---------- MDA ----------

241 Phase I Selections from the 04.4 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
GATR TECHNOLOGIES
130 Lakeshore Drive
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 461-8684
Mr. Paul A. Gierow
MDA 04-088      Selected for Award
Title:Deployable Satcom Terminal for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Establishing a high data rate telecommunications system in remote locations in Alaska is a significant challenge involving a host of architecture options and technical challenges. High data rates from the remote site require either high transmit power or very high antenna gain with very precise stability and pointing. It is a difficult task to install and deploy communication components in areas where weather conditions are harsh and transportation distances are great. It is even more challenging to develop satellite terminals that must perform reliably over long periods of time with minimal scheduled maintenance. A unique design is proposed that will allow for high bandwidth communications at IFICS sites for secure data transmission as well as non-secure data transmission for "quality-of-life" communications and data flow. These systems may also serve as rapidly deployed and reliable backup networks in emergency situations. The design integrates an inflation-deployed radome integrated with an inflation rigidized highly accurate antenna. The RF feed mechanism is mounted to the radome and no additional structure is required. This design allows for packaging efficiencies and mass an order of magnitude better than conventional technologies at one tenth the cost.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street, Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Dr. Thomas Brotherton
MDA 04-088      Selected for Award
Title:IFICS Data Processing for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Remote communication systems, such as the In-Flight Interceptor Communications System (IFICS) data terminal, provide essential links for missile defense. IFICS provides the critical communications link between ground fire control and the ballistic missile interceptors while in flight. These terminals will be unmanned and potentially located in regions subject to extreme weather conditions. The ability to predict potential future component faults and respond in advance can significantly enhance the terminal's reliability and availability. IAC proposes to develop a system to perform on-line monitoring for predictive detection and isolation of potential faults for the IFICS data terminal. The system will be based on both software and hardware systems that IAC has developed for data collection and monitoring of gas turbine engine test cells, gas turbine power generating systems, and other remote monitoring applications. A web enabled data collection and analysis system for remote communications of the terminal's status is included in the system. IAC will be supported in it's development by the Harris Corporation, the developer of the IFICS data terminal. Harris will supply technical support and real IFICS data.

SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
PO Box 6571
Huntsville, AL 35824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 880-2184
Dr. William H. Licata
MDA 04-088      Selected for Award
Title:IFICS Data Processing for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:The project Work Plan will incorporate software and sensor technology developments in the general technology areas of Sensors, Decision Science and Computer Science in a Predictive Maintenance architecture. Since a significant amount of this work is commercial, the project will seek out the best the commercial world has to offer within the limitations of integrating it into the military environment. A balance work plan will be pursued that balances algorithms assessment, simulation, sensor assessment, architectural design and systems integration. The work plan restricts the technical effort to algorithms that are sufficiently mature so that a software model can be obtained and integrated into a system simulation. The algorithm trades and design tasks will be complimented by the other system engineering tasks required to translate technology and product capability into military capability.

GOMEZ RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4801 University Square, Suite 33
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-0154
Mr. Anthony Kikel
MDA 04-089      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Approaches to Increased Power and Efficiency in Components for X-Band Radar for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Two and Three Dimensional (2D/3D) Miniaturized Dielectric X-band Fractal Noise Filter Research The proposed research will investigate miniaturization of the Fractal Noise Filter (FNF), a low cost, passive Signal to Noise (SNR) enhancement device This device could be integrated into radar transmit-receive (T/R) modules if appropriately designed and sized. Miniaturized FNF devices will be designed and evaluated. SNR enhancements, insertion losses, and critical performance parameters will be investigated for these miniaturized devices, since new materials and structures will be used. Higher loss and unique circuit fabrication processes using high dielectrics will be researched. T/R Module component sized geometries will be pursued for the potential insertion into GMD radar T/R modules. FNF performance parameters for these miniaturized devices will be compiled into a data base including: insertion losses, VSWRs, and phase-amplitude ripple characterizations, etc. These parameters will be recorded in an FNF data base and reflected in the feasibility of the insertion of FNFs into GMD radar T/R Modules

GOMEZ RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4801 University Square, Suite 33
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-0154
Mr. Anthony Kikel
MDA 04-089      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Approaches to Increased Power and Efficiency in Components for X-Band Radar for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Demonstrate Enhanced Signal-to-Noise Ratio Fractal Noise Filters Using Existing MDA X-Band Radar LFM Waveforms The proposed research will investigate the application of the low cost, Fractal Noise Filter (FNF) to GMD radar waveforms and quantify the corresponding Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) enhancements achieved. The FNF's SNR enhancements, insertion losses, and critical performance parameters will be investigated and compiled into a data base. This data base will serve as the potential design guidance for the insertion of theFNF into GMD radars. This research is will be the basis for the development of a new category of inexpensive, easily integrated, compact signal to noise enhancement technologies. The FNF devices are completely passive and self-contained. They require neither external power source nor additional digital signal processing at the output to achieve enhanced SNR. In addition, the characterization of the FNF devices will include measurements of: insertion loss, VSWR, and phase-amplitude ripple. These characterization parameters will also be recorded in the data base and be reflected in the feasibility of the insertion of a Fractal Noise Filter into GMD radar systems.

GOMEZ RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4801 University Square, Suite 33
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-0154
Mr. Anthone Kikel
MDA 04-089      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Approaches to Increased Power and Efficiency in Components for X-Band Radar for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Optimization of the Fractal Noise Filter Geometry for Existing X-band Radar Signals Using Frequency Scaling The proposed research will investigate the proper approach to adjust the center frequency of a Fractal Noise Filter (FNF). Currently, the FNF has been demonstrated experimentally to be a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) enhancement device at S-Band. Electromagnetic frequency scaling will be investigated to adjust the operational frequency band of the fractal noise filter from S-Band to X-band. SNR enhancements, insertion losses, and critical performance parameters will be investigated for the scaled X-band device. The gathered research data will be used for potential insertion of the FNF into X-Band GMD radars. This research is expected to be the basis for a new category of inexpensive, self-contained, compact, X-Band SNR enhancement technology Fractal Noise Filter test structures derived from direct scaling and fractal seed size scaling will be demonstrated. Two types of scaling will be researched and the best approach will be chosen for the scaled X-Band FNF

MMICMAN, LLC
826 N. Red Robin St.
Orange, CA 92869
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 926-4514
Mr. Edward W. Ray
MDA 04-089      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Approaches to Increased Power and Efficiency in Components for X-Band Radar for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:The state of Transmit/Receive (T/R) Module technology for airborne radars is falling short of meeting current and future requirements. Current Prime Contractors have little incentive to reduce cost or improve performance. Twenty year old technology kludged together to provide low output power with such low efficiency that the equipment used to cool the modules is comparable in size and cost to the radar itself. Most of the cost is wrapped up in the thermal management due to the inferior design of both the High Power Amplifier (HPA) as well as the surrounding packaging. MMICMAN proposes to improve power amplifier performance at the die level to achieve 30W at X-band with >45% Power Added Efficiency. This performance will be obtained utilizing MMICMAN proprietary efficiency enhancement techniques enabled by High Voltage Gallium Arsenide (HVGaAs) technology. The HVGaAs process is an Office of Naval Research funded technology available exclusively to MMICMAN via business arrangement with Triquint Semiconductor. For the purposes of Phase I of this proposal, the NON-CLASSIFIED HV2 process will be used. The HV3GaAs technology is Classified SECRET, and MMICMAN personnel have security clearances in place and a secure facility to utilize HV3GaAs technology in Phase II. Efficiency Improvements combined with the MMICMAN BGA-HPATM technology will enable MMICMAN to realize this amplifier module for insertion into current and next-generation phased array radar systems.

ADVANCED CERAMICS MANUFACTURING
7800A South Nogales Highway
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 547-0850
Ms. Marlene Platero
MDA 04-090      Selected for Award
Title:Improve Stability within EKV Seeker Assembly by Utilizing Ceramic-Nanotube Composites
Abstract:Raytheon Missile Systems (Tucson, AZ) has presented Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing, LLC (ACM) with a materials challenge; replace a current isolator material with a more creep resistant, thermally isolating and stiff material for use within the EKV seeker assembly. ULTEM currently being used to fabricate the component is not dimensionally stable and creeps even at room temperature. This program proposes a new design that meets material and manufacturing requirements such that when proven viable, it can be immediately implemented into the EKV seeker. The material and process must transition to scale-up production environment including post machining, finishing and assembly. ACM proposes to address this problem by fabricating the isolator component from a ceramic-nanotube composite. Nanotubes have been added to partially stabilized zirconia where thermal conductivities less than 0.1 W/m-K could be achieved with <1 wt% addition. The non-aqueous gel-casting method will be used to fabricate a near net shape prototype for Raytheon to evaluate from this composite material. Preliminary studies characterizing the thermal and mechanical properties of the material will be conducted. A first generation isolator prototype will be fabricated for Raytheon's evaluation.

GH SYSTEMS, INC.
655 Discovery Drive, Suite 302
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-0050
Mr. Billy R. Aldrich
MDA 04-090      Selected for Award
Title:Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle Sunshade O-Ring Seal Technology Program
Abstract:The ejection of the EKV sunshade cover is a potential single point failure node requiring a high level of confidence in its performance. A detailed understanding of the o-ring design and the possible interactions between the o-ring and sunshade surface is required. Assessing the current EKV sunshade o-ring design and implementation, and evaluating possible alternatives could result in the discovery of an alternative that provides an improvement in the performance and robustness of the o-ring seal and its interactions with the sunshade body/cover interface such that o-ring "sticking" is not an issue or is minimized when the sunshade cover is ejected. The evaluation of potential enhancements to the EKV sunshade o-ring design will primarily focus on minimizing "sticking" and meeting the long-term storage requirements while taking into account contamination and out-gassing effects. Performance of an o-ring is based on its material, geometry, contact surface, and lubrication. By choosing the right material and reducing the contact area the possibility of "sticking" can be reduced or eliminated.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, LLC
9340 Hazard Way, Suite A3
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Mr. Robert Kolozs
MDA 04-090      Selected for Award
Title:Integral Radiation Hardened Carbon-Carbon Telescope Housing
Abstract:Future Exoatmospheric Interceptor Kill Vehicle (EKV) system upgrades will require nuclear radiation hardening of electro-optics subsystems. The current approach for hardening includes adding separate radiation shields or shielding of individual electronic components. High atomic number materials, such as gold, tantalum, tungsten or steel, are candidates for structural radiation shielding. These materials all provide effective shielding but at a significant weight penalty. SDC is currently developing a new seeker assembly under a Phase II SBIR which is designed to replace the existing beryllium design. SDC is using a carbon-carbon mirror and structure design, which is leading edge technology and due to its excellent structural, thermal, and optical properties has the potential to become the replacement baseline for seeker structures currently designed with beryllium. SDC has identified a lightweight, low cost, producible structural radiation shielding approach to address this EKV nuclear radiation hardening issue. By integrating high Z materials directly into the layup of the C-C it will be possible to take advantage of the low Z / high Z barrier that is formed by combining the two materials. This is beneficial in a radiation environment because a gradual decrease from the high Z material lessens the effects emitted particles from impact with the shielding material. This approach will allow for using lightweight structural composite materials for managing the mechanical loads. This program has shown that by using these materials, lighter weight mirror and telescope components can be used to replace the beryllium baselines.

AVTEC SYSTEMS, INC.
14432 Albemarle Point Place
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 488-2310
Mr. Ray Ritmiller
MDA 04-091      Selected for Award
Title:HWIL Fading Channel Simulator for Testing Kill Vehicle & IFICS Modems for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Avtec System's proposes creating a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) Fading Channel Simulator built on the foundation of our Integrated Communications Module (ICM) Test System and Wideband Analog Signal Processing (WASP) Board. In order to provide the simulation capabilities desired by the Missile Defense Agency for the In Flight Interceptor Communication System (IFICS) Modem testing we will need to dramatically improve the ICM's Control Software capability by adding Dynamic Fading modeling, Atmospheric effects modeling, Antenna Pattern modeling, a Platform Propagator, and an enhanced Graphical User Interface. For Phase I, Avtec will evaluate the proposed architecture's ability to implement the advanced fading models, such as the Defense Threat Reduction Agency fading model. Avtec will develop a simulation to hardware implementation design process, and use it to create a representative fading model on the current WASP board. Knowledge gained from this task will be used to validate the architecture's ability to meet the performance requirements of the HWIL Fading Channel Simulator and to determine the hardware and software requirements for the prototype HWIL Fading Channel Simulator. Upgrades to Avtec's WASP board, if determined to be necessary, will be defined to ensure that all test system requirements are met.

EFFICIENT CHANNEL CODING
600 Safeguard Plaza, Suite 100
Brookyln Hts, OH 44131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 635-1610
Dr. Mark Dale
MDA 04-091      Selected for Award
Title:HWIL Fading Channel Simulator for Testing Kill Vehicle & IFICS Modems for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Missile defense presents a potentially challenging environment that requires use of advanced communications techniques to achieve reliable communications. The communications model applicable for missile defense has been specified by DTRA. The capability to accurately emulate the DTRA channel model is critical to evaluating potential future upgrades to the In Flight Interceptor Communication System (IFICS). In response to the MDA04-91 solicitation, ECC proposes to produce a software implementation of a Fading Channel Simulator (FCS) simulating the DTRA model channel. The software implementation will be fully verified, and a preliminary design for a hardware implementation for the FCS will be produced. The proposed FCS includes many advanced capabilities including the ability to support channel modeling for up to four-fold diversity systems.

WELKIN SCIENCES, LLC
102 S. Tejon Suite 200
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 520-5115
Mr. Blair Sawyer
MDA 04-091      Selected for Award
Title:HWIL Fading Channel Simulator for Testing Kill Vehicle & IFICS Modems for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Welkin Sciences (WS) proposes to develop the Configurable Link Test Set (CoLTS), an affordable hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) channel simulator design specifically for MDA test programs. Like the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's test sets, CoLTS can distort real RF signals using the same disturbed propagation channel models found in COMLNK (a widely used software package for evaluating and testing modem designs hardened for HANE-disturbed channels). IFICS, being a missile communication link, must accommodate the rapid path length variability arising from the high acceleration of the missile-borne transceivers. CoLTS can also offset RF signals in delay and frequency to accurately emulate the IFICS-specific platform dynamics. New test functions can readily be integrated into the CoLTS system architecture to support custom test requirements. The CoLTS design supports a wide range of signal bandwidths and channel conditions by allowing the user to choose from the following six baseband sample rates: 60 Msps, 30 Msps, 15 Msps, 7.5 Msps, 3.75 Msps and 1.875 Msps. The 48-tap convolver in each CoLTS channel respectively supports frequency-selective bandwidths down to 935.7 KHz, 467.8 KHz, 233.9 KHz, 117.0 KHz, 58.5 KHz and 29.2 KHz.

2LRESEARCH
190 Green Valley Road
Owens Crossroads, AL 35763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 656-9652
Mr. Luis R. Lopez
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Anti-Malcious Source Scanner
Abstract:2LR proposes to develop a malicious source code scanner that can flag sections of potentially `bad' source code that is vulnerable to exploitation or may contain latent malicious content. This effort will evaluate and compare current methods for detecting malicious code with a novel method based on code-logic signature analysis and discrimination. It will develop pattern classes that are associated with patterns of logic instructions present within actual malcode specimens. We expect malcode control flow logic patterns to cluster in `pattern space' (i.e. revealing code logic pedigrees). This is because specific algorithmic logic must be used to effect specific behaviors. Specific exploits are achieved by specific behaviors. The logic that codes malicious (exploitive) behavior becomes the signature. If a group of malware specimens all use the same exploitive behavior, their signatures will all have similar traits. In some sense, this is akin to DNA patterns and how they also cluster for different pedigrees.

ASIER TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5068 West Plano Parkway, Suite 336
Plano, TX 75093
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 738-8579
Mr. Kevin Henson
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Network Operations (CNO) for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Advanced Intelligent agents provide a tremendous benefit to the collection and analysis of information on computer networks. Unfortunaltely, intelligent agents are also susceptible to re-programming in such a manner as to cause them to mis-report, or not report at all. It is possible to intercept the message of an intelligent agent, and "spoof" or re-program the response so that operations appear normal. The best intentions and value of intelligent agents can be undone using these tactics. Asier Technology, along with Sentar, Inc. propose to develop an advanced, secure system for deploying intelligent agents across a network, and to assure that the agents cannot be intercepted or re-programmed without full knowledge and support of the network administration. Both companies intend to use existing technologies, developed by their respective companies, to create this method of secure agent deployment.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #3-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8920
Mr. John Leon
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Network Operations (CNO) for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:The United States has the greatest vulnerability to a cyber attack than any other nation in the world. Detecting cyber threats at wired-speed is required to stop the execution of such cyber attacks and prevent spreading of the attack onto internal networks once the network security has been breached. Currently, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) make use of Content Addressable Memories (CAM) to perform accelerated data searches within a storage array for pattern recognition. These CAMs lack the needed word-width and memory storage depth to perform high-speed data throughput beyond a Gigabit per second bandwidth. CAMs implement, a massive amount of parallelism to meet the bandwidth need, but parallelism adds large amounts of latency to the detection processing, thus not allowing for wired-speed processing to occur. Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) proposes a novel, innovative, hardware solution, which greatly reduces the latency in large-scale pattern matching systems where computation-intensive searches of Gigabit per second bandwidth traffic are used by Intrusion Detection Systems. This new capability allows for offensive measures to be executed to detect the source of such attacks and perform forensic analysis without compromising the networks bandwidth or functionality. This device can easily be integrated wherever CAMs are used or needed.

ISAC, INC.
1050 Clayborne Liles Drive, Slip 1
Huntsville, AL 35630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 348-1724
Mr. Andy Smith
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:CFD-Based Anomaly DETection Device (CADET) for Computer Network Operations
Abstract:In this SBIR, ISAC proposes to develop an innovative, high-accuracy anomaly detection system for missile defense network systems. Currently, ISAC is developing a novel, CFD-based simulation software package named CFD-DoS that provides Denial-of-Service prediction and traceback for the MDA. Spray tracking capabilities utilized in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are used to track and simulate information packets on a time scale that is faster than real time. What is needed, and proposed in this SBIR, is a new detection system that uses observed characteristics and metrics of the CFD-DoS simulation to create patterns of normal weapon system network traffic. The learned pattern of network behavior will then be used to detect network anomalies and alert security managers when attacks may be occurring. The proposed detection system (named CADET for CFD-Based Anomaly Detection Device) will be fully integrated into the CFD-DoS software. CADET is anticipated to outperform current payload anomaly detection systems (based on speed and low false-positive rate). At the conclusion of Phase I, ISAC will show feasibility by testing a CADET prototype against known network attacks, and demonstrating performance increase over current Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) and open-source anomaly detection systems. In Phase II, ISAC will further develop the CADET software, and demonstrate increased attack detection of both known and unknown network attacks on a live C3 network.

ISAC, INC.
1050 Clayborne Liles Drive, Slip 1
Florence, AL 35630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-3453
Mr. Andy Smith
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Virtual Dynamic Honeynet Software for Insider/Outsider Defense (VDHS)
Abstract:Honeynets (and their predecessor - honeypots) have been demonstrated to increase network defense posture by providing deceptive targets for outside attackers and malicious insiders. ISAC, Inc. proposes the development of a virtual, dynamic honeynet software package specifically developed for sensor-to-shooter networks. This approach uses passive network and operating system fingerprinting techniques to automatically configure, update, and maintain virtual honeynets that realistically mimic weapons system components. Attacks directed at a virtual, dynamic honeynet are transparently routed to a sandbox environment, allowing security managers to determine attacker intent and preserve evidence for forensic investigation. Since no network traffic to a honeynet is legitimate, ISAC's virtual, dynamic honeypot will provide an accurate detection enhancement (no false-positives) to existing intrusion detection deployments and will provide a much-needed defense against the malicious insider problem. In Phase I, ISAC will develop the VDHS architecture, show feasibility of the approach, and develop a proof-of-principle demonstration that automatically configures a virtual honeynet to match the network to which it is connected and detects a malicious insider. In Phase II, ISAC will develop a full-featured prototype that automatically creates a realistic virtual network based on weapon system components, accepts attack redirects from the real network, and interfaces with existing situational awareness components.

REIFER CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 4046
Torrance, CA 90510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4493
Mr. Donald J. Reifer
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Network Operations (CNO) for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:The aim of this Phase I effort is to develop the means to learn exploiter methods using forensics information gathered through signature analysis. Currently, little is known about how tampering attacks are mounted and what tools and techniques turn out to be the most effective. The reason for this is simple. Little of the forensics information uncovered during an attack is mined as applications software binaries are tampered with and exploited. This Phase I effort corrects this state of affairs by developing analytical techniques based on signature analysis for use in better understanding the processes, methods and tools that bad guys use to exploit weapons system software. The output of our Phase I effort will verify the feasibility of employing the approaches we develop to represent, analyze and learn from the forensic information we decide to capture during an exploitation attempt. During the option period, RCI will conduct experiments to verify the utility and cost-effectiveness of its forensics approach through trial-use. The test-bed is important because it allows RCI to develop a forensics knowledge base by gathering attack signatures for analysis from real examples and pilot programs.

RETHER NETWORKS, INC.
99 Mark Tree Road, suite 301
Centereach, NY 11720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 467-4381
Dr. Tzi-cker Chiueh
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Network Operations (CNO) for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Buffer overflow attack is the main attack method that most if not all existing malicious worms use to propagate themselves from machine to machine. Despite the fact that buffer overflow bug is a well known programming problem, existing and new network applications continue to exhibit this type of vulnerability, thus exposing themselves to remote exploits. Although a great deal of research has been invested in defense mechanisms against buffer overflow attack, most of these mechanisms require modifications to network applications and/or the platforms that host them. The goal of this project is to develop network-based buffer overflow attack detection techniques that can detect a wide variety of buffer overflow attacks based solely on the packets observed without requiring any modifications to the end hosts. Moreover, rather than derive a signature specific to each individual buffer overflow attack instance, this project aims to develop a generalized signature that can capture all buffer overflow attacks that are known to exist while reducing false positives to a negligible level. Finally, this project proposes several novel performance optimization techniques that can scale the proposed generalized buffer overflow attack detection mechanism to gigabit network links, including payload bypassing, multi-resolution packet analysis, and contextual analysis.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Mr. Andrew Potter
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Active Response Console (ARC)
Abstract:Active Response is the capability for a computer network system to respond to cyber-attack defensively. When an attack is detected, the system takes appropriate steps to mitigate its effects. The proposed Active Response Console (ARC) will provide such a capability. The ARC will enhance Sentar's current computer network defense (CND) capability by integrating active response into its Work-Centered Interface (WCI-CND). The ARC will enable the security manager to manage and deploy resources for active response against cyber attack, including the ability to formulate and modify active response directives. The ARC will be developed using off-the-shelf cyber-sensor products, Sentar's WCI-CND and KnoWebr technology, and the AKA-CND, now in SBIR Phase II development. The WCI-CND will be enhanced to permit utilization of manageable routers and firewalls, giving the system the ability to implement active response. The ARC will operate as a fully integrated part of the WCI-CND. Cyber event information will feed into the system from the sensors, and the correlation engine will perform knowledge synthesis to generate situation awareness. Decision support and active response agents will use this information to make recommendations and issue active response directives. The system manager will have full access and control over the active response capability.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Mr. Peter A. Kiss
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Multiple INtrusion detection FUsion Learning (MINDFUL)
Abstract:To limit the damage from cyber attacks, Computer Network Defense (CND) managers need real time, high quality intrusion detection. However effective any of the current IDSs may be individually, they are not infallible across an operational scenario that is dynamic. Since the underlying constructs differ from one IDS to the next, it is unlikely that failures of different IDSs will be consistently congruent or simultaneous. It is therefore advisable to synergistically exploit the non-congruent capabilities of multiple IDSs through utilization of information fusion. To make quantum advancements in intrusion detections, Sentar proposes the Multiple INtrusion Detection FUsion Learning (MINDFUL) system. The MINDFUL system will implement a Decision In-Decision Out (DEI-DEO) mode of fusion that learns the fusion logic from the environment without having to have an externally pre-defined fusion rule imposed by the designer. Further, we envisage the learning of the fusion rules as a non-iterative process that permits adaptive relearning in the operational phase on an ongoing basis with potential for near real time update for the fusion rules. Our proposed MINDFUL system will be designed with a flexibility and adaptability while minimizing processing time so as to accommodate real time system constraints.

TORCH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2227 Drake Avenue, Suite 27
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-6000
Mr. Mike Muratet
MDA 04-092      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Network Operations (CNO) for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Most computer network intrusion detection (ID) systems are based on the detection of a priori patterns determined during security audits, or more often by post-attack forensic analysis. By all estimates, thousands of new attack modes are identified each year which cause damage until they are discovered. The problem is compounded by the threat of stealthy `insider' attacks which may go undiscovered for extended periods. The evolution of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) will introduce new external components (e.g., Aegis) into what has been a closed system. These additional elements will expand and improve the capabilities of the BMDS, but they will also introduce significant new Computer Network Operations (CNO) concerns. Improved methods are needed that can provide increased protection. Torch Technologies will examine the feasibility of integrating Maximum Likelihood Adaptive Neural System (MLANS) technology into agent-based intrusion detection (ID) systems. Through adaptive, multidimensional statistical modeling of network traffic within the system, MLANS-capable ID systems will increase the detection rates of internal and external malicious activity, reduce detection time, and decrease false positives. Because it is a ML technique, MLANS achieves the Cramer-Rao bound for the fastest possible learning and accuracy, and the Bayes Error for the least possible error rate. Feasibility analysis will focus on extending the MLANS algorithm to incorporate the Weibull density in order to model the chaotic nature of inter-arrival and service times and other parameters poorly modeled by Gaussian mixtures.

FULL CIRCLE RESEARCH, INC.
204A North Irena Ave.
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 316-2558
Mr. James P. Spratt
MDA 04-093      Selected for Award
Title:LATCHUP SUPPRESSION TO FACILITATE FAULT-TOLERANCE IN TERMINAL GUIDANCE COMPUTERS
Abstract:Fault tolerance in a real-time computing environment is a critical need for the terminal guidance computer in interceptors in Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD). In much of the GMD system, fault detection, correction and/or compensation can be done entirely in software. But in the case of faults introduced into the guidance computer by radiation, a combined hardware and software approach can be very useful. Specifically, high dose rates can cause logic upset, but can also cause latchup in integrated circuits. The former can be handled by EDAC, or in extreme cases, by a rollback to data stored in non-volatile memory, and re-starting from this earlier point. But if latchup occurs, power to the computer must be toggled off, then restored. This can take much longer that EDAC or rollback. In the short mission duration of an interceptor, this time may not be available. If latchup-immune chips can be employed, coping with high dose rates is greatly simplified, since power doesn't need to be dumped. The proposed program applies to the high dose rate threat a technique developed for suppressing latchup caused by heavy ions in space. Success in this effort will significantly simplify the job of developing a fault tolerant real-time computing environment for GMD.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway, Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Gary Shao
MDA 04-093      Selected for Award
Title:Real Time Fault Tolerant Computing for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Providing advanced capabilities for real-time detection, correction, and compensation of software faults can increase the long-term effectiveness of the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system. New technologies developed to meet this challenge must ideally be targeted for deployment on highly redundant and widely distributed processing architectures, and be suitable for operational deployment to both new and legacy commercial and Government systems under evolutionary and incremental insertion schedules. This effort proposes to develop technologies for providing fault-tolerant behavior in wide-area publish/subscribe data management environments such as Command and Control Battle Management and Communication (C2BMC) systems. We propose to develop algorithms, methodologies, and mechanisms that address issues of software fault tolerance within a framework that allows us to simultaneously consider and balance the requirements for attaining goals based on additional system metrics such as performance and security. The Phase I effort will investigate and analyze technology approaches for introducing reliable fault-tolerant behavior into wide-area publish/subscribe environments. These approaches will leverage inherent beneficial characteristics of publish/subscribe environments for fault tolerance, as well as specific performance-enhancing features developed by RAM Laboratories for distributed C2BMC applications through other efforts.

LASSON TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6059 Bristol Parkway, Suite 150
Culver City, CA 90230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-4046
Dr. Marvin Klein
MDA 04-094      Selected for Award
Title:Safety and productivity enhancement of beryllium (Be) machining using tool vibration monitoring
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR program we will determine the feasibility of using in-process tool vibration sensing for the machining of beryllium parts used in critical missile manufacturing programs. We have developed a noncontact, in-process probe to monitor the vibrations of the cutting tool and/or the workpiece during machining. In-process, on-machine monitoring would allow feedback control of the spindle speed and the metal removal rate. The ultimate goal of this approach is to improve productivity by increasing throughput (while avoiding chatter), improving surface finish and improving dimensional tolerances through better cutter stability. Beryllium and its alloys are frequently employed in aerospace and missile applications where their light weight, favorable thermal properties and high stiffness are required. The main challenge in machining beryllium is controlling the airborne concentration of beryllium particulates, which is toxic to the lungs. One goal of this program is to show a correlation between improved machining productivity and enhanced beryllium safety. In this program we will team with a large beryllium machining company doing work on programs related to GMD. We will also subcontract to the largest domestic company specializing in optimization of tool dynamics during machining.

PRSM CORP.
2210 Award Winning Way
Knoxville, TN 37932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 693-7776
Mr. Jeffrey R. Miller
MDA 04-094      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Use of Surface Coatings to Reduce Exposure to Beryllium in the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle Supply Chain
Abstract:The technical objective of this proposal is to determine if innovative applications of temporary and/or permanent surface coatings could reduce or eliminate the potential for beryllium (Be) exposure in some segments of the ballistic missile manufacturing supply chain. A unique team of supply chain managers, materials scientists and industrial hygienists from PrSM Corporation and the Colorado School of Mines will work with Raytheon Company and Brush Wellman, Inc. to demonstrate the feasibility of this technical approach. The work plan includes: 1. Task 1 - Define the supply chain for Be and Be alloy components for the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) 2. Task 2 - Research coatings to identify applicable temporary and permanent coatings 3. Task 3 - Identify where beryllium exposure can occur in the EKV supply chain 4. Task 4 - Determine where in the EKV supply chain these coatings should be applied 5. Task 5 - Develop the work plan for the proof-of-concept demonstration in Phase II 6. Task 6 - Reporting This opportunity is significant because companies in the ballistic missile manufacturing supply chain are reluctant and often unwilling to handle beryllium-containing parts because of the regulatory, legal and financial risk. This limits competition and leaves the Federal Government vulnerable to business interruption if key suppliers elect to withdraw from the business.

ADVANCED POWDER SOLUTIONS
10010 Cucklebur
Houston, TX 77095
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 373-1729
Mr. Dean Baker
MDA 04-095      Selected for Award
Title:Define/Demonstrate Beryllium (Be) Substitute Material for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Applications
Abstract:Developing affordable, light weight, high stiffness structures is extremely important for the department of Defense in the current climate of reduced defense spending. Increased stiffness airframe structures are required for the next generation of missiles to enable the missile to withstand higher G?s without adverse affects. Potential solutions include increasing the airframe mass using current materials (a losing proposition), developing a composite airframe (basically graphite-polymer composite), or developing higher stiffness light alloys. Many components (Housings, covers, casings) on the EKV program designs are currently Be based, and are lightly loaded structures requiring only minimal thermal conductivity. SOME OF THE LIGHTLY LOADED COMPONENTS MADE OF BE are considered to be TOO HEAVY. The most weight effective and cost effective solution is to develop ligher weight composites to fulfill many of the lightly loaded structures (enclosures, etc..) currently being used on the EKV program and replace Be. APS has qassembled a knowledgable team to address this requirement.

HY-TECH RESEARCH CORP.
104 Centre Ct.
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 639-4019
Dr. C. Christopher Klepper
MDA 04-095      Selected for Award
Title:Sintered Boron as High-Strength, Lightweight Structural Material for Aerospace Vehicles
Abstract:Beryllium (Be) is an ideal material for aerospace applications owing to its low density, radiation resistance and high strength. Due to increasing concern about the toxicity of Be, the search for substitute materials is a priority in the MDA's research and development roadmap. In response to this need, HY-Tech Research Corporation proposes to demonstrate that the special boron sintering process, originally developed to produce robust cathodes for its cathodic arc-based coating process, can also deliver material suitable as Be/Be alloy replacement. HY-Tech's process produces consolidated boron compacts that are 60-70% of theoretical density, which makes them both lighter and stronger than Be. In the Phase I project, all the relevant mechanical properties will be measured. Machining options will also be examined to determine whether it is better to make complex components from simple boron plates that are brazed together or by machining monolithic large compacts. An innovative metalization technique, that will make joining of boron plates easier, will also be demonstrated. The Option 1 project will deal with manufacturing issues and the Phase II project will focus to scaling up the sintering process and optimizing the manufacturing of final components, primarily for interceptors in the MDA's Ground-based Mid-course Defense program.

