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125 Phase I Selections from the 04.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
JONAS, INC.
1113 Faun Road
Wilmington, DE 19803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 478-1375
Dr. Otakar Jonas
OSD 04-C01      Awarded: 15FEB05
Title:Smart Water Piping Corrosion and Scale Monitor
Abstract:This proposal covers the development and prototype testing of a new Smart Water Piping Corrosion and Scale Monitor for use in the main types of water based utility systems including: potable, closed and open cooling water, condensate, feedwater, and, after the project completion, electric cable cooling. The Monitor will have three main components: a new multi-parameter Corrosion and Scale Sensor, WaterExpert expert system (completion in Phase II), and control of chemical addition equipment by the expert system. The anticipated characteristics of the monitor are: multiple sensor surface probe; in-line, real time, direct detection of corrosion, scale, and MIC, comparison of monitored data to known corrosion rates and potential-pH data (diagrams), direct corrosion rate measurement with sensitivity less than 0.01 mm/year, feedback to chemical addition equipment, covers a variety of water systems, water chemistries, and materials, recommends optimum water treatment, rugged design, easy to replace (optional - replacement during operation), learning from experience (smart), automatic reporting and data storage for up to ten years, and as an option, can be installed on a short bypass loop outside of the pipe.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Tom Wavering
OSD 04-C01      Awarded: 08FEB05
Title:Fiber optic water corrosivity monitoring system
Abstract:Water piping systems maintenance is challenging due to cost and difficulty of maintaining optimal water chemistry. Advanced corrosion control systems are needed to actively monitor water corrosivity as feedback for the injection of green chemicals to maintain optimal water chemistry. Advanced corrosion control for water piping systems will result in reduced manpower costs and increased component life cycles. The Department of Defense estimates that a 1% improvement in Army utility O&M performance can save $18 million per year. To address this critical military need, Luna Innovations proposes to develop an optical fiber-based real-time water corrosivity monitoring system. The Phase I program will focus on the development and demonstration of the proposed sensor technology. The focus of the Phase II program will be to optimize sensor performance and validate performance through field testing. Luna has assembled the highly qualified, multidisciplinary team required for a successful program and has a history of bringing novel research from the laboratory to commercial markets.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Mr. Edward J. Salley
OSD 04-C02      Awarded: 21JAN05
Title:A Water Sealant with Anti-microbial Functionality Developed for Concrete Surfaces and Deposited by Electrophoresis (7265-060)
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to electrophoretically deposit a coating of lithium silicate and photoactive titanium dioxide nanoparticles onto concrete providing a totally inorganic, room-temperature cured, concrete sealant. This coating scheme will be shown to not only reduce water permeability but will also benefit from the antimicrobial properties of the reactive titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The photoactive nature of the titanium dioxide will inhibit bacteria, mold, fungus, and algae growth on the concrete surface providing added long-term benefit. Phase 1 will validate the advantages of the proposed method via reduction in water permeability and demonstration of the anti-microbial functionality of the coating.

SPACE HARDWARE OPTIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-9591
Dr. Paul Todd
OSD 04-C02      Awarded: 02FEB05
Title:Investigation of Electrophoresis as a Novel Coating Mechanism for Sealing Concrete
Abstract:The U.S. Government is a heavy user of concrete structures for below-grade facilities, waterway, and marine applications. High hydraulic permeability of the concrete in these structures produces water intrusion into protected areas and accelerated corrosion of structures beyond their useful limits, necessitating costly maintenance, repairs and replacement. In response to this overwhelming problem, SHOT proposes to develop a novel coating system that uses electrophoresis for sealing concrete. Our research suggests that through an electrophoretic process, nanometer scale particles can be migrated into hardened cement paste, resulting in dramatically lower hydraulic permeability. Our previous experience in developing electrophoretic hardware provides an ideal foundation for the development of new hardware for application of this unique process. Our team will design and develop an ideal sealant/coating solution, as well as the equipment required to test coated concrete samples for their hydraulic permeability. The results of this testing and analysis will guide SHOT in designing equipment and optimizing the treatment coating solutions. The end product expected is a viable and effective concrete coating system we have called the SHOTr Electrophoretic Sealing System, which we plan to market under the trade name E-Seal.

FARADAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
315 Huls Drive
Clayton, OH 45315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 836-7749
Dr. Maria Inman
OSD 04-C03      Awarded: 22FEB05
Title:High Frequency Pulse Reverse Electrochemical Treatment of Concrete for Mitigation of Corrosion
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program addresses the critical need for effective dechlorination methods for corrosion protection of bridge deck and piers at US Army facilities. This program proposes an innovative electrochemical technology for dechlorination of concrete, which is cost-effective and suitable for large scale field applications, and adaptable to complex geometries while protecting the rebar within the concrete from further corrosion. The Phase I program will show that the proposed technology will remove chloride contaminants from concrete under an applied high frequency pulse reverse electric field, and accelerate the mass transport rate of ions, lowering operating costs and treatment times. To protect the rebar from corrosion during and after this process, corrosion inhibitors will be driven into the concrete structure using the applied electric field, and the rebar will also be protected using a pulsed cathodic protection system. The project team consists of Faraday Technology, Inc., an electrochemical engineering company that develops high frequency pulse reverse processes, and Terran Corporation, an environmental engineering firm specializing in the field installation and monitoring of direct current (DC) electroosmotic and electrokinetic remediation processes. The Phase I results would be transitioned into field trials in a Phase II program.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Bryan Koene
OSD 04-C04      Awarded: 10FEB05
Title:Intelligent Coatings for Self-Healing and Corrosion Control
Abstract:The bulk of current military coatings are expensive, contain volatile organics, and are labor intensive to apply. Much of these costs are associated with the scraping and repainting of metal materials (20% of the $10 billion in estimated Army corrosion-related costs). There is a tremendous need to develop intelligent coatings that can perform numerous functions above those historically demanded of coatings. Luna is addressing this need to enhance the service life of steel structures by developing an intelligent coating that will respond to a damage event to the coating and release (1) film-formers to heal the wound, (2) corrosion inhibitors to provide additional corrosion prevention to the site, and (3) passive indicators to mark the coating damage zone to alert maintenance personnel. In this Phase I SBIR, Luna will combine our recent successes in corrosion prevention, water-borne resin development, and specialty coating formulations chemistry using microcapsules to design a unique coating system that has the potential to meet multiple damage challenges to the same location.

NOMADICS, INC.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Dr. Sarah Westcott
OSD 04-C04      Awarded: 22FEB05
Title:Silica-Based Corrosion Protection Microcapsules
Abstract:Painting metal provides excellent corrosion protection, as long as the paint remains intact. However, if the paint peels or becomes chipped after an impact, corrosion can occur in the revealed metallic area and even spread underneath the paint. Therefore, regular inspection and maintenance are required to ensure that the paint remains undamaged. Repairs may be required for damage that occurs between inspections. As an alternative microcapsules incorporated in the paint can be used to store film-forming and corrosion preventative agents. When the paint is damaged, these agents are released and reform the paint before corrosion occurs. While microcapsules to incorporate water-insoluble pigments, organic monomers and organic corrosion inhibitors have been demonstrated, there has been little work with ionic, water-soluble corrosion inhibitors. Nomadics will apply our extensive experience in advanced materials to use silica-based microcapsules that contain water-soluble materials to supplement polymeric-capsules containing organic materials. These additives will help to achieve self-healing coatings that will have numerous applications in military and private sector applications.

CEMENT CHEMISTRY SYSTEMS, LP
1445 EAVES SPRING ROAD
MALVERN, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 871-5291
Mr. BRUCE GRANT
OSD 04-C05      Awarded: 24FEB05
Title:Concrete Admixtures that Defend against Salt Scaling and Freeze-Thaw
Abstract:In cold climates, concretes are susceptible to deterioration from the combination of the use of deicing salts and cyclic freezing and thawing cycles. The presence of salts is reported to exacerbate the susceptibility of concrete to freeze-thaw deterioration. IPANEX is an admixture that has been in use for nearly 30 years and has a long track record of compatibility with plasticizers and air entraining admixtures. The mechanism by which IPANEX functions, however, has only recently been established. With the development of the understanding of how it works has come greater insight into applications beyond the initial scope of its usage. IPANEX is composed of 5 to 20 nanometer-sized particles of C-S-H [hydrous calcium silicate] that in application, seed the growth of C-S-H from the hydration of tri-calcium silicate. Seeding with nanometer-sized seeds means that a small dose rate will result in a large number of seeds distributed throughout the mass concrete. These seeds have the effect of removing the supersaturation that occurs with tri-calcium silicate and providing a more homogeneous microstructure. As part of this refined microstructure, there are no large growths of calcium hydroxide crystals; not even at the aggregate low density zones. The controlled growth does not necessarily result in less pores but rather in a pore structure that is generally finer. IPANEX will impact any process that relies upon the movement of fluids [water or gases] through the pore system of a concrete. As water freezes, it draws additional fluids from the gel pores, if the critical concentration of water in capillary pores is less than 91.7%, or if water can not be drawn from the gel pores, freeze-thaw deterioration will not be a problem. Furthermore, because of the pore sizes, water will not freeze in capillary pores. One school of thought on freeze-thaw deterioration suggests that osmotic pressures which develop between the freezing water in large pores and the capillary porosity result in different alkali concentrations and hence different pressure is a more or less significant contribution to this mode of deterioration. It is however considered as a major factor in salt scaling. The objective of this SBIR will be to demonstrate that IPANEX is compatible with air-entraining admixtures and will improve the durability of the concrete to salt scaling through the improvement in the microstructural development of the concrete.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
Clear Creek Business Park, 376 NE 219th Ave
Gresham, OR 97030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Mr. Eric Udd
OSD 04-C14      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Low Cost Corrosion/Corrosivity Sensor Systems For Ground Vehicles
Abstract:This proposal develops an extremely low cost fiber grating corrosion sensor system that could be deployed on a vehicle. Costs are estimated to be approximately $0.25 per sensor in volume allowing hundreds to be deployed if necessary on difficult to access areas of a ground vehicle. In order to keep costs to an absolute minimum it is anitipated that the read out unit would be maintenance rather then vehicle based. The system has the ability to be deployed and operated over a very wide range of temperatures and offers inherent temperature compensation. Because it is passive and dielectrically based it has very long potential life, limited mainly by corrosion of the material it is measuring.

DACCO SCI, INC.
10260 Old Columbia Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 381-9475
Dr. Guy D. Davis
OSD 04-C14      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Low-Cost EIS Corrosion Sensor for Ground Vehicles
Abstract:Corrosion of Army ground vehicles is a significant problem in cost, reliability, readiness, and safety. In many cases, the design of the vehicle relies solely or extensively on the protectiveness of the paint system for corrosion protection. DACCO SCI and Advanced Fluidics propose to develop a low-cost corrosion sensor system (sensor + electronics) that can directly monitor the coating health at the motor-pool level. In particular, this sensor system will provide early warning that the coating performance is degrading in contrast to corrosivity sensors that merely measure the corrosivity of the environment. The sensor is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which has proven successful in the laboratory for predicting coating performance. The sensors allow EIS to be performed in the field as a health monitoring method. The electronics module will mount on the vehicle and will transmit its signal to a hand-held device and alert the motor-pool soldier of coating damage or deterioration so that preventative maintenance can be scheduled to forestall serious structural damage due to the corrosion. The result will be decreased maintenance and replacement costs with increased readiness and reliability.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Fritz Friedersdorf
OSD 04-C14      Awarded: 10DEC04
Title:Ultra low cost wireless corrosion sensor for ground vehicles
Abstract:The Army spends an estimated $2 billion to $2.5 billion per year addressing corrosion-related issues with Army ground vehicles. Corrosion also has a significant impact on force readiness. Army ground vehicles that require corrosion-related repairs are typically out of service for many months. Corrosion has also been shown to dramatically shorten vehicle life. Low cost and easy-to-use corrosion/corrosivity sensors offer the potential to dramatically reduce vehicle life cycle costs and improve readiness. Knowledge of corrosion state and environment enables more effective corrosion mitigation and prediction. To address this critical defense need, Luna Innovations proposes to develop a corrosion/corrosivity sensor system specifically designed for the rigorous operational environment of Army ground vehicles. The proposed system will be ultra low cost, passive and wireless. It will be based on commercially available technology, will not require wired or battery power, and will enable remote interrogation and placement where needed around the vehicle. Luna has assembled the highly qualified, multidisciplinary team required for a successful program and has a history of bringing novel research from the laboratory to commercial markets.

PERFORMANCE POLYMER SOLUTIONS, INC.
91 Westpark Road
Centerville, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 298-3713
Dr. David B. Curliss
OSD 04-C15      Awarded: 01FEB05
Title:GALVANIC CORROSION MECHANISMS ANALYSIS AND MODELING FOR F-35 GRAPHITE/BMI COMPOSITE-METALLIC AIRFRAME JOINTS
Abstract:The P2SI team objective in this proposed research effort is to develop an inherently corrosion resistant composite/metallic joint design. As coatings and sealants deteriorate in service the joint will be inherently corrosion resistant. This will be achieved through a thorough understanding of how the fundamentals of galvanic corrosion relate to corrosion susceptibility of the F-35's composite-metal joints. In this effort, we will experimentally validate our approach using parameters from the F-35 baseline design. The P2SI approach will identify composite-metallic joint configuration dependent and independent variables that directly affect the potential for galvanic corrosion. We will investigate the corrosion rate and effect of corrosion on joint integrity and strength. This will enable us to establish allowable tolerances for design and manufacturing that will protect joints from catastrophic galvanic corrosion failure, even in the event of coating and sealant deterioration in service. In Phase I, multi-variable regression analysis will be performed on the data to model observed effects. We will perform environmental exposure, detailed corrosion and corrosion rate analysis, and residual mechanical property measurements on F-35 joint-based specimens. This approach will ensure maximum relevance of the data and modeling performed under this effort towards state-of-the-art airframe structural design and analysis.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Mr. Francis L. Keohan
OSD 04-C16      Awarded: 13JAN05
Title:New Corrosion Inhibiting Cleaning System for Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:Precoat surface cleaning of aluminum alloys is critical for removing common surface contaminants such as loose metal oxides, oils, and dirt that can impede wetting and adhesion of subsequently applied coatings. Many caustic cleaning processes cause matrix dealloying/redeposition of copper, which often results in copper on the aluminum alloy surface and localized corrosion initiation. A new cleaning process is proposed that effectively removes the surface contaminants and poorly adhered oxides while minimizing the corrosion-inducing redeposition of copper smut. The objective of the Phase I program is to identify candidate metal pretreatment systems which meet the goals of low toxicity, simple application, effective surface cleaning, passivation and copper-redeposition prevention for enhancing corrosion inhibition. A novel combination of surface-active compounds, inhibitors, and anti metal redeposition agents will be used to formulate the new aqueous-based cleaning systems. These pretreatment systems and suitable controls will be tested on common aircraft aluminum alloys for cleaning efficiency, inherent corrosion inhibition by potentiodynamic electrochemical analysis, compatibility with conversion coating application and paint adhesion. The costs, hazards, and environmental fate of effluents produced by the new cleaning processes will be estimated and used in the system design.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Kevin Cooper
OSD 04-C16      Awarded: 19JAN05
Title:Advanced Aluminum Alloy Cleaning Methods for Improved Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:The objective of the program is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing environmentally acceptable surface cleaning methods that increase the corrosion resistance of aircraft aluminum alloys. Existing specified cleaning processes degrade the corrosion properties of high-strength aluminum alloys due to formation of a copper-rich surface. Luna Innovations, Inc. will develop multiple cleaning environments and processes and quantitatively evaluate their impact on corrosion behavior of aircraft aluminum alloys. The Phase I will focus on demonstrating the selective removal and gettering, to prevent deposition, of alloying elements that degrade corrosion resistance, in particular copper. Chemical, mechanical and electrochemical means will be examined as methods to control the amount and electrochemical activity of copper and copper-bearing intermetallics on the cleaned surface. State-of-the-art electrochemical techniques will be used to quantify metrics of corrosion susceptibility that will facilitate objective evaluation of the various cleaning method. Evaluation will be done in comparison to a control cleaning method based on existing specified treatments.

