---------- DARPA ----------

68 Phase I Selections from the 04.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
POLARIS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5710 Jones Valley Drive
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 824-2129
Dr. Larry Pezzaniti
DARPA 04-001       Selected for Award
Title:Dual Liquid Crystal Flat Panel Display
Abstract:There are a growing number of scenarios where remote equipment and vehicles must be operated in environments unsafe for human presence. Ideally the remote vision system should mimic physical presence as much as possible. Steadily, the demand for stereoscopic (3D) viewing increases, in order to preserve depth of field information and to `immerse' the operator as much as possible in the scenario. The objective of this Phase I effort is to develop an approach to optimize a stereoscopic display based on stacked liquid crystal displays. This display architecture is ideal for remote applications due to its inherent high resolution, compact size, ruggedness, simple passive eyewear (polarized glasses), and its potential for high quality stereoscopic effect. The approach to optimize this display will minimize the effects inherent due to finite separation between the pixel planes, such that Moire effects and light leakage into adjacent pixels to optimize its overall visual quality. Alignment methods capable of sub-pixel alignment tolerances will also be developed. One novel approach that will be investigated is to use a microlens array to re-image the pixels from the first display onto the second display. A test article microlens will be fabricated and tested during the Phase I contract.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3969
Dr. Lee M. Goldman
DARPA 04-002       Selected for Award
Title:Fabrication Approaches for the Production of ALON Domes
Abstract:ALONT optical ceramic provides a superior combination of performance, cost and ease of fabrication when compared to sapphire. While sapphire is a high performance material, it suffers from limited size capability, and high component/fabrication costs. Consequently, ALON is a more attractive material for high volume dome applications such as the Common Mode Missile (CMM). However, the extremely aggressive price points for the CMM program require additional reductions in cost for finished ALON domes. Surmet Corporation is currently fabricating high volumes of ALON components for commercial applications such as supermarket scanner windows. For this application a lower cost commercial grade, CG-ALON material has been developed. In Phase I, Surmet will investigate the use of CG-ALON in combination with novel, near net shaped forming techniques as means of lowering the cost of domes. Surmet will collaborate with Raytheon in characterizing the properties of CG ALON to determine if it is adequate for this application. At the conclusion of Phase I, two 7-inch diameter full hemisphere ALON domes will be fabricated and delivered to the program manager for further evaluation.

EXTEMPORAL WIRELESS
3902 SW 97th Drive
Gainesville, FL 32608
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 829-1002
Mr. Ronald D. Bowman
DARPA 04-003       Selected for Award
Title:Simulcasting and Adaptive Beamforming in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a critical link in military tactical communications. The same feature that makes ad hoc networks so useful for military communications, i.e., the lack of a centralized controller, also limits how efficiently the networks use the channel resources. In addition, for many military applications, the network devices are battery powered and need to use energy very efficiently. Thus, new approaches are needed that can provide significant gains in throughput and energy efficiency. In this SBIR effort, we will demonstrate how two communication technologies can work together to provide improved performance in ad hoc networks. The two technologies are digital simulcasting and adaptive beamforming. These technologies have been developed in recent years but have not been combined or deployed in MANETs. In Phase I, we will design MAC- and network- layer protocols that enable exploiting the combination of simulcasting and beamforming and use simulation to predict end-to-end performance and power consumption. In Phase II, we will construct a prototype network for demonstration and validation of the design, using software radio technology to reduce development time and maximize experimental effectiveness.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 554-2047
Mr. Michael J. Geile
DARPA 04-003       Awarded: 03MAY04
Title:Multicasting in Mobile Wireless (Ad Hoc) Networks
Abstract:While mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) technology continues to mature, a fundamental limitation of these systems is an inability to route multicast messages while also constraining the direction in which signals are transmitted. Directional MANETs are of great interest to the network planner, but a multicast functionality has yet to be reported. We present a method for implementing robust, efficient multicasting in a directional MANET using a modified distributed TDMA MAC and multicast OLSR. Physical layer elements are proposed to allow multiple, simultaneous transmissions of a multicast message while maintaining LPI and AJ operating conditions. Design goals include improvements in multicast performance, multicast tree formation and reliable multicast for AJ and LPI scenarios. We combine existing technology in both directional networking and omnidirectional, but multicast-enabled, MANETs with innovative cross-layer protocol elements to implement multicasting for directional ad hoc networks (M-DAN).

NEKTON RESEARCH LLC
4625 Industry Lane
Durham, NC 27713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 405-3993
Dr. Rick Vosburgh
DARPA 04-004       Awarded: 20MAY04
Title:Cascading Unmanned Undersea Vehicles
Abstract:The Phase I effort will develop and evaluate a candidate design for the 21" host vehicle launch and recovery system and the micro-UUVs. The evaluation will include: (a) an assessment of the system's ability to autonomously launch the micro-UUV at a rate of 1 every 4 minutes; (b) the anticipated low speed hydrodynamic performance of the two vehicles operating during the recovery phase, including a plan for the detailed numerical analysis to be conducted in Phase II; (c) a preliminary design of the sensors, communications methods, vehicle guidance and control algorithms required to safely rendezvous and dock the micro-UUV; and (d) a preliminary design for the mechanical and electrical connectors to affect a reliable docking, data exchange between the vehicles and recharging of the micro-UUV. An end-to-end system engineering assessment will resolve design and performance tradeoffs among various functions. The Phase I results will establish the optimum design for further simulation based design efforts in Phase II. In addition, the Phase I assessment will identify moderate and high risk components that should be prototyped and tested in the second year of the Phase II effort.

TROUT GREEN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4411 Spicewood Springs Rd #109
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 873-9899
Dr. Gary Marsden
DARPA 04-004       Selected for Award
Title:Automated Launch and Recovery of UUVs
Abstract:We propose to develop a probe and drogue system with optical guidance and wet-mateable electrical and fiber optic connectors in order to support recovery and the rapid transfer of power and data between a miniaturized UUV and its support ship.

AVAAK
5405 Morehouse Drive Suite 320
SAN DIEGO,, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 453-9866
Mr. Giora Goldberg
DARPA 04-005       Selected for Award
Title:Shipping Container Remote Sensing
Abstract:Each year over sixteen million containers arrive in our country by truck and in container ships. Current inspection regimes rely on manual inspection procedures and on x-raying, on gamma ray inspection technology, and on use of radiation detectors on containers of interest. Rarely can more than a small percentage of the total number of containers in a container ship be adequately inspected, and any uninspected container can pose significant risk to national security. Avaak Inc. proposes to develop a system based on miniature and low cost sensor-radio platforms (capsules), that includes on board bio-chem and explosive sensors and can wirelessly relay alarm signals from within shipping containers, to a hand held hub (PDA) or PC. The concept for the proposed system is derived from a similar system that Avaak is developing for the US Navy, under an SBIR award, for use in reconnaissance, asymmetric warfare and urban combat.

INTERFACE STUDIES, INC.
4380 NW Malhuer Ave
Portland, OR 97229
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 533-1044
Dr. John L. Freeouf
DARPA 04-005       Selected for Award
Title:Shipping Container Remote Sensing
Abstract:There is a large and growing demand for chemical sensors in various uses, including sensitive detection of chemical warfare agents, detection of gas leaks of various sorts, air quality monitoring, and to monitor various chemical processes. As chemical sensors become less expensive, less obtrusive, and more readily networked for computer control, they will become ubiquitous in sensing and controlling many processes ranging from chemical creation to traffic control. We propose to fabricate a MEMs-based quadrupole mass spectrometer that can offer chip-level integration with power supplies and control logic, that would be small enough to place in almost any system with minimum perturbation, and that should offer high sensitivity and high rejection of cross-talk with other species. These systems should be smaller than 1 cm3, weigh less than 20 g, and consume only a few watts. The density of mass spectrometers available permits us to simultaneously search for many species and use the results to reject any residual cross-talk that might exist. In particular, by checking various mass ratios we can unambiguously separate signals from O2, Cl2, NH3, I2, or H2O2. The ubiquity of such systems will permit widespread deployment of "artificial noses" of high sensitivity to monitor chemical distribution levels.

NEVADA NANOTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
695 Sierra Rose Drive
Reno, NV 89511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 368-2870
Mr. Ralph Whitten
DARPA 04-005       Awarded: 19MAY04
Title:Chemical and Explosive Vapor Detection in Shipping Containers with Remotely Accessed Microcantilever Array Sensors
Abstract:We present a highly qualified team, including security experts and technical experts, and a patent-pending new microcantilever array sensor technology (which has been tested for chemical and explosive detection) to be integrated with low-cost electronics and networking modules and implemented as an inexpensive and easily deployable solution to the shipping container inspection problem. Because of the flexibility and advantages of the proposed platform, such a system could provide monitoring of containers for pollutants, toxic industrial chemicals, and chemical and biological agents with one low-cost sensor array in each container. The overarching objective of this work is to develop sensing inspection and assessment technologies for remotely screening in-bound shipping containers for use on-shore during container loading and unloading, and in offshore holding areas for inbound container ships. In Phase I of the program, we will develop a sensor and implementation methodology, and demonstrate proof-of principle data collection and analysis. In phase II of the award, larger arrays of more sensitive microcantilevers will be fabricated and packaged with standard ICs for implementation in a small network of sensor units embedded in two or more shipping containers. These containers will undergo a field test with chemical and/or explosive laden mock cargo.