MCCARTER MACHINE, INC.
1312 Underwood Rd, PO Box 520
Deer Park, TX 77536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 476-4716
Mr. Douglas McCarter
MDA 04-095      Selected for Award
Title:Define/Demonstrate Beryllium (Be) Substitute Material for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Applications
Abstract:Single Crystal Silicon is much more cost effective to polish because it does not require a coating to produce an acceptable optical surface on materials as does Beryllium or Silicon Carbide. SCSi is very stiff, has low density, high thermal conductivity, costs less, can be polished directly, safe to handle, and is a very stable optic material. The objective of this SBIR program is to produce samples for testing and to demonstrate our technology to provide solutions for specific problems of kill vehicle telescopes.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP/DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Mr. Gary Tremblay
MDA 04-095      Selected for Award
Title:Diamond-Aluminum (DI/Al) Composite for Beryllium Electronic Heatsink Replacement (Proposal No. PVG04-053)
Abstract:The Exoatmospheric Interceptor Kill Vehicle (EKV) is a key element of the Global Missile Defense (GMD) system for defense against threat reentry vehicles. The EKV Electrical Conversion Unit (ECU) and the Electronics Unit (EU) use high power electronics, which generate significant waste heat during flight, and require Thermal Management (TM) methods to transport heat away from the electronic components to maintain design operating temperatures. The current EKV TM approach uses beryllium heatsinks adjacent to the electronic boards to store waste heat. Beryllium provides high TM performance, but the MDA/GMD and Raytheon are exploring alternatives for cost reduction and improved producibility. No single material matches the high thermal conductivity (High-k) and high thermal capacity (High-Cp) properties of beryllium on a weight basis. A hybrid design approach for lightweight design solutions using combinations of materials and designs provides the required High-k/ High-Cp combination. A program is proposed to develop and demonstrate hybrid designs using High-k diamond particulate-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Di/Al) in combination with High-Cp materials, such as Phase Change Material (PCM), to replace beryllium heatsinks thermal management applications. A Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid design approach using Di/AL and High-Cp materials as an alternative to beryllium for the EKV ECU and EU heatsink applications. A follow-on Phase II program would develop and demonstrate the hybrid design for full-scale interceptor electronics heatsink components by developing designs and manufacturing processes, fabricating full-scale test articles, and conducting thermal testing to demonstrate performance.

ARCHANGEL SYSTEMS, INC.
1635 Pumphrey Ave.
Auburn, AL 36832
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 826-8008
Dr. Marc Hill
MDA 04-096      Selected for Award
Title:IMU Accuracy Enhancements for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:Improvements to the GMD EKV on-board INS includes augmentation of the IMU with GPS aiding. Uncorrected IMU errors and vehicle attitude errors impact the total EKV pointing error. The application of emerging low-cost MEMS based sensors creates new opportunities to include GPS aiding without sacrificing mass, volume and cost of the current EKV INS. The Archangel approach builds upon the existing miniature Inertial Measurement Cube (IM3) with modifications and additional compensation features to meet EKV goals. Starting with the IM3 enables immediate development of the needed combination of Fuzzy Logic Adaptive Signal Processing (FLASP) and Ultra-Tight Coupling compensation schemes. The output of the FLASP algorithm can be a complete INS solution with either tightly or ultra tightly coupled GPS. We propose a feasibility study that demonstrates the potential for reaching the very tight bias drift and random walk requirements of the EKV. The study will determine a baseline performance of an unaided IM3 used to compare with a GPS/INS coupled system

GH SYSTEMS, INC.
655 Discovery Drive, Suite 302
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-0050
Mr. Mohammed Miran
MDA 04-096      Selected for Award
Title:IMU/GPS Accuracy Enhancements for GMD
Abstract:This Phase I effort will develop a design solution that adds a GPS receiver to an IMU for the GBI EKV. This new Integrated Inertial Navigation Unit must put gyros, accelerometers, electronics, EKV interfaces, processing, GPS and GPS antennae interfaces in the volume and footprint currently occupied by the first four items alone. The GH Systems team, with Honeywell as our subcontractor, will evaluate multiple design alternatives and refine a unique design solution for implementation in Phase II. The GH Systems team will leverage its knowledge of the EKV system and its history of designing and delivering inertial systems for missile defense interceptors to design a solution that meets or exceeds the stated GBI EKV requirements.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. Honnavalli R Vydyanath
MDA 04-097      Selected for Award
Title:Silicon Substrate Based Large Format LWIR/LWIR Dual-Band HgCdTe Focal plane array technology
Abstract:Our Phase I proposal focuses on the demonstration of the feasibility to develop a technology to fabricate two color (LWIR/LWIR) focal plane arrays with improved NEI (or NEFD), along with providing positive proof that extended wavelength at 70K is obtainable and technology is scalable to larger (512x512 or larger) formats.

NOVASPECTRA, INC.
777 Silver Spur Road, Suite 112
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 408-3225
Dr. William S. Chan
MDA 04-097      Selected for Award
Title:Two-color LWIR Sensing for Enhanced EKV/GMD Seekers
Abstract:We propose to develop a dense focal plane array (FPA) tunable between two select long wave infrared (LWIR) bands to extract a missile target from clutter for enhanced lock-on range performance in an exo-atmospheric kill vehicle (EKV) seeker. This FPA consisting of 512x512 pixels of micro interferometric sensing elements is capable of high sensitivity and speed at 300K or 77K. The signals from the select bands are ratioed to achieve a long lock-on range. The entire FPA is processed by CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) and MEMS (micro electro-mechanical system) processes. Phase 1 will analyze and design the FPA structure and layout, delineate the processes for fabrication and fabricate a simple structure to demonstrate its fabricability.

ANDRO COMPUTATIONAL SOLUTIONS, LLC
Beeches Technical Campus, Bldg. 3, Suite 4, 7902 T
Rome, NY 13440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 334-1163
Mr. Andrew L. Drozd
MDA 04-098      Selected for Award
Title:Radar Data Fusion for Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP) for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) - Real-Time Multi-Source Data Fusion (RT-MSDF) System
Abstract:Real-time fusion of data collected from a variety of radars that acquire information from multiple perspectives and/or different frequencies, is being shown to provide a more accurate picture of the adversary threat cloud than any single radar or group of radars operating independently. This assumes that the proper constraints (decision algorithms) are applied to the midcourse ballistic vehicle target acquisition, tracking, and discrimination process. These constraints include the application of robust target tracking, distributed multi-source data fusion, and clutter rejection algorithms as well as ensuring spatial and temporal registration of radars, efficient real-time data throughput within and between sensor platforms, enhanced processing speed and capacity, and sensor calibration. Distributed, decision-level fusion using intelligent systems and multi-modality sensor inputs can provide additional advantages for midcourse ballistic target tracking and discrimination. The goal of the data fusion process is to operate on a combination of sensor measurements, features, track states, and object type and identification likelihoods to produce a SIAP of the air space to a high degree of accuracy. Technologies that enable this synergistic fusion and interpretation of data at several levels from disparate GMD radars and other sensors should enhance system acquisition, tracking and discrimination of threat objects in a cluttered environment and provide enhanced battle space awareness. This effort is to develop algorithms, software, and/or hardware necessary to collect, process, and fuse information from multiple radars (either at the same or different frequency) to form a more accurate SIAP. The approach leverages and extends the results of complementary research that is ongoing to provide effective Data Fusion and Registration (DataFusR) technologies, which will enable sensor and battlespace systems to autonomously perform real time registration and fusion of multiresolution radar data for precision target geolocation and identification. The proposed RT-MSDF concept extends the more general solution recently developed by ANDRO for this problem, which applies a multi-source data fusion (MSDF) simulation approach to automatically select the most viable registration/fusion scheme(s) to achieve the objectives of forming an SIAP. This R&D will focus on the following additional areas: XG distributed aperture radar, ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging, web-based broadband sensor fusion, and sparse band processing (SBP) technologies for multiresolution target feature (frequency/waveform diversity) exploitation; robust centralized, distributed, and composite target tracking algorithms; multi-modality (multispectral radar, IR, EO, and other) sensor data registration and fusion (including, but not limited to novel extensions of Bayesian network, Dempster-Schafer, neural network, and knowledge-based techniques) to support real-time requirements and to achieve overall performance; methods for enhancing processing speed and capacity; spatio-temporal sensor calibration to reduce bias errors; and new techniques for graphically visualizing fused target track results. The research to be performed in this effort will be in direct support of the MDA/GM (Ground Based Midcourse) and MDA/AS (Advanced Systems) acquisition programs such as the Project Hercules Program. Proof-of-principle demonstrations of advanced data fusion concepts will be performed using simulated sensor data.

3D RESEARCH CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike, Suite 200, P.O. Box 11723
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 705-5410
Dr. Jim Woosley
MDA 04-099      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Gel Propellants for Exo-Atmospheric Kill Vehicle for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:3D Research Corporation and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have teamed to offer advanced high-energy gel propellants for exoatmospheric interceptors. High energy gelled propellants are required to improve the performance envelopes of future MDA missile interceptors. We will theoretically investigate a number of gelled fuel-additive combinations to determine the best potential performers, and select the most promising combinations for experimental investigation. This approach utilizes the best combination of available data through experimental analysis with the advantages of a strong experimental program. We will report the results of theoretical analysis of numerous gel-additive combinations, and specific data obtained from kinetics studies of the most promising combinations. Those gel-additive and oxidizer combinations which show the most promise for performance and systemization will be selected for detailed testing small-scale motors in Phase II. Future interceptor systems currently on the drawing board, such as the Kinetic Energy Interceptor, are posed to accept best in class propellants for current and future upgrades. Our team has a history of high-energy propellant development and the proper analytical and experimental tools to efficiently meet the needs of the government.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
110 Gibraltar Road, Suite 223
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-6580
Mr. Mark Montesano
MDA 04-100      Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Control of Ground Based Midcourse Defense Interceptor Subsystems
Abstract:The thermal management used in today's reentry vehicles, interceptors, and their payload sensors, primarily insulation materials and component separation, may no longer be adequate for future systems. High packaging densities and electronics miniaturization techniques, required to satisfy system's ever-increasing computing powers is driving this need. kTC proposes a technology development of a material with five times the conductivity of aluminum at a 20% lower density. This material will permit the design of a high performance and high thermal density electronic systems for evolving systems. The conductivity of the proposed material system will exceed 1000 W/mK, have a mass density less than 2.5 g/cm3, and have stiffness and strength properties equivalent or better than existing materials. This proposed effort will develop a material system that can be specifically designed to satisfy the requirements of current and future airborne and spaceborne electronic systems.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP/DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Mr. Gary Tremblay
MDA 04-100      Selected for Award
Title:Increased Thermal Management for EKV Electronics Unit Heatsinks for High Power Electronics in Flight and Ground Test Environments (Proposal No. PVG04-052)
Abstract:The Exoatmospheric Interceptor Kill Vehicle (EKV) is a key element of the Global Missile Defense (GMD) system for defense against threat reentry vehicles. A key EKV subsystem is Electronics Unit (EU) that includes high power electronics, which generate significant waste heat during flight as well as in ground test environments. Thermal management methods are required to transport this heat away from the EU electronic components and maintain their temperature below design operating temperatures. The current EU thermal management approach uses a heatsink approach to store the waste heat from the electronics in beryllium heatsinks adjacent to the electronic boards. This approach meets flight requirements, but in ground tests, test times must be truncated periodically to let the electronics cool-down. A planned EKV EU Upgrade will include additional higher power electronics increasing the amount of waste heat generated. Beryllium heatsinks provide the desired thermal management performance attributes, but MDA/GMD is exploring alternatives to beryllium for cost reduction and producibility increases. There is a need for improved thermal management performance through materials or design changes to increase the heat conduction from the EU heatsinks to the housing, increase heat storage capability of the EU housing, and conduct heat to the exterior of the housing for storage or heat dissipation. Phase I program will develop design concepts for the EKV EU to meet the increased thermal management requirements. Phase II program would develop and demonstrate the improved thermal management materials and designs for the EU heatsinks to meet the increased electronics power level waste heat requirements.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division, 20600 Gramer
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mr. Kevin Yu
MDA 04-101      Selected for Award
Title:Electronically Tunable Fabry-Perot Filter
Abstract:To address the Missile Defense Agency need for an infrared tunable spectral filter for Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) mid-course discrimination by detecting infrared signatures and measuring the temperature of remote objects within a threat cloud, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Electronically Tunable Fabry-Perot (ET-FAP) filter for an infrared multispectral imager based on phase-matched Fabry-Perot plates and a liquid crystal filter cavity tuning element. The proposed ET-FAP filter is based on a proprietary low-cost process of fabricating phase-matched Fabry-Perot mirrors that allows the device to be monolithic and the filter substrate large and thin. The ET-FAP tuning speed will be in the kilohertz range, with more than 50% filter transmission of both polarization components in the LWIR (7-14 micron) region. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the infrared multispectral imager with the ET-FAP filter through initial design studies, computer modeling, and experimental fabrication of a demonstration filter module. We will also demonstrate the proposed ET-FAP filter performance improvements over state-of-the-art filter technologies. In Phase II POC will develop a fully operational ET-FAP filter system and demonstrate its flightreadiness.

NEWTEC SERVICES GROUP, INC.
PO Box 643, 333 Hart Street
Edgefield, SC 29824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 755-4161
Mr. Michael Maston
MDA 04-102      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Functional Warheads for Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Abstract:NEWTEC Services Group, Inc. (NEWTEC) has developed a new family of frangible projectiles that are able to penetrate both hard and soft targets, disintegrate into their original powder constituents during impact and/or penetration, and fracture/contaminate the fill of an explosive item. Penetrations are achieved without an exit hole with all projectile material dispersed within the target volume. The insertion of reactive materials, inert binders, and oxidizers into the explosive fill prevents and/or modifies a detonation by rapidly altering one or more of the elements of the explosive fuel, oxygen and temperature equation. NEWTEC has further explored the incorporation of reactive materials comprised of metastable interstitial composites (MICs) into its frangible projectiles to provide a new generation of munitions that exhibit scalable terminal effects with incendiary and overpressure properties. This capability provides options to apply both kinetic and thermal effects to multiple target sets using existing weapons platforms. Additionally, a small caliber MIC projectile could provide an agent defeat capability through high thermal impact against suspected biological agents or other threats of concern. NEWTEC's existing frangible projectile patent covers the application and blending of numerous reactive, inert and binding materials to further expand this utility and multiple fields of use.

INTERFACE & CONTROL SYSTEMS, INC.
8945 Guilford Road, Suite 120
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-7600
Mr. Jay Offutt
MDA 04-103      Selected for Award
Title:ATACS- Automated Targeting And Checkout System
Abstract:The problem of long and costly development cycles for Guidance Navigation and Control software is not unique to the MDA's Targets and Countermeasures Program. The development of GN&C software for spacecraft can take even longer to design, produce, and validate. In order to shorten the time-to-flight for spacecraft GN&C systems, ICS and Swales Aerospace have devised a software architecture and toolset which will greatly reduce the development and validation time required to field new GNC algorithms on Spacecraft. Our Phase 1 Automated Targeting And Checkout System (ATACS) effort will modify and enhance our scheme for spacecraft GN&C and adapt it to meet the stated needs of the MDA's Targets and Countermeasures program. ATACS will use a model-driven approach to define Launch Vehicle (LV) control system parameters and control laws and auto-generate the embedded systems code in an extremely cost-effective manner. The round trip time to modify the model, generate code, load the code to the target processor, and validate functionality will be reduced to hours. Model-driven tools will allow rapid reconfiguration of algorithms and flight profiles. ICS/Swales will demonstrate a highly automated test and checkout capability with a dynamic GN&C simulator for Verification and Validation of the Launch Vehicle algorithms.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 323-4904
Ms. Leslie P. Fowler
MDA 04-104      Selected for Award
Title:Global Jitter Control Design for Integrated Opto-mechanical Systems
Abstract:On an airborne weapon system such as Airborne Laser (ABL), on-board vibrations distributed throughout the beamtrain result in line-of-sight jitter and significant degradation of weapon lethality. Conventional beam control implements several independent cascaded control loops, with local loops operating to reduce jitter in a particular portion of the beam train. Implementation and design are relatively quick, but significant analysis and re-specification of servo parameters is necessary to attain more optimal performance that accounts for stroke and torque constraints and that is tuned for specific disturbance spectra. To more aggressively improve line-of-sight jitter, a global approach to the problem is recommended. The approach is to treat the jitter and beamwalk system as an integrated opto-mechanical structure and to control active mirrors using a regulator-estimator methodology combined with feedforward adaptive filtering. In Phase I a control system using this global approach will be developed and compared to open-loop and conventional control system models. Several metrics will be evaluated including line-of-sight jitter, beamwalk, mirror stroke and control authority, and propagation of noise into jitter. In Phase II, the coordinated global control design will be applied to a high fidelity control system testbed, and details of practical physical implementation will be determined.

TEMPEST TECHNOLOGIES
Suite 506, 8939 South Sepulveda Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-1677
Dr. Yun Wang
MDA 04-104      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Jitter Control Algorithms
Abstract:In the proposed effort, we will develop and analyze model-based and adaptive controllers for jitter reduction in optical systems. Our efforts will focus on the integration of multiple actuators and multiple sensors, using time domain realizations, robust controllers, and adaptation schemes to reject platform jitter in optical trains. These controllers will be coupled with our adaptive optics and tracking schemes to provide optimal high energy laser power on the target for Air Borne Laser applications.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1, Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 524-0234
Dr. Robert Brubaker
MDA 04-105      Selected for Award
Title:Uncooled, Long-Life Wavefront/Tracking Sensor
Abstract:Sensors Unlimited (SUI) will design and deliver a 20 kHz frame rate, 256x256 element focal plane array and camera covering the entire visible and shortwave infrared wavelength bands (0.4 - 1.7 microns). The noise performance of the final imager will meet the desired specification of 6 photons using Sensors Unlimited's proprietary Buffered Input Gate Modulated (BIGM) readout integrated circuit. "Noiseless" in-pixel electronic gain enables very low noise hybrid focal plane arrays by dividing the read noise of the imager by the gain of the all solid-state pre-amplification stage. The extended wavelength response throughout the visible and shortwave wavelength bands is obtained through a novel substrate-removed InGaAs photodiode array design that is currently being used in Sensors Unlimited's commercial cameras. The desired frame rate will be achieved by leveraging SUI's Advanced Detector (Adet) program where the integrated signal is digitized within each pixel, stored in memory, and read out at 333 MHz. In this way, the 20 kHz frame rate may be achieved using the entire frame, and has the added benefit of limiting the number of analog outputs off the readout integrated circuit, thus significantly reducing the complexity of the camera electronics.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 300
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 906-7906
Mr. Andrew Huntington
MDA 04-105      Selected for Award
Title:Uncooled, Long-Life Wavefront/Tracking Sensor
Abstract:The feasibility of using AlGaInAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operated in linear mode as high-frame- rate solid state wavefront and tracking sensor elements capable of detecting single photons will be established. The small contrast between electron and hole ionization coefficients in common III-V compound semiconductors like AlGaInAs would normally prohibit their use in photon-counting APDs owing to excess multiplication noise, but an imaginative new application of the impact-ionization engineering (I2E) concept will be used to overcome the limitations of the material. Lower noise will be realized with novel field control and bandgap engineering methods, which achieve greater spatial localization of the impact ionization events resulting in selective electron-initiated ionization and greater correlation between ionization events. Initial simulations predict better than 50% detection efficiency at 1064 nm & 1550 nm, better than 500 MHz bandwidth, and room-temperature single-photon sensitivity when operated in conjunction with Voxtel's low-noise readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The technique is solid state, has demonstrated reliability, has low dark current at room temperatures, and is supported by the tremendous III-V materials infrastructure developed for telecommunications. It therefore offers significant advantages over hybrid, electron-bombarded image tube sensor approaches.

POWDERMET, INC.
24112 Rockwell drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 519-0053
Mr. Asit Biswas
MDA 04-107      Selected for Award
Title:Diamond Reinforced SiC Mirror for ABL
Abstract:In the proposed SBIR program Powdermet will demonstrate the feasibility of producing near net shape high modulus- high conductivity (1000Gpa, 1800 W/m.K) diamond reinforced SiC /syntactic SiC foam mirror structure. Powdermet will utilize an innovative combination of SiC microencapsulaion of diamond, carbon microballoon, CVD SiC coated diamond-filled preceramic polymer casting/curing/pyrolysis and then CVD coated SiC mirror reflecting surface with finish polishing technique to produce high conductivity, high stiffness, high modulus, better dimension stability, Low CTE mirror structure for ABL/EKV application

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 338-2865
Mr. William Goodman
MDA 04-107      Selected for Award
Title:Expedited Fabrication of Conformal Window for ABL
Abstract:MDA and Air Force are interested in advanced infrared optical windows for high-energy laser systems. The conformal window of ABL uses low OH- content reformed Infrasil 302 (fused quartz). This 2.2 cm thick, 1.71 m diameter, highly curved (ROC=1.31 m) widow is transparent across the visible and IR Bands. It is the leading edge of the ABL aircraft and must survive tactical airborne operations. Fracture of the window can represent a single point failure for the entire ABL system. Proper design of the window is critical! In Phase I Schafer, will use our GlassDESIGNT code to generate laser glass formulations that are low melting, low viscosity and castable (e.g. phosphate, aluminosilicate and borosilicate glasses). Our team partner Schott Glass will produce coupons and preliminary properties data for the top 2 formulations and explore thermal and chemical tempering as a post-processing strengthening technique. Compressive residual stress at the surface of the window is highly desirable. In Phase II we will characterize the candidate window materials, downselect the most promising glass formulation, and build a sub-scale prototype conformal window for the ABL. Key investigations will explore methods for expedited manufacturing, including polishing and figuring processes; and measuring internal stresses.

THIRD WAVE SYSTEMS, INC.
7900 West 78th St., Suite 250
Minneapolis, MN 55439
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 832-5515
Dr. Troy Marusich
MDA 04-107      Selected for Award
Title:Expedited Fabrication of Conformal Window for ABL
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project Expedited Fabrication of Conformal Window for Airborne Laser (ABL) aims to demonstrate the feasibility of ductile mode machining (DMM) to dramatically reduce manufacturing cycle times of meter-class lightweight mirrors. DMM will drive fabrication times to less than 6 months by reducing/eliminating grinding, lapping and polishing for the ABL 1.8 meter conformal window. DMM will produce higher quality parts by reducing surface roughness RMS to the range of 10-50 nanometers and reduce or eliminate subsurface damage and consequently, increase manufacturing yields. Advanced process computer-aided modeling of DMM will facilitate prediction of beneficial DMM conditions. The DMM development plan proposes three technology objectives: (1) demonstration of a scalable DMM process by fabrication of a 6-inch prototype mirror, (2) demonstration of scalability of the DMM process to a 1.8m, 10m radius of curvature, ABL conformal window, and (3) rigorous economic analysis of cost and schedule to quantify value to ABL program. The anticipated results include the development and demonstration of a robust DMM process for prototyping and fabrication of large optical components and the associated predictive capability to extend DMM to other brittle material machining applications.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. James D. Trolinger
MDA 04-108      Selected for Award
Title:Atmosphere Turbulence Profiling Laser System (TURPLAS)
Abstract:Atmospheric turbulence is the dominant factor affecting the spatial structure of a laser beam propagating in free space, resulting in beam jitter and a decrease of the energy density on the target. This MetroLaser Phase I proposal describes an innovative approach to measuring the strength of the atmosphere turbulence along a line of sight. The method employs a laser system combined with a phase conjugate mirror to generate Rayleig/Mie scattering guide stars. The innovation is in coherent detection of the ultra-low level radiation intensity of the guide star, its amplification, and registration of its spatial-temporal distribution. This information enables profiling the Cn2 parameter along the beam path, estimating Fried parameter, isoplanatic angle, and the Rytov parameter. The advantage of the proposed system lies in an ultra-high sensitivity and spatial/temporal resolution. During Phase I, we will perform an analysis of the phase-conjugate-mirror-based laser system, and proof-of-concept experiments. During Phase II, we will extend the performance capabilities of the proposed laser system, design and build a brass board for verifying and optimizing the predicted system performance, demonstrate the system, and determine its operational envelope.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5479
Dr. Mikhail Belenkii
MDA 04-108      Selected for Award
Title:Optical Methods for Turbulence Profile Determination
Abstract:Accurate estimates of the profile of atmospheric turbulence strength along the path is required to improve the performance of adaptive optics systems designed to compensate the degradation effects of turbulence on directed energy systems, in astronomy, and in laser communication systems. We propose a novel technique for remote determination of the atmospheric turbulence profile along the path using laser guide star technology. The corresponding optical sensor uses a pulsed laser and a range-gated focal plane array. It samples turbulence simultaneously in many locations along the path and can operate in the presence of strong scintillation. Spatial resolution is equal to or less than 10% of the total atmospheric path. Temporal resolution, or turbulence profile update rate, is 60-100 sec. The corresponding sensor can be used for turbulence profile measurements between two points on the ground, or from ground to space, or to an aircraft along a slant path. In the Phase I program we will do a performance analysis and preliminary sensor design, develop a reconstruction algorithm for a turbulence profile determination from the optical measurements, validate the proposed approach in simulation, and develop a plan for the field demonstration in Phase II.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1275
Dr. Felix Morgan
MDA 04-109      Selected for Award
Title:Steering mirrors - Higher bandwidth
Abstract:As the Airborne Laser (ABL) comes closer to putting a high energy laser (HEL) on a boosting missile target, it has become obvious that a high bandwidth fast steering mirror (FSM) needs to be developed. This FSM must be capable of controlling large, 12-inch mirrors while handling the HEL power levels. Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop for the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) revolutionary actuator and sensor concepts for high bandwidth (2 kHz) fast steering mirrors. These revolutionary concepts are an outgrowth of our preliminary work on a 1 kHz, 12-inch fast steering mirror sponsored by the HEL Joint Technology Office (JTO). Using this approach, ATA proposes developing a new FSM-specific actuator that provides greater efficiency, higher bandwidth, and lower mass (for the same force) than has ever been previously achieved. It will be combined with a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF), high-accuracy, relative position sensors (HARPS) that will provide high bandwidth, low noise, high accuracy relative position sensing-overcoming previous relative position sensor shortcomings.

QORTEK, INC.
2400 Reach Road, Suite 204
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
MDA 04-109      Selected for Award
Title:Steering mirrors - Higher bandwidth
Abstract:The proposed C/SiC-BIAS mechanism represents a next generation in high-energy laser systems imaging integration capabilities. This will also benefit surveillance and reconnaissance (telescopes) capabilities and Line of Sight (LOS) communications (laser, optical/RF antennas) precision performances. The new BIAS mechanism is designed to enable mixed mode active optical compensation bias, especially in regards to mixed slow/fast dynamical systems requirements for integrated optics. The C/SiC-BIAS approach makes feasible several capabilities that are presently not easily available in a single integrated package. It will enable the ability to smoothly and seamlessly operate at large displacements (>10mrad) at lower bandwidths (1-2Hz), and as a small displacement (>50 microradians) at higher bandwidth (>4kHz) in a single integrated mechanism that incorporates subnanometer absolute position sensing.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Mr. Joseph R. Maly
MDA 04-110      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Kinematic Optical Mount for Vibration and Shock Environments
Abstract:DoD optical systems often must provide precision static and dynamic alignment performance in the presence of harsh operating conditions that include mechanical shock and vibration as well extreme thermal environments. Optical elements such as mirrors or lenses are integrated into these systems with mechanical mounts. The objective of this effort is the development of a lightweight kinematic optical mount that provides straightforward optical alignment with integrated passive vibration and shock response mitigation. Lightweight means lighter weight than conventional devices. Kinematic mounting provides relief from static strains in a sensitive element imparted by thermal mismatch between structural components. Passive vibration/shock suppression allows improved system performance by reducing environment-induced jitter in the optical train. The goal is a mount design that combines three design targets: light weight, kinematic mounting, and reduced structural dynamics. This mount will be suitable for integration into existing optical systems but will also target new Commercial and DoD products for improved performance in applications that are sensitive to environmental disturbances and require easier adjustment than existing mounts.

HYTEC, INC.
110 Eastgate Drive
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 661-3000
Mr. Vince Stephens
MDA 04-110      Selected for Award
Title:Optical Mounting Brackets - lighter weight and less sensitive to shock
Abstract:High energy optical components, such as beam splitters, are specified and designed to meet increasingly tight system level alignment budgets while subjected to severe environmental loads. These loads include shock and vibration loads generated by a number of sources, such as those environments present for the Airborne Laser. Kinematic mounts supporting these components are a desirable design feature that allows conformance to the multitude of requirements. Ease of adjustment during integration and test and low mass are also required. HYTEC has extensive experience in the design of kinematic supports, notably those provided for the SCIP instrument telescopes and optical bench for the NASA STEREO program. These mounts have been demonstrated to possess near ideal kinematic behavior, and contain provisions for pitch and yaw alignment. These mounts will be evaluated and modified for use as a kinematic mounting bracket to support optical components such as beam splitters.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 434-6392
Dr. Ranji Vaidyanathan
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional polymer composites for Kinetic Energy Interceptors
Abstract:In this phase I SBIR program, Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. (ACR), and its team members propose the development of innovative manufacturing techniques for multifunctional polymer composite components for Kinetic Energy Interceptors. The proposed technique will leverage ACR's experience with co-injecting/infusing slurries and resins into fiber preforms. In this program, ACR will fabricate multi-functional composites with a structural layer with an outer layer of ceramic to provide multi-functionality to the Kinetic Energy Interceptors (KEI). The ceramic layer will be structurally sound and tough due to the fibers present in them. By fabricating lightweight components for KEI applications, it will provide better agility and speed of response to incoming intermediate and long-range ballistic missile threats in their boost/ascent phase of flight. It is believed that replacement of metallic components with composites would provide a savings in weight for the same structural requirements.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. Honnavalli R Vydyanath
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Process for the Manufacture of Multiband HgCdTe FPAs
Abstract:Phase I proposal focuses on the demonstration of the feasibility to improve the process to fabricate multi-band LWIR/VLWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays in a manufacturing environment with improved yields, improved reliability and reduced costs while maintaining high performance, uniformity and operability. In Phase II, we plan to validate the feasibility established in Phase I with demonstration and delivery of large format two-dimensional arrays (256x256 or larger) hybridized to silicon Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROICs).

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
Clear Creek Business Park, 376 NE 219th Ave
Gresham, OR 97030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Dr. Stephen Kreger
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Quantitative Strain Imaging Using Fiber Grating Sensors for Composite Rocket Parts
Abstract:Multi-axis fiber grating strain sensors may be used to localize and qualitatively identify the degree of damage in composite parts. Signatures associated with delaminations and damage tow material are significantly different for strain imaging produced data. This Phase I project is directed toward improving the quantitative measurement capability of "strain imaging" methods through experiments, improved analytical tools, and destructive testing of the Phase I demonstration article. These procedures and tests will allow first-time quantitative verification of "strain imaging" signatures.

