---------- DTRA ----------

16 Phase I Selections from the 04.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. William J. Coirier
DTRA 04-002       Selected for Award
Title:Improved High-Fidelity Forecasting Capability using Combined Mesoscale and Microscale Models
Abstract:We propose to evaluate the improvement of atmospheric transport and dispersion model accuracy by synergistically combining mesoscale (NWP) and microscale (CFD) models in a manner suitable for an operational environment. The feasibility of a fully-coupled, combined, operational model will be addressed in the Phase I study by evaluating improved urban area transport behavior using OMEGA generated wind and turbulence data as boundary condition data to the CFD-Urban transport and dispersion model for simulations corresponding to the Urban 2000 Field Test. The NWP and CFD models will be fully-coupled in a two-way mode in Phase II, by supplying microscale model generated urban and surface layer parameterization data to the mesoscale model, and mesoscale model generated wind and turbulence field data to the microscale model. During Phase I, microscale, volumetrically generated urban area parameterizations will be directly compared to the urban canopy parameterizations used in the mesoscale model, and the computational framework to couple both models operationally will be assessed. Phase II will develop an operationally suitable computational framework to fully couple these and other NWP and transport and dispersion models, and will provide more accurate and timely wind field data for use in atmospheric transport and dispersion models.

ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, INC.
131 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 761-2288
Dr. Ross Hoffman
DTRA 04-003       Selected for Award
Title:Characterization of mesoscale weather prediction errors for dispersion modeling
Abstract:DTRA uses high-resolution mesoscale forecasts to drive HPAC, the DTRA dispersion modeling tool that generates critical forecasts of dosage resulting from releases of chemical, biological, or radiological agents. HPAC is designed to provide probablistic information based on estimates of the uncertainty of the input forecast fields of the meteorological variables (wind, temperature, etc.). We will develop and implement more accurate, reliable, and efficient means of specifying the forecast uncertainty. For speed and efficiency, which is especially needed in real-time applications of HPAC, we will use a combination of statistical methods and the feature calibration and alignment (FCA) technique to provide 5d (x,y,z,t,variable) estimates of the uncertainty of the input weather forecasts. In the future this information may be provided by using ensembles of forecasts. Our implementation of FCA uses a variational algorithm to partition errors into phase errors, bias (or amplification) errors, and residual small scale errors. We will derive error statistics for mesoscale forecasts in terms of the components of FCA, and use these statistics to define the variability parameters used as input to HPAC.

WEATHERFLOW, INC.
108 Whispering Pines Drive, Suite 245
Scotts Valley, CA 95066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 868-5362
Mr. James Titlow
DTRA 04-003       Selected for Award
Title:New methods to discriminate forecast skill in mesoscale weather predictions and characterization and application of model error statistics
Abstract:DTRA operates a suite of high-resolution forecast models for use in atmospheric dispersion prediction. A major problem has been the inability of traditional validation metrics to support the subjective consensus that higher resolution models provide greater skill than coarser models. We believe that the skill scores used over the past 40 years are ill-suited to validating solutions with significant high-frequency components that are seen in both high-resolution model forecasts and observations. WeatherFlow will investigate several spectral techniques to validate high-resolution model wind forecasts. In Phase I we will explore the capability to transform time series of wind observations and forecasts into frequency spectrum's and develop skill scores based on differences in frequency space. These validation schemes will place great emphasis on the correct prediction of observed features and spectral energies. As a result they should not have the effect of traditional schemes which heavily penalize correct solutions with slight temporal/spatial displacements while lightly penalizing forecasts which have very little variability in them. Future extensions for Phase II could include schemes to validate additional forecast variables, use of forecast skill to develop model output statistics corrections to the raw forecast solution, and an improved determination of model forecast uncertainty.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. William J. Coirier
DTRA 04-006       Selected for Award
Title:Real-time, Three-dimensional, Visualization Software for Current and Next Generation Consequence Assessment Models
Abstract:A visualization package is proposed for the real time visualization of three-dimensional, time-varying hazards data generated by existing and next generation hazard and consequence assessment software. The Hazard Prediction Assessment Capability (HPAC) software will be used as a representative consequence assessment toolset, and the new visualization capability will be integrated in a manner applicable to other frameworks also in development. The visualization software will provide concurrent animations of time-varying data generated by Lagrangian and Eulerian transport models as well as related meteorological and Numerical Weather Prediction model data. Texture maps, terrain, foliage and cityscape models will also be displayed concurrently with the transport and dispersion related data, and the capability of generating commonly used movie file formats will be provided. Stereoscopic imaging of hazard plumes will be shown in Phase I and the feasibility of use of the coupled transport model/visualization package in advanced training simulators, such as The Force protection Operational Requirements Testbed (FORT) of AMRDEC, will be assessed. File-based integration will be demonstrated in Phase I, while Phase II will integrate the visualization in a real-time mode using an appropriate client/server framework, and/or direct integration within this framework for current and next generation hazards prediction models.