TESLA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 31378
Knoxville, TN 37930
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 531-9150
Dr. W.R. Lawrence
DARPA 04-005       Selected for Award
Title:MEMS Multi-Mode, Multi-Parameter Shipping Container Sensors
Abstract:A solution for critical security sensing scenarios has often been a high-cost scale reduction of large laboratory-based instrumentation. Even though this approach sometimes produces data for a single stimuli that is beyond reproach, it also often produces a very delicate, bulky, and costly system that can not be universally applied. An alternative approach could involve the use of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based sensors which typically results in low-cost devices but with sometimes dubious quality data. Our approach integrates multiple orthogonal stimuli within a single chip to produce a MEMS array sensor that has a very high degree of signal confidence. Each individually sensed stimulus may only produce moderate confidence data, but combining multiple independent stimuli significantly improves detection reliability in a coin-sized package that can be introduced in every shipping container. This could quickly provide universal container interrogation due to the ultra-low cost of these devices in large quantity. The detection of targets such as "dirty bombs" would be ideal with this technology since multiple signatures will be present from such a device. Individually we have previously examined MEMS-based infrared, acoustic, chemical, biological, magnetic field, and nuclear radiation sensors. We believe that integrating these stimuli, and eventually many others, onto the same MEMS array within a single chip will represent a major step in sensing technology since the sensor fusion is inherent in the hardware of this approach.

AGILITY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
475 Pine Ave.
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 690-1722
Dr. Gregory Fish
DARPA 04-007       Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Fiber Optic Bus Module for Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Networks in Mobile Military Platforms
Abstract:This project plans to develop a small and low cost dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) laser transmitter module qualified for reliable operation in the harsh environment of military and aerospace avionics applications. The fiber pigtailed transmitter will have a low-profile (package height < 0.140"), the smallest WDM transmitter size ever attempted. The module will be capable of generating > 80 wavelength channels, providing a digital data rate of 10Gb/s and high dynamic range analog transmission from 0.2-20 GHz with multi-octave spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) > 105 dB-Hz2/3. The module will employ a novel wavelength locker to achieve the low-profile requirement. In addition, the latest developments in thermoelectric coolers will be utilized to provide stable performance over extended temperature ranges of -40ÝC to 100ÝC. In Phase I, the focus will be on the digital and analog testing of the InP based widely-tunable transmitter chip, which forms the heart of the module, to demonstrate its suitability for this application. The Phase I effort will also propose fiber optic bus architectures of mobile military systems that can take the best advantage of the WDM transmitter and evaluate the suitability of electrical predistortion for improving the SFDR of the transmitter for broadband RF applications.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Dr. De Y. Zang
DARPA 04-007       Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Optical Bus Interface Module (IOBIM)
Abstract:Current military platforms operate as integral part of Network Centric Warfare. The type and amount of information that permeates both, tactical and strategic environment demands that all platforms be equipped with high speed distribution networks. Optical networks are best suited to distribute and process this information reliably at high speeds, and are immune to Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) and jamming. Networks can take on various forms such as bus or switched topology. The latter exhibits single point failure and a bi-directional broadcast bus topology is more reliable and the recommended one, as it also supports Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), for the simultaneous transmission of multi-protocol digital and analog RF signals. The critical element of the bus is the access node or optical bus interface module.(OBIM) Each node in the bus can transmit and distribute a wide variety of sensors, control and communication signals with minimum latency. The node is all-glass, passive node with unity gain, to compensate for splitting losses. We propose to develop and demonstrate. The feasibility of a novel integrated optical chip OBIM with significant reduction in size and weight and much greater reliability, that provide military platforms with a high-speed (>40 GHz), low-cost all-optical network, will be demonstrated.

T NETWORKS, INC.
6580 Snowdrift Road
Allentown, PA 18106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 289-5040
Dr. Steve O'Brien
DARPA 04-007       Awarded: 20MAY04
Title:Integrated Optical Bus Interface Module
Abstract:There are several military applications pursuing WDM-based networks in which analog and digital information are transmitted and controlled within the same network. Such mixed-signal architectures enable a diverse set of applications to run simultaneously, permit multiple-sensor data fusion, and provide higher functionality to the end user along with lower weight, smaller size, lower electro-magnetic interference, redundancy and substantially easier upgrades and maintainability. A high performance, compact analog transmitter is the key missing component for future mixed-signal WDM networks. In this program, a 3-member team comprising T-Networks Inc., the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMCO) will develop a high-performance analog transmitter module for mixed-signal systems with improved optical power, noise and linearity.

MESOSCRIBE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Long Island High Technology Incubator 25 E Loop Rd
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6455
Mr. Richard Gambino
DARPA 04-008       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Concepts for Distributed, Large Area, Rectenna Arrays
Abstract:MesoScribe Technologies, Inc, in conjunction with program partner EDO Antenna Products and DoD transition partner Raytheon Corporation, proposes to examine the design issues, materials technology and the feasibility of implementing a space based large area collection rectenna. System level considerations such as integration, cost and transport will addressed. Component level issues including substrate, antenna element, schottky junction diode and thermal management concepts will be addressed during the initial design phase. Materials and device characteristics will also examined during the design phase and preliminary fabrication and characterization will be conducted. MesoScribe's novel direct write technology along with EDO's advanced design capability is expected to provide a unique framework for examining this far reaching concept. The successful development of component and/or system level technology can have dual use applicability. The SBIR program will provide a framework to develop a team and assess the technology.

RST SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INC.
2331 W. Lincoln Ave, Suite 300
Anaheim, CA 92801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-8274
Mr. R. S. Tahim
DARPA 04-008       Awarded: 19MAY04
Title:Advanced Rectenna Technologies for Space Power Applications
Abstract:This proposal describes innovative, low-cost design of a rectenna system capable of delivering a large amount of electric power to the military space-vehicles. The key innovations essential to the system include: (1) high efficiency dual polarized rectenna and array; (2) EMI noise reduction techniques, (3) failure and thermal analysis (4), device technology study for high frequency rectennas and (5) the bus-bar design for DC output power. High power transmitter sources such as high power tubes or quasi-optical power combiner in which a large number of low power devices combine their output powers quasi-optically in the free space are capable of converting available electrical energy (solar, nuclear, hydro, etc.) into an electromagnetic wave (microwave, millimeter-wave, laser), transmitting via an antenna, and the receiving the energy at a remote point, and converting back into a usable format (DC, 60 Hz, etc.). The rectenna (rectifier + antenna) that converts the received microwave power into DC power can be developed using printed antenna elements integrated with the solid-state devices such as Schottky devices. A high efficiency circularly polarized conformable rectenna design capable of delivering large amount of electric power for spacecraft and its payload system is needed. A modular approach will be developed for easy replacement and maintenance. The techniques to reduce the higher order harmonic radiation from the large rectenna structures and bus-bar design are also described.

ONLINE ALCHEMY
5025 Burnet Suite 100
Austin, TX 78756
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 419-9001
Mr. Michael Sellers
DARPA 04-009       Selected for Award
Title:IQs for Avatars: Testing and Editing Intelligent Agents for Training
Abstract:Military training systems require better computer-based modeling and simulation than is currently available. Key to such enhanced training is the use of computer-generated non-player characters (NPCs), or "avatars," exhibiting believable and culturally relevant behaviors in real-time training scenarios. Non-technical personnel must be able to generate such NPCs easily, either as individuals or groups, to fit training goals. Online Alchemy proposes to design and produce a working technology prototype for creating believable NPCs. This proposal focuses on creating NPCs with distinct personalities, goals, relationships, and in particular emergent nuanced emotions. Our technology is based on the "Five Factor" model of personality combined with a motivational and emotional model built on Maslovian and CogAff models and BDI architectural principles. This results in configurable NPCs that exhibit believable behaviors and emotions across a wide range of interactions. This proposal does not include natural language or advanced rendering technologies, but is compatible with work being done in these areas. During Phase I we will also specify methods for assessing the believability of the NPCs within a training context. The assessment itself will be part of Phase II, and will include Institutional Review Board (IRB) compliance for experimentation using human subjects.

SMART INFORMATION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, D/B/A SIFT
1272 Raymond Ave
St. Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 716-4015
Dr. Christopher Miller
DARPA 04-009       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:The "Etiquette Quotient"; Evaluating Social Skills in Conversational Avatars
Abstract:Making avatars react appropriately in social interaction--to take offense when reasonable, to give deference where appropriate, etc.-- is a more fundamental need for believability and cost-effectiveness than is accuracy in appearance, especially for military applications such as cross-cultural training. We propose using a rich, universal theory of human-human "politeness" behaviors and the culture-specific interpretive frameworks for them (labeled "etiquette") from sociology, linguistics and anthropology to create a computational model of social behavior expectations. This model will link observable and inferred aspects of power and familiarity relationships, the degree of imposition of an act (all of which have implications for roles and intents) and the actor's character to produce politeness behaviors expectations. By using observations of politeness behaviors (or its lack), the same model permits inferences and updates about those attributes. In Phase I, we will refine and implement this model to provide a computational believability metric based on the delta between observed and expected politeness behaviors--an "Etiquette Quotient" (EQ)--of an actor in context. We will also validate and tune this measure in an experiment using avatars. In Phase II, we will expand this model with cross-cultural etiquette libraries and use it dynamically adapt avatars' social behavior.

