missions. The Air Force has a desire to add a height of burst (HOB) capability to these weapons in order to expand their operational use. FIRST RF recognizes the need for a fuzing system with the real beam accuracy of MMW frequencies, the foliage penetration and cost of low frequency systems, and no alterations to the skin of existing missile systems such as JASSM. FIRST RF Corporation has developed an innovative concept that will provide all these benefits over the wide range of applications including the JASSM platform. A robust fuze providing better than 0.5 meter accuracy is required in the presence of adverse weather, battlefield obscurants, ECM/EMI and thick vegetation and tree canopies. The fuze concept exploits radiation from existing national or commercial assets.

MUSTANG TECHNOLOGY GROUP, L.P.
400 W. Bethany, Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 747-0707
Dr. Alan England
AF 04-164       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Unitary Warhead Airburst Fuzing Capability
Abstract:Mustang Technology Group, LP is proposing a Phase I SBIR study that will expand the capability of existing weapons by providing an airburst fuzing capability by using the available INS information, GPS information, and passive infrared (IR) imagery. Mustang's proposed solution will enable the weapon to determine the position vector (range and direction) to numerous ground based features within the field-of-regard of the weapon using the available INS/GPS information and the passive IR imagery. Even in hilly terrain or in an urban environment, it is possible to map the ground around the target. By interpolating the data and mapping the ground, we can determine an accurate height-of-burst for the weapon - the desired objective. Another key innovation of the algorithm is the ability to predict the accuracy of the altitude measurements in real-time by using a first-order sensitivity analysis of the dominant error sources. The sensitivity parameters allow us to determine which features will yield the most accurate results and how to weight all the measurements optimally. Ultimately, an airburst capability could be added to a weapon such as JASSM with no recurring hardware costs - only software modifications.

ACUMEN CONSULTING
6238 Covington Way
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 708-5084
Dr. Steve Solomon
AF 04-165       Awarded: 20APR04
Title:Visible/UV Image Projector for Sensor Testing
Abstract:New technologies are required to support MDA requirements in the area of high performance UV/VIS/NIR scene projectors for laboratory closed-loop testing of sensors and their associated control and image processing systems. Plasma display technology, currently popular for commercial television, has the potential to meet all the projection requirements such as high brightness (6000 K apparent temperature) non-modulated addressing methods, simultaneous "snapshot" pixel update, scene dynamic range of 14 bits, dynamic response of less than 1 millisecond, pixel non-uniformity of less than 1%, and scene formats of 1024x1024 or greater. Plasma operating conditions, gases, phosphors, cell geometry and excitation conditions will be investigated and modeled in order to design a pixilated micro-discharge display that meets all the DoD UV/VIS/NIR scene projector requirements.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 876-3888
Dr. Diana Chambers
AF 04-165       Awarded: 12MAY04
Title:Visible/UV Image Projector for Sensor Testing
Abstract:The AEgis Technologies Group, Inc. proposes to develop a 2D focal plane array UV/VIS light modulator using MEMS-based diffractive grating technology that will greatly enhance the capability of HWIL test systems. Grating ElectroMechanical Systems (GEMS) technology developed by Kodak Eastman will be enhanced and modified to accomplish a wideband, analog modulator capable of providing significantly higher dynamic range and optical power than is possible with any existing technology. In this Phase-I effort, AEgis will investigate the optical, electrical, and mechanical modifications required to successfully meet these goals. Modification of the diffractive grating and reflective membrane to expand the bandwidth will be investigated. Enhancement of integrated circuit elements to accommodate the 2D array format and provide true analog control of the modulation.

ATMOSPHERIC GLOW TECHNOLOGIES
924 Corridor Park Dr.
Knoxville, TN 37932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 777-3776
Dr. Alan Wintenberg
AF 04-166       Awarded: 25MAY04
Title:A Parametric Study of EHD Plasma Actuators for Munition Control
Abstract:The development of subsonic plasma actuators has the potential to revolutionize the flight performance of munitions. The addition of surface mounted flow controllers based on the electrical manipulation of surface plasma to aerodynamic control surfaces has the promise of offering a dynamic in-flight augmentation of the flight characteristics of the munitions. Plasma actuators, physically comprised of thin dielectric films with printed strip electrodes, can be added to the surface of any aerodynamic body. These plasma actuators have very small physical presence and are comprised of no moving parts. Due to these characteristics they are robust enough to withstand both being walked on and impacted. Using little electrical power the addition of plasma actuators to the surfaces of aerodynamic test shapes has resulted in delaying flow separation, altering the surface drag, inducing vorticity and generating controllable thrust. Atmospheric Glow Technologies (AGT) proposes to parametrically vary the design criteria of plasma actuators based on their licensed OAUGDP technology. The aerodynamic performance of the plasma actuators will be experimentally determined, optimized, analyzed and fitted into both mathematical and computational models. Results of this study will be used to design improved flight control of munitions and augment the internal aerodynamics of machinery.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
4415 Euclid Avenue, Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Mr. Mehul Patel
AF 04-166       Awarded: 10MAY04
Title:Plasma Flow Control for Munition Maneuvering
Abstract:Orbital Research, Inc. and The University of Notre Dame will collaborate to design, develop, and demonstrate a 'weakly-ionized plasma flow control' technology to enhance the aerodynamic control and maneuvering capabilities of long-range, long-loiter, low-to-high subsonic munitions. This flow control system will enhance the control-and-loiter capabilities of munitions both inside and outside their traditional flight envelope, as well as assist them in rapid mode interchangeability from a long-loiter configuration to a highly maneuverable attack mode, as dictated by the mission requirements. Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of a plasma flow control system on a wing model of a Powered Low Cost Autonomous Attack Submunition (PLOCAAS). Phase I efforts will include: (i) mathematical modeling of plasma actuators using an incompressible Euler code to identify optimal locations of plasma actuators on the wing surface, and (ii) exploratory wind tunnel experiments at subsonic flow conditions to characterize, optimize, and demonstrate the performance of plasma actuators for enhanced control authority and control flexibility. Wind tunnel experiments will focus on optimization of the actuator parameters and configuration such as location, dielectric materials, arrangement, a.c. amplitude and unsteady forcing frequency. Phase I will also examine and validate scaling models for amplitude and frequency requirements of the actuator for subsonic speed applications, as well as the control system performance in both open- and closed-loop mode.

MUSTANG TECHNOLOGY GROUP, L.P.
400 W. Bethany, Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 747-0707
Mr. Michael Stephens
AF 04-168       Awarded: 26APR04
Title:Global Positioning System (GPS) Jammer Threat Homing Munition Guidance System
Abstract:With the proliferation of guided weapon delivery systems and munitions, there is a very strong reliance on integrated Inertial Navigation System (INS) / Global Positioning System (GPS) guidance systems to provide accurate position, velocity, and time (PVT) information. If GPS information is denied, the only source of guidance is the INS system, which is subject to drift and other errors, resulting in degraded performance. When GPS is denied, the performance of these weapons is dramatically reduced, to the point where they may be totally ineffective. To deny GPS, simple L-Band jammers can be used by the enemy. This problem is further exacerbated by the fact that the cost associated with a medium powered GPS jammer is small compared to the cost of most weapons. Multiple GPS jammers can be placed strategically around a target of interest, and can be very effective at denying detection of the target of interest. The solution to this problem is to develop a munition / submunition concept that can be launched from an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) from a range of 50 nmi., remain airborne for over 20 minutes, and detect and kill a 10-watt GPS threat, located within an uncertainty region of 5 km. The goal is to detect isolate, home-on, and kill the single threat transmitting the maximum signal with each submunition. Mustang's proposed solution to this problem addresses the requirements for adequate angular separation (to resolve multiple emitters), a small, low-cost weapon delivery system (i.e., munition / submunition that can be carried by an UAV), and a fuzing / warhead solution that can produce an acceptable probability of kill (Pk). Simple monopulse processing will not be sufficient to resolve the multiple emitters. An adaptive processing approach is required. To meet the requirements for both a small platform and high angular resolution at L-Band, a trade study must be executed between the adaptive antenna placement and the munition / submunition size and shape, in order to determine the "best-value" solution to the Government.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Mr. Michael Marino
AF 04-168       Selected for Award
Title:Global Positioning System (GPS) Jammer Threat Homing Munition Guidance System
Abstract:A global positioning system (GPS) jammer, homing guidance system will be developed. The guidance system consists of radio frequency sensors, a digital signal processor, and algorithms for homing and guidance. The guidance system will be designed for a small UAV submunition. Guidance system design and simulation will be done during Phase I. System fabrication and integration into a small UAV will be done during Phase II. Flight testing will be conducted during Phase II to demonstrate and quantify the system's homing performance. The guidance system will detect multiple jammers, determine the number of jammers and their directions, sort multiple jammers, select a jammer for homing, and generate steering commands for a small UAV.

F&H APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 853
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 235-6781
Mr. Zygmond Turski
AF 04-169       Awarded: 04MAY04
Title:Efficient High Power Amplification Technology for Munitions
Abstract:Recent advent, and a significant progress made in the wide band gap semiconductor technology offer today a promise for a superior power amplifier. More specifically, emerging Gallium Nitrate (GaN) HEMT devices are shown to operate in extreme temperatures (~600C), exhibiting high breakdown voltages (~100V) and high current densities (~1.5A/mm). In order to meet these challenging technical requirements in a cost effective manner, F&H proposes to develop a GaN HEMT based MMIC power amplifier. During the Phase I of this program GaN HEMT device characteristics will be measured and modeled. Models derived will be synthesized with appropriate matching elements, and overall performance will be optimized in the 400 - 4000MHz band. The results will be empirically verified using discrete GaN HEMT devices in lumped element amplifier stages. Ultimately, the feasibility of a GaN HEMT based linear, high efficiency, power amplifier will be determined. In addition to meeting Air Force requirements for munitions, cost effective MMIC power amplifiers will benefit many other government and commercial applications to include LMDS, cellular (3G & 4G) and satellite applications. Vast markets associated with these applications will naturally lead to economy of scale pricing, in line with Air Force objectives.

SOFTRONICS LIMITED
6920 Bowman Lane NE
Cedar Rapids, IA 52402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(319) 431-0314
Mr. Robert H. Sternowski
AF 04-169       Awarded: 20APR04
Title:Monolithic Silicon Carbide Power Amplifier for Munition Links
Abstract:Future "intelligent" loitering weapons require a communications link with an efficient, flexible, high power radio power amplifier matched to the weapon's demanding size, weight, and power efficiency requirements. The short operating life, low cost, linear amplification, and wide range of frequency and modulations together comprise a challenging specification for such an amplifier. However, attaining these capabilities will result in proliferation of communications-equipped loitering weapons, which will result in a very significant increase in lethality and military effectiveness by virtue of increasing the weapon's situational awareness and precision. Softronics offers a novel approach based on Silicon Carbide (SiC) technology, and specifically a monolithic, direct-coupled power amplifier spanning 0-4 GHz. The superior thermal characteristics of SiC, combined with its 10 GHz cutoff frequency, radiation hardness, and very small die sizes, allow a small MMIC to be economically built using existing 2 inch wafer processing facilities. Softronics will generate and simulate a candidate design, in preparation for a proof-of-concept fabrication run in Phase II.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Thayne Coffman
AF 04-170       Selected for Award
Title:Structure from Motion
Abstract:State-of-the-art Structure From Motion (SFM) techniques are combined with novel methods to yield a real-time SFM capability for long calibrated image sequences. Unlike most approaches, the work is tailored to long continuous sequences of calibrated imagery generated from the near-planar small-baseline motions of a loitering aerial platform. This environment enables novel approaches for optimizing the processing order of the image frames, and for seeding calculations for optical flow, stereo correspondence, and camera parameter estimate refinement. It allows the 3D scene model to be built incrementally and transmitted to the ground incrementally, reducing network bandwidth requirements. Combined, these approaches reduce the computational requirements and error in the system to a point that accurate real-time operation on a loitering air platform is feasible. This capability will improve automatic target recognition, situational awareness in the combat environment, operations against aboveground and underground structures, and battlefield damage assessment.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Dr. Matthew E. Antone
AF 04-170       Awarded: 13MAY04
Title:Three Dimensional Scene Reconstruction Through Stochastic Structure From Motion
Abstract:We propose to design and develop an algorithmic framework that reconstructs three-dimensional scene models from a video sequence collected by a single airborne camera. Compensating for the uncertainties introduced by measurement error and feature extraction, the system uses stochastic geometry to model observations of scene features and navigation information as multi-dimensional probability distributions rather than deterministic entities. We employ Extended Kalman Filters to produce optimal estimates of camera pose and 3D scene geometry. In order to maximize feature association and tracking performance, the system augments 2D image observations with information-rich, quasi-invariant feature vectors. This approach affords both computationally tractable, incremental operation and robustness to uncertainty inherent in operational systems. System inputs consist of camera calibration, a video sequence of arbitrary length, and sensor position and pointing angle for each image. The output of the system is a continually updated three-dimensional scene model. In Phase I, we will develop the core algorithms in detail and demonstrate key system concepts; we will then assess system performance (accuracy and computational complexity) as a function of free parameters such as sensor resolution, frame rate, and altitude. We will also analyze the hardware requirements of a real-time prototype.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Steven Yi
AF 04-170       Selected for Award
Title:Structure from Motion
Abstract:Genex Technologies, Inc. (Genex), in collaboration with MLB Co (MLB), proposes an innovative solution dubbed Quick3D for three-dimensional (3D) real-time structure from motion (SFM) on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. The novel approach proposed herein seamlessly fuses the state vector from IMU/GPS (Inertial Measurement Unit/Global Positioning System) into a 3D reconstruction algorithm through a 3D EKF (Extended Kalman Filter). We propose to use two dense levels of feature tracking at different frame rates and uniquely combine the advantages of stereo configurations for small and large baseline distances. Our approach eliminates the tracking/ correspondence problem by using optical flow and the Epipolar relationship. The Quick3D will allow an arbitrary number of frames to construct 3D scene geometry. The resultant 3D representation will be processed using Genex's intelligent compression technique to ensure that the data can be sent in low-bandwidth via a bandwidth-constrained network. The reconstructed 3D model will also be rendered in real time on the OpenGL and OSG (open scene graph) platform. The proposed effort will leverage Genex's expertise in its Rainbow 3D camera, 3D modeling, 3D compression, the Principle Investigator's Vision Augmented Inertial Navigation System (VAINS) design experience for AFRL, and MLB's depth of research and development in the UAV arena.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. D. Scott Crocker
AF 04-171       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Multi-Physics, Multi-Scale CFD Modeling for Shock Effects on Droplet Interaction and Chemical Reaction
Abstract:Multi-physics and multi-scale modeling is required for simulating the neutralization of chemical and biological agents in a liquid drop cloud environment that may be subjected to shock waves. Required physics include drop coalescence, breakup, mixing, liquid volume chemistry, and biological particle surface chemistry as individual drops interact. Shock waves will have a strong effect on drop size, drop velocity, and on agent/neutralizer chemistry. In this SBIR, CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) will develop an innovative multi-scale modeling approach that includes a drop-drop interaction model for small scales and a Lagrangian spray model for medium scales to assess agent neutralization effectiveness. An existing small scale Volume of Fluid (VOF) drop-drop interaction model will be modified to include species mixing and chemistry at the sub-drop level. A medium scale agent neutralization model will be developed to simulate the interaction of order 1 million drops using a database of information from the small-scale model and incorporating the effects of shock waves. In Phase II, full chemistry and shock-drop interaction will be incorporated, a drop-drop interaction database will be developed and agent neutralization studies will be performed. The full simulation capability, including required software source code, will be transferred to the Air Force as a final deliverable.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 434-6316
Mr. Kenneth L. Knittel
AF 04-172       Awarded: 19MAY04
Title:Processing Methodology for Reactives Enhanced Munitions
Abstract:Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR) proposes to develop novel intermetallic composite systems for high strength materials capable of releasing energy on demand. This effort will combine our Fibrous Monolith (FM) processing expertise and new approaches in intermetallic design to develop a new generation of cost-efficient, high strength and reactive composites. The proposed material system will have a cellular structure, consisting of a primary phase of structural materials, interspersed with a continuous secondary phase of highly reactive material. The existence of two different materials will allow for tailoring and modification of mechanical properties of the composite by varying the composition and orientation of the two phases, while the two phases will allow an increase in reactivity to the composite. During this program, ACR will demonstrate versatility of the FM process in fabricating high strength and reactive composites that will satisfy Air Force's performance needs while reducing total cost of ownership by increasing performance of the component. ACR is currently involved with Raytheon Missile Systems (Tucson, AZ) as a material supplier. It is expected that Raytheon will show a high level of interest in components developed under this reactives enhanced munitions program.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. E. Dyadko
AF 04-172       Awarded: 24MAY04
Title:Reactive Polymer Matrix Composite
Abstract:Missiles and other munitions contain many structural elements that provide functionality, strength and integrity to the whole system (walls, hulls, shields etc.). Normally, these parts are made of the conventional structural materials (steels, alloys, plastics, ceramics) and do not contribute anything toward munitions lethality. Such parts may be produced of composites that are strong and safe enough during manufacturing, storage, launch and flight to work as missile structural materials. After ignition by explosion of the regular munition payload, the components of such composites will chemically react, evolving a large amount of exothermal heat, or explode thus significantly enhancing lethality of a missile, bomb, shell etc. Conventional highly exothermal chemical mixtures (thermites, some refractory compounds and intermetallic precursors) cannot be produced in the form of solid materials possessing specific strength close to that of mild steel. In order to attain the latter, polymer matrix composites (PMC) are proposed. The strong polymers (Selazole, Torlon and others) will provide required specific strength, which may be increased by organic or metal fiber reinforcement. The filler of such a PMC will exothermally react (after ignition by blast of the regular explosive) with the polymer matrix, ensuring chemical energy release, thus enhancing munition lethality.