NOESIS, INC.
10440 Balls Ford Road, Suite 250
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 435-0449
Mr. David Vineyard
DTRA 04-006       Selected for Award
Title:3-Dimensional Hazard and Consequence Assessment Visualization
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing a three-dimensional spatial display to visualize information from a time-varying hazard prediction model. A spatial 3D display offers true volumetric projections of data and allows observers to gain insight of hazard information that is not possible with conventional 3D graphical scenes on a 2D surface or with presented 2D views. As the fidelity of hazard prediction models increases and takes into account additional factors such as terrain deviations and cultural features, 2D views will not be able to provide the analyst a representation that allows for the spatial information to be observed. The ability to view the hazard and the associated geo-spatial data in a true 3D projection benefits analysts using Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA) weapons effects simulation suite with an intuitive method of observing a scene and assists them in making more accurate and timely assessments. The value added of the proposed visualization system includes: improved accuracy in estimating collisions, decreased response time to moving stimuli, and qualitative benefits of improved comprehension of the context, interactions, positions, and velocities of elements within a 3D scene.

KTECH CORP.
1300 Eubank Blvd. SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 964-1181
Dr. Douglas Reeder
DTRA 04-007       Selected for Award
Title:Moisture Effects on Hazardous Material Concentrations
Abstract:This program will provide an improved understanding of the effects of atmospheric moisture on hazardous material and define methods to better model these effects in the DTRA HPAC model. The work will evaluate the interaction of moisture and hazardous material in the HPAC model based on two levels of coupling the transport equations for hazardous material and moisture. These evaluations will be combined with a non-dimensional assessment of the transport equations to determine the most important effects. An attempt will be made to bound the uncertainty in hazardous material fallout due to the incomplete coupling of the moisture and hazardous material transport equations. Atmospheric moisture fields from satellite and radar measurements and/or the results of numeric weather predictions will be used in the evaluations. A strategy will be developed to implement the use of externally generated moisture fields in HPAC. This will include reformatting the data for compatibility with HPAC and interpolating the data positions to correspond to the HPAC computational grid. The strategy will provide an ability to use real time or nearly real time moisture fields.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-6461
Mr. Herbert Fluhler
DTRA 04-008       Selected for Award
Title:Characterization of Occupied/Unoccupied Underground Sanctuaries
Abstract:Time Domain Corporation (TDC) proposes to develop a solid state, small, light weight, low power pulsed Ultra-Wideband Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for smaller UAVs to scan for, detect and characterize underground sanctuaries. This radar meets the situational awareness and latency needs of front line tactical commanders in fast paced engagements. TDC's SAR compliments the capabilities of current small UAV EO and IR sensors with a multi-band RF view of potential sanctuaries. TDC's SAR also supplements the current small UAV EO/IR sensors for sancutaries hidden by foliage, camouflage, obscurants, buildings and caves; concealment measures which traditionally defeat small UAV sensors. Our approach is to design a UWB antenna which can be mounted to a small UAV, make appropriate electronic improvements and packaging modifications to our core through wall RadarVision-2 board set, modify and upgrade our 2D SAR algorithms for 3D tomographic imaging, add motion compensation algorithms, and integrate these components into a small UAV SAR for testing in Phase-2. Phase-1 will generate a SAR image of a local culvert from a rooftop using current SAR hardware. The SAR images will show static geometry and moving personnel in the culvert compared to synchronous video frames and quantitative performance data.

