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27 Phase I Selections from the 04.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Anthony A. Ferrante
CBD 04-101       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Cellular Persistence and Stability (CEPAS)
Abstract:Under conditions of environmental stress many non-spore-forming bacteria are able to enter an alternative metabolic state in which the cells are viable but are not cultivable on artificial media under laboratory conditions. The cells in that viable-but-not-culturable (VBNC) state may remain infectious and can reactivate upon exposure to a suitable host. Culturing microorganisms remains a critical step in the rapid identification of intentionally released biological agents. If an infectious agent were manipulated into a VBNC state prior to release the early identification of the organism would be frustrated by the inability to isolate it from the environment. Rapid identification is a critical measure for reducing the spread of infection and reducing the morbidity and mortality rates from the agent. The critical first step for developing methods to manipulate organisms in the VBNC state is to understand the regulation of the process. The proposed research will utilize a novel genetic screen in Vibrio vulnificus that will specifically target the key regulatory genes that control entry into and exit from the VBNC state. That information will be used in Phase II as a roadmap to discover methods and reagents to manipulate organisms in the VBNC state.

NOMADICS, INC.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Dr. Greg Frye-Mason
CBD 04-102       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Reactive Fluorescent Sensors for Detecting CW Agents at Sub-Chronic Levels
Abstract:None of the current chemical warfare (CW) agent sensors or field test kits has sufficient sensitivity to detect nerve and blister agents at allowable exposure level (AEL) concentrations. Thanks to a remarkable chromophore developed by Professor Timothy Swager at MIT, Nomadics believes that we can achieve these detection levels in a small, low-cost sensor. Recently, Nomadics has demonstrated an exciting new fluorescence-based chemical warfare agent sensor that provides very high sensitivity with a unique selectivity to the toxicity of these agents. The platform is soon to be tested against live agents and has not responded to any potential interferent other than substances which are themselves hazardous materials. Because the chromophores are so sensitive, use a dark-field detection mechanism, require only simple optics and electronics, and because of Nomadics' extensive experience in developing low-cost, sensitive, rugged field instruments, we expect to be able to demonstrate a functional model in Phase I that will confirm the system's potential as a practical handheld CW agent detector.

NOMADICS, INC.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Dr. Martin Leuschen
CBD 04-103       Awarded: 20APR04
Title:CW Indicating Chromophore for Decontamination Operations
Abstract:Nomadics is currently working with a novel chemical weapon indicating chromophore (CWIC) that can make CW agent contamination literally glow in the dark. Developed by Professor Tim Swager at MIT, CWICs will allow equipment to be quickly and easily examined to show any areas of contamination, making targeted decontamination manageable. Nomadics' experience in developing remarkably sensitive and selective sensors from fluorescent materials will facilitate the quick development of a fast surface contamination detection system. When exposed to CW agent simulants, CWICs react to become fluorescent under UV stimulation. The CWICs have been proven against surrogates and will soon be tested against actual agents. In the proposed effort, we will implement a system employing CWICs to indicate whether an area is contaminated by chemical agents. An especially important feature of these chromophores is that it has been shown to be responsive only to chemicals that are in fact hazardous even if they are not typically considered CW agents. Similarly, because the CWICs respond only to reactive materials, they are not subject to interference even from compounds that normally serve as surrogates for CW agents. Thus, the proposed work should lead to development of an effective system for assessing CW agent contamination.