MUSTANG TECHNOLOGY GROUP, L.P.
400 W. Bethany, Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 747-0707
Mr. Kevin Williamson
AF 04-173       Awarded: 10MAY04
Title:Digital Signal Processing in Radar Altimeters
Abstract:Current radar altimeters in cluster munitions use an FMCW approach which requires expensive touch labor on the antenna to get the proper isolation and expensive multi-chip modules for processing the received energy. Mustang Technology Group will perform a cost and performance trade study of the current approach versus using DSPs in the FMCW approach and using a pulsed radar implementing various modulation techniques. The results of the trade study will reveal the most cost effective solution and the remainder of the research will include a detailed preliminary design of a radar altimeter implementing the best solution as well as a simulation to predict the low-cost altimeter performance.

RESEARCH ASSOC. OF SYRACUSE
6780 Northern Blvd, Suite 100
East Syracuse, NY 13057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 330-4143
Mr. Thomas Vidoni
AF 04-173       Awarded: 19MAY04
Title:Digital Signal Processing in Radar Altimeters
Abstract:This SBIR proposal defines a low risk approach to investigate the analog altimeter currently deployed in the BLU-108 precision strike submunition in operation by the US Air Force. The goal of the effort is to perform an analysis of the current altimeter system algorithm and its use of the Frequency Modulated Continuous Waveform (FMCW) and to identify potential engineering changes that will result in a more cost effective system. One potential method of cost reduction will be to use a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) architecture which may employ either a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Beside the potential cost reduction, weight and power requirements may also be realizable through the use of these DSP techniques. Once an investigation of the current analog altimeter is complete and an equivalent DSP design is defined, a software model of the new system will be developed and tested to demonstrate its desired functionality. Finally a hardware implementation study will be performed that will assess complexity and design feasibility and reduce the risk associated with constructing the digital altimeter during a phase II follow on.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
AF 04-174       Awarded: 06MAY04
Title:VLSI-Scale Programmable Architectures Supporting FPA Operation and Pre-Processing Functions
Abstract:Seeker system drive electronics have historically been orders of magnitude larger in size and power dissipation than the FPA devices which they operate. Technology advances have permitted the development of a wide variety of sensor types including visible and infrared imagers, LADAR and millimeter-wave imagers, range-to-target detection systems, hyperspectral systems and biologically-inspired sensors. While varied in operation principles, the basic nature this group's respective drive electronics is remarkably similar. This proposal outlines a program that will investigate the design and development of a programmable Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)-scale drive and pre-processing electronics system that may be applied to virtually any sensor type that requires some form of digital clocking, analog preprocessing and digitization of the resulting single- or multiple parallel-output sensor type. The scope and variety of digitally-applied preprocessing operations will also be investigated in such a VLSI-scale single chip and/or hybrid chip structure. Many of the sensor types that will be operated by the "DriveChip" will require operation at cryogenic temperatures. This design investigation will define and investigate a wide variety of system requirements including that of cryogenic operation. The existence of such a DriveChip will enable the continued miniaturization of seeker/processing systems for future AFRL/MNG applications.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Jerry W. Jenkins
AF 04-175       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Development of a Unified Stochastic-Hydrodynamic Simulation EnviRonment (USHER) for Biological Agent Neutralization and Defeat
Abstract:The overall objective of this proposal is to design, develop and demonstrate an integrated "Virtual Numerical Laboratory" (USHER) for simulational evaluation of biological agent defeat strategies. Traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations of agent neutralization, based on deterministic chemical kinetics can lead to misleading conclusions. We propose to develop a novel, stochastic formalism to describe agent-neutralizer interactions and tightly integrate it into an incompressible CFD framework with coupled turbulence and moving body models. CFD-ACE+, an industry leading multiphysics simulation software, will be used as the development platform. The proposed effort will leverage on several recent research advancements in CFD-ACE+ including a novel Surface Marker Point approach and Chimera formulation for moving boundary calculations as well as Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for turbulent flow modeling. During Phase I, stochastic agent-neutralizer interactions will be represented via a convection-coupled Fokker-Planck description. The applicability of this model will be demonstrated in a test environment featuring projectile penetration and agent neutralization in a container. The more complex Master-Equation (growth/death) approach will be formulated. In Phase II, further development and numerical implementation of all models (stochastic kinetics, moving body) will be completed. Demonstration of the new simulation capability in a government approved test scenario is planned.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. John R. Budenske
AF 04-177       Awarded: 20APR04
Title:Multi-Mode Mobility for Micro-Platforms
Abstract:Recent military efforts have illustrated the difficulty for conventional weapons to find and defeat "hard-targets" that are concealed, guarded, mobile, or even buried. Examples include underground hardened bunkers, cave/tunnel systems, and mobile SCUD launchers. Robotic micro-platforms could be used to find, collect data, track, and even defeat such targets, but the robots need to be nimble, agile, well coordinated, and possess an intelligence for achieving its mission. Missions would require the micro-platforms to be able to land in the area, move around and over the terrain/objects/debris, and then leave the area (preferably on their own ability). To solve this problem, a distributed robotics, micro-platform concept (hardware platforms, sensors, software architecture) is proposed that allows a swarm of heterogeneous robots to be sent into a search area, and perform hard-target reconnaissance missions. This proposed effort focuses on the hardware component, and specifically on the multi-mode mobility scheme for such a robotic platform. In Phase I, we will use our team experience in unmanned vehicles and robotics to investigate various ground and air mobility mechanisms, and their combinations. A multi-mode mobility suitable for the hard-target domain will be identified, and further analyzed. Initial designs for a Phase II prototype will be created.

BIOROBOTS, LLC
2331 Bellfield Ave.
Cleveland Heights, OH 44106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 687-8702
Dr. Ravi Vaidyanathan
AF 04-177       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:A Biologically Inspired Morphing Micro Air-Land Vehicle (MMALV)
Abstract:BioRobots, Case Western Reserve University, and The University of Florida have partnered with Boeing Phantom Works to develop a Morphing Micro Air-Land Vehicle (MMALV) to enhance military intelligence gathering capabilities in battlespace environments. Building on landmark successes in micro air vehicle fabrication at The University of Florida and micro robot implementation at Case Western Reserve University, BioRobots will perform a comprehensive, ground-up system integration study to facilitate MMALV with the maximum level of military utility. MMALV will be capable of autonomously flying several miles, landing within a target area, and morphing into an efficient, stable, highly mobile terrestrial robot. MMALV will also be able to move within a target area, including inside buildings and caves, to deliver superior surveillance. MMALV will be equipped with an array of sensors, as well as a transmitter/receiver to receive commands and broadcast surveillance data. Upon mission completion, MMALV will be able to launch and return to base, or move to another target. Phase I work will deliver: 1) A hybrid vehicle capable of aerial to terrestrial locomotion, 2) A `morphing' winged vehicle, capable of transforming locomotion modes autonomously, and 3) A fully integrated system design for MMALV, including platform, sensor, and control systems.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
4415 Euclid Avenue, Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Dr. Rich Kolacinski
AF 04-177       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Innovative, Biologically Inspired Design for Highly Integrated Micro Vehicles with Multiple Modes of Locomotion
Abstract:Orbital Research Inc. and Theiss Aviation, Inc., propose the development of a novel micro vehicle with multiple modes of mobility that uses biological inspiration to yield an efficient and robust architecture necessary to effectively imbue a vehicle with multiple modes of locomotion. To realize this design, we propose to tightly integrate both locomotion mechanisms via the established principles of biologically inspired design so that the mechanisms have the largest possible number of common structures between them. This reduces the need for locomotion mode specific structures within the design and facilitates the accomplishment of the disparate mobility modes within the highly constrained footprint of a micro vehicle. The use of multi role structures and mechanisms also provides an inherent path for the reuse of actuators and power train elements and therefore tremendously improves the concomitant weight and power constraints of this design. In addition, the principles of biologically inspired design will be used, not only to produce highly integrated locomotion mechanisms, but also to essentially embed a large portion of the mechanisms' control algorithms within the mechanisms themselves. The innovations in mechanism and control design described in the proposed work will enable the development of highly integrated and optimized systems that increase the robustness, flexibility and capability of the vehicle.

ORNITHOPTERS INTERNATIONAL LLC
16920 133rd DRIVE NORTH
JUPITER, FL 33478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 745-3195
Dr. MICHAEL J. C. SMITH
AF 04-177       Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Mode Mobility
Abstract:This proposal details a multi-mode ornithoptic land/air vehicle (OI-002), readily adaptable to amphibious/submersible missions. The OI-002 will feature four articulated, multifunctional limbs used for flight and walking modes, a hierarchical control system, constructed from fiber reinforced plastics and powered by light weight power sources. The wing/limb span will be 12" and the fuselage/body will feature a 1 1/2" x 2" x 10" payload space, additional payload could be attached to the exterior. The proposed vehicle will utilize a unique patented limb drive mechanism that facilitates ready transformation between different mobility modes. As a flight vehicle the OI-002 will be more agile and quiet than either fixed wing or rotary wing technologies, and as either a flight or a land vehicle its platform attitude controllability will be extremely versatile, allowing for high precision direction control.

ENERGY RESEARCH CONSULTANTS
23342 South Pointe Drive, Suite E
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 583-1197
Dr. Vincent G. McDonell
AF 04-181       Awarded: 16APR04
Title:Development of Phenomenological Liquid Spray Design Tool for Augmentor Operability and Performance
Abstract:Injection of a liquid stream into a high-speed crossflow is applicable to many combustion applications including gas turbine augmentors. As a result, liquid stream injection has been studied extensively in recent years. Theses studies have resulted in some design tools directed at jet breakup length, jet penetration, and spray features. Despite these studies, however, wide variations in expressions describing even basic features, such as jet penetration, are apparent, reaffirming the lack of sufficient design tools. Currently, a comprehensive physics-based design code (i.e., computational fluid dynamics (CFD)) cannot deal with breakup, secondary atomization, and strong phase coupling. The most advanced codes with relatively quick turnaround require many assumptions and simplifications regarding the spray to be made, such as representing the spray with an average droplet size (e.g., Sauter Mean Diameter), and spherical particles. Hence, to provide an accurate description of the augmentor efficiency, light off, and stability, improvements in design tools are required. In particular, tools that provide characteristics associated with the spatial and temporal distribution of the fuel, evaporation, and mixing that can be applied efficiently are key. This proposal outlines a non-CFD based approach to ensure maximum usability and rapid turnaround.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 904-4007
Dr. Terrence R. Meyer
AF 04-181       Awarded: 15MAY04
Title:Development of Phenomenological Liquid Spray Design Tool for Augmentor Operability and Performance
Abstract:The combination of empirical spray modeling, dense- and dilute-spray diagnostics, and CFD simulation will be used to provide a more accurate spray-design tool for gas-turbine augmentors. A global model of liquid breakup and droplet dispersion will be assembled based on existing correlations for liquid-jet trajectory, surface breakup, column breakup, secondary breakup of droplets, and evaporation. The model will be validated for liquid-jet injection into a gaseous crossflow under augmentor conditions, including the effects of high inlet temperature and flame-holder geometry. A newly demonstrated diagnostic technique called ballistic imaging shadowgraphy, made possible by the availability of ultrafast lasers, will be used to capture high-resolution images through the dense-spray region. This will provide critical new data on ligamentation, jet-core instabilities, jet-core breakup, and dense-spray effects. A one-way-coupled Lagrangian numerical simulation will be used as the test-bed for parametric studies. Finally, a fully-coupled large-scale CFD simulation will be performed by our partners in the gas-turbine industry to test the performance of the global model.