VCOM3D, INC.
3452 Lake Lynda Dr., Suite 260
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 737-7309
Dr. Edward M. Sims
DARPA 04-009       Awarded: 19MAY04
Title:Software Tools for the Development and Reuse of Avatars with Culture-Specific Behaviors
Abstract:In order to increase the accessibility to courses in Foreign Languages and cultures, organizations such as the Defense Language Institute (DLI) are developing distributed learning courses that include responsive, multi-cultural avatars. Currently, training simulations employing these avatars must be developed independently for each language and culture, at a significant expense. Furthermore, the avatars developed for these courses are not necessarily designed to support reuse by other projects, such as DARWARS. For this Phase I SBIR Project, Vcom3D will develop a modular architecture for avatars that can be easily modified to model different cultures and contexts. Our approach will be to separate the "meaning and intent" of character interactions from the culture-specific ways in which individual characters convey this information through speech, gesture, and action. We will develop a proof-of-concept authoring tool for creating training simulations that can be tailored for different cultures by embedding virtual characters with appropriate "built-in" behaviors. We will conduct an evaluation of the performance, accuracy, and "believability" of the behaviors with DLI faculty and other appropriate subject matter experts. To support rapid adaptation of this technology by other programs, we will develop to Web, IEEE, and ISO-track standards such as XML, HLA, X3D, and H-Anim.

REVEO, INC.
85 Executive Blvd
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-0321
Dr. Lin-Feng Li
DARPA 04-010       Selected for Award
Title:Novel Oxygen Pump for High Altitude Air Breathing Engines
Abstract:In this SBIR program, a novel hydroxide conductive ceramic membrane is used in an oxygen compressor for air breathing high altitude engines. As compared to the oxygen compressor based on the traditional mixed electron-ionic conductive membranes, eVionyx' novel air compressor can operate at much lower temperatures (<150oC), can provide much higher oxygen flux and is far less expensive to fabricate. Since the state-of-the-art oxygen conduction ceramic membrane (MIEC type) requires an operational temperature of more than 600oC, it requires integration with the engine, and thus huge risks are involved. eVionyx's oxygen generator can operate at ~ 150oC, so the residue heat from the jet engine can be used and the unit can be physically separated from the engine, significantly reducing the redesign requirement. The overall Phase I objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of using our novel membrane to make the oxygen compressor for air breathing high altitude engines, determine the scalability of the design, and make a preliminary design and test protocol for the engine in Phase II. In Phase II, we will further optimize the fabrication processes, carry out system design, and integrate with a small engine to test the validity of the predictions made in Phase I.

MULPHYS
1048 RIDGEWAY AVE Contact: Andrei Smirnov
MORGANTOWN, WV 26505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 293-3111
Dr. Wade Huebsch
DARPA 04-011       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:Data Structures for Efficient and Integrated Simulation of Multi-Physics Processes in Complex Geometries
Abstract:Advanced data types for simulation of discrete and continuum dynamics in complex 3D geometries are proposed. These data types form the basis of a model-development environment, MulPhys, based on 3D libraries for manipulation of geometrical primitives, object-oriented multi-domain modeling paradigm, continuum solvers on unstructured meshes, and discrete particle solvers. The numerical schemes are based on the methods of continuum and discrete mechanics, such as the control-volume method for the solution of transient flow problems on unstructured meshes, the finite-element method for the solution of elasticity problems for linear, planar and 3D elements, and the Lagrangian particle method for the solution of particle motion in continuum media. The interaction of fluids, structures and particles is accomplished through the coupling of the solvers in a unified multi-solver modeling paradigm. Several prototype example cases of complex continuum mechanical systems are considered. It is proposed to refine and optimize the existing data types to better represent the multi-physics problems in a multi-processor computational environment. At the same time, further extensions and generalization of the data types and multi-modeling schemes are proposed so as to better suite the problems with strong non-locality features, and multi-scale processes.

THINKADAPTIVE, INC.
1642 East 56-th Street, ste 1113
Chicago, IL 60637
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 538-1219
Dr. Dmitri Verner
DARPA 04-011       Awarded: 19APR04
Title:A Common Mesh Infrastructure for Parallel Adaptive Multi-Scale and Multi-Physics Integrated Simulations in Complex Geometries
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to develop a common mesh infrastructure (CMI) and algorithms for efficient adaptive simulations of transient multi-scale and multi-physics processes in complex geometries based on a new, fully threaded tree (FTT) abstract data type. An outcome of the proposed research will be a universal, platform-independent, stand-alone software library for managing a geometrically and topologically complex adaptive computational mesh shared by multiple algorithms during integrated numerical simulations of multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. The CMI will define both global topology of a computational domain and local connectivity information on the mesh through a map of a multi-dimensional computational space onto a one-dimensional abstract index space. A critical property of the proposed CMI is that it will enable adaptive numerical algorithms to operate on an index space instead of a computational space, and will free the algorithms from topological and geometrical constraints either explicitly defined or implicitly imposed by application-specific and computer language-specific layouts of computational data in a computer memory, thus making the CMI-based adaptive algorithms flexible, portable, and universal.

PHILOMETRON, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road Suite 152
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 755-8215
Mr. Robert Lackey
DARPA 04-012       Awarded: 22APR04
Title:Non-Invasive Physiological Monitoring
Abstract:PhiloMetron proposes to develop a non-invasive body hydration monitoring system which will provide continuous ambulatory monitoring of the change in a subject's hydration status. The hydration monitoring system will enable the detection of hydration loss (hypohydration) earlier than it can be perceived by the individual, preventing subsequent loss of physical and/or cognitive skills caused by dehydration. The monitoring system will provide accurate and repeatable measurements that will enable detection of very small changes or trends in hydration status in an unencumbered ambulatory environment. The system is comprised of a disposable self applied smart patch that monitors various bioparameters continuously and wirelessly transmits this information to the individual and/or caretaker (clinician).

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Mr. R. D. Ferguson
DARPA 04-012       Selected for Award
Title:Non-Invasive Physiological Monitoring
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc (PSI) proposes to develop non-invasive sensors for measurement of vital statistics with compact, head-mounted tracking-stabilized optical diagnostics through the eye. PSI's unique approach to retinal tracking is the key enabling technology. The potential benefits of continuous physiological monitoring of war fighters' health and status on the battlefield range from early detection of bio-warfare agent signs and symptoms, to remote e-triage and vital statistics diagnostics, and measures of cognitive function. The ability to perform a sufficient variety of distinct, high sensitivity, spatially and spectrally precise measurements in vivo with a single compact, low power instrument is essential. In order to build practical and unobtrusive Ocular Physiological Monitor (OPM) devices, advanced electro-optic technology design and development for critical components will be pursued in proposed R&D program. Combining MEMS optics technologies with novel PSI tracking/sensing systems will allow high performance diagnostic systems to be incorporated in head/helmet-mounted systems and eyewear already in use by the military.

ACCACIA INTERNATIONAL LLC
1925 Rutland Drive, Suite E
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 784-1861
Mrs. Eulalia Sequeira
DARPA 04-013       Awarded: 20MAY04
Title:Nanosphere Beacons for Real-Time Detection In Vivo
Abstract:Current techniques for real-time detection of signaling pathways in live cells are limited. Accacia International LLC, will develop better strategies by combining the signaling properties of molecular beacons and aptamer beacons with the advantages of quantum dot photoluminescence to produce quantum dot beacons (QDBs). In order to demonstrate the potential of these novel signaling nanoparticles, Accacia will generate QDBs targeting both mRNA and protein targets. The designs will be tested both in vitro and in vivo. These experiments should provide a solid foundation for the future design and generation of additional QDBs which will potentiate parallel detection of all the components of a cell signaling cascade.

EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
216 River Street Suite 200
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 273-6266
Dr. Brian D. Cohen
DARPA 04-013       Selected for Award
Title:SINGLE MOLECULE FLUORESCENCE OF BIOMOLECULES AND COMPLEXES
Abstract:Evident Technologies proposes to optimize the design and application of quantum dots for biological labeling. To enable new dynamic, cellular biology research, we will demonstrate the advantages of the broad excitation spectra, including: narrow emission spectra, precise-tunable emission peaks, long fluorescence lifetimes, and negligible photobleaching properties of quantum dots. We will develop the design of organic coatings, bioconjugation schemes, targeting strategies, and unique instrumentation that take advantage of multiple quantum tags for cellular signaling characterization. We will also demonstrate that fluorescence lifetime can be used to observe molecules and organelles in live cells without interference from autofluorescence background. The benefits of the proposed research are significant. Experiments in cellular signaling are currently performed predominantly in in-vitro environments. The ultimate challenge is to image cellular substructures, determine the relationships and dynamics of vesicles and organelles, describe existing conformational dynamics and biomolecular interactions, and localization of all of the above in-vivo with single molecule sensitivity and nanometer-accuracy. This will allow the freedom to explore the answers to new questions by studying enzymes and multi-component molecular machines in their natural environment, with the signaling and regulation circuitry all wired-up.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Melanie Tomczak
DARPA 04-013       Awarded: 06APR04
Title:Real Time Monitoring of Signaling Pathways in Biological Cells
Abstract:Signaling pathways in cells historically have been studied using in vitro assays, where components are purified from cells and the reactions are done in a test tube. These assays can be helpful in identifying key players of signaling pathways, however these in vitro assays cannot mimic the complex environment and interactions found in the cytoplasm of an intact cell. Several important signaling pathways involved in maintaining healthy tissue and preventing disease are the kinases, which phosphorylate proteins in response to specific upstream signals. Recent advances in nanoparticle technology are starting to make visualization of cellular events in vivo, in real time, possible. We propose to use two different bioconjugated nanoparticles (BNPs) to visualize and localize kinase activity, using one BNP, and, with the second BNP, we will specifically inhibit kinase activity and release that inhibition with a specific, external signal.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Ms. Carla Marceau
DARPA 04-016       Selected for Award
Title:EPP: Empirical Privilege Profiling for Black-box Software
Abstract:The Principle of Least Privilege says that programs should operate with sufficient privilege to get the job done, but no more, in order to minimize the harm that can be done in case of error. The Empirical Privilege Profiling system (EPP) will collect data about privileges actually exercised by running programs and use them to create a composite abstract privilege profile for the program, which can be used to guide system administrators in granting program privileges. To create EPP, ATC-NY will develop novel technologies for finding the privileges exercised by programs and for building composite abstract profiles.

NAMESYS
6979 Exeter Dr.
Oakland, CA 94611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 435-1084
Mr. Hans Reiser
DARPA 04-016       Selected for Award
Title:Viewprinting Processes and Then Isolating Them Within Filesystem Views
Abstract:System administrators who are serious about ensuring that the consequences of a process being compromised by an attack are minimized currently engage in a painfully labor intensive procedure of creating a tree with all of the files the process needs to run, and then chrooting the process to that tree. This procedure is so painful that most administrators don't do it. We will make it easy. We will make it easy by: * containing processes in filesystem views, which are a more powerful expression of chroot * making it trivial to automatically assemble a list of all accesses a monitored process makes (a "viewprint") * creating that list in the same format as the specification of a view that can access only those files * creating a mechanism for allowing administrators to optionally be prompted when a process tries to exceed its viewprint, so that they can amend the viewprint or be alerted to danger * creating a moderated website and mailing list for sharing view specifications * pushing view specifications to package maintainers and Linux distributors * encouraging distributors to make all processes they can, be isolated into views by default, by making it easy to do and an important sales bullet item.

PNP NETWORKS
1525 Siesta Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 423-1052
Ms. Hilarie Orman
DARPA 04-016       Selected for Award
Title:Security Via Collaborative Monitoring
Abstract:Heuristic search for "least privilege / maximum functionality" program configurations can find the best way to achieve security for complex applications. This research project will draw on peer-to-peer networking and file sharing techniques to build huge computational networks that collect, collate and process data using distributed learning algorithms. The amount of computing power and the variety of data sources will make it possible to extend the learning algorithms beyond the current state-of-the-art, and they will be able to determine normal program behaviors and configuration parameters. The recommended security settings will be adjusted to common usage environments. The system will preserve anonymity and privacy, and the effects of malicious participants will be confined. The project will develop the tools and methods within a flexible, open framework.

NUCRYPT LLC
7727 Kildare Ave
Skokie, IL 60076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 841-7817
Dr. Gregory S. Kanter
DARPA 04-017       Awarded: 26MAY04
Title:Analysis of Classical and Quantum Information Interface Requirements (ACQuIIRe): High-Speed Quantum Encryption over a Classical Network
Abstract:This SBIR Phase-I project is aimed at exploiting an exciting new invention in the area of quantum cryptography to secure the physical layer of today's ubiquitous fiber-optic data networks. Unlike the techniques based on single-photon states that are confined to low bit rates and short distances, our approach is based on coherent states emitted by ordinary lasers that permits scaling to speeds in today's networks (~10 Gbps) and deployment over realistic distances (~500 km). We have already demonstrated single channel speeds of 0.25 Gbps over 100 km distance. In this SBIR we aim to scale this present capability to 2.5 Gbps in a WDM system over distances reaching 400 km. Within Phase-I we will address three fundamental issues: additional noise arising within the encrypted channel bandwidth due to existence of other channels, calibration of the encrypting and decrypting modulators that set the level of security, and design and development of a 2.5 Gbps compatible stream cipher. We believe that given the versatility of NuCrypt's devices in being able to set the level of security, we will be able to provide the End Users with a wide range of price/security-level combinations, thus seamlessly bringing quantum technology into classical data networks.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-1177
Dr. Brian T. Mitchell
DARPA 04-017       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Analysis of Classical and Quantum Information Interface Requirements (ACQuIIRe)
Abstract:Quantum cryptography will likely play a key role in the future of secure communications. An effective Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system is the central requirement for a successful quantum cryptographic system. Current QKD systems use a limited and incomplete set of standards to define the interfaces between the quantum system components and the necessary digital components and networks. This document proposes to develop Interface Definition Documents (IDDs) and eventually software tools utilizing those interface standards to control the physical interfaces and management and analysis software of QKD systems. IDDs will be developed for multiple interface layers including: physical interface, management interface and analysis interfaces. As a unique feature of this approach, two analysis components are considered: blue analysis interface, addressing countermeasure factors that can be monitored internally, and a red (threat-side) analysis interface, addressing vulnerability factors that can be monitored externally. Through consulting and teaming arrangements, it is planned to work closely with two organizations developing prototype QKD systems and standards, BBN and NIST.

AUTOMATIKA, INC.
137 Delta Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 968-1022
Dr. Noellette Conway
DARPA 04-018       Awarded: 18MAY04
Title:SpinnerBot
Abstract:We propose to develop a highly capable disaster-response robotic system called SpinnerBot for use in confined and/or collapsed-structures for survivor search, site-investigation and -assessment. SpinnerBot will: 1) Provide for a small and light footprint and have a user-friendly GUI; 2) Allow for long-term deployment of at least 12 hours or more; 3) Be capable of carrying crucial sensor-modalities (visual, chemical, etc.); 4) Be capable of accessing and climbing up/down convoluted and confined spaces; 5) Be capable of real-time control of 'buried' ranges no less than 100 feet; 6) Be simple and inexpensive to purchase and use. SpinnerBot will consist of an articulated tethered platform capable of climbing and rappelling with the use of a tensionable member and a user-selectable locomotor - very much akin to a spider or mountain climber. The platform will carry on-board vision & chemical sensors, which can access internal locations with the help of an extremely capable articulating frame/suspension with exchangeable running-gears. The system can operate with wheels, legs, or even treads, which are rapidly interchangeable on site. Such a system does not exist today and SpinnerBot can provide a solution that could dramatically impact current robotic vehicle capabilities in terms of search-and-rescue and structure inspection.

FOSTER-MILLER, INC.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 684-4625
Mr. Mads Schmidt
DARPA 04-018       Awarded: 27MAY04
Title:Arachne: A Modular Teleoperated Mobility and Sensor System for Insinuation into Collapsed Structures
Abstract:Events in recent years have emphasized the need for a small, highly mobile system that can effectively insinuate a sensor payload into underground or collapsed structures. In the aftermath of the World Trade Center disaster, robots showed great promise in aiding search and rescue by penetrating into areas too dangerous for personnel to enter. However, their relatively large size (on the order of feet, not inches), made penetration deep into the rubble difficult. In order to improve sensor insinuation into collapsed or underground structures, Foster-Miller, Inc. and 18th Street Innovations, LLC (CMU Robotics Institute spin-off) propose to develop the Arachne robotic system. Arachne is a small, tethered mobility and sensing module. Each Arachne module is highly mobile and houses a tether spool that carries 30 m of tether. The small size and high mobility of Arachne increases penetration and sensor insinuation depth by enabling the system to fit through small passages that were previously inaccessible to larger robots. Arachne has the distinct advantage of being able to form long linked chains of identical modules. The modules can be actively disengaged and reengaged mid-mission, providing unprecedented mission flexibility and insinuation capability. (P-040167)

ROBOTIC TECHNOLOGIES
715 E. Cypress Ave. Unit B
Burbank, CA 91501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 260-9878
Mr. Robert Hogg
DARPA 04-018       Selected for Award
Title:A Small, Capable Reconnaissance Tool: The SpinnerBot
Abstract:We will design and implement a complete "SpinnerBot" tethered robotics system to address problems of remote awareness in military operations and urban search and rescue. The highly mobile robitics system will be less than 20cm long and weigh less than 1.5 kilograms, enabling the delivery of a robust sensor package to otherwise inaccessable spaces.