ARKLIGHT, INC.
PO Box 2
Center Valley, PA 18034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 762-0170
Dr. Yuliya B. Zotova
CBD 04-104       Awarded: 17MAY04
Title:Novel THz-frequency spectrometers by integrating widely-tunable monochromatic THz sources and detectors, or arrays of emitters and detectors, with photonic bandgap crystals
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project focuses on the comprehensive analyses and designs of the three novel prototype THz-frequency spectrometers. Such a goal is built upon the recent success of the implementations of widely-tunable monochromatic THz sources and the accomplishments of chemical sensing, characterization of bio tissues, studies of photonic bandgap crystals, and quantum detectors. During the Phase-I period, we will perform comprehensive analysis and design of nonlinear parametric sources in terms of their capabilities including appropriate crystals, tuning ranges, peak powers, and linewidths. We plan to investigate performances of various conventional and novel quantum-based detectors in terms of operational temperatures, sensitivities, and frequency ranges. We propose to study effects of photonic bandgap crystals on THz sources and detectors. We will then design the three prototype systems by integrating sources and detectors, or arrays of emitters and detectors, with photonic bandgap crystals, that can be used to perform chemical and biological spectroscopic detections. We will also analyze potentials of the prototype systems for point and remote sensing. We plan to investigate the capabilities of the prototype systems for operating at the enhanced levels of sensitivities and functionalities. Finally, we propose to study issues of making the systems compact, portable, and suitable for battlefield deployment. After completing the above step-by-step objectives, we will enable ourselves to develop and demonstrate the three prototype THz-frequency spectrometers for the point and remote detections of chemical and biological agents during the Phase-II period. During the Phase I Option period, we plan to run initial tests of the important components proposed and optimized during Phase I. Specifically, we will fabricate and test the resonant tunneling diode, the channel waveguide for a THz wave, a pair of Bragg reflectors for the cavity enhancement, the line defect introduced in a 2-D PBC, the PBC with a high-index defect embedded, and the unique design of 2-D PBC's used as a wavelength filter. These efforts are considered as the initial Phase II activities.

BIOREN
100 Glenn Way, #1
San Carlos, CA 94070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 654-5811
Dr. Arvind Rajpal
CBD 04-105       Awarded: 17MAY04
Title:Automated Rational Design of Antibodies
Abstract:Bioren's technology provides an efficient, automated, in vitro system to generate and optimize antibodies and antibody fragments through a rational, hypothesis-driven approach. Bioren's patented technology is based on synthetic oligonucleotide chemistry to create defined antibody mutations. Hypotheses regarding the impact of a specific amino acid's side-chain chemistry within the antigen binding pocket can then be explored in a systematic manner. Bioren's Look Through MutagenesisT (LTMT) and Walk Through MutagenesisT (WTMT) technologies enable targeted amino acids to be inserted in each individual position and in all possible combination of multiple positions in an antibody's CDR to create a compact and structured library. These technologies allow for the exploration of additive and co-operative consequences of substituting specific amino acids into multiple positions within the CDRs We will utilize Bioren's technology platform to improve the affinity of an existing anti- Botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) antibody fragment. This higher affinity antibody fragment can be utilized to increased the sensitivity and selectivity of current detection and monitoring devices against the toxin.

MICROCHIP BIOTECHNOLOGIES
4059 Clipper Court
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 438-9306
Dr. Stevan Jovanovich
CBD 04-106       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Pathogen Bioprocessor
Abstract:The threat of bioterrorism has increased the demand for advanced technologies to rapidly and accurately detect and identify numerous pathogens at the species and strain level in air, water, food and other matrices. Advanced automated instrumentation with low operating costs that can be rapidly adaptable to new pathogens or agents is required. This proposal describes rapid application of microfluidics and microchips to develop and deploy advanced sample preparation systems. In Phase I, a disposable front-end sample concentration module is developed to input milliliter volumes and concentrate to 100 microliters for input to a sample preparation module. The sample concentration module will elute the concentrated sample into the sample preparation module which will have disposable plastic microchip cartridges in a CD format. The microchips will incorporate existing micropumps and valves to move samples into chambers for reactions to process nucleic acids, proteins, and particles. Each microchip will have 12 single use bioprocessors units that also have archiving capabilities. Sample processing will be controlled by external device containing pneumatic actuators, temperature control, syringe pumps to add reagents, and sonication to disrupt spores and cells. The technology will be the basis of sample preparation and analysis systems for pathogen detection, diagnostics and biodefense.

MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS, INC.
3918-B Valley Ave.
Pleasanton, CA 94566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 417-7005
Dr. Phillip Belgrader
CBD 04-106       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Processing Large Volume Samples Using a Silicon Pillar Chip
Abstract:PCR and antibody-based devices are currently the primary platforms for bioagent detection. PCR offers high sensitivity and specificity, but has limited effectiveness for toxins (detects residual DNA, if any, in toxin preparations) and requires thermal cycling equipment, extensive sample preparation, and complex reagents. Antibodies, which utilize relatively simple chemistry, are effective for both microbes and toxins, but provide moderate sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, both antibodies and PCR methods will remain important tools for bioagent detection. Much of our attention has been focused on developing automated PCR instrumentation using microfluidics with embedded modular components, such as a minisonicator for cell/spore lysis and a micropillar chip for nucleic acid purification and concentration. For the proposed effort, the micropillar chip, which has an extremely high surface area within a few square millimeters and a liquid volume of only 10 ul, will be derivatized with capture antibodies to rapidly extract microbes and toxins from large volume (>20 ml) samples and concentrate these into small volumes (>0.1 ml). Concentrated agents are then available for both PCR and antibody-based testing.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Adrian Denvir
CBD 04-107       Awarded: 21APR04
Title:Portable System for Sample Preparation and Differentiation of Pathogens at Strain Level
Abstract:During the anthrax attacks in 2001, investigators had difficulty in differentiating the strains apart because B. anthracis has a low level of genetic variability. This event demonstrated the need for rapid and precise molecular subtyping technologies. Lynntech proposes to develop an ultra-sensitive quantum dots-based molecular beacon fluorogenic reporter system to identify the presence of specific pathogen species at the strain level. The technology will be incorporated with the surface sampling device and the portable PCR-unit being developed by Lynntech. Molecular beacon (MB) is a hair-pin shaped oligonucleotide probe that has a fluorescent dye and a quencher located at each end of the strand. MBs become fluorescent upon hybridization and they have selectivity for single base-pair mismatch identification. MBs modified with fluorogenic quantum dots of characteristic emission colors will allow more sensitive multiplex detection of DNA sequences with much simpler and less expensive instrumentation. Lynntech will demonstrate the technology's ability to discriminate between different strains of E. Coli. Lynntech will also demonstrate the ability to differentiate different amplicons obtained from similar species such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. These assays will be carried out entirely in sealed PCR tubes, enabling fast and direct detection of E. Coli. in an automated format.

OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
4100 N. W. Loop 410, Suite 230
San Antonio, TX 78229
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 731-0015
Dr. John G. Bruno
CBD 04-108       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:Magnetic Concentrator & Cartridge System to Enhance Food Safety
Abstract:Foodborne pathogen detection has always been faced with volume and matrix problems, i.e., low numbers of viral or bacterial pathogens in a large volume of solid or liquid foods that are still potentially infectious. Despite sensitive techniques such as PCR and immunomagnetic-electrochemiluminescence (IM-ECL), there still exists a need to concentrate and semi-purify pathogens from large (liter) volumes of foodstuffs. To address this need, Operational Technologies Corporation (OpTech) intends to couple proven rapid and highly efficient immunomagnetic separator technology (IMAS), that was previously developed to detect pathogens in blood for USAMRDC, to its newer magnetically assisted test strip (MATS) concept. By the end of Phase II, OpTech will deliver a compact version of IMAS, for preliminary concentration of liter volumes of fluids and solid (minced) suspensions, that will be subsequently ultra-purified by the MATS cartridge. The MATS will allow simultaneous multiple sample (5-10 samples) detection and analysis by PCR, IM-ECL, or other techniques of choice by the U.S. military and civilian sector.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 558-1699
Dr. Bryan Koene
CBD 04-110       Awarded: 10MAY04
Title:Reversible Molecular Closure System for Shelters and Clothing
Abstract:Luna will develop a hermetic closure system for use on combat uniforms and shelters that require protection from chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents. Despite great advances in high barrier fabrics, selectively permeable membranes, and unique chemical absorbent technologies, closures for clothing and shelters still possess the greatest risk for chemical or biological breach. Instead of molecular diffusion through a fabric, chemical aerosol, vapor, or liquid penetration is possible at penetration points such as i) CB protective shelter (CBPS) entrances; ii) connections points for the Joint Service Lightweight Suit Technology (JSLIST) between suit and mask, gloves, and boots. Various mechanical devices have been developed to solve this problem and have resulted in devices which are stiff and possess poor chemical barrier and strength. Luna's novel approach will make use of high strength closure system with a unique reversible adhesive layer, which will have high strength, flexibility, and moreover be a high barrier to contaminant permeation.