COSTVISION
1472 North St.
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 517-9092
Mr. Charles Stirk
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Cost-effective improvement during development of advanced manufacturing processes
Abstract:Defense manufacturing has evolved into the prime-contractor/system-integrator model where engineering designs and manufacturing process developments are distributed across several smaller suppliers. In this environment it is especially difficult to assess or improve the cost of new manufacturing processes and product designs because the information is fragmented and the costing tools are not integrated. Under the proposed program, we will work with a leading defense manufacturer and a virtual enterprise network to gather requirements and prove the feasibility of an integrated costing framework for advanced manufacturing processes improvement. In particular, we will leverage the existing web-based CostVision software to 1) integrate with commercial engineering and manufacturing planning tools, 2) roll-up cost information distributed across smaller suppliers into a virtual enterprise cost model, and 3) demonstrate the feasibility by supporting manufacturing cost simulations and trade-off analysis on a critical Missile Defense Agency program.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Jay C. Rozzi
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost, Environmentally Friendly Beryllium Manufacturing
Abstract:Creare proposes to develop a novel Beryllium Machining System (BMS) that is comprised of highly efficient, indirect cooling of the cutting tools and a particle control system to dramatically reduce the costs associated with beryllium machining and improve worker health and safety. Beryllium is an ideal material for numerous aerospace and defense applications. However, beryllium is expensive, it is highly toxic in powder form, and it is difficult to machine. All of these facts drive up the cost of beryllium manufacturing. Our novel Beryllium Machining System (BMS) will enable significant cost reductions for beryllium machining in two ways. First, because our indirect cutting tool cooling methodology has been proven to outperform conventional coolants, especially for difficult-to-machine materials, beryllium parts can be machined faster with no decrease in tool life. Second, since the cutting tool will be cooled indirectly, an inexpensive, inert fluid can be used for particle control that will dramatically reduce the cost of scrap separation and recycling, as well as eliminate the use of hazardous degreasing materials. We will implement our innovation in a low-cost, easy-to-use system that can be readily retrofitted onto existing machine tools.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Paul L. Martin
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Design Development of an Advanced Composite Interceptor Nosecone for KEI
Abstract:The proposed nosecone development effort will investigate application of the following component technologies to a ground base interceptor deployable nosecone for KEI: [1] an advanced ceramic resin matrix for the thermal protection system, [2] a low-shock nosecone separation system, [3] a lightweight composite assembly configuration and [4] integration of lightning/EMI shielding into the composite structure. In the assembly configuration, these kill vehicle protection components will consist of a non-ablating, rain-erosion resistant outer skin to serve as the TPS together with structural composite materials to satisfy the dynamic pressure environment associated with interceptor flight and nosecone petal deployment. In addition, the nosecone structure combined with the above-mentioned materials development will incorporate an active, low-shock nosecone removal technique. These material and component technologies will provide mission enabling capabilities for an interceptor nosecone that will operate at high velocity and require a non-ablating TPS that complies with performance requirements. Development of the nosecone assembly concept will be accomplished by conducting four tasks consisting of concept definition, materials and component design development, materials test and evaluation, and establishment of the nosecone assembly design configuration.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Paul Martin
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Missile Harness-Fairing Assembly
Abstract:A need exists for a state-of-the-art electrical interconnection assembly that will simplify missile manufacture and assembly at a reduced cost relative to current methods. It should provide thermal protection, facilitate internal individual EMI shielding from each bundle type as well as external sources, and minimize the harness-fairing profile reducing aerodynamic forces. Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) proposes an integrated assembly solution utilizing state-of-the-art composite materials. The novel electrical connector assembly combines the electrical wiring harness and harness cover into a single low volume, low profile, aerodynamic fairing that is conformal to the shape of the missile airframe. The integrated assembly will provide for efficient thermal protection, allow for electrical shielding of individual wires or wire bundles and increase mission assuredness while reducing overall harness assembly cost.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Keith R. Meiler
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Dimensional Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composite Application to Advanced Pintle Operated DACS Systems
Abstract:This program proposes to investigate and demonstrate novel composite material concepts for advanced divert and attitude control solid propulsion systems. Fiber Materials Inc. (FMI) teamed with ATK Elkton LLC, proposes to develop multi-directional reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material applicable to ATK's Block II SDACS, KEI, MKV, advanced PBCS and advanced Patriot reaction control system designs. In particular, development efforts will focus on the design of 3D CMC composite materials for application to pintle and throat components, currently manufactured from rhenium. These ceramic-based materials will offer equivalent structural properties coupled with lessened thermal conductivity and reduced mass. The materials will be engineered for use with systems operating in the 3700F to 4200 F temperature regime. The proposed CMC composites are one-tenth the density of rhenium and can be machined with conventional tooling. Phase I material assessments will be used as a basis for varying carbon fiber weave design and furthering process parameters as required to meet operational requirements, including internal pressure and thermal loading. The material will be affordable with potential to accommodate future valve requirements. During Phase II, final design analyses will support component manufacture, both for characterization and hot gas demonstration.

HITCHCOCK INDUSTRIES, INC.
8701 Harriet Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 887-7800
Dr. James VanWert
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate both the technical and economic feasibility of using a fluidized bed system, initially developed for heat treatment, quenching, and aging of premium aluminum sand castings, to separate castings from sand molds, to de-core internal passageways in the castings, to reclaim the sand for re-use, and to use the binder resins from the molds and waste sand from mold building as a partial source of energy supply for the operation. The goals include producing higher-quality castings at lower cost in less time and combining this technology with other research to achieve continuous in-line lean manufacturing technology in post-casting processes.

INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
22660 Executive Drive, Suite 101
Dulles, VA 20166
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 437-4000
Dr. Yuri Khlebnikov
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Cost Effective Large Size Semi-Insulating Silicon Carbide (SiC) Ingots For Ballistic Missile Radar and RF Products
Abstract:In this proposal, INTRINSIC Semiconductor proposes unique and innovative semi-insulating (SI) SiC substrate process technologies that will impact next generation GaN and SiC device development, leading to innovative radar and RF discreet and monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) products. The technical objectives and the approaches to be pursued in this Phase I program are targeted for SI SiC manufacturing cost reduction via increased boule length (>30 mm) and bulk growth rate (> 1mm/hr).

LIGHTWORKS OPTICS, INC.
14242 CHAMBERS ROAD
TUSTIN, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 247-7115
Mr. Kent Weed
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:MANUFACTURABILITY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT, 100% BERYLLIUM EKV SENSOR
Abstract:LightWorks Optics, Inc. is teamed with Raytheon, Brush Wellman and Axsys Technologies to conduct an SBIR Phase I research project on manufacturability improvements to an all-Beryllium version of the new EKV Sensor design. This study will focus on the EKV optical system redesign that incorporates a telescope intended to enhance producibility in an all beryllium configuration. There is currently a prevalent perception in the industry that Beryllium assemblies are significantly more expensive and time consuming to produce than other alternative materials. It is fact that Beryllium requires special handling and processing. However, many alternative materials also require this. Beryllium offers many performance advantages and is an excellent choice for the new EKV Sensor design. Therefore, it is our intent, as a focused team, to assure that the beryllium design is optimized for the specific manufacturing processes planned in order to minimize end-to-end cycle times and costs. This optimization process is not a well refined science, and our team intends on extending this art into a more clearly defined and usable process. The outcome of applying this process will be a cost-saving EKV redesign, as well as a documented optimization approach that can be applied to other complex MDA designs.

LINDEN PHOTONICS, INC.
270 Littleton Road, Unit #29
Westford, MA 01886
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 392-7985
Dr. Amaresh Mahapatra
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Moisture Resistant Optical Fiber for Sensor Applications
Abstract:Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) are used extensively as rotation rate sensors in both inertial navigation systems, weapons guidance systems and gun mount stabilization platforms. A FOG consists of a long length of single mode, polarization maintaining (PM) optical fiber wound into a coil. Light from a semiconductor laser is launched into both ends of the coil to create two counter rotating light beams which are them recombined to form interference patterns, which change as the coil is rotated. The fiber used is typically coated with a double layer of sicone and UV curable acrylate polymer, to protect it from abrasion and moisture, which can cause stress corrosion. This coating material has a tendency to absorb small quantities of moisture from the atmosphere and swell, causing stresses which result in slight deformation of the fiber coil, which in turn result in degradation of the gyroscope performance. We propose to eliminate this problem by replacing the outer acrylate coating with an extruded jacket of a novel material. This material is extremely impervious to moisture, and has superior chemical, mechanical and thermal properties. It is thermoplastic, which means that it can be applied using standard extrusion techniques. It may also be possible, using an appropriate co-polymer mix, to fuse the coil together after winding simply by raising the temperature to melting point of the co-polymer. This will further enhance the stability and durability of the FOG.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Mr. Kennneth M. Kratsch
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Ablative 5000F MKV Divert Valve Insulator
Abstract:In this MDA Phase I SBIR program, MATECH/GSM proposes to fabricate a non-ablative insulator that can withstand temperatures in excess of 5,000 degrees F. MATECH will use its low cost melt-blown "Net-to-Shape" process and new polymer chemistry to zirconium oxycarbide (ZrOC). This is similar in all respects to our demonstrated silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) melt blown mats and TPS. MATECH has machinery in place to continuously melt blow 7 inch wide mat strips, up to 25 feet in length, have been made to date. MATECH's new chemistry to ZrOC has been formulated recently using a water soluble pre-ceramic zirconium peroxide polymer which can be combined with a water soluble organic polymer as a carbon source. This permits great control over the final carbon content and is a direct route to stoichiometric ZrOC ceramic fiber with a ceramic yield of approximately 83.6 weight percent. MATECH has, therefore, demonstrated a TRL level of 4 for polymer chemistry and process technology for this key Phase I SBIR program. ATK (Elkton, MD) is designing the MKV Divert Valve and is actively participating in this Phase I SBIR program.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-6130
Mr. Kent Buesking
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements: HIP Process Model
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other components of the Department of Defense (DOD) are cur-rently developing advanced materials for propulsion hardware, weapons systems, thermal management applications, and divert and altitude control systems (DACS). The materials include high temperature metals, ceramics, metal matrix composites, and refractory carbides and borides. Several of these materials are made by hot isostatic pressing (HIPping). In the HIP process a near net shape billet is molded and encapsulated in a metal can. The can is evacu-ated and exposed to a high temperature while under uniform, high external pressure. The HIP process eliminates internal voids as the billet is consolidated, resulting in a material that is nearly 100% dense and exhibits a uniform fine-grained microstructure. The resulting material possesses high strength, ductility and fatigue resistance. Many variables affect the results of the HIPping process including: billet material, billet density, billet mi-crostructure, impurities, component geometry, can material, can geometry, weld integrity, evacuation, seal, tempera-ture history and pressure history. To date, many of these parameters have been arrived at through an Edisonian process know in the industry as, "heat `em and beat `em." While the results have led to a very useful method for manufacturing high strength material, the development process has been costly since several blind alleys must be tried before a successful fabrication path is defined. The proposed program seeks to improve the process by developing a thermostructural model of the HIP-ping process. The model can be used to guide the design of the HIP hardware and the selection of the processing parameters. Specifically, the model seeks to answer several questions critical to the HIP process: 1) Will the can survive? 2) Will the billet consolidate? 3) Will the microstructure be acceptable? 4) Will the final dimensions be acceptable? The program will be undertaken by the team of Materials Research & Design and Exothermics. MR&D is well known in the advanced materials community for its expertise in the design of components for extreme environments. Exothermics is expert at HIPping unique materials such as titanium carbide sputtering targets and hafnium nitride rocket motor throats. The program consists of six tasks including: 1) Literature review, 2) Constitutive model de-velopment, 3) Thermostructural modeling, 4) Trial fabrication, 5) Characterization, and 6) Correlation. The test of feasibility in the Phase I program will be the comparison of model predictions of billet behavior with measured data from the fabrication and characterization tasks.

MICROWAVE BONDING INSTRUMENTS
2400 N. Lincoln Ave.
Altadena, CA 91001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 296-6482
Dr. Nasser K. Budraa
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:High Reliability of Focal Plane Arrays by Microwave Hybridization Techniques.
Abstract:MBI proposes to extend our earlier hybridization and rework success with quantum well-type infrared detectors to mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) type detectors. This goal of this project is to increase hybridization yield and lower overall costs of focal plane array (FPA) infrared detectors commonly found in missile interceptors and passive infrared sensor platforms. MBI technology used in the assembly and rework of the IR detectors does not subject the devices to high temperatures or high pressures during the attachment process; especially since the FPA and the readout electronics typically have different coefficients of thermal expansion. Technical objectives under this Phase I effort include (1) developing a low stress (applied pressure) process appropriate for MCT detectors, (2) characterizing and minimizing adverse microwave processing effects on detector array and readout electronics, and (3) obtaining thermal cycling reliability data for indium bump arrays that have been microwave processed.

MMICMAN, LLC
826 N. Red Robin St.
Orange, CA 92869
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 980-3039
Mr. Rick Strudivant
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements
Abstract:MMICMAN proposes an improved method for phased array. Current methods use old technology, don't meet performance goals and are very costly. Our approach lowers cost and improves performance by taking advantage of our unique phased array concept and the latest advances in materials and electronic packaging. Our proposal is to demonstrate a sub array using our technology.

RADIATIVE SOLUTIONS, LLC
DBA Radion Technologies, 6659 Kimball Drive, Suite
Gig Harbor, WA 98335
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 857-1057
Dr. Todd Wareing
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Variance Reduction for Radiation Transport Calculations in Complex Geometries
Abstract:Radiation effects play a critical role in the performance and reliability of MDA systems. Recognizing this, radiation transport simulations are widely performed throughout the product design cycle. While Monte Carlo is widely used for these simulations, computational times can be excessive unless sophisticated variance reduction methods are employed. However, this process can be extremely difficult and time consuming, and must be performed for each separate location in the model where a solution is desired. Radion Technologies and Raytheon have developed unique and complimentary technologies which, when coupled together, can provide an automated, CAD based process for the generation of sophisticated importance maps for Monte Carlo variance reduction. In Phase 1, a proof-of-concept process will be developed and subsequently validated on a represenative MDA system. Success will be evaluated based on the reduction in user-time and improvements in computational speed relative to existing practices. If successful, this research will lead to a product which can substantially augment analysis productivity, and has the potential to improve MDA system performance and reduce product time-to-market.

RENAISSANCE SERVICES
1 S. Limestone St, Suite 1020
Springfield, OH 45502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 322-3227
Mr. Robert E. Morris
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Industrial Base for EKV Telescope Alternatives: Establishing an Infrastructure for Collaboration
Abstract:By necessity, the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has uncompromising affordability and mission assurance objectives. To achieve these objectives, MDA leverages the full capability of the industrial base for materials, components, and subsystems. Sometimes this entails seeking alternative materials, processes, and components that provide better, more affordable products. Alternative solutions are either available or in development, but they must be effectively harnessed to achieve affordable, reliable production. In some instances, realization of these alternatives requires the establishment of an entirely new industrial base for key components and processes. One such instance is telescopes for the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). Success for such an industrial base depends on its members' ability to efficiently work together to develop and produce alternative products. Renaissance Services proposes to work with Raytheon to integrate and extend the advanced information technologies needed to ensure that the flow of technical requirements can occur seamlessly at every level of the telescope supply chain. The system will combine proven technologies with new development to establish a web-based network, enabling extensive collaboration on requirements at the most fundamental level. This will in turn enable MDA to immediately realize the full potential of its new industrial base for EKV telescope alternatives.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, LLC
9340 Hazard Way, Suite A3
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Ms. Christine Benzie
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight, Multi-functional Electronic Enclosures for KEI
Abstract:The Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) missile intercepts incoming ballistic missiles during the launch portion of their flight. Achieving the peak velocity with current rocket motor technology has presented the KEI missile lead contractor, Raytheon, with an aggressive low weight challenge for the interceptor payload. KEI engineers have proposed lightweight materials for most of the payload components in order to meet the payload weight requirements. SDC proposes a program to develop and demonstrate multifunctional composite structures for Lightweight KEI Electronics Housings as a solution to meet the KEI structure system performance and weight goals. The KEI Electronics Housing performs several other functions besides being an enclosure, such as thermal management, electrical shielding and grounding, vibration suppression, and nuclear hardness. Choosing materials and designs that address these secondary functions with innovative integration into the Housing reduces redundancy and therefore, weight, of the component.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Qhalid Fareed
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Gradually buffered, delta-doped AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors
Abstract:New structure GaN-based field effect transistors (FETs) are proposed to solve the problem. A composition graded buffer, aiming at eliminating dislocations arising from hetero-epitaxy interface and suppressing channel electrons spillover under negative gate bias, a Si-delta-doped GaN layer just below the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel, used for polarization fields screening as well as carrier supplier, are the major innovations of the new structure. We propose to use a composition-graded AlGaN transition layer in-between the AlN buffer and the GaN layer. This carefully designed transition layer will be insulating and can gradually accommodate the lattice mismatch between AlN and GaN, eliminating/alleviating the dislocation generation. The piled-up polarization fields, which could deplete the 2DEG channel, will be taken care of by inserting a Si-delta-doping layer in the vicinity to the channel. Simulations will be done to guide experiments and find out the interactions among the composition grading, polarization fields and Si-delta-doping (concentration and position).

SOLDERING TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, INC.
102 TRIBBLE DRIVE
MADISON, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 705-5531
Mr. JASON GJESVOLD
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements
Abstract:Imbedded Component / Die Technology (IC/DT) A 3-D Modular Designed CCA: The need for high reliability electronic military systems coupled with reduced size and weight factors has demanded the evolution of circuit card manufacturing technology for miniturizing and assembling printed circuit card assemblies into standard modular designed configurations. IC/DT will advance electronics manufacturing to the next generation by transforming 2-D component assemblies into 3-D modular CCA'S. IC/DT SUBSTITUTES PLACEMENT OF COMPONENTS ON THE SURFACE OF AN ORGANIC SUBSTRATE ONTO OR NEAR A RIGID, THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CORE UTILIZING MULTI-LEVEL CAVITIES. The elimination of all external component level secondary packaging further increases reliability by reducing mass and the number of opportunities for electrical interconnect failure.The use of bare die and thick/thin film components reduces both overall mass /weight and CCA size. IC/DT improves form and fit factors with increased component to substarte ratio allowing for smaller CCA's or for the addition of redundant systems to increase relaibility for hi-rel applications. Flexible interconnects from component to component or component to substrate, coupled with vibration - dampening encapsulant, allow for reliable use in high vibration and / or G-Force environments. Replacing solder interconnects, as the mechanoical and electrical attachment material, with conductive adheasives /epoxies and wire bonds allows for a more efficient interconnect media. The use of IC/DT when assembling CCA's can dramatically improve reliability and also improve form and fit factors by building CCA's in a modular 3-D configuration. THE FOLLOWING COMPANIES TPOC'S ARE REFERENCED FOR ADDING THEIR SUPPORT AND HELP TO THIS SBIR ENDEAVOR: LOCKHEED MARTIN LEN LACROIX, BAE GEORGE BURRUSS, AND HONEYWELL PATRICIA DARE.

SP3 CORP.
505 E. Evelyn Ave.
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 966-0630
Mr. Jerry W. Zimmer
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements - GaN On SOD
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed research will be to develop GaN molecular beam epitaxy on SOD (silicon/diamond/silicon) substrates up to 4 inches in diameter. This unique substrate/epilayer combination will provide electronic materials suitable for high-power and opto-electronic devices without the commonly observed limitations due to the production of excess heat during device operation. The resulting devices will have built-in thermal heat spreading capability that should result in better performance and higher reliability. It will also have the capability of being extended to wafer sizes of 200mm or larger. This project will combine sp3's expertise in growing diamond on silicon with existing SOI technology that can apply a thin layer of single crystal silicon on top of the diamond to form an SOD structure. UC Berkeley's existing expertise in buffer layer development for GaN growth by MBE on silicon can then be used to create a device layer on top of the silicon. The resulting device has an integral heat spreader incorporated into the substrate that can improve both device performance and reliability. A precise, flat, stress free silicon/diamond intermediate substrate is an essential part of this research project and will be the primary focus. Device modeling prior to manufacturing the SOD substrate will be used to pre-optimize the diamond and silicon layer thickness' and fabricated device measurements will be used to refine the model and evaluate the improvements in performance and junction temperatures as a result of the diamond layer.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
Suite 103, 201 Circle Drive
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Dr. Edwin M Dons
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Nonvolatile Chalcogenide-based Memories
Abstract:Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI), in collaboration with BAE SYSTEMS, will develop and demonstrate an improved production technology for chalcogenide-based nonvolatile memories using MOCVD. The goal of this project is to fabricate and test alloyed and doped, chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 test structures grown by MOCVD for subsequent incorporation in standard CMOS process technology. In addition, we will develop a process and production tool model that will ultimately lead to improved manufacturability of these devices. This work will build on the current, joint efforts of SMI - a US leader in cutting-edge MOCVD technology - and BAE SYSTEMS - a worldwide leader in CMOS compatible, chalcogenide-based nonvolatile memory - to bring this technology to a manufacturable state. CMOS compatible chalcogenide-based nonvolatile memory technology exceeds the best features of current state-of-the-art SONOS technology without the inherent degradation and endurance limitations. The use of MOCVD affords sub-nm growth control and a proven production capability that promises to lead to improved device properties and thus, improved yield and product quality. For these reasons, SMI and BAE SYSTEMS are ideally suited to develop and commercialize this technology.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
2650 East Foothill Boulevard
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 792-3000
Mr. Russ Pina
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Information Protection Technology (IPT) to Safeguard Sensitive Data on Removable COTS Storage Media
Abstract:The ability to safeguard the sensitive data and critical information being used throughout sophisticated MDA systems is of national importance. Tanner Research has developed and demonstrated at TRL-4 an innovative Information Protection Technology (IPT) suitable for use on removable COTS storage media, including micro-scale devices. Tanner's IPT has been evaluated by the USAF Information Warfare Battlelab and validated by the DoD Computer Forensics Lab as suitable for use in protecting sensitive information on airborne and ground-based assets. Tanner's IPT ensures that sensitive information in danger of being tactically compromised can be quickly and cost-effectively rendered safe from any unwanted exploitation. The Navy and the USAF funded the early development of this IPT in response to an international incident where only hand-tools were available for use by the aircrew in attempting prevent information on storage media from being exploited. Tanner Research is proposing in Phase I to mature the IPT and demonstrate the feasibility of deploying it in a relevant environment at TRL-5/6. A follow-on Phase II program will further mature the IPT to TRL-7/8 so as to meet the current and emerging needs of MDA vis--vis protecting sensitive information contained in distributed databases.

TECHNOSOFT, INC.
11180 Reed Hartman Highway
Cincinnati, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 985-9877
Mr. Adel Chemaly
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation hardness improvements via automated comprehensive system modeling
Abstract:An environment for integrated design and Radiation Transport Analysis (RTA) is proposed. It automates the RTA process supporting improved modeling fidelity. Optimization methods for reducing the computational order of the analysis model and integrating the analysis process with CAD design environments facilitating trade studies and exploration are supported. The environment will seamlessly integrate industry proven RTA tools including TART and MCNPX with common parametric CAD systems within a single object-oriented engineering framework. The proposed environment will have an immediate impact on MDA systems in the design phase, in addition to supporting detailed studies for radiation tolerance of systems already fielded. The enhanced analytical modeling capability and the rapid engineering environment will allow for reduced system weight and costs, enhanced radiation tolerance, and greater design margins. These improvements will have a positive impact on performance, affordability, and effective manufacturing yield. The environment's potential benefit would apply to commercial space applications as well as to DoD systems. In partnership with Raytheon the proposed underlying modeling and computing technology will be matured, developed, tested, and deployed, with the objective being an end-to-end integrated design and radiation transport analysis and design exploration environment.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Mr. R. Andrew Guth
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Self-Heating Tooling Concepts with Carbon Foam
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is seeking innovative manufacturing approaches that dramatically increase production rates and reduce program costs for composite parts which are integral portions of advanced missile defense designs. Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd. has developed a novel material, CFOAMr, which is a proven structural material for composite tooling. The current CFOAM tooling has been optimized for advanced composites manufacturing in a high-temperature and pressure cure cycle that involves equipment with high capitalization costs, including autoclaves or furnaces. Tailorable electrical properties of CFOAM allow a self-heating tool that enables the new environmentally stipulated closed molding manufacturing processes to be economically viable, with quicker cycle times and a higher level of process control. One important aspect of composites fabrication is controlling the temperature of the tooling by heating the tool. CFOAM acts as a resistive heating element under controlled voltage and current and produces a revolutionary self-heating tooling. Unlike open mold technology where the tool is at ambient conditions, the heated tool presents a much more repeatable environment. Heating composite tool systems speeds the cycle time and optimizes the resin system properties. This optimization improves part surface quality, assures repeatable mechanical properties and reduces manufacturing variances.

TRUSTED DATA SOLUTIONS, LLC
242 Lynbrook Blvd.
Shreveport, LA 71106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(318) 841-4332
Mr. Kenneth McCoy
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements
Abstract:Trusted Data Solutions proposes to demonstrate the benefits of establishing a manufacturing readiness system to create an intelligent, electronic factory for use throughout a product's lifecycle. In a manufacturing readiness system, relationships among products, processes, and resources are associative; "what-if" scenarios can be quickly played out within the electronic factory to determine impact on readiness level and ultimately production costs. The savings of integrating a manufacturing readiness system show multiple benefits including: reduction in overall production costs, increase in production throughput, and a reduction in overall time-to-market. Combining an open architecture environment, database systems that establish relationships among products, processes, and resources, and tools such as CAD, CAM, or CAP, the manufacturing readiness system is created. This readiness system is then taken as the foundational infrastructure and integrated with the correct tools to establish an electronic factory. The electronic factory is then able to conduct scenarios based upon single data sources such as: capacity studies, resource optimization, logistics routing, and cost reductions. Trusted Data Solutions' overall objective under Phase I is to identify the most opportunistic implementation site for a pilot project of the manufacturing readiness system.

ZYGO CORP.
Laurel Brook Road
Middlefield, CT 06455
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 292-8900
Mr. Michael James
MDA 04-111      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Manufacturing Processes For EKV Telescopes by Application of DFMA and Advanced Metrology Tools
Abstract:There is significant opportunity to reduce cost, cycle time, and process variability of optical sensor assemblies through the application of innovative engineering and metrology tools. The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying DFMA (Design for Manufacturability and Assembly) techniques and Advanced Metrology tools to systematically evaluate the manufacturing processes associated with construction of EKV telescopes, and to relate this information to improvements in cost, cycle time, reliability, quality/yield and manufacturing process variability. The metrics for making a true assessment are interrelated in a complex manner that includes the design/system performance requirements, component design and fabrication methods, assembly and alignment methods and procedures, test requirements, and the special tooling and test equipment used to accomplish the tasks at each level. Raytheon Missile Systems in Tucson, Arizona will work together with Zygo as an integrated product improvement (IPT) team to model different candidate designs and feed the DFMA information back into the design cycle. By doing this in an iterative manner, each configuration can be evaluated uniformly with each candidate design having the benefits of the DFMA process. Zygo has a successful track record of achieving reduced cost and cycle time and improved yield from distributed resources through the use of the DFMA process.

BREAULT RESEARCH ORGANIZATION
6400 E. Grant Road, Suite 350
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 721-0500
Mr. Robert J. Pagano
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Warm Shield Sensor Design
Abstract:Many Ballistic Missile Defense sensors use infrared wavelengths to detect the heat generated by target missiles. These sensors must capture infrared emission from a missile, image that missile onto a detector with the requisite resolution, and control the amount of unwanted light or stray light striking the detector. Limiting stray light from internal and external sources is often as important as providing a high quality image of the target. Prior work has demonstrated that warm shields can effectively reduce thermal background noise and lead to more compact, easier to build, infrared sensors. In this SBIR response, we propose to substantially shorten the optical design cycle while characterizing the benefits and limitations of a specific warm shield design.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, LLC (DBA MMCC, LLC)
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. JAMES A. CORNIE
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Graphite Fiber Reinforced Mg for EKV Mirrors and Optical Support Structures for Be Replacement and Enhanced Performance: Component Demonstration and Contractor Evaluation
Abstract:MMCC will manufacture its standard discontinuous graphite fiber reinforced Mg alloy AZ31 optimized to a CTE of 2 ppm/K for evaluation by Raytheon Missile Systems for EKV mirror and Be applications. Additionally, MMCC will provide Raytheon evaluation panels of its new products based upon filament winding of high modulus fibers that can be arranged with a zero CTE and 30% higher stiffness than Be in the optical axis, and a SiC matching CVD SiC in the transverse (mirror plane) direction. While Raytheon is performing evaluations on these materials, MMCC will be developing egg crate structures and bonding surrogate Si membranes onto the surface of standard MetGraf Mg-2 as well as egg crate substructures. This technology when, developed for hybridization with CVD SiC semi-replica mirror front and back membranes, promises to result in the stiffest, lightest, most thermally stable of any rigid mirror yet contemplated or proposed. The phase I Option project will feature delivery of standard MetGraf Mg 2 as well as filament wound egg crate substrates attached to Si front and back membranes to Raytheon for evaluation. The architecture for stiff-zero CTE materials will serve well for support structures, optical benches in EKV and other sensor and surveillance optics.

NXGEN ELECTRONICS, INC.
9771Clairemont Mesa Blvd., Suite C
San Diego, CA 92124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 309-6610
Mr. Don Hayashigawa
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Electro-Optic Products
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying dense microelectronics packaging to enable the next generation of rugged, miniature 3D stacked microcomputer modules as part of the image recognition and guidance package in SMART weapons. The enabled functionality (modules) includes the ability to process large amounts of digital data from sensor packages, store and process this information to provide guidance and targeting information to the appropriate portion of the weapon. The enabling technologies are based on advancements derived from the recent packaging developments for cell phones, pagers, etc, but carried to a higher level by virtue of the developments proposed herein. The 2 inch by 2 inch by inch (see below) low cost, self contained 3D microcomputer module will work in the most stringent environmental conditions of smart weapons, survive typical ballistic missile conditions, while dissipating 45-50 watts. "Clustering' these small modules would enable missile/weapons developers the ability to improve target recognition by employing parallel processing (more processors in the same volume) and provide better guidance accuracy by improved `scene' recognition. As a stand alone, these small modules would offer the opportunity to add `smarts' to ever smaller weapons.

QED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1040 University Ave.
Rochester, NY 14607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 256-6540
Mr. Christopher Hall
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Fluid developments for Magnetorheological Finishing of Silicon Carbide
Abstract:High precision, lightweight optics are required for numerous seekers, aircraft, and satellites programs. Current system demands require that the optics operate in a variety of conditions and in wavelengths from the visible to very long wave IR. This translates into a need for large (up to 30 cm) mirrors in difficult to manufacture materials, e.g., SiC, with surface requirements that meet or exceed surface figure of 1/60-wave RMS and surface roughness of < 20 angstroms. Current manufacturing technologies cannot affordably produce these components. Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) is a production-proven technology for the economic production of precision optics, including difficult to manufacture shapes such as aspheres. Although MRF can polish SiC lightweight mirrors with high precision and convergence rates, more work is required to optimize the MRF technology to be production ready for these next-generation materials. This proposal will culminate in an MR finishing process, designed specifically for SiC, and enable a turn-key solution for the rapid fabrication of high precision SiC optics.