CARDINAL RESEARCH LLC
860 Lathrop Dr
Stanford, CA 94305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 857-9151
Dr. Bernard Widrow
DARPA 04-019       Awarded: 01JUN04
Title:Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving high-speed decision making and cognitive responses to sensory inputs, based on current and prior experience. The research will focus on memory, i.e. the development of a "human-like" cognitive memory. Although memory is only a single component of a cognitive information processing system, it is a crucial and central component, one that is essential for learning. This research will identify and select high-value DoD-based cognitive processing problems whose solutions would be enabled from use of cognitive memory. Such a memory will be designed, simulated, and tested with DoD problems involving pattern recognition, data retrieval, sensor fusion, etc. Analysis of the cognitive memory architecture will be made in order to compare speed and efficiency when implemented with custom hardware versus COTS components.

HOPLITE SYSTEMS LLC.
3900 White Settlement Rd. #183
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 626-2454
Mr. Matthew Scarpino
DARPA 04-019       Selected for Award
Title:Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements
Abstract:Hoplite Systems LLC proposes to implement the Soar cognitive architecture within a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system, called the RAISE (Reconfigurable Architecture for Improved Soar Execution) will demonstrate that an FPGA's parallel, reconfigurable, multi-clock capabilities enable significantly better Soar processing performance than a traditional CPU. Hoplite will also develop the Graphical User Interface needed to enter and send production rules to the FPGA/Soar system. Both the RAISE software and the hardware will be tested using a traditional problem for evaluating decision-making processes.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
7519 Standish Place Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5255
Dr. Wilbur Peng
DARPA 04-019       Selected for Award
Title:Hardware Architectures for Flexible Component-Based Hybrid Cognitive Systems
Abstract:Creating a realization of cognitive processes, reasoning, and behavior is a challenging problem due to its size, scope and complexity. Current realizations of cognitive systems are software based and typically implemented on conventional von Neumann processors. However, performance is a constraining factor in applications that require extensive testing, training and learning as well as in the implementation cognitive processes that require high memory bandwidth or are computationally intensive. In such cases, hardware processing elements that are tailored or made suitable for cognitive functions will be required. However, due to the rapid evolution and development of cognitive system requirements, missions and architectures, any hardware-based solutions must remain flexible and capable of supporting a variety of cognitive architectures and functions. At the same time, new cognitive system design and architectures should be build out of modules, each which can be specialized to particular hardware platforms without disturbing the other parts of the design. We propose to define a set of detailed requirements and designs for flexible hardware platforms that support both existing cognitive architectures and the next generation of component-based cognitive agents. The requirements and specifications of the hardware will be driven by the existing set of knowledge representations, reasoning representations, and cognitive models and architectures. We will also explore design methodologies for novel component-based cognitive architectures that can be used to exploit hardware processing elements and cognitive processing hardware architectures while retaining the flexibility, modularity and reusability of software implementations on COTS processors.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. Richard A. Lethin
DARPA 04-019       Awarded: 07JUN04
Title:Cognitive Processing Hardware/Software Elements
Abstract:Project focuses on the development of architectures for substantially improving throughput and power for modern cognitive algorithm examples incorporating learning to accelerate inference and implication, with a focus on the programming tools (languages, compilers, optimizers, and runtime) necessary to effectively use such architectures.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2411
Mr. Daniel Serfaty
DARPA 04-020       Selected for Award
Title:KNowledge-based Organizational Modeling Environment (KNOME)
Abstract:Methods are needed to understand, map, and measure the flow of information in C2 operations centers, taking into account the value of that information and the effects of information value on mission performance. The Knowledge-based Organizational Modeling Environment (KNOME) will combine task-based models of C2 organizational structure and operations with innovative techniques for characterizing and modeling the value of information for C2 tasks. Models developed in KNOME will capture where, how, and why information moves in operations centers and predict the effects of that movement on organizational performance. The KNOME modeling approach will build on the team's demonstrated expertise in task-based organizational modeling for command and control (Aptima, Inc.), and on Adaptive Information Management approaches for characterizing the value of information (SIFT, Inc.). In Phase I, task descriptions and information flows will be developed for two C2 environments: the AOC and a FORCEnet battle group. Innovative techniques will be developed for representing the value of information in both domains. An initial executable model will be developed as a proof of concept. The final product of Phase I will be a design for the KNOME tool and a specification of the first full-scale model to be developed in KNOME.

BMH ASSOC., INC.
5365 Robin Hood Road Suite 100
Norfolk, VA 23513
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 857-5670
Mr. Gary Kollmorgen
DARPA 04-020       Awarded: 11MAY04
Title:Knowledge Flow in Command and Control (C2)
Abstract:This proposal intends to show a systematic approach to modeling information flow in existing command and control (C2) centers. Using modeling and simulation, information processing bottlenecks will be exposed. Exploration of those bottlenecks and the development of mitigation strategies will allow for increased information flow. Increased information flow will result in more efficient decision making - faster, more informed and less error prone. While recent DoD research has examined better human computer interfaces, there has been little work trying to model the complexities and bottlenecks inherent in current C2 centers. This effort will demystify those bottlenecks and propose mitigation strategies transportable to any C2 environment. The initial deliverable for Phase I will be a design model of a nonspecific C2 center that will allow development of a working model for exploration of information flow and bottlenecks. Phase II will build the working model and use it for analyzing the information flow/exchange within the C2 center and developing strategies to enhance flow and decision making. Phase III will center on transitioning developed technologies to DoD programs and also look for commercial application of these strategies where information flow and timely decision making is imperative (e.g., Communication Network Control Centers, Air Traffic Control Centers, etc.).

PACIFIC SCIENCE & ENGINEERING GROUP, INC.
9180 Brown Deer Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 535-1661
Mr. Ronald Moore
DARPA 04-020       Selected for Award
Title:Knowledge Flow in Command and Control (C2)
Abstract:Although incremental improvements have been made in command and control and decision making theories, practices, and supporting technologies over the past several decades, true innovation has been lacking. Three major problem areas exist that preclude revolutionary progress in military command and control, i.e., information overload, troubling gaps in our understanding of human information processing and decision making, and an unbalanced focus on individuals and small teams vice larger groups and the with which they interact. The proposed work in this SBIR Phase I will begin to address all three areas in order to pave the way for the development of an intelligent command center that is aware of its human symbiots' needs, capabilities, and limitations. To the lay the groundwork for more sophisticated, larger-scale work toward an intelligent, aware command center, Phase I work will identify, describe, and model cognitive tasks and information flow within a representative state-of-the-art command center - in this case, an Aegis CIC. Based on this information and resultant model, innovative displays/interfaces and other advanced technologies will be proposed along with metrics able to measure the impact of any proposed changes to command center organization, processes, or technologies.

SMI GROUP
4132 Westfax Dr
Chatilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 257-0704
Dr. Michael Krauss
DARPA 04-020       Selected for Award
Title:Knowledge Flow in Command and Control (C2)
Abstract:A critical initiative within the Department of Defense is the migration to a network centric approach to warfare. This philosophy involves improving situational awareness within the Command Center by maximizing the utility and valid application of data via a construct of information flows and decision dependencies. This project illustrates the application of a network centric approach to C2 center information flow and the modeling of the interactions between physical, informational, and cognitive domains. All domains are represented in a modular physics based simulation program developed by the Sandia National Laboratory (UMBRA). Next steps associated with this initiative include the development of a completely modular C2 model that simulates communications between all internal and external domains from a data flow and management perspective.

SOFTPRO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2700 Delk Rd. Suite 150
Marietta, GA 30067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 483-3500
Mr. Larry Lafferty
DARPA 04-021       Selected for Award
Title:Bottom Up Structured Model Development Using Active Forms and Associative Memories
Abstract:This proposal describes an innovative approach for creating a structured battle-space model, an approach that will allow military experts to directly compose the model rapidly and efficiently. Our approach will eliminate the need for top-down model design and enable faster and cheaper creation of structured content. The conventional approach for building a structured model is top-down: early during system implementation, the engineering team makes its best effort to specify the model. The team effectively has to "get the model right" very early in development. Rather than asking engineers to construct a model top-down during implementation, we will enable users to create structured content directly, from the bottom-up, using SoftPro's implementation of active forms. Why use active forms to build a data model? Forms are, first of all, well-structured collections of terms (i.e., information elements). By looking at the forms users create, we can derive the terms for a model. In addition, by integrating active forms with an associative memory component we can observe how terms are used and learn about the relationships between terms. Information stored in the associative memory will enable developers to understand what users need in a structured model and to refine the implementation of the model.