ENGINEERING RESEARCH & ANALYSIS CO.
340 SENTINEL OAK DRIVE
DAYTON, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2007
Dr. Mohammed A. Mawid
AF 04-182       Awarded: 08APR04
Title:Control of Fuel Atomization and Mixing for Emission Reduction in High Performance Gas Turbines
Abstract:An innovative ariblast-based single-lip fuel injector with piloted fuel for advanced military gas turbine combustors is proposed for development in this SBIR. The proposed innovative fuel injector design concept will significantly improve the mixing performance of fuel and air in the vicinity of the fuel injector, thus resulting in substantially improved fuel/air mixture distribution, homogenities, uniformity and significantly lower NOx production. The proposed design concept will also reduce the mixing length required to achieve well-mixed fuel and air prior to burning and consequently shortening the mixture residence time, which will decrease combustor length and consequently engine's weight.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2313
Mr. James Nabity
AF 04-182       Awarded: 06APR04
Title:MEMS Jet Fuel Atomizer
Abstract:Future aircraft will require highly efficient propulsive power plants to achieve their performance goals. Improvements in gas turbine combustion are needed; particularly broader flammability limits and reduced emissions. Fuel injection, both atomization and distribution, is critical for stable flameholding and complete combustion. Undesirable emissions largely stem from unburned fuel and high temperature zones created by poor atomization and mixing. Unfortunately, current atomizers produce a droplet distribution that has an unacceptably large number of big droplets up to 200 microns even though the Sauter-mean diameter can be as small as 30-40 microns. Therefore, TDA Research, Inc., teamed with the University of Colorado-Boulder, proposes a novel self-aspirated MEMS atomizer based on the principles first used in inkjet atomization. A MEMS atomizer can produce monodisperse droplets smaller than 50 microns with very little pressure drop. The atomizer will be designed to operate in JP-8 fueled gas turbine engines. In Phase I we will predict atomizer performance, design and fabricate prototype MEMS atomizers, and conduct spray atomization tests in a windowed dump combustor. In Phase II we will design large array atomizers, conduct CFD analyses, construct prototypes and integrate them into a laboratory scale turbine for combustor testing.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Ian Shay
AF 04-183       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:TBC Characterization Using Hybrid Sensors with Multivariate Inversion Methods
Abstract:This proposed effort will develop a TBC characterization methodology based on inductive (MWM), capacitive (IDED), and/or hybrid sensors using multivariate inversion algorithms. Phase I will include the development of a flexible IDED, the study of hybrid MWM/IDED multivariate measurement techniques and work toward the development of IDED or hybrid segmented-field arrays. These arrays will provide independent measurement of up to five unknown properties of the coating system, e.g., ceramic coating thickness and porosity, bondcoat thickness and porosity, and substrate thermal aging. This Phase I program also contains important preparatory steps that will support application of the hybrid sensors for TBC life cycle monitoring by building understanding of the relationships between coating quality, coating degradation mechanisms, and coating electromagnetic properties. This new NDI capability for TBCs would be applicable to all stages of the turbine engine life cycle, by providing the coating developer with a reliable coating screening method, the coating manufacturer with enhanced quality control, and the turbine engine operator with a means of ensuring coating structural integrity, implementing retirement/refurbishment for cause, and estimating life expectancy. This will result in cost savings for the entire engine life cycle.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Peter A. DeBarber
AF 04-183       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Compact Instrumentation for Thermal Barrier Coating Integrity Monitoring
Abstract:In this proposal, we outline a plan to develop compact non-destructive inspection instrumentation for Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) integrity monitoring on fielded turbine engine components. Its operation is based on a unique combination of two optical techniques. Using a compact laser, fluorescence and thermal signals are generated simultaneously within the Thermally Grown Oxide (TGO) layer. These signals are used to quantify the residual stress inside this layer, as well as the fraction of delaminated interface areas, thus providing a means to assess the remaining lifetime of the coating. The instrumentation can be used in two modes: a global monitoring mode to appraise the integrity of the entire engine components, and a local monitoring mode to look at specific surface areas of these components. In this proposal, we outline the operational principles of the proposed system and the anticipated performance envelope. For Phase I, we propose to develop a breadboard system for analysis of critical performance and design parameters, determine the suitability for practical use on fielded engine components, and deliver a conceptual prototype design to be produced in Phase II.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Mr. Michael Painter
AF 04-184       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Reliability Centered Maintenance Scheduler (RCMS) Tool
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and successfully deploy a genetic algorithm-based, Reliability Centered Maintenance Scheduler (RCMS) tool and supporting application methodology to help users maximize propulsion system availability while simultaneously minimizing life cycle cost. Unlike on-condition maintenance (OCM), which involves repairs or replacements driven by policy (e.g., periodic maintenance schedules) and/or failure to meet specified form, fit, or function specification limits, the RCMS methodology considers the overall effects of possible maintenance actions _ or the risk of not performing those maintenance actions _ on aggregate level metrics like engine availability, performance, and life cycle cost. This effort expands the RCM concept to treat aircraft engines as part of a propulsion system that is either now, or at some point will be, part of an individual aircraft system. Using the products of this effort, users in the depot and field maintenance units will have visibility and decision support enabling them to develop effective engine maintenance plans and schedules in a user-friendly, multi-criteria optimization environment.

NATURAL SELECTION, INC.
3333 N. Torrey Pines Ct., Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-6449
Dr. David B. Fogel
AF 04-184       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Genetic Algorithm Optimized Probabilistic Maintenance Scheduling
Abstract:The Air Force does not have an optimal means for performing maintenance on jet aircraft engines. Although engine repair can be based on scheduled removal, most removals occur after engine failure. The performance criteria for optimal maintenance involve, at least, maximizing the percentage of mission capable aircraft over a given period of time while minimizing the cost per engine flight hour, specific maintenance, and logistics. The space of possible repair strategies can be represented on a computer and searched effectively using an evolutionary algorithm. Natural Selection Inc. and subcontractor GE GRC will adapt an existing available simulation and design an evolutionary approach that considers the expected life of the engine parts, the random failure rates, operational readiness requirements, required scheduled maintenance constraints, the costs of maintenance actions, and the cost of replacement including lead time considerations. Phase I experiments will provide a basis for assessing the transition requirements for Phase II to construct a system to execute in a prototype operation to minimize the cost per engine flight hour based on available cost data. The process will be transitioned to service both the Air Force aircraft, as well as those of other services, and commercial customers for GE.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5149
Dr. Lin Simpson
AF 04-185       Awarded: 07APR04
Title:High-Rate Long-Life Nanoparticle Secondary Li Battery
Abstract:Large specific-capacity Li ion batteries are presently available in the market place but suffer from power fade, limited rate, low cycle-life, and limited temperature range. ITN's unique thin-film battery and electrochemistry expertise is ideal to develop high specific-capacity batteries with high rates (>20 C), large temperature ranges (-50 to 150C), and long cycle-life (>5000 cycles). The key is to develop inexpensive manufacturing that substantially increases the specific capacity of ITN's current thin-film battery technology. In Phase I, ITN will demonstrate the feaibility of developing a high-rate, high-specific-capacity battery technology based on nanoparticales and nanostructures. This will include: 1) Characterizing the electrical properties of unique nanoparticle cathodes, innovative nanoporous self-supporting electrolytes and porous Li-based anode structures to demonstrate the substantial increase in Li diffusivity performance at various environmental conditions; 2) Identifing optimal active electrochemical battery components, current collectors and oxygen/water impervious protective layers; 3) Initial demonstration of all battery components in functional electrochemical stacks; and 4) Identification of manufacturable processing. In Phase II, ITN will build functional prototype batteries that have the high-specific-capacity, high-rate of charge/discharge, and long operating lifetimes needed for advanced military missions and commercial applications.

NEI CORP.
Suite 102/103, 201 Circle Drive
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-1906
Dr. Amit Singhal
AF 04-185       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Nanomaterials enabled high power and fast charge rate Li-ion batteries
Abstract:High power (> 500 W/kg) and fast charge rate (> 5C) Li-ion batteries that possess good energy density and can operate over a wide temperature range are needed in a variety of commercial, military and space applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles, power tools, satellites and launch vehicles. State-of-the-art rechargeable Li-ion batteries are incapable of fulfilling these stringent requirements. We propose to develop Li-ion batteries with fast rate capabilities, long cycle life and shelf life by utilizing nanostructured electrodes with novel structures. Working in collaboration with a leading developer of Li-ion batteries, in Phase I, we will demonstrate that it is possible to produce a stable high power and energy density nanostructured cathode by controlling the structure and composition of nanoparticles. As part of the Phase I work, the electrochemical properties of nanostructured cathodes will be evaluated in Li and Li-ion (made of a nanostructured anode) cells. In Phase II, prototype batteries will be fabricated and tested for performance, along with optimization and scaling of the synthesis process for producing electrode nanoparticles.

T/J TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3850 Research Park Drive, P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 213-1637
Dr. Chuanjing Xu
AF 04-185       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:High Rate Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Using Nano-Composite Electrode Materials
Abstract:This DOD Air Force Phase I SBIR proposal focuses on developing and demonstrating a nanomaterials-based high rate rechargeable battery technology that provides performance, weight and safety advantages for space-based military applications. Specifically, the proposed Li-ion rechargeable battery system is expected to offer a next generation high power energy storage device capable of storing and delivering energy at charge/discharge rates up to 60C (charge/discharge time: 1 minutes). This is a significant improvement over state-of-the-art commercial rechargeable batteries with the maximum discharge rate of 2C (discharge time: 0.5 hour). Both anode and cathode materials are specially designed nano-composites that have high energy storage capacity, high electronic conductivity, fast lithium diffusivity, and are compatible with high performance electrolytes. The proposed research will be built on T/J Technologies' innovative electrode materials and extensive system-level development for high rate Li-ion rechargeable batteries. In Phase I, we will demonstrate that the proposed Li-ion rechargeable battery system has a superior high rate performance over commercial Li-ion rechargeable batteries. In Phase II, we will optimize the proposed battery system and work with the Advanced Battery Technology group of Boeing Phantom Works to further develop Li-ion prototype batteries for space and commercial applications.

COVALENT ASSOC., INC.
10 State Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 938-1140
Dr. Victor R. Koch
AF 04-186       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Thermal Battery with Low Internal Operating Temperatures for Missile Applications
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force requires rechargeable thermal battery technology that can function at low skin temperatures for use in advanced weapons systems. Based on proof-of-concept experiments conducted by us, we believe that a rechargeable thermal battery technology may be achieved by marrying "off the shelf" lithium ion battery electrodes to a new class of non-flammable molten salt electrolytes. We envision a lithium ion cell chemistry operating at ~100C that can provide high energy densities and high rate capabilities with battery skin temperature significantly lower than that of current thermal primary batteries. During Phase I the new molten salt electrolytes will be characterized in respect to ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability. The best electrolytes will be cycled in lithium ion cells at elevated temperatures.

ELECTRO ENERGY, INC.
3820 S Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs, CO 80911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 392-4266
Dr. David F. Pickett
AF 04-186       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Thermal Battery with Low Internal Operating Temperatures for Missile Applications
Abstract:A thermal battery using a lithium-aluminum alloy as cathode and transition metal oxide cathode is proposed with a low melting ionic liquid as electrolyte. The proposed couple will be evaluated with alternative pyro heat sources. It is anticipated that the couple will have limited rechargeability and have specific power similar to state-of-the-art thermal batteries.

VIOSENSE CORP.
36 South Chester Avenue
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 432-9950
Dr. Dominique Fourguette
AF 04-187       Awarded: 08APR04
Title:A Miniature Onboard Seedless Boundary Layer Velocimeter (SBLV) for High Speed Flows
Abstract:We propose small, highly responsive and rugged multi-point, multi-component velocity instrumentation for velocity measurements in supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers. The sensor does not require seeding. It will provide instantaneous measurement of boundary layer profiles for high speed ground testing and for airborne applications. The proposed instrumentation is based on the well-developed Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Velocimetry technique. The proposed "Seedless Boundary Layer Velocimeter (SBLV)" will accurately and non-intrusively measure three velocity components in as many as twenty locations with a spatial resolution of the order of 30 microns. The velocimeter will incorporate specially designed diffractive optical elements resulting in a boundary layer profiler with no moving parts and a very small footprint. High power narrow-line slightly diverging laser beam together with efficient design of the sensor optics will allow detection of scattered light from gas molecules. During the Phase I, a multi-location SBLV prototype will be fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. Feasibility of the concept will be established for the temporal bandwidth, spatial resolution, accuracy, ruggedness, and ease of use. During the Phase II, a complete diagnostic system for simultaneous measurement of flow velocity profile at up to 20 locations will be developed.

VIP SENSORS
302 Calle Paisano
San Clemente, CA 92673
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 366-1254
Mr. Alex Karolys
AF 04-187       Awarded: 07APR04
Title:Hypersonic Sensor Architecture Evaluation, Sensor Testing and Communication Needs
Abstract:Flight test and on-board monitoring programs require multiple and different types of measurements, including pressure, temperature, heat flux, strain and vibration. As many as four to six wires from each sensor carry analog signals and power to and from the analog signal conditioning. For large numbers of sensors, this will mean large numbers of wires that add weight and occupy significant space. Traditional analog transducer systems result in large, long bundles of cables carrying analog signals that are difficult to manage and are susceptible to EMI/RFI noise pick up. Faint sensor signals often require special shielding and elaborate grounding schemes. Flight testing of future hypersonic vehicles compounds the above mentioned instrumentation challenges by requiring light weight, small volume hardware that operates properly under harsh environmental conditions. The instrumentation must survive the high temperature and high vibration generated by the hypersonic speeds and aircraft maneuvers. The sensor technology to perform the needed measurements on hypersonic vehicles is readily available. What are lacking are the ruggedized sensors and system components that are able to operate under the harsh environmental conditions, as well as an effective system architecture that drastically reduces volume and weight requirements. VIP Sensors proposes to design a new ruggedized measurement system architecture that processes signals from multiple sensors and sensor types distributed throughout the hypersonic vehicle, and transfer real time data to the ground or other air vehicle. It is based on networked digital sensors and highly integrated electronics technology. The proposed system consists of smart sensors, postage stamp size interface modules (IBIM) that convert traditional analog sensors to smart ones, and a network interface controller (NIC) that controls the transducer digital bus and sends PCM-coded data to a COTS telemetry system. Smart Sensors contain embedded analog signal conditioning and digital signal processing. They each interface with a digital network communication bus to form a multi-drop sensor measurement system. Small interface modules (IBIM), containing all of the electronic functions of a smart sensor, are used in those applications where temperatures of the transducer exceed the operating range of electronics components, or the transducer size limitations do not allow integration of the electronic functions. The Network Interface Controller is the master of the digital network. It provides DC power to the IBIM's, and it also has the option to provide to the IBIM a synchronization signal to achieve synchronous/simultaneous data sampling among all the IBIM's on the digital transducer bus. Smart Sensor systems offer highly desirable attributes, especially when dealing with large numbers of measurement channels, such as: elimination of traditional bulky analog signal conditioners and data acquisition boxes (less weight and volume); reduction of cables and interconnects (network instead of point to point wiring); increased reliability; improved EMI performance by transmitting digital signals instead of analog; improved Signal to Noise Ratio; common interface with multiple sensor types; lowered integration costs and lowered overall system cost. VIP Sensors in Phase I will: (1) develop small ruggedized packaging concepts for sensors and other system components to be able to operate under the demanding hypersonic flight environmental conditions; (2) define technical system characteristics such as sensor accuracy, bandwidth, data acquisition rate, sampling schedule, self-test, time synchronization among different measurements, etc.; (3) build a prototype measurement system with COTS components that proves the proposed smart sensor architecture concept; and (4) provide a detailed product development and commercialization plan to be executed in phase II A flight worthy prototype system will be developed, built and tested in Phase II. It will be comprised of miniature, ruggedized components able to operate in harsh hypersonic environments.

ZOLO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4946 N. 63rd Street
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-5804
Dr. Andrew D. Sappey
AF 04-187       Awarded: 08APR04
Title:All -Optical Hypersonic Vehicle Sensor System Architecture for Combustion System and Airframe Health Monitoring
Abstract:The realization of practical aircraft utilizing air-breathing, liquid-fueled SCRAMJET propulsion systems requires an extensive sensor system development effort. Catastrophic failure can occur due to a wide variety of conditions including combustion maladies such as "unstart" and lean blow off, and airframe integrity can easily be compromised due to excessively high skin temperature and strain at high MACH number. Developing a sensor system architecture that can detect the onset of these conditions for feedback control will be critical to successful development of practical SCRAMJET systems. Zolo Technologies proposes the development of an all-optical sensor system that uses fiber-optic technology as a backbone to monitor the onset of adverse operating conditions such as "unstart" and lean blow off as well as monitoring skin temperature, strain, vehicle position and attitude at up to kHz update rates. It will incorporate both passive (optical emission) and active (laser absorption) optical sensing. Advantages of an all-optical architecture include: flexibility, fiber-coupled robustness, noise and EMP immunity, and the leveraging of heavy investment in telecommunications.

CONTINUUM DYNAMICS, INC.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 538-0444
Dr. William J. Usab, Jr.
AF 04-188       Awarded: 13APR04
Title:Bio-Inspired Delayed Stall Fan/Compressor for Increased Performance
Abstract:Current turbomachinery designs have been optimized, for the most part, using "average flow" design concepts and tools. Future advances in engine performance, especially with regard to increasing per stage pressure ratio, stall margins, and reduced sensitivity to inlet distortion in fans/compressors, must come from innovative technologies which move beyond the current "steady flow" design space. The new frontier lies in the design of systems which harness and exploit unsteady phenomena. Recent research in biological motion has identified three new unsteady lift enhancement mechanisms used in nature: delayed stall, rotational lift, and vortex capture. With these unsteady mechanisms, biological flyers routinely generate lift and maneuvering forces which far exceed levels possible under steady flow conditions. The focus of this SBIR effort is to develop a new bio-inspired delayed stall fan/compressor (BDSFC) concept, employing delayed stall unsteady lift enhancement in a passive (non-actuated) way, to provide increased stage performance, and increased stall margins leading to reductions in the number of compressor stages (reduction in engine weight, part count, and cost).