REYNARD CORP.
1020 Calle Sombra
San Clemente, CA 92673
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 366-8866
Mr. Virgil Laul
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Electro-Optic Products
Abstract:The Replacement of Beryllium with Silicon Carbide for mirrors is proposed. New cold coating technology is proposed with an improvement in radiation servivabilty.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, LLC
9340 Hazard Way, Suite A3
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Mr. Robert Kolozs
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Development of a More Producible Telescope Housing
Abstract:MDA currently has three different ground based mid-course interceptors, all of which utilize different configurations for the optical seeker assembly. Each of the three advanced interceptor systems, the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV), Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) and Miniature Kill Vehicle (MKV) encompass similar designs, yet require noncontiguous research and development. A program is proposed to develop and demonstrate a single scalable seeker design that would be applicable to any current or similar future interceptor regardless of size. Resources presently allocated to the design of interceptor specific structures and optics would be eliminated by this modular seeker approach. The scalable seeker assembly includes a telescope structure housing and optical mirrors that individually and as an integral system will be analyzed for scalablility and compatibility. SDC is currently investigating a Carbon-Carbon upgrade to the existing EKV beryllium interceptor that will serve as the baseline design. A Phase I program will demonstrate feasibility of a scalable seeker assembly through design and analysis, fabrication of test articles, and materials properties testing. A Phase II program would then develop a detailed scalable seeker and demonstrate performance for advanced interceptor full-scale structure and optical sensor components and configurations through design, fabrication, and thermal/structural tests.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 338-2865
Mr. William Goodman
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Innovative Electro-Optic Products
Abstract:Schafer shall produce mirrors (with and without a RadHard coating) and materials test coupons to deliver to the Government, and subsequently to Raytheon (Tucson) for verification and qualification of fundamental structural properties, radiation effects testing, and optical quality and performance measurements for Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle Sensor Telescopes. The mirrors will be Silicon Lightweight Mirror Systems (SLMST) made of pure polycrystalline silicon and Silicon Carbide-SLMST made of pure beta-silicon carbide. The materials test coupons will be C/SiC, a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite. Notable, the C/SiC material can serve as the mirror mount and telescope reaction structure for each of our mirrors. Schafer shall also provide the existing materials properties database and test results for these materials to be used in a Raytheon EKV telescope model in order to determine performance issues and suitability of the materials for seeker applications and mission profiles. We shall fabricate 3-inch diameter plano mirrors, polished to a figure of HeNe/10 PV and a surface roughness of 10 RMS. A well planned Phase II program will include hardware radiation effects testing by Mission Research Corporation and "Shake, Rattle, Roll" and "Environmental" testing by Zygo Corporation and Raytheon

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Jay Schwartz
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:REACTION BONDED SILICON CARBIDE FOR MDA SEEKER TELESCOPE APPLICATIONS
Abstract:Material alternatives to beryllium are needed for the next generation of MDA seeker telescope applications. Beryllium has issues with cost and schedule which make it less than ideal for next generation applications like MKV where many hundreds of telescopes may need to be produced. Beryllium has additional issues related to limited material availability and toxicity which need to be addressed as well. SSG proposes the application of a Reaction Bonded (RB) Silicon Carbide (SiC) material as a beryllium replacement. RB SiC is a low-cost, readily available material which eliminates many of the issues with beryllium while providing material properties which are close to those provided with beryllium. SSG proposes to demonstrate the suitability of the RB SiC material to these applications, during Phase I SSG will work with Raytheon in order to characterize the RB SiC material against MDA/Raytheon generated requirements. A successful Phase I activity will be followed by a more extensive test/qualification process in Phase II.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. Richard Dummer
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened Mirror Coating for Spacecraft And Interceptors
Abstract:A single nuclear detonation in space may cause the failure of satellite systems currently in low earth orbit. A primary failure mode for many satellite components involves the damage induced by surface heating from intense X-ray radiation emitted during the first moments after a nuclear detonation. Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), in conjunction with ATK Mission Research (ATK-MR), will demonstrate a radiation hardened reflective coating system for spacecraft and interceptor mirrors. The proposed innovation consists of a patented, non-tarnishing silver mirror coating , which may be applied to lightweight substrate materials such as silicon-carbide and beryllium. Because of its lower atomic number, silver is known to have better radiation resistance than metals such as gold, yet silver has not been used extensively for first surface mirrors because of its susceptibility to tarnishing during terrestrial storage. Since the anti-tarnishing barrier is extremely thin and comprised primarily of the low atomic number elements silicon and nitrogen, it is expected the proposed coating scheme will provide a naturally radiation resilient mirror system. In addition, silver is the most reflective of all metals, therefore, the mirror's optical performance will be significantly improved.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. Clifford T. Tanaka
MDA 04-112      Selected for Award
Title:Analysis of Novel, Low Stress Chemical Vapor Composite Silicon Carbide for Optical Applications
Abstract:The proposed program will seek to assess the viability of silicon carbide deposited via Trex's chemical vapor composite (CVC) method for use in ballistic missile defense optics. The Phase I program will conduct thorough material analysis on CVC SiC coupons to characterize the key thermal and mechanical properties of interest for optical applications. These data will then be used to model CVC SiC performance in the optical telescope model, e.g., in the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The results for this analysis will identify the specific components that show promising performance when made using CVC SiC. The ultimate goal will be to satisfy the need for a robust manufacturing process for optical systems by capitalizing on the CVC SiC numerous advantages: (1) low residual stress, (2) thermal & mechanical stability (3) polishability, (4) rapid fabrication and (5) scalability.

BOUNDLESS CORP.
5445 Conestoga Court, Unit 1-B
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 415-9029
Dr. John B. Olson
MDA 04-113      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Cost, Produceable Nanowire Cathode Materials for High-Power Lithium Batteries
Abstract:Metal-doped manganese spinel cathode active material will be coated onto aluminum nanowires to improve the high-power performance of lithium-ion batteries. There are significant benefits of this innovation for MDA and other high power battery users: 1. The long thin wires provide four times the surface area to enhance high-power performance of the cathode 2. The aluminum wire provides good electrical conductance for the semiconductor active material and could reduce or eliminate the need for carbon black conductive additives 3. The process for coating aluminum nanowires will be simple and relatively inexpensive using mass-produced aluminum nanowires 4. The nanostructured manganese spinel will be more stable to Jann-Teller lattice distortion degradation during discharge This is a novel approach expected to increase cathode power capabilities by factors of four or greater. Metal-doped manganese precursors will be coated onto aluminum nanowires in solution phase (sol-gel) processes and calcined to form the desired spinel materials. These will be characterized with advanced instruments such as XRD and SEM. The high power capability of these new materials will be confirmed in lithium-ion test pouch cells.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0530
Dr. Robert C. McDonald
MDA 04-113      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced electrode coating method for performance enhancement and lower production costs in Lithium Ion batteries
Abstract:An advanced method is proposed for applying very uniform electrode coatings for Lithium Ion batteries. The method will improve distribution of active material in the electrode for enhanced energy and power density and longer cycle life. With increased control of coating distribution and thickness, and elimination of waste, overall battery yield in manufacturing is expected to increase with a concomitant decrease in unit costs. The proposed method provides better separation of active material particles in the electrode matrix, so that each particle is fully wetted with electrolyte and in contact with conductive carbon particles to reduce internal resistance and insure that all active material is utilized in charge/discharge cycles.

ODYSSIAN TECHNOLOGY, L.L.C.
3740 Edison Lakes Parkway
Mishawaka, IN 46545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(574) 257-7555
Mr. Barton Bennett
MDA 04-113      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Reliability and Producibility of Ballistic Missile Defense Systems through Highly Controlled Deposition of Critical Battery Components
Abstract:The missiles used by the military today are electronic intensive: control systems, navigation systems, and targeting systems all have components on-board the missile. These systems require a power source that is capable of delivering large amounts of power throughout flight of the missile. The power source must be capable of being stored for decades without loss of power or performance while being reliably and easily activated within milliseconds. Currently, thermal batteries are widely used to achieve these goals. Thermal batteries are stored with the electrolyte in a solid state; preventing chemical reactivity and associated current leakage that is prevalent in common wet electrolytic batteries. To activate the thermal batteries, igniters are electrically charged causing hot embers to shoot out into the core of the battery. These embers ignite flammable material within the battery causing the electrolyte to activate the battery. The reliability of these battery igniters determine whether or not the battery is activated and in turn determines whether or not a missile will have its necessary targeting, navigation, and control systems. Novel concepts for increasing the reliability of these battery igniters are proposed that use low cost physical vapor deposition of one of the critical igniter components.

ASPEN SYSTEMS, INC.
184 Cedar Hill Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. Somesh Mukherjee
MDA 04-114      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Wide Band Infrared Window Technologies
Abstract:Aspen Systems Inc., proposes to investigate the feasibility of developing a protective coating material for ZnS that will have comparable mechanical properties of ALON, Spinel and Sapphire but will retain the extended regime transmission properties of multi-spectral ZnS. However, ZnS being a soft material with relatively poor mechanical strength and erosion resistance, it is essential to develop a suitable protective coating on ZnS. Aspen's Phase I proposal aims to develop an innovative coating design and technique and selecting suitable coating materials for ZnS. Among the very limited choices of coating materials, Aspen Systems Inc., has identified DLC (Diamond like carbon) as a candidate coating material for this phase I program as it has higher mechanical strength, good transparent properties and desirable characteristics in the infrared region. Aspen plans to develop optical quality diamond-like coating (DLC) over ZnS using state of the art coating technique. Optimization of deposition parameters and characterization of coating including hardness, optical properties and its thermal stability for the coating will be critically evaluated during this investigation

MILITARY SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1018 W 9th Ave , Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 354-9100
Mr. Michael Wilson
MDA 04-114      Selected for Award
Title:Bimodal Lithium Reserve Battery
Abstract:Current trends in power requirements for missile systems indicate that there is a growing need for providing increased power and energy while simultaneously reducing size and weight of power systems. Because of the compact size of emerging missile systems and the limitations on traditional "tin can" battery designs, flexibility in battery configuration becomes an enabling factor in optimizing overall system performance. To achieve these goals, a novel approach to electrolyte storage and activation will be employed. Traditional Lithium Reserve Batteries contain two isolated sections. One section consists of a dry cell stack and the other contains a liquid electrolyte. This configuration requires a significant amount of storage space that is effectively useless once the battery is activated. The approach to be researched will contain a cell stack that is "wet" with a neutral electrolyte and separate reservoir with the acidic, high molarity electrolyte component. In the initial state, the battery can serve as a low discharge power source. Upon high power activation, the high molarity electrolyte is injected into the "wet" cell stack and will infuse with the neutral electrolyte to provide high power capability. This concept is described in detail in "Bimodal Battery," US Patent No. 6,187,471 B1, issued Feb. 13, 2001.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. J.B. Mecham
MDA 04-114      Selected for Award
Title:Nanostructured Self Assembled Antireflective Coatings for Seeker Windows
Abstract:During the proposed Phase I SBIR program, NanoSonic will fabricate novel multilayered self-assembled coatings onto the surface of infrared (IR) optical substrates that will impart exceptional hardness, impact and thermal shock resistance properties, far superior to that of the uncoated material. In addition, NanoSonic will also self-assemble an anti-reflective coating onto the substrate, increasing the transmission of light of a prescribed and targeted bandwidth though the optical substrate, enhancing the sensitivity of the optically-protected IR seeker device. The combination of these two coatings will demonstrate the utility of our patented electrostatic self assembly method, which can be tailored to provide an array of coatings properties to a substrate of interest, with very controlled thicknesses in the range of several to hundreds of nanometers, with minimal variation and exceptional surface roughness control.

VICUS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
62 Portland Rd
Kennebunk, ME 04043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 985-4200
Mr. Paul Hurlburt
MDA 04-114      Selected for Award
Title:AR Coated Zinc Sulfide Advanced Window Technology
Abstract:Multispectral zinc sulfide (ZnS) has been identified as a candidate seeker window material for defensive interceptor applications. Zinc sulfide is currently being tested for thermophysical and optical properties to confirm its performance and validate analytical predictions. The ZnS currently being tested does not contain an antireflective (AR) coating. Due to the increase in spectral bandwidth for ZnS, a broadband AR coating will be required to optimize its transmission characteristics. The objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate multilayer antireflective coating(s) applied to ZnS. Optical transmission testing will be conducted at incidence angles from near normal up to 60 degrees at ambient and service temperature levels using the a bandwidth of 3um to 11um. Material test coupons will be prepared using current THAAD specifications for machining and polishing of the ZnS substrate surfaces. The AR coatings will be selected based on durability, ability to withstand the thermal environment, compatibility with to the ZnS bandwidth, abrasion resistance and cost. The resulting data will be compared to uncoated materials and analysis conducted to identify application performance capabilities.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court St., Suite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
Dr. Charles Ferrara
MDA 04-115      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Advanced Radar Technologies for Missile Defense
Abstract:Integrated Sensors, Incorporated proposes to develop and demonstrate techniques that effect practical, operationally meaningful, simultaneous mainlobe/sidelobe jamming cancellation in solid state, active array radars while preserving target angular accuracies and permit operation in clutter and jamming environments. Two innovative and promising architectures will be examined: (a) an Adaptive Maximum Likelihood Beamspace (AMLB), and (b) a Multi-Band Adaptive Maximum Likelihood Beamspace (MB-AMLB) architecture. The latter architecture is a highly robust concept that optimally exploits information from either multi-band or ultra-wide band (UWB) radar systems. The primary emphasis is: (1) to address phased array radars that do not have access to their subarrays, i.e., only traditional sum, difference, and auxiliary channel availability is assumed, and (2) to design an architecture that will effectively suppress simultaneous sidelobe and mainlobe jamming. Our demonstration plan includes an experimental system including a phased-array radar as part of a comprehensive Phase I and Phase II program, eventually leading to implementation of jamming suppression processors for retrofit into existing Army radars.

MILTEC CORP.
678 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-1350
Mr. Byron Schrader
MDA 04-115      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Advanced Radar Technologies for Missile Defense
Abstract:Missile Defense radar applications require high measurement resolution and accuracy. An essential characteristic necessary for high radar measurement performance is high effective bandwidth. High radar bandwidth is universally desired in most all radar applications, however, it is only desirable in terms of performance; generally wide BW hardware designs are more expensive to develop, produce and maintain. In this Phase 1 program, the Stepped-Frequency pulse compression technique is analyzed for its technical performance and its feasibility and cost for implementation in large-scale Active Electronically Steered Array antennas. This program's focus is not to define "plug-in" modifications for existed systems, but to evaluate the merit of this radar architecture for future developments. If promising results are obtained in this effort, a Phase 2 program is planned for the development of a high fidelity radar emulation capability that will allow detailed radar architecture and algorithm evaluation.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
1220 Kennestone Circle, Suite E
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 795-8181
Ms. Susan F. Dugas
MDA 04-115      Selected for Award
Title:Low Elevation Enhanced Tropospheric Effects Compensation (ETEC) GPS Antenna Array
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) has combined its unique expertise in atmospheric physics and radar signal propagation to develop the Enhanced Tropospheric Effects Compensation (ETEC) System that will compensate for tropospheric bending errors when tracking long-range, low-elevation targets. The ETEC System will provide enhanced performance over existing techniques to permit greater detection range and longer time lines for these targets at low-elevation angles while enhancing target identification and discrimination. In Phase I, PRA will design the low-elevation ETEC GPS antenna array to extend the ETEC System operation to low-elevation targets. PRA will develop an antenna design and signal processing algorithms that mitigate multipath interference while maintaining a transportable antenna size and accurate angle-of-arrival measurements. To this end, PRA will implement an adaptive cancellation algorithm to mitigate multipath interference, and PRA will develop alignment and calibration algorithms that will permit the GPS array to accurately measure the bending angle of refracted GPS signals. In Phase II, PRA plans to fabricate the low-elevation ETEC antenna array and integrate the array with the ETEC hardware and software developed in contract W9113M-04-P-0042. PRA plans to test the fully integrated ETEC System at Vandenberg AFB using four C-band radars.

SARASWATI ASSOC.
1291 E Hillsdale Blvd, Suite 305
Foster City, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Mr. James Coward
MDA 04-115      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Advanced Radar Technologies for Missile Defense
Abstract:We are pleased to propose a program to design and to build an innovative, high performance optical time delay unit (TDU) for phased array antennas. In order to find the optimum choice of implementation, we examined techniques such as MEMs optical cross connect switches, integrated optic switch arrays, fiber Bragg gratings and LCDs. We have achieved our goals of low loss, fast tuning, small size and low weight with a heterogeneous baseline where we use wavelength selective routing employing a Mach Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) to add fiber lengths for large values of delay, and we use dispersive delay fiber to add fine delay adjustments. The key enabling component is a fast tuning optically broadband laser diode. The laser has the additional capability to create multiple tunable simultaneous wavelengths. This allows the time delay unit to have the capability for multiple simultaneous beams with negligible size, weight and power increase compared to the single beam operation.

INNOVATIVE BUSINESSS SOLUTIONS, INC.
301 Concourse Boulevard, Suite 120
Glen Allen, VA 23059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 812-5555
Mr. Greg Sjoquist
MDA 04-116      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced, Low Cost, Integrated Avionics
Abstract:A smaller high performance Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is required. The Line-Of-Sight-Stabilization system for the Next Generation THAAD advanced dual mode seeker requires total IMU error to be less than 2.5 uRadians and must have gyro data rates greater than 20kHz. The proposed gyro is critical to the electronic image stabilization that is performed in the advanced seeker's image processing system. An IMU of less than 2 cubic-inches is possible, which is 10 times smaller that existing IMUs. Performance of 1 degree/hour bias stability and capable of surviving high-G environments is possible by utilizing a novel rate sensing device developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The MKV Kill Vehicle program, presently base-lining a MEMS IMU, is also a good candidate for a compact IMU with the performance characteristics expected from this micro-optical gyro based IMU. The objective of the proposed effort is to develop a fully functional micro-optical gyroscope and interface it to support electronics. The Sandia Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) and Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) provide the baseline for the gyro. The proposed effort is to design the required control loop and readout circuitry that will be integrated with the existing capability and components that Sandia has already demonstrated.

POLARIS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5710 Jones Valley Drive
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 824-6547
Mrs. Michele Banish
MDA 04-116      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced, Low Cost, Integrated Avionics
Abstract:An avionics architecture that eliminates false targets, null signals, and noise at the ROIC is proposed. Smart ROICs mask data from being read-out which is critical for larger and multi-color FPAs that flood the processing pipeline with data of no interest. The proposed approach tasks the four MIPS CPUs with feature extraction computations for discrimination. The approach leverages algorithms developed for medicine and military programs and utilizes the THAAD computer's flexible FPGAs. The technology dramatically lowers false alarm rates and lower cost while buying back bandwidth and processing time for aimpoint selection improvements. Phase I experiments with HWIL data will identify the processing steps for the ROIC as separate from those in the FPGAs. LMSSC collaboration offers internal research and development resources, direct THAAD system comparisons and an implementation path. In Phase II, an FPA manufacturer will help implement the ROIC advancement and the collaboration with LMSSC will continue to address the on-board data feature extraction, an expert system to support fusion for THAAD. Polaris Sensor Technologies is collaborating with commercial FPA manufacturers to port this technology into commercial systems. In Phase II a truly smart focal plane array will be developed, pushing the processing into the sensing plane.

SOLDERING TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, INC.
102 TRIBBLE DRIVE
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 705-5531
Mr. Jason Gjesvold
MDA 04-116      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced, Low Cost, Integrated Avionics
Abstract:Imbedded Component / Die Technology (IC/DT) A 3-D Modular Designed CCA for AVIONIC APPLICATIONS: The need for high reliability electronic military avionic systems coupled with reduced size and weight factors has demanded the evolution of circuit card manufacturing technology for miniaturizing and assembling printed circuit card assemblies into standard modular designed configurations. IC/DT will advance electronics manufacturing to the next generation by transforming 2-D component assemblies into 3-D modular CCA'S. IC/DT SUBSTITUTES PLACEMENT OF COMPONENTS ON THE SURFACE OF AN ORGANIC SUBSTRATE ONTO OR NEAR A RIGID, THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CORE UTILIZING MULTI-LEVEL CAVITIES. The elimination of all external component level secondary packaging further increases reliability by reducing mass and the number of opportunities for electrical interconnect failures. The use of bare die and thick/thin film components reduces both overall mass /weight and CCA size. IC/DT improves form and fit factors with increased component to substrate ratio allowing for smaller CCA's or for the addition of redundant systems to increase reliability for hi-rel applications. Flexible interconnects from component to component or component to substrate, coupled with vibration - dampening encapsulant, allow for reliable use in high vibration and / or G-Force environments. Replacing solder interconnects, as the mechanical and electrical attachment material, with conductive adhesives /epoxies and wire bonds allow for a more efficient interconnect media. The use of IC/DT when assembling CCA's can dramatically improve reliability and also improve form and fit factors by building CCA's in a modular 3-D configuration. THE FOLLOWING COMPANIES TPOC'S ARE REFERENCED FOR ADDING THEIR SUPPORT AND HELP TO THIS SBIR ENDEAVOR: LOCKHEED MARTIN LEN LACROIX, BAE GEORGE BURRUSS, AND HONEYWELL PATRICIA DARE. The objective is to work with the current designed avionic system designers and see how this technology IC/DT improves their fit and form factor and system level capability by allowing more designed susbystems per CCA. Higher I/O density per CCA is achieved with IC/DT which is needed for future avionic systems.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
141 W. Xenia Ave., PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Dr. Ronald L. Jacobsen
MDA 04-117      Selected for Award
Title:Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites for DACS Thrust Chambers
Abstract:DACS thrust chambers for the THAAD kill vehicle are currently made out of niobium, which is heavy, difficult to machine, and expensive to produce. Previously, a lightweight ceramic composite was used, but this material was brittle and even more expensive than the metal solution. In this program, Applied Sciences, Inc. will produce a nano-reinforced ceramic matrix composite which will have enhanced thermal and mechanical performance, decrease weight and decreased cost over current materials. Our solution is expected to be at least the cost and easier to produce than current alternatives; it will have a heat limit of 5000 deg F; it will be close to 5x lighter and have 5x the specific strength of current materials; and, our nanofiber-reinforced solution will provide greater crack and shock resistance over previous ceramic alternatives. Our approach combines carbon nanofibers with preceramic polymers to create a near net-shape preform that can be pyrolyzed by microwave processing to form the DACS component. This consolidation process facilitates easy integration with metal (i.e., titanium) attachments, which will further reduce manufacturing time and expense. We will work with our Phase I team members, including Boeing Rocketdyne, to successfully integrate this innovative solution into the THAAD program.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Mr. Dino Militello
MDA 04-117      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost HfC(f)/HfC(m) CMC DACS Thrusters for THAAD
Abstract:In this MDA Phase I proposal, MATECH/GSM proposes to demonstrate fabrication of low cost HfC(f)/HfC(m) CMC's suitable for insertion into DACS Thrusters for THAAD. MATECH has brought in key propulsion contractors, Lockheed Martin and Boeing Rocketdyne and have enlisted the support of an established high temperature composite manufacturer, Fibers Materials, Inc. In two on-going Phase II MDA SBIR programs, MATECH developed different methods of producing HfC ceramic fibers and woven cloth. One method involves conversion of a rayon fiber or fabric into HfC through the infusion of a proprietary polymer followed by carbothermal reduction in inert atmosphere resulting in the formation of a stoichiometric HfC fiber or fabric. MATECH has also developed pre-ceramic polymers that can be melt spun into HfC fibers. Scale up technology to fabricate panels and sub-element components has been demonstrated. Several of the pre-ceramic polymers have shown suitability in molding components and PIP densification processing. Using demonstrated technology, material fabrication and densification, lowers the risks and enhances the likelihood of a successful program effort by MATECH/GSM. If successful in Phase I, the Phase II program would entail the design, fabrication, and delivery of THAAD DACS thrusters to Boeing Rocketdyne for "hot fire" testing.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Mr. Raffi Sahul
MDA 04-117      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Graded Composite Nozzles for THAAD Kill Vehicle (KV
Abstract:Divert and Attitude control systems for the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Kill Vehicle (KV) needs improvement with respect to performance and cost. The KV currently uses niobium nozzles and niobium silicides as the oxidation resistant coating. Materials Modification Inc (MMI) proposes significant improvement in cost and performance of the current nozzle systems by developing a graded composite nozzle combined with a nano-structurally enhanced oxidation resistance coating. MMI has developed this approach based on technological support from Donald Stevenson, Boeing Rocketdyne. In this effort, MMI will demonstrate the proof-of-concept by fabricating a prototype graded composite nozzle using a hybrid spray process and evaluate its performance. Additionally, MMI will evaluate the proposed technology for technological insertion into the THAAD program with Boeing Rocketdyne.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 04-118      Selected for Award
Title:Large Format LADAR Receiver Arrays Based on Near Infrared HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiodes
Abstract:Most seeker systems usually operate at long distances. The return laser signal from the target is not only attenuated by absorption, reflection and scattering by air-borne gas, dust and liquid particles, but also by the emissivity and reflectivity variations of the target surface. High bandwidth detectors with internal gain are required. Avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are best suited for this purpose due to their high gain-bandwidth characteristics. Fortunately, the MCT material can be bandgap engineered to achieve a large asymmetry in the hole to electron ionization coefficient. This in turn leads to high gain-bandwidth MCT APDs with minimal excess noise. Using advanced growth technique like molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), it is possible to tailor heterostructure MCT materials that would exclusively use electron ionization or hole ionization. Recent developments in monitoring techniques like in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry can lead to high quality MCT heterostructures with optimized interfaces. This, in combination with better nucleation methods and other geometric design considerations, make it now possible to grow very low-defect materials. Consequently, it is now possible to produce shot-noise limited MCT APDs that operate over a wide infrared wavelength range in single element and array formats. We propose to use our extensive experience in HgCdTe growth by molecular beam epitaxy and device processing to fabricate large format near infrared (1064nm) HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes on silicon substrates. They will be incorporated into LADAR receiver modules and integrated with MCT-based MWIR/LWIR thermal imagers.

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS CORP.
650 Vaqueros Ave., Suite A
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8648
Dr. Behzad Moslehi
MDA 04-118      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Real-Time Event Detection and Classification
Abstract:IFOS proposes a software solution to real-world applications that require automated real-time event detection and classification based on multiple sensor sources. This software will integrate various data sources and extract features to provide a more accurate description of the event. In Phase I, the goal is to implement such software and prove its feasibility of detecting and classifying real-world events. The algorithms must be able to identify these events within a noisy and complicated background. Since the detection needs of the different potential applications are so diverse, different algorithms may need to be applied to the same data streams in order to detect different classes of features. The features extracted from individual data source and algorithm will require the integration. All of these features will need to be integrated together to achieve a robust, stable detection of real-world events. One potential application is to improve the spectral analysis with data sources from multiple spectral bandpass filters that capture a mixture of spectral signatures from the target. IFOS will identify more applications required by MDA and provide optimized system design based on findings. These applications may include multi spectral analysis, robotic control, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGCV).

VERSATILIS LLC
488 Ridgefield Rd
Shelburne, VT 05482
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 985-4009
Mr. Ajay Jain
MDA 04-118      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Strapdown Seeker Technologies
Abstract:Advanced seeker systems such as for THAAD require wide FOVs and image stabilization under the shock and vibration of aerodynamic buffetting and rocket propulsion. Traditional solutions involve complex optical trains vis-a-vis FPAs to overcome field (Petzval) curvature and complex, multi-axis gimbals, inertially stabilized using expensive, precision rate gyros. Applicant proposes a highly innovative solution to these challenges combined with cost reductions for next generation FPA seekers or as an improvement to current seekers, based on a breakthrough technology for low cost manufacturing of high performance IR detectors and transistors on thin, flexible conformal substrates. The Company has developed a new substrate material system targetting TFT backplanes for displays which it proposes for band-gap engineered materials used in advanced FPAs. The material is branded as "Versulite" and has a lamellar phyllosilicate structure, which allows thin layers to be cleaved off post processing and transferred onto flexible substrates like plastics or foils. The technology can allow, in principle, curved, rather than planar focal arrays, and integration of associated electronics such as DACs and FPGAs directly onto the FPA itself, substantially reducing cost & mass. While bandgap engineered structures such as Quantum Wells (QWIPs) and Superlattices based on InAsSb for LWIR or AlGaAs/GaAs are increasingly being used, applicant proposes to simultaneously demonstrate feasibility of GaSb devices on Versulite, including potential intermixing of GaSb with GaSb Superlattices on a common substrate for a multi-spectral FPA. A Curved Focal Array would dramatically increase FOV for a strapdown seeker, obviate Petzval correction, and can simplify greatly the optics, opening up a number of new design possibilities.

V SYSTEM COMPOSITES/DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5550 Oberlin Drive, Suite B
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 678-2740
Mr. Peyton Hall
MDA 04-119      Selected for Award
Title:Direct-to-Preform Manufacturing of Lightweight Ceramics using the VARTM Composite Manufacturing Process for Advanced Hypersonic Endo-Atmospheric Interceptor Structures (Proposal No. PVSC04-043)
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is developing a Ballistic Missile Defense System including the current Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system to intercept threat reentry vehicles in their terminal stage of flight. Future MDA advanced hypersonic endo-atmospheric interceptors kill vehicles (KV) evolving from the current THAAD program will have longer range intercepts, higher velocities, longer flight times, and increased maneuvering capability. The associated severe aerothermal environment will require advanced thermal protection materials and high temperature structures for lightweight separable shrouds, midbody airframes, non-ablating forebody, and shape-stable aerodynamic deceleration and control surfaces. The common thermal protection and structures requirements are expected to include lightweight, high temperature capability, high strength and stiffness, and minimal surface ablation recession or mass loss. A program is proposed to develop and demonstrate lightweight ceramic composite structures using a combination of preceramic polymer, ceramic foam, and woven ceramic cloth fiber-reinforced materials technology of MATECH; a Direct-to-Preform manufacturing process using V System Composite's patent-pending HyPerVARTM composite manufacturing process; and Vanguard Composite Group's Integrated Heatshield and Structure (IH&S) design approach. The Phase I program will demonstrate feasibility of the lightweight ceramic composite structures. A Phase II program will develop and demonstrate the lightweight ceramic composite structures through design, fabrication, and structural test of full-scale test articles for high temperature hypersonic endo-atmospheric interceptor applications.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
MDA 04-120      Selected for Award
Title:Mutli-Domain Distributed Mission Simulation Enterprise
Abstract:The HLA framework has not addressed the significant issues of a heterogeneous operating environment in terms of security and high levels of scalability. Currently, all participants must have a minimum clearance as dictated by the simulated scenario. Even one small piece of a simulation, even a single entity, can cause an entire simulation to be inaccessible to a large group lacking the needed clearance. Furthermore, only a small number of entities can be involved in a simulation before the network traffic prohibits any real time interaction, modeling, and training. Cybernet Systems, with Ball Aerospace, proposes to design and demonstrate a mechanism, an extension, to the HLA that allows massive numbers of federations of differing clearance levels to interact in the same simulation environment by automatically filtering and modifying data that should not be seen by those with inadequate clearance. We call this the Mutli-Domain Distributed Mission Simulation Enterprise (MDDMSE). It includes the tools to allow simulation developers to specify clearance needed on a sub-entity level, methods for scaling simulations to thousands and hundreds of thousands of entities, a method for sending and receiving data to and from different simulations, and an executive control and visualization system.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway, Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Jeff Steinman
MDA 04-120      Selected for Award
Title:Interoperability Architecture for Tool Integration across Multiple Domains
Abstract:This Phase 1 effort proposes to address missile defense test and training programs that require the communication of large volume and broad spectrum of data for mission scenarios by extending the layered Standard Simulation Architecture, and its current WarpIV Kernel implementation. WarpIV was designed to replace the SPEEDES architecture that is currently used by MDWAR, EADTB, and other DoD parallel and distributed computing applications. This effort will expand beyond the scope of simulation to address integration of live systems with different data formats using DoD standards such as HLA and XML. In particular, this effort will demonstrate integration with a publish/subscribe network, similar to the Global Information Grid that is ongoing as part of two RAM Laboratories Phase 2 MDA SBIR efforts. This proposed effort focuses on three technology areas: (1) data translations, (2) communications, and (3) scalable high performance computing. Demonstrations will be provided at the end of the effort to indicate the feasibility of the proposed effort and to minimize the risk of continuing the program into Phase 2.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 847-9123
Mr. Scott Thomas
MDA 04-120      Selected for Award
Title:Interoperability Architecture for Tool Integration across Multiple Domains
Abstract:Increasingly, national and international organizations are relying on a standards-based simulation infrastructure to interconnect simulation capabilities, to increase simulation interoperability and control modeling and simulation costs. Missile Defense Agency programs are no exception, and require the communication of a large volume and broad spectrum of data for mission scenarios. Building a secure, yet flexible Multi-Level Security (MLS) simulation environment presents new & unique challenges. Many obstacles must still be overcome before a truly interoperable simulation environment that operates across political boundaries and security domains can be realized. Information sharing across complex organizational boundaries requires not only provision for integration without violating military security, but also mechanisms to ensure interoperability between different simulation federations. Trident Systems proposes to develop the Simulation Gateway (SG), a HLA interoperability tool and MLS simulation capability based on Trident's InterchangeSE and Collaboration Gateway (CG). InterchangeSE provides a common repository of integrated tools sets, enabling traceability and enforcing data consistency across the tool sets. CG, which utilizes the NSA-certified ISSE Guard, enables cross-domain instant messaging. Collectively, the SG architecture builds upon these tools to facilitate interoperability among a large number of entities and enables HLA data to be shared between multiple security domains while enforcing client authentication.

CYBERRND, INC.
10705 Cranks Road
Culver City, CA 90230
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 836-8300
Dr. Oliver E. Drummond
MDA 04-121      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Track Consistency for Improved Multiple Sensor Tracking (MDA04-121)
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate the feasibility for new algorithms to substantially improve track consistency in sensor fusion. Track consistency is the property that the computed error covariance matrix of a track realistically represents the covariance of the actual errors of the estimated target state. The computed error covariance matrix is used in data (and track) association processing and to indicate the accuracy of the target state estimate. Consequently, degraded track consistency causes misassociations (correlation errors) that will substantial degrade track performance and the performance of subsequent processing, such as for discrimination, sensor resource management, and battle management. If an inconsistent track covariance is also used in the subsequent processing then that process will exhibit additional degradation. The new algorithms will be subjected to Monte Carlo runs to show Proof of Principle. These processing methods have been designed to correct for the common causes of degraded track consistency in fusion tracks, such as misassociations (miscorrelations), model errors, and residual sensor biases. Results from high fidelity simulations have shown that degraded track consistency is a major problem even with more advanced fusion processing than is in current operational systems or field tested.

