---------- DARPA ----------

35 Phase I Selections from the 04.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
SENSORCON, INC.
132 Washington St. #4
Reading, MA 01867
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 944-1334
Mr. Mark Wagner
DARPA 04-036       Awarded: 18NOV04
Title:Novel Low-cost Methods for Fabricating Compact, Vertically Integrated MEMS
Abstract:Sensorcon is proposing a CMOS compatible method to vertically integrate MEMS devices in a 3D manner, at the wafer level. This method will enable low cost production in both low and high volumes, as the benefits of both SOC and SIP approaches will be realized. The techniques used in this proposal draw upon the state-of-the-art in semiconductor, MEMS, and packaging technologies. Phase I work will demonstrate feasibility by fabricating and testing vertically integrated MEMS (or VI-MEMS) test devices from silicon. The low cost processing methods will be further enhanced by a parallel study with Quantum Leap Packaging, Inc., using Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) based MEMS cap wafers as a replacement for today's standard glass & silicon based cap wafers. The feasibility study will be based on results from mechanical, electrical, and hermetic testing, both before and after temperature cycling. Phase II will build on Phase I results by fabricating & testing functional VI-MEMS prototypes. Phase III work will be focused on ramping up production of devices using Phase I & II technologies.

VISM CORP.
1449 Blackburn Lane
Plano, TX 75025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 560-5994
Dr. Chan Wan
DARPA 04-036       Awarded: 29NOV04
Title:Novel Low-cost Methods for Fabricating Compact, Vertically Integrated MEMS
Abstract:Vism Corporation proposes to demonstrate a tunable Fabry-Perot filter (TFPF) using a highly innovative MEMS process called Surface Micromachined Bulk Silicon (SUMBS), for applications in RPG or missile threat warning or multispectral imaging systems. The MEMS TFPF employs a novel digital electrostatic actuator made of single crystal silicon that provides high accuracy tuning with ultra compactness, low-weight, and high speed. Further, the SUMBS process technology provides a unique 3-D, vertically integrated architecture that gives rise to small size, low cost, high accuracy, high yield and superior manufacturability.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Dr. Todd A. Summers
DARPA 04-037       Awarded: 03JAN05
Title:Sub-space Hopped Orthogonal Communication (SHOC)
Abstract:DARPA wishes to develop an orthogonal communication system that is impervious to interference. This system must provide covert communication capabilities for tactical environments in the L and S bands. To this end, Barron Associates, Inc. (BAI) proposes to investigate Sub-Space Hopped Orthogonal Communication (SHOC). Different orthogonal techniques and wireless standards that are prominent in the L and S RF bands (e.g., IS-95, GSM, IEEE 802.11) allow multiple users to share the same RF resource by subdividing it into sub-spaces according to time, frequency, waveform, polarization, and combinations thereof. Each user operates in their own sub-space, unaffected by other users. With such sub-space based techniques, it is rare that all of the available sub-spaces will be occupied. The unused degrees of freedom comprise a larger sub-space of the RF resource that may be exploited by another, outside user without being subject to interference from (or causing interference to) the original users. BAI will develop and demonstrate a technique for covert wireless communication within the unoccupied sub-space of an existing orthogonal communication system. SHOC uses a detection step to determine the vacant sub-space of an existing communication system, then communicates covertly by hopping over (time-varying) basis functions spanning the unoccupied sub-space.

CHAOTIC.COM
P.O. Box 1010
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 759-5257
Mr. Rick Holland
DARPA 04-037       Selected for Award
Title:Agile Communications in Adaptively Defined, Orthogonal Subspaces
Abstract:Opportunistic airwave access using agile communications simultaneously solves the problems of interference, jamming, and access to the increasingly congested radio spectrum. We have invented a generalized mathematical framework based on adaptive, orthogonal subspaces, for analyzing and designing agile link schemes that goes well beyond the limitations imposed by Fourier representations of the radio spectrum. Using this framework, we have formally defined and solved the technical optimization problems of agile links. Our solutions provide templates for creating and evaluating sub-optimal, but fast and efficient, algorithmic approximations suitable for implementation in existing software radios. The benefits of our approach include formal mathematical structures for organizing, defining and attacking the engineering challenges of optimal agile communications and ad hoc networking. The initial designs suggested by this framework are surprisingly straightforward, numerically efficient, and extremely agile, when confronted by a statistically non-stationary, wideband channel. Our approach is easily implemented and requires no measurements other than the received signals. Our methods address several of the concerns raised by the Defense Science Board and the Congressional Budget Office (and others) about the challenges of providing sufficient network throughput in currently funded military radio programs.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 213-8585
Dr. Hui-Ling Lu
DARPA 04-037       Selected for Award
Title:Interference Avoidance via Adaptive Wavelet Packet Modulation in Wireless Communication Systems
Abstract:The proposal addresses the problem of adaptive modulation/demodulation scheme in the presence of interference for wireless communication systems. The objective is to develop a new class of communication system that is impervious to natural and man-made interferences. Here, motivated by the concept of software-defined radio, we propose an adaptive modulation/demodulation scheme which modifies the user's signature waveforms by maximizing the signal to interference ratio. Changing the transmitting signature waveform is one step beyond the existing adaptive modulation schemes where constellation size, transmission power, symbol time, and coding rate are adapted to the channel fading level. By maximizing the orthogonality between the transmitting signature waveform and the interference, a better and simpler detection can be achieved at the receiver. The idea of maximizing the orthogonality is achieved by representing the signature waveform using the least significant eigenfunction of the interference. There are two essential concepts behind our signature waveform adaptive scheme. Here, we proposed to integrate the basis selection strategy based on Wavelet Packet Analysis with the state-of-art interference avoidance algorithms. In this proposal, we will develop the mathematical foundation for adaptive signature waveform design and deliver the system architecture under the scenario of symbol-synchronous single-cell multi-user system.