DIVERSITECH, INC.
110 Boggs Lane, Suite 230
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 722-4447
Mr. Gary Holloway
AF 04-188       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Rotating Intershaft Brush Seals For Sealing Between Two Rotating Shafts
Abstract:The pursuit of high Mach number flight presents several challenges to the airframe and engine design engineers. Most obvious is the resulting high temperatures encountered as the aircraft approaches Mach 3 and above. The encountered high temperatures and shaft speeds of engines require rethinking in the areas of material selections, component design and component operating life. For the engine design engineer, the challenge lies in components that make up the bearings and seals region of the aircraft engine that encounter severe operational requirements. High operating temperatures and pressures and longer cycle durations are among these. The seals, which are used to seal the bearing compartments, or sumps, from high airflow ingestion, maintain a favorable air pressure gradient, and minimize engine lubricant loss, is such a component. In the area of sump compartment sealing, one of the most difficult sealing applications is the sealing of an engine's rear sump. Normally this sump will need some method of sealing between two rotating shafts. For the sealing of sumps, between rotating shafts, in gas turbine engines, there are two technologies that have been used up to the present time. These technologies are: . Carbon Seals . Labyrinth Seals Rotating Brush Seals to seal between shafts offer another technology.

ENERGETICS, INC.
P.O. Box 1745
Brea, CA 92822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 993-9811
Mr. Subra Iyer
AF 04-188       Awarded: 14APR04
Title: Portable power using primary chemical hydrides
Abstract:Ammonia and its compounds are a high energy-density source of hydrogen for electrochemical power. This proposal will develop the technology for using safe and benign ammonia compounds to serve as a fuel for ammonia-based fuel cells. Special membranes and electrodes will be developed during the course of this project. The technical objectives of the project are the development of a fuel cell, capable of 1500 Watt-hours per kilogram. Military benefits of a successful development include power source for micro air vehicles, portable power for soldiers and power for undersea vehicles.

INNOVATIVE POWER SOLUTIONS, LLC
22 Meridian Road, Suite 7
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 544-1075
Mr. Lev Sorkin
AF 04-188       Awarded: 08APR04
Title:Megawatt Digital Generator Control Unit (MDGCU) for Directed Energy Weapon (DEW) Applications
Abstract:Directed Energy Weapon (DEW) laser or microwave-based systems are being developed for both ground and airborne applications. These applications require significant amount of power, which ranges from several hundred kilowatts to Megawatts. The laser DEW requires that the full, tightly regulated, power is available intermittently, typically 5 seconds on followed by 10 seconds off. The control of a generator, which delivers Megawatt of the intermittent power greatly differs from the of normal steady state generator control. It poses significant challenges, and needs to be explored. Application/removal of such amount (1MW) of power is a transient phenomenon that takes time and effects whole power system (engine, generator and regulator). It is imperative that the full power is available for the required duration (including the transients) with no degradation in quality (level, ripple and stability). There are three sources that affect the performance of the control system: . The regulator control loop . The generator electromagnetic and mechanical properties . The Engine/JEDEC transient performance characteristics Innovative Power Solutions is proposing to explore the interaction between these systems and provide an optimal solution for controlling this class of Megawatt generators. PC Krause will perform system modeling so that realistic results will be attained.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Dr. Hooshang Heshmat
AF 04-188       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Aero Propulsion and Power Technology - Ramjet TBC
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force desires high mach air-breathing vehicles in support of "prompt global strike"-the ability to hit any target on Earth in the shortest possible time and without relying on forward bases. In support of this goal The Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate is conducting research in high mach propulsion systems. These systems require high temperature thermal barrier coatings with good adhesion, erosion resistance and corrosion/oxidation protection features. MiTir has developed a highly elastic, erosion resistant coating with good thermal barrier capabilities that may be applied via low temperature application processing. Under this effort preliminary thermal conductivity and adhesion tests will be conducted to demonstrate the characteristics of the developed coating. These characteristics will be compared against state of the art coatings to show comparable or better properties. Following preliminary testing, an optimized coating regimen will be established for use in Phase II.

PHOTRONIX
40 Amherst Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 899-6924
Dr. Phil Lamarre
AF 04-188       Awarded: 08APR04
Title:Aero Propulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:The proposal outlines a method to develop innovative technologies which provide major improvements for unmanned applications. In this proposal we will describe a small, efficient and inexpensive power plant to propel miniature air vehicles (munitions) for extended periods of time. This proposal addresses and deals with a novel approach to provide a reduced mass, efficient power source for small, fixed wing, long-loiter aircraft. The design, manufacture and testing of our revolutionary patent pending fuel cell based on a flexible substrate capable of being wrapped around the outside of a UAV and utilizing nanostructured materials is described within this proposal.

RANDOM TECHNOLOGIES
2325 Third Street Suite 404
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 255-1267
Dr. Amos Gottlieb
AF 04-188       Awarded: 13APR04
Title:On-Line Dexoygenation of Jet Fuel for Coke Suppresion
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project addresses the development of tubular and planar membranes to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing small, lightweight, energy efficient, on-board, in-line fuel deoxygenation systems that will effectively suppress autoxidative coke formation in aircraft fuel systems. Random Technologies recognizes the need for an on-line device to remove dissolved oxygen. This need arises from the well-established fact that dissolved oxygen is the major contributor to thermal decomposition of jet fuels and the resulting coke deposition. This proposal concerns the science and technology necessary to develop planar membranes and arrays of tubular membranes suitable for this application.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 580-0080
Dr. Daniel J. Sullivan
AF 04-188       Awarded: 16APR04
Title:Microwave Enhanced Combustion
Abstract:This proposal describes a research program which will continue an ongoing investigation of the effect of microwave energy on the combustion processes of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Previous research conducted by Research Support Instruments and Princeton University have demonstrated that the application of modest amounts of microwave power can result in flame speed increases of up to 65%, and the physical models developed indicate that it may be possible to double or even triple the flame speed using a refinement of our techniques. The logical progression of this research would be to extend this technique such that a microwave resonator is incorporated into the design of a high-speed combustor. Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to expand the scope of its previous research on microwave enhanced combustion into two areas of interest which have not yet been examined: . The use of a circular resonant microwave cavity as the microwave applicator. . Preactivation of the hydrocarbon fuel using a dielectric barrier discharge. This Phase I program would continue our joint research efforts with the Applied Physics Group of Princeton University who will act as a subcontractor on the program.

SPIRITECH ADVANCED PRODUCTS, INC.
880 Jupiter Park Drive, Suite 8
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Mr. Dan Haid
AF 04-188       Awarded: 19APR04
Title:Confined Recirculation Combustion Afterburner
Abstract:The future of manned and unmanned vehicles requires significant improvements in engine thrust-to-weight ratio, efficiency, length, and cost. These improvements may be realized in the afterburner for supersonic missiles, Mach 8-10 strike/reconnaissance aircraft, and hypersonic vehicles operating with a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC). Spiritech Advanced Products, Inc. proposes to increase the thrust -to-weight ratio of turbine engines by decreasing the length of the afterburner. This is to be accomplished through Confined Recirculation Combustion (CRC). In a well-designed afterburner, combustion efficiency is determined by the fuel residence time. For conventional afterburners, high efficiency comes at the expense of a long duct. In the CRC afterburner, some or all of the fuel, is injected into a cavity that recirculates a portion of the airflow, increasing the residence time of the fuel without increasing the length. In addition, the recirculating zone can act as a pilot at high power conditions when additional fuel is injected into the main flow. The Phase I effort will focus on verifying the feasibility of this concept and will provide; a parametric design matrix, calibration of design matrix in AFRL's High-Pressure Combustor Research Facility, conceptual design methodology/guidelines, CFD analysis, and conceptual design for Phase II demonstration test.

SPIRITECH ADVANCED PRODUCTS, INC.
880 Jupiter Park Drive, Suite 8
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Mr. Eric Gamble
AF 04-188       Awarded: 13APR04
Title:Fluidic Nozzle to Improve Transonic Performance of Hypersonic Vehicle
Abstract:Use of fluidic injection of high-pressure air is proposed to improve a hypersonic vehicle's installed nozzle performance and eliminate undesirable pitching moments at off-design, transonic flight conditions. Hypersonic flight vehicles are typically designed with a high expansion ratio Single Expansion Ramp Nozzle (SERN) for a design point at high Mach number flight conditions. However, at low Mach number (transonic) flight, the nozzle is over-expanded, resulting in low, sub-ambient pressures acting on the expansion ramp surface. These sub-ambient pressures cause increased drag, reduced performance, and large pitching moments. The loss in net thrust-minus-drag performance may be as high as 25% throughout much of the transonic flight regime. The corresponding pitching moment is large and must be overcome by increasing the size of the vehicle's control surfaces. The proposed fluidic injection concept eliminates these problems and improves the overall vehicle performance by injecting high-pressure air into the nozzle to induce a flow separation, thereby increasing the pressure on the SERN ramp. The objective of this Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of fluidic injection to improve off-design performance of hypersonic aircraft at transonic speeds, culminating in the preliminary design of an experimental rig to be used for Phase II testing.

TEST DEVICES, INC.
6 Loring Street
Hudson, MA 01749
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-6017
Mr. Paul Wawrzonek
AF 04-188       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Replication and Demonstration of Thermal Mechanical Fatigue on Gas Turbine Engine Rotors in a Spin Test Environemnt
Abstract:Test Devices proposes a program to develop and demonstrate a capability that imposes a radial temperature distribution as well as the centrifugal load on turbine engine disks in a spin test environment. This capability will simulate operating strain histories, i.e. thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF), the results of which will permit more realistic service life predictions. The first phase involves demonstrating the feasibility of TMF in a spin rig by applying a constant temperature gradient across the test article. Phase 2 involves a technological step up with the inclusion of a cooled arbor and the acquisition and implementation of a quartz oven for high heat flux for accurate control of a real-world variable temperature distribution. The use of such a facility will provide a more accurate simulation of rotor operation to establish reliable service life and maintenance schedules for gas turbine components. The capability will directly contribute to the Durability initiatives of the VAATE program. Additionally, the capability would support the industry desire for more accurate physical testing as a prelude to eventual virtual testing. TDI has a demonstrated history of developing advanced spin pit technology and is thus well qualified to conduct this program.

TK ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
55 Merchant Street, Suite 220
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 552-5151
Mr. James Waltz
AF 04-188       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Aircraft Propulsion Thermal Management Module
Abstract:The proposed Propulsion Thermal Management Module (PTMM), a key subsystem of the aircraft Integrated Thermal Management System (ITMS), is designed to supply cooling to all propulsion system components, including the engine, exhaust nozzle, fuel controls(FADEC), lubrication, and hydraulic systems. The propulsion thermal management module would be matched to cooling requirements for a wide range of aircraft propulsion systems by adding or increasing the size of basic components. The propulsion thermal management module is designed to increase efficiency of turboramjet engines by optimizing the distribution of fuel coolant between the turbomachinery and ramjet coolant systems to maximize operating temperatures. Cooling requirements of the turboramjet are unique in that during climb the highest heat load is on the turbomachinery and at high Mach cruise the highest heat load is in the ramjet section. A typical multiple engine aircraft would have a propulsion module for each engine matched to the aircraft mission requirements. The proposed prototype design, simulation, and testing effort will result in demonstration of a propulsion thermal management module suitable for high Mach aircraft applications (LRSA, RTA, JSF).

TK ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
55 Merchant Street, Suite 220
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 552-5014
Mr. Lawrence Butler
AF 04-188       Awarded: 13APR04
Title:UAV Propulsion
Abstract:This proposal covers The TK Engineering plan for UAV Propulsion. The basis of the proposal is that the DOD 25 year UAV roadmap/plan details the growing need for UAV aircraft to meet DOD mission requirements. The DOD roadmap focuses on Aircraft development but very limited funded effort is being directed at Propulsion for UAV's. This proposed program would focus on developing a Common Gas Generator Core which could utilize several types of low pressure systems making a family of gas turbine based propulsion systems for various types of UAV's.

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4427
Dr. Charles D.E. Lakeman
AF 04-188       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Integrated Power Sources for MEMS with Extended Mission Durations
Abstract:TPL proposes to develop a small volume small footprint, high capacity power source for MEMS and microsystems with extended mission durations. The proposed approach will apply TPL's novel VOLUMETRIC (or 3-D) design for minimum footprint, minimum volume electrochemical devices to high energy density lithium ion (Li-ion) chemistry. The resulting Li-ion microbatteries will provide a rechargeable power source for stand-alone MEMS sensors and miniaturized wireless communications devices used in advanced Air Force systems such as Micro Air Deployed Munitions. These novel devices will be the first MEMS-scale Li-ion microbatteries that exploit 3-D geometries to maximize capacity. Li-ion batteries are attractive for defense and consumer applications because of their high energy density (400Wh/kg), high voltage (>3.5V), and their ability to be recharged (>500 cycles). Combined with TPL's patented volumetric supercapacitors, the proposed small form factor batteries will enable a minimum-volume, minimum weight power source. Such a power supply will be critical to realizing discrete minimum volume (covert) microsystems for extended lifetime missions. TPL has pioneered volumetric micro-electrochemical devices, and is uniquely qualified to ensure delivery of a micro-power supply that will support MEMS applications in both commercial and military markets.

WOODBINE LABS, INC.
10624 Kenridge Dr.
Cincinnati, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 891-8792
Mr. Richard Ravenhall
AF 04-188       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Development Technology for a Stepped Diameter TMC Shaft
Abstract:This proposal is to develop and demonstrate technologies for a VAATE TMC tapered counter-rotating shaft. The GEAE VAATE engine incorporates counter-rotating inner/outer shafts. The inner shaft has a long length, relatively small diameter and is tapered along its length. To satisfy dynamic and torsion requirements (high frequency along with high torsion capability) it employs a high stiffness, high torsion strength, and low-density TMC material. Issues associated with using TMCs for such an application have not been studied; i.e., (1) arrangements and methods for fiber/matrix architecture control and consolidation processing in a varying cross section tapered TMC shaft, (2) related process and performance modeling, (3) vibration response and strength prediction trade studies, (4) crack growth rate and toughness as a function of TMC fiber architecture, and (5) fiber bridging effects during ply layup, HIP processing and cyclic torsion operation. Phase I will study these issues, develop concepts and fabricate a stepped diameter TMC part to demonstrate capability for successful design, manufacture and implementation of a counter-rotating TMC shaft. Phase II will provide detailed analytical derivations, development and prototypical device demonstrations as well as develop a technology transition plan for future systems and commercial ventures.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
125 Tech Park Drive
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-6273
Mr. Carl S. Byington
AF 04-189       Awarded: 29APR05
Title:Automated Contingency and Life Management for Integrated Propulsion and Power Systems
Abstract:Impact Technologies and Honeywell Engines, Systems, and Services propose the development and validation of an Automated Contingency and Life Management (ACLM) system for integrated propulsion and power systems. The ACLM will integrate advanced health monitoring capabilities with engine and power system control, thus enabling utilization of performance and health information for optimal mission planning and execution. Through fusion of accurate performance and health management information with controls logic, the ACLM system will provide automated response analysis to changing environmental conditions and system degradation/failures in real-time. The ACLM will comprise of two functional modules: Prognostic Health Management (PHM) and Intelligent Adaptive Control (IAC). The on-line generic PHM algorithms proposed utilizes a combination of sensor data, signal processing, data/knowledge fusion, physical/empirical models and an integrated reasoner to predict degraded performance or health condition. The PHM algorithms will be adapted for application to engine sensors and actuators, gas path and generator health analysis. The hierarchical IAC module will use PHM information to perform capability assessment of its respective system and perform operation re-planning and optimization, if necessary. The ACLM system will be demonstrated on a propulsion system.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Tom Brotherton
AF 04-189       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Generic Propulsion Health Management / Controller System
Abstract:The Air Force is developing a wide variety of technologies for aircraft engine propulsion / engine health management (PHM/EHM). These technologies include; high frequency vibration for bearing monitoring, oil chemistry / condition, oil debris, and on-board life models, for example. Unfortunately, many promising algorithms developed under the SBIR program cannot easily be integrated into existing PHM/EHM systems. The PHM/EHM manufacturers and advanced algorithm developers seem disconnected. A second issue is that PHM technologies have not been integrated with engine control systems to optimize engine performance and safety. IAC, with Hamilton Sundstrand and Luppold & Associates support, proposes to develop a generic hardware and software system to support development and fielding of integrated engine PHM / control systems. This system will also facilitate integration of third party algorithms. This system is based on the PC-104 card format, VxWorksT and Matlab development environment. IAC has extensive experience in development and fielding similar systems for Army helicopter vibration equipment.