SIGMA-K CORP.
511 Clayton Road
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 596-8487
Dr. Douglas Kirven
CBD 04-110       Awarded: 10MAY04
Title:Hermetic Textile Closure Hardware System
Abstract:Sigma-K Corporation proposes to develop a Hermetic Textile Closure Hardware System to be used for Chemical Biological (CB) protective clothing and Collective Protection (COLPRO) portable shelter systems. Our Hermetic Textile Closure Hardware System design will allow the user to easily don and doff one's protective apparel. The system will remain intact during combat behavior. The closure interface will have life support reliability. During the Phase I work plan, different prototype configurations will be fabricated and tested. This work will lead to the Phase II work plan where the prototype designs will be field tested. This work will also lead to a product for civilian use which will be developed during Phase III. The projected market in the civilian use is projected to exceed $10 million in annual sales.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Arjan Giaya
CBD 04-111       Awarded: 10MAY04
Title:Passive Chemical/Biological Protection for Crew Tents(1000-455)
Abstract:Currently, small crew tents rely on pressurized system for providing chemical/biological protection. Our approach offers a passive liner that will eliminate the need for a bulky and heavy carbon filter/blower system, reducing therefore the overall weight and volume of the current tent. Our passive layer/panel will be breathable (i.e. allow oxygen to enter the tent and allow water vapor, heat and carbon dioxide to exit it), and impermeable to chemical agents. Our proposed tent will not require any power source. During this project, Triton will test selected materials to determine their survivability and chemical protection efficiency. Based on the lab results, Triton's team will downselect the best candidate material for the passive tent, and provide tent design(s).

VERTIGO, INC.
20590 Cereal Street, P. O. Box 117
Lake Elsinore, CA 92531
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 425-5147
Mr. Glen Brown
CBD 04-111       Awarded: 10MAY04
Title:Passive Chemical/Biological Protection for Crew Tents
Abstract:Current collective protection systems are large, heavy and expensive, and involve an unacceptable logistics burden when applied to smaller systems that are lightweight and easy to use for one to five persons. Certain elements exist that may apply to smaller crew tents with passive protection systems. Some of these come from research for individual protection systems, others from collective protection systems. However, simply combining existing elements will not create a passive CB protection shelter. What is missing is a membrane, fabric or panel assembly that excludes liquid water, chemical agents and biological agents, while selectively allowing water vapor and carbon dioxide to vent and oxygen to enter. The proposed research will develop that missing element, and will design an integrated shelter system that exploits this capability. In addition to CB protection, the shelter design will provide clean, breathable air, thermal protection, rain protection, long-term storage in a small sealed container, and self-erection capability.

ONTAR CORP.
9 Village Way
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 470-3622
Ms. Jean Zhou
CBD 04-112       Awarded: 01MAY04
Title:SCORM-compliant Advanced Distributed Learning Software suite for Medical Response to Weapons of Mass Destruction
Abstract:Given the increasing threat posed by Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) to our nation, there are tremendouse training needs for medical responses to WMD. This requires enormous amounts of resources and effort. A well designed distributed learning software system for medical response to weapons of mass destruction will be a powerful tool that helps to meet the challenge. This program will deliver the CBD a SCORM Compliant Advanced Distributed Learning Software Suite that capable of delivering advanced instructional strategies required for effectively training for medical response to Weapons of Mass Destruction. Key features of this system include highly scalable multi-agent framework; cognitive training mechanism which enables tailoring training content to individual capabilities and preference; GLIF ( Guideline Interchange Format) based knowledge database for medical guideline training; Scenario based mental simulation and integrated electronic patient record system.