WEIDLINGER ASSOC., INC.
375 Hudson St FL 12
New York, NY 10014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 949-3010
Dr. felix wong
DTRA 04-009       Selected for Award
Title:Modeling and Prediction of Ground Shock Induced by Penetrating Weapons in Spatially Random Geologic Media
Abstract:We propose a stochastic-finite-element based methodology to address these requirements: (i) Characterize material variability; (ii) Quantify corresponding ground-shock variability; and (iii) Design instrumentation plan. The site is discretized into N finite-elements; rock properties over this domain are characterized as the components of an N-vector stochastic field. The probabilistic characteristics of each component are estimated from analysis of field data and encapsulated as random parameters of the Cap model; spatial variability is captured by the correlation function. Explicit joints are sampled from their distributions, and their effects modeled by reduced strength of the affected elements. Monte-Carlo simulations of the ground-shock process are performed using the finite-element site model, with each simulation corresponding to a digitally-generated (realized) random sample function of the stochastic field. Realizations are obtained using two complementary techniques: Spectral and geostatistical. An adaptive, hierarchical procedure is proposed to accommodate the wide range of data (in)completeness in practice. The statistics of the ground-shock response and their spatial variability are used to support an instrumentation plan for given test objectives/constraints. It is suggested that the same stochastic techniques used to encapsulate and realize spatial material variability may be used to encapsulate response variability, leading to a systematical instrumentation methodology.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. MAHADEVAN KRISHNAN
DTRA 04-010       Selected for Award
Title:Annular Gas Jet Anode for Decade
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to replace the current return rods in the anode of the plasma radiation source (PRS) load, with an annular, supersonic gas jet: an innovation that could drastically reduce source region debris along the line-of-sight (LOS) of the test object, in a z-pinch, soft x-ray, weapons effects simulator, and make the debris mitigation system (DMS) simpler and smaller. The dense anode gas jet can serve to stop some particulate debris and deflect others out of the line of sight to the test object. The gas jet might also eliminate the need for a Li UV filter and thereby allow the test object to be located closer to the PRS. This would significantly increase the useful fluence delivered, by a factor of 2-4 over what is presently available. In Phase I, the objective is to design, build and test the anode gas jet. In parallel, we will perform analyses and use 1-D hydro. simulations to evaluate the advantages of using a gas jet UV filter vs. the present Li foil filters.

HY-TECH RESEARCH CORP.
104 Centre Ct.
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 639-4019
Dr. Edward J. Yadlowsky
DTRA 04-010       Selected for Award
Title:Development of a spectroscopic technique to measure electric fields in plasma radiation sources
Abstract:The intensity ratio of forbidden-to-allowed transitions in Li and He have been used to determine both turbulent electric fields due to plasma instabilities and quasi-static applied electric fields in low density and temperature plasmas. HY-Tech proposes to extend this technique to the plasma temperatures and densities encountered in plasma radiation sources. In this case uv spectra of Li-like and He-like ions of low Z elements will be measured with a grazing incidence grating spectrometer during the implosion phase of the pinch. A crystal spectrometer would be used to measure Li-like Ar spectra in the assembled pinch. Quasi-static electric fields inferred from these measurements would provide information about current channels flowing in the load, and turbulent electric fields would indicate the role of plasma instabilities in coupling the generator energy to the pinched plasma. In particular, the line broadening of the Ar XVI spectra at 18.5 angstroms would provide information about the coronal plasma that surrounds the core. This diagnostic technique would provide insight into the generator-load coupling processes which could be used to benchmark predictions of model calculations not previously open to scrutiny.

NU-TREK
16428 Avenida Florencia
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-8149
Dr. John Rauch
DTRA 04-010       Selected for Award
Title:Next Generation Soft Bremmstrahlung Simulator
Abstract:The proposed concept has the potential of meeting in full DTRA's Near Term Simulator Goal for a 20-200 keV, 0.03 cal/cm2, 1,000 cm2, < 20 ns FWHM source. Innovations include (1) Parallel Pulse Forming Network for driving low impedance (< 1 ohm) loads; (2) High voltage (300 kV), high current (40 kA), low jitter (< 3 ns), fast rise time (<3 ns) switch; and (3) Fast turn-on graphite fiber cathode fabricated using semi-conductor manufacturing techniques. In Phase I we will demonstrate 100-300 kV voltage holdoff with 1-3 ns jitter, 1-3 ns rise time, and 10-40 kA current. Pulse charging and field distortion triggering will be used. A prototype capable of 0.03 cal/cm2 (< 200 kV endpoint energy) will be demonstrated in Phase II. Technology developed produces (via rapid melt and resolidification) nanophase materials/coatings that combine high hardness with high toughness. This combination is presently unavailable and is expected to revolutionize the materials/coatings market (10 million dollars/year market). Proposed program is collaboration between Nu-Trek (Dr. Rauch) and Texas Tech University (Dr. Kristiansen and Dr. Dickens).

TPL, INC.
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 342-4440
Mr. Lew Bragg
DTRA 04-010       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Power Sources for X-ray Simulators
Abstract:Nuclear weapons effects simulators depend upon capacitor banks for storage and delivery of energy for the radiation sources. Power conditioning elements are typically located in the power flow chain between the storage capacitors and the radiation sources, and these elements generally constitute a major portion of the overall cost of the simulator facility. Low inductance capacitors offer the potential to remove some of the pulse-forming power conditioning elements and the associated cost. Further, high energy density capacitors offer the ability to store and deliver the higher power levels being sought for next-generation simulators in the same or reduced physical space. Development of high energy density, low inductance capacitors is needed to support power increases up to three magnitude orders in next-generation simulators. TPL proposes a program for development and fabrication of low inductance, high voltage, high energy density capacitors for simulator applications. Model capacitors will be designed and constructed using TPL polymer/paper film, and evaluated in accordance with x-ray simulator requirements. This state-of-the-art material system in combination with innovative construction methods will allow TPL to meet the simulator requirements of high operating voltage, low inductance and high energy density.