ASPEN SYSTEMS, INC.
184 Cedar Hill Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. Jae Ryu
AF 04-190       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Permselective Membrane-based In-line Sulfur Monitoring System
Abstract:Aspen Systems proposes to develop a highly selective, high sensitivity and fast-response in-line sulfur monitoring system based on advanced membrane technology. In the proposed sulfur sensors, the active membrane layer selectively extracts sulfur compounds from the logistic fuel processing streams. The sulfur in the membrane will transport through the active membrane and oxide at the permeate side of the membrane. By monitoring the electrical impedance of the active membrane layer, we will determine sulfur contents in the feed side (fuel gas streams). Sulfur permselectivity will be achieved by employing a nano-particle based solid thin film deposition technique. Furthermore, we will determine optimum MEMS sensor architecture to achieve high sensitivity, fast response time and long term durability. In Phase I, we will experimentally demonstrate the proposed concept of high sulfur diffusivity, selectivity, and sensitivity of the thin film membrane-based sulfur sensor technology. Based on these experimental results, we will also complete the engineering design of the prototype sulfur monitoring system, including design and performance specifications, and automatic control algorism. In Phase II, we will fabricate and tests the MEMS sulfur sensors with respect to selectivity, sensitivity, response time and long-term durability, including on-off cycling tests.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0530
Dr. Robert C. McDonald
AF 04-190       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:MEMS Based Sulfur Detection for Logistic Fuel-Based Fuel Cell Power Generators
Abstract:Sensors will be developed wherein the electroadsorpton of the target analyte will be monitored by measuring the surface conductivity of the high-surface-area nanoparticles oxide composite sensor. Sensitivity and response time are modulated electrically to shift surface electron states into or out of adsorbent/oxide overlap orbitals. The system will be optimized to measure trace levels of sulfur species such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) in JP-8 vapors to signal a potential threat to the functioning of desulfurization systems used in solid oxide fuel cells.

ION OPTICS, INC.
411 Waverley Oaks Road, Suite 144
Waltham, MA 02452
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 788-8777
Dr. Mark P. McNeal
AF 04-190       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Sulfur Detection for Logistic Fuel-Based Fuel Cell Generators
Abstract:Ion Optics proposes to develop a MEMS based, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopic instrument to measure the sulfur content of the hot gas stream feed for the fuel cell. Prototype laboratory instruments have demonstrated the specificity and sensitivity of this technique to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in 100,aC phosphoric acid fuel-cell feeds from reformed gasoline under conditions that caused rapid failure of all electrochemical sensors. This Phase 1 research will demonstrate detection of sulfur at sub-25ppm levels at 400,aC in less than one second using NDIR technology. Test gases will include feed stock with appropriate potential interferents (CO, CO2, H2O, and hydrocarbons). Ion Optics is developing a prototype MEMS device for NDIR spectroscopy that combines the functions of light source, detector and optical filter onto one chip. Phase I results and specifications will define the necessary modifications to the chip for detecting low-concentrations of sulfur in high-temperature reformed-fuel streams. Optimized MEMS devices would be available for use in Phase 2 deliverables for Air Force testing.

INVOCON, INC.
19221 IH-45 South; Ste. 530
Conroe, TX 77385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 292-9903
Mr. Paul Zymowski
AF 04-192       Awarded: 16APR04
Title:Synchronized Wireless Accelerometer Network (SWAN)
Abstract:The need for miniature sensor devices that can acquire vibration data associated with military flight testing is promoting the use of emerging technologies in innovative wireless instrumentation systems. When combined with aircraft diagnostic and prognostic systems, aircraft safety can be enhanced, total cost of ownership can be reduced and asset availability can be increased. These sensor devices must be autonomous and non-intrusive. "Autonomy" is defined as a self-powered device with its own transducer that communicates its data without wires. "Non-intrusive" is defined as a bonded or magnetic attachment to a gearbox, shaft, or airframe, and the subsequent removal without shape or structural damage. The innovation proposed in this document is a robust network of synchronized wireless sensors that will acquire aircraft flight data. The system will provide the capability for monitoring of critical locations within the propulsion system or airframe and will expedite flight data acquisition by simplifying measurement system installations. The use of these devices will also reduce the cost of test equipment setup, which will result in lower cost aircraft testing. The modular nature provides a clear path toward the integration of numerous transducer families, and the open architecture will embrace emerging transducer technologies as they mature.

NEXTGEN AERONAUTICS
2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 891-2807
Dr. Shiv P Joshi
AF 04-192       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Self-Powered Wireless Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for Vibration Monitoring
Abstract:Although great strides have been made over the last decade in reducing the size and cost of many types of sensors through the use of MEMS technology, these cost savings have not been realized by the end user. Increasing the total cost of using a sensor in a testing application comes primarily from the installation, i.e. the labor cost of the installation out-weighs the sensor itself. What is needed in these situations is a compact, light, wireless sensor that takes advantage of advances in fabrication technologies and inventive packaging to reduce system cost to the point that it is disposable. NextGen proposes to use commercial-off-the-shelf devices assembled in a compact and intelligently designed packaging that uses a snap-together package to reduce cost and allow battery replacement. Additionally, the concept can be expanded to many sensor types (pressure, temperature, chem/bio, etc.) by swapping the sensor and making minor logic changes. NextGen has significant experience in packaging of sensor hardware and its use in health monitoring applications and will team with Virginia Tech's Center for Wireless Technology to provide the wireless design expertise and with Endevco, a leader in the accelerometer market, to supply networking standards and market direction.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Gerhard L. Holleck
AF 04-193       Awarded: 06APR04
Title:Solid-State Electrolyte for High Pulse-Power Energy Sources
Abstract:Lithium-ion batteries are the state of the art choice for military and commercial applications requiring high specific energy. Solid state polymer electrolyte configurations are particularly attractive since they permit a high degree of flexibility in design. The main limitations are operation at high rate and low temperature. To permit high rate operation over a wide temperature range, the development of a novel, solid-state electrolyte with single ion (Li+) conductivity and low, nearly temperature independent resistance is proposed. The electrolyte makes use of well ordered heterocyclic compounds, which can complex with Li, and where the intermolecular structure encourages quasi continuous channels with low activation energy for Li+ ion movement in the electric field. A successful development would result in lithium based batteries with significantly increased energy and power density.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Sorhab Hossain
AF 04-193       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:A Novel Solid Electrolyte for Lithium Battery Systems
Abstract:Solid lithium-ion conductive electrolytes offer great promise to the development of low cost, long life, safe lithium based batteries. Such solid electrolyte must have an ionic conductivity greater than 10-3 S/cm, lithium-ion transference number close to unity and stability up to 5 V. The present conventional solid polymer electrolytes are well short of meeting these requirements. A novel solid electrolyte containing a large anion moiety is proposed. The developed electrolyte expects to meet the desired characteristics and can be used in lithium based batteries. The proposed solid electrolyte will be produced and characterized using analytical and electrochemical techniques. Prototype full cells will be developed to assess the technical feasibility and proof of concept. The cost factors of every steps will be reviewed and a complete cost model will be developed that will provide a guide for Phase II work.

AEROVIRONMENT, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Avenue
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 357-9983
Mr. Omourtag Velev
AF 04-194       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Fuel Cell Power System with Parallel-Connected Bi-directional DC-DC
Abstract:Satellite platforms require lightweight, highly reliable energy production and storage systems to maximize payload power and performance. The regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system is a promising electrochemical technology that has a high specific energy on the order of 550Wh/kg. An RFC system in hybrid configuration with a battery requires a specialized bi-directional DC-DC converter to protect the fuel cell, control the flow of power to and from the battery, and stabilize the DC bus. The proposed Phase I effort will investigate the feasibility of developing a complex DC-DC converter for satellite RFC/battery hybrid system applications. The DC-DC converter must have a high conversion efficiency, low weight, low volume and sophisticated control scheme to minimize the RFC system specific energy. The control scheme in particular must regulate the system under a variety of conditions, yet protect system components. AeroVironment will overcome the many technical challenges with experience gained developing a high altitude RFC system for NASA's ERAST program, conducting other fuel cell integration projects and designing many DC-DC converters. By demonstrating feasibility, we will assist the Air Force to develop efficient energy production and storage systems for satellites and other space platforms for station-keeping and powering large payloads.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. R. O. Loutfy
AF 04-194       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:Advanced Fast-electronic Power Control System for Fuel Cell
Abstract:The US Air Force will need smarter power source equipment to supplement primary power systems in remote-support ground stations in order to sustain long-term operations. Typically, solar based power systems are used. Fuel cell technologies and solar array source make the sources renewable and environmentally safe. However, fuel cell technologies require complex controlling scheme that must ensure efficient and robust power transfer from the sources without risks of their rapidly degraded reliability due to prolonged over-current and under voltage conditions. Therefore, MER Corporation is proposing to develop a fuel cell control system that employs fast responding control electronics. The proposed controller will reliably and efficiently manage power between the fuel cell, standby battery, and load via a bidirectional DC-DC converter. The design will take advantage of a recently available sophisticated integrated circuit designed for similar power management in portable electronics. MER is proposing to apply this new IC to manage much larger power schemes for the stable and reliable operation of fuel cell generators.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4186
Dr. Bindu Nair
AF 04-197       Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid POSS-co-poly(carbonate/methacrylate) Polymers for Improved Performance Aircraft Canopies
Abstract:Currently, the structural material of choice for jet fighter canopies is polycarbonate (PC) as it is transparent, lightweight, and has exceptional toughness and impact resistance properties. However, in order to increase the maximum velocities of fighter jets, the next generation of jet canopies must be able to operate at higher temperature than can be achieved with PC, which is limited to 150C. A method of improving the glass transition temperature of PC materials is to form a copolymer with poly oligosilsesquioxane (POSS). PC-POSS copolymers offer a chance to significantly improve the thermal and mechanical capabilities of an optically transparent polymer over neat PC. In this Phase I effort, Foster Miller will team with subcontractor Prof. Pat Mather of the University of Connecticut to make and test novel PC-POSS copolymers. Our commercial teaming partner, Sierracin Corporation, will provide guidance in canopy material requirements. (P-040189)

AEROPHYSICS, INC.
30981 Woodbush Road
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 337-4024
Mr. Satwik Deshmukh
AF 04-198       Awarded: 23APR04
Title:20-kW Bismuth Hall Thruster with Evaporative Anode
Abstract:High-power Hall thrusters operating at high thrust-to-power ratios will consume and emit unprecedented amounts of xenon propellant. The inherent costs associated with xenon use have significantly hindered development of such devices. Metallic propellants, specifically bismuth, have recently emerged as potentially higher-performing, lower-cost alternatives to xenon. When used in a Hall thruster, bismuth will likely enable improved thruster efficiency, which will translate to lower spacecraft inert mass. Furthermore, the use of bismuth will reduce mission propellant costs by a factor of 200 and may reduce the cost of developing high-power thrusters by a factor of 10. As bismuth is a solid at STP, an energy-efficient means of producing and controlling bismuth vapors is a prerequisite to Hall thruster use. In this document, a unique method of propellant vapor control is proposed and a plan-of-work is described to develop a 20-kW bismuth Hall thruster. The metal propellant will be maintained in a liquid state within the primary anode using waste heat dissipation within the thruster. The propellant supply rate will be controlled through a power-sharing shim electrode, which intercepts a fraction of the plasma discharge current, thereby regulating the liquid metal temperature within the primary anode and hence the evaporation rate.

STARFIRE INDUSTRIES, LLC
1010 W. Stoughton #203
Urbana, IL 61801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 390-2874
Dr. Robert A. Stubbers
AF 04-198       Awarded: 23APR04
Title:Innovative High Power Hall Thruster Configuration Using Novel Rotating Magnetic Fields
Abstract:Starfire Industries has identified a novel Hall thruster configuration with significant potential for higher thrust-to-power ratio, thrust-to-mass ratio and intrinsic efficiency compared to the current state-of-the-art. In this Phase I SBIR exploratory development, Starfire Industries will build and test a proof-of-principle next-generation Hall thruster configuration employing rotating magnetic fields. Direct measurement of plasma potential, temperature, and density distribution will be accomplished with a fast double probe. Circuit parameters will be analyzed for power conversion efficiency. Concept evaluation and recommendations will be made for a Phase II prototype thruster.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Matthew E. Thomas
AF 04-199       Awarded: 05MAY04
Title:Laser Ignition of Hydrocarbon Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers
Abstract:Development of electro-optically controlled, rapidly multiplexed laser induced plasma to ignite one or more preburner or main-chambers, synchronize multiple chamber firings, and dampen impending combustion instabilities is proposed. CFDRC has teamed with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to measure laser energy and multiplexing requirements, Q-switching specifications, beam quality, and focal point locations of laser ignition in a GOx/CH4 combustion chamber. Phase I evaluation will include: 1. Demonstration of a prototype rapid-multiplexed laser initiator; 2. Analytical and experimental characterization of a single element GOx/CH4 laser ignition process using corroborating transient CFD and CCD camera photography; and 3. Assessment of commercial grade solid state lasers, and optics/windows followed by mechanical layout of a laser ignition system in an Air Force selected LOx/CH4 RBCC combustion system installation. Comparisons of the CFD simulation and CCD camera photography will generate breakthrough insights into the GOx/CH4 ignition process. With consulting from WASK Engineering, CFDRC will focus on supporting laser-based LOx/CH4 combustion chamber ignition at one or more engine system manufacturers (i.e. Boeing, Aerojet or P&W) during Phase II.

CONCEPTS ETI, INC.
217 Billings Farm Road
White River Jct, VT 05001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 296-2321
Mr. Michael J. Platt
AF 04-199       Awarded: 03JUN04
Title:Knowledge-Based Multi-Diciplinary Optimization of Rocket Turbopump Design
Abstract:The design of turbomachinery components is a complex process requiring many steps and hundreds of minute decisions in an iterative process. The design proceeds from meanline design through 3D viscous flow calculations (CFD) and finite element structural analysis (FEA). Design studies may traverse this design cycle many times, with routine tasks performed by engineers in a trial-and-error manner. The current turbomachinery design system integrates the initial meanline design considerations, the details of sophisticated blading design, the essential characteristics of modern CFD analysis, and structural and thermo-mechanical FEA. Some knowledge based engineering (KBE) aspects are applied to guide the initial design setup in directions of proven design techniques, and historical design and performance data is used to validate and calibrate the design tools. In addition, the iSIGHT optimization code is currently used to refine the specific vane shapes. In the proposed work, KBE and multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) will be employed to improve the turbomachinery design process by capturing critical design knowledge, automating routine design tasks, and optimizing the balance between conflicting design goals and criteria. The open and extensible design system will use KBE to guide the engineer in performing design modifications, exploring trade studies, applying design criteria, and performing MDO.