NOMADICS, INC.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 372-9535
Dr. Arif Mamedov
OSD 04-C16      Awarded: 19JAN05
Title:Cleaning Solutions That Improve Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:Surface cleaning is extremely important in that it removes common surface contaminants such as loose metal oxides, oils, dirt, etc. that have deleterious effects on the wetting and adhesion of subsequently applied coatings. However, during the cleaning process, matrix dealloying and redeposition of copper, which have been shown to be sites for corrosion initiation. Nomadics will use custom synthesized chelating additives, which have high affinity to copper ions, to prevent the formation of copper "islands." This will reduce corrosion. The process will be easy to apply without undesirable environmental impact.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-5380
Dr. Jeannine Elliott
OSD 04-C16      Awarded: 21JAN05
Title:Improved Aluminum Cleaning Method to Prevent Copper Enrichment
Abstract:Since pure aluminum is soft and has only moderate strength, aluminum alloys are used for aerospace and other structural applications. However, the copper in these alloys significantly reduces the corrosion resistance of the aluminum. The standard pretreatment used to clean aluminum alloys before painting or coating enriches the surface of the aluminum with copper, creating sites for corrosion. An ideal aluminum cleaning procedure would degrease and deoxide the surface without dealloying the copper and allowing it to redeposit on the surface. In this Phase I proposal TDA will develop an additive for surface pretreatment cleaners that prevents copper enrichment during pretreatment of high strength aluminum alloys.

GATR TECHNOLOGIES
130 Lakeshore Drive
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 461-8684
Mr. Paul A. Gierow
OSD 04-C17      Awarded: 10FEB05
Title:Novel CORIN Materials and Advanced Coating Processes for Space Environment Polybenzoxazole Protection
Abstract:Deployable space structures are becoming increasingly important assets for use in the battlefield. Communications, global positioning, unmanned air vehicles and tracking and surveillance of enemy troops are creating an enormous demand for space borne assets. Structures that can package efficiently meet many of the needs of creating larger apertures for the high bandwidth military missions. We propose to demonstrate a novel high temperature dyed Colorless Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposite polyimide (CORIN) material. The material will be synthesized for coating PBO fibers and sheets to prevent VUV, UV, and AO degradation. The base polyimide has been successfully flight qualified, and transitioned for products on NASA, DoD and commercial satellite communications structures. Phase I results will be to demonstrate a scaleable process for applying coating materials to Polybenzoxazole fibers. Mechanical quantification of the material coating will be performed to demonstrate the adhesion of the polymer to the fiber during repeated cyclic stress and thermal loading. A key aspect of the proposed effort is transition of the coating process from a laboratory scale to production oriented processes. Our process will be demonstrated in Phase I for coating fiber and yarn materials to be scaled to production level processes in Phase II.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Arthur Gavrin
OSD 04-C17      Awarded: 04FEB05
Title:Space Durable Coatings for PBO(1000-574)
Abstract:There exists a need to identify and develop various coatings that can be used in the protection of polybenzoxazole (PBO) materials. PBO has exceptionally good strength-to-weight ratio and temperature stability. PBO fibers have been identified for a variety of space applications. These applications consist of, but are not limited to, power generation, orbital maneuvering, and planetary exploration. For example, momentum exchange (MXER) tethers utilize the physics of momentum transfer to catapult a payload out of the Earth's gravity well. This tether system requires space durable, high strength-to-weight ratio fibers. Tether materials-related advances are primary for improving the operation and lifetime of the propulsion system. Critical materials properties in need of improvement include increases in tensile strength, electrical conductivity, shock resistance, continued flexibility during exposure to an environment rich in radiation and energetic atomic oxygen. PBO films and solids have been proposed for use as lightweight structural materials for satellite housing and other spacecraft systems. In this program, Triton Systems will develop multiple space durable protective coatings for PBO.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Dr. Jason R. Babcock
OSD 04-C17      Awarded: 04FEB05
Title:Novel Low Temperature Coating Method for Environment-Resistant Coatings on Polymers
Abstract:Polybenzoxazole polymers, including polyphenylenebenzobisoxazole (PBO) in particular, are under development for use in a wide variety of aerospace applications due to their remarkable tensile strength, modulus, and flame resistance. These materials are of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, which allows for a dramatic weight savings when replacing conventional structures. This is particularly significant for in-space applications such as satellites. Satellite components are exposed to potentially damaging impingements, such as ultraviolet (UV) light, atomic oxygen, and fast-moving particles. There is a need for PBO coatings that can increase the functional lifetime of the polymer in the harsh space environment. In ongoing, complementary work, Ultramet introduced a unique and innovative chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology that relies upon UV activation of the CVD process rather than conventional thermal activation. This low temperature deposition route is ideally suited for coating substrates with relatively low thermal stability, such as PBO. The objective of the proposed project is to assess the viability of this innovative process for scaleable production of coatings that could be effectively used for government and commercial satellite components.

ADVANCED THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
91 South St.
Upton, MA 01568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 529-4413
Dr. James W. Connell
OSD 04-EP1      Awarded: 09DEC04
Title:Advance Cooling Designs for High Temperature Transformers and Inductors for Power Electronics
Abstract:As a result of continuing advances in magnetic materials, compression of circuit physical architecture, increase in magnetic component packaging density and faster switching speed, the heat dissipation rate of next generation military power converter systems will require operation at significantly higher heat flux levels than current power converters. The goal of this SBIR Phase I program is the development of novel magnetic materials with optimal characteristics to meet the required high temperature and electrical operating requirements for military power converters. A further goal of this program is the development of a thermal management approach that utilizes a phase change process coupled with the use of a unique high thermal conductivity 3-D carbon structure to meet the power converter heat dissipation requirements. The design of the 3-D carbon structure would be engineered to provide a high surface area to volume ratio heat exchanger element that would enable a compact, light-weight highly effective heat exchanger device. Further, the design of the 3-D carbon structure will ensure that the local heat flux within the active heat exchange device is sufficient to maintain the power converter operation for continuous and pulse power operation. The proposed thermal management concept will be capable of maintaining the magnetic components at or below their required maximum operating temperature, thus, ensuring system reliability and life.

PRECISION MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEMS, INC.
25 Walker Way Sec. 2A
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 218-0477
Dr. Dantam K. Rao
OSD 04-EP1      Awarded: 09DEC04
Title:Power Dense High Temperature Passives
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop Power-Dense Passives that can increase the Power Density to 25 kW/liter and facilitate operation at high ambient temperature of up to 150 C. The passives will consist of a core, winding and built-in advanced cooling system. Existing inductor and transformer configurations will be reviewed and a trade study will be conducted to identify an innovative core configuration. A detailed design of a prototype passive will be conducted to quantify the power density. A core material that offers lowest core loss will be chosen and the core will be configured to provide an easy path for flux and a high resistance path for eddy currents. The winding will be designed to minimize ac losses and will use high temperature insulation materials. The advanced cooling system will be designed to cool both the winding and the core uniformly and offer low thermal resistance. A preliminary layout of a passive is the end result of this effort

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 224-3710
Mr. Walter Zimbeck
OSD 04-EP1      Awarded: 21DEC04
Title:Internally Cooled Magnetic Cores
Abstract:Technology Assessment and Transfer Inc. (TA&T) proposes fabricating high power magnetic cores with integrated fluidic cooling channels to meet the requirements of emerging inductors and transformers for power electronics applications. TA&T has developed processes for fabricating monolithic ceramic components with complex geometry, including internal cavities and channels that cannot be fabricated using conventional processing techniques. This capability will be applied to the fabrication of ferrite cores with internal cooling channels for improved heat dissipation. Two novel fabrication approaches will be evaluated in Phase I. The first is known as ceramic stereolithography (CSL), and is an automated, layered manufacturing process that enables net shape, monolithic ceramics with complex geometry. The second approach, called gel casting, is a thermally cured net shape molding process that utilizes sacrificial structure to form the internal geometry.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2142
Mr. Shekar Balagopal
OSD 04-EP2      Awarded: 21DEC04
Title:Lithium Conducting Ceramic Membrane Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries
Abstract:New nano-structured electrodes and a novel lithium-ion conducting solid ceramic electrolyte that can potentially double the energy density of the existing battery systems is proposed. The solid electrolyte offers excellent chemical stability to corrosive lithium metal and the conductivity approaches 10-2 S/cm and 10-4 S/cm respectively in aqueous and organic electrolytes respectively. The materials used in the proposed battery are abundant, inexpensive and environmentally benign. The combined objective of Phase I and Phase II effort is to develop LiSICON electrolyte and integrate with a metallic Li anode and a high capacity, cathode material based on either (a) oxygen from air or (b) nano-structured V2O5 to realize high energy density batteries. The proposed "lithium anode- LiSICON electrolyte - oxygen (or V2O5) cathode" battery can potentially meet the high energy requirement of military equipment and vehicles.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Sorhab Hossain
OSD 04-EP2      Awarded: 29DEC04
Title:High Energy Density, Fast Charge Lithium-ion Batteries
Abstract:The need for a high specific energy, fast charge battery for the U. S. army is recognized. The proposed Phase I program addresses to investigate the feasibility of developing prototypes 7.5 Ah lithium-ion cells having specific energy >210 Wh/kg which will be used as `building blocks' for the development of BB-2590 ibatteries in Phase II.A novel electrochemical couple is proposed for the development of a fast charge,high specific energy lithium-ion battery system. The proposed anode material delivers 50% higher practical capacity than the state-of-the-art carbon anode materials. Several prototype lithium-ion cells will be developed and their performance will be evaluated to demonstrate the proof-of-concept.

MAXPOWER, INC.
220 Stahl Road
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 513-4230
Dr. Mark Salomon
OSD 04-EP2      Awarded: 23DEC04
Title:New High Energy Density Li/Li-Ion Batteries
Abstract:MaxPower's Phase I program will involve development of new cathode materials and new electrolyte solutions to significantly improve gravimetric energy densities and rate capabilities. With these objectives in mind, the following details the approaches MaxPower will take in its Phase I program. To improve gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and rate capabilities, the Phase I program will synthesize and optimize the performance of 5 V (vs. Li/Li+) cathode materials. Nano cathode materials will be developed. To improve capacity retention upon extended cycling of the 5 V cathode materials, MaxPower will develop new electrolyte solutions which are stable to at least 5 V vs. Li/Li+.

NANOMAT, INC.
1061 Main Street, Building #1 - Drawer #18
North Huntingdon, PA 15642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 978-2188
Dr. Pramod Sharma
OSD 04-EP2      Awarded: 16DEC04
Title:Nanosize Cathode Materials for high Performance Li- Ion Rechargeable Batteries
Abstract:The widespread use of battery is severely hampered by low energy density and poor performance of cathode materials of Li-ion battery due to the micron size particles, small surface area, unstable structure during cycle, inadequate mechanical strength, costly precursors, temperature unstable low ionic conductivity etc. The goal of this project is to develop nano-structured cathode material by a novel method that will result in a high energy density of batteries for electric vehicle and other applications. In this phase I effort, to mitigate the deficiencies of the currently available cathode materials, a nanosize Li[NixCo1-2xMnX]O2 cathode materials will be developed. This cathode material has an excellent storage capability. Li[NixCo1-2xMnX]O2 material will be rigorously tested for their electrochemical, thermal, physical and structural properties to insure that it possess the requisite performance characteristics and high energy density at least an improvement of 2X. In Phase II, further testing and development of these cathode materials will be conducted. A prototype of battery with be design with high energy density. In Phase II, a prototype will also be manufactured for field-testing under actual conditions.

NEI CORP.
Suite 102/103, 201 Circle Drive
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-1906
Dr. Amit Singhal
OSD 04-EP2      Awarded: 20DEC04
Title:High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries With Good Low Temperature Performance
Abstract:High energy density Li-ion batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range are needed in a variety of military, space and commercial applications. The specific energy of Li-ion batteries can be enhanced by utilizing new cathode materials that have significantly higher energy density than that of state-of-the-art LiCoO2. Low temperature performance of Li-ion batteries can be improved by reducing the electrolyte resistance and enhancing the mass transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface. This can be accomplished by raising the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and reducing the size of electrode particles, respectively. The proposed program focuses on developing novel nanostructured cathode materials with an energy density of ~ 800 Wh/kg, which is almost 50% higher than that of the practical energy density of LiCoO2. Working in collaboration with a leading developer of Li-ion batteries, in Phase I, we will demonstrate that it is possible to produce a stable high energy density nanostructured cathode by controlling the structure and composition of nanoparticles. As part of the Phase I work, a low temperature electrolyte will be used in Li-test cells to evaluate the electrochemical performance of nanostructured cathodes at sub-zero temperatures. In Phase II, prototype batteries will be fabricated and tested for performance, along with optimization and scaling of the synthesis process for producing electrode nanoparticles.

AGILTRON CORP.
220 Ballardvale St., Suite D
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-1006
Dr. Jack Salerno
OSD 04-EP3      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Nanostructure-Enhanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract:The use of thermoelectric devices as alternative energy sources has been investigated with limited success. Manufacturing costs and limited power generation efficiency have prevented the economical, large-scale production and use of the thermoelectric devices as a viable alternative energy source. Agiltron has proposed an innovative nanostructure-enhanced thermoelectric material that will integrate the synthesis of PbSe nanowires and the fabrication of nanocomposite-enhanced bulk thermoelectric materials. The proposed technologies will include single-phase, highly-crystalline, surface-clean and diameter-controlled PbSe nanowires fabrication; orientation, and densification with ball-milled submicrometer-sized powder of bulk thermoelectric material into nanocomposite-enhanced thermoelectric material through a hotpress technique. The thermoelectric figure of merit of this new nano-composite is predicted to reach ZT = 3 at 300K. This innovative thermoelectric material will have immense application potentials in power generation, energy harvesting, and solid-state cooling and refrigeration.

EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
216 River Street, Suite 200
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 276-3444
Ms. Margaret Hines
OSD 04-EP3      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:High Performance Thermoelectric Materials Using Solution Phase Synthesis of Narrow Bandgap Core/Shell Quantum Dots Deposited Into Colloid Crystal Thin Films
Abstract:Evident Technologies, Inc. intends on using its core competency in quantum dot synthesis, quantum dot surface modification and quantum dot composites to create cost effective, high ZT thermoelectric thin films that can be deposited onto inexpensive flexible substrates. In the Phase I demonstration project Lead Selenide nanocrystals with a 1-2nm thick shell of PbS will be synthesized using proprietary solution phase synthesis techniques. These quantum dots, initially suspended in solution, will then be self assembled into a colloid crystal on substrate using surface modification and controlled solvent evaporation. Finally the PbS shells surrounding the PbSe quantum dot cores will be thermally fused resulting in a thin film structure having colosely spaced PbSe quantum dots suspending in a PbS matrix.

LUTRONICS
28 Ruthellen Rd.
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 387-9685
Dr. Yalin Lu
OSD 04-EP3      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Novel Nanostructure-Enhanced Approach for Bulk Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract:Lutronics proposes a unique combination of an innovative multiple shallow quantum well concept, a new nano-approach, and a unique bulk material processing method, with which great breakthroughs in thermo-electrical figure-of-merit can be expected. The Phase I was intended for proving the proposed concept. Success of the Phase I research will lay down a solid foundation for the following Phase II researches.