DARIN T. DUNHAM
12131 Howards Mill Road
Glen Allen, VA 23059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 749-8750
Mr. Darin T. Dunham
MDA 04-121      Selected for Award
Title:Fusion Processing That Adapts to Disparate or Degraded Sensor Data
Abstract:In 1995, Streit and Luginbuhl introduced a new tracking algorithm, which offered a balance between the single frame approach of the Probabilistic Data Association Filter (PDAF) and the multiple frame approach of the Multiple Hypothesis Tracker (MHT). With single-frame tracking algorithms, only information that has been received to date is used to determine the association between tracks and measurements. These decisions are made based on available data and are not changed even when future data may indicate that the decision was incorrect. On the other hand, in multiple-frame algorithms, hard decisions are delayed until some time in the future, thus allowing the possibility that incorrect association decisions may be corrected with more data. We are proposing to use the PMHT as a composite tracker on several sensor platforms in the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Benchmark. We think that this approach, along with new techniques, will improve the single integrated air picture (SIAP); reduce or eliminate redundant, spurious, and broken tracks; better maintain tracks throughout the missile flight; reduce communication loads; and deal with out-of-sequence measurements. In addition, we propose to use the PMHT in the process of target typing.

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Shawn Herman
MDA 04-121      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid and Feature-Aided Multiple Hypothesis Correlation with Ambiguity Assessment
Abstract:A critical need for BMD is innovative data fusion algorithms that enable the BMDS to meet performance standards by overcoming known limitations due to disparate, sparse, or degraded local (sensor) track or measurement data. A hybrid approach is sought that can correlate both measurement and track data. In addition, the fusion algorithm should be able to use feature, attribute and/or classification information in the data association process. The objective of this proposal is to develop a Hybrid Multiple Hypothesis Correlation (HMHC) system that (1) can appropriately fuse measurement and track data, (2) incorporate feature data to improve data association, (3) handle degraded or incomplete sensor data such as missing covariances, and (4) provide an assessment of the ambiguity in the reported track data and data association decisions to support improved processing of higher-level system functions. To ensure a direct transition path into the BMDS, Numerica proposes to develop this system as a significant capability extension to a Multiple Hypothesis Correlation (MHC) system for track-to-track fusion that Numerica recently developed for the Missile Defense National Team B. The proposed program topics have been identified by MDNTB as specific future needs for the C2BMC.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
MDA 04-122      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptive Decision System for C2BMC Systems
Abstract:A primary task of resource allocation personnel is making accurate decisions and scheduling control commands in a quick and timely manner using large amounts of data from disparate sources. An intelligent system could help facilitate this decision-making. We propose using an Advanced Decision System (ADS) as a man-machine decision interface for such large and complex situations. The ADS incorporates the mechanisms needed to assure robust decision-making performance, while enabling human intervention for difficult problems at appropriate times. Because this overall approach amplifies a person's ability to process very large amounts of aggregate relevant data in short time periods, it provides a framework for significantly extending the ability to perform analysis of real-world problems, such as those found in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance systems. Previously developed expert systems could not handle the complex scheduling requirements, especially within a reasonable computation time. Other systems also do not facilitate human intervention for complex or unknown situations. The ADS quickly responds to simple decisions, yet it also can determine when to draw on more expertise for more complex and critical decisions. For this effort, we will demonstrate the use of an ADS system to appropriately schedule missile operations, especially in an information overload scenario.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark Street, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5023
Mr. Richard Adleson
MDA 04-122      Selected for Award
Title:Battlefield Learning
Abstract:The DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation (DAC) Team will develop a prototype system that will demonstrate how the BMDS can utilize battlefield learning technologies to support both non-real-time and real-time adaptability throughout the course of the BMDS mission. Our approach, called a Work Centered Intelligent Agent System for Battlefield Learning, is centered on intelligent agents that recommend improvements in operational processes, resources, tactics, techniques and procedures based on learning from prior information. This prior information will be mined by intelligent agents that capture operator decisions, actions results, and contexts in performing integrated missile defense (IMD) planning and real-time engagement. The foundation for our approach is as follows: How well the warfighter is able to utilize prior information for learning directly influences their ability to succeed in future engagements. The process of organizing battlefield information is a crucial step for success. For this project, we propose a Work Centered Design approach to develop Virtual Information-Action Workspaces tailored for specific missile defense applications. The result will be a system interface that supports operator decision making and critical thinking.

OCEAN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CORP.(OSEC)
2141 Palomar Airport Road, Suite 200
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 260-8515
Mr. Ken Garber
MDA 04-122      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptive Battlefield Management Engine
Abstract:Battlefield Management C4I (TBMC4I) centers must address complex, "off nominal" and time-critical theater ballistic missile (TBM) scenarios. Under the Missile Defense Agency's (MDA) Project Hercules, battlefield learning algorithms will evolve into an Adaptive Battlefield Learning Engine (ABLE) to provide decision support and unify situational awareness for missile defense assets. Researchers will leverage our data fusion and reasoning techniques from land attack and maritime domains to expedite BMC4I functions for Joint TBM assets, including the Navy's Cooperative Engagement Capability, the US-Israeli Arrow project, and the Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS). ABLE will ultimately leverage knowledge-based reasoning, genetic algorithms, and machine learning to: 1) decrease TBM "safe havens," 2) unify situational awareness and automate decision support templating, 3) support interoperability/sensor management, and 4) deliver timely cueing for interceptors like the airborne laser (ABL) and other sea-based midcourse systems. Rapid battlefield learning enablers will enhance layered defense capabilities via "learn as you go" experimentation and technology insertion. Follow-on efforts in this appropriate-risk, high-payoff endeavor include joint interoperability tests with the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC), MEADS, and the Airborne Laser (ABL) systems. The value of information derived from the OSEC-ORINCON Adaptive Battlefield Learning Engine (ABLE) can be demonstrated in TBMC4I tests at either the Experimental Laboratory or another government site.

MIGMA SYSTEMS, INC.
1600 Providence Highway
Walpole, MA 02081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 660-0328
Dr. Bo Ling
MDA 04-123      Selected for Award
Title:A New Intelligent Data Forwarder with Ontological Agent and Concept Learning
Abstract:Communication systems within MDA use a variety of message formats such as TADIL J, TADIL K, XML. To facilitate interoperable data communications, the messages need to be converted between the formats. One of the major problems faced during data conversion is data loss. Communication in the tactical network must be efficient, secure and reliable. The network must remain operational under dynamic topology. Existing routing algorithms cannot satisfy these requirements and cause data to be forwarded to wrong locations. To overcome these problems with traditional data conversion methods, we propose a novel ontology-based data conversion agent which will have an ontology defined for each of the message formats. There also exists a metadata of common vocabulary shared by all local ontologies. We further propose a novel intelligent data conversion agent which converts data between formats and also learns to extend its ontologies with new concepts and features. The concept clustering and fusion techniques will be used to classify the concept either as new or as synonymous to some existing concept. Reinforcement learning based routing method is proposed to learn the optimal routing policy to reduce data forwarding latency. Exploration methods are proposed to adapt to network topology changes.

ISAC, INC.
1050 Clayborne Liles Drive, Slip 1
Florence, AL 35630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-3453
Mr. Andy Smith
MDA 04-124      Selected for Award
Title:VMF Fault Tolerant Active Defense for BMDS
Abstract:The goal of Fault Tolerant Systems is to maximize the ability to continue critical operations following partial compromise or system failure. In VMF Fault Tolerant Active Defense (VFAD) Phase I, ISAC, Inc. proposes to: 1. Develop a low latency fault tolerant active defense capability that uses bait and switch to redirect attackers to a honeypot where they can do no harm. 2. Demonstrate that a fault tolerant active defense bait and switch honeypot can be employed safely in missile defense systems when used with a very low or no false alarm IDS. 3. Identify IDS systems capable of leveraging the highly standardized format of VMF messages to achieve extremely low or no false alarms, a condition absolutely essential for safe implementation of active defense. The VFAD architecture consists of three major components:  A bait and switch modules that redirects attackers  A virtual BMDS honeynet that can be used by the security manager to observe the attack as it unfolds, assess attacker intentions, and develop countermeasures  An extremely low or no false positive IDS VFAD can be developed rapidly and inserted near term at a relatively low cost without major weapons or communications system systems redesign.

ISAC, INC.
1050 Clayborne Liles Drive, Slip 1
Florence, AL 35630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 348-1724
Mr. Andy Smith
MDA 04-124      Selected for Award
Title:Disaster Avoidance and Recovery Rehearsal Tool (DARRT)
Abstract:Information Security and Assurance Corporation (ISAC, Inc.) proposes the development of a dynamic Disaster Avoidance and Recovery Rehearsal Tool (DARRT) to assist GMD information infrastructure providers in conducting on-demand disaster response rehearsals. According to the Department of Homeland Security, "Efforts to develop software and systems that are more secure will take time to pay dividends, and even in the best case the nation's critical information infrastructure will remain vulnerable to serious attack for some time". In this environment, network managers must be prepared to respond to catastrophic attacks, designed to take down entire networks. DARRT provides a virtual rehearsal environment that realistically and accurately reflects the actual network and disaster response features present in the GMD system. DARRT enables network managers to avoid or drastically reduce outage times by providing a virtual cyber warrior "battle drill" capability to train operators to rapidly and appropriately respond to most dangerous and most likely threat scenarios. In addition to pre-disaster rehearsal, DARRT can also be used by network managers during actual attacks to initiate and guide disaster response activities. DARRT consists of five modules:  Disaster Scenarios  Disaster Planning  Disaster Simulation  Disaster Rehearsal  Performance Evaluation and Assessment

DCS CORP.
1330 Braddock Place
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(571) 227-6188
Mr. Kim Woodward
MDA 04-125      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Software Analysis and Visualization
Abstract:DCS Corporation proposes to develop a system using open specifications for automatically generating design documentation of legacy MDA source code in an XML and visual form. The XML documentation will be based upon extended UML models as implemented in a combination of MDA, MOF, XMI, PGML, and other techniques. The top level design of the system will maximize common design documentation output, introduce design metrics, and will serve to minimize efforts needed to produce a prototype during Phase II.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1245 Lyons Road, Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Mr. Rick Gies
MDA 04-125      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Software Analysis and Visualization
Abstract:Our proposal specifically addresses the stated requirements of the solicitation; to enable automated analysis and visualization of the architecture of large, complex, mixed programming language software systems. The EDAptive Computing, Inc (ECI) Software Analysis and Visualization Tool to Maintain and Verify complex mixed language systems (SAVVY) allows the user to take these systems and, through a process of correctness preserving patterns processing and transformations, produce a specification level architecture description that corresponds directly to that which is implemented by the currently executed system. The user can then view and browse through the architecture using a graphical user interface that not only allows the user to follow the hierarchy of the system, but also through an alternative view mechanism, separates concerns appropriately between issues such as communications, timing, functional correctness, and other architectural properties. Leveraging ECI's proven re-design and verify technology, or using their current system as a base to upgrade and re-implement the system, the user can make more SAVVY decisions to target performance improvement, re-architect codes into modern configurations, re-use code elements in new systems, or simply wrap and re-integrate into new enterprises. Our emergent tools suite will be clearly adaptive to MDA regimes and operational conditions.

WW TECHNOLOGY GROUP
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Dr. Chris J. Walter
MDA 04-125      Selected for Award
Title:Large System Software Visualization
Abstract:This project addresses the problem of lifecycle management of large scale software systems. In systems with a large code base, system and software engineers often struggle with maintaining a consistent view of the system architecture and software. WW Technology Group will develop techniques that capture missile defense agency (MDA) software code bases and system architectures into an open, machine readable format, the Avionics Architecture Description Language (AADL). With the system information in a machine readable format, we then specify techniques and tools that provide users with needed views of the system architecture, data flows and relationships. The views include perspectives that can be aligned with the major component interrelationships, whether they be performance, fault and error handling, or security. In this activity, we leverage the general concept of concern graphs, allowing users to view the traceable threads through the system. The techniques identified in this project represent a combination of automated analysis techniques combined with user customizable assignment of subsystem attributes and characteristics. Engineers responsible for performing the engineering of the system can minimize the time spent on tedious manual tasks while leveraging their knowledge of the system behavioral characteristics, including performance, security, and error handling.

JOHNSON RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CO., INC.
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Mr. James Muller
MDA 04-126      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Component Technology for Next Generation Cryocoolers
Abstract:The DoD SBIR solicitation is seeking to identify innovative technology for next generation cryocooler systems for infrared sensing technologies and spacecraft cooling applications. Successful development of these novel technologies will result in (1) lowering the cost and risk of cryocoolers, (2) increased reliability and lifetime, and (3) producibility of cryocooler systems. JRD, in conjunction with Raytheon, is working on the development of two related solid-state cryocooler designs, one based on pulse tube technology and another on a Joule-Thompson cycle. These designs are inherently extremely low in vibration, which is critical for image jitter minimization, and structurally robust, essential for launch survivability. Furthermore, initial calculations predict that efficiency potential of these concepts is competitive with present day cryocooler technology. In this project, we will investigate cryocooler systems, both utilizing extremely low vibration (< 1mN) solid state compressors (SSC) to form highly reliable, low cost, long life cryogenic systems for space applications. As part of the study, we will evaluate the design implications of the two cryocooler systems operating with a SSC to define a practical design that provides all of the targeted reliability and performance advantages using one or both of the two approaches.

TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
5700 Flatiron Parkway, #5701A
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-2262
Mr. Scott Willen
MDA 04-126      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Scroll Compressor for Next Generation Cryocoolers
Abstract:Active cooling at 10-35 K has been identified as a key technology for future space tracking and surveillance operations which utilize doped silicon infrared sensors. The Brayton-cycle cryocooler has been recognized as an advantageous method for providing efficient, low-temperature cooling onboard a spacecraft. One significant technology gap specific to recuperative-cycle cryocoolers is the availability of a long-life compressor capable of delivering the pressure ratio and flow rate necessary to circulate and efficiently expand the cooling fluid. Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) proposes to advance cryocooler capabilities by developing a high-efficiency, oil-free scroll compressor having a potential operating lifetime of up to ten years in collaboration with Air Squared, Inc. Feasibility of a space-qualifiable scroll compressor will be established with a work plan focused on: long-life tip seals that limit leakage and contamination, meeting the working fluid contamination requirements of a cryocooler, and developing a thermal interface for operation in a space-based system. We propose to drive this technology toward long-life cryocooler applications for airborne, space flight, and ground-based systems for both government and commercial customers.

ATLAS SCIENTIFIC
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 265-4246
Dr. James Maddocks
MDA 04-127      Selected for Award
Title:Rectified Continuous Flow Loop for Thermal Control of Distributed Loads
Abstract:Future instruments and platforms for Missile Defense Agency space applications will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology, and cryogenic applications will become increasingly more common. While a number of cryogenic refrigeration systems may be considered for such applications, none offers the same potential for low vibration, reliability, and efficiency as the pulse tube. Regenerative coolers such as pulse tubes typically have small cold heads that must be conductively coupled to heat loads. Thermal integration via conductive coupling is not ideal for distributed loads such as those represented by large, deployable structures. To address this problem, we propose to develop a lightweight, continuous-flow cooling loop for cooling distributed loads. The cooling loop approach allows relatively simple mechanical and electrical integration and maintains high refrigeration system efficiency. The basis of the loop is a rectifying interface that converts the oscillating flow of a regenerative cryocooler into a steady flow of cold gas that can readily be distributed over distances of several meters. The rectifying interface has the potential secondary benefit of rapid and therefore precise load temperature regulation using an actively controlled throttle valve to regulate the gas flow.

LW MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
37466 Stonewood Dr.
Fremont, CA 94536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 209-7469
Dr. Yin Liu
MDA 04-127      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Thermal Integration Technology for Space Cryocoolers
Abstract:This proposal is submitted for research on using micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to make unique, highly reliable, miniaturized capillary pumped coolers in the application of next generation space craft applications. The proposed miniaturized thermal-cooler can be fabricated on Si wafer or directly attached on ICs or sensing devices.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3969
Dr. Lee M. Goldman
MDA 04-128      Selected for Award
Title:Durability Improvements for Detector Antireflection Treatments
Abstract:Anti reflection (AR) coatings, used for detectors in space-based long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) sensor systems, are subjected to a variety of environmental loadings in space such as extreme temperature variations and solar radiation. The resulting damage to the coatings can cause inoperability of the detectors. Consequently, there is a need of significant improvements to broadband transmission and durability of antireflective treatments over those currently used for space detectors. In this program, Surmet will develop antireflective surface treatments to improve broadband transmission and durability of the space detectors. The proposed Phase I effort will consist of the application of antireflective coatings and surface relief structures on cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT) substrates. Both the coatings and the surface relief structures will be characterized and evaluated for durability, optical transmission, and reflection loss. Prototype CZT coupons (of a size and thickness suitable for an actual detector), with an antireflective surface treatment on one side and an average transmission in excess of 72% over 8-12 micron waveband, will be delivered at the end of Phase I. Improved durability and cost effectiveness will be demonstrated during the proposed phase I option.

TELAZTEC LLC
15 A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 229-9906
Mr. Bruce D. MacLeod
MDA 04-128      Selected for Award
Title:Durable, High Performance Anti-Reflection Treatment For HgCdTe Infrared Detectors
Abstract:Imaging sensors designed to convert infrared light energy into tactical information, are at the core of nearly all advanced military systems. Sensor materials and components are constantly evolving to respond with ever increasing sensitivity, in harsh environmental and space based conditions. Today the performance of conventional anti-reflection (AR) technology of these systems has not kept pace with the requirements of these systems. In particular, there is an urgent need for an AR technology that offers high suppression of reflected light for CdZnTe substrates over the 8-12 micron LWIR range in the infrared, combined with a significantly improved lifetime when operating in harsh radiative environments such as that found in space. TelAztec proposes to demonstrate a new type of high performance AR technology for LWIR HgCdTe detectors grown on CdZnTe substrates, with broad-band operation and dramatically increased lifetime in high radiation environments. Based on surface relief microstructures fabricated directly into the substrate material, the proposed AR treatment completely eliminates the limitations due to stress, thermal mismatch, adhesion, radiation damage, complexity, and cost associated with conventional multi-layer thin-film AR coating techniques. In addition, TelAztec proposes to develop a fabrication process that integrates seamlessly with state of the art HgCdTe fabrication processes.

TABLE MOUNTAIN OPTICS
509 Marin Street, Suite 125
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 496-7133
Dr. William H. Southwell
MDA 04-129      Selected for Award
Title:Infrared Bandpass Filters
Abstract:This proposal is concerned with the design and fabrication of high performance infrared bandpass filters. These are optical filters that use multilayer coatings to produce high levels of blocking in certain spectral zones and high levels of transmission in other bands. Proposed is a methodology for the design of such filters using computer optimization of layer thickness values. Issues such as edge steepness and spectral shifts with angle of incidence are also addressed. A modeling effort is proposed which identifies the potential causes of degradation of fabricated filters. Included in this model will be chamber geometry, monitoring, and deposition processes. Well-defined deposition experiments will anchor the models to reality. Finally, a high performance infrared bandpass filter will be fabricated and its spectral transmission will be compared with that predicted by the design.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1202
Dr. Henry Sebesta
MDA 04-130      Selected for Award
Title:Auto-Correcting Inertial Measurement Unit
Abstract:DoD space surveillance and weapons systems require highly accurate inertial knowledge in absolute location and angular orientation. Current technologies providing these functions are not integrated into a single, light-weight, low-cost, power-efficient instrument. Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to further develop its innovative and patented optical inertial reference unit technologies, denoted the MSTAR Inertial Reference Unit (MIRU) (Patents No 6,653,611 and 6,700,109 and Appl Ser No. 60/481,829) to design and demonstrate an autocorrecting inertial measurement unit (ACIMU). The MSTAR concept employs a combination of state-of-the-art inertial sensors and novel blending algorithms to achieve sub-microradian line-of-sight stabilization and optical pointing. The MSTAR advances and technologies are being incorporated into the Advanced Inertial Reference Unit (aIRU). Pre-mission, star tracker enabled calibration and low-drift gyros are used to give aIRU the capability for long term knowledge of angular orientation (20 microradians after 4 hours). ATA's proposed ACIMU instrument will combine aIRU technologies with embedded GPS functions and star-tracker measurements. We propose to incorporate novel, autonomous star-tracker technology that is being brought forward under NASA-sponsored R&D into the ACIMU. Performance of this star-tracker is projected to meet an accuracy goal of 1 microradian and an NEA goal of 500 nanoradians.

SSG, INC.
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-9991
Mr. Kris Kosakowski
MDA 04-131      Selected for Award
Title:HIGH PERFORMANCE OPTICAL COATINGS FOR SILICON CARBIDE ADVANCED SEEKER SYSTEMS
Abstract:The integration of ranging and imaging LADAR and combined passive IR and visible imaging in future seeker instruments will require two critical changes to the optics: (1) the use of alternative optical materials to enable visible quality optical performance, and (2) high energy, low stress induced, low absorptive laser coatings with very high reflectance at the LADAR wavelength and additionally acceptable performance for IR and visible wave bands. The high reflectance coatings also need to be survivable to advanced nuclear environment, as well as be very durable to maintain performance over long-term storage in a silo. Phase 1 will build on previous SBIR activities to demonstrate high performance coatings on SiC optics that providing high reflectivity over critical wavelength bands, high laser damage threshold at the LADAR wavelength, as well as characteristics of radiation hardness. A series of SiC samples will be prepared with optical coatings and tested for optical properties and laser damage threshold; a test plan will be developed for radiation hardness. In Phase 2, SSGPO will work with a Prime contractor to demonstrate these coatings on an advanced seeker prototype system.

HARDRIC LABORATORIES, INC.
70 Princton Street
N Chelmsford, MA 01863
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 251-1702
Mr. Richard Charbonnier
MDA 04-132      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight On-Orbit Gimbal Systems
Abstract:The Hardric Laboratories' program team for the development of Advanced, Lightweight On-Orbit Gimbal Structures (ALOGS), including of Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) and Brush Wellman, understands that the pointing / line of sight accuracy that a space sensor system can achieve and the repeatability of that performance over time is greatly dependent on the structural and thermal characteristics the gimbal's main support structures. In parallel, future Air Force and MDA Systems must be developed and produced at must lower cost and with much shorter development and production cycle times than has currently been demonstrated to be considered "affordable". With this insight and experience, the ALOGS team has conceived of and is proposing a 2-phase technology development program to produce and empirical verify that a Welded "AlBe" manufacturing process ("AlBeWeld") can meet all of the requirements of future Air Force and MDA Space Gimbal Systems at a dramatically lower cost and a significantly shorter fabrication leadtime. This proposed development effort is timed to prove this new "AlBeWeld" manufacturing technology by the STSS Block 10-12 Technology Freeze Date in 2007 so that the planned system development can take full advantage of the improved producibility that this technology offers. The need for this program is driven by the Air Force and MDA's plan to develop and deploy an operational constellation of low altitude surveillance satellites (Space Tracking & Surveillance System or STSS) whose primary mission will be the detection and accurate tracking of missile-launched warheads and their handover to ballistic missile interceptors. Figure 1.1-1 illustrates how this constellation of satellites and its EO / IR sensor payloads will perform this critical mission of global missile detection, tracking, and handover. The successful performance of this system / mission is the key that will allow MDA's initial missile defense system to extend it's midcourse interceptors over the horizon to successfully intercept threatening intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM's) far from US shores.

POCO GRAPHITE, INC.
300 Old Greenwood Road
Decatur, TX 76234
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(940) 393-4357
Mr. Ron Plummer
MDA 04-133      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced SiC Mirror Subsystem for STSS
Abstract:Advancement of lower cost advanced optical telescopes for cryogenic applications will be accomplished through an increased understanding of the manufacture of silicon carbide structures as well as mirrors. The POCO SuperSiCT-1 manufacturing process enables both mirrors and optical benches to be made using the same manufacturing process. One unknown in the assembly of mirrors and optical benches is detailed engineering design of the attachment interface between the mirror and bench. This Phase I effort seeks to evaluate innovative attachment concepts that will lead to the full-scale silicon carbide telescope to meet STSS requirements. A test mirror and structure will be manufactured, then tested at cryogenic conditions to determine stresses induced by attachment of the mirror to the mount test article. This evaluation has not been undertaken before.

ADVANCED SCIENCE & NOVEL TECHNOLOGY
27 Via Porto Grande
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 377-6029
Dr. Vladimir Katzman
MDA 04-134      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation-Hardened Reprogrammable Sensor Adaptor
Abstract:Responsive Space concept accepted as long-term road map for the aerospace systems requires development of ultra-rapid avionics (Responsivonics), which must be radiation tolerant (RT), flexible, reprogrammable, and Plug-and-Play compatible. Of primary importance are RT, flexible, software-only reconfigurable complex sensor interfaces to a back-end digital processor. Signal conditioning or sampling is required for interfacing a Malleable Signal Processor (MSP) with a particular sensor. The corresponding block must be RT, reprogrammable, and feature minimal power consumption and dimensions. In response to these needs, we proposes to develop a novel, RT, reprogrammable Sensor Adaptor Segment (RSAS) for interfacing of an MSP to multiple sensors with a focus towards focal plane arrays. The unprecedented interface flexibility will be achieved through application of our proprietary reprogrammable level shifting technique. The work will be done in cooperation with the Alliant TechSystems - Mission Research, which has a unique experience in design of RT circuits, specifically MSP. RSAS will be implemented as a compact MCM assembled with utilization of a standard surface package mounting or chip-on-board (COB) techniques. Our patent-pending multi-level interconnect technique may be used for RSAS-to-MSP interactions. Radiation tolerance of the system will be achieved by a combination of proprietary hardening-by-technology, hardening-by-design, and hardening-by-architecture techniques.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Brian Hertog
MDA 04-135      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Fabrication Techniques for Type-II Superlattice VLWIR Detectors
Abstract:The growth and fabrication of nanostructures, particularly short period Type-II superlattices, rely on high quality crystalline materials. Defects and non-planarities on the substrate surface and non-uniformities in the epitaxial layers can impair device performance. Gallium antimonide (GaSb) substrates have utility in exploring new III-V alloys and devices. While GaSb substrates are available, shipment volume pales in comparison to other III-V substrates such as GaAs and InP. As such, production and preparation of GaSb wafers is far from refined. Surface and growth non-uniformities remain an issue with these substrates. In an effort to solve this problem, we propose to investigate and adopt a two-step approach. First is a novel in situ polishing technique. The surface of GaSb wafers will be polished and cleaned prior to epitaxial growth, and the smooth wafer surface will remain free of atmospheric contamination until semiconductor deposition is complete. Second is a method to reduce contamination of the epilayers from undesired molecular species. Once these techniques are proven viable, the apparatuses can be redesigned with minimal changes and retrofitted to epitaxial systems already deployed in the field.

PRATT & MILLER ENGINEERING & FABRICATION, INC.
149 Plantation Ridge Road, Suite 170
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Dr. David F. Robinson
MDA 04-136      Selected for Award
Title:Unstructured Fixed Grid with Moving Body, Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solver for Simulating Gas Flows
Abstract:The development of a generalized moving body capability for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow simulations of highly transient flowfields is critical to system analyses of Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS) for Kinetic Warheads (KWs). Testing capabilities are limited in the DACS operating regime; therefore, computational tools are essential for such analyses. The flow in the DACS itself is characterized by high temperatures with extremely tight geometric clearances. These constraints make standard moving-grid techniques ineffective due to numerical stability constraints, cell collapse from body impact, cell impingement, and body pass-through difficulties. This proposal describes a novel technique that will allow for a generalized moving body capability within an unstructured fixed-grid (UFG) Navier-Stokes CFD flow solver. This approach will allow for an accurate solution on the fixed components as well as a full duty-cycle analysis of the valves. In addition, the time required for grid generation will be drastically reduced, thereby improving solution turnaround times. While the approach is directly applicable to Sea Based Midcourse ballistic missile defense, the solver developed could be widely applied to military and commercial applications where moving components or relative body motion is critical.

TECHNALYSIS, INC.
7168 Zionsville Road
Indianapolis, IN 46268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 291-1985
Mr. Vladimir Rubek
MDA 04-136      Selected for Award
Title:Unstructured Fixed Grid with Moving Body, Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solver for Simulating Gas Flows
Abstract:UNSTRUCTURED FIXED GRID WITH MOVING BODY, NAVIER-STOKES COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC (CFD) SOLVER FOR SIMULATING GAS FLOWS Technical Abstract In this project, a parallel computational fluid dynamics tool/design is proposed to solve problems involving moving body components. Unstructured fixed-grids are used to model solid body geometry and flow domain. Different from traditional overset Chimera grid method, proposed method will be based on filling overlap regions with the same type of unstructured grids used for the flow solution. This will reduce effort spent for communicating information between the blocks that overlap, knowing that interpolation is one of the issues in traditional overset grid approaches. Traditional Chimera methods will also be evaluated for comparison purposes. Ultimate goal of the design is to transient flow simulation of the Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS) for kinetic warheads for MDA Sea Based Midcourse ballistic missile defense. Flow solver uses implicit time integration and upwind flux differencing for better accuracy in time dependent problems such as the flow simulation of DACS in kill warheads. Parallel implementation is based on Message Passing Interface libraries, and Solver will be portable across several operating systems.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 04-137      Selected for Award
Title:S-band Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures for BMD Discrimination
Abstract:In order to provide for more reliable discrimination of RVs and decoys, MARK Resources proposes to develop algorithms to extract micro-Doppler information from Aegis BMD S-band radar returns. A new signal processing technology that goes beyond analyzing either imagery or time-frequency distributions, exploiting the complex signal to extract very accurate measurements on individual features that are not resolved from others with different motions, is key to the success of the program. The proposed SBIR project will demonstrate the achievable feature measurement accuracies. Lockheed Martin has joined us in this project, to effectively transition the technology into the Aegis and other missile defense systems.

MMCOMM, INC.
3625 Del Amo Blvd, Ste 200
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 793-8892
Mr. John Kirk
MDA 04-137      Selected for Award
Title:S-band Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures for BMD Discrimination
Abstract:The team of MMCOMM, Goleta Engineering (GE) and UCLA will develop techniques and technologies for the acquisition and exploitation of S-band micro-Doppler signatures applicable to navy S-band ballistic missile (BM) defense radars. We will build upon two directly applicable related prior efforts. The first is the ISAR ATR work we did for NRL to explore target signature data using time-frequency analysis algorithms. The second is the X-band micro-Doppler radar (MDR) we recently developed for NRL to collect micro-Doppler radar signatures. To this we will add specific UCLA expertise in radar signature prediction and feature extraction using advanced signal processing techniques. Our plan would be to provide an S-band MDR during phase I to acquire interesting signature data and then to process this data using our established time-frequency algorithms. One important part of collecting micro-Doppler signatures is target motion compensation during the potentially long target observation time to generate the potentially very fine Doppler resolution to extract the micro-Doppler signatures. For this we will use the signal based mocomp algorithms that GE developed on prior SBIR funding. We will explore potential target micro-Doppler phenomenology from analysis of candidate BM targets. We will investigate the potential application of the collection of micro-Doppler signatures to existing Naval S-band radar legacy assets.

