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597 Phase I Selections from the 05.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
APPLIED NANOTECH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd., Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Dr. Richard Fink
AF 05-001      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:High Current Density Carbon Nanotube Cold Cathode for TWT Applications
Abstract:We propose a carbon nanotube based cold cathode designed for high current density, continuous beam operation for Traveling Wave Tubes and other microwave device applications. Our approach in this proposal will be to design the CNT emitters to spread the emission current load and to heat sink the emitters firmly to high thermal conducting carbon fibers. The carbon fiber substrate will also be used to align the carbon nanotube emitters and space them apart such that they will not electrically shield each other. Feasibility of this approach will be demonstrated by achieving 1-10 Amps/cm2 current density in continuous beam operation with a uniformity of 20% across the cathode face.

POWER TECHNOLOGY SERVICES (PTS), INC.
6304D, Westgate Rd
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 362-1501
Mr. John Driscoll
AF 05-001      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Cold Cathode for Traveling Wave Tubes
Abstract:A novel method of creating hot electrons via a pn junction will be used to eject electrons from a cold cathode. The accelerated electrons will have suficient energy to surmont the work function and surface dipole. The cold cathode will be used in a new type of minature Traveling Wave Tube or "Twystrode". Advanced semiconductor materials with low work functions will be produced and evaluated as planar field emitters both with and without pn junctions.

XINTEK, INC.
P.O. Box 13788, 7020 Kit Creek Road, Suite 280
RTP, NC 27709
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 423-1832
Dr. Bo Gao
AF 05-001      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Carbon Nanotube Based Electron Field Emission Cathodes for Traveling Wave Tubes
Abstract:The conventional thermionic cathodes used in traveling wave tubes (TWTs) suffer from many technical limitations including limited current density, poor energy efficiency, difficulty of control, and lack of miniaturization. Xintek, Inc. has developed proprietary technologies for fabrication of high performance field emission cold cathodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Our CNT cathodes tested at Air Force have shown high emission current density (up to 75 A/cm2), excellent emission stability, and high pulsation rate (>100 KHz). They have great potential to replace the thermionic cathodes and provide enhanced TWT performances. In this Phase I project we will: a) study and refine the performance of our CNT cathodes to generate current densities of 1-10 A/cm2, the typical performance of thermionic cathodes used in TWTs; b) collaborate with the Beverly Microwave Division (BMD) of Communications & Power Industries (CPI) to investigate the performances of our CNT cathodes in practical TWT environments and predict current density of our cathodes in real TWT devices. In phase II we will: a) integrate our CNT cathodes into actual TWTs and optimize the cathode design to enhance their efficiency, reliability and current density; b) prepare a commercialization roadmap to market the technologies.

ADVANCED OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O Box 8383
Albuquerque, NM 87198
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 250-9586
Dr. Brian G. Hoover
AF 05-002      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Laser discrimination of unresolved space and airborne targets based on the effects of surface correlations on the backscattered state of polarization
Abstract:Changes in the state of polarization of scattered laser radiation can be utilized to discriminate among targets according to surface microstructures on the wavelength scale. Newly-developed rigorous electromagnetic coherence theory is applied to the inverse problem of laser discrimination of unresolved space and airborne targets based on the effects of surface correlations on the backscattered state of polarization. Algorithms are developed to deal with speckle noise and the narrow spatial bandwidth characteristic of active ground-to-space and ground-to-air scenarios. Laboratory measurements are utilized to verify the theory and test the algorithms.

NANOHMICS, INC.
6201 East Oltorf St., Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Dr. Byron Zollars
AF 05-002      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Target Identification via Laser-Material Interaction
Abstract:The Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) is being developed for precision strike missions utilizing a directed-energy laser weapon mounted to or in an aircraft to engage ground or airborne targets. When there is some uncertainty about the visual identification of targets, the coherent radiation from the ATL assists determination of targeting by probing the material and surface characteristics of the irradiated object. Backscattered radiation from potential targets can be analyzed for changes in polarization, speckle size and modulation depth, and dependence of backscattered intensity with angle. These quantities all depend upon the composition and surface topology of the object being irradiated. Coupled with a traditional passive sensor system, the laser-material interaction can provide additional discrimination information to the aircrew when attempting to positively identify a target, or actively avoiding a particular type of target in a cluttered or obscured area. Nanohmics Inc. will use the fundamental physics of scattering to develop insight and expectations regarding the scatter characteristics of a variety of potential target materials. We will use our existing scatterometer instrument to verify the predictions of the analytical model and to demonstrate the performance of candidate target discrimination algorithms.