METAMATERIA PARTNERS LLC
1275 Kinnear Rd.
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 340-1690
Dr. Suvankar Sengupta
OSD 04-EP3      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Nanostructure-Enhanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract:Significant improvement in the ZT (figure of merit) has been recently been reported in thin film thermoelectric materials. These improvements were achieved by taking the advantage of low dimensionality in PbTe-based quantum well and quantum dot systems prepared by MBE and in BiTe-SbTe quantum well systems prepared by MOCVD. However, to become commercially viable new low-cost processing routes are needed for preparing bulk materials that contains nanostructured, thermoelectric active components. The proposed program focuses on development of a nanocomposite thermoelectric material composed of nanostructured "core-shell" particulates. In Phase I, "core-shell" nanostructure PbTe-PbSe will be developed by using a solution based technique, consolidated using colloidal processing techniques and then densified using high energy compaction. The nanocomposite bulk samples for evaluated by Hi-Z, a thermoelectric manufacturer.

NANOHMICS, INC.
6201 East Oltorf St., Suite 100
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Dr. Steve Savoy
OSD 04-EP3      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Nanostructure-Enhanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract:Compact, solid-state thermoelectric devices are now widely used for both cooling and power generation. These highly reliable devices have no moving parts, operate around room temperature, and are easily integrated into thermal systems. Despite these advantages, engineering applications have been limited by the relatively low intrinsic power conversion efficiency of the semiconductor material comprising the devices. Engineered, nanometer-scale semiconductor materials are now being developed to increase the thermoelectric efficiency. Much larger enhancements in thermoelectric efficiency are predicted in true quantum confined systems since this confinement produces peaks in the density of states. Accordingly, nanometer-sized spheres or rods should offer the highest increase in Seebeck coefficient. It should be possible to fabricate a composite material based on semiconducting nanoparticles that exhibits enhanced thermoelectric efficiency using high electrical/thermal conductivity ratio materials (e.g. conducting polymers) to provide a means for intergrain connectivity between the nanoparticles. To this end, Nanohmics and Drs. Kevin Stokes and Jiye Fang of the Advanced Materials Research Institute (AMRI) at the University of New Orleans propose to develop bulk thermoelectric composites consisting of organized assemblies of thermoelectric nanomaterials and conducting polythiophenes using an automated assembly process.

NANOLAB, INC.
55 Chapel St
Newton, MA 02458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 581-6747
Mr. David L. Carnahan
OSD 04-EP3      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Nanostructure-Enhanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract:NanoLab plans to synthesize nanoparticles of Sb2Te3, Bi2Te3,Bi2Se3, silicon and germanium using established and experimental techniques that are applicable to large scale synthesis. We will investigate the rapid consolidation of these nanoparticles to form nanocomposites of Si-Ge, Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 (p-type) and Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 (n-type), and test their thermoelectric properties.

TELLUREX CORP.
1248 Hastings St.
Traverse City, MI 49686
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(231) 947-0110
Mr. Charles J. Cauchy
OSD 04-EP3      Awarded: 13DEC04
Title:Nanostructure-Enhanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and implement methodologies for new bulk thermoelectric materials that incorporate nanostructural elements to significantly increase the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, by way of phonon boundary scattering providing enhanced fuel economy via waste-heat to electrical energy conversion as well as provide stand-alone power from either intentional fuel sources or naturally occurring heat harvesting circumstances. Three primary methods will be used to develop nanostructures within a target thermoelectric alloy (AgPbmSbTe2+m) with the goal of developing a commercially realizable bulk material methodology resulting in high ZT thermoelectric devices. The unique cubic AgPbmSbTe2+m (LAST) structural identity can be exploited to produce nanostructural components that will act as phonon scattering sites within the bulk material. Tellurex's continuing work on the LAST system indicates that structural grain size reduction may be brought to nanoscale through rapid quenching and advanced mechanical powder processing techniques. A scaled sintering regimen will also be developed and employed to induce nanoscale boundary growth providing phonon boundary scattering. These processes will be used singularly and in combined strategies to determine the method resulting in the highest ZT and provide the focus for Phase II and Phase III development.

AEROVIRONMENT, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Avenue
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 357-9983
Mr. Wally Rippel
OSD 04-EP5      Awarded: 03DEC04
Title:Lightweight Power Transformer for Shipboard Electrical Power Distribution Systems
Abstract:As with most forms of transportation, ships have weight and volume constraints relative to operational equipment. Conventional transformers, in use to convert high voltage electric power to lower voltages and vice versa, are both heavy and big. With recent advances in semiconductor devices and digital control, "Electronic Transformers" can replace conventional transformers while providing a factor of three weight and size reductions. Electronic Transformers can potentially also provide side benefits such as voltage regulation, power factor correction, VAR compensation, and low harmonics. The proposed Phase I effort will investigate the feasibility of developing such Electronic Transformers. Conventional transformers have the advantage of relatively low cost and high full-load efficiency. Thus, the value of the weight and size reductions, and power system benefits that the Electronic Transformers provide, will have to offset lower efficiencies and potentially higher costs. Systems analyses and trade studies may show that Electronic Transformers compete very well. AeroVironment will overcome the many technical challenges leveraging experience from recent transformer/inductor development projects and digital control development projects. By demonstrating feasibility, we will help enable the Navy to improve shipboard electrical systems operations, while reducing electrical equipment weight and volume claims.

AMERICAN SUPERCONDUCTOR
Two Technology Drive
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(262) 901-6007
Mr. David Gritter
OSD 04-EP5      Awarded: 09DEC04
Title:Lightweight Power Transformer for Shipboard Electrical Power Distribution Systems
Abstract:A topology for a medium voltage to low voltage 3-phase power converter is proposed. It consists of a clean power rectifier followed by multiple isolated DC to DC converters using commercially available high frequency transformers with very low core losses when driven by a quasi-resonant inverter operating in the 20 to 50 kHz range. The DC to DC input DC busses are placed in series, while the outputs are in parallel to effect the reduction in voltage from medium to low. Finally a DC to AC inverter re-constructs a 3-phase voltage, which after filtering, provides high quality power for low voltage loads. This proposal defines development efforts to identify the appropriate rectifier topology if clean input currents are required, to build and test a breadboard high frequency transformer, and to refine the design of the output DC to AC inverter and filters.

ENGINEERING MATTERS, INC.
375 Elliot Street, Suite 130K
Newton, MA 02464
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 965-8974
Dr. David Cope
OSD 04-EP5      Awarded: 03DEC04
Title:Lightweight Power Transformer for Shipboard Electrical Power Distribution Systems
Abstract:The objective is to develop lightweight voltage step-down equipment to be used in vehicle power distribution systems, with particular emphasis on the DD(X) and CVN(X) programs. Conventional 60Hz power distribution transformers are large and heavy. The Navy seeks a smaller and lighter replacement technology. The voltage level and operating frequency drive the physical size of a power transformer. High voltage and low frequency yield high magnetic flux and necessitate a large transformer core. Engineering Matters proposes to design, simulate, fabricate and build a transformer-isolated high-frequency switch-mode power supply to replace existing low-frequency transformers. Engineering Matters has already developed a high voltage, high frequency solid-state switch. This switch will enable the power supply to operate directly from primary shipboard distribution voltage (13.8kV) at frequencies above 5kHz. At high frequency, the size of the transformer will be greatly reduced. The core design will be optimized for volume savings, with material to be selected from ferrite, amorphous metal, and advanced iron-based magnetic alloys. The switching power supply will also feature voltage regulation and a high power factor.

IAP RESEARCH, INC.
2763 Culver Avenue
Dayton, OH 45429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 297-3153
Mr. Antonios Challita
OSD 04-EP5      Awarded: 02DEC04
Title:Lightweight Transformer Replacement
Abstract:We propose to develop a semiconductor-based transformer for medium voltage (4160V or 13.8kV) to low voltage (450V) step down applications on ships. These transformers provide ship service power and are used on all ships where primary generation and distribution is medium voltage. Our concept uses high frequency semiconductor switching to reduce the mass and size of these transformers by a factor of 5 to 10.

PRINCETON POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
501 Forrestal Road Suite 211, Forrestal Campus
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 258-5994
Mr. Mark Holveck
OSD 04-EP5      Awarded: 02DEC04
Title:Unique AC-link Power Converter Design with a Small, Lightweight, High-Frequency Internal Transformer
Abstract:In Phase I, we propose to design a 300kW DC-DC converter for hybrid vehicles that operates at 92% efficiency, with 100°C coolant inlet temperature, and fits within 50L (6kW/L). Transitioning to the use of Silicon Carbide switching technology when it becomes available should allow increases in power density to 8kW/L. Our unique innovation is using the AC-link power conversion technology, which provides extremely low switching losses and minimal component count. AC-link is a softswitching technology, which minimizes switching losses resulting in reduced active switch and thermal management requirements. AC-link is currently being used in a similar project to build a 250kW power-dense DC-DC converter for the Air Force's Active Denial Technology; these efforts will be leveraged for this project. We will also construct a 10kW bench-scale unit in Phase I to prove the feasibility of the system. In Phase II, we will develop and deliver a 300kW converter meeting the design criteria specified. Dr. Rudy Limpaecher at SAIC and Dr. Tony Mavretic at Siat of Boston Inc. will consult on the project. We already have outside investment groups interested in investing in the Phase III manufacturing effort.

AMERICAN SUPERCONDUCTOR
Two Technology Drive
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 621-4243
Mr. John Voccio
OSD 04-EP6      Awarded: 24JAN05
Title:Superconducting Developments for Compact Power and Energy Systems
Abstract:In recent years, there have been significant advances in YBCO coated conductor development. AMSC reported achieving electrical performance levels of 330 Amps, 10 percent above the commercial threshold performance level of 300 Amps set by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for 2G HTS wires. Also, high performance reults were reported on greater than 30-m lengths - triple the length of its previously reported results. In addition, some preliminary work has been performed by MIT and DOE/ORNL on the quench stability in these tapes, primarily for cable applications, primarily for cable applications. However, thre has been little work performed on YBCO coils. Therefore, the purpose of this SBIR effort is to focus on issues related to the design, fabrication and testing of YBCO coils. By studying and understanding such issues as YBCO coil thermal and mechanical properties and selecting preferred methods of insulation, advances in YBCO coil design can be achieved. Furthermore, as progress is made in designing and fabricating low-loss, ac conductors from this material, it is expected that under Phase II, coils can be designed and tested for either a prototype transformer or stator winding.

CRYOMAGNETICS, INC.
1006 Alvin Weinberg Dr.
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 482-9551
Dr. Earle Burkhardt
OSD 04-EP6      Awarded: 10JAN05
Title:Superconducting Developments for Compact Power and Energy Systems
Abstract:Superconducting coils are capable of storing considerable amounts of energy. Should a coil quench, due to overheating or exceeding the critical field or current carrying ability of the wire, the stored energy in the coil must be dissipated safely - without endangering personnel or damaging the coil or control systems. In any superconducting coil design, it is essential to design and build the system such that the limits of the materials involved are not exceeded. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are relatively new to applications in magnets and coils, but are rapidly growing in use thanks to advances in conductor performance and availability. However, not much is known currently concerning the quench protection design limits of the materials. Thus far, quench protection in high temperature superconducting coils has been largely overlooked. This has mainly been due to the fact that HTS materials have higher heat capacities at their operating points, and are often difficult to quench. Unfortunately this high heat capacity also creates slow propagation velocities which can cause catastrophic damage to the HTS. New methods for quench protection in HTS coils will be analyzed via computer simulation.

HYPER TECH RESEARCH, INC.
110 E. Canal St.
Troy, OH 45373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 332-0348
Mr. Michael Tomsic
OSD 04-EP6      Awarded: 25JAN05
Title:YBCO Coated Conductors and Coils for Rotor Applications
Abstract:The Air Force is currently pursuing the development of high temperature superconducting generators. Coated YBCO superconductor tape is a strong candidate to enable this application. These generators for the Air Force will operate up to several hundred hertz. This SBIR Phase I investigates construction of racetrack rotor coils with standard and patterned YBCO coated conductor tapes. This Phase I will investigate winding techniques, stress, and insulation to fabricate racetrack coils. This information will enable us to model, design, and develop larger YBCO racetrack rotor coils for demonstration generators.

HYPER TECH RESEARCH, INC.
110 E. Canal St.
Troy, OH 45373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 332-0348
Mr. Michael Tomsic
OSD 04-EP6      Awarded: 24JAN05
Title:Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Superconducting Coils for Gyrotron Magnets
Abstract:The Air Force is currently pursuing the development of directed weapons using high frequency gyrotrons. Present systems use coils made with niobium titanium superconducting wire operating at 4 K with a cryocooler. Light weight magnesium diboride superconductor wire offers the potential of the required magnetic field but will operate at higher temperature of 10-25 K, and be a much lighter weight superconductor. Thus there is the potential to reduce the size and weight of the gyrotron magnet and cryocooler for airborne applications. This SBIR Phase I will demonstrate a sub-size solenoid gyrotron magnet with magnesium diboride superconducting wire, and determine what weight and size reductions could be made for a full size magnesium diboride gryotron magnet and cryocooler.

METAL OXIDE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8807 Emmott Rd., Suite 100
Houston, TX 77040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(834) 243-0917
Dr. Alexandre Molodyk
OSD 04-EP6      Awarded: 11FEB05
Title:Enhancement of YBCO Coated Conductor Performance by Chemical Pinning
Abstract:MetOx propriatary MOCVD deposition technology makes possible the prospect of chemical pinning to increase the superconducting properties of YBCO HTS films on textured substrates. Program objectives are to create pinning sites by chemical modification of process parameters and measure the properties of the YBCO films.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
201 Circle Drive North, Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Dr. Nick M. Sbrockey
OSD 04-EP6      Awarded: 28JAN05
Title:Effective Flux Pinning In YBa2Cu3Ox Coated Conductors by Continuous MOCVD
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I effort, Structured Materials Industries, Inc., (SMI) will develop process and hardware technology for continuous production of YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) coated conductors with a nano-engineered array of non-superconducting particles. These non-superconducting precipitates will act as highly effective flux pinning centers, and enable superconducting tapes with enhanced critical current in the presence of magnetic fields. The enhanced YBCO coated conductors will enable superconducting components for compact, light-weight, AC power systems for airborne weapons systems, as well as a variety of other military and commercial power applications.

TAI-YANG RESEARCH CORP.
9112 Farrell Park Lane
Knoxville, TN 37922
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 379-2712
Ms. Ann T. Shih
OSD 04-EP6      Awarded: 25JAN05
Title:Superconducting Developments for Compact Power and Energy Systems
Abstract:Tai-Yang Research Company of Tennessee in cooperation with the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory, propose to design, analyze, and test a novel method to enhance the quench stability and thermal stabilization of high temperature superconducting YBCO coils. The proposed method utilizes a revolutionary type material with unsurpassed thermal conductivity.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Yongli Xu
OSD 04-EP6      Awarded: 13JAN05
Title:Development of High Jc Thick YBCO Films Through MOD Process with Pinning Center Enhancement
Abstract:YBCO film through MOD approach is one of the most cost effective methods for long length CC fabrications. Although, this process has shown success on films below 1 micron, thicker films with performance goal of 500 A/cm have not been demonstrated even on small samples. Increasing Ic through further improving Jc is not viable because the present Jcs are comparable to that of the intragrain Jc, which is believed to be theoretical limit of YBCO superconductors. Thicker films of 1-3 microns through MOD approach with pinning center enhancement are yet to be fully developed to attain a higher Ic. High-density nano scale pinning centers is the only way to keep Jc from dramatic degradation for thick films. Thus, in Phase I, we propose to increase thickness while keeping Jc from degradation for higher Ic. Technical approach including thicker film fabrication and introducing high density nano size pinning centers for the MOD YBCO films on both IBAD and ISD templates are designed. By reaction and growth control, thicker films with high density, uniformly distributed small non-superconducting second phase as pinning centers are expected.