RADAR FLASHLIGHT, LLC
1222 Brighton Road
Valdosta, GA 31602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 777-2979
Mr. Eugene F. Greneker
DARPA 04-022       Selected for Award
Title:Through-Wall Sensing (TWS) Technologies for Dismounted Infantry
Abstract:During Phase I, it is proposed that RADAR Flashlight, LLC (RFLLC), will demonstrate that a hand-held TWS sensor, requiring no stabilization, can be developed. It will be demonstrated that a hand-held TWS sensor capable of detecting the respiration signature of a human subject behind a wall is feasible. The feasibility of a self-stabilized sensor will be demonstrated through two experiments utilizing hardware and software to be developed. Each experiment will demonstrate a different stabilization design approach. Each approach will be evaluated. The hand-held stabilization technique showing the most promise will be proposed for transition into a DARPA Phase II development program for final pre-production model prototyping and commercialization. More specifically, it will be demonstrated during the proposed DARPA Phase I TWS research program that: 1) Stabilized hand-held operation requiring no placement of the TWS against the wall or on a tripod for stabilization can be achieved using two techniques; 2) The respiration signature of a human can be detected while the human is behind an opaque barrier such as a wall or door and the TWS is being hand held; 3) A display technique that will allow the user to determine the details of the interior of the structure being probed for human presence can be achieved; 4) The proof of principles demonstrated in the Phase I effort may be applied to a longer range stand-off system with possible weapons detection capability; 5) A TWS featuring all weather, robust, man portable (small and lightweight), system, operable by one soldier can be designed and produced and; 6) That the TWS can be commercialized at a price not to exceed $ 5,000 per unit, to allow large quantity purchases by both the military and homeland defense agencies.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-6461
Mr. Herbert Fluhler
DARPA 04-022       Awarded: 13MAY04
Title:Through-Wall Sensing (TWS) Technologies for Dismounted Infantry
Abstract:Time Domain Coporation (TDC) will develop a man-portable device that detects nearly motionless persons through walls. The resulting Sense Through The Wall (STTW) device will operate without external stabilization. With this device, soldiers in urban environments can quickly and safely assess building occupancy and maintain a tactical advantage. TDC's SoldierVision STTW device can operate in a non-stabilized standoff mode, and, when stabilized, can detect fine motions associated with breathing. TDC proposes to improve SoldierVision to achieve both functions simultaneously. After evaluating approaches for measuring platform motion, TDC will select the method that best meets the STTW application. TDC will implement algorithms to compensate radar data for platform motions and demonstrate the performance using a SoldierVision unit and Radar Testbed. TDC will assess the applicability of breathing detection algorithms and identify issues associated with implementing those algorithms in SoldierVision. The final solution will combine stabilization techniques and improved breathing detection algorithms. The Phase I effort will result in a system architecture for the stabilization solution. This architecture will facilitate the Phase II effort to produce an auto-stabilized SoldierVision prototype. During Phase I, TDC will identify integration issues in order to mitigate Phase II risks.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Kazem F. Sabet
DARPA 04-023       Awarded: 01JUN04
Title:Physically-Small VHF SAR Antenna
Abstract:In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research project, we propose to investigate and adapt a number of recently developed ultra-compact and wideband planar antenna designs for a VHF Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) application. The antenna is intended to be mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and should cover the 20-90 MHz band. A reconfigurable antenna architecture using a switching network will be investigated to cover the entire bend in a stepped frequency mode of operation. The use of a reactive impedance surface is proposed to make the radiation pattern of the antenna unidirectional and suppress the back lobes. The effect of the mounting platform on the performance of the antenna will be simulated using in-house electromagnetic simulation codes.

FIRST RF CORP.
1200 28th Street, Suite 302
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
DARPA 04-023       Awarded: 13MAY04
Title:Physically-Small VHF SAR Antenna
Abstract:The challenge of transferring VHF FOPEN technology to small tactical platforms lies in achieving adequate antenna characteristics within the allowable size, weight, and mechanical constraints. The key elements of the FIRST RF innovative design include: innovative broadband beamforming concept to achieve the necessary gain and front to back ratio over the entire 20 - 90 MHz bandwidth (the proposed excitation has been simulated over the bandwidth demonstrating the required performance); an antenna design that is adaptable to a wide range of configurations and installations; an antenna design that has examined active and passive tuning techniques, single versus dual band approaches, and balanced versus imbalanced designs; and finally a test configuration that enables complete free space calibration of installed antenna performance. The antenna design baseline is backed by both physical models built in preparation for this proposal and detailed electromagnetic models including mutual coupling considerations.

ALPHATECH, INC.
6 New England Executive Park
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-3388
Mr. Laughton Stanley
DARPA 04-024       Awarded: 10MAY04
Title:Link-Clustering Techniques for Group Dismount Tracking
Abstract:Detection and tracking of dismounts in foliage is difficult due to low target speed, foliage attenuation, small target RCS, internal clutter motion, forest animals, and target motion dynamics. The detection of individual dismounts reliably with reasonable false alarm rates will be extremely difficult in some circumstances and may require extended periods of observation. However if dismounts travel in groups, the structure and number in the group may be exploited to improve detectability and to derive additional tactically significant information. ALPHATECH proposes to develop link-clustering techniques which will improve identification and tracking of dismount groups by treating them as a group rather than as individuals. These techniques will identify and associate members of a group so that they may be separated from individuals and animals which do not belong to the group kinematically. In addition, we will extract tactically significant group features such as size, extent, structure, position and velocity which may be used by down stream processes or directly by war fighters to infer composition and intent.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Adel El-Fallah
DARPA 04-024       Awarded: 03MAY04
Title:Bayesian Troop-Target Detection, Tracking, and Prediction Using FOPEN-GMTI Radar
Abstract:This proposal addresses the problem of automatically detecting, tracking, and predicting the locations and velocities of formations of dismounted ground troops concealed in foliage, using data collected from P-band FOPEN-GMTI radars. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. (SSCI) and its subcontractor Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems (LMTS) will address this ``troop-target'' problem with a theoretically rigorous generalization of the concept of a ``probability hypothesis surface (PHS),'' first introduced in the mid-1990s as a potential approach for group-target processing under the DARPA DMIF program. Theoretically speaking, we apply a mulitarget nonlinear filter that is a multitarget statistical analog of a constant-gain Kalman filter. It propagates a first-order multitarget moment of the multitarget posterior distribution rather than the full multitarget distribution itself. Rather than attempting to assemble information about a troop formation by separately detecting and tracking its constituent individuals, this filter first detects and tracks only the over-all bulk behavior of a formation that is obscured by clutter and missed detections. What is being tracked at any time is a surface that is an estimate of the geographical shape and density of the troop formation. Only if the quantity and quality of data permits, does the filter then attempt to extract and track the individual constituents of the formation, which appear as distinct peaks in the surface. Our approach should be capable of detecting, extracting, tracking, and predicting the future states of troop formations despite relatively small probabilities of detection and relatively large clutter densities. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of detection/tracking technologies.

GOLETA ENGINEERING
P O Box 6208
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 967-0600
Mr. John C. Kirk
DARPA 04-025       Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost, Low-Power Radar For Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:Goleta Engineering (GE) and MMCOMM with support from UCLA will develop a low-cost low-power radar (LCLPR) for small UAV (SUAV) application. The candidate RFs are: W-band, K-band, X-band and VHF/UHF. We will leverage off of existing and emerging technologies such as our Liteweight UAV Radar (LUAVR) to evolve thru extensive tradeoffs a family of alternate designs. One of these designs will be down selected for further development and demonstration in Phase II. Many key enabling technologies need to be combined to facilitate the timely development and fielding of an LCLPR. The LCLPR will be based on commercial components such as miniaturized T/R, ADC/FPGA for signal processing, an 802.11 type device for communications, miniaturized GPS and MEMS IMU for SAR motion compensation. The baseline design employs an FMCW waveform, MMIC hardware including a GAAS FET power amplifier and efficient signal processing. One of the key enabling technologies for implementing the SAR mode is signal based motion compensation (SBMC) to reduce the dependence on a motion measurement sensor (MMS). This capability has been developed and demonstrated on prior efforts by GE. During Phase I applicable SUAV platforms will be evaluated and a candidate selected to mate with the LCLPR for Phase II.

SI2 TECHNOLOGIES
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 606-2601
Dr. Jonathan Towle
DARPA 04-025       Selected for Award
Title:Low Power Radar and Wireless Network Communications for Small Cooperative UAVs (1000-016)
Abstract:SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes an innovative low power, low cost, multi band SAR which can be integrated into the structure of small UAVs. In addition to the SAR, SI2 will also integrate high bandwidth wireless network communications into small UAVs, so that they operate cooperatively in sending data to ground assets either directly or via other UAVs in the squadron. Our approach is to integrate SI2's Direct Write design, materials and manufacturing technology with system design to fabricate conformal antenna systems that meet both structural and electronic system requirements. The technology is applicable to a wide variety of electrical systems, including tuning mechanisms and matching circuits to enable the radar high transfer efficiency necessary for severely power limited vehicles. These antennas and associated electronics can be integrated into structural locations, such as wings and fuselage with no drag and minimal weight penalty thus minimizing the impact on endurance while adding the desired radar capability to small UAVs.