NORTHERN MICRODESIGN, INC.
533 193 Street
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(515) 232-0990
Dr. William Black
DARPA 04-038       Awarded: 16NOV04
Title:Adaptive Communication System for Extreme Power Line Networks
Abstract:An ad-hoc networking method is proposed for use over existing power lines in large commercial buildings. The network is minimally sensitive to lossy elements such as distribution transformers and tripped or OFF circuit breakers and hardware may be made interoperable with existing power line communication systems. Adaption performance of the network is programmable so that various sensor requirements may be accomodated with near optimal power efficiency. The proposed prototypes will maximize use of commercially available and programmable components so as to minimize cost and functional risk.

POWERQ TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
One Technology Dr. , Suite F207
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 450-9042
Mr. Steve Davis
DARPA 04-038       Awarded: 17NOV04
Title:Ad Hoc Networking Over In-Building Power Lines
Abstract:The objective of the proposed study is to develop an optimal design approach for the creation of a device that will support low bit rate covert communication over existing in-building wiring infrastructure. Desired content of data transferred is targeted for voice and sensor data. The proposed device must operate with or without the presence of mains power. Additionally, each individual unit must be able to connect to one another via an efficient ad-hoc network structure.

AGILTRON CORP.
220 Ballardvale St., Suite D
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-1006
Dr. Jack Salerno
DARPA 04-039       Awarded: 09NOV04
Title:Bio-Inspired IR Imager
Abstract:The proposal addresses a new class of IR detector that mimics the snake's thermal sensing ability. The design is based on the extensive research derived findings on biological IR sensing systems and leverages recent material process progress in multi-layered nano-scale membrane preparation. The revolutionary polymer bubble array IR imager offers significant improvements in IR imager performance and manufacturing cost over competing technologies. The innovation is based on a highly sensitive Golay cell array made of unique compliant and extremely robust free standing nanomembrane bubbles. Despite its technical novelty, the proposed device is extremely simple to produce with inherent high manufacturing yield at dramatically reduced cost. The device is anticipated to have high IR sensitivity as well as high resolution of mega-pixel array size. The new imager employs a novel optical direct readout, providing a practical system solution to lightweight, low-cost, environmentally friendly military and commercial applications. Due to its fundamentally passive nature, our camera also consumes little power and offers near real time response due to the elimination of electronic scanning associated with conventional IR cameras.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Dr. Tat H. Tong
DARPA 04-039       Awarded: 08NOV04
Title:Bio-Inspired Sensor Systems
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes the use of bio-inspired sensing concepts to develop novel, low cost polymer composite sensors for military as well as commercial applications. CRG will investigate the design and fabrication of sensors with the use of conducting polymer composite, and by drawing inspiration from known biological sensing mechanisms reported in the literature. The use of polymer composite materials to fabricate sensors will lead to significant cost saving due to greater versatility, flexibility and fault tolerance of polymeric materials comparing with silicon. The employment of bio-inspired sensing mechanism will lead to novel sensing capability, such as the possibility of multi-functionality, and improved performance, such as greater sensitivity and room temperature operation.