AMBP TECH CORP.
c/o University Buffalo Incubator, 1576 Sweet Home
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 639-0632
Mr. Nehal Chokshi
OSD 04-EP7      Awarded: 06JAN05
Title:High Energy Density and High Thermally Rated Pulsed Power Capacitor Devices
Abstract:The proposed program by AMBP Tech and Professor Sarjeant's group at SUNY Buffalo will develop and demonstrate a rapid large area deposition process of high energy density amorphous fluorinated carbon (a-C:F) films onto thin aluminum (4um thin) electrode substrates. The innovative research consists of utilizing AMBP Tech's patented high deposition rate technologies of LAMBD or PAMBD tools to optimize the stoichiometry and morphology of a-C:F films in terms of the energy density. Feedback will be provided by evaluating the electrical characteristics of the films via the unique Partial Discharge (PD) analytical setup of the Energy Systems Institute (ESI) directed by Professor Sarjeant.

APSI
3334 Brown Station Road
Columbia, MO 65202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 474-5522
Dr. Michael F. Nichols
OSD 04-EP7      Awarded: 28JAN05
Title:Novel Vacuum Deposited Dielectric Materials for Capacitor Devices
Abstract:Organic film polymers have been the dielectric of choice for high voltage, microsecond-discharge, high energy density capacitors. Electron traps normally found in these films limits their maximun voltage breakdown strength, engergy density, and dissipation. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing higher performance polymer-like dielectric materials without catalysts, impurities, solvents, or antioxidants using ionized cluster beams in conjunction with conventional vacuum deposition techniques.

MATERIALS SCI & TECH APPLICATIONS
409 Maple Springs Dr.
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-6227
Dr. Hao Jiang
OSD 04-EP7      Awarded: 11JAN05
Title:High Performance Dielectric Thin Films Prepared by Homo-/Co-Polymerizations with a Modified Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) Technique
Abstract:The manufacture of high energy density capacitors via the formation of high performance dielectric films is of vital importance for high pulse power applications. MSTA,LLC has demonstrated that by means of a modified PECVD technique, high quality polymer thin films have been fabricated, which are pine-hole free, dense, and homogeneous, with a highly crosslinked 3-dimensional amorphous bulk structure, and a smooth surface. This versatile process also performs plasma co-polymerization from monomers with different functionalities, which can manipulate material refractive index and by extension, the dielectric constant and other dielectric properties of the films. Furthermore, the films are also mechanically tough and robust, possessing excellent thermal stability and chemical/environment resistance, as well as good adhesion on different substrate materials and deposition capability on various shapes of the substrates. MSTA, LLC will do research in the application of this methodology to fabricate dielectric polymer films with high breakdown strength (> 800V/mm), moderate dielectric constants (2.5 - 4), and low dielectric loss (0.1% or less at 1 kHz frequency). Throughout the course of this investigation, the structure/morphology of the films will be examined and elucidated by XPS, IR, solid-state NMR, AFM, SEM, TEM, and spectroscopic ellipsometry to provide a scientifically sound basis for the study of advanced dielectric materials.

NANODYNAMICS, INC.
901 Fuhrmann Blvd.
Buffalo, NY 14203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(832) 978-4386
Mr. Douglas P. DuFaux
OSD 04-EP7      Awarded: 01FEB05
Title:Low-Cost Quasi-Amorphous Carbon Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Capacitors
Abstract:As our military continues to evolve and become more reliant on highly sophisticated equipment, the need for advanced electronics to support their operation is becoming increasingly more important. Clearly, one of the most important transformations is in the area of weapons systems. In fact, the U.S. Military is developing high energy density, pulse power capacitors to enable all-electric weapons with a goal of one day developing only such systems. The capacitors are required building blocks for pulse forming networks (PFNs), which convert prime electrical energy into short pulses needed to energize loads. Some of the current key research objectives for such capacitors include thin, flexible dielectrics with a high voltage breakdown strength (> 20KV/mil), a dielectric constant greater than 2, and low losses (0.1%). Enhanced processing capabilities with potential for radical improvements in materials properties are urgently needed for the development of advanced capacitors. The proposed SBIR program would make ultrahigh performance dielectrics available through an elegant, patent-protected approach to produce synergetic diamond-graphene quasi-amorphous (QUASAMT) materials. These materials have a high dielectric constant, high thermal conductivity, are extremely strong, can be deposited as thin as 5 nanometers, and can be produced at low cost using standard vacuum deposition equipment.

NANOHMICS, INC.
6201 East Oltorf St., Suite 100
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Dr. Keith Jamison
OSD 04-EP7      Awarded: 25JAN05
Title:Novel high strength capacitor dielectrics
Abstract:In this SBIR program Nanohmics propose to fabricate high breakdown strength flexible dielectrics films for use in high voltage capacitors from sputter deposited amorphous oxides. Previous work at Nanohmics has demonstrated a room temperature sputtering technique to deposit exceedingly high quality flexible amorphous nitride films at room temperature with properties similar to their single crystal counterparts. In this program we propose to use a similar growth technique to fabricate amorphous oxides such as ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2 as well as amorphous SiO2. After deposition, Nanohmics will test the films for dielectric strength, breakdown voltage, dielectric constant, high frequency loss and other electrical properties. The material with the best dielectric properties will be manufactured into a test capacitor and delivered at the end of the Phase I program. The Phase II program will take this dielectric, optimize the deposition process for lifetime and scalability then develop a reel-to-reel dielectric on foil manufacturing process necessary to fabricate wound capacitors in volume.

ADVANCED FLUID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5250 W. Coplay Road
Whitehall, PA 18052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 262-9686
Dr. Satish Mohapatra
OSD 04-EP8      Awarded: 06JAN05
Title:Advanced Thermo-Fluid Using Hybrid Nanoparticles
Abstract:Due to the inefficiencies associated with Directed Energy (DE) weapons, a large amount of waste heat is generated that must be removed quickly to maintain a constant temperature operation. To remove such a high heat flux, an efficient heat transfer device/mechanism and a designer thermo-fluid are necessary. Nanofluids and Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been developed to increase the thermophysical properties of a base thermo-fluid but the gain is not enough for extremely high heat flux (1000 Watts/cm2) operations. Advanced Fluid Technologies, Inc. dba Dynalene Heat Transfer Fluids (Dynalene) proposes to develop an advanced thermo-fluid using hybrid nanoparticles that will increase the heat capacity as well as the thermal conductivity of the base heat transfer fluid. Heat energy will be converted to chemical energy and vice versa inside the nanoparticles. In the Phase I of the project, we will identify the key ingredients and develop the processes to make the hybrid nanoparticles. Laboratory experiments will be conducted to determine the feasibility and efficiency of converting heat energy into chemical energy through simple chemical reactions. A cost analysis will also be carried out in Phase I to determine the economic feasibility of this concept.

NANOTECHLABS, INC.
4830 Bent Ridge Ln.
Clemmons, NC 27012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 403-7762
Dr. Richard Czerw
OSD 04-EP8      Awarded: 05JAN05
Title:Ionic Thermofluids Containing Nanomaterials
Abstract:In this proposal, NanoTechLabs will synthesize and evaluate ionic liquid based thermo-fluids incorporating carbon nanotubes to improve thermal management of high heat bearing equipment. Ionic liquids have desirable characteristics as thermal fluids such as: liquid over broad temperature ranges varying from sub-zero to greater than 300C, not prone to thermal cracking, environmentally friendly (non-volatile and non-toxic), and non-flammable. A variety of ionic liquids will be synthesized and characterized as thermal fluids. Carbon nanotubes will be incorporated into the fluids to enhance their thermal conductivity. Fluid and thermal characteristics will be measured as a function of carbon nanotube concentration.

EXCELLATRON
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Dr. Ji-Guang Zhang
OSD 04-EP9      Awarded: 06JAN05
Title:Innovative Advanced Fuel Cell Manufacturing
Abstract:Excellatron Solid State, LLC (ESS) proposes an innovative lithium oxygen energy storage system focused on High Altitude Airship (HAA) applications. This project will result in battery technology that has the potential for: ˙Specific capacity that is eight to ten times that of conventional lithium batteries ˙High standby and recharge cycle life ˙Safe operation ˙Low cost Regenerative fuel cells have been examined as a means for achieving high specific energy storage capacities using electrochemical cells. However, Hydrogen storage and mass transport requirements have constrained broad scale use of this approach. On the other hand, lithium metal as an anode material offers low density and the high electrochemical capacity making it an optimum material for electrochemical energy storage applications. But lithium is a difficult material to work with due to its inherent instability in air and water. For rechargeable batteries, lithium reactions that create high energy are difficult to reverse. This proposal offers solutions to these problems resulting in storage cells having energy capacities that are an order of magnitude greater than those available using conventional battery technologies. This technology is also anticipated to be modular and easily scalable.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Jeremy Steinshnider
OSD 04-EP9      Awarded: 06JAN05
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process to Significantly Increase Power Density and Specific Power of Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells
Abstract:With the recent events of September 11th, there is an urgent need for continuous surveillance of the US border. High altitude airships (HAAs) will have the ability to loiter above stationary targets at altitudes over 70,000 feet, however, they will require power systems capable of sustaining long term flight while requiring no refueling. Lynntech Inc.'s patented unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) technology is ideally suited for high altitude power generation. Further optimization of the size and weight of Lynntech's stacks will result in higher power generation, permitting greater payloads and more extensive surveillance equipment. Lynntech proposes to advance their URFC technology by employing thinner components and lighter weight materials, to increase both the power density (W/L) and specific power density (W/kg). By employing Lynntech's adhesively bonded fuel cell stack technology, total stack weight can be reduced by as much as 33% while the total stack volumes can be reduced by 50%. During Phase I, Lynntech will determine the feasibility of reducing size and weight while not compromising system integrity. The results developed in Phase I will be applied in Phase II to construct the full size URFC needed to power an HAA.

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD.
404 Enterprise Dr.
Lewis Center, OH 43035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6606
Dr. Michael J. Day
OSD 04-EP9      Awarded: 28JAN05
Title:High Power Density Regenerative SOFCs
Abstract:High altitude uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) offer the opportunity to enhance border security and provide early warning for missile defense programs. These platforms offer an inexpensive alternative to satellite or manned reconnaissance aircraft, but require a night-time power source to augment solar panels in order to achieve long operating lifetimes. Regenerative Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (RSOFCs) will provide a means for these aircraft to remain aloft indefinitely as they efficiently convert sunlight energy to fuel during the day and fuel to electrical power at night. The objective of this Phase I program is to demonstrate a high power density RSOFC cell design. Using established materials and manufacturing approaches, it will be possible to produce RSOFC elements tailored for UAV power supplies. Studies will include evaluation of various cell architectures, materials and fabrication processes to produce robust, high efficiency cells.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Dr. Burt Fowler
OSD 04-EP9      Awarded: 28JAN05
Title:Monolithic MEMS Fuel Cell Manufacturing for Long Endurance High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:High altitude airships (HAA) require regenerative fuel cell systems that can supply high current during nighttime operations with daily charging and discharging cycles for long periods of continuous operation. These fuel cells must be lighter in weight, and have higher charging and discharging efficiency while operating at high altitudes with no maintenance during operation for extended periods of a year or more. The weight of other system power components such as solar panels, pumps, and hydrogen and water storage decrease significantly with increasing fuel cell efficiency such that the optimal overall renewable energy system solution is driven by fuel cell efficiency. SPEC (Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation) has designed and is currently developing a lightweight, compact MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell for unitized regenerative energy storage applications. The MEMS fuel cell is designed for HAA station keeping and operation at greater than 70,000 feet above MSL. The fuel cell system for this program is a modular unit designed to provide up to 100kW peak output power in fuel cell mode and 160kW output power in electrolyzer mode.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
OSD 04-H06      Awarded: 20JAN05
Title:Adaptive Patient Appointment Scheduling System (APASS) for DoD Medical Facilities
Abstract:Current scheduling methods fail to address the dynamic nature of the Military Health System environment. What is needed is an approach to scheduling that can accommodate the dynamic changes in the health environment, an approach that provides not just scheduling but also rescheduling, to ensure that available human resources and facilities are used efficiently and to the maximum benefit of the patients served by the system. We propose an Adaptive Patient Appointment Scheduling System (APASS) for DoD Medical Facilities that monitors a schedule in real-time to detect deviations or changes in resource availability that prevent fulfillment of the schedule. It uses dynamic rescheduling to correct those deviations while preserving the appointments and objectives that must be satisfied by the schedule. The proposed system relies on schedule monitoring to detect disruptions in the schedule; impact assessment to determine the effects of schedule disruptions and prevent them from spiraling into larger problems; and rescheduling to accommodate detected disruptions as well as new objectives (e.g. new appointments) and minimize their impact. We see considerable potential for this approach in enhancing management of the Military Health System and for use in a variety of commercial scheduling applications.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. B. Ravichandran
OSD 04-H06      Awarded: 19JAN05
Title:Dynamic Medical Enterprise Resource Planning
Abstract:The objective of this project (Phases I and II) is to develop dynamic enterprise wide scheduling and optimization systems for allocations of health care provider personnel, medical equipment, and facilities resources under an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system for complex medical situations. This system will not only optimize the allocation of military health care personnel, equipment and facilities resources but also be designed to provide the patient access to the ERP such that the patient can make ``one-stop'' to fulfill multiple clinic scheduling requirements (for example, the standardized appointment types) and obtain information prior to receiving the health care service(s). Phase I will develop a dynamic enterprise-wide scheduling solution for the military health system and develop the methodology, computational approaches and architectural concepts to support design and implementation of the dynamic enterprise-wide scheduling system. Phase II will develop a prototype system test bed and enlarge the range of existing test scenarios to validate and demonstrate dynamic scheduling and resource allocation within the entire military continuum of care.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 969-3774
Dr. Charles Earl
OSD 04-H06      Awarded: 11JAN05
Title:Intelligent Patient and Resource Management for the Medical Enterprise
Abstract:Scheduling of medical appointments across the military enterprise presents a number of problems. Studies done of the responsiveness of numerous Military Treatment Facilities have highlighted the need for improvements in the scheduling process. In response to these findings, the Department of Defense has set ambitious targets for improvements in patient responsiveness, such as minimal waiting times for intake, and minimal times from appointment request to appointment date, and the ability to do same day appointments for ancillary laboratory visits. The ability to deliver on these service commitments will hinge upon being able to not only do optimal (with respect to service commitments) scheduling amongst the units of a single MTF, but amongst facilities that are geographically dispersed. It will require the integration of appropriate patient information and integration with other existing infrastructure that facilitate the patient's ability to determine appointment times based upon their preferences. It will require interfaces that allow providers to enter appropriate business logic for their unit in natural ways, as well as facilitate the use of advance scheduling algorithms that can effectively information about resource requirements and availabilities, staff availabilities, and coverage constraints to fast appointment and resource planning. Recent developments in artificial intelligence point to a number of approaches to scheduling that could yield significant improvements in the patient experience, if applied. We propose to investigate such approaches using our Aurora scheduling system as a core technology. We will extend this system to allow for integration with existing DOD healthcare infrastructure.

VECNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5004 Lehigh Avenue
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 998-5333
Dr. Al Ramsey
OSD 04-H06      Awarded: 02FEB05
Title:Computer-based Dynamic Patient Scheduling and Optimization of Medical Resource Allocation
Abstract:Vecna proposes to investigate and develop a prototype dynamic priority-based scheduler which applies artificial intelligence and operations research techniques to manage and prioritize patient access to health care in order to minimize time and distant impact on patients and to optimize the allocation of military health care personnel, equipment and facilities resources. Vecna 's Solution includes the development of a web based application, modifications and incorporation of existing Vecna products, and use of a system architecture that complies with the Military Health System's (MHS) Enterprise Architecture.