ALPHA-GAMMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4700 Falls of Neuse, Suite 350
Raleigh, NC 27609
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 954-0033
Dr. Hong Dang
CBD 04-113       Awarded: 15MAY04
Title:Analysis Tools for Detection and Diagnosis of Biological Threats
Abstract:DNA microarray technology, in combination with statistical and predictive modeling tools, could be used to evaluate thousands of genes against distinct gene expression patterns induced by chemical/biological agents to provide early identification and speed therapeutic intervention. The overall objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a data management system for DNA microarray study data with integrated computational analysis tools that can provide identification of chemical and biological threats on the basis of host gene response. Alpha-Gamma proposes to accomplish these objectives by first building and populating a prototype relational database with several sets of DNA microarray data along with pathological and physiological endpoints. Alpha-Gamma will build a web-based user interface to browse and select data for analysis, and integrate established statistical tools (e.g., SAS, S-Plus, Spotfire, Patek) into this user friendly environment. With this integration of statistical tools, Alpha-Gamma will perform normalization of microarray data sets, cluster analysis, and pattern recognition. Alpha-Gamma will also validate the potential of this approach for identifying unknown agents by reserving known samples from the datasets and applying statistical tools to identify best match and confidence level.

DENDRITECH, INC.
3110 Schuette Drive
Midland, MI 48642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(989) 832-5555
Dr. Steven Kaganove
CBD 04-301       Selected for Award
Title:Polyamidoamine-Organosilicon Dendrimer Coatings for Vapor Phase Cyanide Removal
Abstract:Since 1993, ASZM-TEDA carbon has been the standard filtration material used by the U.S. military for protection against nerve, blister and blood agents, and other maliciously delivered air contaminants. Although ASZM-TEDA effectively removes these contaminants, alternative air filtration media are sought to ameliorate bulky, unwieldy designs necessitated by current technology. Additional improvements sought include increased absorptive capacity, reduced cost and elimination of the potential hazard of inhaled metal-impregnated carbon dust. We propose to achieve these goals through deployment of polymer-templated metal nano-complexes coated onto commercially available fibrous air filtration media. These complexes will be particularly targeted at more efficient removal of cyanide vapors. Furthermore, polymer encapsulation of metal salts will eliminate ageing effects usually encountered with metal-impregnated carbon, particularly in high humidity environments. The polymers to be used are the recently-invented, curable, hybrid organic-inorganic, nano-scaled dendrimers dubbed "PAMAMOS". These are composed of polyamidoamine cores and curable organosilicon shells. They have excellent coating properties on a variety of substrates including glass, silicon, quartz, metal, wood, paper and plastic. The proposed program will include: (a) synthesis and characterization of dendrimer nano-complexes; (b) coating formation on desired substrates; and (c) preliminary performance evaluation. It is expected that the results obtained will constitute the proof-of-concept data that will provide sound foundation for the optimization and development effort in Phase II.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. James H. White
CBD 04-301       Selected for Award
Title:Sorbents for Removal of Cyanide Species from Gas Streams
Abstract:This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I addresses development of new materials and a process employing them for the continuous removal of cyanide species from air streams. Interest in removal of these species stems from the potential harm that they can render in malicious attacks on U.S. forces. Current approaches for removal of these species are based on activated carbon supported metal complexes, which lead to bulky filters and which must be disposed of as hazardous waste when fully discharged. Phase I will evaluate a number of materials for sorptive capacity (and regenerability) and catalytic low temperature oxidation activity towards cyanides. The proposed Phase I will address the development of these new materials and a process for their use in treatment of cyanide contaminated air. The process will permit air treatment without frequent sorbent changes, and will convert cyanide species into benign forms with minimal volumetric and power requirements. Phase I will consist of the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of a number of candidate materials for removal of cyanide species from air and identification of preferred conditions for their employment and regeneration. During Phase II, a prototype air purifier incorporating these materials will be designed, fabricated, and tested.