BEAM-WAVE RESEARCH, INC.
703 Firestone Drive
Silver Spring, MD 20905
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 535-2162
Dr. Khanh T. Nguyen
MDA 04-138      Selected for Award
Title:Components For High Power, Low-Noise, Wide Bandwidth RF Amplifiers
Abstract:This proposed work is for the design of an innovative broadband circuit for high-power multiple beam klystrons. A key technical objective is to develop an output cavity with high interaction impedance to ensure high power and high efficiency circuit operation at reasonable beam voltages. A buncher circuit design to effect a uniform bunching current across the band will also be developed to take advantage of the broadband output cavity. The RF circuit design will be performed using state-of-art design tools, including electromagnetic, particle-in-cell, and large-signal analysis codes. Careful attention will be placed on the compatibility of the circuit with other amplifier components for future amplifier integration. The resulting design will be developed and tested in collaboration with an industrial partner during the Phase-II program.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Sion Pickard
MDA 04-139      Selected for Award
Title:Active Radar System Thermal Management
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project, will investigate manufacturing of shims and cold plates from ultra high thermal conductivity composites for thermal management of wide band gap active component in T/R modules for S-band and X-band radar. This materials based design approach will utilize ultra high conductivity Diamond/Aluminum and Diamond/Copper materials made by MER. To produce a commercial product, the focus will be on improving machinability and surface finish of these composite materials parts to allow direct insertion into T/R module designs to replace existing materials of Copper-Tungsten and Copper/Molybdenum/Copper. The tremendous commercial potential of this product is for broad use as a thermal management material in power electronics for SiC, GaAs and Si based devices.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, LLC (DBA MMCC, LLC)
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. YUEJIAN CHEN
MDA 04-139      Selected for Award
Title:Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite (TPG) Embedded Copper Graphite Composite Heat Sinking Slat for Phase Array Radar Antenna
Abstract:A manufacturing technique is developed to strategically embed thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG) insert into copper graphite composite. TPG will then be located in the critical thermal path of phase array radar antenna slat so that the slat is allowed to be cooled from its edge. The enhancement of thermal performance by TPG insertion allows the antenna slat to be cooled at its edge while the advanced wide band gap semiconductors, such as GaN and SiC, are used in the microwave modules. At an average heat flux of 100 W/cm2, which is assumed at the module level for GaN devices, the temperature difference along the thermal path of 1.5" long, in the case of copper graphite composite, from module mounting surface to cooling fins was estimated as only 8 C, using a simplified one-dimensional heat transfer method. This temperature drop is adequate for the total thermal management of GaN devices whose junction temperature can be as high as 250 C.

OMEGA PIEZO TECHNOLOGIES
2591 Clyde Ave., Suite 3
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-4160
Dr. Ralph Webb
MDA 04-139      Selected for Award
Title:Micro-channel/Low Profile Heat Spreader
Abstract:An innovative heat spreader concept for T/R thermal management is developed in this proposal. The proposed heat spreader has a higher effective thermal conductivity than that of copper, approximately 7 ppm/oC of temperature expansion coefficient (TEC), which is appropriate for brazing or soldering on electronics. The proposed heat spreader uses a refrigerant inside the spreader to transport the heat, giving uniform temperature distribution. Also, the liquid refrigerant is pulled by a capillary force of the porous metal located at the inlet of the evaporation chamber. The evaporated refrigerant moves through the fabricated micro-channel, condenses inside the micro-channel, and then returns to the evaporator. Using two phase heat transfer, the temperature inside the micro-channel is maintained constant, and this mechanism effectively spreads heat, by increasing the surface area. Because of the use of porous metal for returning liquid, this heat spreader is orientation insensitive.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 384-7840
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
MDA 04-139      Selected for Award
Title:High Thermal Conductivity, CTE Matched Heat Spreader with MicroChannel Structures
Abstract:Thermal management of radar systems requires the removal of large amounts of waste heat, and in order to maximize the rate of waste heat removal it is critical that the thermal resistance of the heat path be minimized. RTI has successfully developed a nanocomposite material that has a significantly increased thermal conductivity over that of copper and a coefficient of thermal expansion that can be matched to that of semiconductor materials. This material would be ideal for the purposes of reducing thermal resistance and mechanical stresses in the material stack-up of modern and future radar systems. The effort proposed here is to further develop this material and its fabrication process such that nanocomposite structures could be made with internal volumes. These internal volumes could be used to allow for convective heat transfer very near the semiconductor die surface. Bringing the convective heat transfer so close to the T/R module and using a highly thermally conductive material to do so would dramatically reduce the thermal resistance and simultaneously reduce the mechanical stresses at the interface. Therefore, a significant leap in the thermal management of radar systems can be realized.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Mr. Derek Strembicke
MDA 04-140      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Real-Time Components for HWIL Ladar Scene Generation
Abstract:AEgis Technologies Group, Inc. is pleased to present this proposal for a Phase I SBIR entitled, "Enhanced Real-Time Components for HWIL Ladar Scene Generation". This Phase I effort is focused on the development of three key components of a real-time HWIL LADAR projector including the Data Combiner, Integrated Electro-optic Modulator, and High-speed Arbitrary waveform generator. AEgis has significant experience in the development of HWIL projection systems. This includes the development of IR and LADAR scanned based projectors. This, next-generation, system will deliver the speed and dynamic range necessary to project realistic images to the LADAR sensor systems of tomorrow.

EUVIS CORP.
790 Hampshire Rd. Suite G
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 557-0725
Dr. Neng-Haung Sheng
MDA 04-140      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Real-Time Components for HWIL Ladar Scene Generation
Abstract:Two critical components of LADAR projector technology that require extensive development to make feasible are the Arbitrary Waveform Generators (AWG) and the Level Shifting Amplifiers (LSA). Signals of 2 GHz bandwidth and at least 60dB dynamic range will be required. The LSA will need to take in signals as small as 500mV and amplify them to 7V without distortion or noise reducing the dynamic range. In order to reduce risk of project failure and to enhance commercial viability, the AWS will require a flexible digital architecture, such as an embedded FPGA. Euvis has extensive experience with the necessary technologies to research and develop the critical electrical components. Euvis has developed analog and mixed signal product lines in SiGe BiCMOS and InGaAs/GaAs HBT technologies. Our main products include Digital to Analog Converters (DAC), Multiplexer integrated DACs (MuxDACs), Direct Digital Synthesizers (DDS), and Laser Modulator Drivers. Our DACs and DDS's have been demonstrated with sample rates higher than 2 GHz and spur free dynamic range greater then 60 dB within the Nyquist band. Euvis proposes for phase I of this topic to research the feasibility of developing the AWG and LSA components based on our existing products and technologies.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Donald L. Herman, Jr.
MDA 04-140      Selected for Award
Title:RAMDAC for Ladar Scene Generation Simulators (9682)
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop an advanced RAMDAC for HWIL ladar scene generation. Future large-scale ladar scene generation requires advancements in algorithms and components to generate realistic ladar returns. Techniques and components for generating up to several hundred thousand instantaneous fields of view (IFOVs) with >70 dB dynamic range and 2 GHz instantaneous bandwidth (IBW) are needed. Digital signal processing can generate waveforms which are uploaded into very fast local memory (RAM) for scene generation. The digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and subsequent analog signal path must offer wide bandwidth and high resolution simultaneously. The proposed RAMDAC will combine deep (10k words) memory with a high-performance DAC (14 bits, 5 Gs/s) on a single chip. The proposed commercial SiGe BiCMOS technology offers >200 GHz HBTs and 0.12 micrometer CMOS, making it well suited for the RAMDAC. Its low cost and low power will enable the large scene generators required for MDA's HWIL simulators. The RAMDAC will be conceptually designed during Phase I. Prototype multichannel RAMDAC chips will be developed during Phase II. Phase III will result in cards using the RAMDAC chips interfaced to a HWIL ladar scene generator.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
2146 Foster Ave
Ventura, CA 93001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 320-3976
Dr. Jon Geske
MDA 04-141      Selected for Award
Title:MEMS Based Scalable Infrared Projector System (SIPS)
Abstract:The complexity of advanced systems employing IR imaging demands that test capabilities be developed to allow the insertion of simulated scenes into the controlled testing environment to form a critical link between advanced simulations and field trials. Such hardware in the loop testing can be significantly less expensive and complex then full field trials while still providing real-time test capability of critical system functions. To meet this testing challenge, Aerius Photonics is proposing to use new micro-electromechanical system technologies to fabricate and build a Scalable Infrared Projector System (SIPS). This system will be built on a scalable platform allowing for additional numbers of beams and expanded angular range to be added as an upgrade for enhanced capabilities. In addition, the modular system will be capable of achieving beam focusing and defocusing using an array of adaptive optical elements capable of beam spoiling. With this system, hundreds to thousands of Mid-Wave Infrared and Long-Wave Infrared beams can be simultaneous scanned with sub-pixel resolution over the detector plane of an infrared camera.

CG2, INC.
1525 Perimeter Parkway, Suite 325
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 361-9927
Mr. Todd Nordland
MDA 04-142      Selected for Award
Title:PC Scene Generation Bridge Architectures for Streaming Balanced Computation.
Abstract:The proposed study will examine near-term bridging and switch fabric technology trends as a basis for a Personal Computer ("PC") based cluster architecture. The objective is to bring multiple Central Processing Units ("CPU") and Graphics Processing Units ("GPU") to bear on appropriate classes of existing and near-term Missile Defense Agency ("MDA") computational problems, such as physics-based sensor/guidance system simulations, missile plume atmospheric and radiometric phenomenology, and hardware-in-the-loop guidance development. We propose to perform case studies on MDA-related algorithms in conjunction with alternative candidate interconnection and CPU/GPU computational architectures. This approach is designed to identify an early practical application which will demonstrate the potential of switch fabric architectures with GPU processing. In the Phase I option, we propose to demonstrate a switch fabric architecture in which solutions to MDA problems can be prototyped.

CROSSFIELD TECHNOLOGY LLC
4505 Spicewood Springs Road, Suite 360
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 795-0221
Dr. Gary McMillian
MDA 04-142      Selected for Award
Title:Intelligent 4-Way GPU Advanced Switching Bridge Chip for Simulation and Scene Generation
Abstract:The Crossfield simulator will significantly increase the MDA's ability to evaluate a missile defense systems' effectiveness without conducting expensive field tests and will enable faster development of anti-missile systems. The simulator uses clusters of high-performance Central Processor Units (CPUs) and Graphic Processor Units (GPUs) to generate realistic scenes in real-time, and the generated scenes are fed out through electro-optic interface modules interconnected by a low-latency, ultra-high-throughput PCI Express Advanced Switching (AS) fabric. The CPUs support a wide range of fixed-point and floating-point algorithms, and include very high performance vector processors. The GPU internal pipelines are optimized for stream computing, and provide exceptionally high floating-point performance for selected algorithms. GPUs from NVIDIA, ATI and others are becoming increasingly versatile in the types of algorithms they can effectively support, however, while maintaining a significant performance advantage over general-purpose CPUs. Crossfield proposes to develop an intelligent 4-way GPU AS bridge chip to tightly couple clusters of GPUs to an AS fabric. The integrated circuit will include local switching and memory resources configured to support the GPU stream computing paradigm.

DUNTI LLC
1250 S. Capital of Texas Hwy, Building 2, Suite 30
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 329-2100
Ms. Rupaka Mahalingaiah
MDA 04-142      Selected for Award
Title:PC Scene Generation Bridge Architectures for Streaming Balanced Computation.
Abstract:The objective of the project in this proposal is to demonstrate the need and feasibility for developing innovative switch/bridge architecture based technology that enables high-performance multiprocessors. The proposed technology will enable compute-intense applications such as real-time and near real-time scene generation over a PC component-based system. It will provide innovative solution while retaining complete compatibility with industry standard software and real-time operating systems. The solution will be transparent to Operating Systems (OS), device drivers, and protocol stacks. Appearing as a standard interconnect to the applications and OS, this breakthrough technology provides next generation interconnect performance and functionality.

AERO OPTICS, INC.
655 Deep Valley Drive, Suite 335
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 541-1933
Dr. Blaine E. Pearce
MDA 04-143      Selected for Award
Title:Coherent Laser Radar Target Signature (CLRTS)
Abstract:A Coherent Laser Radar Target Signature (CLRTS) simulation is proposed that provides the laser wavefront to the receiver aperture. The objective is to provide the spatial and temporal description of the wavefront (amplitude and phase) at the coherent laser radar receiver for HWIL simulation. This is a direct extension of Aero Optics' MDA Phase II SBIR Target End-to-End Signature Simulation (TESS) program to include coherent illumination and reflection. Body description, material optical properties, body dynamics, environments, reflections, and sensor imaging are components already available in TESS. The proposed wavefront simulation includes the transmitter wave spatial and temporal features (waveform), two-way propagation accounting for diffraction, turbulent fluctuations and atmospheric attenuation. A model for target reflection includes both glint and speckle. All these effects are convolved to provide the wavefront incident at the receiver. An important task is to demonstrate the application of graphics programming to the wavefront simulation. Phase I develops and demonstrates the propagation and target interaction models for multiple environments and targets. The feasibility of wavefront simulation with graphics programming will be demonstrated through numerical experiments. Phase II extends the wavefront simulation to other bodies, debris, and plumes in a real-time signature code. The real-time wavefront simulation will be demonstrated on graphics hardware.

CARCO ELECTRONICS
195 Constitution Drive
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 408-6437
Mr. Mikhail Novikov
MDA 04-144      Selected for Award
Title:High-Bandwidth Motion Simulator (HBMS)
Abstract:Since the development of the SDI (KHILS) missile in the 1980's, the requirements for increased bandpass of the FMS has moved beyond what can be achieved with a cascaded gimbal set. This requirement grew from an increase in missile G/C capability and the requirement to simulate the "jitter" characteristic of the airframe for sensor sensitivity evaluation. This requirement has produced the need for a missile motion simulator exhibiting a bandpass of 250 Hz and higher. This has led to the current development of the MS 3 DOF High Bandwidth Motion Simulator. This instrument will exhibit 3 DOF, and will be capable of exceeding a 250 Hz servo bandwidth. This proposal will address a systematic approach for the conceptual design of major system components, satisfying MS 3 DOF HBMS requirements.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Dr. Eric Anderson
MDA 04-144      Selected for Award
Title:High-Bandwidth Servovalve for Motion Simulation
Abstract:Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) motion simulation is a valuable tool in testing and development of missile seekers. Increased bandwidth in the simulation is desired to enhance the fidelity of the testing. Existing systems that use servohydraulic actuation are fundamentally constrained because of limits in servovalves and other components. Yet hydraulic actuation retains advantages in the levels of force that can be generated in a compact volume. The key is the servovalve. This research concentrates on the development of high bandwidth servovalves. Component-level requirements will be determined based on multi-axis HWIL needs. Design of servovalves will focus on actuation with either electromagnetic transduction or smart materials. Two alternate architectures will be the bases for designs for a 1 kHz bandwidth valve. A major portion of the valve based on the preferred design will be fabricated and tested, and the design will be updated based on test results. In Phase 2, a unit scaled for a high bandwidth motion simulator will be built. A six-axis motion system based on the valve will be designed and a series of analyses and tests will be used to show the expected performance of the system.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
27 Drydock Avenue
Boston, MA 02210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 897-2439
Mr. Gerald Foshage
MDA 04-144      Selected for Award
Title:High-Bandwidth Motion Simulator (HBMS)
Abstract:As the performance of missile technology evolves, simulation and test equipment must keep pace. Higher performance simulators that recreate impacts due to chemical thrusters and provide DC to 0.5-1KHz bandwidth are needed for guidance and control simulations of missile and anti-ballistic missile weapon systems. Hydraulic and Electric Flight Motion Simulators (FMS) are a mature technology used for hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Typically, simulators are limited by bandwidths of 20 to 60 Hz for limited ranges of angular travel. The simulators are considered useful for closed-loop representation of missile motion out to frequencies a factor of 3-5 less than the FMS bandwidth. SatCon will develop concepts for new, very high frequency motion simulators, with the goal of replicating sensor base motion of up to 1kHz with accelerations in the thousands of radians/second/second. One such concept SatCon proposes is new system architecture, based on a spherical motor. This concept allows for non-contacting support of a rotor with controlled and unlimited rotation in the roll, pitch and yaw axes and limited motion in the x, y and z axes. This new concept will be traded against conventional gimbal systems with lightweight structures and staged systems. Staged systems combine different actuators in series and/or parallel to meet demanding performance requirements, will also be evaluated. For example, Robertson et.al. have proposed mounting a Stewart platform on existing gimbaled systems SatCon will evaluate this option and possible improvements in the actuators and drives.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
135 S. Taylor Avenue
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Scott Shald
MDA 04-145      Selected for Award
Title:Multispectral Lidar for Plume Particle Characterization
Abstract:As active ladar systems become more and more common in missile defense roles, the need for accurate missile signature models increases. Laser radars are currently being pursued for tracking of boosting missiles due to the obvious benefits of clutter rejection and increased precision over passive systems. However, the interaction of laser light with a missile's plume is a complex process that is not well understood. In order to optimize the performance of a laser radar system for missile defense, this laser/plume interaction must be better characterized. Analytic models for laser/plume interaction are being developed, but these models are very sensitive to particle size and shape parameters. Empirical data is needed for validation and model refinement. CTI proposes an active, multi-wavelength ladar system for onboard measurements of missile plume properties. The system will measure scattering properties of the missile plume and estimate particle size and shape distributions. This effort leverages several current activities at CTI, who has proven itself as a world-leader in lidar systems. From CTI's commercial produce, WindTracer, to its custom military systems, CTI has developed rugged, high-performing remote sensing systems to meet the needs of its customers.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-3942
Mr. Vic McCarn
MDA 04-146      Selected for Award
Title:Continuous Hypergolic Monitor Network for Shipboard Applications
Abstract:As the demand for high performance propellants rises, so does the demand for assurance of overall safety of personnel and equipment in the vicinity of such materials. Liquid propellants such as hypergolic fuels, although hazardous, have successfully been in use for decades. The demand for such propellants aboard a naval ship or other enclosed spaces is an emerging requirement that cannot be met without proper safety precautions. The number one priority in safety is detection. This effort would develop an automated, continuous hypergolic leak detection network that does not require calibration or routine maintenance for at least four years. The system must be able to detect to a few parts-per-billion (ppb) any of the common types of hypergolic fuels and oxidizers including monomethylhydrazine (MMH), unsymmetric dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO). It should be readily integrateable with existing components such as missiles, missile canisters, shipboard electronics, passageways, and alarm systems. It should be easily modified or reconfigured for use in a wide range of environments such as manufacturing, storage, transport, shipboard, aircraft, etc.

SEACOAST SCIENCE, INC.
2410 La Macarena
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 633-3498
Dr. Todd Mlsna
MDA 04-146      Selected for Award
Title:Continuous Hypergolic Monitor Network for Shipboard Applications
Abstract:Seacoast Science proposes to fabricate a flexible detector system that meets all the requirements to serve as a detector of hypergolic propellants for missile defense applications. The system includes a chemical sensor array optimized for hypergolic fuels and oxidizers, a motion detector, a radio for wireless communication and a small, rugged, lightweight, low-power system designed for long-term battery operation. Our MEMS chemicapacitor technology utilizes an array of surface micromachined capacitors, coated with chemoselective polymer coatings optimized for volatile chemicals such as hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, dimethyl hydrazine, fuming nitric acid and other oxides of nitrogen. Inexpensive production cost, robustness and exceptionally low power consumption, will result in a compelling detector system able to operate under battery power for several years. In Phase I we will test our sensors by exposing them to missile fuels and oxidizers at appropriate concentrations under a range of environmental conditions. This Phase I effort will result in delivery of a demonstration detector package consisting of three sensor units that will be able to transmit chemical detection events wirelessly. Phase II will result in an optimized detector system that will sample the environment once a day until movement is detected then sample every second.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
1109 Chesterfield Road
Huntsville, AL 35803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 694-5063
Mr. Alton J. Reich
MDA 04-146      Selected for Award
Title:Continuous Hypergolic Monitor Network for Shipboard Applications
Abstract:The current kill vehicle design for the Kinetic Energy Interceptor utilizes a hypergolic liquid fueled DACS. Current Navy regulations prohibit the use of hypergolic propellants aboard ships. One of the requirements that must be addressed prior to gaining approval for sea-basing of these missiles as part of the GMD system is monitoring for propellant leakage. This monitoring must be performed in a way that supports overall Navy goals to reduce manning, and supports deployment aboard Trident SSBNs where the AUR will not be accessible to personnel while underway. Based on these requirements, Streamline Automation proposes to develop a network of voltammetric sensors to detect leakage of hypergolic propellants in shipboard environments. This system will be based on a mature, rugged, voltammetric chemical sensor that is capable of detecting propellant vapors at low concentrations. These sensors will be networked to a local controller that will perform data fusion, and communicate with shipboard command and control systems via TCP/IP networking. The Phase 2 effort will focus on the development of a full-scale prototype, and integration with the Flexible Payload Module. To ensure the success of this development effort, Streamline Automation will work closely with Electric Boat, Bath Iron Work, Northrop-Grumman Mission Systems, and United Defense LP.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
1109 Chesterfield Road
Huntsville, AL 35803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 694-5063
Mr. Alton J. Reich
MDA 04-147      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Shipboard Hypergolic Leak Mitigation System
Abstract:The current kill vehicle design for the Kinetic Energy Interceptor utilizes a hypergolic liquid fueled DACS. Current Navy regulations prohibit the use of hypergolic propellants aboard ships. Systems for mitigating a hypergolic propellant leak are required prior to gaining approval for sea-basing of these missiles as part of the GMD system. The mitigation must be performed in a way that supports overall Navy goals to reduce manning, and supports deployment aboard Trident SSBNs where the AUR will not be accessible to personnel while underway. Based on these requirements, Streamline Automation proposes to develop an automated system for taking appropriate response to a leak based on the concentration of propellant in the air. At low concentrations, the primary goal is personnel protection, and an active carbon based scrubber will be used. As the concentration increases, the primary goal shifts to preventing flammable or explosive concentrations from being reached. The mitigation response will also shift to injecting water to rapidly reduce the vapor concentration and dilute liquid puddles. The Phase 2 effort will focus on the development of a full-scale prototype system, and integration with the Flexible Payload Module. To ensure the success of this development effort, Streamline Automation will work closely with Electric Boat, Bath Iron Works, Northrop-Grumman Mission Systems, and United Defense LP.

MILITARY SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1018 W 9th Ave , Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 354-9100
Mr. Robert Lee
MDA 04-148      Selected for Award
Title:An Integrated High Altitude Plume/Hardbody Interaction Model
Abstract:This Phase I study will demonstrate the feasibility and utility of integrating several advanced simulation technologies for modeling missile plume and hardbody flowfield/thermal response interactions, for the purpose of accurately computing combined plume/hardbody IR signatures with a specific emphasis on transient plume-related events which occur at high altitudes. The SOCRATES-P Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code, which will be utilized for calculating plume flowfields at altitudes > 90 km, will be coupled to existing government owned/developed models for six-degree-of-freedom trajectory dynamics, material thermal response, aeroheating, and aerodynamics to perform a complete simulation package capable of including all pertinent physical effects related to combined missile hardbody/plume IR signatures at high altitudes. Requirements and program design for the signature modeling tool will be developed and demonstrated in Phase I, with subsequent code development and validation being the focus of Phase II.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Jason Cline
MDA 04-148      Selected for Award
Title:The Maneuvers and Signatures of Interacting Vehicles Toolkit (MASIV)
Abstract:As one of the key developers of SOCRATES-P, Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes to extend the SOCRATES-P DSMC flow, chemistry, and radiation solver with a dynamics package, the Maneuvers and Signatures of Interacting Vehicles Toolkit (MASIV). The Toolkit will enable high-fidelity calculation of transient missile signatures at high altitudes (> 90 km) by integrating a 6DOF (Degrees Of Freedom) trajectory model with the SOCRATES-P solver. MASIV uses several innovations to describe multiple moving bodies and thrust sources while retaining the high simulation fidelity of SOCRATES-P. For Phase I, we intend to implement these innovations and demonstrate MASIV with two linearly accelerating bodies containing plumes. These calculations will include computation of gaseous forces on the solid bodies and associated heating of solid body surfaces and will result in time dependent spatial and spectral signature predictions. For Phases II/III, we will extend our efforts to include gaseous forces on solid bodies within the 6DOF treatment and the time-evolving continuum flowfield/DSMC coupling where necessary. We will perform validation studies on a large number of scenarios of interest, including complex motions such as solid body articulations, and multiple complex bodies each with their own accelerations.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Hoang Dothe
MDA 04-149      Selected for Award
Title:All Altitude Atmospheric RT Algorithm for Scene Generation
Abstract:Radiation-transport (RT) codes constitute the core component of the many target, plume, background, and atmospheric signature models utilized not only by the Missile Defense Agency but also by virtually every other government agency and commercial company involved in developing optically-based weapons, surveillance, and remote-sensing systems. To handle high volume generation of scenes required by many of today's DOD programs, the atmospheric RT algorithm must be optimized for both speed and accuracy, for both low (LTE) and high altitude (NLTE) regimes, and must be a callable module for programs such as BEST and FLITES. A high-fidelity and efficient all-altitude atmospheric RT algorithm to support scene rendering does not presently exist. Spectral Sciences, Inc. propose to formulate in Phase I a fast radiative transport approach, based on the correlated-K (cK) method that will be optimized to accurately treat both low and high altitude atmospheric conditions, efficiently predicting not only radiance, but also radiance statistics parameters that can used to create images of stochastic atmospheric structures. The new algorithm will be designed to take the best advantage of the dynamical memory allocation, and of parallelization possible with modern compilers, which will enhance memory management and computational efficiency.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate Place, South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 880-3411
Mr. Ken Sartor
MDA 04-149      Selected for Award
Title:Efficient Radiation Transport Algorithms Using GPU Technology
Abstract:N/A

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Chris Lomont
MDA 04-150      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Models and Simulations for Kinetic Energy Weapons
Abstract:Based on data provided by the Government, Cybernet will develop computer models and integrated simulations to assess the effectiveness of Kinetic Energy Weapons (KEW) engaging full threat systems to aid KE-boost weapon design. The effort will collect and organize Government supplied information into a form that can be coded into a simulation model that can be used to enhance the technical understanding of advanced interceptors and interceptor subcomponents and to perform critical experiments that characterize element attributes and demonstrate KE boost phase feasibility. The goal is to effectively organize data describing boost phase KEW engagements in a way that allows weapon designers and decision makers to make informed decisions concerning alternative systems' effectiveness.

MILTEC CORP.
678 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-1413
Mr. Greg Ferguson
MDA 04-150      Selected for Award
Title:Boost Phase KEW Lethality
Abstract:Kinetic Energy Weapons (KEW) have evolved to the point of engaging and potentially destroying ballistic missiles during their active boost phase. The analytical codes and supporting data required to assess the effectiveness and subsequent damage associated with boost phase hit-to-kill weapons have not evolved at the same rate and essentially do not exist. There is a critical need to obtain data and build computer models to evaluate KEW induced damage during a missile boost phase. The primary objectives of this effort are to: 1) Develop and execute a plan for obtaining data for Kinetic Energy (KE) Boost-Phase Intercepts (BPI), and 2) Develop models to assess the effectiveness of kinetic energy weapon (KEW) engagements of full threat systems to aid KE-boost weapon design. Requirements to aid evaluation of effective KE-boost kill enhancement concepts will be produced as part of this effort. Data will be generated from tests, as needed, primarily using light-gas-gun test facilities. First-principles analysis using state-of-the-art hydrodynamics codes along with existing and new test results will aid development of fast-running algorithms that can be incorporated into systems level computer simulations. These algorithms, which will be products of this effort, will aid in the assessment of system effectiveness studies and to support Probability-of-Kill (Pk) analysis.

TESLA LABORATORIES, INC.
3524 S Street NW
Washington, DC 20007
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(414) 807-0006
Dr. George Stejic
MDA 04-150      Selected for Award
Title:Enhancing Boost Phase KEW Lethality
Abstract:This proposed program will develop new computer models and integrate them with existing core lethality models to better predict KEW boost phase engagement strategy lethality effectiveness and to assist development of emerging enhanced lethality weapon systems tasked to neutralize enemy missile attack threats. Traditional Hit-To-Kill (HTK) lethality simulations have focused on KEW/warhead interactions (i.e. mid-course or later interception) and can not presently adequately determine KEW/threat missile (i.e. boost phase) interactions. The proposed program will address this deficiency by: 1) Surveying existing experimental KEW/Missile impact data, 2) creating a database of this data, 3) use this data in conjunction with physics based analyses to create modeling modules addressing boost phase KEW impacts and sympathetic effects to the payload. The proposed programs to be developed will enhance national security by modeling interactions in trial scenarios between candidate boost phase lethality enhancing concepts and attacking threat missiles as done by existing core simulation models. The programs will be anchored to the presently utilized simulation programs to provide seamless defensive strategy development. This will allow rapid screening, development, and optimization of potential boost phase alternative lethality enhancing configurations and scenarios not adequately covered by existing simulations models such as PEELS, KIDD, and PEGEM.

PROPULSION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4 Amy Drive
East Windsor, NJ 08520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(267) 276-0181
Ms. Margaret W. Taylor
MDA 04-151      Selected for Award
Title:Integration of Thermal Management Systems and Quasi 3-D Modeling with Plume Signature Analysis
Abstract:The impact of liquid fueled missile, thermal management systems on plume signatures, is of critical importance to accurate plume signature modeling. This proposal describes the innovative coupling of an engineering level thermal design tool, VITMAC (Vehicle Integrated Thermal Management Analysis Code) with a Quasi 3-D enhanced Standardized Plume Flowfield Model, SPF-IIIQ3D. In addition, we will explore the use of neural network modeling concepts to provide a fast running plume signature characterization of transient events such as engine start-up and shut-down sequencing. VITMAC is a fast-running PC-based design tool, which models thermal management systems, integrated with propulsion and airframe components subject to various transient heat loads. VITMAC allows for a drop-and-drag construction of complex multi-loop and interacting cooling circuits. When coupled to enhanced plume signature models, the resultant GUI driven, user friendly toolkit, when developed, will be capable of addressing both thermal management system integration and design and its impact on plume signatures.

AERO OPTICS, INC.
655 Deep Valley Drive, Suite 335
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 541-1933
Dr. Blaine E. Pearce
MDA 04-152      Selected for Award
Title:Trough Region Plume Signatures (TRPS)
Abstract:The altitude region 40-70 km (signature trough region) is a segment of missile trajectories in which MDA signature simulation capability is least reliable. Important phenomena include afterburning cessation, turbulent-laminar transition, reduced mixing and onset of collision enhancement. Aero Optics, Inc. (AOI) and Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) propose the Trough Region Plume Signatures (TRPS) measurements-simulation program to collect and exploit highly resolved missile plume flow and radiation measurements in this altitude region. The unique capability of CUBRC's Large Energy National Shock Tunnel (LENS) is proposed for the measurements. LENS provides the altitude-velocity environment that matches missile trajectories along with demonstrated capability to measure gas dynamic and radiative properties of rocket plumes in shock tunnel test environments. Proposed measurements include mean and fluctuating flow and radiance properties, and particulate trajectories for liquid and solid propellants. Computations of the test flow field and radiation will be made with standard and newly developed flow/radiation simulation tools. The overall objective is a collection of gas dynamic and radiative measurements under well-defined conditions that support improved modeling and simulation. Phase I is test planning involving shock tunnel conditions, instrumentation, rocket motor design, demonstration of facilities and measurements, and supporting simulations. Phase II is implementation of the plan, data collection and archiving, analysis and exploitation of the data for improved simulations.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
MDA 04-152      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Experimental Collection of High Quality Missile Plume Flowfield Data & Model Validation
Abstract:The accurate prediction of missile plume signatures within the afterburning shutdown regime plays a crucial role in the development of a number of missile defense technologies for Boost Phase Intercept (BPI). These include algorithms for plume-to-hardbody handover, aimpoint selection, system typing, tracking, and the development of critical sensor parameters such as noise equivalent target thresholds. However, current state-of-the-art predictive codes cannot accurately represent the evolution of plume signatures through the afterburning shutdown regime. This results from an inadequate understanding of the associated physics and absence of supportive laboratory flowfield data that correlate flowfield measurements with simultaneous measurements of infra-red (IR) emissions. The proposed Phase I program will lead to detailed plans for obtaining new data sets in the CUBRC LENS shock tunnel facility that duplicate true flight conditions and can be used to improve the predictive capabilities of plume CFD models in the afterburning shutdown regime. The development of the test plans will be closely supported by CFD simulations to ensure that the entire afterburning cessation envelope is covered during the tests. State-of-the-art non-intrusive diagnostic measurements of plume flowfields will be performed at simulated altitudes, and companion measurements of IR emissions will be obtained.