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Dr. James G. Moe
OSD 04-H07      Awarded: 27JAN05
Title:Field Optimization of Real-time PCR for the detection of Leishmania parasites
Abstract:The proposed Phase I SBIR program will develop a rapid assay for characterizing blood samples from patients with suspected Leishmania infection. Leishmaniasis affects 12 million people worldwide with 400,000 new cases diagnosed annually. The spectrum of diseases caused by Leishmania spp. includes cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL [kala-azar,]). Current methods for detection are complex, costly, time consuming, lack specificity, and difficult to execute. The proposed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) signature assay will enable identification to be carried out in single assay that is highly specific, easy to perform, inexpensive, and field deployable. The assay is carried out in two stages. First, a genus-specific RT PCR is carried out targeting the Leishmania genus. For positive samples the SNP signature assay will be carried using the amplicon generated for species identification. The prototype assay will be used to test a series of genomic isolates (positive and negative) that will be requested from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) as blind samples. From the outcome, preliminary sensitivity and specificity will be determined. During Phase II, the assay will be finalized in terms of probe design, kit configuration, and accessory equipment, and external validation studies will be carried out.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Theresa Curtis
OSD 04-H08      Awarded: 27JAN05
Title:Dipstick Assay for Field Detection of Leishmania Parasites using Quantum Dots
Abstract:A PCR based assay has been developed to detect Leishmania parasites, but PCR requires sophisticated laboratory instruments and trained personnel to interpret the data. The parasite can also be identified in infected sand flies by skillful dissection and microscopic examination but this is subjective and not appropriate for field testing. Antibodies are available that can detect Leishmania parasites and a standard ELISA could be used for detection, but this like the other assays requires trained personnel and sophisticated laboratory instruments. To overcome these shortcomings, Agave BioSystems proposes to develop a dipstick assay to provide a practical tool for assessment of Leishmania infected sand flies in the field. Our novel dipstick assay would use new fluorescent quantum dot technology for detection. This quantum dot assay would be considerably more specific, sensitive, and stable making it superior to standard colorimetric dipstick assays.

VECTOR TEST SYSTEMS, INC.
2033 Yellowthroat Place
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 499-5053
Dr. Kirti Dave
OSD 04-H08      Awarded: 27JAN05
Title:Development of a field-usable diagnostic device for the detection of Leishmania parasites in Sand flies.
Abstract:VecTOR Test Systems, Inc. proposes to develop and produce the VecTOR Leishmania antigen assay, a field usable assay for detection of Leishmania parasites in sand fly vectors. The proposed assays will be performed in a rapid, one-step immuno-chromatographic process for detection and identification of various Leishmania sp such as L. major, L donovani, and other epidemiologically relevant species in vectoring sand-flies. The technology is based on the simple and reliable wicking immuno-chromatographic detection method by which sensitive test-strip based assays provide results in less than 30 minutes. The proposed dipstick assays will be stable at ambient storage conditions. During Phase I, a sufficient number of tests will be produced for laboratory and preliminary field evaluation. The proposed VecTOR Antigen assays will add to the new vector diagnostic tests and complement the VecTOR Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis and Ross River Virus Antigen assays in development and the commercially available VecTestTM (VecTest is a trademark of Medical Analysis Systems, Inc) panel or individual rapid assay for detection of mosquito-borne pathogens such as Malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and vivax CS Panel assays), Encephalitis (SLE, WEE, EEE) and West Nile virus antigen assays.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Michael S. Wilson
OSD 04-H09      Awarded: 11JAN05
Title:Rapid determination of complement activation in the battlefield
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop an antibody microarray to facilitate the rapid evaluation of complement activation in injured personnel in the battlefield. Soldiers in the battlefield may sustain multiple types of injury, including trauma, hemorrhage, shock, ischemia, burn, and exposure to toxic substances. These conditions are associated with varying degrees of complement activation, which in turn may lead to further deterioration, if left untreated. Moreover, complement is central to normal physiological defenses against microbial infections, and knowledge of the extent of complement activation will aid in determining its proportional inhibition. The proposed antibody microarray would aid the health care professional to evaluate various parameters in injured personnel, including the extent of complement activation, the specific complement pathway that is activated, whether complement inhibitors should be administered, the type of inhibitor to administer, depending on the complement pathway involved, and the dose of inhibitor to be administered. At EIC Laboratories we have developed methods for fabricating immunological electrode sensors based on antibodies immobilized in a hydrous 3-dimensional iridium oxide matrix. In the Phase I program we will construct a prototype antibody array for the electrochemical detection of two different complement proteins.

ELECTRICAL GEODESICS, INC.
1600 Millrace Drive, Suite 307
Eugene, OR 97403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 687-7962
Dr. Don M. Tucker
OSD 04-H11      Awarded: 10JAN05
Title:Simultaneous EEG Acquisition and Portable Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Recognition of Traumatic Brain Injury Severity and Outcome Assessments in Far-Forward Military Medical Care
Abstract:The integration of NIRS measures with EEG could be a significant advance in rapid detection and continuous monitoring of cerebral dysfunction following traumatic brain injury. We have developed a dense sensor array EEG system that can be applied rapidly in a field environment. We have developed a prototype NIRS brain imaging system that can be integrated with the EEG system, in both sparse and dense array configurations. Through both laboratory validation and extensive field testing in military and civilian medical settings, we will create an advanced brain monitoring system that is focused on rapid application and interpretation for emergency medicine.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Steven Yi
OSD 04-H11      Awarded: 14JAN05
Title:Simultaneous EEG Acquisition and Portable Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Recognition of Traumatic Brain Injury Severity and Outcome Assessments in Far-Forward Military Medical Care
Abstract:Genex Technologies, Inc. (Genex), in collaboration with Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), proposes an innovative and practical NIRS/EEG System for the detection of traumatic brain injuries for use in remote locations such as far forward military medical care facilities. Genex and Walter Reed propose bringing the following two key technologies together to achieve this objective: 1. Integrated NIRS/EEG system design and prototype (Genex) 2. TBI modeling, EEG/NIRS testing, and validation (WRAIR) Genex has developed an integrated miniature electronic control and high-speed image processing engine called the Smart Optical Sensor (SOS) that offers real-time sensor control/synchronization and image processing. We will leverage SOS to achieve miniature EEG/NIRS design.

INFRASCAN, INC.
3508 Market str. Suite 215
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 387-6784
Dr. Baruh Ben-Dor
OSD 04-H11      Awarded: 10JAN05
Title:Simultaneous EEG Acquisition and Portable Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Recognition of Traumatic Brain Injury Severity and Outcome Assessments in Far-Forward Military Medical Care
Abstract:In the battlefield setting, it is necessary to triage patients with severe injuries. With both open and closed head injuries, the most important factor determining whether or not a patient requires emergency surgery, is the presence of an intracranial mass lesion. CT scanning is the gold standard for identification and localization of traumatic intracranial hematomas. In the battlefield as well in rural areas of the US and in underdeveloped areas of the world, CTs are not available. In our pilot studies conducted at Baylor College of Medicine by Dr. Claudia Robertson and Dr. Shankar Gopinath using the RunManT NIR monitor, sensitivity for extracerebral (epidural and subdural) hematomas was 100% and sensitivity for intracerebral hematomas was 98%. There were no false positives. Investigations with EEG have accurately identified patients with closed head injury, including assessment of severity of damage and prediction of outcomes using EEG coherence and phase analyses. Therefore a dual modalities NIR + EEG system with an integrated display will enhance the statistical power of intracranial hematoma detection. Furthermore the combined metrics will provide with very significant information about a patient's physiological states such as severity of brain damage and functional changes due to head trauma.

CHENEGA ADVANCED SOLUTIONS & ENGINEERING-LLC
610 W. 25th Street
Norfolk, VA 23517
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 627-4404
Mr. Mike Abraham
OSD 04-H12      Awarded: 02FEB05
Title:Digital Archive and Access to Lifetime Military Medical Records
Abstract:Military health records are collected at the installation where the service member separates and is sent to a central military records repository. Subsequent access to these records by the individual, healthcare provider, or by a Veteran's Affairs representative is accomplished via a difficult bureaucratic and manual process. These records are then often lost or misplaced. By combining CASE-LLC and and CHS expertise and experience, we will develop a concept and design to automate these medical records and make them readily accessible by a web enabled system. There are unique challanges in developing the concept and design because of non-standard, descriptive healthcare terrmonology. This design will lead to lowering health care costs, improving patient care and creating predictable models for future planning.

KYOS SYSTEMS, INC.
42 Mohawk Road
Canton, MA 02021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 818-5307
Dr. Kevin Pang
OSD 04-H12      Awarded: 02FEB05
Title:Digital Archive and Access to Lifetime Military Medical Records
Abstract:The problem to be solved is how to accurately capture, store, and utilize handwritten information obtained from scanned in paper forms such that patients and their civilian healthcare providers can access military health records. The successful solution will enable better healthcare to discharged service personnel and their families through the creation of a continuous record of care. A further potential benefit of this effort is better coordination and communication capabilities between civilian and military healthcare personnel in disaster management scenarios. The key step to success is building the capability to recognize diverse handwriting inputs across multiple healthcare forms. To accomplish this we will apply a novel form-specific and field-specific, constrained vocabulary system approach that we believe will significantly increase character recognition speed and accuracy from handwritten inputs. In Phase 1 we will demonstrate that >90% word accuracy can be achieved for specific scanned in fields from specific forms from diverse handwriting samples. Working with DOD and TRICARE personnel in Phase 2 of this grant we intend to further refine and expand the form and field defined, constrained vocabulary system to achieve >99% word accuracy.

NOVODYNAMICS, INC.
123 North Ashley Suite 210
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 205-9126
Dr. Steven Schlosser
OSD 04-H12      Awarded: 13JAN05
Title:Digital Archive and Access to Lifetime Military Medical Records
Abstract:The overall technical objective for this Phase I SBIR effort is to develop a system design for the proposed medical record digital archive system (MRDAS) so that a prototype system can be built in Phase II. During Phase I research and development NovoDynamics will evaluate the use of its documentation exploitation system ArborScriptT as a potential component of the final system. The ArborScript document exploitation system was created for the US intelligence community to process the flood of paper documents being captured by US efforts in the Middle East. For reasons detailed in the Work Plan section of this document, it is anticipated that ArborScript will address many of the technical challenges that will be encountered in the areas of document optical character recognition (OCR), information storage and information retrieval. Research and development will be conducted to evaluate document feature extraction methods and machine learning techniques for automatic document classification. Research and development will also be conducted to evaluate lexicon phrase spotting approaches to information extraction of medical interventions and conditions.

ONTAR CORP.
9 Village Way
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-9622
Dr. John Schroeder
OSD 04-H12      Awarded: 12JAN05
Title:Digital Archive and Access to Lifetime Military Medical Records
Abstract:In current military medical records manage system, upon entry of US military on to active duty, new recruits have created for them, individual paper military medical records. These records accompany the military members and are normally stored at supporting military health system clinics or hospitals wherever they are stationed throughout their military careers. Upon retirement or separation, the record is turned in to military personnel managers at the installation where the member separates and is sent to a central military records archive facility. Subsequent access to the records can only accomplished via a difficult process. Ontar Corporation proposes a digital archiving system for archiving the contents of the active military medical records file upon retirement or separation of the military member, prior to permanently filing the medical records so that these records and the medical histories they contain can be securely accessed, searched and data mined via the TRICARE Web portal by authorized user. The proposed system will use advanced digital mark and character recognition technology combined with smart indexing and tagging of critical medical data strategy. The system will include a user friendly document management tool to improve the experience of the archiving process. The system will provide standard Web Service interface to allow applications on heterogeneous system, from difference location retrieving the medical record instantly as needed through secured internet communication. At the conclusion of Phase I we will deliver to OSD a prototype system that demonstrates the feasibility of archiving paper records and retrieving and data mining digitized records. In phase II, we will develop a fully functional digital archive system for archiving and accessing lifetime military medical records. We will also look into the automating solution to migrate military medical records from the legacy CHCS I system to the digital archive repository.

VISUAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK, INC.
8201 Greensboro Dr - suite 820
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-0999
Mr. Kenneth Lucas
OSD 04-H12      Awarded: 13JAN05
Title:Digital Archive and Access to Lifetime Military Medical Records
Abstract:The current paper-based process for accessing military medical records for retirees or separated personnel can be cumbersome and inefficient. Care delivery and patient management can be hindered by lack of access to important patient information throughout the Continuum of Care. This paper-based system creates logistical issues, and increases the risk of losing vital patient medical information. In addition to logistical issues, the current paper-based system for managing military medical records imposes limitations regarding the breadth, simplicity, and speed of data queries or data mining. These queries are important to clinicians and patients to facilitate care management and delivery, as well as being important when conducting longitudinal studies to increase healthcare capabilities across the Continuum of Care. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of modifying ViTel Net's MedVizer Informatics Integration Platform (MIIP) to create a digital system for archiving paper military medical records and provide secure web-based access to those records for separating or retiring military personnel.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Dariusz Wroblewski
OSD 04-H13      Awarded: 11JAN05
Title:Tools for Dynamic Integration of Medical Informatics Systems
Abstract:Comprehensive response to medical emergencies, including acts of terrorism and natural disasters, will require improved coordination between civilian and military healthcare systems. The ability of emergency medical response teams to remotely access medical health records of individual patients will significantly improve the emergency healthcare decision process and quality of resulting treatment. However, health records are typically scattered among a number of healthcare institutions and are stored in a variety of formats. Communication between various healthcare informatics systems is hampered by the lack of widely implemented standards for content, format, and transmission. IAC (Intelligent Automation Corporation) proposes to employ its expertise in data and application integration to design and implement a system for rapid integration and presentation of data from diverse, heterogeneous medical informatics systems. The proposed system makes use of emerging standards for the electronic patient data records, novel ontology-based information processing approaches, and platform-independent open architecture based on Web services. The Phase I work will provide initial demonstration of methodology and software architecture.