CLEVERSET, INC.
673 NW Jackson Ave.
Corvallis, OR 97330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 829-6000
Dr. Bruce D'Ambrosio
DARPA 04-026       Awarded: 19MAY04
Title:Innovations in Multiple Hypothesis Tracking
Abstract:Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) is an increasingly important element of the sensor-to-shooter computational chain. However, modern MHT methods are still limited in their ability to integrate multiple sources of information to reduce ambiguity, and in their ability to sustain multiple hypotheses over long periods of time. These limitations reduce the quality of products delivered by MHT systems. We propose that these limitations arise from two basic sources, and present a plan addressing each: 1. The standard hypothesis space representation, the track tree, conflates representational issues with computational issues, limiting the duration over which multiple hypotheses can be maintained. We propose the track graph, a more expressive representation of the basic hypothesis space; 2. Existing methods for extracting highly-ranked consistent pictures from an MHT hypothesis space do not exploit all the regularities in the space. We propose adapting new methods that offer a several order of magnitude increase in the size hypothesis space that can be considered in real time. The methods developed will provide a basis for long term track management, and will support inputs from multiple modalities and fusion levels. The proposed methods will be based in recent advances in representation and inference in structured probabilistic modeling.

TIA RESEARCH
800 Turnpike Street Suite 300
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 686-0311
Dr. John J. Fox
DARPA 04-026       Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Hypothesis Management
Abstract:TIA Research will develop an approach for optimizing the performance of multi-hypothesis trackers. The work performed will consider primarily mechanisms for improving the association algorithm that is a fundamental element of the fusion process. In the first phase of this research, the proposed technique will be demonstrated and evaluated through its application to the fusion of multi-source track data. A test bed will be developed to support this evaluation, and a series of analyses will be performed to measure the improved performance versus more traditional techniques. The results of this research will be quantifiable performance measures demonstrating the utility of the approach and a set of prototypical software components suitable for extension and maturation under Phase II research.

EM PHOTONICS, INC.
102 East Main Street, Suite 204
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Mr. Greg Behrmann
DARPA 04-027       Awarded: 17MAY04
Title:Flat Head-Mounted Displays
Abstract:A number of military situations require individual soldiers and pilots to instantaneously respond to complex visual scenes and make rapid decisions regarding potential threats. Text and graphics overlaid on the scene provide a means to aid the soldier in the decision making process. Helmet mounted displays that simultaneously allow the direct view of the natural scene with text and graphic overlays are referred to as augmented vision or see-through displays. Examples of graphics include maps, targeting coordinates and instant access to instruction manuals. The challenge of adding text and graphics to the vision channel has been addressed by a number of organizations for both commercial and military applications. Demonstrations for the Land Warrior program, the Commanche Helicopter and the European Eurofighter Typhoon have met with encouraging results, but systems are plagued by high cost and excessive weight and volume. The traditional solution has been to form images of expensive microdisplays on the retina. The required specifications for the image delivery system have resulted in expensive and complex optical systems. We propose to eliminate the requirement for expensive imaging optics by encoding the far field pattern of the desired information onto a computer generated hologram (CGH). The CGH will reside near the pupil of the eye, and the lens of the eye will perform the necessary transformation to present the desired overlay image data to the retina. We propose to apply our considerable expertise in CGH design and fabrication to demonstrating the feasibility of this revolutionary approach to near-eye see-through microdisplays. We will explore a variety of optical microsystem architectures to evaluate the requirements on beam delivery. While the initial demonstration system will provide a fixed overlay, we will enable future dynamic overlays by developing architectures and fast hardware accelerated algorithms for computing far field information in real-time.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics Holo Div 20600 Gramercy Pl Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
DARPA 04-027       Selected for Award
Title:Synthetic Holographic Guided Light Angular-Scanning Flat Head Mounted Display
Abstract:To address the need for a flat head-mounted display, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Synthetic Holographic Guided Light Angular-Scanning (HOLOGLAS) flat helmet-mounted display (HMD) that effectively projects out-of-the-screen images like those seen in holograms. The proposed HOLOGLAS HMD is based on the principle of the holographic "virtual window," and is implementable in a compact single piece eye-glass-like configuration. The device uniquely integrates available solid state lasers or light emitting diodes and high speed liquid crystal spatial light modulators with POC's novel planar waveguide electro-optical elements. This frees the HOLOGLAS system from the need to handle the enormous amount of redundant data associated with a pure electroholographic system. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed concept through modeling and simulation, and system design, culminating in a proof-of-concept demonstration. System characteristics such as information bandwidth and encoding method, and device performance requirements in terms of resolution, distortion, color, and visual artifacts will be analyzed. In Phase II, POC will develop a prototype HOLOGLAS flat HMD system displaying text and discrete iconic information and visible/non-visible sensor imagery, all in real time.

THE MICROOPTICAL CORP.
33 Southwest Park
Westwood, MA 02090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 326-8111
Dr. Mark B. Spitzer
DARPA 04-027       Selected for Award
Title:Extremely Flat Eyeglass and Face Mask Display
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for an ergonomic head-mounted display for eyeglasses and facemasks. In order to attain the ergonomic goals, the system must be extremely flat and light in weight, but must not sacrifice performance. We propose to investigate the feasibility of two non-axial projection techniques that allow the user to wear only a thin screen in front of the eyes. The non-axial nature enables the integration of the system with ordinary eyewear and also incorporation in face masks and goggles. The proposed work addresses the feasibility of correcting the distortions introduced by this method. In Phase I, only the feasibility of the candidate non-axial approaches will be determined. Phase II would comprise in-depth research and development to develop the necessary technology.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Jeffrey M. Mecham
DARPA 04-028       Selected for Award
Title:Self-Assembled Integrated Sensor/Actuator Networks
Abstract:This SBIR program would develop a process for the integration of electrically networked sensors and actuators with physically large composite military structures and platforms. NanoSonic would use its patented electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) process to form elastomeric, electrically conductive patterned interconnects in free-standing plies to allow the interfacing of multiple distributed sensor and actuator elements. ESA involves the layer-by-layer deposition of polymers, nanoclusters and other molecules to form functional thin films with a wide degree of control over multiple constitutive properties. Recent work has demonstrated the ability to control these properties both through the thickness of the film as well as patterned in the plane of the film. Patterned functional films may be co-cured into advanced polymer matrix composites without affecting structural integrity, yielding an integrated multifunctional structural/electronic component. Free-standing network plies may also be applied as decals to the surfaces of composites. During Phase I, NanoSonic would work with major corporate partners and leading research universities to design, fabricate and evaluate the performance of sensor and actuator network-integrated and networked composites. During Phase II, NanoSonic would work with defense industry partners to transition this technology to composite structural platforms to provide mission performance and health monitoring information.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Marek Turowski
DARPA 04-029       Awarded: 05MAY04
Title:CAD Framework for Coupled Electromagnetic and Circuit Simulation
Abstract:Electromagnetic (EM) effects are becoming increasingly important issue for the performance of electronic systems. It is necessary to develop computer-aided design (CAD) tools to identify and correct problems early in the design process. Therefore, CFDRC with University of Washington (UW) and Orora Design Technologies, proposes in Phase I to: 1) Develop new concepts, models, and numerical methods to accurately and efficiently represent the interface between EM analysis and circuit simulation for high-speed mixed signal circuits; 2) Develop a design for an advanced object abstraction framework for the interface to enable automated coupled EM+Circuit analysis; 3) Perform preliminary evaluation of the interface and the framework, using existing EM field solver from UW and SPICE circuit simulator. In Phase II, we will develop the computational framework to accommodate mixed methodologies (differential, integral) for treating the EM domain in an automated manner, develop appropriate model order reduction techniques to resolve EM interactions in circuit (SPICE) simulators or in high-level hardware description languages (VHDL-AMS or Verilog-A), and demonstrate the new tools for the design of a high performance system relevant to DoD applications. The new EM-Circuit CAD framework will be interfaced with a commercial (Orora) design flow for RF, analog, and mixed-signal designs.

EM PHOTONICS, INC.
51 East Main Street Suite 3-A
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Mr. James Durbano
DARPA 04-029       Awarded: 01APR04
Title:Hardware Assisted Electronic Circuit Simulation System
Abstract:In this proposal, we outline an approach for performing a complete electromagnetic analysis of electrical circuits in a fraction of the time that is currently possible. As clock rates increase, the need for such analysis grows. Current tools are inadequate to handle this burden. The computational times required excessively tax tools running on even the most state-of-the-art computers. To combat this problem, we propose developing a hardware-based accelerator capable of running the necessary calculations at speeds unachievable in software. This device will solve the systems of linear equations that arise in the relevant algorithms. By offloading this portion of the analysis to a special purpose hardware engine, computation times will plummet, thus making full simulations of complex electrical circuits possible. We will explore several algorithms for solving systems of linear equations and, by the end of phase I, implement the most promising one in hardware.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Werner Thiel
DARPA 04-029       Awarded: 01APR04
Title:Computational Framework for Mixed Electromagnetic and Electrical Circuit Simulation
Abstract:In this SBIR project, we propose the concept of an integrated simulation environment for mixed analysis of electromagnetic structures and electrical circuits. The proposed framework not only provides a unified user interface for simulations of different type (EM and circuit), but it also creates a self-consistent conduit for hybrid electromagnetic simulations using different types of numerical techniques within a convenient and user friendly visual interface. Both frequency domain and time domain electromagnetic and circuit simulator will be included in the framework. The EM simulation engines will include the Method of Moments, Finite Element Method and Finite Difference Time Domain method. The circuit simulation engines will include Harmonic Balance and SPICE-type time domain simulators. The framework will accommodate parallel simulation codes for high performance computing (HPC) platforms. The graphical user interface of the framework will provide extensive geometry and schematic capture utilities as well as data visualization tools.