RPU TECHNOLOGY
173 Dedham Ave.
Needham, MA 02492
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 444-9426
Mr. John Merchant
DARPA 04-039       Awarded: 09NOV04
Title:Bio-Inspired Autonomous Vision
Abstract:Vision sensors are an essential component of autonomous systems of all types, now receiving rapidly increasing attention (UAV, UGV, ATR etc). However physical vision systems that substitute for human vision in autonomous systems have very much less capability for the visual recognition tasks that must be performed. This research and development exploits the fact that, to a large extent, the superior performance of human vision is due to the entirely different type and much reduced quantity of visual information it derives and uses so effectively. Whereas physical image sensors derive information by high density Nyquist sampling, over 99.99% of the visual field human vision uses visual information derived by low density variance sampling. The initial bio-inspired development is a practical demonstration of three autonomous system recognition tasks that will be performed much more effectively using variance instead of Nyquist information. This information is easily derived by variance sub-sampling the output of any conventional image sensor. A subsequent bio-inspired development would be to implement this (very simple) sub-sampling operation directly on the focal plane of the image sensor, just as is done in the human retina. The result would be a small, inexpensive, very high performance robotic-eyeball for autonomous systems.

DEDUCTIVE SOLUTIONS
25 Mendrey Court
Lawrenceville, NJ 08648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 966-1292
Dr. Iliano Cervesato
DARPA 04-040       Awarded: 18NOV04
Title:Deductive Spreadsheets
Abstract:By tapping into recent research in Logic Programming, Databases and Human-Computer Interaction, Deductive Solutions proposes to develop a deductive extension to the spreadsheet. This tool is intended as an automated assistant for the daily reasoning and decision-making needs of computer users, in the same way as the traditional spreadsheet assists them every day with calculations simple and complex. Users without formal training in Logic or Computer Science will be able to interactively define logical rules in the same way as they define formulas in a spreadsheet. The user will then present questions and the Deductive Spreadsheet will use these rules to provide either yes/no answers or lists of value that satisfy them. This deductive component will be seamlessly integrated into the traditional spreadsheet so that a user will not only still have access to the usual functionalities, but will be able to use them as part of the logical inference.

ISX CORP.
760 Paseo Camarillo, Ste. 401
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 581-2000
Mr. David Van Brackle
DARPA 04-040       Selected for Award
Title:Logic Embedded in SpreadSheets (LESS)
Abstract:Logic Embedded in SpreadSheets (LESS) will provide the user with a system which combines the power oflogic-based knowledge representation and reasoning with the familiar and easily-mastered user interface paradigm of a spreadsheet. There will be several conceptually hierarchical tiers of functionality availably within LESS. At the lowest level, first-tier functionality will simply allow users to embed descriptive logic functions into the existing spreadsheet metaphor. Second-tier functionality will give the user tighter coupling between descriptive logic object knowledge and the spreadsheet paradigm, adding the ability to view objects amenable to a matrix representation in a spreadsheet-tabular form. Third-tier functionality involves making the spreadsheet a complete mapping onto the knowledge base, fully integrated with it, including knowledge objects which do not lend themselves easily to a tabular visualization. Fourth-tier functionality adds the concept of spreadsheet/knowledge templates.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1800 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 578-5350
Dr. Robert Balzer
DARPA 04-040       Awarded: 04NOV04
Title:Adding Deductive Logic to a COTS Spreadsheet
Abstract:As requested in the solicitation, we will be adding a spreadsheet graphic user interface (GUI) to a deductive logic system, but we will not create this GUI. Instead, we will use the GUI from the most successful Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) spreadsheet - Excel. Thus, we will be integrating the deductive logic system into this successful COTS spreadsheet rather than developing a new spreadsheet system. Data will be mapped back and forth between the spreadsheet and the knowledgebase of the deductive logic system, so that spreadsheet data can be used as facts (triples) in the deductive logic system and the information it derives can be placed back in the spreadsheet as computed results. Utilizing the spreadsheet metaphor this mapping will equate an individual spreadsheet cell as the value of an attribute (column heading) of an object (entity whose values are displayed within a row). The spreadsheet will be extended to allow references to those objects (such as father) to be placed in a cell, to handle multi-valued attributes (such as sister), and to define the mappings that couple the spreadsheet to the deductive logic system.

XSB, INC.
25 East Loop Road, Suite 217
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6814
Dr. David S. Warren, Ph.D.
DARPA 04-040       Awarded: 15NOV04
Title:XcelLog: A User - Centered Deductive Spreadsheet System
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR proposal XSB, Inc. will explore the technical feasibility of building XcelLog - a user-centered deductive spreadsheet system. Using XcelLog end users can program intelligent applications using the spreadsheet metaphor without having a programming background. These applications are characterized by a knowledge base encoding knowledge of the application domain, and an inference engine that reasons over it to deduce new knowledge. XSB, Inc. will undertake a three-pronged approach to this feasibility study, namely: 1. Conducting a language design for deductive spreadsheets. This will include syntax and semantics of textual and gestural operators that will be used by end users for encoding their problem. 2. Developing translators for converting the encoded problems in deductive spreadsheets into logic programs that will execute on the XSB tabled logic programming system. 3. Developing the computing infrastructure to experiment with the language design choices from the twin perspectives of their expressive power and end user usability. These design choices will emerge from the exercise of encoding a variety of problems using the spreadsheet metaphor. This exercise will be conducted in Phase I and the problems will be drawn from different application domains to provide the breadth needed to design a robust language.