LOGOBOTS LLC
60 E 32nd Street, #204
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(312) 328-0252
Mr. Rajeev Priyadarshi
OSD 04-H13      Awarded: 11JAN05
Title:Patient-Centric Standards-Based Information Integration
Abstract:Rapid response to homeland security related incidents requires dynamic integration of military and civilian medical information systems. Currently, this integration process has been difficult to accomplish due to various factors: diversity of medical information systems, lack of universal data standards, plethora of data formats (text,images,video, audio), and the semantic mismatch between the different systems. The last issue, that of semantic integration, is particularly difficult. Dynamic integration involves the use of an integration engine that can perform semantic mapping of the different systems involved. Semantic interoperability is a challenging technical problem. Given any two (database) schemas, it is difficult to automatically map data elements to each other. Syntactically identical element names/labels may represent semantically different entities. Conversely, the same semantic element (such as a patient name) might be represented through different data structures in the two information systems. The overall objective of the proposed Phase I effort is to create the "Logobots Integration Engine" which is a enterprise software product that will enable seamless semantic interoperability between military and civilian medical information systems. This engine will facilitate continuity of care when DoD personnel have to be treated at civilian healthcare facilities.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Kai Chan
OSD 04-H13      Awarded: 18JAN05
Title:Tool for Dynamically Integrating Military and Civilian telemedicine and Medical Informatics systems for Homeland Security
Abstract:There is no established standard in sharing data between various medical record systems. Thus the integration and sharing of data between systems has been difficult. Nevertheless, most medical databases nowadays use commercial database engines (e.g. oracle) as their backend. These commercial database engines support data exchange through XML. Thus provide us with a mean to exchange data between systems. The obstacle in exchanging data between systems lies in the schematic and semantic difference between databases. Here we propose using XQuery technology to overcome the schematic differences and using UMLS to overcome the semantic differences. The result is a data integration system that is flexible and can be easily configured to adapt to various database backends and application frontends. In order to minimize the learning curve necessary to master XQuery programming, automatic generation of XQuery scripts will be added to thhe system.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Zbigniew Sikorski
OSD 04-H14      Awarded: 13JAN05
Title:Portable Near Infrared Detection of Blast Lung Injury
Abstract:Broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is a novel technique to quantitatively measure bulk tissue absorption and scattering spectra in the near infrared. DOS is potentially an ideal Primary Blast Lung Injury (PBLI) monitoring technique. The overall objective of this project is to model, test, and validate NIRS/DOS assessment of PBLI in Phase I, then develop a small portable field deployable ambulatory test prototype NIRS/DOS device in Phase II. First, simple Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) experiments will be conducted using pig chest wall and lungs to evaluate light penetration through the chest walls and optimize source/detector geometry. Then NIRS signatures of the appropriate PBLI injury scenarios (e.g. pneumo-hemothorax, hemorrhagic edema) will be identified. The results will be used to assess the broadband NIRS/DOS measurements of chest wall/lung absorption and scattering properties at the Beckman Laser Institute, where the broadband DOS was pioneered and advanced. Reliable tissue models are important part of the DOS technique. They are used to quantitatively relate detected light signal to absorption and reduced scattering coefficients that are indicators of the pulmonary physiologic state (hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation). CFDRC will develop software for calculation of the Diffuse Photon Density Wave propagation in realistic chest wall/lung tissue and pathologic conditions. In Phase II prototype NIRS/DOS PBLI device will be developed, tested at UCI and CFDRC and commercialized.

GENEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
10605 Concord Street, #500
Kensington, MD 20895
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 962-6565
Dr. Steven Yi
OSD 04-H14      Awarded: 14JAN05
Title:Develop Portable Near Infrared Technology fo Detection of Pulmonary Function Following Blast Injury
Abstract:Genex Technologies, Inc (Genex) in collaboration with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) proposes herein an innovative and practical NIRS System for the detection of traumatic lung injuries for use in remote locations, such as the far forward military medical care facilities. Genex and Walter Reed propose bringing the following two key technologies together to achieve this objective: 1. NIRS system design and prototype (Genex) 2. TLI modeling, NIRS testing, and validation (WRAIR). Genex has developed an integrated miniature (2" by 2" form factor) electronic engine dubbed the Smart Optical Sensor (SOS) that offers real-time sensor control/synchronization, data acquisition, and signal/image processing (Figure 2). By customizing SOS for the NIRS applications, we will be able to build a portable NIRS based instrument. Genex's 3D Rainbow camera, providing 3D boundary conditions, is already used in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) applications for breast and lung related NIR imaging applications.

INNOVATIVE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
733 Bishop Street, 28th Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 441-3607
Dr. J. Hunter Downs III
OSD 04-H14      Awarded: 13JAN05
Title:Assessing Post-Blast Pulmonary Function using NIRS
Abstract:With bombings and explosions being the primary terroristic method, ongoing military related bombings, and other industrial accidents such as gas explosions, there is a need for a rapid and portable instrument for assessing blast-related pulmonary dysfunction. A similar, if not identical, instrument has far reaching implications in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating the various forms of lung disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers the potential to spatially identify areas of pulmonary dysfunction, the presence of foreign bodies within the lung field, and at the same time provide breathing and cardiac frequency information. In this project, the development of such a device is proposed as is a plan for testing that device.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Paul Shnitser
OSD 04-H14      Awarded: 13JAN05
Title:Infrared Blood Detector
Abstract:To address the need of the U.S. military for a compact, field-deployable device for fast evaluation of the severity of blast-induced lung injury, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the new Infrared Blood Detector (IBD) based on frequency domain infrared spectroscopy. It measures phases and amplitudes of photon density waves reflected from the lung boundary. This handheld, battery-powered device will detect hemorrhaging and estimate the severity of bleeding by comparing the amplitudes of photon density waves at several points on the patient's right and left sides. The IBD will also quantitate blood oxygenation in the breast muscles to estimate lung respiratory function. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the IBD design, and will validate IBD suitability for evaluation of lung injury on a specially developed phantom model. In Phase II POC will develop an IBD prototype for use in an ambulatory patient care environment and to evaluate its utility and accuracy in one or more animal models.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Rob Joyce
OSD 04-H15      Awarded: 12JAN05
Title:BLISS: BLood Inventory Submission System
Abstract:The Joint Medical Asset Repository (JMAR) is being successfully used to track medical supplies in near-real-time, saving time, money, and lives. However, assets housed at a temporary emergency-response location, near the battlefield, or any other location without the proper installation, can not be tracked using JMAR. In order for JMAR to meet our national needs as a facility for accessing blood and blood product levels throughout the United States and other locations worldwide, a new mechanism must be provided for quickly entering data. ATC-NY and Architecture Technology Corporation will create BLISS, an easy-to-use web-based utility for entering data into the JMAR database. Using BLISS, authorized personnel at any facility with web-access will be able to provide up-to-date inventory levels for storage in JMAR's database.

DAVID BUCZEK & ASSOC., INC.
3200 Brynwood Place
Oak Hill, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 861-5332
Mr. David A. Buczek
OSD 04-H15      Awarded: 14JAN05
Title:Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP), Blood Reserve Availability Surveillance System (BRASS)
Abstract:David Buczek & Associates (DB&A) is well equipped to conduct technical research for the Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP) in defining requirements for a Blood Reserve Availability Surveillance System (BRASS). The proposed Phase I research effort will accomplish the following: prove the efficacy of utilizing a web-based manual data collection approach to capture ASBP blood and blood inventory data in a central data repository; define the unique policies, procedures, and restrictions that dictate the identification, transfer and use of blood and blood products inventory data from ASBP Blood Donor Centers and Transfusion Services; develop one or more BRASS system designs that creatively overcome the policy, regulatory, environmental, and technical challenges of the ASBP, and that enable the surveillance of the ASBP blood and blood products inventory for key status indicators. The DB&A team has direct experience working with the ASBP and understands the unique nature of the Program. They also have specific experience in managing blood related data to support management decision making. This combination of ASBP knowledge and experience equips DB&A with the expertise needed to conduct the required technical research in an exceptional manner and sets the foundation for commercializing the resulting BRASS.

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, INC.
3141 Fairview Park Drive, Suite 700
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 333-2188
Dr. James S. Cunningham
OSD 04-H15      Awarded: 14JAN05
Title:Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP), Blood Reserve Availability Surveillance System (BRASS)
Abstract:This project will encompass three critical objectives. First, there will be an assessment of the current operating status of JMAR with respect to blood and blood products. Second, ESI will develop a detailed technical approach to enhancing the data entry mechanisms, includeing but not limited to direct manual entry to a web-based interface. Third, the enhanced data entry functions will be accompanied by the identification of a set of alternative approaches to making BRASS a robust information and reporting system, including opportunites for structured and on-demand management analyses, the potential for integration with civilian blood collection agencies, and the information infrastructure of evolving initiatives for a National Blood Reserve and a civilian Blood Availability and Safety Information System (BASIS).

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Madhav Erraguntla
OSD 04-H15      Awarded: 12JAN05
Title:Blood Reserve Availability Assessment, Tracking, and Management System (BRAMS)
Abstract:We propose to design and develop Blood Reserve Availability Assessment, Tracking, and Management System (BRAMS) that will supplement the Joint Medical Asset Repository (JMAR) by allowing users to manually enter data via a web-based system. BRAMS will implement data integrity and access control mechanisms to ensure that the data entered is valid, and not duplicated by other data sources. Our experience with the JMAR data warehouse will ensure that the results of the proposed effort are successfully integrated and transitioned to JMAR. In addition to extending the data coverage and trust in JMAR data, the proposed effort will use data mining and knowledge based analyses to transform the Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP) and JMAR from a reactive agency to a forward looking, proactive agency. Innovative solutions that will be implemented in BRAMS include predictive logistics and forecasting, agent based alerts and notifications, emergency response management, and transportation optimization. BRAMS will enable program and preparedness managers to use data mining and analytics to detect problems, analyze underlying drivers for system behavior, evaluate alternate solutions, and optimize the supply chain. The Phase I effort will build a prototype BRAMS. Phase II will deploy the BRAMS within a focused military logistics application.

DAVID BUCZEK & ASSOC., INC.
3200 Brynwood Place
Oak Hill, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 861-5332
Mr. David A. Buczek
OSD 04-H16      Awarded: 18JAN05
Title:Armed Blood Services Program, Bloodborne Pathogen and Donor Deferral Early Warning System
Abstract:David Buczek & Associates (DB&A) is well equipped to conduct the necessary technical research to aid the Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP) in defining requirements for a Blood-borne Pathogen and Donor Deferral Early Warning System. The proposed Phase I research effort will accomplish the following: document data collected as a result of ASBP blood donor screening and deferral activity, and testing completed on ASBP collected blood; gather and standardize the data, and then determine baseline donor deferral and test result rates; define appropriate methods to automatically transfer, and/or manually input data into a central data repository, and the business rules that guide these processes; and develop one or more design concepts for a Blood-borne Pathogen and Donor Deferral Early Warning System. The DB&A team have direct experience working with the ASBP and understand the unique nature of the Program. They also have specific experience in managing blood program data to support management decision making. This knowledge and experience equips DB&A with the expertise needed to conduct the required technical research in an exceptional manner and sets the foundation for commercializing the resulting Blood-borne Pathogen and Donor Deferral Early Warning System research results.

LISSOM, INC.
225 emerson lane
berkeley heights, NJ 07922
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 322-8715
Mr. Carl Mattocks
OSD 04-H16      Awarded: 18JAN05
Title:Armed Blood Services Program, Bloodborne Pathogen and Donor Deferral Early Warning System
Abstract:The Centers for Disease Control recently stated that continued vigilance is critical to protect the blood supply from known pathogens and to detect the emergence of new infectious agents. The Food and Drug Administration has also recently issued guidance on prudent steps to safeguard the U.S. blood supply from SARS. This proposal identifies the Research & System Design tasks resulting in the production of readily-implementable design concepts for a DoD centralized Blood Pathogen & Donor Alert Compendium ("BPDAC"). Which is an online system designed to protect the DoD blood supply by providing early warning of increases in donor deferral patterns and detections of bloodborne pathogens.

ADLYFE, INC.
9430 Key West Avenue, Suite 210
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 424-8344
Dr. David H. Ho
OSD 04-H17      Awarded: 11JAN05
Title:Development of a hemostatic wound dressing incorporating lyophilized platelets
Abstract:The main goal of this proposal is to develop stabilized freeze-dried Yucatan pig platelets that will retain the majority of platelet biological properties, but can be stored in the dry state for years. These platelets will be incorporated into a hemostatic dressing that will control bleeding in the Yucatan pig wound and bone healing model. This proposal is based on the extensive amount of work already performed at Adlyfe, where stored human freeze-drying trehelose-loaded platelets, upon reconstitution with water, demonstrated normal response to physiological agonists as well as able to release growth factors in controlled spatial and temporal manner. In phase I, key structural and functional parameters will be measured in vitro to determine the efficacy of the freeze-dried Yucatan pig platelets as hemostatic agent. These studies will be critical toward the pre-clinical and clinical development of this important hemostat therapeutic proposed for Phase II.

DAVID BUCZEK & ASSOC., INC.
3200 Brynwood Place
Oak Hill, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 861-5332
Mr. David A. Buczek
OSD 04-H18      Awarded: 18JAN05
Title:Armed Blood Services Program (ASBP), Donor Relationship Management System (DRMS)
Abstract:David Buczek & Associates (DB&A) is well equipped to conduct the necessary technical research to aid the Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP) in defining requirements for a Donor Relationship Management System (DRMS). The proposed Phase I research effort will accomplish the following for the ASBP: identify demonstrated Best Practices used by similar voluntary donation organizations to increase donations; document the unique policies, procedures, and restrictions that determine how the ASBP can engage blood donors; produce one or more design concepts for an ASBP DRMS, and; document an evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) relationship management products that determines the extent to which they meet the unique functional and technical requirements of the ASBP DRM environment. The DB&A team has direct experience working with the ASBP and understands the unique nature of the Program. They also have specific experience in helping organizations improve how they manage customer and partner relationships. This combination of ASBP knowledge and knowledge of the DRMS solution space equips DB&A with the expertise needed to conduct the required technical research in an exceptional manner and sets the foundation for commercializing the resulting DRMS.

AGILTRON CORP.
220 Ballardvale St., Suite D
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-1006
Dr. Jack Salerno
OSD 04-L01      Awarded: 10DEC04
Title:High Power Laser-Host Material
Abstract:The present invention is a low cost method of mass-producing large size, ultra-fine grain Nd:YAG laser ceramics. Agiltron's approach will potentially lead to a new generation of engineered polycrystalline laser materials exhibiting new performance and cost attributes that are not previously attainable. The proposed technology uses a vacuum hot press sintering process to overcome conventional limitations in the doping concentration, doping homogeneity, transparency, mechanical strength, sample geometry, and fabrication cost inherent in singlecrystal forms. Our approach further incorporates high-purity nano-scale mano-dispersed Nd:YAG powder to make ultra-fine Nd:YAG ceramics with improved thermal-mechanical and optical properties. Moreover, leveraging Agiltron's extensive experience on complex shaped ceramics fabrication, complex shaped Nd:YAG ceramics with internal cooling channels will be fabrication using extrusion technique. Through this program, we anticipate to achieve significant improvement over the current state-of-the-art in Nd:YAG ceramics based high power lasing materials. We plan to demonstrate the new material based laser with at least a 53% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency and internal cooling.