FMW COMPOSITE SYSTEMS, INC.
168 W. Main Street
Clarksburg, WV 26301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 842-1864
Dr. William Hanusiak
AF 04-199       Awarded: 03APR04
Title:Advanced High Mass Fraction Tactical Rocket Motor Case
Abstract:The maturation of Titanium Matrix Composite into an affordable material system with production experience on the F-16 opens up a wide series of opportunities for improved propulsion performance. This SBIR builds on the baseline TMC demonstrations being conducted by FMW and ATK and extends them to advanced systems. The use of configured residual stress states and enhanced Titanium matrix systems offers the potential for 25% or more improvements in manufacturing for tactical missile systems. The proposed program will complete analytical models of the proposed material systems enhancements to an AMRAAM core and conducts critical material testing. A full scale Phase II case will be developed for Phase II fabrication.

FMW COMPOSITE SYSTEMS, INC.
168 W. Main Street
Clarksburg, WV 26301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 842-1864
Mr. Robert Grabow
AF 04-199       Awarded: 23APR04
Title:Advanced Rocket Propulsion Technologies
Abstract:The future propulsion requirements of the USAF will require substantial performance improvements, especially stage mass fraction as defined by the Phase III IHPRPT goals. The development and transition to production of titanium matrix composites (TMC) offer the potential of significant mass fraction gains for liquid engines. This program proposes the substitution of TMC into the impeller, which offers a potential engine weight savings of up to 24%. The Phase I activity will accomplish the system design and critical subelement fabrication. Phase II would build a TMC impeller for test at Rocketdyne.

MICROCOSM, INC.
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Dr. Shyama Chakroborty
AF 04-199       Selected for Award
Title:Development of a Low-cost 80-Klbf-Thrust Liquid-fueled Engine
Abstract:Microcosm proposes to design and develop an 80-Klbf-thrust class LOX-Kerosene ablative engine that can be used in various launch vehicles for defense and commercial applications. The 80-klbf-thrust class engine facilitates the growth of capabilities for not only the expendable vehicles such as the EELV or Microcosm's Scorpiusr Family of launch vehicles, but has wide applications for a new generation of Liquid Strap-on Boosters for thrust augmentation as well as for upper stage engines. The benefits of the Liquid Boosters are low cost, light weight until fueled, reliability with simple pressure-fed units, safety during handling, and ability to have immediate shut down or throttling. Clustering 2, 3, or 4 engines yields a scalable thrust capability with flexibility, low cost and simplicity. Microcosm plans to work with Lockheed-Martin and AFRL/PR during the course of this Phase I activity and subsequently during a potential Phase II program to develop and test this engine. Lockheed-Martin has expressed a strong interest backed by a letter of support to participate in this development effort at no cost. Microcosm has been working with AFRL/PR and the California Space Authority to conduct qualification testing of this engine at the Rocket Engine Test Facility at Edwards.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Mr. William H. Knuth
AF 04-199       Awarded: 16APR04
Title:MODULAR COMBUSTOR ALTITUDE-COMPENSATING (MCAC) LIQUID ROCKET ENGINES
Abstract:A LOX/Hydrocarbon rocket engine using an array of self-sufficient independent propulsion units (IPU's) or modular combustors, clustered in an altitude-compensating nozzle offers a promising avenue for reliable low-cost access to space. Combustor redundancy provides high fault-tolerance, achieving robust mission assurance. Combustors include integral feed systems, and are capable of independent operation. Combustors can be shut down individually or in opposing pairs in case of an impending malfunction and the mission completed with the remaining units. Identical combustors maximize commonality and allow component development in small sizes. Development progress applies to all elements. Maintenance is simplified by changing out modules. Altitude-compensation permits modest chamber pressures with attendant service life benefits, without undue performance penalty. A phased program with clear milestones minimizes programmatic risk, while providing progress visibility. ORBITEC will lead the work as the propulsion system integrator, supported by WASK Engineering, and Concepts NREC for combustion devices and propellant feed system elements respectively. Subscale components, and the full-scale IPU combustion modules will be developed and tested at ORBITEC. The integrated propulsion system, nominally rated at 1M lb thrust, will be tested in a Government test stand. This effort will lead to a new family of reliable rocket propulsion for boosters and upper stages providing safe, low-cost space access.

QUESTEK INNOVATIONS LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 425-8222
Dr. Charles J. Kuehmann
AF 04-199       Awarded: 14MAY04
Title:Advanced Rocket Propulsion Technologies
Abstract:Current rocket propulsion technology is in large part limited by the materials used in component fabrication. QuesTek Innovations is proposing this Phase I SBIR effort to utilize emerging computational design techniques to predictively design and develop an Al-based amorphous alloy that would enhance rocket propulsion through a dramatic increase in specific impulse achieved using components of revolutionary high specific strengths. Using models developed under previous DARPA-SAM funding QuesTek will efficiently survey new design concepts and rapidly determine the feasibility of bulk aluminum metallic glass. Quantum mechanical calculations will be used to define the atomic and electronic structure of liquid molecular associates and quickly predict components for optimal glass formability. QuesTek will continue to use the reduced glass transition temperature as a parametric tool to design alloys with sufficiently low critical cooling rates to achieve bulk glass formation. Wright Patterson Air Force Base has offered experimental and analytical services and will collaborate on assessing specific areas of application. QuesTek's previous experience and success in designing metallic glasses uniquely positions the company to develop an Al-based bulk metallic glass whose revolutionary high specific strength would greatly benefit the aerospace industry.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Rock Rushing
AF 04-200       Awarded: 23APR04
Title:Nanomaterial Reinforcement for High Strength Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Case Materials
Abstract:Recent progress in the field of nanoreinforcements has the potential to advance composite properties to a level of performance that will be required for aerospace and missile initiatives such as The Air Force's Operationally Responsive Spacelift (ORS) effort and the Falcon Program (Force Application and Launch from CONtinental United States). Novel filament winding matrix resins are therefore proposed to overcome the current limitations. TRI/Austin will develop a new class of nanoreinforced hybrid resins that will offer the desired combination of high strength and glass transition. In addition, a mechanism will be investigated whereby a thermal barrier skin effect will protect the composite from extreme temperatures. This may be relevant in terms of eliminating the secondary thermal barrier coating that is sometimes necessary on rocket motor casings. TRI/Austin's team for the Phase I effort will include experts in the field of rocket motor filament winding technologies. These experts include personnel from a prominent rocket motor manufacturer that has been in business for over 50 years and has extensive experience in solid propellant rocket and gas generator development and production. Processing and performance requirements will be identified to ensure that the developed matrix resins comply with the end-use and manufacturing requirements.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Norm Rice
AF 04-200       Awarded: 05MAY04
Title:Surface Modified Nanoparticles for SRM composite case reinforcement(1000-457)
Abstract:Triton Systems responds to the US Air Force's need for innovative material technologies for advanced high specific strength polymer matrix composites (PMC) that would enable significant weight savings in Boost and Orbit Transfer Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) Case applications. Addition of nanoparticle reinforcements to the resin matrix is expected to improve composite properties such as interlaminar shear strength, compressive properties and high temperature operation. In this study Triton will use an innovative surface modification of nanoparticles for improved matrix/particle interface interactions, along with high shear mixing techniques to improve nanoparticle dispersion in resin matrices. Improved dispersion coupled with better adhesion between matrix/particle is expected to improve the performace of nanoparticle filled matrices. Development of improved composites will help achieve the goals for delivered and compressive strength for the MinuteMan III and Minuteman IV rocket casing.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 644-3400
Dr. Barry Belkin
AF 04-204       Awarded: 23MAR04
Title:Innovative Filtering Techniques for Ground Target Tracking
Abstract:In multi-target tracking applications, ambiguities generally arise in how to associate sensor reports with targets. Multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithms maintain multiple alternative data associations to represent these ambiguities. We propose to develop an (MHT) algorithm design that will provide improved ambiguity resolution and target track estimation accuracy, and therefore improve long-term track maintenance capability. The methods we propose apply generally to the tracking of ground targets and to sensing technologies across the EM spectrum. The basic statistical estimation framework we propose is that of particle filtering (sequential Monte Carlo state estimation). The extension of existing data association hypotheses to incorporate additional scans of sensor data is cast as an assignment problem and is solved using the Munkres algorithm. Hypothesis pruning and hypothesis merging are implicit and are eliminated as formal hypothesis management operations. The updating of estimated target tracks is accomplished through the application of a stochastic differential equation to the continuous target state variables and the application of the Metropolis algorithm to the discrete target state variables. The effect is that through a deformation process existing target state estimates are transformed into samples from the modified Bayes' posterior distribution. The deformation function also provides a mechanism for restructuring hypotheses and target tracks in response to information indicating that modification of past data associations is required. The required computations are well suited for parallel processing at multiple levels. A Phase I task will be to identify the specific elements of the computation that are parallelizable and to quantify the reduction in execution time that can be achieved through parallel computation.

MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
616 Brookmeade Ct.
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-1434
Dr. Lang Hong
AF 04-204       Awarded: 05APR04
Title:Multiresolutional Particle Filters With Finite Mixtures for Ground Target Tracking and Identification
Abstract:MRLets Technologies, Inc. proposes an innovative technology for high performance ground target tracking and identification using powerful multiresolutional sequential Monte Carlo methods (particle filters) with finite mixtures and GMTI/HRR measurements. This innovative technology consists of three major functional components: multiresolutional particle filters for computational efficiency, invariant-based tracking and identification for the performance robustness, and finite mixture models with the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for effective information exploitation. The coherent combination of these three functional components will provide us with unprecedented power in feature extraction, target modeling, data association, state filtering, target identity description and matching. Particle filters have been proven to be very effective for nonlinear/nonGaussian filtering. However, the most notorious disadvantage of a particle filter is its formidable computational complexity, since thousands particles are usually needed, which is equivalent to running thousands of filters simultaneously. It has also been proven that the only technique of truly solving a computational problem is multiresolutional processing, both in temporal and spatial domains. Therefore, we propose a multiresolutional particle filter to reduce significantly the number of particles and update them in a lower rate, meanwhile maintaining the full strength of a particle filter. In addition, when applying a particle filter to a density function with multimodality due to multiple targets, weak targets could be dropped or merged because of poor localization property of a particle filter. We will improve the localization accuracy by using finite mixture with particles. Information extraction and target modeling for rigid-body targets could be greatly benefited from the invariant principle. In this project, we will extend our invariant-based tracking and identification algorithms to the multiresolutional particle filter implementation. We will also introduce a mixture-EM technique for effective HRR information exploitation. An immediate side product of using multiresolutional tracking is group tracking where targets with similar behaviors are tracked as a group via measurement compression. This proposal is packed with several important innovations. When fully developed, the proposed research should have significant impacts on the target tracking and recognition communities.

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Shawn Herman
AF 04-204       Awarded: 23MAR04
Title:Efficient Multitarget Particle Filters for Ground Target Tracking
Abstract:Many factors make the ground target tracking problem decidedly nonlinear and non-Gaussian. Some of these factors include the relatively poor angular accuracy of GMTI sensors, the presence of persistent clutter and target obscuration, and the complexity of target maneuvers. Because these difficulties can lead to a multimodal posterior density, a Bayesian filtering solution is more appropriate than a point estimate. In the last decade, the particle filter has emerged as a Bayesian inference technique that is both powerful and simple to implement. The price for this flexibility is almost entirely computational; particle filter run-times can be two orders of magnitude longer than those of Kalman filter variants. In this work, we propose to investigate the design of efficient particle filters for multitarget ground tracking. Using simulated data, we will consider multitarget scenarios involving on-road targets, off-road targets, on-road/off-road transitions, and move-stop-move cycles. Instances of uncertain data association will be produced using closely-spaced targets, stopped targets, clutter, and road intersections. An efficient design will be achieved by adaptively managing the type of particle filters, the number of particles, and the enumeration of hypotheses during data association.

SIGTEM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
113 Clover Hill Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-9477
Dr. Chun Yang
AF 04-204       Awarded: 23MAR04
Title:Hybrid Unscented Kalman Particle Filter for Ground Target Tracking
Abstract:We propose to apply two nonlinear filtering techniques, namely, the unscented Kalman filter and the particle filter, to the tracking of multiple ground targets in clutter. Both the target dynamics and radar measurements are highly nonlinear. Instead of truncating the nonlinear functions to the first order as in most of current implementations with the extended Kalman filter, the proposed unscented Kalman filter and the particle filter approximate the distribution of the state with a finite set of points (i.e., the particles) and then propagate these particles through the true nonlinear functions. Because the nonlinear functions are used without approximation, it is much simpler to implement and can generate better result. The proposed hybrid ground target tracking algorithm will integrate these two nonlinear filters with an iterated probabilistic data association technique to handle clutter, an adaptive multiple model estimator to deal with target maneuvers, and pseudo measurement and state constraints to incorporate road network and topographic information. In Phase I, the proposed hybrid ground target tracking algorithm will be formulated with the computational algorithms developed. We will use a computer simulation program to evaluate the algorithms. In Phase II, the recommended architecture and the validated algorithms will be implemented to process simulated and/or real data for demonstration.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 284-8426
Dr. Allan Steinhardt
AF 04-205       Awarded: 31MAR04
Title:Predictive Target Overland Height Estimation Methods for Radar Signal
Abstract:Airborne standoff radar surveillance systems have become major contributors to battlefield Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance capabilities. Current systems have limited capabilities to provide precise battle field situation awareness of low flying airborne threats due to radar system limitations in measurement of target altitude. Battlefield operations can be vulnerable to certain low flying threats. The proposed research will develop robust predictive models of radar propagation effects for low flying aircraft and will develop a target overland height estimation algorithm applicable to standoff detection and tracking of low flying aircraft. The goal of the proposed research effort will be to develop a technical approach capable of realizing target localization consistent with computing weaponeering solutions. The proposed Phase I effort will establish a fundamental understanding of a new class of nonlinear estimation algorithms that will be critical for engineering development of affordable standoff radar tracking of low flying aircraft.

PHOTON RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
5720 Oberlin Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 243-6613
Mr. James G. McGraw
AF 04-205       Awarded: 19APR04
Title:Matched Environment Processing System (MEPS) for Overland Target Height Finding
Abstract:Conventional AEW systems, such as the AWACS, need improved means for determining target altitude at long ranges over land and sea without relying on IFF. The AWACS can operate in an electronic-scan-in-elevation (Elscan) mode, but it provides a crude estimate of target height and has difficulty resolving low-flying targets due to multiple signal reflections, or multipath, from the ground. One solution is to take advantage of the multipath by estimating from the measured waveform the time difference in signal coming directly from the target and from multipath. Target height can then be geometrically computed if range is known. Unfortunately, this time-difference-of-arrival approach has yet to be successful for rough terrains. We propose a Matched Field Processing approach for use with a variety of terrains. This approach uses a wave-propagation predictor interfaced to a database of digital elevation and wavelength independent texture information to predict a signal waveform based on direct and multipath returns from a target at various hypothetical altitudes. Target height may be computed by minimizing the least-mean-squared difference between the measured signal and predicted waveforms. Finally, the sensitivity of this approach to parameters like target range, terrain roughness, and elevation data resolution will be studied.