ARTICULATE SOFTWARE
278 Monroe Dr #30
Mountain View, CA 94040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 996-1919
Mr. Adam Pease
DARPA 04-041       Awarded: 08DEC04
Title:Tactical Group Decision Analysis Support System
Abstract:This proposal offers a program of research that will lead to the design and demonstration of a method for improved rapid decision making. Our method makes use of judgmental inputs from diverse experts who might be widely separated geographically and attitudinally. It accepts the judgmental inputs in structure form and in natural language, synthesizes the judgments, generates and ranks alternative approaches to the solution of tactical or strategic problems, highlights risks and uncertainties, allows focus on areas of disagreement among the experts, and scores the decisions on the basis of precisely stated criteria. This proposal requires application of the science of decision theory, as well as the application of advanced software. We will bring to bear two areas of decision theory: decision modeling, a technique for identifying an alternative which best satisfies previously stated optimization criteria and Delphi, a technique for collecting expert judgments.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
DARPA 04-041       Awarded: 28OCT04
Title:Rapid Evidence Aggregation Supporting Optimal Negotiation (REASON)
Abstract:Significant research has been undertaken to develop rigorous decision-making processes under the umbrella discipline of Decision Analysis. Unfortunately, most of these systems require a facilitator and are designed for time scales that make them inappropriate in tactical situations. We propose to develop a groupware system for Rapid Expertise Aggregation Supporting Optimal Negotiation (REASON) that avoids the need for a facilitator and supports collaborative decision-making in dynamic, time critical situations. Our target domain in the Phase I work will be tactical decision making for the warfighter. The REASON platform leverages our in-house probabilistic argumentation engine for aggregating uncertain data. We propose to apply cutting edge research on collaborative artifacts, called Coordinating Representations, to improve coordination and reduce the amount of communication that needs to take place within a team. Additionally, REASON will automatically direct the conversation between collaborators in order to streamline the decision-making process, and reduce overall uncertainty.

PERCEPTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 259-4278
Dr. Amos Freedy
DARPA 04-041       Awarded: 07DEC04
Title:Model-Centered Tactical Group Decision Analysis System
Abstract:At the center of today's military command and control operations is the need for distributed real-time collaborative tactical planning and decision-making associated with rapidly changing events as well as with response to asymmetric warfare and counter-terrorist operations. Of particular concern is collaboration across services, agencies and organizations, or in operations involving coalition partners dispersed in different geographical locations. Associated with this critical need is the problem of aiding and enhancing the capabilities for tactical decision making by such distributed collaborative groups. It is clear that computer support systems provide the logical path, but to date no fully satisfactory solution has emerged, in large part because current solutions have focused primarily on the decision process and not on the decision product. Our proposed solution returns the computer support process to a rigorous, model-based decision analytical focus that has previously proved successful, and augments this basic approach with the latest research in cognitive decision aiding -- including influence diagrams, mental models and critical thinking concepts. In particular, our technical approach builds on a seminal DARPA-sponsored R&D project on computer-based group decision aiding performed earlier by Perceptronics Solutions personnel. The results of this innovative research that computer-aided structuring of the group decision processes around sound decision analytic models helps bring the group to convergence and increases the depth of its problem analysis by insuring that more time is spent in quantitative interaction. We also plan to leverage the recent multi-million dollar DARPA investment in Groove infrastructure and tools to provide a readymade, Web based collaborative environment for the proposed system.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Dr. Tamitha Carpenter
DARPA 04-041       Awarded: 26OCT04
Title:Self-Facilitating Group Decision Analysis and Tracking in Tactical Time Scales
Abstract:We propose an innovative software system that offers the benefits of systematic group decision analysis, within tactical timescales and without requiring an expert facilitator. To accomplish this, our system will accumulate and index knowledge (e.g., variables, issues, constraints, and relationships) that recurs over the course of large numbers of problem solving sessions within a given domain (e.g., Military Operations on Urban Terrain (MOUT)). This knowledge, retrieved and adapted (potentially in a piecemeal fashion), will prime the decision modeling pump - moving decision makers to more complete/correct problem specifications in shorter time. In addition, our system will utilize an interactive coaching capability to facilitate the migration from qualitative problem descriptions to quantitative models in a stepwise manner that promotes emotional and cognitive commitment by participants, maintains links to individual contributions, and allows transition back-and-forth across the gap between qualitative and quantitative models. This approach will provide transparency to the content, inputs, and rationale associated with group decision analysis model(s), which in turn will support more efficient restructuring. Finally, we will employ two recently developed techniques to track the validity of decision assumptions in the face of new information. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of this approach via prototype.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia Drive, Suite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 618-1060
Mr. Ken Graves
DARPA 04-042       Awarded: 28OCT04
Title:Mapped Optimal Ad-Hoc Teams (MOAT)
Abstract:Implementation of new doctrine in structures such as the Unit of Action (UA) has resulted in command organizations that are distributed, fluid, and highly mobile, in contrast to legacy organizational structures which relied on a co-location in a 'big tent.' Battle lab experiments show that commanders and executive officers can easily lose awareness of the situation with their distributed staff organization under this transformation, creating a key need for tools and visualizations to help them (re-)gain this aspect of the operational picture. In addition, when they decide (ideally supported by cues in that interface) to constitute or investigate the status of ad hoc teams, they need a system with sufficient knowledge of capability and expertise to help them efficiently determine any deficiencies and what actions to take. We propose a tool we call MOAT (Mapped Optimal Ad-hoc Teams) to meet this need. MOAT incorporates an innovative integration of technologies from several fields, including social network analysis, risk analysis, cognitive agents, human-computer interaction, and battlespace visualization techniques. The Phase I effort will design the key components and integration strategies for MOAT, as well as create a proof-of-concept software prototype.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 616-1291
Dr. Eric A. Domeshek
DARPA 04-042       Awarded: 28OCT04
Title:Virtual Intelligent Collaboration for Task Organization and Resource Scheduling
Abstract:The need to make rapid and well-informed decisions about custom task organizations or ad-hoc problem-focused staffing is shared by organizations large and small, but is especially critical to the military. The problem has components of (1) resource discovery and characterization, (2) task analysis and needs identification, and (3) flexible interactive and justifiable dynamic scheduling. We propose to develop a system to support Virtual Intelligent Collaboration for Task Organization and Resource Scheduling (VICTORS). VICTORS will combine (a) distributed text mining and data query, (b) social network exploitation, (c) task model acquisition, (d) policy representation and reasoning, and (e) flexible interactive scheduling tools. During Phase I, we propose to address the first three of these technologies, in descending order of emphasis. Following on requirements analysis and technical surveys, we will develop a limited proof-of-concept prototype that illustrates some of the most promising techniques, focusing on lowering the costs and raising the precision of information extraction techniques. Our Phase I results will include a preliminary Phase II system design and work plan, pointing the way towards a complete solution to the team formation problem.

AETHER WIRE & LOCATION, INC.
5950 Lucas Valley Road
Nicasio, CA 94946
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 400-0785
Mr. Vincent Coli
DARPA 04-043       Awarded: 14DEC04
Title:RF Time of Flight Ranging Techniques for Self-Localization of Microsensors
Abstract:We are developing integrated ultra-wideband transceivers, called Localizers, for precise position location and low datarate communication. Localizers determine location by sharing range information within a network of units distributed in the environment. The range between pairs of Localizers is determined by cooperatively exchanging ultra-wideband signals consisting of coded sequences of impulses. As Localizers are activated, each acquires as many contacts as possible. As local groups of nodes form into clusters, nodes in one cluster link with one or more nodes in other clusters, forming bridges between the clusters. Range information is constantly shared so that all Localizers are aware of all other Localizers in the network. Using precise timing techniques, the Localizers are able to establish these ranges to an accuracy of about a centimeter. The Localizer system has been under development for the last eleven years. Currently, it is being applied to the identification and location of assets at naval storage and shipping facilities. Under this, and other development projects sponsored by the DoD, the device is now reaching the demonstration stage. We plan to apply our Localizer technology and expertise to research RF Time of Flight Ranging Techniques for Self-Localization of Microsensors.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike, Suite 250
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-6326
Mr. Alan Petroff
DARPA 04-043       Awarded: 08DEC04
Title:Self-Localization of MicroSensors using Ultra-Wideband RF
Abstract:The goal of this project is to investigate and provide an Ultra-Wideband Time of Flight (TOF) ranging system for determining inter-node separation distance, and location of, nodes in a wireless sensor network. Ranging/location capability is important to these applications, because correlating sensor data with physical location increases the value of the sensor data. As TDC has already demonstrated the required performance in similar, although not identical, environments we believe that the project is feasible. Our approach will be to 1) define the system requirements, 2) characterize the phenomenology associated with typical Unattended Ground Sensor environments, 3) perform a study to identify techniques that meet the requirements of large scale deployment of wireless sensor networks, and 4) propose a plan for implementing a prototype device in Phase II. Requirements based metrics will be developed to assess the practicality of RF based ranging systems. Key parameters include: power consumption per measurement, probability of successful range measurement, unit size and mass. TDC expects that completion of this project will prepare the way for a Phase II demonstration of a device, incorporated with a government selected sensor, that provides self-location.