NGIMAT CO.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-3967
Dr. Radenka Maric
OSD 04-L01      Awarded: 10DEC04
Title:Polycrystalline Laser-Host Material
Abstract:Oxide nanopowders are increasingly used in manufacturing laser-quality polycrystalline materials for military and civilian applications. Despite the advances in component processing and design for improved optical transmission, new concepts and technology are needed to produce high-purity raw material nanopowder on a large scale. nGimat Co., in collaboration with Penn State University, is proposing a Phase I SBIR program to demonstrate and develop a large-scale, cost-effective manufacturing process for high-purity yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and 1%Nd doped YAG nanopowders. Optical absorption, emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime of these materials will be measured and compared to that of single crystals fabricated by the Czochralski method. By utilizing nGimat's unique aerosol generator, the Nanomiserâ device, and inexpensive equipment and chemical precursors, the proposed process offers high-purity, cost savings and flexibility in controlling Nd distribution as a luminescence element in YAG. Selected transparent polycrystalline YAG and 1% Nd doped YAG sintered tiles and/or disks with in-line transmission properties close to single crystal Nd-YAG will be provided to the Army Research Laboratory for evaluation. Successful completion of Phase I objectives will lead to a Phase II effort to complete development and commercialization of the low-cost, high-volume powder manufacturing technology.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-9809
Dr. Triplicane A. Parthasarathy
OSD 04-L01      Awarded: 10DEC04
Title:Polycrystalline Laser-Host Material
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate that fine-grained polycrystalline Nd-doped YAG can be fabricated at low cost with optical properties close to those of single crystals. Its ease of fabrication in complex geometries makes it an ideal material of choice for solid state laser host material for use in Airborne Laser (ABL) and Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) weapons systems. We will demonstrate that dense fine-grained polycrystalline Nd-doped YAG can be fabricated at low cost and that this material is fully transparent with inline transmission characteristics close to that of single crystals. Phase II will focus on scale-up and demonstration of performance as laser host material at levels of at least 53% optical-optical conversion efficiency with 500mW of continuous output centered at 1064nm wavelength.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Michael D. Nahas
OSD 04-SP1      Awarded: 23FEB05
Title:Lowest-Cost Attack Path (L-CAP)
Abstract:Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes an attack model based on attack paths. An attack path is any sequence of steps in an attack tree that will lead to a successful attack. The model then computes the safety of the program as the minimum cost attack path, "the path of least resistance". That is, the attack path where every other attack path would be more expensive. As part of previous research, ATC has already created a low-fidelity software-protection model that was based on attack paths. That model's purpose was to help guide selection of obfuscating transforms. That model was designed to be very fast to compute and does not produce especially accurate results. For this research, ATC is proposing to use that experience to build a higher fidelity (and more time consuming) model.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
OSD 04-SP1      Awarded: 02MAR05
Title:Adaptive Software Attack Modeling System (ASAMS)
Abstract:The pervasiveness of software is nowhere more evident than within DoD, the largest buyer of software systems and services in the world. The proliferation of the digital battlespace and the emergence of network-centric warfare concepts only seek to further DoD's reliance on software systems. Such a reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities (e.g., hacker groups, trans-national terrorist organizations, nation-state cyber-warfare operations, etc.). While much success has been garnered and an on-going vigilance is prevalent to prevent and ameliorate network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Here, we propose an Adaptive Software Attack Modeling System (ASAMS). Our novel approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Model construction is supported via a cognitive task analysis based knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

SECURITY INNOVATION, INC.
1318 S Babcock St
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 952-6990
Dr. Terry Gillette
OSD 04-SP1      Awarded: 22FEB05
Title:Attack Modeling Technology and Methodology
Abstract:Software protection has matured significantly in recent years. In the commercial world, robust Digital Rights Management (DRM) architectures have evolved. In the government space, concern over binary protection has resulted in powerful techniques to secure executable code. With the momentum towards the next generation secure computing base increasing, the novel binary protection being considered by the military will be incorporated in key OS code modules. Currently, the growth in these technologies has out paced our ability to implement them effectively. Absent is a methodology that will allow the developers of binary protection a means of assessing attacks on binary code. A technology that incorporates information gathered during red teaming and extended through analysis to make predictions of survivability. This document describes research into those key areas required to build a extendable framework able to support binary protection modeling and attack simulation. The primary nodes in this framework will eventually be represented by attack patterns, attack profiles, a dictionary of appropriate terminology and a set of parameters relative to the domain of binary attack. Once in place, this framework will allow the security engineer to selectively build attack trees that effectively model both binary protection and the associated attacks against it.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL, P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Robert Dick
OSD 04-SP2      Awarded: 16FEB05
Title:Next Generation Software Reverse Engineering Tools
Abstract:The products of this SBIR effort, Phase I through Phase III, will comprise a broad trajectory within the state of the art in next-generation software reverse engineering (SRE). Our Reverse Engineering Advancement Lab (REAL), will perform security auditing; serve as a obfuscator benchmark tool for testing new software protection technologies; recover source (or near source) code from binary executable files on a variety of platforms, from a variety of languages; enable understanding of both the static and dynamic properties of software systems; and be flexible and extensible enough to support defeating protection schemes not currently envisioned. Our team of SRE theorists and practitioners will create this family of tools by hybridizing the best reverse engineering techniques [not tools] of the current generation. We will then develop our next-generation tools based on the hybridized techniques, as described in the proposal. We will create new user interfaces (UIs) necessary to support the extensive user/tool interaction that is [proved] essential for successful attack on complex, real world software - see proposal for discussion of this significant issue. Our Phase I effort will exceed the SBIR requirements by providing OSD with an initial set of REAL functional tools.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Michael D. Nahas
OSD 04-SP2      Awarded: 23FEB05
Title:AfterShock
Abstract:Architecture Technology Corp. (ATC) proposes a reverse-engineering toolset named AfterShock. This toolset will use dynamic analysis and will build one work done for ATC's static reverse-engineering tool, Earthquake. AfterShock will use Valgrind, an open-source dynamic code modifying tool, to gather data from execution traces of the target program. AfterShock will then analyze and convert those traces into ObRTL, an intermediate language developed for Earthquake. Lastly, AfterShock will have a GUI that lets users analyze the execution traces and identify program features, like variables, loops, branches, and functions. ATC expects AfterShock to be better than the state-of-the-art toolset: a debugger and disassembler. AfterShock will gather data faster than in a debugger, ease analysis by using the clean ObRTL language rather than idiosyncratic assembly language, and be useful in more situations than a disassembler.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Mr. Thomas Johnson
OSD 04-SP2      Awarded: 25FEB05
Title:Trace-Based Disassembly
Abstract:We propose to develop a trace-based disassembler and integrate it with our break-through binary analysis tool, CodeSurfer/x86. A trace-based disassembler builds a trace of the instruction sequence that is executed at run time (during one or more runs of the program). The trace is analyzed to construct control-flow graphs for each of the procedures, which are then used to generate an assembly listing. This approach will make CodeSurfer/x86 applicable to binaries that employ anti-tamper techniques known as control-flow obfuscations. In particular, we will focus on the potential to unravel self-modifying code. CodeSurfer/x86 will also be used to drive a static disassembler to help "flesh out" the program listing generated by the trace-based disassembler.

HBGARY, INC.
574 E Weddell Drive, Suite 8
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 529-4370
Mr. Greg Hoglund
OSD 04-SP2      Awarded: 01MAR05
Title:Next Generation Software Reverse Engineering Tools
Abstract:New tools are needed to perform vulnerability assessments of software protection techniques currently being developed in response to the DoD Anti-Tamper (AT) / Software Protection Initiative. As evident in the commercial sector, after a new technique is developed for protecting intellectual property resident within software, a counter measure around that technique is subsequently developed and widely distributed through the Internet. This leads to a never-ending cycle of constantly improving the protection in order to stay in front of the reverse engineering community. HBGary proposes that an automated runtime disassembly engine can overcome most obfuscation techniques because it will run actual program instructions and will not have to deal with interpreting complex code. So long as the test tool can achieve near 100% code coverage, it is expected to be able to reverse engineer the whole program. Exhaustive execution of all possible control flow paths is achieved with a technique described as Automated Flow Resolution. Executed code is disassembled during runtime and ultimately recovers program instructions, control flows, and data registries.

INDIGO INNOVATIONS, INC.
215 Fowler Dr.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 305-7369
Mr. Randy Brumbaugh
OSD 04-SP2      Awarded: 08MAR05
Title:Orthomorphic Tool for Next-Generation Reverse Engineering
Abstract:Anticipation of the next generation of reverse-engineering tools and techniques is as vital to those seeking to protect against reverse-engineering as it is to those who want tools to use for reverse-engineering. We are proposing a novel reverse-engineering method that has benefits for both groups. Essentially we hypothesize that a computer program has certain static and dynamic properties that can be roughly described as a multi-dimensional "shape" of the program, and that this shape can be observed by observing the trace it gives when projected onto several axes. These traces can then be used as input to pattern matching and classification systems that yield information useful in reverse-engineering. The field of pattern matching is a wide and rich one and provides many techniques for analysis of data. We believe that human greybeards who are experts in reverse engineering are both highly skilled pattern matchers, and maintain a wide and deep knowledge of patterns to look for in computer program reverseengineering. In this way the proposed technique is a natural extension and automation of proven human expertise.

SECURITY INNOVATION, INC.
1318 S Babcock St
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 952-6990
Dr. Terry Gillette
OSD 04-SP2      Awarded: 22FEB05
Title:Next Generation Software Reverse Engineering Tools
Abstract:Software protection continues to evolve rapidly while in the government space, state sponsored reverse engineering teams conduct attacks on binary code. As a result, concern over binary protection has become a matter of national security. This has resulted in a new generation of powerful techniques to secure executable code. Currently, the growth in these defensive technologies has weakened the very tools we rely on to evaluate protection. With first generation reverse engineering tools ineffective, how does one insure that new vulnerabilities have not been introduced alongside the new protections? What do potential second generation attack tools look like? With new binary defenses deployed, our adversaries will eventually develop offensive tools to mitigate the protection. By developing these tools first, we extend the survivability of protected binary beyond what is currently thought to be adequate. This document proposes an approach to building one such second generation technology. This document describes the research required to build a robust and extendable framework able to support binary protection evaluation. The primary nodes in this framework will be represented by specific second generation attack tools and technologies. The core foundation of this proposed architecture currently exists as the Instruction Interception (I^2) prototype.

ANGEL SECURE NETWORKS, INC.
127 Washington St.
Belmont, MA 02478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 489-7304
Mr. Fred Smith
OSD 04-SP3      Awarded: 25FEB05
Title:Automating Software Protection with the Random Obfuscating Compiler Version 2 (ROC2) running on Beowulf Clusters
Abstract:We propose to develop ROC2 to protect software from reverse engineering or compromise by automatically inserting strong Protect/Detect/React functionality into binaries by obfuscating executables, providing randomly different variants of the same binary, and permitting the software only to run on the target site, all without performance penalty or knowledge of source code. ROC2 extends the Random Obfuscating Compiler (ROC1) we previously developed for OSD/AFRL, to protect IP from adversaries with root privileges, the one class of adversary who could conceivably defeat ROC1. The US is at war. Our adversaries continually strive to reverse engineer critical software to eliminate our technological edge. We think ROC2 is feasible now. Fred Smith, PI, was PI on ROC1, which we demoed successfully for AFRL in November 2003. Dr. George Markowsky, chairman of the University of Maine Computer Science Department, will contribute extensive Beowulf computing facilities and expertise in LINUX and UNIX. We will design and build a prototype ROC2 that proves feasibility when tested on Beowulf clusters, then perform security penetration attack analysis to determine ROC2's effectiveness. Testing our ROC2 prototype in the HPC environment will provide a sound basis for developing a complete prototype toolset in Phase II.

ARXAN RESEARCH, INC.
3000 Kent Avenue , Purdue Technology Center
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 775-1004
Dr. John Rice
OSD 04-SP3      Awarded: 28MAR05
Title:Automated Tools for Software Protection Technology Insertion
Abstract:Protecting national security software against unauthorized distribution and exploitation is necessary for the protection of intellectual property (IP) and secrets in our nation. Modern software attack and analysis tools have become, along with their users, more skilled at analyzing and modifying programs. Currently, technologies that protect, detect, and react (PDR) to the exploitation of binary executables are inserted in a manual or semi-automated fashion. This method of insertion, especially manual insertion, is labor intensive, time-consuming, and subject to human error. This proposal describes a method for utilizing current PDR insertion and measurement technologies which can be used to build an automated tool that quickly and securely generates binary executable protections that fit within given performance and size constraints. The approach described is unique in that it uses artificial intelligence to evolve optimal protections. Such an approach could pave the way for future software security standards.

SOFTWARE & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
160 Beach Moutain Rd
Mansfield, CT 06250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 456-2022
Mr. Victor Civie
OSD 04-SP3      Awarded: 02MAR05
Title:Automated Software Tamperproofing Techniques
Abstract:The main objective of this project is to prevent the reverse engineering or anti-tampering of military software and related technology and provide an automated method to install anti-tampering technologies. Of significant concern to the military is the capture of advanced weapons. Technologies contained in the hardware can be exposed by reverse engineering the software. Reverse engineering techniques applied by an adversary could result in the successful operation of these weapons. The proposed methods serve to thwart the most advanced military reverse engineering tools. Our proposed technologies will effectively eliminate the operations performed by off the shelf debugging and tracing reverse engineering tools. This project will provide effective, robust and reliable solutions to the reverse engineering problem.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 309-7701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
OSD 04-SP3      Awarded: 14FEB05
Title:Automated Tools for Software Protection Technology Insertion
Abstract:Protection of critical software from unauthorized distribution and exploitation is critical for many DoD applications. Software written for these applications is completed using commercial design and development toolsets. While the output of these toolsets can take many forms (source code, binary code, etc.), all these formats are subject to unauthorized distribution, tampering and/or reverse engineering. The primary problem becomes the protection of DoD's critical source and/or executable codes, including binary object code. Tools and methods are needed to implement a "Protect/Detect/React" system that protects the DoD's software. Space Micro has teamed with Accord Solutions and CyberDog Communication, to develop interrelated technologies that provide protection for source and executable codes. The technologies, called Object Level FirewallsT (OLFW), Reconfigurable Architecture for Software Protection (RASP) and Hidden Op Codes (HOP) provide very strong and easy-to-use protection. These technologies provide for "protection" of software, but do not include the "detect" and "react" portions of the problem. The innovation proposed, called "AutoSafe", is to use the Customer Authentication Security Server (CASS), which is embedded within each technology, to create an automated system of inserting the desired level of protection, while also adding the "detect" and "react" functions into a fully automated software protection system.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Matthias H. Wollnik
OSD 04-SP4      Awarded: 22FEB05
Title:Polymorphic Virtual Machines
Abstract:We describe an approach to protect programs from differential analysis that is free of some of the drawbacks of traditional techniques. The approach does not rely on program analysis to determine applicability, so it can be uniformly applied to any program. Polymorphic variation in binary software arises from the details of the transformation itself, an not any inherent property of the protected program; resulting in a wider class of induced differences. The effects of this approach cannot be trivially undone by normalization of programs or execution traces. We propose explicit and detailed experiments to address both effectiveness and performance. Strategies to reduce the performance overhead of the approach are described and investigated.

INDIGO INNOVATIONS, INC.
215 Fowler Dr.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 305-7369
Mr. Randy Brumbaugh
OSD 04-SP4      Awarded: 22FEB05
Title:Polymorphism and Metamorphism Through Code Weaving
Abstract:Improved software protection has been identified as an important need by government and industry. Typically much of the value in software is in the underlying algorithms and techniques which may be compromised by reverse-engineering. In many cases, these algorithms represent trade secrets, classified information, or are sensitive and must be protected. Software protection benefits by borrowing ideas and concepts from many areas of expertise. Polymorphism and metamorphism are techniques often associated with computer virus writers; these techniques allow code with identical functionality to take on many "shapes." In viruses, this makes virus code difficult to detect and remove; in software protection, these same properties make reverse-engineering by differential binary comparison difficult. This innovation is a novel technique for polymorphic code generation. With extensions and enhancements described, this becomes a metamorphic technique. Both provide many possibilities for protecting software, although the more advanced metamorphic technique is arguably both more interesting and more powerful. This technique provides formidable protection against reverse-engineering by differential attacks since identical source code can produce vastly different binaries. But the technique has other benefits in protecting against reverse-engineering and unauthorized execution and distribution of software.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 320-8888
Dr. John J. Anton
OSD 04-SP4      Awarded: 02MAR05
Title:Specification & Refinement for Application Diversity
Abstract:The broad research objectives of this project are to: ˙ develop a prototype system called MUTATOR (Mutant Generator), based on specification and automated refinement, for the cost effective and assured generation of possibly hundreds of diverse implementations of a software component; ˙ develop a prototype system called WHAM based on runtime adapativity that dynamically adapts a program based upon input-dependent state changes ˙ examine how to curtail the impact of an attack that is based on knowledge of the code layout or performance characteristics of any one implementation; ˙ assess the effectiveness of promising approaches on one or more MUTATOR- and WHAM-based applications.