CHA CORP.
372 West Lyon
Laramie, WY 82072
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 742-2829
Dr. Chang Yul Cha
CBD 04-302       Selected for Award
Title:Low-Temperature Microwave Catalyisis to Destroy Chemical Warfare Agents from Air Streams
Abstract:Ventilation systems are extremely venerable to incidental and malicious attacks by terrorists and saboteurs. During attacks by chemical and biological weapons, personnel in temporary and permanent shelters are dependent on a constant supply of clean air. Consequently, the main objective of the proposed work is to develop a microwave low-temperature catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). In order to protect personnel in shelters, the catalytic oxidation systems should (1) destroy CWAs in air at low temperatures to avoid NOx formation, (2) remove sulfur dioxide produced from the oxidation of CWAs containing sulfur atoms, (3) operate for an indefinite period of time, and (4) destroy biological agents at low temperatures. The experimental results obtained during the Phase I work will clearly demonstrate that the microwave decontamination process is capable of destroying greater than 90% of organics containing 3% or more of phosphorous and separately, of sulfur from flowing air at a residence time one second or less for at least 30 minutes. A prototype microwave air decontamination system will be constructed and tested during the Phase II work to demonstrate the effectiveness of the microwave air decontamination system.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. Shane E. Roark
CBD 04-302       Selected for Award
Title:Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents in Air at Low Temperatures
Abstract:The objective for this Phase I project is to improve low-temperature activity and lifetime of catalysts for destruction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in air. High-temperature catalytic oxidation is effective for removal of CWAs; however, minimizing the power requirements would reduce the cost of operation and increase the practicality of catalytic filters for use in the field. The approach during Phase I will be to combine derivatives of low-temperature oxidation catalysts recently developed by Eltron with high surface area oxides that preferentially form phosphates and sulfates under oxidizing conditions. The catalyst will destroy the organic component of CWAs, while the adsorbent oxide retains phosphorus and sulfur. Ideally, compositions developed during Phase I will achieve i) low-temperature activity in air, ii) complete removal of CWAs for a practical period of time, iii) complete conversion of the organic component to CO2 and H2O, and iv) retention of all phosphorus and sulfur species.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Ray Denkewicz
CBD 04-302       Selected for Award
Title:Purification of CWA Contaminated Air(1000-381)
Abstract:We describe an electro-catalysis technique that generates ozone and atomic oxygen to destroy CBD agents. Unlike most ozone systems ours operates at much lower voltages and is so small it can be integrated into battery operated gas masks.

MICROENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
604 West Evergreen Blvd.
Vancouver, WA 98660
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 694-3704
Dr. Joseph Birmingham
CBD 04-303       Selected for Award
Title:Active Air Filtration and Purification System for Nerve Agent Mists and Vapors
Abstract:MicroEnergy Technologies, Inc. (MicroET) in conjunction with Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal) proposes to develop a unique and revolutionary filter approach for actively removing hazardous (small particle) mists and toxic chemicals such as nerve agents from air. MicroET has significant experience in the development of microstructures for filtration and heat transfer. The combination of a microstructured array for mist and vapor capture resulting in a heat exchanger design that achieves 90% effectiveness. The demonstration of a low temperature chemical warfare air purification catalyst placed on the microstructured array is the focus of the project. Honeywell has already demonstrated this low temperature catalyst on chemical warfare materials. We consider this research as establishing the pathway for the development of a new, enabling miniaturized filtration technology and the success in its development will offer a tremendous potential in the commercialization of a product into a growing worldwide market.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2355
Dr. William L. Bell
CBD 04-303       Selected for Award
Title:Catalyst for Destruction of Organophosphates from Air
Abstract:Air filtration systems for individual and collective protection from chemical warfare (CW) agents must reduce all toxins to safe levels, while operating at a minimal volume, weight and power consumption. Organophosphates, including VX and the G-agents, pose a key challenge for any filter system. Current activated carbon filters have two major disadvantages: (1) their capacity is reduced by adsorption of water, and (2) adsorption does not chemically alter or detoxify the agents, so that the contaminated filters themselves are hazardous materials. The ideal filter system would destroy CW agents through a chemical reaction so that no hazardous materials remain. The chemical reaction should be unaffected by the presence of other materials that are likely to be in the air stream, including water vapor. For the best results, the reaction that destroys the CW agent should be catalytic, so that the capacity of the filter can be greater than that of filters that use a combination of physisorption and stoichiometric reactions. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) here proposes to develop such a catalytic filter system. In Phase I we will synthesize and evaluate catalysts, and prepare filters containing the new catalysts.