PROPULSION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
4 Amy Drive
East Windsor, NJ 08520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 490-5515
Mr. Harold S. Pergament
MDA 04-153      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Altitude Plume Chemistry Signature Modeling
Abstract:The inability of current plume signature codes to accurately predict the altitude in the afterburning region at which the peak signature occurs and the rate of signature decay with altitude ("afterburning shutdown") is the subject of this solicitation. A more accurate description of afterburning plume chemistry is needed, particularly for hydrocsrbon-fueled systems. The issue is that either the chemical kinetic mechanism is not known or the important reaction rate constants have not been measured in the laboratory. Accordingly, the use of computational chemistry codes which can calculate reaction rate constants from first principles is required. In order to implement the first principles quantum mechanical approach the 3D molecular structure of the species, as well as the transition state structures of the reactions must be obtained. These must be input to a quantum chemistry package for calculating potential energy surface information. Current computational chemistry codes that will be investigated include POLYRATE and TheRate. This work will demonstrate the use of these codes to calculate reaction rate constants as a function of temperature for a reaction of importance to plume afterburning chemistry.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Robert Shroll
MDA 04-153      Selected for Award
Title:Computational Chemistry Applications to LOW Altitude Plume Signature Modeling
Abstract:The remote detection of infrared emissions from the hot plumes of boosting missiles is a core component of our missile defense system. Inherent in the detection and interpretation of these emissions is an accurate and detailed understanding of rocket plume phenomenology. We are proposing to develop and test techniques to substantially enhance the chemical mechanisms central to understanding plume radiance. Through the focused application of computational chemistry to areas of the chemical mechanism not amenable to experimental observation, we will augment existing chemical models, focusing on lower altitude flows. We will initially investigate the sensitivity of calculated continuum flow fields and signatures on certain key chemical reactions involved in plume afterburning and afterburning cessation. Based on this sensitivity test, the state specific reaction rate constants for a key reaction will be calculated using modern computational chemistry techniques. These rates will be applied to the continuum flow field models, whose output will be used to generate plume radiance maps to validate the approach. In Phase II we will apply the methods developed to many reactions of interest and integrate this detailed chemistry into plume modeling codes.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2302
Dr. Ronald L. Cook
MDA 04-153      Selected for Award
Title:Model-Free Prediction of Chemical Reaction Rate Constants
Abstract:The national missile defense system is based on early warning satellites, early warning radars, command centers, and the actual interceptors. The satellites will infrared sensors to "detect" the IR plumes from a missile's booster and determine its approximate trajectory as well as track the missiles throughout their flight. The codes used to generate rocket plume exhausts combine both fluid dynamics as well as chemical mechanisms and reaction models to arrive at the plume signatures. Unfortunately, the chemical mechanisms and reaction models are not yet developed enough to be used to understand and predict the processes of afterburning and afterburning shutdown that are necessary for accurate plume signature generation. Furthermore, the chemical mechanisms and reactions involved in afterburning and afterburning shutdown occur in a regime that is difficult to study in a laboratory. Therefore there is a need to develop innovative computational tools that can generate the chemical reaction rate constants that are needed to predict the plume signatures associated with missile operations at the lower altitudes where afterburning and afterburning shutdown occur. TDA Research, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative model-free algorithmic approach to predict chemical reaction rate constants using molecular descriptors calculated from the elementary reaction mechanisms.

WRITE FOR YOU, INC.
25 Dover Hill Drive
Nesconset, NY 11767
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 366-3100
Dr. Stanley Rudman
MDA 04-153      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Altitude Plume Chemistry Signature Modeling
Abstract:Infrared surveillance and tracking systems use intensity/temporal properties of observed missile signatures to develop information that assists in the typing and/or characterization of the target, a task of primary importance to boost phase intercept and other defense systems and activities. An important characteristic feature, afterburning cessation (i.e., the very rapid drop in the observed signature), has eluded modeling efforts to the present day. At lower altitudes (< 70 km), the turbulent mixing and combustion of unburned fuel with the atmosphere, or afterburning, and its shutdown with increasing altitude arise from the interplay of many processes that are not fully understood or have not been completely explored. Understanding the processes of afterburning and afterburning shutdown requires the very accurate prediction of the detailed thermo-chemical state of the plume gases to a finer level of accuracy than has been required in previous signature generation modeling. The purpose of this effort is to develop an afterburning model of sufficient refinement by including physics mechanisms previously neglected, employing the most recent combustion kinetics models, employing the most appropriate/efficient CFD codes, and paying particular attention to the numerical accuracy and convergence of the various numerical algorithms employed.

ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, INC.
131 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 761-2288
Dr. Hilary Snell/Michael Kendra
MDA 04-154      Selected for Award
Title:Simulation of Stressing Optical Clutter for Scene Generation
Abstract:This effort will characterize the spatial structure and real world features of stressing atmospheric phenomena and develop techniques to efficiently represent these phenomena in optical/infrared background models. Our approach to this problem involves locating and identifying stressing backgrounds contained in measurements and extracting key clutter characteristics in a form that allows their insertion into radiance codes such as SAMM2. Extraction techniques proposed herein cover spatial, temporal, and spectral domains. Background features will be properly located in the global/geophysical environment, accounting for the dependence of real world phenomena on time, latitude, and season, in order to ensure real world fidelity. The feasibility of extracting and simulating these clutter sources will be assessed, and methodologies will be developed when practical.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. John Gruninger
MDA 04-154      Selected for Award
Title:Stressing Atmospheric Clutter Radiance Models
Abstract:The atmosphere adversely impacts infrared target detection systems. In particular, atmospheric absorption reduces the intensity of detected target signatures, bright atmospheric backgrounds reduce target/background contrast, temporal and spatial atmospheric structures confuse target detection algorithms. Validated atmospheric background radiance models that include stressing structure are needed for surveillance system performance studies and simulations. Spectral Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a response function technique which will facilitate rapid generation of radiance scenes and line of sight radiances for target trajectories through structured atmospheres. The Phase I effort will provide an assessment of impact on sensor performance of aurora, sprites, polar mesospheric clouds, stratospheric warmings, thermal inversions, gravity waves and mesospheric bores. A methodology for generating radiance scenes will be established and plans for implementation and validation will be identified. Phase I will provide the basis for the Phase II work of validation and full implementation into SAMM and BEST of the models of the most stressful phenomena.

DECIBEL RESEARCH, INC.
PO Box 5368
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 716-0787
Dr. Enrico Poggio
MDA 04-155      Selected for Award
Title:3D Radar Imaging
Abstract:This effort proposes the use of three-dimensional radar imaging to potentially enhance Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) performance. The concept extends conventional two-dimensional range-Doppler imaging by exploiting the relative motion of a radar target in an additional plane with respect to the radar line of sight, allowing resolution of scattering features in two cross-range planes. Three-dimensional radar images have the potential of providing added target features that may not be obtained from conventional two-dimensional images, as additional information regarding the size, shape and configuration of the object may be obtained from the three-dimensional scattering locations. The system envisioned would consist of a three-dimensional imaging algorithm in conjunction with a wideband pulse-Doppler radar. The system will observe a target moving in a trajectory that would permit sufficiently large changes in the momentum aspect angle during radar observations. This, coupled with a spinning and precessing or possibly tumbling target, would provide a set of look angles in two cross-range planes. The algorithm would rely on other algorithms in a BMDS decision architecture to obtain high-precision state vector and motion solutions of the target. Knowledge of target motion and the change in momentum aspect angle Kappa will permit the algorithm to determine the look angles and the sampling rate necessary to perform three-dimensional imaging. This imaging system has the potential to provide additional target information during several stages of BMDS engagements.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 04-155      Selected for Award
Title:3D Radar Imaging
Abstract:MARK Resources proposes to develop algorithms that combine measurements obtained from multiple radars, or from the same radar at different times, to extract the three-dimensional distribution of scatterers on BMD targets, and to translate these distributions into discriminating features. The proposed approach analyzes the complex return signal from each scatterer directly, and extracts three-dimensional information without imaging a target. The measurements do not require knowledge of the target motion, are not sensitive to radar registration and calibration, and require little throughput, so may be applied to sea-based as well as ground-based radars. The proposed SBIR project will demonstrate the achievable measurement accuracy and the consequent improvement in discrimination performance, and determine how these depend on the engagement conditions and radar parameters. Boeing has joined us in this project, to effectively transition the technology into existing and future missile defense systems.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 261-3508
Dr. Paul D Mountcastle
MDA 04-155      Selected for Award
Title:3D Radar Imaging
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase I effort is to introduce a new 3D imaging algorithm, to explore the range of circumstances within BMD where the technique can be successfully employed, and to investigate associated data processing requirements. MDA seeks a technique for exploiting its radar assets to create high resolution three-dimensional Inverse Synthetic Aperture (3D ISAR) images of objects in a ballistic missile threat complex, providing substantially more information than is currently available, to allow better discrimination of the threatening reentry vehicle (RV) from non-threatening objects. TSC's new technology provides a physics-based method for producing three-dimensional ISAR images from radar measurements of a target at multiple azimuths and elevations. TSC will demonstrate an innovative coherent approach in which scatterers fixed to the skin of a rigid body are imaged without the conventional requirement that they move in straight lines or with constant phase history with respect to the radar. Instead, the phase trajectories are modeled precisely using solutions of Euler's torque-free equations of motion. Potential advantages of the novel approach include reduced radar resource requirements compared to conventional snapshot ISAR imaging, discrimination of tumbling RVs, discrimination of the RV in stressing viewing geometries, and opportunities for multi-sensor data level fusion.

CLEVERSET, INC.
673 NW Jackson Ave.
Corvallis, OR 97330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 829-6000
Dr. Bruce D'Ambrosio
MDA 04-156      Selected for Award
Title:Variable Resolution Modeling for Distributed Battle Management
Abstract:Missile defense battle management is an inherently distributed process, involving sensors, weapons, and targets that are distributed over a region spanning thousands of miles. While most agents need some sense of "distant events", they neither need nor can afford detailed, high-fidelity models of the entire situation. CleverSet's approach to distributed battle management is based in variable resolution modeling using Relational Influence Diagrams. This approach integrates recent advances in relational data modeling, Bayesian inference and data fusion, and distributed processing with limited bandwidth, in a scalable, open-platform, standards-based modeling environment to produce extensible and future-ready models for distributed battle management. These models provide a basis for estimation and control across a network of heterogeneous sensors and weapons connected by a potentially unreliable and constrained communication network. In this SBIR Phase I proposal, CleverSet proposes to develop representations and algorithms for distributed inference and control over a network of heterogeneous sensors and weapons connected by a communication network. The approach will be evaluated within CleverSet Modeler, CleverSet's relational Bayesian modeling environment using CleverSet's patent-pending synthetic variable language.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Dr. Wolfgang Kober
MDA 04-156      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Battle Management
Abstract:.

INTEGRATED SENSORS, INC.
502 Court St., Suite 210
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 798-1377
Dr. Charles Ferrara
MDA 04-157      Selected for Award
Title:CSO Resolution
Abstract:Integrated Sensors, Incorporated (ISI) proposes to develop a frequency-domain closely spaced object (CSO) condition detection algorithm and evaluate a variety of deconvolution approaches. We propose a combined CSO / deconvolution process where information extracted from the CSO detection process will drive the design of the deconvolution filters. We will also use the CSO information to characterize the spacing geometry and sizes of the CSO's. ISI has already developed numerous deconvolution algorithms under previous efforts. Algorithms such as adaptive Wiener filters and recursive maximum likelihood / entropy optimizations are among those already available in MATLAB. All of these require precise models of the system MTF (Modulation Transfer Function), which ISI has developed under two previous efforts. The Wiener approach is nonrecursive and would be the simplest to implement, while the recursive approaches tend to perform better under nongaussian conditions. A major challenge is address the overshooting issue of the recursive approaches. The Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) provides an ideal framework from which to address this issue. Innovation is also required to structure these algorithms for an efficient, real-time solution. ISI will include this technology as part of its ImageExpressT commercial motion analysis system, to enhance measurement accuracy.

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Benjamin Slocumb
MDA 04-157      Selected for Award
Title:Hierarchical Image Processing for CSO Resolution
Abstract:Observation of closely-spaced objects using limited-resolution infrared sensor systems can result in merged measurements, which can hamper the performance of both tracking algorithms and discrimination. Algorithms intended to improve image resolution capability are often processor-intensive. This can limit their applicability for space systems onboard processing, particularly in the short timelines associated with kinetic interceptors. We propose to develop an algorithm for resolution of closely-spaced objects using a hierarchy of spatial filters, deconvolution, and constructive particle distribution with Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering. With this hierarchy, we expect to provide improved object resolution while conforming to space system processing time constraints.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive, Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Ralph Wojtowicz
MDA 04-158      Selected for Award
Title:Categorical Logic as a Foundation for Reasoning Under Uncertainty
Abstract:Categorical logic is a sophisticated mathematical theory which has been successfully applied in computer science, applied mathematics, and in mathematical foundations. Formal languages called logics are interpreted in mathematical structures called categories. Sets, fuzzy sets, probability spaces, and a vast array of other objects have been studied as categories. Theorems relating fragments of first and higher order logics to categories which can be used as models have been developed by the research community. In particular, there is a body of research on fuzzy sets and probability spaces which has not yet been employed in industry. Metron proposes to use these technologies to integrate Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer theory, fuzzy logic, and other models of inference under uncertainty. We anticipate discovering new perspectives on machine learning algorithms in this categorical framework. We further propose to investigate the efficiency of the functional programming languages ML and Haskell in the design and execution of our algorithms.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Adel El-Fallah
MDA 04-158      Selected for Award
Title:Seamlessly Unified Reasoning Under Uncertainty for Missile Defense Architectures
Abstract:Scientific Systems Company Inc. (SSCI) of Woburn MA and its subcontractor Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems (LMTS) of Eagan MN propose a radically new approach to expert systems theory that will greatly facilitate the effective design of BMD decision architectures. We will show that, as most commonly employed in the problem domain of interest---fusing information to obtain estimates of target states and estimates of uncertainty in those states---evidence-fusion using Dempster-Shafer, fuzzy logic, and rule-based can be rigorously subsumed within the Bayesian theory. Thus fusion of ambiguous measurements using Dempster's rule of combination '*' or Zadeh's conjunction operator '^' produce exactly the same answer as fusion using Bayes' rule. Rules---including second-order rules---can be processed in a recursive Bayes filter as just another kind of data. From a BMD decision architecture point of view, the following are immediate consequences: (1) the relationships between, and relative strengths and weaknesses of, the different expert systems approaches can be directly compared; (2) algorithm and architecture design can become more systematic and integrated; and (3) it is no longer necessary to "re-invent the wheel" when using fuzzy logic, Dempster-Shafer, and rule-based methods since we can draw from a huge "toolbox" of established probabilistic concepts and techniques. The approach can be rigorously extended to multisource-multitarget detection, tracking, and identification. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of expert systems approaches to multisource-multitarget tracking.

FMA RESEARCH, INC.
46050 Weld County Road 13
Fort Collins, CO 80524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 568-7664
Dr. Walter A. Lyons
MDA 04-159      Selected for Award
Title:Stratospheric Lightning Forecasting and Nowcasting Tools
Abstract:Our ultimate goal is the design, test and deployment of a decision aid to minimize interactions of High Altitude Airships (HAAs) with thunderstorms producing intense electrodynamic disturbances in the lower stratosphere associated with tropospheric lightning-induced phenomena collectively known as Transient Luminous Events (TLEs). Evidence points to intense, transient electric fields, some with highly impulsive characteristics, and even lightning-like electrical discharges emerging from cloud tops, at HAA altitudes. Until the electrical environment can be properly quantified and vehicles appropriately hardened, avoidance of the parent storms appears a prudent policy. In Phase III, we would the make operational the software that would be incorporated into a field-deployable work station allowing HAA operators to reposition vehicles away from regions with forecasted electrical hazards within the upcoming 72 hours, plus identifying near-term storms producing TLEs (nowcasting). In order to deploy the SENTRIH system (pronounced "sentry"), for Stratospheric ENvironmental Thunderstorm-Related Interferences to HAAs, several technical challenges must be met: (1) diagnosing those storm types known to produce TLEs from operational numerical weather prediction models, (2) demonstrating real-time detection and location of sprite/elve producing lightning strokes using ELF/VLF signal transient analysis, and (3) determining an RF or meteorological signature for blue jet and giant jets.

NORTHWEST RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 3027
Bellevue, WA 98009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 415-9701
Dr. David C. Fritts
MDA 04-159      Selected for Award
Title:Dynamical Stratospheric Turbulence and TLE/Lightning Forecasting and Nowcasting for High-Altitude Airships (HAA) and other Aircraft
Abstract:We propose to define and develop state-of-the-art forecasting and nowcasting tools to support HAA operations. Our focus is on stratospheric gravity wave (GW) processes, turbulence, and transient luminous events (TLE) and related electrical discharges to altitudes of 70,000 feet. These phenomena currently threaten reconnaissance and targeting missions and in the case of GW and turbulence have resulted in the destruction of several aircraft and a pilot death. Successful forecasting tools would be of considerable value to the U.S. military and other entities. The forecasting tools we propose must explicitly account for small-scale stratospheric dynamics that cannot be resolved by traditional NWP models. Based on our extensive research experience, these include GW excitation, propagation, and turbulence generation. GW excitation and propagation will be described based on forecast meteorology and established ray-tracing methods. Turbulence occurrence, morphology, and statistics will be based on forecast sites and rates of GW dissipation by extending a proven, but more limited, forecast model and detailed simulations of turbulent flows. TLE forecasts will be based on correlations with and forecasts of deep convection. Forecasts and nowcasts will employ embedded high-resolution methods where needed. Data displays will employ advanced methods derived from our expertise in commercial weather forecasting.

CUBEN FIBER CORP.
4511 East Ivy Street
Mesa, AZ 85208
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 641-0438
Mr. Roland J. Downs
MDA 04-160      Selected for Award
Title:Very Lightweight High Tenacity Fabric for High Altitude Airships
Abstract:Abstract: Cuben Fiber Corp. proposes to develop and test very lightweight high tenacity fabrics for HAAs and prepare related manufacturing protocols. The fabrics should meet the following design goals: Tensile strength: 1000 lbs/in at a weight of 3.5 oz/yd2 with minimal creep and capable of carrying Tensile Loads of 800 lbs/in without failing due to creep rupture. Additionally the material should be compatible with daily cycling properties (such as load cycling from 8 to 16 hours in duration in 24-hour periods and temperature cycling from - 90oC to +90oC) and the high ozone and UV exposure an HAA will experience in its operational environment of 60,000 to 70,000 feet. 36"x36" Tensile test laminate samples will be produced from UD tapes of Dyneema SK76, Toray T1000G and, if available of PBO and M5 fibers. In a prior development phase, Cuben Fiber has produced such fabrics that meet about 75% of the above performance targets.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
181 Gibraltar Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Mr. Richard Foedinger
MDA 04-160      Selected for Award
Title:Very Lightweight High Tenacity Fabric for High Altitude Airships (MSC P1F46-446)
Abstract:Improved lightweight fabric materials and constructions are needed to meet the multifunctional performance requirements (e.g., high tensile strength, fatigue strength, durability, environmental resistance) for the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) High Altitude Airship (HAA). The proposed research program will develop and demonstrate the manufacturing feasibility and performance of lightweight, multifunctional hybrid fabrics to provide the optimal combination of performance characteristics for the HAA skins. The use of hybrid fiber and fabric constructions provides the opportunity for achieving multifunctional performance at reduced weight and potentially reduced cost compared to current fabric designs. This will provide the capability for longer duration missions and reduced maintenance. Advanced lightweight fiber materials will be considered in combination with other fiber materials as part of a comprehensive trade study. Innovative fabric constructions will be developed using improved textile modeling tools to predict fabric properties for a variety of materials and fabric architectures. A minimum of three fabric constructions will be designed and evaluated in terms of performance, manufacturability, and cost. The influence of constituent fiber/yarn properties (e.g., density, denier, twist) and weave construction on fabric properties will be evaluated. Selected fabric constructions will be produced and tested to provide an initial demonstration of manufacturing feasibility and performance.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Arthur Gavrin
MDA 04-160      Selected for Award
Title:Ozone and UV Resistant Fabrics for High Altitude Airships(1000-626)
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes to develop a lightweight, environmentally stable, high tenacity fabric for use as the skin material of the High Altitude Airship (HAA). Since HAAs will be stationed at ~70,000 ft, there are many environmental issues it must deal with. The HAA will be subjected to daily thermal cycling of -90C to 90C and chemical attacks from ultraviolet radiation and ozone. The skin fabric must have a tensile strength of 1000 lbs/in, be 3.5 oz/yd2, and have minimal creep. Triton Systems will evaluate advanced fiber and coating materials while considering manufacturing issues, such as cost, speed, materials availability). The proposed fabric will incorporate high tenacity fibers with protective coatings. The coatings will help protect the underlying fibers from the detrimental affects of ultraviolet radiation and ozone. Furthermore, the fabric will be manufactured to minimize creep and weight, while maximizing tensile strength. Triton Systems will utilize its knowledge and experience in the fabrication of environmentally durable polymers, high performance fiber coatings, and textile fabric manufacturing.

CAPE COD RESEARCH, INC.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4400
Mr. Francis L. Keohan
MDA 04-161      Selected for Award
Title:New Bonding Process for Joining High Tenacity Fabrics in Airships
Abstract:A new generation of high altitude airships (HAA) requires advanced materials and fabrication methods to achieve the weight, strength and durability requirement for long-term deployment. A new fabric joining approach is proposed to form strong, durable seams between textile components without incurring a large weight penalty. The new textile adhesive and application system are designed to perform like a combination of stitching and adhesive bonding to yield strong and durable seams. The new adhesive will combine the properties of liquid crystalline polyester (LCPE) and conventional UV curing acrylics to yield a joining system with the best attributes of stitching and bonding. The proposed adhesives will be applied through the fabric adherends using a heated multi-needle applicator. This textile joining approach should allow rapid seam formation, accommodate a variety of fabric architectures and orientations and produce high strength seams with excellent durability in high altitude service. The Phase I research objective is to demonstrate the joining of high tenacity fabrics suitable for HAA structure. The adhesive materials will be synthesized, simple-to-apply formulations prepared, a prototype applicator-cure system fabricated, and the ability to form effective seams demonstrated. The resulting bonds will be tested for strength, weight addition, and environmental durability.

TEN BAR RANCH MFG. LLC
11893 Hillcrest Rd.
Golden, CO 80403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 642-0299
Mr. Craig A. Neff
MDA 04-161      Selected for Award
Title:Seaming/Joining and Load Patch Technologies for High Tenacity Fabrics
Abstract:A technology has been developed whereby a polymer (plastic) is delivered through a nozzle onto an area to be seamed causing the polymer to bond to the substrates to which it has been applied. This is accomplished by coaxially delivering laser energy in the plastic as it is being applied. The laser energy coaxially delivered in this way is referred to as Laser Enhanced Bonding (LEB). This process is patented (Patent #5348604). The name of the technology is copyrighted and is referred to in the textile industry as LightSeam. The resulting seam is impermeable, flexible, environmentally safe, long lasting, and aesthetically pleasing. Butt seams generated utilizing LEB demonstrate impermeability approaching or exceeding parent material strengths. This impermeability extends from helium and other gasses to blood pathogens, chemicals, water, and any other characteristics the parent material has been engineered to achieve. The technology allows for the use of virtually any polymer, to be used in conjunction with virtually any complex substrate construct. LEB allows common off-the-shelf polymers to be used in applications previously reserved exclusively for solvent based technologies (neoprenes, rubbers, leather, etc.). This is an incredibly significant environment opportunity. The technology has been demonstrated to members of the HAA team at Lockheed Martin and a method was suggested whereby a conventional tape extruding machine was engineered to allow the tape to be laser enhanced bonded to the seam as it is generated. This will allow new polymers to be matched more perfectly with the evolving needs of the HAA. No comparable seaming technologies exist today!

WARWICK MILLS
301 Turnpike Road, PO Box 409
New Ipswich, NH 03071
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 878-1565
Mr. Charles Howland
MDA 04-161      Selected for Award
Title:Seaming/Joining and Load Patch Technologies for High Tenacity Fabrics
Abstract:Warwick proposes a new technical innovation to improve the performance of HAA joints using a double-sided Balanced HAA Joining process. In concert with our Multi-functional Fiber Layer (MFL) hull material design, we propose a novel adhesive solution. Using high temperature thermoplastic as part of a multi-functional system, we propose to combine two HAA hull fabrics with minimal mass and maximum tenacity of the joint. This Balanced HAA Joining proposed design addresses several concerns which are relevant to HAA joining techniques: 1.) 90C exposure is out of scope for most thermoplastics; our system addresses this temperature requirement. 2.) Single sided joints often fail in peel; our balanced designs preserve simple double shear stresses. 3.) Current load patch materials add significant mass to airship envelopes; our load patch approach introduces a new method of manufacturing for very low-mass load patch.

QUANTUM FUEL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES WORLDWIDE, INC.
17872 Cartwright Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 399-4575
Dr. Kenneth J. Newell
MDA 04-162      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-Lightweight Hydrogen Gas Storage Tanks
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate the development of an all composite Type IV gaseous fuel storage module capable of delivering 20kg of usable hydrogen at 15% system weight efficiency for high altitude regenerative power supply. The successful development of an ultra-lightweight hydrogen storage system will represent a key enabling technology for future generations of high altitude airships (HAA) requiring sustainable high specific energy storage in extreme thermal environments between 60,000 and 70,000 feet.

SCIMITAR TECHNOLOGIES LLC
2005 Big Horn Drive
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 692-9663
Mr. Brian Muskopf
MDA 04-162      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-Lightweight Hydrogen Gas Storage Tanks
Abstract:Future generations of high altitude airships (HAA) will require power systems with increased specific energy production and storage capability in order to enhance operational capability or reduce overall system weight. Regenerative fuel cell solutions hold much promise toward providing this capability. A key systemic obstacle for implementing this solution is the lack of ultra-lightweight hydrogen gas storage tanks of sufficient size and storage capability that can be operated in the HAA environment between 60,000 and 70,000 feet. New and innovative materials and design approaches are required to produce ultra-lightweight hydrogen gas storage tanks. This project proposes to develop a cost effective, ultra-lightweight composite hydrogen gas storage tank that will meet all HAA design requirements. The hydrogen gas storage tank will be based on a pressure vessel design that uses a dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) polymer as the tank liner material, and carbon fiber composite for the tank structural shell. The DCPD polymer has optimal properties for use as a lightweight liner material, with excellent mechanical properties and extremely low permeation and absorption characteristics. DCPD will also be evaluated for use as the filament winding resin for the tank shell since it allows a very high fiber volume laminate to be produced.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. A
MDA 04-163      Selected for Award
Title:RF MEMS FOR MULTIPLE KILL VEHICLE (MKV)
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency, assigned with the extremely critical and highly complicated task of protecting the U.S. against ballistic and cruise missiles, has an urgent need for innovative and extremely compact communication systems for the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) program. In response to the above need, EMAG Technologies in collaboration with Purdue University proposes to develop a novel, miniaturized, reconfigurable communication system based on RF MEMS varactors. The proposed architecture requires a number of novel technologies that permit excellent RF performance, limited power consumption, low size and cost. These technologies are: RF MEMS varactors, Phase shifters, tunable filters, and reconfigurable miniaturized antennas. Each one of the proposed structures is based on an already developed MEMS varactor design, which demonstrated excellent performance and reliability. Moreover, on-wafer packaging and three-dimensional integration will be utilized for the hermetic sealing of all the proposed components. This packaging scheme will be based on EMAG's already developed low-loss, hermetic package for single RF MEMS switches.

MEMTRONICS CORP.
3000 Custer Road Suite 270-400
Plano, TX 75075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 235-1881
Dr. Charles L. Goldsmith
MDA 04-163      Selected for Award
Title:RF MEMS FOR MULTIPLE KILL VEHICLE (MKV)
Abstract:During the course of this project, the unique advantages of software defined radios (SDRs), such as scalability and reconfigurability, will be applied to implement extremely compact communications systems for the MKV program. A key enabling technology for these radio systems, RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), will also be developed to reduce size and weight while increasing power handling of critical communications components. The combined benefits of software defined radios and MEMS-based tunable filters will enable substantial improvements in miniaturization, performance, and flexibility. These advancements will be key enablers for current and future generations of MKV communications systems.

AERO THERMO TECHNOLOGY, INC.
620 Discovery Drive, NW, Building I, Suite 100
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-1141
Mr. Robert Allen Spencer
MDA 04-164      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturized, low weight, low cost interceptor components for the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV)
Abstract:Aero Thermo Technology, Inc., and our partner ITT, propose a focused research effort to address key lethality aspects for miniaturized, low weight kill vehicles in support of the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) Program. Lethality is a critical issue for BMD concepts that employ small, low mass kill vehicles. Kill Vehicle (KV) concepts and designs are being developed by MKV that have significantly less mass than currently deployed or tested designs. Kill vehicles with mass as low as two kilograms have been proposed. These KVs employ ultra-lightweight components and lower density component housing and structural members. However, the destructive potential of these small KVs has not been demonstrated. A research effort is needed that considers the expected engagement conditions, the KV component materials, the overall packaging and the KV structural arrangement to assess the lethality potential of these miniature KVs. We propose to address this need through parametric analysis using state of the art computer simulations and detailed structural FEA models of small, low mass, kill vehicles and the threat warheads. The results of this effort will provide MDA/MKV program officials with quantative lethality assessments and lethality requirements for miniature KVs. Products of the Phase I effort will include lethality assessments, miss distance requirements, and recommendations for KV structural layout and component materials that will enhance lethality. The results of this effort will also be useful as a guide for future KV miniaturization programs

GUIDED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1453
McDonough, GA 30253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 898-9100
Dr. J. Eric Corban
MDA 04-165      Selected for Award
Title:Nonlinear Adaptive Estimation to Enhance Interceptor Lethality
Abstract:We anticipate that the combination of flight proven neural network adaptive control, recently developed methods for nonlinear adaptive guidance, and innovative new methods for nonlinear adaptive estimation can be applied, separately or, perhaps ultimately in combination, to produce never before achieved levels of lethality for intercept of future maneuvering targets. During Phase I we will focus exclusively on demonstrating in a representative simulation the improvements attainable through enhanced target tracking. The work will be transitioned to a high-fideltiy simulation environment in the phase I option. In phase II, the work in adaptive estimation will be expanded and compared with improvements obtained through application of adaptive guidance. By leveraging concurrent university research and theoretical development, the team will also pursue in phase II an integrated design approach that includes an appropriate combination of nonlinear adaptive guidance, control and estimation. The phase II effort will ultimately demonstrate the benefits of the developed technology in high-fidelity real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation through collaboration with an industry partner.

INNOVATIVE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
800 West 14th Street, Suite 111
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 426-3678
Mr. David Drake
MDA 04-165      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) Algorithm Development to Enhance the Lethality of Interceptors Against Maneuvering Targets
Abstract:This proposal deals with new techniques for the guidance and control of Boost Phase of the missile defense. A new concept integrating the synergy between guidnace and coontrol is offered as an Integrated Guidance and Control approach; furthermore, a new nonlinear controller-filter called the theta-D technique is offered as the tool to solve the boost phase guidance and control problem for accurate intercept under uncertainty about the target conditions.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-3611
Mr. Dan Turner
MDA 04-166      Selected for Award
Title:Reactive Materials as Lethality Enhancers
Abstract:The phase I objectives are to identify techniques to develop analytical, experimental and computational tools to engineer the structural energetic materials from micro- to nano- scales and compare their performance. This effort includes identification of techniques for synthesis of structural energetic materials with intermetallic mixtures or metal fuel/oxidant mixtures, reinforcements and binders. The synthesized materials will be compacted with binders and additional structural reinforcement to the desired density by two methods depending on the type of mixtures: static consolidation technique to desired structural shapes and the use of explosive consolidation whenever feasible.

GRATINGS, INC.
2700-B Broadbent Pkwy., NE
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-9564
Dr. Saleem H. Zaidi
MDA 04-167      Selected for Award
Title:Hyper-thinning of Si for advanced 3-D memory stacking
Abstract:This phase I SBIR proposal addresses development of a generalized benign, high throughput, low-cost silicon die thinning etch tool. Thinning of Si dies is required in many advanced 3-D packaging, rad-hard and flexible-circuit electronics. For example, using hyper-thin (~ 10-25 m) Si memory dies, a stack of 500 MCMs/inch can be formed to provide ~ 200 gigabits/cu. in. density using 64 mbits Si memory technology. Hyper-thin Si dies are of limited utility unless a benign thinning process applicable to conventional Si chips attached to an interconnect substrate can be developed. We have developed plasmaless XeF2 etch systems capable of creating hyper-thin Si layers without damaging the front surface electronic circuits. Extension of this system to multiwafer capability and cost-reduction through alternate source materials is addressed. Phase I research will be done in collaboration with GE Global Research Incorporated. Pathway to commercialization is identified through manufacturing of multiwafer etch tool in partnership with GE.