ORBITS LIGHTWAVE, INC.
101 waverly Drive
Pasadena, CA 91105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 795-0667
Dr. Yaakov Shevy
DARPA 04-044       Awarded: 16DEC04
Title:Narrow-Linewidth 1550 Nanometer Laser Oscillator
Abstract:This is a proposal to investigate the feasibility of a high power, single mode, low noise and narrow linewidth fiber laser based on a "virtual ring" laser cavity. This novel laser architecture enables traveling-wave oscillation in a compact, linear and all-fiber cavity. The traveling wave laser field eliminates "spatial hole burning", a feat usually achieved only in a ring laser. This significantly improves the laser power, the signal-to-noise ratio, linewidth, and the side-mode suppression to unprecedented levels.

PRINCETON OPTRONICS, INC.
PO Box 8627
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-9696
Dr. Laury Watkins
DARPA 04-044       Awarded: 22NOV04
Title:Narrow-Linewidth 1550 Nanometer Laser Oscillator
Abstract:Many DoD applications benefit from coherent detection and processing techniques which require laser linewidths at or below the 1 kHz range and ultra low laser RIN yielding shot noise limited performance at high photocurrents. In addition, many of these applications need higher power of 200mW which is much more than the typical 20mW available with standard semiconductor lasers for telecommunications. Diode-pumped fiber and solid-state lasers, are considered prime candidates for meeting the aggressive laser performance specifications required for many demanding DoD applications . Princeton Optronics has developed a tunable laser based on diode-pumped solid-state technology. The cavity design and gain characteristics have been optimized to deliver a very high performance including high side mode suppression ratio, narrow line width and ultra low RIN. The output power of the standard device is 20mW. The laser design is currently optimized for the telecom applications and has full tuning over the ITU C-band wavelength of 1528-1564nm. Princeton Optronics proposes to improve the power level, linewidth and wavelength stability of the laser by a series of technology improvements including wavelength locker accuracy, gain optimization and thermal and mechanical stabilization. In Phase I of this program the we will develop the design of the narrow linewidth laser oscillator with high power output. To support this design experiments would be performed on the Princeton Optronics laser using an improved locker and control electronics. The power level of the laser will be improved to the level of 80-100mW using innovative thermal design for the pump and the gain medium. Data from the analysis and experiments would be used to show the technology path for the final laser design that would meet the requirements for the program. In phase II, we will design and build lasers with power exceeding 200mW with kHz level of line width and stability.

NANONEX CORP.
1 Deer Park Drive, Suite O
Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 355-1600
Mr. Larry Koecher
DARPA 04-045       Awarded: 14DEC04
Title:Innovative Nanoimprint Lithography Mask Technology for Sub-45 nm Features
Abstract:The objective of the proposal is to explore and develop innovative nanoimprint lithography (NIL) mask technologies including mask structures, mask fabrication methods and mask coatings. These new technologies will significantly improve the quality and lower the cost of NIL masks and NIL processes for sub-45 nm nodes. We will investigate the creation of uniform mask feature protrusion heights, methods and mask structures for more accurate pattern placement in NIL mask fabrication, methods of reduction of line edge roughness in NIL mask fabrication, fast ebeam resists, test structures to determine NIL mask distortions, a method of in-situ application of NIL mask anti-adhesion coatings, and a study of mask costs. As a company with many years of pioneer work in NIL masking and the only company who has made sub-10 nm NIL masks, the proposed research will lead to significant advances in low-cost and high resolution NIL mask technology.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Dr. Ravi Verma
DARPA 04-045       Awarded: 08NOV04
Title:Low Cost Nanolithography Techniques Using Elastomer Shrinkage and/or Plasmon Confinement
Abstract:Nanolithography remains the critical hurdle in developing and commercializing new nanotechnology devices. A low cost nanolithography technique must be developed if the promise of nanotechnology is to be fully realized. Tanner Research and Stanford University are proposing two new nanolithography techniques based on elastomer shrinkage and plasmon confinement. Both of these techniques will be pursued in parallel during Phase I wherein we will demonstrate the proof of concept for lithography at 35-40 nm feature sizes, mitigate the associated risk areas, and develop specific applications for the two techniques.

INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION & BUILDING MATERIALS, LLC
5764 Shellmound Street
Emeryville, CA 94608
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 420-3790
Dr. Sharad Hajela
DARPA 04-046       Selected for Award
Title:Advanced, Regenerable Chemical and Biological Filters
Abstract:The two major goals of this project are to achieve HEPA-like particle capture efficiency at a significantly reduced pressure drop and to incorporate into air filters a safe and effective means to efficiently capture and neutralize pernicious chemical and biological agents. We propose two novel advanced air filtration technologies: (1) direct-cast microsieve filters and (2) reactive nano-coatings. The unique design of Innovative Construction and Building Materials (ICBM) microsieve filters will provide 100 % capture efficiency of bio-aerosols in the 1 - 10 micron size range while operating at a fraction of the pressure drop of a HEPA filter. Reactive nano-coatings on fibrous filter media will efficiently capture and neutralize chemical weapon agents (CWA) at substantially reduced pressure drop compared to current gas filtration technologies. Furthermore, the ICBM microsieve and reactive nano-coating technologies will be combined to create the new standard for HVAC and gas mask applications by providing highly efficient broad spectrum protection against chemical weapons and bio-aerosols at a fraction of the operating cost of current measures. The initial phase of advanced filter development is described herein.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Gregory Zeltser
DARPA 04-046       Awarded: 18NOV04
Title:Nanoporous Photocatalytic Filter
Abstract:To address DARPA interest in a revolutionary air filtration technology that both captures and neutralizes chemical and biological agents with high efficiency and low resistance to airflow, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Nanoporous Photocatalytic Filter (NPF). NPF is based on a new filtering medium, which will serve as a matrix for the induction of a cold glow plasma discharge and photocatalytic reaction. This technology has a higher capture efficiency, longer lifetime, and lower pressure drop than state-of-the-art approaches, and the NPF filter is self-cleaning and easily regenerable. The NPF system will help protect military personnel, first responders, and the public from chemical and biological agents. In Phase I POC will design and fabricate an NPF prototype and demonstrate the proof-of-concept. Phase II will culminate in a compact filter suitable for testing with live agents at Government-selected facilities.

SELDON LABORATORIES, LLC
7 Everett Lane, Suite One, Door 18
Windsor, VT 05089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 672-2444
Mr. Christopher Cooper
DARPA 04-046       Awarded: 01DEC04
Title:Regenerable Fused Carbon Nanotube Filters for CB Agents
Abstract:Regenerable HEPA air filters of high reliability and efficiency, which not only capture but inactivate toxic chemical and biological warfare/terrorism agents, are urgently required for personal protective equipment for first responders and soldiers, and for building HVAC systems. These filters must have low resistance to air flow and long lifetimes, and not allow captured toxic materials to be released. This program will apply the revolutionary technology of Seldon Laboratories' proprietary fused carbon nanotube membranes for the protection of individuals as well as buildings. Filter membranes will be constructed, and will be tested for effectiveness against contaminants analogous to relevant toxins. They will be regenerated while their performance and condition are monitored, to determine feasibility of regeneration in actual CB agent protective applications. Based on test data obtained for different combinations of filter designs and regeneration methods, prototype filters will be designed in Phase I. They will be constructed in the Phase I Option period, and in Phase II further evaluated, optimized, then tested with live agents in simulated conditions representative of field use in CBW/terrorism scenarios.

OPEL
22 Quail Run Road
Storrs/Mansfield, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Heath Opper
DARPA 04-047       Awarded: 29NOV04
Title:Monolithic technology for Wafer Scale Phased Arrays
Abstract:Phased arrays are critical for locating and tracking. Current TR modules use multiple MMIC chips, ferrite circulators and quasi-optical true-time-delay (TTD). Chip integration is not possible and interconnecting with GHZ RF outputs is a complicated board problem with little scalability to higher bandwidth, smaller size and lower power. OPEL proposes a monolithic IC solution based upon novel optoelectronic (OE) thryistor circuit design. Thyristor/HFET circuits implement TTD without a physical delay line and a novel power amplifier with a thyristor as an OE oscillator driving a Class E output. The receive channel is implemented with a thyristor LNA/mixer to achieve down-conversion with gain which is digitized with a new A-' modulator. A thyristor based ripple counter implements a serializer circuit and produces the inverse TTD function for return signals without a physical delay line. Both T and R channels are integrated using a novel dielectric isolation. Optical and RF signal paths are maximized and minimized respectively to achieve a dramatic reduction in size weight and loss. As a monolithic circuit, wafer scale interconnect is implemented with a single interconnect mask. A 3" GaAs wafer can produce an array of about 16x16 integrated modules. OPEL will demonstrate this wafer scale integration