BODKIN DESIGN & ENGINEERING, LLC
P.O. Box 81386
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 235-6351
Mr. Andrew I. Sheinis
AF 04-207       Selected for Award
Title:Adaptive Hyperspectral Sensor Designs
Abstract:We propose a new hyperspectral imaging technique based on a novel optical processor. The optical processor allows for the unprecedented capture of all three dimensions (two spatial and one spectral) of the data cube simultaneously. This device uses a 2-dimensional hyper-pixel array (HPA), that records the 2-D image and the spectrum of each pixel in each frame of data. Since the proprietary HPA design uses an optical parallel processor, it allows thousands of hyperpixels to be processed in parallel, at the speed of light. This leads to the virtually instantaneous creation of the data cube. The proposed system will have no moving parts, and have low signal-to-noise, which makes it ideal for imaging rapidly occurring events.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Sys Div, 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Michael Gertsenshteyn
AF 04-207       Selected for Award
Title:Four-Dimensional Hyperspectral Imaging Sensor
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for a novel airborne adaptive hyperspectral imaging sensor for the reconnaissance of rapidly changing events, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new, monolithic, compact, four-dimensional Hyperspectral Imaging Sensor (4D-HSIS) with fast identification capabilities for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. The proposed 4D-HSIS is based on two of POC's unique technologies: volume phase holographic transmission gratings and micromachined silicon microchannel array structures. The 4D-HSIS will operate aboard robotic unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs), and will measure the temporal evolution of the spectra of rocket and aircraft plumes and explosions through high-frame-rate hyperspectral imagery acquisition in 32 bands through a large-format CCD or focal plane array IR camera. In Phase I, POC will design and develop a 4D-HSIS model to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase II, a preproduction 4D-HSIS model will be fabricated and tested. The immediate application of the 4D-HSIS system is UAV-based ISR of transient signals and rapidly occurring events.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 465-5686
Dr. James E. Murguia
AF 04-207       Selected for Award
Title:Adaptive Hyperspectral Sensor
Abstract:We propose to design and model a unique spectral imaging sensor that will be capable of adaptively measuring the spectra of surprise events anywhere within a large field of view at greater than video rates. The approach will utilize recent developments in direct view prism design to create adaptive spectral sensor. The new sensor will be capable of continuously variable spectral resolution of from 1 to 80 spectral bands in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR), but the technology can be implemented in other optical bands (e.g. in the visible or long-wave infrared bands). The new sensor will consist of a pair of direct-view prisms, an InSb image sensor, a digital signal processor and a display device. The new sensor head will have a small physical form factor and be consistent with field deployment. The continuous spectral resolving power of proposed sensor is unique. The design and development of this sensor represents a unique opportunity in hyperspectral sensing.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
201 N. Calle Cesar Chavez, Suite 203
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 962-1175
Dr. Michael Moore
AF 04-208       Awarded: 18MAR04
Title:Motion Energy Approach to Missile Launch Detection for Aircraft
Abstract:During Phase I, Computational Sensors Corporation (CSC) will develop improved methods for missile launch detection (MLD) for aircraft. Recent attacks on aircraft, both commercial and military, have demonstrated the need for reliable systems for detecting missiles at launch and during approach. Achieving high probabilities of detection with low probabilities of false alarm is a challenge, especially for small, dim targets in a cluttered background. One discriminating feature of a missile is its relative motion compared to the background. In this project, CSC proposes the development of a MLD system that discriminates missiles from their background using the Adelson-Bergen motion energy model. In previous work, CSC has demonstrated the ability of this bio-mimetic algorithm for detecting small moving targets for interceptor guidance applications. CSC has developed a massively parallel video processing system capable of bulk spatio-temporal filtering. The enabling device uses analog silicon retinas in multi-chip architectures for complex, spatial-frequency filtering allowing the real-time implementation of a motion-energy system. In the proposed work, CSC will investigate and develop the algorithm modifications necessary to apply the motion energy approach to aircraft MLD. In Phase II, CSC will implement the most promising algorithms in hardware for hardware-in-the-loop testing.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Mr. James Utt
AF 04-208       Awarded: 18MAR04
Title:Improved Missile Launch Detection Techniques ( IMLD )
Abstract:The Improved Missile Launch Detection program addresses the lack of an affordable missile launch detection (MLD) that can detect missiles at their maximum launch ranges in high clutter with a high probability of declaration and a low false alarm rate. Defense Research Associates (DRA) has developed a small target detection algorithm based on motion of the target relative to the background. The algorithm, called Passive Moving Target Detection (PMTD), is ideal for detecting missiles from aircraft; the algorithm was developed for that purpose through the SBIR program. DRA, working with AFRL/SN, has obtained $4.3M in outside funding to use this algorithm for the detection of nearby air traffic by unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The algorithm was originally developed to improve the performance of MLDs and DRA demonstrated its effectiveness in that context. Since that time, several theoretical advances have been made in the mathematical underpinnings of PMTD, especially in terms of reducing computational complexity. DRA proposes to optimize the PMTD algorithm and integrate it with an existing developmental warning system that uses affordable silicon detectors.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9380 SW 72nd Street, B-180
Miami, FL 33173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. Michael R. Wang
AF 04-208       Awarded: 18MAR04
Title:Compact Spectral Discrimination Sensor Capable of Simultaneous Laser and Missile Warning with Wide Direction of Arrival
Abstract:Missile warning device is a crucial integral part in missile defense systems in providing early warning of missile launches with low false-alarm rates from cluttered sunlight background. Existing infrared and ultra-violet based missile warning products are either expensive in system cost or lack of sensitivity for long-range ballistic missile detection. It is preferred to develop innovative missile warning device with improvements in performance to cost ratio over existing products. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes herein a novel compact spectral discrimination sensor that is capable of discriminating ballistic missile propulsion plume from cluttered sunlight background and is also capable of laser warning through coherent discrimination of laser beam with non-coherent light sources. The combination of missile warning and laser warning in a single compact system is a significant innovation of the proposed project. The sensor offers excellent background noise rejection, wide direction-of-arrival determination, and the capability of missile spectral evaluation using the same imaging sensor array. Phase I will design and construct a proof-of-concept spectral discrimination sensor and demonstrate its operation. The performance of the compact spectral discrimination sensor will be optimized in Phase II to yield a practical device system ready to support military and commercial applications.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Kevin Sullivan
AF 04-209       Awarded: 24MAR04
Title:Combat Identification for Difficult Targets
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop algorithms that will enable Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) pilots to locate and identify ground targets that are difficult to detect due to foliage, camouflage, or partial concealment. Our approach is to fuse information from standoff or other Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets with information collected by the JSF sensors. Our approach makes use of new developments with Bayesian Networks that Toyon has recently applied to target tracking. We also employ feature-aided tracking algorithms so that measurements created by the ISR assets can be correctly associated with JSF sensor measurements. We propose to develop an algorithm in Phase I that proves the feasibility of our approach using a scenario that is of interest to the Air Force. We will interface the fusion algorithm developed on this effort with dynamic sensor tasking algorithms that we are currently developing in support of the Navy, the JSF Program Office, and Lockheed-Martin. We will finish Phase I with a demonstration of the interfaced algorithms and a plan for how we will further develop the algorithms in Phase II and III efforts.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
150H New Boston Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Dr. Yingyin Kevin Zou
AF 04-210       Awarded: 12MAR04
Title:Stocks Polarization Imaging System for Target Discrimination
Abstract:Detection and identification of similar class military targets can be extremely difficult, especially at extended ranges. The wide variety of deployment scenarios further complicate this effort. Existing DoD investments in inventory aircraft also limit possible solutions. There is a need to develop novel techniques to exploit as many target identification discriminants as possible without significant modification to the existing designator laser. Boston Applied Technologies, Inc. (BATI) proposes to develop a novel Stocks polarization imaging system to improve the target detection and identification. The proposed polarization features no moving part, fast polarization setting, wide spectral range and full polarization capability. A key component used in this design, ultra-fast variable retarder, was based on our recent-breakthrough electro-optical ceramic that ensures fast and stable operation. Since no fixed retarder is required, the instrument is practically wavelength. The fast sampling speed and wide range of wavelength capability makes this instrument a very helpful tool for investigating the polarization phenomenology to large number of circumstances such as scattering from different surfaces, the atmosphere, or reflection from a laser beam.

DYMAS RESEARCH, INC.
2910 Fox Run Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 865-1103
Dr. Wei Hu
AF 04-210       Awarded: 14APR04
Title:An active polarization imaging system
Abstract:Polarization imaging system has been explored as a method to improve target detection capabilities in remote sensing and other applications. Polarization imaging can improve target contrast, reduce clutter, aid in the defeat of intervening scatterers, and provide orientation information about various target features. The feasibility of polarization technology application in separation of a boost or bus from the associated plume, target discrimination etc. has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Dymas Research proposes an innovative polarization imaging system using electro-optic material. Our proposed polarization imaging system is portable and light, consumes less power, does not have moving parts, works very fast, and eliminates the misregistration issue. We are confident that this unique polarization imaging system will provide a promising tool for DOD to identify and locate time critical targets.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Mr. Glen Rines
AF 04-210       Awarded: 12MAR04
Title:Short-Pulse Mode for Laser Designators
Abstract:There is a need to improve the ability to detect and identify non-cooperative targets via technological improvements in existing laser designators that can be implemented in the existing inventory of military aircraft with reasonable levels of modification to the aircraft and/or their avionics. We believe that the most important improvement that could be made in the laser properties is providing shorter pulsewidths (~1 ns) to enable range-resolved feature resolutions on the order of a few centimeters. Our concept for providing a new laser designator configuration, which provides the new short-pulse capability without compromising the existing designator functionality is presented in this proposal. In our design, the short-pulse, 1-micron feature will be provided by a passively Q-switched (PQS) Nd:YVO4 laser oscillator in a new master oscillator/pre-amplifier "front-end" that is completely separate from the designator oscillator. The high-energy amplification will be common to both the existing designator and the new short-pulse mode. The short-pulse eyesafe output will be generated at the output end of the system by a completely separate optical parametric generator (OPG). Structuring the system so that only the power amplifier section is shared exploits the primary energy storage section of the designator without compromising its functionality or reliability.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5238
Dr. Chiman Kwan
AF 04-212       Awarded: 30APR04
Title:A High Performance, Low Complexity, and Bandwidth Efficient Receiver
Abstract:The available usable frequency spectrum is fixed but the demand for military communications is expected to grow exponentially over the next 20 years. One way to alleviate this problem is to utilize bandwidth efficient modulation and coding schemes such as Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM). Here Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes a high performance, low complexity, and bandwidth efficient receiver for CPM signals. First, we use a high performance non-coherent receiver structure that has low complexity, does not require synchronization and reference carrier signals, and robust to various channel conditions such as fading, interference, and noise. The receiver combines soft decision differential phase detection and Viterbi decoding in a unified fashion. Early application of the proposed scheme has achieved excellent performance for Gaussian, satellite mobile and land mobile channels. Second, in order to achieve bandwidth efficiency, we propose to use CPM with efficient and low complexity coding schemes such as trellis codes. Our extensive past experience in modulation and coding will help select the best parameters in the signaling scheme in order to meet the 5bps/Hz requirement. Third, to address the low transmitter power issue, we have paid significant attention to both the signaling scheme and the receiver.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 642-3157
Mr. Mark Geoghegan
AF 04-212       Awarded: 29APR04
Title:Advanced Waveform Processing
Abstract:Current communications initiatives reflect the greater military and societal trend; more information, more data, to more people, at a greater rate, with less latency. While extremely high rate backbone links are in planning, higher rate links still need to be pushed out to the mobile user. Given the fixed nature of spectrum, advanced waveforms are a long-term imperative. Leveraging its background in complex waveform analysis and simulation, Nova will perform a trade-off study including parameters of spectrum vs. detector efficiencies, implementation complexity, size, weight, power, cost, etc., for a transmitter and receiver platform. In consideration of minimizing power through use of non-linear amplifiers, a constant envelope waveform is the likely solution. The key will be balancing minimum Eb/No and implementation complexity, while hitting the target 5 bits/sec/Hz. A block diagram level design will identify key challenges in RF, digital hardware, firmware, software, and packaging. Collaboration with government representatives will nail down suitable architectures, leading to a Phase II development program.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Alison Brown
AF 04-213       Awarded: 06APR04
Title:Precision GPS Ephemeredes Distribution from the GPS Control Segment
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop algorithms and software to improve the GPS Control Segment ephemeris accuracy delivered to GPS users. GPS is currently being used to support precision engagement activities throughout the Air Force. This includes target location generation, precision navigation and precision guidance of munitions. Under this effort, we will develop an architecture that allows Precision GPS Ephemerides (PGE) data to be provided to the warfighter through a GPS Portal that is scheduled for installation in the GPS Operations Center at Schriever AFB. Implementation of this architecture will allow tactical users access to available precision information through the SIPRNET and their existing tactical data links. This PGE service will provide improved GPS accuracy to key segments of the tactical GPS user community. It will improve the accuracy of targeting data proved by ISR platforms while also improving accuracy of platforms and weapons employing GPS for precision guidance. The technical objectives established for this Phase I SBIR effort are: Design the architecture for delivery of Zero-Age Ephemeris Data. Perform a demonstration of PGE data distribution and evaluate accuracy Develop design for insertion of PGE data into existing GPS User Equipment. Develop Phase II integration, test and demonstration plan. The Phase I report will include the architectural design, demonstration results, PGE insertion design, the proposed Phase II plan and the system components to be developed and delivered under the Phase II effort in support of the proposed PGE demonstration efforts.

SIGTEM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
113 Clover Hill Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-9477
Dr. Chun Yang
AF 04-213       Awarded: 01APR04
Title:Unscented Particle Filter for GPS Control Segment Precision Estimation
Abstract:We propose to develop and apply an unscented particle filter for Global Positioning System (GPS) operations to improve Control Segment (CS) estimation and short-term prediction. GPS satellite orbital dynamics and GPS measurements are highly nonlinear. In the current implementation of GPS CS, both the state dynamics and measurements are linearized around a pre-computed reference trajectory in order to apply the Kalman filter for the state estimation and prediction. Instead of truncating the nonlinear functions to the first order as in the Kalman filter, the proposed unscented particle filter approximates the distribution of the state with a finite set of points (i.e., the particles) and then propagate these particles through the true nonlinear functions. Because the nonlinear functions are used without approximation, it is much simpler to implement and can generate better result. In Phase I, the proposed unscented particle filter will be formulated with the computational algorithms developed. We will use a computer simulation program consisting of the GPS constellation, the network of monitor stations, and the detailed models of orbital dynamics and GPS measurements to evaluate the algorithms. In Phase II, the recommended architecture and the validated algorithms will be implemented to process real GPS data for demonstration.

INPHOT, INC.
13, Blossom Hill Drive
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 750-0992
Dr. Krishna Linga
AF 04-214       Selected for Award
Title:Revolutionary Photoreceivers Based on Combining Si-MOS Process with SiGe Nanotechnology
Abstract:InPhot Inc proposes to develop the enabling SiGe material and device technology for the realization of monolithic near infrared Photoreceiver at 10Gb/s data rates sensitive in the 1300 nm to 1550 nm spectral region for laser communication. We will achieve this by performing device designs to determine suitable material structures, epitaxial growth and device fabrication processes. The primary goal of this proposed Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of SiGe material system for the monolithic integration of transimpedance amplifier and photodetector sensitive in the 1300 nm to 1550 nm spectral region by developing device and fabrication techniques compatible with CMOS processes. In addition the Phase I effort projects the detector performance that can be realized from the proposed detectors through material and device designs. In Phase II, we will further optimize the material structures and design and fabricate the monolithically integrated near-infrared photoreceivers opearting at 10Gb/s data rates. This project will result in two products: High speed near-infrared SiGe photodetectors in the 1300 nm - 1550 nm spectral band and monolithically integrated photoreceivers. The photoreceivers will be applicable in missile seekers, battlefield target identification and recognition systems, and laser communication. Civilian applications include fiberoptic telecommunications, remote sensing and laser spectroscopy.