SPACEWORKS, INC.
7301 E. Sundance Trail, P.O. Box 2014
Carefree, AZ 85377
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 575-1676
Mr. Jeffrey C. Preble
MDA 04-167      Selected for Award
Title:Reconfigurable Embedded Wiring Harness for 3D Electronics Packaging
Abstract:Reconfigurable networks are required to support the utilization of increasingly miniaturized and sophisticated electronics for space flight systems. SpaceWorks, Inc. proposes to develop a reconfigurable wiring harness that is embedded within structural composite panels to address this need. The embedded wiring harness supports multiple payload sites, different module types, and different functional domains within a single network. The payload sites are networked together at hub locations and switched at switch nodes. By electro-mechanically connecting panels together, we can operate, network, and switch multiple payload sites from multiple panels. Through implementation of a standard communications protocol, the reconfigurable embedded wiring harness enables plug-and-play functionality. The approach is completely scaleable and supports realization of self-organizing networks, self-healing, on-orbit rewiring, and fully modular, tailored systems for responsive space.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Frank Traut
MDA 04-168      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturization of RF subsystems for robust miniature applications
Abstract:Aircraft and missiles in flight require communication links with the ground for guidance, mid-course correction, targeting, and other data exchange functions. For small platforms, equipment for such data transfer must be light-weight, small and dissipate minimum prime power. This proposal addresses requirements for light-weight miniature transceivers. The proposed approach is based on utilization of MMIC chips and high-efficiency amplifiers, application of the same technology which brought the multi-function portable phones to the market. The major portion of the program will be devoted to design of the transmitter power amplifier as it will be the dissipator of the largest portion of the prime power. The proposed amplifier is based on a switched amplifier design with a pulse modulation directly applied to the bias port of the amplifier. A GaAs P-HEMT device is envisioned for the amplifier. Preliminary analysis shows that an efficiency of 85% is attainable. The proposed system will be developed for operation in L-band, based on availability of devices for the amplifier and potential future benefits to the cell-phone and commercial wireless communications market. The goal is to design a transceiver capable of 50 km of range with 5 MB of data with equipment weighing less than 500 grams.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 642-3208
Dr. David Hartup
MDA 04-168      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturization of RF subsystems for robust miniature applications
Abstract:The objective of this program will be to develop a miniaturized RF transceiver for use in missile defense applications. Goals include operation at ranges of 50 km, power conversion efficiency of greater than 85%, mass less than 500 grams, data rate of 5 Mbps or greater, and a temperature range from -50 to +125 degrees C. Repackaging of existing technology will be used to the maximum extent possible. Emphasis will be placed on use of architectures and components that allow compact analog RF design. The transceiver design will be modular, allowing easy insertion of spiral technology developments. Integration of functions such as encryption/decryption, networking, and power efficiency will be considered. The design process will ensure that radiation hardness can be achieved in the final implementation.

SENSORS UNLIMITED, INC.
3490 U.S. Route 1, Building 12
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 524-0256
Dr. Bora Onat
MDA 04-169      Selected for Award
Title:1280x1024 InGaAs Camera for Visible and Short-wave Infrared Imaging
Abstract:We will design, develop, and deliver a 1280x1024 pixel indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane array (FPA) and camera for visible and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) imaging. A 1280x1024 substrate-removed InGaAs focal plane array with high quantum efficiency from 0.4 m to 1.7 mm will be developed for use in this camera. The camera will thus be usable for visible imaging, low light SWIR imaging and for the imaging of the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser emitting at 1.315 microns, utilized in ballistic missile defense (BMD) applications. In addition, the use of the InP/InGaAs material system provides inherent radiation hardness for space-based applications. This program will leverage technology developed for our commercial 320x240 visible/SWIR camera and our 640x512 SWIR camera. During Phase I, we will develop a 640x512 substrate removed InGaAs array that will mate with our current read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). This will be integrated into a camera and delivered at the end of Phase I. During Phase II, we will develop a 1280x1040 element ROIC and photodiode array for the high resolution combined visible SWIR camera to be delivered at the end of Phase II.

VISIDYNE, INC.
10 Corporate Place, South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 687-3026
Dr. John DeVore
MDA 04-169      Selected for Award
Title:Application of Infrared Sensors to Early Launch Detection Through Clouds
Abstract:Visidyne proposes to demonstrate the utility of visible and IR sensors for detecting and characterizing bright targets through cloud layers. Visidyne proposes to take advantage of sensors routinely operated as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at their Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) in Oklahoma. An uplooking geometry, viewing the sun through clouds from these ground based sensors, will serve as a surrogate for the downlooking geometry of an overhead sensor viewing a terrestrial target such as a missile plume. The Cimel sunphotometer, a robotic, scanning photometer normally used to investigate atmospheric aerosols, will serve as the primary visible and IR sensor. (The proposed use of this instrument should not be confused its new "cloud mode" that is used to infer a broad-area or average cloud optical depth.) The proposed use will provide a cost-effective method for demonstrating potential capabilities of space-based surveillance sensors and validating theory and computer simulations In Phase I Visidyne will use cloud analyses, e.g., time series of cloud cover fraction and depth, routinely generated at the CART site to select specific datasets to analyze. Visidyne will download the selected databases and then perform comparisons with its Monte Carlo Adjoint Problem (MCAP) reverse scattering code and also with coincident analyses from satellite datasets, e.g., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites.

OGDEN ENGINEERING & ASSOC., LLC
8180 N. Placita Sur Oeste
Tucson, AZ 85741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 661-2840
Dr. Gregory E. Ogden
MDA 04-170      Selected for Award
Title:Hypergolic Green Fuel Formulation
Abstract:There is widespread interest in reducing the toxicity and environmental hazards associated with conventional bipropellants. Use of gelling agents has been shown to reduce the fuel's toxicity. However the resultant gel often have significantly different rheological and combustion properties including loss of hypergolicity. Use of these gels requires extensive modifications to fuel storage, transport systems as well as to the engines and may require high temperature combustion initiation systems. These modifications result in severe flight-weight and energy penalties. To address these drawbacks, Ogden Engineering & Associates, LLC (OE&A) is proposing to utilize novel additive technologies developed by the project team to create fuel formulations which exhibit significantly reduced ignition delay times as compared to the "neat" green propellants and approaches or attains hypergolic reactivity with standard oxidizers such as IRFNA over a range of fuel to oxidizer ratios. Development of these hypergolic green fuel formulations (HGFF) should allow use of standard bi-propellant engines without major modification. This strategy eliminates the weight and power requirements associated with high-temperature combustion initiation systems. Phase I technical objectives include conducting micro-combustion experiments on various HGFF formulations, obtain rheological and materials compatibility data and develop injector designs suitable for HFGG use.

MILTEC CORP.
678 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-1450
Mr. Mike Doubleday
MDA 04-171      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Discrimination Technologies and Concepts
Abstract:The key to enable timely assessments of emerging technologies is the ability to rapidly simulate the essential characteristics and capabilities of the new technology advanced in a full weapon system setting. Our focus is a simulation that can quickly be configured to incorporate a variety of new seeker/discrimination technologies and evaluate their effectiveness. The concept incorporates a "plug and play" model architecture to rapidly synthesize complex weapon system simulations to evaluate advanced discrimination technologies and concepts.

SYSTIMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Mr. Randy Hoskins
MDA 04-171      Selected for Award
Title:Payload Ejection Technology Demonstration
Abstract:A major MDA and SMDC thrust area is the development of methods to improve the discrimination of real warheads from decoys by altering the signatures and/or kinematic characteristics of potential targets. Some of the discrimination systems being evaluated/flight tested for this application require discrimination system payloads to be deployed from a carrier vehicle. Maximizing the capability of discrimination systems is critical to identifying the real warheads from decoys. The incorporation of two, new payload ejector and electrical interface technologies into the payload deployment system offer the opportunity to significantly decrease the size and weight of the payload carriage and ejection system. Decreasing the size and weight of the payload carriage and ejection system offers the opportunity to increase the payload's size/weight and hence increase the discrimination payload's capability. The new electrical interface technology greatly simplifies the electrical interfaces between the payload and the carrier vehicle. The new payload ejectors simplify the design and operation of the payload deployment system. These two technologies together offer significant reductions in the size/complexity of the payload deployment system. The proposed program will design and test representative components in order to assess their application for discrimination payload ejection applications.

BODKIN DESIGN & ENGINEERING, LLC
P.O. Box 81386
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 235-6351
Mr. Andrew Sheinis
MDA 04-172      Selected for Award
Title:Sensors for Remote Kill Assessment for Hit-to-Kill Threat Engagements
Abstract:Bodkin Design and Engineering proposes the development of a dual-band stand-off detector with both infrared imaging and hyper-spectral capabilities. The Dual-Band system will be modified to provide MWIR imaging for total integrated energy at high spatial resolution while a proprietary Hyperpixel Array will provide detailed data on the chemical make-up of debris at high spectral resolution in the VNIR, and low to moderate spatial resolution. The hyperspectral system will be able to track up to 100 independent debris elements in the field, producing high sensitivity spectra on each.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
4030 Spencer St, Suite 108
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 371-4445
Dr. Nahum Gat
MDA 04-172      Selected for Award
Title:Very Fast 4-Dimensional Imaging Spectrometer for Intercept Phenomenology & Kill Assessment
Abstract:A very high speed 4-dimensional imaging spectrometer is proposed for supporting Kill Assessment measurements. The 4D-IS produces radiometrically calibrated spectral, spatial, and temporal characterization of a target. The particular sensor is designed to resolved the fireball event that is associated with a hit-to-kill intercept, and provide visible and near IR optical spectroscopy of the plasma. Temporal resolution down to sub-millisecond will be achieved. The sensor operation is designed to support key KA mission objectives such as determination whether the target was killed or requires additional resources to be committed, mass fraction effected, material identification including possible WMD, energy release estimates, and assessment of secondary explosions of warheads, threat vehicle's propellants, hydraulic fluids, etc.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5107
Dr. Brian Berland
MDA 04-173      Selected for Award
Title:Uncooled BLIP Detector for Next Generation Infrared (IR) Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs)
Abstract:The ITN team proposes to design and develop a revolutionary uncooled IR detector that is compatible with large format focal place arrays. By dramatically decreasing thermal conduction noise and Johnson noise, the proposed sensor enables BLIP sensitivity resulting in a 50 times increase in detector sensitivity over state-of-the-art technologies. Preliminary analysis projects a specific detectivity of 1.2E10 cm-Hz^0.5/W and NETD much less than 1 mK. The proposed BLIP detector will have a cutoff wavelength greater than 14 microns, a time constant of ~3msec, and require very little power (~40nanoWatts per pixel). In addition, the BLIP detector will be fabricated with standard thin-film technologies that provide high pixel uniformity, decreased cost, and inherent stability in high radiation environments.

POLARIS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5710 Jones Valley Drive
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 824-6547
Mrs. Michele Banish
MDA 04-173      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Concepts for Next Generation Infrared (IR) Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs)
Abstract:Photon detectors operating at long and very long wavelength infrared detection suffer from high leakage currents because of the small band gap inherently needed at that spectral range. Typical formats of present ROICs are 320 x 256 with a pitch of 30 m. Thus, the absolute impedance of the sensitive pixels is only in the range between 1 Mohm and 100 kohm. For detection longer than 18 m the values are even lower. A custom ROIC is a required development for the type II superlattice FPA. This effort offers ROIC technology that also masks unwanted data from read-out. Qualifying data eliminates the flood of null data in the processing pipeline. The approach leverages existing efforts. The technology dramatically improved images while buying back bandwidth for discrimination. Phase I experiments will identify the specifications and technology gaps. The team offers internal research resources, direct leverage of existing funding and an integration path to a Smart FPA. In Phase II, an FPA manufacturer will help implement the ROIC advancement. Polaris is currently collaborating with commercial FPA manufacturers to port this technology into commercial systems. In Phase II technology gaps will be addressed and designs will be developed for the ROIC.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara Boulevard, Suite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
MDA 04-173      Selected for Award
Title:A Novel High-Sensitivity High-Temperature Transistor Infrared Sensor
Abstract:We propose a novel infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) based on quantum dots in the channel of a gated high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT). This 3-terminal device, that we call a QHEMT, will exploit a lateral (source to drain) photocurrent generated by intersubband absorption of infrared photons in InGaAs quantum dots in the channel. The gate will be used to minimize dark current and maximize signal to noise ratio. Peak EXTERNAL quantum efficiencies greater than 50% and high operating temperature (appproaching room temperature) are expected because of the 3-dimensional quantization of energy states in the dots. A 320x256 array of QHEMT pixels will be designed and fabricated in such a way as to allow hybridization to an off-the-shelf Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC). In Phase 1, we will design, grow, and fabricate a QHEMT array, hybridize it to a FANOUT, and perform complete radiometric, optical, and electrical testing to assess the viability of this device concept.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5830
Dr. Ayub Fathimulla
MDA 04-174      Selected for Award
Title:High Sensitivity InAs-InGaSb Strained-Layer Superlattice Detector Arrays
Abstract:The overall goal of this SBIR project is to develop low cost, low dark current, enhanced quantum efficiency and high sensitivity and uniformity monolithic detectors and arrays having response in spectral range greater than 12 um and operating at temperatures higher than 77K. Epitaxial Technologies' Phase I objective is to establish the feasibility of innovative material growths and device concepts for the detectors and show that they can be used to produce VLWIR arrays exhibiting background-limited performance and improved temperature of operation than the current state-of-the-art (MCT). In the first phase of this program, we propose to develop the InAs/(GaIn)Sb material structures necessary for fabricating detectors having absorption at wavelengths of 8um. The approach will be to use innovative combinations of surface preparation, material growth and passivation technologies to produce and characterize detectors having cut-off wavelength greater than 12 microns using InAs/(GaIn)Sb SLS structures on GaSb substrates. In phase II, we will increase the operating wavelength of the proposed technology to greater than 12.0 um. Further, we will optimize the design, growth and passivation of the InAs/GaInSb SLS material structures and demonstrate prototype 256 x 256 FPAs with high pixel-to-pixel uniformity.

PRINCETON LIGHTWAVE, INC.
2555 Route 130 South, Suite 1
Cranbury, NJ 08512
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 495-2551
Dr. Mark Itzler
MDA 04-174      Selected for Award
Title:High-performance LWIR InAs/InGaSb Superlattice Photodetectors
Abstract:In this program, we propose to develop high-performance long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetectors based on InAs/In(x)Ga(1-x)Sb Type II superlattice structures. The use of bandgap engineering approaches to control quantum confinement and strain effects allows for wide tunability of the superlattice bandgap, making these structures ideal for LWIR detection in the 8 to 12 um wavelength range. In Phase I of this program, we will grow and characterize at least three different epitaxial designs targeting a long wavelength cutoff of 8 um. With these structures, we aim to identify the most favorable design strategy for reducing bulk leakage current, with a focus on the reduction of Auger recombination. We will fabricate mesa-geometry devices to compare unpassivated, dielectric-passivated, and sulfur-passivated devices. We will also fabricate devices using a planar geometry that has proven extremely effective for more mature III-V photodetectors which entails dielectric thin film surface passivation followed by dielectric patterning and dopant diffusion to form planar p-n junctions. For both mesa and planar devices, detector geometries will be chosen with a wide variety of sizes and area-to-perimeter ratios to experimentally isolate bulk and perimeter leakage contributions. Dark current will be characterized over the temperature range from 77K to 300K and analyzed to determine the contributions of various leakage mechanisms. In the Phase I Option, we will characterize the optical properties of devices fabricated during the Phase I Base period as well as demonstrate reproducibility of the most promising growth and passivation approaches. This work will be extended in Phase II to InAs/In(x)Ga(1-x)Sb superlattice detectors with cutoff wavelengths of at least 12 um and the consequent development of focal plane arrays based on these detectors.

MAGNOLIA OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
52-B Cummings Park, Suite 314
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 503-1200
Dr. Ashok K. Sood
MDA 04-175      Selected for Award
Title:Design and Development of Radiation Hardened Anti-Reflection (AR) Coatings for Next Generation LWIR and Multicolor IRFPA's
Abstract:Magnolia proposes to develop improved radiation hardened AR coatings for Next Generation multi-color HgCdTe, PbSnTe and QWIP detector arrays on silicon substrates, that will enhance the life of the these detector arrays, when exposed to space environment that includes extreme temperature variations and exposure to solar radiation. Magnolia proposes to evaluate new materials that include CdTe, Si3N4 and diamond like carbon (DLC) that have the spectral response in the 8-14 micron region and are hard materials with excellent bond strength. A combination of these materials offers the potential of developing anti-reflection coatings with high optical quality and with controlled physical properties. Magnolia will also evaluate graded coatings. Magnolia will demonstrate that these coatings are radiation hard and will provide next generation multicolor IRFPA's for MDA space system applications.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 338-2865
Mr. William Goodman
MDA 04-176      Selected for Award
Title:Minimizing Thermal Distortion in Mirrors for Dual Mode Active-Passive Seeker Applications
Abstract:The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command is responsible for the Advanced Discriminating LADAR Technology Program to develop LADAR seeker technology to augment sensors of Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle seekers. The dual mode LADAR has a high power transmit beam that uses the same primary optical path as the receive beam. The transmit beam is steered to one side of the primary mirror to avoid any obscuration due to support structures. This results in uneven heating of the primary optic and consequential thermal distortion. The Army needs a passively cooled mirror that can mitigate this distortion. The system wavefront error for dual mode LADAR systems can be minimized using low figure error/surface finish, low print-through, SLMST technology with high-reflectivity very low absorption (VLA) coatings. SLMST technology provides the highest structural efficiency for high-bandwidth (> 1kHz) fast steering mirror applications (e.g. ABL), and for the sensor telescopes of Ground Based Midcourse Defense EKV, while mitigating the thermal effects of the high-energy laser and fast-X-rays, respectively. SLMST can dramatically exceed the thermal performance and match or exceed the 1st frequency of lightweighted beryllium mirrors at the same weight, while at substantially lower cost, and without the health risks associated with processing beryllium

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
135 S. Taylor Avenue
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Dr. Mark W. Phillips
MDA 04-177      Selected for Award
Title:Single Frequency Laser with Intracavity Electro-Optic Phase Modulation for Frequency Agility and Frequency Stabilization
Abstract:Single frequency lasers with rapid tuning ability and subsequent active phase noise suppression for sub-1kHz linewidths are key components for coherent laser applications requiring long coherence length local oscillators and Doppler frequency shift compensation. Such applications include airborne and space-borne long-range micro-Doppler imaging and inter-satellite coherent communications. Coherent Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a compact laser source based on Nd:YVO4 operating at 1.064 microns, that uses intracavity electro-optic phase modulation to both provide sub-1ms step frequency-tuning over a 60GHz range and sub-1kHz long term frequency stability achieved within a few hundred microseconds timescale. Frequency stability is achieved using a wide bandwidth servo locking scheme. In Phase 1, CTI will determine means for compacting the frequency-agile and frequency-stable laser design for practical deployment on ground, airborne and space-based platforms, and will address means for decreasing the characteristic timescale for frequency tuning and frequency settling to a few hundred microseconds. In Phase 2, CTI will develop a frequency-agile and frequency stable laser source meeting these tuning requirements with an average single frequency output power of 100mW over the 60GHz tuning range. The compact laser architecture will also facilitate commercialization of the frequency-agile and frequency-stable laser technology for Optical Air Data sensing applications.

ONYX OPTICS, INC.
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 833-1969
Dr. Helmuth Meissner
MDA 04-177      Selected for Award
Title:AFB Planar Ring Laser
Abstract:In Phase I, we propose a design and risk reduction study that will be focused on the feasibility of fabricating low-cost narrow-linewidth monolithic and unidirectional diode-pumped ring lasers using Nd3+:YVO4 and Nd3+:YAG as the laser gain elements. The goal of this proposal will be the completion of a modeling package as well as the fabrication and characterization of critical laser components. The successful completion of the proposed Phase I work will allow us, with confidence, to optimize the design, and then, fabricate a working prototype laser in a Phase II continuation of this program. The additional design freedom that is brought to the resonator design problem, by being able to fabricate a compound laser crystal through the use of an adhesive-free bonding technique, permits the construction of monolithic unidirectional ring lasers that are not difficult to produce in YVO4, YLF, YAG and other laser media.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9533
Mr. John Flint
MDA 04-177      Selected for Award
Title:Composite-cavity ring laser for missile defense coherent LADAR
Abstract:The Q-Peak Division of Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop an innovative composite-cavity ring laser that will improve significantly on the performance of non-planar ring oscillators (NPRO), without requiring an amplifier, and which is amenable to space qualification or other high-reliability applications through its multiply-redundant pumping scheme. Our open design with individual optical components has several advantages over the monolithic NPRO, starting with robust unidirectional oscillation due to its TGG/crystal quartz optical diode, enabling high-power operation (multi-Watts)and operation with Nd:YVO4 or YLF (both birefringent materials not amenable to out-of-plane designs); low pump-induced frequency noise because the laser crystal makes up a small fraction of the total cavity length (further enhanced by using YLF); and excellent passive thermal stability due to making the resonator from low-expansion materials, further enhanced with re-entrant mirror mounting. In addition, the laser can be frequency tuned or modulated in a variety of ways, over a wide range of bandwidths and total frequency excursions. In Phase I we will compare the performance of two laser hosts in a partially-ruggedized version of our ring-laser design and develop and demonstrate several frequency-tuning approaches. The designs will be suitable for construction and delivery under a potential follow-on effort.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Dr. Kevin F. Wall
MDA 04-178      Selected for Award
Title:Edge-pumped Composite Power Amplifiers
Abstract:Advanced amplifier designs that are durable, efficient, light weight, and compact are required for the next generation heterodyne laser radar systems such as the Advanced Discriminating Ladar Technology Program. We propose to address the need for improved amplifier technology through the use of a side-pumped composite structure to convert low brightness pump sources into usable population inversion. The pump sources will be coupled to the laser medium crystal using simple optics and scaling of the pump power will be achieved by using stacked diode laser bars. One potential component of the composite structure, ceramic Nd:YAG, will allow for flexibility in the active ion doping density (up to 6% Nd) for efficient pump absorption over short lengths. In our proposed design, heat is removed from the composite laser structure by direct contact to heat sinks; flowing liquid contacting the crystal is not required as it is in many high-average-power laser schemes, allowing the use of a wide variety of cooling techniques. Thermal lensing, which can cause aberration of the output beam, is kept low by spreading the heat load over a large area and minimizing the distance between the heat load and heat sinks.

EOSPACE, INC.
8711 148th Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 869-6975
Dr. Suwat Thaniyavarn
MDA 04-179      Selected for Award
Title:Coherent Ladar Transmitter with Very-High-Extinction Ratio Electro-Optical Modulator
Abstract:EOSPACE Inc. proposes to design and develop a very high-performance coherent Ladar transmitter with the key electro-optical components based on ultra-low-loss, broadband electro-optic lithium niobate waveguide technology, including very-high extinction ratio (>60dB), wide bandwidth (dc to > 1GHz) modulator for 1.06 microns wavelength of operation. An incorporation of optical polarization control component based on an integration of another lithium niobate waveguide device is proposed to give an additional critical feature for the next generation of truly robust, Coherent Ladar Transmitter with high-speed electro-optically controllable output optical polarization state.

POLARONYX, INC.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 8
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 734-3038
Dr. Jian Liu
MDA 04-179      Selected for Award
Title:A compact high power and high efficiency fiber laser transmitter system
Abstract:Tunable single frequency high power laser transmitters have been considered to be an enabling technology for MDA's imaging heterodyne Ladar systems. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of high power and efficiency, compactness, narrow linewidth, super frequency and power stability, low noise, and high extinction ratio at the same time. PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, a fast tuning (microsecond) high power (>500 W) single frequency (< 5 KHz) fiber laser transmitter to meet with the requirement of solicitation. It is a specialty fiber based MOPA. The mode selection in seed fiber laser is achieved by using an EO polymer based ultra narrow bandpass tunable filter. The output power can be scalable to several hundreds mW without any spatial hole burning issues and the frequency can be controlled at a stable and accurate operation. In the amplifier stage, PolarOnyx proposes a revolutionary approach to fundamentally resolve the issues of nonlinear effects by employing our patent pending proprietary technologies in fiber lasers. Our unique spectral shaping techniques enable us to reduce the SBS and ASE noise significantly in the amplifier for commercially available YDFs and to reuse the residual pump to further increase the efficiency. These will make the fiber laser transmitter system superior in terms of wall plug efficiency (over 40%), power (>500 W), noise, size, and cost. A tabletop experiment will be demonstrated in Phase I time frame for proof of concept. A compact prototype will be delivered in Phase II.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1224
Mr. Darren Laughlin
MDA 04-181      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, High Performance Inertial Rate Sensors - Airborne
Abstract:For Airborne Inertial Rate Sensors, Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to introduce a unique and enabling gyroscope technology based upon the principles of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) that meet all requirements for ABL operation, including flight environment, extreme slew and in precision track. The Enhanced MHD Effect Rate Gyro (EMERG) has the highest potential of outperforming existing gyro technologies at a significantly lower cost to produce. MHD Sensors can provide extremely accurate inertial pointing knowledge and platform stability for long-range line of sight stabilization, as well as offering long term performance stability, high ruggedness and reliability, and low radiation susceptability. EMERG will exhibit virtually all of the desirable features of ATA's passive MHD rate sensors such as low linear acceleration sensitivity, low cross axis angular sensitivity (cross coupling), ultra-low noise, and relatively low cost. Another key feature is that the EMERG will be able to measure high angular rates and accelerations over large bandwidths.

GC HOLDINGS, INC.
1220 Page Ave.
Fremont, CA 94538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 438-7524
Dr. William K. Bischel
MDA 04-181      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, High Performance IFOG Sensors using Hybrid Integration
Abstract:The goal of the Phase I program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of developing a low-cost optical engine for the interferometric fiber optical gyroscope (IFOG) that is a key cost component of an inertial rate sensor. Hybrid integration of glass and lithium niobate waveguide chips will be used to demonstrate a method of combining all three axes of the IFOG system onto a single optical component with an extremely compact package size of 22 x 57 x 10 mm.

AGILTRON CORP.
220 Ballardvale St., Suite D
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-1006
Dr. Jack Salerno
MDA 04-182      Selected for Award
Title:Photonic T/R Module
Abstract:Leveraging on Agiltron's recent breakthrough in manufacturing low cost fiber optic digital delay lines and the drastic improvement in cost and performance of commercial optical transceivers, we propose to develop a practical fiber optic variable time delay based T/R integration module for microwave coherent distributed aperture and space-time coded phased array radars. The proposed approach overcomes the deficiencies in limited delay time and excessive loss associated with electronic phase array antenna modules, providing the sufficient long delays beyond electronic means. The use of ultra-low loss optical fiber further reduces cost, weight and size, while mitigating electromagnetic interference, accommodating wide signal bandwidths and providing frequency independent beam steering of simultaneous multiple radar bands via the generation of true time delays. The practicality of such an optically-fed time delay T/R module will be demonstrated in this program in a close collaboration with the Antenna Department at Northrop Grumman. A few-channel module is targeted in Phase I, and a multiple channel prototype module will be demonstrated in Phase II.

LITTLE OPTICS, INC.
9020 Junction Drive
Annapolis Junction, MD 20701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 604-7668
Dr. John Hryniewicz
MDA 04-182      Selected for Award
Title:High Speed Optical Switching for Phased Array Radar
Abstract:Little Optics and Georgia Tech Research Institute will collaborate in developing new processes and materials to dramatically improve the switched speed in optical programmable delay lines. The target switching time constant is 50 microseconds.

MICROSAT SYSTEMS
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5153
Mr. Jeff Summers
MDA 04-182      Selected for Award
Title:Responsive Microsatellite Target System
Abstract:This effort will develop an innovative, space based platform for calibration of ground-based radar systems. Low cost, microsatellite technologies, developed under previous programs, will enable a low cost, rapidly deployed calibration target system consisting of conical and spherical shaped bodies capable of formation flying, shape manipulation, and up and downlinking data to and from the ground.

OPTEOS, INC.
1340 Eisenhower place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Kyoung Yang
MDA 04-182      Selected for Award
Title:Radar Systems Technology Innovative Concepts
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project is the development of an Electro-optic Sensor Network (ESN) system that can be directly embedded into large-scale phased antenna arrays for accurate on-site array calibration, real-time fault isolation, and performance monitoring. This will be accomplished through acquisition of near-field amplitude and phase information from numerous strategic points within the array using an innovative electro-optic (EO) field detection technology. Changes in the optical properties of a laser beam within a miniaturized dielectric EO sensor are used to detect the near-field signal emanating from the array unit cells. Due to its non-intrusiveness, a large number of EO sensors can be integrated into an array without disturbing the near-field profile of the array. The pure optical signal within the ESN will be completely immune from any electromagnetic interference. The exceptional flexibility of the optical fiber, onto whose ends the very small EO sensors are attached, makes the ESN approach a viable solution for the characterization of collapsible/deployable arrays, as well as other conventional arrays. The ESN system will open a new paradigm of array operation and maintenance, from accurate on-site calibration and real-time detection of malfunctioning cells, to the evaluation of the overall array operating condition.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 400, Reston Plaz
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 242-7840
Mr. Dan Cohen
MDA 04-182      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Rapid Response Deployment of Reentry Vehicle Targets for Ground Based Radar Tracking & Callibration
Abstract:One of the limiting factors for the development of advanced MDA related radar systems technology is the ability to test new concepts in an operational environment. Simulations, advanced modeling and range tests all provide valuable insight into the expected behavior of these systems during operations but there is no substitute for multiple tests of developmental systems against real targets in the operational environment. For missile defense, this requires flying re-entry vehicle (RV) like systems in threat trajectories and maintaining on-orbit targets for routine testing, as required. This type of capability would allow technology developers to continuously refine and adjust their concepts until they have optimized system performance. This same capability also provides invaluable training for operational systems and their crews. Unfortunately launch costs and satellite target development expenses are currently preventing this scenario from becoming a reality. PSI will use their satellite-based Network Data Acquisition System (NDAS) as the foundation for a family of low cost, quick response radar targets. The modular architecture of NDAS allows efficient upgrades of the existing system without redesign or requalification. We will provide MDA with a comprehensive decision matrix that defines a full range of options for radar target architectures.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Donald L. Herman, Jr.
MDA 04-182      Selected for Award
Title:X-band Receiver Block ADC (9684)
Abstract:Advanced wideband, large, multimode distributed phase array radars require significantly improved T/R modules. Q-DOT proposes a staged X-band receiver block (XRB) chip development, beginning with the key analog to digital converter (ADC). Combined with key RF front end cells and integrated as a single-chip X-band receiver, the proposed X-band receiver block offers 10 to 20 dB dynamic range improvement and 2 - 4 times the bandwidth of existing digital receivers for a fraction of their size, weight, and power. High integration allows the XRB to be moved into the T/R module, with at most a single down conversion from X-band, which will ultimately be on-chip. The proposed SiGe BiCMOS technology enables integration and performance well beyond current T/R modules. The baseline X-band receiver block IC architecture will be defined during Phase I, and key ADC parameters specified. Key circuits will be designed and simulated to assess and project the ADC's performance. During Phase II, prototype ADCs, and perhaps additional XRB cells, will be designed, integrated, fabricated, and tested. System insertion will occur during Phase III when advanced T/R modules for large-aperture systems are developed.

SEAKR ENGINEERING, INC.
6221 S. Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 784-7671
Mr. Damon Van Buren
MDA 04-183      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptable/Reconfigurable Distributed Spacecraft Processing
Abstract:On-board processing in satellites and spacecraft has been severely limited by the lack of space-qualified, High-Performance Computing (HPC) hardware. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are becoming the device of choice for ground based high-performance computing, with tens of millions of gates and clock rates of hundreds of MHz. Recently, Xilinx has begun to offer space-qualified versions of its FPGAs, making it possible to implement high performance HPC hardware for space. SEAKR Engineering has developed a line of RCC computing boards based on the Xilinx Virtex, Virtex-II and Virtex-II Pro FPGAs. These RCC boards are on the leading edge of space-qualified HPC, providing a processing capability that far exceeds other solutions in performance and flexibility. SEAKR's latest RCC takes the capability for high performance computing a step further by implementing a network-based architecture. This Network (NT) RCC uses the Multi-Gigabit Transceivers of the Xilinx devices, along with a Rapid I/O core, to provide high-speed network connections to each of the FPGA coprocessors, and between boards, creating a flexible and expandable processing architecture. Because of SEAKR's experience in building space-qualified hardware, and our unique line of RCC boards, SEAKR is well positioned to provide the MDA with HPC hardware for space.