ARGONIDE CORP.
291 Power Court
Sanford, FL 32771
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 322-2500
Mr. Fred Tepper
CBD 04-304       Selected for Award
Title:Nanoalumina Water Filtration System
Abstract:A miniature, transportable filter system is required for warfighters when traditional resupply is unavailable. The desired technology would remove both chemical and biological agents. A device that integrates sensing capability to actuate the purification system is also desired. We developed a non-woven filter using a nano alumina fiber only 2 nanometers in diameter. It is capable of > 99.9999% (6 logs) retention of bacteria and virus and > 5 logs of Cryptosporidium. The filter is effective at flow velocities hundreds of times greater than virus-rated ultraporous or RO membranes. We propose a filter capable of meeting the biological, chemical and some of the radiological contaminants listed for military potable water (TBMed577). The system coincides with our in-house development of a virus filter for a portable water purification system. In Phase I we will demonstrate that a similar filter will retain >4 logs of virus and bacteria, >90% of a soluble metal ion (arsenic and nickel), and >90% of a soluble organic (metanil yellow dye) to levels that are consistent with drinking water standards. In a Phase I option, we will demonstrate that the filter can also retain > 99% of ethanolamine and methylphosphonic acid.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7841
Dr. Micah Yairi
CBD 04-304       Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Microfiltration Filter and Pump for Portable Water Decontamination System
Abstract:Light-weight, high-performance subcomponents, particularly filters and pumps, are needed to make a portable water purifier that can produce clean water from any source. At present, some of the principal problems that hamper this effort include the heavy weight of the pumps and their motors and the large size and fouling rate of pre-treatment filters. These problems may be overcome using Los Gatos Research's unique and innovative design to make microfabricated microfiltration sieve filters that simultaneously provide pumping capability. In Phase I, Los Gatos Research will develop a novel, hands-free, high-pressure (1000 pounds-per-square inch) and high flow-rate (1 liter-per-minute) pump integrated with a microfiltration filter that in total weighs only a few ounces, and integrate it in a complete purification system. This monolithically integrated pump obviates the need for heavy external pumps, and the microfiltration filter size is dramatically reduced by order of magnitude. Moreover, the pump mechanism may be reversed to provide a useful backflow that substantially reduces membrane fouling.