NOBLE DEVICE TECHNOLOGIES
211 Warren Street
Newark, NJ 07103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 242-1969
Dr. Conor S. Rafferty
AF 04-214       Selected for Award
Title:Revolutionary Photoreceivers Based on Combining Si-MOS Process with Ge Technology
Abstract:We propose to design and to fabricate high-speed infrared receivers using germanium-based detectors integrated monolithically with silicon circuits. Earlier work by us has demonstrated germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates with low dark current and high speed, suitable for 10Gb/s operation. We propose to further optimize the photodiode design for 40Gb/s applications, and to monolithically integrate a high speed, low-noise transimpedance amplifier to form an infrared receiver fabricated on top of a standard silicon foundry process. During phase I, we will measure the speed and sensitivity of a variety of photodiode geometries to determine the effect of device geometry and contact layout. Using this information, coupled with simulations and calculations, we will determine the device design changes necessary for higher speed operation. During Phase II, we will design the receiver circuit and fabricate prototypes in partnership with our silicon foundry producer. Extensive characterization and performance measurements will be made and prototypes delivered to the Air Force.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics Holo Div 20600 Gramercy Pl Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Parfenov
AF 04-214       Awarded: 30MAR04
Title:Photoreceiver Based on SiGe Nanostructure on Silicon
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for novel photoreceivers, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new monolithic photoreceiver based on SiGe Nanotechnology with Si﷓MOS process (SIGNMOS) for optical communication. POC is integrating a SiGe quantum dot array photodetector with a CMOS transimpedance amplifier, bringing together the strengths of advanced semiconductor technology with those of novel nanodevices. The SIGNMOS Ge/Si multilayer quantum dot array photodetector covers a broad optical region of the near infrared (NIR) telecommunication wavelength range (1300 to 1550 nm); an on-chip solid state preamplifier matches the photodetector output with the network electronics to operate at 1300 and 1550 nm wavelengths with data transfer at 40 Gbps. In Phase I we will design and develop a SiGe photoreceiver model assembled from discrete components, and determine a path to an integrated design that co-locates the photodetection and signal amplifying circuits close together on the same chip. In Phase II we will develop and test monolithic integrated Ge/Si-CMOS photoreceiver prototype units. Engineering samples will be based on results of Phase II testing.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 300
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 906-7906
Mr. James Gates
AF 04-214       Awarded: 06APR04
Title:Revolutionary Photoreceivers Based on Combining Si-MOS Process with SiGe Nanotechnology
Abstract:Voxtel, Inc. proposes to optimize the design of a SiGe quantum dot (QD) detector capable of 1300nm and 1550nm response, with good responsivity at zero volt bias voltage, and with low dark current. The proposed SiGe quantum dot detectors makes it feasible to integrate long wavelength near infrared optoelectronic devices into CMOS chips, fabricated on commercial CMOS processes. Embedding SiGe nanostructures, i.e. very narrow films, islands and clusters, into heterostructures deposited on Si wafers open new routes for a variety of Si devices monolithic integration of opto-electronic on Si, and the proposed effort, by developing the low temperature growth processes necessary for commercial CMOS integration, characterizing the electrical and optical characteristics of the SiGe QDs, as well as stacked QD layers, and interfacing to Voxtel's existing high speed Si CMOS photoreceiver circuits makes significant strides to achieving the goals of low cost, silicon-compatible NIR photoreceivers.

GRAY ROCK TECHNOLOGY GROUP
169 Anderson Hill Rd
Bernardsville, NJ 07924
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 672-0361
Mr. Phillip W. Wallace
AF 04-215       Selected for Award
Title:Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Beamforming Weights
Abstract:Electronically Steered Arrays have become important components of many military and commercial systems. The ability to steer the null of the antenna as well as the main beam is important in the presence of jamming signals, or interference from other stations. This proposal presents a MMIC based solution for the beamforming weights of a 43.5-45.5 GHz system that is highly accurate, repeatable, and low cost in nature. Element to element phase tracking is expected to be less than three degrees, with RMS element to element tracking of 0.3 dB over the band. The chip will have low power consumption, and will allow for digital control.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Mitchell Shifrin
AF 04-215       Awarded: 31MAR04
Title:Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Beamforming Weights
Abstract:This proposal is presented in response to the SBIR solicitation number AF04-215 entitled "Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Beamforming Weights". Beamforming elements adjust both phase and amplitude of individual elements of an array antenna to provide beam pointing and nulling. In particular the SBIR calls for the development of such an element to support MILSATCOM receive arrays by eliminating current ferrite technology with MMIC technology. The desired performance over the frequency range from 43.5-45.5 GHz includes 8-bits of amplitude and 9-bits of phase adjustment with element-to-element RMS tracking of 3 Degrees and 0.3 dB. As outlined herein Hittite proposes both innovative technology and circuit techniques to address specifications. The weighting function can be achieved using both active and passive approaches. For the passive approach MHEMT and PIN switch technologies show the most promise at 44 GHz while InP HBT technologies are best suited for the active approach. Passive approaches to considered in Phase I include both digital and analog attenuator and phase shifter topologies as well as vector modulator topologies. The active approach will be focused on the implementation of a vector modulator composed of Gilbert multipliers. The best solutions will be fabricated and evaluated during the Phase II program.

FIRST RF CORP.
1200 28th Street, Suite 302
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 04-216       Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Band/Beam Module
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR topic is to develop a phased array antenna module for multi-band/beam, dual polarized receive array at 15 GHz RHCP (Right Hand Circularly Polarized) and 20 GHz LHCP (Left Hand Circularly Polarized) and RHCP (Right Hand Circularly Polarized) supporting three simultaneous beam formations. Each antenna element requires an RF electronics package with three receivers, two at 20 GHz and one at 15 GHz. Each receiver chain needs to provide enough gain to establish system noise figure and overcome combiner network losses along with a digitally controlled phase shifter for beam forming. The multi band element receiver RF electronics would be fabricated on a single MMIC chip and packaged along with a digital latch for phase shifter control in a surface mount chip scale package. The custom MMIC would include two multi-stage LNAs with gain >24 dB. The first LNA would be used for the 20 GHz LHCP signal and the other would be used to amplify the RHCP signal for both the 15 GHz and 20 GHz bands. Critical to this development is the array and lattice design, mechanical layout, and antenna construction to support the module real estate.

CAP WIRELESS, INC.
3235 Grande Vista Dr.
Newbury Park, CA 91320
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 499-1520
Mr. Penn Jia
AF 04-218       Awarded: 25MAR04
Title:Efficient High Frequency Electromagnetic Source for Communication Devices
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a solid-state broadband high power high efficiency class B push-pull amplifier design using spatial power combining technique for GaN power amplifiers. The solid-state amplifier is designed to replace the tube amplifiers and provide efficient and linear power for communication system. Although the GaN amplifier can output power in tens of watt, it is still inferior to vacuum tubes that can generate hundreds of watt output power. To further increase the output power from semiconductor devices, the corporate combiner is one of the classic and most popular structures. But the physical layout of the corporate combiners with many elements causes the transmission lines in the last stages of combining to become very long. As the number of devices increases, the losses in these lines become insurmountable and lead to low efficiency. High losses associated with circuit combining schemes can be avoided with coaxial waveguide spatial power combining technique since the energy is combined in the lossless waveguide space or low loss electric medium. The intrinsic 180 degree broadband balun incorporated inside of the combiner is ideal for Class B Push Pull amplifier design. The overall efficiency of the high power amplifier will be much improved by integrating the Class B Push Pull GaN amplifier cell and coaxial waveguide spatial combiner together.

MICROWAVE BONDING INSTRUMENTS
2400 N. Lincoln Ave.
Altadena, CA 91001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 296-6484
Dr. John Mai
AF 04-218       Awarded: 25MAR04
Title:Prototype Development of a Micro-Klystron Amplifier
Abstract:This Phase I proposal will be dedicated to expanding on the accomplishments of the proof of concept work that MBI performed under a previously Phase I contract (F29601-02-C-0078). MBI has already accomplished several milestones in this development effort. These areas include: (1) design of a micro-klystron, as illustrated in Figure 1, and an improved extended interaction micro-klystron; (2) bonding of various high-temperature compatible substrates that will assist in miniaturizing the klystron design; and (3) preliminary electron emission results from a cold-cathode made of carbon nanotube (CNT) production on various substrates. In this proposed Phase I effort, MBI will fabricating and assemble the completed design of the miniature microwave power amplifier targeted at peak output power of 5W at a frequency of 83.5 GHz with a 1 GHz bandwidth. This physical prototype is the Phase I deliverable objective.

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5799L Burke Centre Parkway
Burke, VA 22015
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 250-6485
Dr. Jose E. Velazco
AF 04-218       Selected for Award
Title:Efficient Ku-band Dielectric Traveling-Wave Tube
Abstract:This project will involve the prototype development of an efficient Ku-band dielectric traveling-wave tube (DTWT) that will provide high frequency radiation for space communications (uplinks, downlinks, crosslinks). The DTWT is based on the novel interaction between a small-diameter electron beam and the electromagnetic fields of a traveling wave inside a very compact dielectric waveguide. The dielectric waveguide is used to slow down the wave and replaces the less efficient helix structures used in conventional traveling-wave tubes. Our initial studies show the DTWT to be twice as efficient as conventional helix traveling-wave tubes and less sensitive to shock and vibration, making the DTWT ideal for space applications. Detailed numerical and computational studies of this concept are proposed during Phase I in order to evaluate key issues such as bandwidth, saturated output power, efficiency and gain. Once successfully developed, the DTWT should be capable of replacing conventional traveling-wave tubes in telecommunication systems for future space applications by offering substantial improvements in size, weight, and especially efficiency over its counterparts.

MMCOMM, INC.
3625 Del Amo Blvd, Ste 200
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 802-6131
Mr. Long Bui
AF 04-219       Awarded: 09APR04
Title:Signal Processing and Amplifier Design for Non-Constant-Envelope Modulation
Abstract:MMCOMM with support from UCLA develops techniques to design efficient linear power amplifiers for non-constant-envelope modulation. The developed technology can be used in CECOMM KaSAT mobile terminals and many commercial telecom radios. The design of efficient linear power amplifiers has remained as one of the most challenging goals for many years. This study includes multi-state combining and Digitized Envelope Elimination and Restoration schemes to reduce the effects of non-linear amplifiers and to increase the power efficiency. The combination of these two approaches together will realize a practical microwave power amplifier system with both high efficiency and high linearity. The proposed work will revolutionize the current microwave power amplifier design methodology, thus contribute significantly to both military and commercial system applications.

NEXTGEN AERONAUTICS
2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 891-2814
Dr. Jay N Kudva
AF 04-220       Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturing Technology for Conformal Arrays
Abstract:NextGen Aeronautics Inc. proposes the development of manufacturing technologies and processes for conformal, structurally integrated, C-band antenna arrays for military aircraft. Manufacturing techniques of current conformal antennas must be modified for high performance aircraft because the skin panels are highly loaded and have complex surface geometry. NextGen, with its experience in conformal load-bearing antenna structures (CLAS), has teamed with Spatial Digital Systems (SDS), who has in-depth expertise in antenna design, to develop the proposed concept. NextGen will design and fabricate a dielectrically loaded, multi-layer, slot-coupled antenna array for a cylindrical surface. The panel assembly is a composite sandwich construction fabricated on an outer-mold-line tool. Digital beam-forming technologies will be used to increase antenna performance while reducing the need to maintain stringent manufacturing tolerances, thus reducing overall cost. Structural and electro-magnetic analyses of the fabricated array will be performed to validate the design concept. The manufacturing processes used in Phase I will be incorporated into a design of a large (~2,500 element), multi-layer array panel with complex curvature, planned for development in a potential Phase II program.

SI2 TECHNOLOGIES
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 606-2601
Dr. Jonathan Towle
AF 04-220       Selected for Award
Title:System Integrated Manufacturing of Conformal Arrays (1000-011)
Abstract:SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes an innovative approach to the design and manufacture of conformal arrays for air vehicles. Our approach is to integrate the antenna with the aircraft structure to provide maximum electronic and structural performance while minimizing the system weight and volume. This approach is economically and technically possible through the application of SI2's novel Direct Write design, materials and manufacturing technology. SI2's Direct Write technology is capable of manufacturing electronics, such as antennas, at low temperature on conformal (doubly curved) surfaces without the need for expensive vacuum, plating and etching processes. The Phase I program will focus on the design, simulation and testing of a conformal array to demonstrate its performance and cost effective manufacturing pathway. Using SI2's unique Direct Write technology, a full-scale prototype array will be manufactured for system level testing in the follow-on Phase II program.

AGILE MATERIALS & TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
93 Castilian Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 571-8323
Mr. David Chase
AF 04-221       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced High Frequency Tunable Filters for Wide-Band Arrays
Abstract:Agile Materials and Technologies has successfully demonstrated the ability to design and manufacture high performance, voltage controllable varactors using the ferroelectric material, Barium Strontium Titanate (BST). These highly tunable varactors form the basis for tunable filters and other tunable applications such as impedance matching networks and phase shifters. Agile's varactors are thin-film devices manufactured utilizing industry standard semiconductor manufacturing processes. Agile is proposing to develop widely tunable filters in millimeter wave frequency bands. Agile's varactors are capable of capacitance tuning in excess of 4:1 at low control voltages and are capable of scaling to handle high power levels. Agile believes it can cover the entire 37-52 GHz range in a single filter and this filter can be extremely small, in fact manufactured on a single chip of only a couple of square millimeters in size. The Phase I proposal will focus on two design approaches: one with off-chip inductors for higher Q filters and one with an integrated single chip solution.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Alex Matgomenos
AF 04-221       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced High Frequency Tunable Filters for Wide-Band Arrays
Abstract:The future military communication, sensing and electronic warfare systems such as the proposed national missile defense (NMD) system require increasing functionality and performance endurance in harsh space environments. There is a persistent need for reliable tunable filters with a wide bandwidth of operation. In response to this need, EMAG Technologies in collaboration with Purdue University proposes to develop two novel techniques for creating tunable high-Q filters. First, a suspended microstrip resonator will be used for creating the filter, while the tuning mechanism will be provided by RF MEMS Varactors. Another technique of achieving filter tunability by use of ferroelectric materials will also be investigated. The proposed architecture requires a number of novel technologies that permit excellent RF performance, limited power consumption, low size and cost, high reliability and space qualification. In addition to that, on-wafer packaging and three-dimensional integration will be utilized for the hermetic sealing of the filters. This packaging scheme will be based on EMAG's already developed low-loss, hermetic package for single RF MEMS switches.

BEAMTEK, INC.
3149 S. Chrysler Ave.,
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 747-4023
Dr. Philip Lam
AF 04-222       Awarded: 12MAR04
Title:All Solid State, High Speed Optical Limiter for Laser Communications Systems
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop an all solid-state inorganic glass optical limiter with low insertion loss in near infrared region from 800 to 1600nm. The proposed optical limiter is a nano-sized particle doped optical glass. It is an optical glass plate consisting of two layers: one contains nano-particles, and the other doesn't. At low incident optical power or pulse energy, its transmission is high (better than 90%). At high incident optical power or pulse energy, its transmission will drop due to the high speed non-linear response of the nano-particles. The glass composition is specially designed to ensure that the optical limiter is radiation-resistant and can be used in space environment. In Phase I, we will design glass compositions, fabricate glass samples and introduce nano-particles into the glass by special glass technique. The limiting effect will be measured by Z-scan method both before and after the optical limiter is irradiated under gamma ray and proton to evaluate the effects in space radiation environment.

INNOVATIVE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
1100 Alakea Plaza, 23d Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 441-3637
Dr. Gennady Tartakovsky
AF 04-223       Awarded: 12MAR04
Title:Fast Acousto-Optic Steering
Abstract:NOVASOL proposes to develop an acousto-optic deflection (AOD) beam steering technology adapted to the needs of airborne free space optical communications (FSOC) at 1550 nm. AOD technology will enable development of the compact beam steering solutions required to transition FSOC to airborne platforms. AOD has found appliction to a variety of areas, but it has not yet been applied to the problem of steering high-power FSOC beams with the precision required to establish comm links between moving platforms. Our approach capitalized on our experience in DoD FSOC research, together with our subcontractor's experience in controlling AOD devices.

INTERSCIENCE, INC.
105 Jordan Road
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518