TIALINX, INC.
8 Halley
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 285-6255
Dr. FRED MOHAMADI
DARPA 04-047       Awarded: 02DEC04
Title:Integrated Wafer Phased-Array Antenna
Abstract:In response to this SBIR solicitation, wafer scale integration of cell array composed of integrated antenna and RF circuit is addressed for beamforming applications. The technology provides future opportunities to deploy highly integrated radar systems-on-wafer suitable for small footprint, fully electronically controlled and low cost military and commercial applications. Challenges in design of Si-based substrate RF blocks, RF signal distribution to each element, impact of signal attenuation and cross-talk, accuracy required in phase resolution and beam width management, noise cancellation, DC signal distribution, and intelligent control of beamforming for tracking as well as beam steering are addressed. Preliminary solutions have been advised for in-depth evaluation during phase I. Various scenarios have been depicted for phase II implementation.

CENTEYE, INC.
6 Logan Circle NW, Suite 5
Washington, DC 20005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 238-9545
Dr. Geoffrey L. Barrows
DARPA 04-048       Awarded: 10JAN05
Title:UAV Survivability Enhancement via Agile Maneuvering in Dynamic Environments
Abstract:A significant challenge in the field of uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs), particularly micro air vehicles (MAVs), is that of navigating through a complex environment such as deep in the urban canyon or underneath a forest canopy. Such environments are filled with a variety of hazards, ranging from large buildings and trees to thin cables and potentially other threatening airborne objects. We propose an active perception system capable of sensing and avoiding the most difficult of these hazards. This system makes use of an optic flow microsensors, an "active perception unit" that interprets optic flow patterns to detect hazards, MEMS gyros, and a "control unit" that guides a UAV through trajectories creating useful optic flow patterns for perception. This system is intended to be used on fixed-wing micro air vehicles.

NASCENT TECHNOLOGY CORP.
37 Liberty Avenue
Lexington, MA 02420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 968-4552
Dr. James D. Paduano
DARPA 04-048       Awarded: 10JAN05
Title:UAV Survivability Enhancement via Agile Maneuvering in Dynamic Environments
Abstract:The overall goal of the program is to demonstrate optic flow for aggressive, obstacle-avoiding flight, and to develop a vehicle that incorporates the necessary flight capabilities, guidance and control, and hardware for swallow-like flight and landing. The NTC/MIT autonomous helicopter (AHMMH-1) will act as a demonstrator vehicle for demonstration of static and dynamic obstacle avoidance. Combined reactive (insect-like) avoidance behaviors will be combined with dynamic planning based on receding horizon Mixed Integer-Linear Programming (MILP) and other dynamic planning architectures within the robust maneuver automaton (RMA) structure that is already supported by the AHMMH-1. The RMA approach provides a natural way to accommodate external events (sudden appearance of unknown obstacles, flying too close to known obstacles due to estimation errors, completely reactive navigation through cluttered spaces), and as such forms the baseline architecture for our planned developments.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus van Schoor
DARPA 04-049       Awarded: 09NOV04
Title:Hybrid morphing actuators
Abstract:A novel hybrid actuator is proposed where fast response small amplitude actuator is combined with a slower high authority actuator to control the flight path of a gun launched munition. The focus of the effort will be to develop a g-hardened hybrid actuator that can be implemented at low cost to existing gun launched rounds. The fast response actuator will be based on the SmartAct technology developed for the U.S. Army and the slower high authority actuator will utilize bi-stable snap-through shape memory alloy actuators to minimize power. In Phase I, systems studies will be performed to identify requirements for a suite of munitions in the 120mm to 150mm class of munitions including rocket propelled grenades. Trade studies will evaluate various concepts against performance metrics such as weight, response time, power, enhanced flight envelope capability, cost and reliabilityPhase II will develop and fabricate a proof of flight control enhancement concept model. Wind-tunnel tests will be used to evaluate and characterize performance.

TECHNO-SCIENCES, INC.
10001 Derekwood Lane, Suite 204
Lanham, MD 20706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 577-6000
Dr. Peter Chen
DARPA 04-049       Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Agile Maneuvering Using Dynamic Control Surface Morphing
Abstract:Techno-Sciences, Inc. (TSi), in collaboration with ILC Dover, Inc. (ILC) proposes to design and develop deployable control surfaces that can exploit innovative adaptive and morphing structures technology at minimal cost and weight to achieve highly maneuverable munitions that can be retasked to achieve new mission objectives. The deployable control system that will be retro-fit capable to the 155mm Howitzer, will feature an inflatable wing actuated by Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) materials.