LAWRENCE TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
5485 Belt Line Rd, Suite 200
Dallas, TX 75254
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 852-0443
Dr. P. Nick Lawrence
OSD 04-SP4      Awarded: 22FEB05
Title:Polymorphic Software
Abstract:Our new computational paradigm, Correlithm Object Technology, provides a fresh approach to the development of polymorphic and/or metamorphic software tools. We will use this paradigm to develop tools to transform software applications and input data into high-dimensional bounded spaces where actual program execution will occur, then transform output data back into standard formats. While in the high-dimensional spaces, programs and data will resemble nothing so much as random noise. In Phase I, we will design and build a prototype tool to prove the feasibility of our concept, then perform security penetration attack analysis on software protected by the prototype tool, and fully report the results. In Phase II we will software engineer a finished toolset for polymorphic and metamorphic software protection and test it against security penetration attacks to determine the nature and degree of the protection provided.

PIKEWERKS CORP.
9 Forrest Street
Alexandria, VA 22305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 969-6404
Ms. Sandra Ring
OSD 04-SP4      Awarded: 23FEB05
Title:Software Protection by Polymorphic and Metamorphic Transformations
Abstract:Integrity and security of application programs critical to National Security are vulnerable to differential analysis, reverse engineering, and exploitation of static buffer overflows. Without incorporating software protection initiatives, these vulnerabilities can be leveraged by an attacker to distribute a program without proper authority, tamper with its intended functionality, expose techniques behind proprietary algorithms, and launch viruses/worms against identical applications on distributed hosts. We propose to demonstrate the importance of diversity in application binaries and the feasibility of utilizing polymorphic (static) and metamorphic (dynamic) transformations as protection mechanisms. As our past research has demonstrated, these are highly efficient methods that can be incorporated into both Government and commercial applications with tremendous success.

2LRESEARCH
190 Green Valley Road
Owens Crossroads, AL 35763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 656-9652
Mr. Luis R. Lopez
OSD 04-SP5      Awarded: 23FEB05
Title:Malicious Logic Behavior Monitoring and Control System
Abstract:This SBIR effort proposes to develop tools that enable a capability in tamper proof source code. The proposed methods will protect against several modes of attack including malicious programmers, source code viruses, and system worms. The tools and techniques proposed are based on the fundamental logical structure of the application under protection and offer dynamic monitor and control of runtime behavior. This effort develops unique logic-based signatures of source code using syntax-independent control logic flow patterns. Control flow patterns yield specific detectable signatures that can be extracted from source code as well as binary code. Because they are based on functional control flow, the signatures are also related to functional behavior, thus, any modifications to the code that alter behavior also alter its logic signature - a source code will have the same signature as its binary despite the compiler used. These concepts apply across computer languages, operating systems and development tools to independently detect and enforce the logic and behavior integrity of code from source thru binary. The result of successful SBIR development will significantly reduce critical vulnerabilities associated with the development and reuse of mission critical source code assets within defense systems.

AVENDA SYSTEMS
14125 Berry Hill Lane
Los Altos Hills, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 520-8543
Mr. Kumar Sundararajan
OSD 04-SP5      Awarded: 02MAR05
Title:MABAS - Malicious Application Behavior Analysis System
Abstract:The market for products that monitor and detect malicious code will gain considerable traction as more organizations try to protect their computer systems from ever increasing attacks. Avenda Systems proposes a behavior based malicious logic monitoring and detection system called the Malicious Application Behavior Analysis System (MABAS) that is application and platform independent with a low performance impact. The system consists of tools and techniques that insert software behavior monitoring and control mechanisms into an application to detect inappropriate behavior. This is currently a feature gap in solutions that target malicious code. Avenda Systems has the expertise to develop a practical and highly effective behavior based logic monitoring and detection system. Organizations, both military and civilian enterprises, can use this system to defend their computer systems against attacks. The technologies employed in this product are practical and innovative and have not been implemented in commercially available comparable products. Prototype development in Phase I will provide the knowledge and foundation for building a complete product in Phase II, and a commercially viable product in Phase III.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. David Melski
OSD 04-SP5      Awarded: 24FEB05
Title:Run-Time Process Monitoring
Abstract:Malicious logic may be intentionally inserted into software as is the case with insider attack, or innocent mistakes may open vulnerabilities to worms and the like. We propose a double edged approach to inserting monitoring logic for machine code on all operating systems in order to ensure that: (1) Interactions with the operating system are consistent with the original code, and (2) the interactions with the operating system obey arbitrary security policies that may be specified at will by the user. Approach (1) restricts the program to its intended behavior; this prevents attacks from worms and viruses and offers protection against unanticipated attacks that cause the program to behave in an abhorrent fashion. Approach (2) prevents insider attack by explicitly disallowing malicious behavior that the attacker has managed to insert into the "intended" program behavior.

UNICON, INC.
31441 Santa Margarita Pkwy, Suite A-275
Rancho Santa Margari, CA 92688
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 589-3488
Mr. Paul Cadaret
OSD 04-SP5      Awarded: 03MAR05
Title:An Interface Monitoring Approach to Malicious Logic Detection
Abstract:Software is now a critical part of our national security infrastructure. Critical DOD software systems that are compromised can put lives in jeopardy. With the threat of the insertion of unauthorized or malicious logic into critical software systems the ability to detect and expose such code is a significant concern. Any software that performs any function whether malicious or not is only useful when it interacts with the `outside-world'. A compromised program's best chance at exhibiting malicious behavior is through such outside-world interactions as well. Since most software where malicious behavior is a significant concern runs on structured environments such as commercial or publicly available operating systems (OS), this proposal presents methods to monitor software that interacts with the outside world via OS system calls and library interfaces. Methods and tools are described that allow the activity of programs to be monitored, statistics gathered, patterns of use gathered, usage patterns monitored, abnormal behavior detected, and reactive security measures initiated. Tools are also identified to assist in this process.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Mr. Daryl McCullough
OSD 04-SP6      Awarded: 25FEB05
Title:AESOP - Automatic Extraction and verification of Security features Of Programs
Abstract:To address the threat of malicious third party software modules, ATC-NY, Professor Dexter Kozen, Cornell University, and Architecture Technology Corporation, will create AESOP, a static analysis tool that automatically extracts a digest of the security-relevant behavior of a software module at compile-time, which can be verified at load-time for accuracy and for compliance with a security policy. This digest will act as a code pedigree guaranteeing the trustworthiness of the program. Examples of policies that will be supported include the specification of proper I/O behavior and restrictions on the access to system operations and resources.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
OSD 04-SP6      Awarded: 24FEB05
Title:Sanitizing Software of Malicious and Unauthorized Code
Abstract:Development of modern software applications involves the use (or reuse) of a large number of software components from many different developers - some of whom may be unknown, untrustworthy, or even hostile parties. A comprehensive approach is needed for identifying malicious and unauthorized code in large software systems. We propose to do a comprehensive review of techniques for detecting malicious and unauthorized code, and to develop prototypes of the most promising approaches. Our review will focus on static analysis techniques that may prove the absence of some malicious code. Our initial efforts will focus on software model checking, clone detection, and buffer overrun analysis.

SOFTWARE & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
160 Beach Moutain Rd
Mansfield, CT 06250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 456-2022
Mr. Victor Civie
OSD 04-SP6      Awarded: 28FEB05
Title:Malicious and Damaging Binary Code Elimination
Abstract:This project represents a major advance in the elimination of malicious and otherwise destructive code. The proposed method has the potential to be the most effective tool available to detect and eliminate all harmful code and unauthorized software activities originating from a software program. Software is an integral part of most weapons and other military systems. There is a continuously growing need to integrate software from outside sources. Currently, there is no guarantee that such outside software does not contain malicious code. This proposed system performs a automated damage potential examination at the lowest levels of program execution. Complex and ineffective signature recognition is made obsolete as the proposed process certifies that a program is void of malicious or otherwise harmful code.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. David Rosenthal
OSD 04-SP7      Awarded: 22FEB05
Title:Software Pedigree Analyzer
Abstract:Software protection methods are needed in order to prevent the unauthorized distribution and exploitation of critical national security software. This proposal addresses software protection during the software development process, and in particular, the collection, analysis, and response mechanisms associated with auditing how software is built. Such information for a code module is called its software pedigree. Pedigree information includes system information, software protection tool use, development history, and user authentication information. ATC-NY proposes to build SPAN, a pedigree analyzer that will build and support the analysis of software pedigrees. Such a tool can help to identify inappropriate actions such as failing to apply the appropriate level of software protection to some component. It will also act as a deterrent to malicious users by facilitating the identification of a user responsible for an inappropriate action.

AVENDA SYSTEMS
14125 Berry Hill Lane
Los Altos Hills, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 922-0105
Mr. Ganesan Venkataraman
OSD 04-SP7      Awarded: 02MAR05
Title:SPAR - Software Pedigree Analyzer and Reporter
Abstract:Organizations and companies are now recognizing the importance of security in the life cycle of software development and code maintenance. Several recent studies have shown that the risk of not integrating security into the software life cycle can have highly negative impacts. There are some disparate tools and products currently available to monitor and mitigate the risks, but a comprehensive solution is needed for covering the entire pedigree of the software development and release. Avenda Systems proposes a Software Pedigree Analyzer and Reporter (SPAR) solution to monitor, track, analyze and report pertinent data during various phases of software life cycle including code development, product build, release and patch distribution. The solution works with a distributed set of file servers and source code management and version control systems. It supports multiple hardware and software platforms. Avenda Systems will demonstrate the knowledge and foundation to develop a prototype of tools and methods in Phase-I, deliver a complete solution in Phase-II, and a commercially viable product in Phase-III.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
OSD 04-SP7      Awarded: 14FEB05
Title:SoftTraceT: A Toolkit for Documenting, Analyzing, and Maintaining Software Pedigree
Abstract:As part of its overall charter, the Software Protection Initiative (SPI) Technology Office is interested in maintaining the pedigree of code during the development phase of the software lifecycle to ensure code integrity. Phase I of this effort is concerned with researching the strengths and weaknesses of various techniques for maintaining code pedigree, and evaluation advantages, disadvantages and risks associated with: new development, application level tools, and kernel level tools. Phase I will conclude with the development of a prototype that embodies the most promising technique based on the preceding research.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Dr. Leigh A. Davis
OSD 04-SP7      Awarded: 03MAR05
Title:Secure Environment for Distributed Development (SEDD) using the Software Pedigree Analyzer (SPA)
Abstract:During large software development projects, assuring tamper-proof source code is often difficult or impossible. Currently, many projects are vulnerable to attacks-both insider and external. The Software Protection Initiative (SPI) is charged with the task of ensuring all modifications to a project's source code can be accounted for using a Software Pedigree Analyzer (SPA). The SPA provides a method for tracking modifications and ensuring user authenticity via a mechanism for non-repudiation. When malicious code is detected, the SPA would allow a project manager to determine exactly which developer made the modification, what specific changes were made, and when the changes occurred. This requires certain data be collected-primarily the who, what, when, where, and how of the source code modifications. Additional capabilities include documenting each change, the ability to revert previous code versions, monitoring personnel activities during source code access, and notifying the proper authorities during abnormal activities. Sentar and SYColeman have teamed to propose a Secure Environment for Distributed Development (SEDD) architecture in order to protect the code pedigree of a software project. SEDD will act as a distributed development environment which programmers access to modify the source code while retaining control over the source code at all times.

UNICON, INC.
31441 Santa Margarita Pkwy, Suite A-275
Rancho Santa Margari, CA 92688
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 589-3488
Mr. Paul Cadaret
OSD 04-SP7      Awarded: 03MAR05
Title:A Certified Tool-Chain Approach To Software Security (pedigree)
Abstract:Software is now a critical part of our national security infrastructure. Compromises in critical software systems can put lives in jeopardy. With the inclusion of foreign software into critical software systems the ability to detect, locate, and expose malicious or unauthorized source code is a significant concern. This proposal presents the use of a multi-level certifying tool-chain as an approach that greatly improves the ability to authenticate code pedigree and reliably identify code integrity, thereby providing an enabling technology to detect tampering and ultimately provide software protection and security. Such a scheme provides a means to protect software in source, relocatable-binary, library, shared-object, and executable binary forms and therein we can provide a reasonable level of end-user software security. A top-to-bottom discussion is presented that describes a typical distributed software development process with such modifications. The discussion also takes into account problems related to trust `flow-down' that may be encountered with authenticating and certifying software modules developed overseas. Since a comprehensive authentication scheme that is difficult to use will likely not be used, the proposed approach also focuses on techniques that can be made relatively easy to use at each level. We also describe how code pedigree is tracked.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1245 Lyons Road, Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Dr. John Bellando
OSD 04-TC1      Awarded: 15JAN05
Title:Technology for Trusted Circuits
Abstract:Future weapons and defense systems used by the DoD are critical elements to the armed forces and national security. Therefore, it is conceivable that during the design and manufacturing process IC's are susceptible to the covert addition of intentional malicious attack functionality that compromises the integrity of the hardware. This embedded functionality could serve purposes similar to software viruses, operating system backdoors, or Trojan horse mechanisms for system access. DoD customers must be able to verify the intended functionality while ensuring the trusted nature of the delivered IC's. Currently, this is difficult or impossible to do in a non-destructive manner, which demands the need for new improved methods of establishing trust in the design and verification stages of development. Our proposed Obtaining Circuit Trust Through Active NonDestructive Evaluation (OCT2ANE) solution provides innovations in three key areas: System Design and Capture, Automated Manufacturing Integration and Non-destructive Verification. Our solution is consistent with EDAptiver Systems Engineering methodology and tool suite which provides a framework for the proposed solution. This methodology is based upon the premise that system requirements can be captured unambiguously in a computer-sensible manner, thereby enabling computer interpretation and analysis of these requirements.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Barry Polakowski
OSD 04-TC1      Awarded: 13JAN05
Title:Technology for Trusted Circuits
Abstract:Integrated circuits (ICs), application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and systems-on-chip (SoCs) are used in a wide spectrum of vital DOD equipment. The vast majority of these chips are manufactured overseas at untrusted locations. While a chip design can be verified by US personnel, a window of opportunity exists for opposing forces during the fabrication stage. An attacker can potentially insert additional circuitry which could add to, disable, or modify the function of a device. Due to the cost effectiveness of COTS devices, one cannot solve this problem by manufacturing these chips in a trusted foundry. Luna Innovations developed a method to authenticate the integrity of fabricated circuits and plans to verify the process during this SBIR program. A feasibility study, vulnerability report, and various qualification metrics will also be addressed.

TALON LOGIC CORP.
PO Box 5604
Charlotte, NC 28299
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 388-6696
Mr. F. Yee
OSD 04-TC1      Awarded: 10JAN05
Title:Technology for Trusted Circuits
Abstract:There is a serious concern about the availability of classified and trusted advanced custom integrated circuits (ICs) for critical defense systems. (Particularly for advanced application-specific integrated circuits.) The migration offshore of semiconductor manufacturing and the continued worldwide consolidation of the industry due to the increased capital costs is driving these trends. Many of the commercial sources are foreign owned and/or perform manufacturing or critical functions located in foreign countries. It is conceivable that additional circuitry or embedded functions might be surreptitiously added to the circuit, somewhat analogous to a software virus, backdoor, or Trojan horse. In general, IC users have no way to ensure and verify the trustworthiness of these IC's, that they absolutely conform to system requirements and advertised design specifications. In particular, under current practices it is difficult or impossible to non-destructively examine packaged IC's to establish complete trust that each specific IC faithfully implements only the intended designs specifications, behaves predictably, and executes only intended functions. An innovative methodology is proposed for ensuring the trustworthiness of a packaged Integrated Circuit. Our approach is a cost-effective design, and test, technique that provides non-destructive results and offer the widest coverage of trust issues to enable users to trust the ICs they employ. Our proposal improves the ability of the semiconductor industry to provide trusted sources of critical parts. Our proposal offers a standard by which to quantify the measure of trustworthiness of a circuit. (1)