ARKLIGHT, INC.
PO Box 2
Center Valley, PA 18034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 762-0170
Dr. Yuliya B. Zotova
CBD 04-306       Awarded: 16APR04
Title:A novel THz spectrophotometer by integrating a widely-tunable monochromatic THz source with a detector based on up-conversion process
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project focuses on the implementation of a novel THz spectrophotometer. Such a goal is built upon the recent success of the implementations of widely-tunable monochromatic THz sources and the characterizations of Bragg reflectors and bio tissues. During the Phase-I period, we propose to reduce the linewidths of a Nd:YAG laser and OPO down to 0.003 wave numbers and 0.075 wave numbers, respectively, using an etalon and increase the output peak powers. We will investigate how to antireflection-coat a GaSe crystal near 2.128 śm and test the performance of the crystal by measuring its reflectivity. We plan to design, fabricate, and test a beamsplitter to efficiently split a THz wave from the 1.064-śm beam using a THz Bragg reflector. We will also achieve an up-conversion process by mixing a THz wave with a 1.064-śm beam. We continue to carry out our Phase-I tasks by designing and testing a THz cavity formed by a pair of the Bragg reflectors and fabricated on a zinc germanium phosphide crystal. We will test a mini spectrometer for separating two optical beams with their frequencies very close to each other. Finally, we plan to design a novel THz spectrophotometer based on a widely-tunable THz source and a detector based on the up-conversion process and then to perform the preliminary testing. After completing the above objectives, we will be ready to study the performance of the THz spectrophotometer for the point and remote detections of biological agents. We plan to perform the preliminary testing during Phase I and carry out the comprehensive investigations during Phase II. During Phase I Option period, we propose to optimize our initial design of the spectrophotometer including every single component. Moreover, we plan to carry out calculations on the performance of the optimized system and come up with modifications to further improve the performance. Furthermore, we will set up experiments to carry out the tests on the modified components. Finally, we will also study issues of how to make the THz spectrophotometer compact, portable, and suitable for battlefield deployment. To achieve these goals, we plan to investigate the issues of packaging, robustness, and required operating powers for the system. The efforts described above are considered as the initial Phase II activities.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4640
Dr. Aniruddha Weling
CBD 04-306       Awarded: 19APR04
Title:All-Optical Terahertz Spectrophotometer for Biological Detection
Abstract:In today's environment environment of the the global war on terrorism, there is a pressing need to strengthen on-base and aviation securdevelopity by developing next-generationnovel inspection sensing technology capable of enhanced for the detection and identification of chemical and biological concealed threatsweapons (CBW) and explosives in both battlefield situations as well as civilian settingspackages and on personnel. Although optoelectronic sensing in the terahertz (THz) frequency region is being investigated intensely for this application, serious technical challenges in terms of source output power, detector sensitivity, and component integration prevent the realization of a compact, robust and reliable THz sensor that can be used to detect and identify threat agents effectively in the field. Laser-based generation of coherent tunable Since tAs the U.S. Air Force utilizes the commercial shipping infrastructure for its worldwide shipping needs, such enhanced inspection technology is vital to the base security of its bases. Contemporary portal security systems based on X-ray and magnetic screening are seriously limited in their capabilities for detecting a wide variety of potentially dangerous materials - weapons made out of ceramics, plastics, or composites; explosives; and substances associated with chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. Coherent THz radiation coupled with phase coherent electro-optic detection imaging (CTI) presents significant potential as an advanced safe, non-ionizingnvasive sensing technology probe for both personnel and packages with no health risks, sub-millimeter spatial resolution and with enhanced capabilities for compositional analysis and automated recognition of CBW threats. Foster-Miller proposes to design and develop an "All-Optical" laser-based CTI Coherent THz Spectrometer (OCTS) based on highly efficient nonlinear optical THz generation and detectionsystem that incorporates the optoelectronic generation of spectrally agile continuous wave (CW) THz radiation coupled with phase-coherent detection using non-resonant electro-optic (EO) sampling. In combination with efficient software algorithms that perform image deconvolution and target recognition, such a system willto permit the real time interrogation of packages and personnel in complementary transmissive and reflective modes. The proposed Phase I will effort will demonstrate the efficacy of the OCTSI to the problem at hand by building integrating component technologies into a compact table-top system to that can conductperform rapid and accurate detailed spectroscopic studies measurements of various harmful substances and develop appropriate signal processing software and hardware for the detection and identification of concealed on biological materials over the widest possible THz frequency range. (P-040251)

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics Holo Div 20600 Gramercy Pl Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Ranjit D. Pradhan
CBD 04-307       Awarded: 23APR04
Title:Remote Infrared Nanostructured Adsorber-Based Chemical Agent Monitor
Abstract:To address the Chemical And Biological Defense Program request for an inexpensive, reusable, stand-alone, remote-signaling point detector for sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Remote Infrared Nanostructured Adsorber-Based Chemical Agent Monitor (RINACAM). In RINACAM broadband infrared radiation from a solid-state emitter is coupled into an infrared optical waveguide with a specially patterned nanostructured surface, designed to efficiently and reversibly adsorb CWAs. These adsorbed species directly affect the waveguide optical output recorded by POC's scalable superhigh-resolution miniature spectral sensor. Through smart data processing of this high﷓resolution spectral data, RINACAM robustly identifies CWA chemical signatures. At the end of each measurement cycle, the integrated heater element heats the nanostructured adsorption infrared waveguide to exhaust the adsorbed CWAs back into the air. This clears RINACAM for a new measurement, making the device continuously reusable. RINACAM is a rugged, compact, low-power-consuming package, with all solid-state components and no moving parts. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of RINACAM by assembling and testing a laboratory breadboard representing all component technologies. In Phase II POC will develop an advanced RINACAM prototype. The proposed RINACAM will also meet USAF requirements for a remote signaling CWA point detector.