EM PHOTONICS, INC.
51 East Main Street Suite 3-A
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Dr. Ahmed Sharkawy
DARPA 04-030       Awarded: 19MAY04
Title:Chemical Nano-Imprint Lithography
Abstract:The rapid expansion in the electronics industry has given rise to what has become known as Moore's law. At its core, lies advances in lithography that enable the miniaturization of features patterned on semiconductor substrates. As the minimum feature patterned on modern integrated circuits approaches 100nm, projection photolithography is put under enormous pressure to satisfy the demands of industry. While effort in this direction is under way, the skyrocketing cost of this conventional approach prompted the development of alternative methods. Therefore, there is a need to develop lithography techniques that allow for high-resolution rapid replication of structures and overcome the limitations of currently available methods. The proposed approach is based on chemically changing the properties of the top surface polymer layer (resist) by bringing it in contact with a template coated with a catalyst, hence `chemical imprint.' It is expected to offer the resolution comparable to the resolution of the nano-imprint lithography of well below 100nm, and at the same time bypass one of its main limitations, namely the direct shaping of the polymer with the template, thus reducing stress in the latter, contributing to its longevity, improve pattern fidelity and yield, and relaxing requirements for the template preparation process.

NANONEX CORP.
7 FOULET DRIVE
PRINCETON, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 355-1600
Mr. Larry Koecher
DARPA 04-030       Selected for Award
Title:In-situ, Real-Time Process Characterization and Control in Nanoimprint Lithography and In-Situ Template Cleaning
Abstract:The goal of the project is to (a) further develop an innovative in-situ real-time characterization tool for nanoimprint lithography (NIL) processes and (b) in-situ template cleaning using a laser beam. The characterization tool is based on real-time diffractive scatterometry and can measure many important imprint parameters (e.g. imprint depth, imprint speed, the resist deformations, etc) in-situ and real time. The tool can uniquely and significantly enhance the performance and yields of NIL. The innovative method is based on some recent developments at Prof. Chou's group and licensed to Nanonex Corporation.

OPTICAL RESEARCH ASSOC.
3280 E. FOOTHILL BLVD., SUITE 300
PASADENA, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 795-9101
Dr. Thomas Kuper
DARPA 04-030       Awarded: 08JUN04
Title:Lithography Support Technologies - Scattering of CaF2
Abstract:The projection optics for 157nm lithography contains many calcium fluoride (CaF2) elements. An area of concern for lithography system designers is the extent to which surface and volume scattering from these elements will have a deleterious effect on the partially coherent imagery. Scattering due to surface figure errors in EUV projection optics is also a well-documented area of concern. The specific research we are proposing will address a critical lithography industry need for a precise understanding these effects. This will be accomplished through the development of new ray tracing algorithms that (1) model narrow and medium angle scattering of light due to residual surface figure errors, (2) model scattering of light due to scattering within the optical material due to inhomogeities, and (3) include the effects of both sources of scattering on the partially coherent image and point spread function. The resulting capability will enable the lithography equipment manufacturer to predict the degradation on image contrast due to scattering effects from both surface polishing errors and materials (CaF2) quality, which will drive future manufacturing improvements to extend the useful life of that technology node.

ASIP, INC.
25 Worlds Fair Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 537-5512
Dr. Kenneth Thomson
DARPA 04-031       Selected for Award
Title:Monolithic Integration of Photonic and Electronic Devices for High Performance EPICs (Electronic-Photonic Integrated Circuits)
Abstract:In Phase 1 we will demonstrate the feasibility of integrating high-speed InP-based HEMTs with ASIP's proprietary asymmetric twin waveguide photonic integration technology. A common source HEMT driver transistor will be integrated with a simple, asymmetric twin waveguide (ATG) compatible laser. In Phase 2, we will extend this feasibility demonstration to demonstrate an EPIC consisting of a single wavelength, 1.55 um DFB laser integrated with an electroabsorption modulator (EML) and electronic circuitry to linearize the modulator response for use in analog transmission. On-chip electronics using the same high-speed transistor technology will also be used to demonstrate a low-speed electronic functionality of wavelength locking a 10Gb/s 1550nm, EML with an integrated wavelength sensitive optical element.

INFINERA CORP.
1322 Bordeaux Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 572-5394
Dr. Charles Joyner
DARPA 04-031       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:Monolithically Integrated EPICs incorporating HBT Driver/Electroabsorption Modulator Arrays with Linearized Output and Wide Bandwidth
Abstract:In this project Infinera will create a true Electronic-Photonic-Integrated-Circuit (EPIC) platform by including the necessary epitaxial growth and fabrication steps to incorporate a high-performance Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor (HBT) technology, together with a high-speed interconnect technology, to the current Photonic-Integrated-Circuit (PIC) process, without sacrificing the performance of current PIC devices. This EPIC platform will produce devices with performance beyond that capable from the hybrid integration of separate, high-performance, discrete electronic and photonic devices. The EPIC platform will also be developed with high yield and manufacturability in mind, sharing common epitaxial layers and processing steps between HBT fabrication and the standard PIC process, when possible, without reducing device performance. Infinera will research and develop the EPIC platform and utilize it to create a linearized, high-bandwidth transmitter. The project will include the development of a number of circuit ideas for linearizing the transmitter that capitalize upon the unique capabilities of monolithically integrated driver and transmitter.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Dr. Mike Wang
DARPA 04-032       Awarded: 28APR04
Title:A Light Weight High Heat Flux Cooling System for Solid State Lasers
Abstract:High-performance and high-power electronic semiconductor devices, such as solid state lasers, solid state motor drivers, RF power amplifiers, radar T/R modules among others, are used extensively in military and commercial applications. As the devices get more powerful while their volumes and weights are reduced continuously, there is an urgent need to develop advanced high heat flux cooling technologies for current and future high power density devices. A light weight high heat flux cooling system is proposed for current and future high average power solid state lasers. Its feasibility will identified and related key technical issues will be investigated; an advanced evaporator will be prototyped for cooling a high power laser diode array and its cooling capability will be verified by prototype testing during Phase I. The proposed cooling system will be designed and its performance will be analyzed and improved. A successful demonstration of the proposed technology will provide a powerful and reliable approach for current thermal management challenge in high energy laser development. Furthermore it will improve the performance and reliability of other high power electronic components and devices. The proposed technology has significant commercial values in fields of power electronics, optics, military electronics, material processing and machining.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Gregory S. Cole
DARPA 04-032       Awarded: 27APR04
Title:Nanotube Enhanced Spray Cooling for Laser Thermal Management
Abstract:Planned single-phase thermal management system designs for high average power solid state lasers will result in thermal systems that are 20x larger and 10x heavier than the laser itself. A two-phase thermal management system, based on Mainstream's patented spray cooling technology and high-efficiency compressor technology, has the potential to reduce thermal system size, mass, and power consumption by 87%, 65%, and 65%, respectively. Through an internal research and development program, Mainstream has experimentally demonstrated an innovative nucleation and surface wetting enhancement that has the potential to reduce thermal system power consumption by 18% over conventional spray cooling. In Phase I, Mainstream will experimentally demonstrate the improved spray cooling technique. The results will be used to design a complete closed-loop thermal management system for high average power solid-state lasers. The improved system will exceed DARPA's goals for size, mass, and power by 23%, 3%, and 28%, respectively.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 384-7840
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
DARPA 04-032       Awarded: 07APR04
Title:Compact and Efficient Cooling Techniques for High Energy Solid State Lasers
Abstract:State-of-the-art diode-pumped solid-state laser (SSL) technologies make it possible to design 100 kWo electric laser weapons that are compact enough to be packaged into tactical platforms. These electric laser systems pose unique challenges in that the cooling system must dissipate heat loads that are often ten times greater than the laser optical output with high heat fluxes over large surface areas with limited heat rejection. Single-phase cooling schemes require high coolant flow rates to ensure constant laser operating temperatures and large water chillers or refrigeration cycles, resulting in large and bulky cooling systems that are not practical for tactical platforms. In this effort RTI will determine the feasibility of using a combination of two-phase evaporative spray cooling (ESC), thermal energy storage (TES) and refrigeration techniques to meet the volume, mass and power consumption metrics for high-power SSLs required by DARPA. Feasibility will be established through cooling experiments and system level calculations. The reduction in cooling system weight enable by RTI≠›s technology for both long run time illuminator laser (,d 300 sec), and short run time 100 kWo weapons (30sec) will provide a cooling system small enough for deployment on tactical platforms