GENERAL SCIENCES, INC.
205 Schoolhouse Road
Souderton, PA 18964
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 723-8588
Mr. Anthony Rozanski
DTRA 04-011       Selected for Award
Title:New Thermobarics
Abstract:Improvements and refinements in formulation and configuration of current thermobarics are presented. Improvements in formulation allow for faster reaction rates and more complete reaction, releasing a greater percentage of available energy at early times and close to the HE detonation step. Furthermore, improvements in configuration will allow faster mixing rates, resulting in a reduction in total reaction time. Higher reaction rates, and lower reaction times lead to more complete reaction of the thermobaric fuels, which will cause thermobaric weapons to better engage enclosed targets and cause more extensive damage than current formulations and configurations. The proposed effort is based on the most exothermic solid fuels and combinations derived from thermochemical considerations as well as an extensive amount of experimental data and practical knowledge. Early work by these investigators suggests that a fraction of highly energetic thermobaric fuel can be ignited by an explosive shock and release its energy in a time period consistent with conditions required for increased peak pressure and impulse. The exploitation of this finding in terms of enhancing the reaction rates (both intrinsic and air combustion) is the main objective of this program.

EXOTHERM CORP.
1035 Line Street
Camden, NJ 08103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 541-1949
Dr. Emil Shtessel
DTRA 04-012       Selected for Award
Title:Thermobaric Explosives Modified to Emit Ultraviolet Radiation
Abstract:It is proposed to achieve partial conversion of the visible emission spectrum of burning aluminum into the ultraviolet range. This work is motivated by the search for effective means to defeat biological weapons by munitions employing ultraviolet germicidal radiation (UVGI). It is proposed that aluminized thermobaric formulations can be modified to deploy airborne particulates with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. These particles will interact with the radiation emitted by burning Al - particularly the emission by AlO at 510 nm. Via the effect of second harmonic generation widely exploited in ultraviolet lasers, the NLO particles are expected to partially convert the AlO emission to radiation with one half of the original wavelength. The resulting radiation at 255 nm is in the UVGI range. It is further proposed to generate NLO particles in situ during thermobaric explosion. This becomes possible when highly reactive energetic nanocomposite precursors to NLO materials are employed as constituents of the modified thermobaric charges. Specifically, nanocomposite precursors to NLO-active BaB2O4 will be prepared by arrested reactive milling, a technique effective for the synthesis of nanothermites. The nanocomposite precursors are expected to form the NLO active particles via a thermite-like reaction during the thermobaric explosion. The proposed novel concept has the potential to lead to the development of highly effective, mass-produced antibiological munitions

OWLSTONE
237 Pine Valley
Huntsville, TX 77320
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(936) 291-3090
Mr. Andrew H. Koehl
DTRA 04-012       Selected for Award
Title:Novel MEMS Spectrometer
Abstract:We propose a microchip gas spectrometer with the following performance advantages: extreme sensitivity, rapid analysis, low power consumption, and silent operation. Our concept implements a proven trace analysis technique using a novel pumpless design that scales well. We introduce several innovations to achieve a revolutionary size reduction while maintaining the performance advantages of larger implementations. The result is a fully integrated, single chip, stand-alone sensor offering a unique combination of sensitivity, speed, and information density. These qualities make it especially suited for use as a microminiature chemical agent monitor, to be deployed in an ubiquitous manner to characterize and improve agent defeat weapon technology effectiveness.

POSITRONICS RESEARCH LLC
4001 Office Court Drive, Suite 303
Santa Fe, NM 87507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 438-2654
Dr. Gerald A. Smith
DTRA 04-012       Selected for Award
Title:Agent Defeat Weapon Technology
Abstract:Penetrating radiation holds the greatest promise as a non-intrusive means of destroying biological and chemical agents inside sealed containers, if the appropriate form is used. There are two recognized means including exposure to neutrons or application of pulses of gamma rays. Because of the pervasiveness of neutrons and the extremely large threat of collateral damage to humans, neutrons are only effective in remote locations or highly shielded areas (4-6 ft. of concrete). Gamma ray flashes can be provided by nuclear isomers or annihilation of positrons. Since nuclear isomers comprise long-lived radioactive materials, they also present the threat of collateral damage to humans and the environment. Only positrons are deployable in both remote and confined areas, can be turned on and off at will and can be used without threat of contamination of humans or the environment (no collateral casualties). New technology capable of destroying, disabling or denying use of chemical and biological (CB) agent attacks, as well as neutralizing stockpiles, must be explored. Positron Annihilation Energy (PAE) holds great promise as a novel agent defeat system.