G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Glenn A. Tyler
AF 05-003      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:High-Resolution Wide-Dynamic-Range MEMS-Based Closed-Loop Adaptive Optics System
Abstract:This proposed effort bridges the gap between the present state of development of MEMS deformable mirror technology and the practical implementation of this technology in high resolution, wide dynamic range applications. The work begins with a detailed assessment of the requirements associated with a wide variety of applications and ends with the conceptual design of a test bed that can experimentally evaluate and demonstrate the performance of MEMS deformable mirror technology in a variety of important applications. A key feature of the proposed effort is its synergy with other ongoing efforts such as the DARPA CCIT program.

INTELLITE
1717 Louisiana, NE Suite 202
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 268-4742
Mr. Keith Bush
AF 05-003      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:High-Resolution Wide-Dynamic-Range MEMS-Based Closed-Loop Adaptive Optics System
Abstract:This work researchs the use of a novel, patented Moire fringe wavefront sensor for fast, high density wavefront correction in an adaptive optics system. Based around existing technology for lightweight, durable and inexpensive membrane deformable mirrors already under development at Intellite (in transition to AgilOptics in 2005), this innovative adaptive optical system with a fast optical computer Moire wavefront sensor, will operate at speeds up to 500Hz and have the ability to remove most of the atmospheric distortions in military optical systems. The system should be very lightweight, rugged, require minimal computer processing and very conservative operating power.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Mr. Jeremy Hui
AF 05-003      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Dual Wavefront Sensor Adaptive Optics System
Abstract:Recent developments in MEMS-based deformable mirrors offer improved performance for adaptive optics (AO) systems. However, because of current limitations in wavefront sensing and processing, these performance gains have been largely unexploited. To address this need, we propose building an AO system with dual wavefront sensing techniques. The heart of the system is a novel optically addressed MEMS-on-VLSI spatial phase light modulator that also performs a key part of the wavefront phase computation. The two wavefront sensors serve as complementary backups and provide accurate wavefront correction data over a variety of conditions. One of the wavefront sensors uses a Hartmann-Shack sensor, directly integrated with an on-chip analog wavefront processor and deformable mirror. The analog wavefront processor uses massively parallel on-chip computation and is expected to solve the wavefront difference equations in hundreds of nanoseconds. The second wavefront system is based on dithered optimization of the image sharpness function. This approach leverages the high pixel refresh rates (>160 kHz) of the DM, and systematically arrives at an optimal solution. Combined with Optron's large-stroke MEMS deformable mirror technology, this AO system will be capable of 8m of phase modulation (16m in reflection), have greater than 8-bits of phase resolution, and potentially tens of thousands of pixels.

COHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
135 S. Taylor Avenue
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-2000
Steve Johnson
AF 05-004      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Laser Vibrometry System for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:CTI proposes to develop a ground-based coherent laser radar for satellite vibration measurements. This system will be designed to make measurements of surface vibrations of satellites in orbits of up to 1000 km altitude. The vibration measurements will yield velocity power spectral densities up to 1 kHz. The proposed system will also be designed to work with existing telescope and satellite tracking facilities. The proposed Phase I research will include accurate modeling of the velocity estimate noise sources in the vibrometer. Key noise sources include local oscillator laser shot noise, local oscillator frequency instability, atmospheric refractive turbulence, and speckle noise due to relative motion between the sensor and the target. In the analysis, dominant noise sources will be identified and techniques for mitigation of these noise sources will be studied. Possible methods of noise mitigation include improved laser frequency stability and a variety of diversity techniques for mitigating speckle noise. The proposed Phase I research will conclude with a preliminary design of a Phase II sensor meeting the requirements established in Phase I.

HAYES INDUSTRIES, INC.
551 Morse Ave
Placentia, CA 92870
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 528-5275
Dr. C. L. Hayes
AF 05-004      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Laser Vibrometry System for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:Laser vibrometry systems have been fabricated, tested and used to collect data in tactical scenarios to interrogate, classify and identify targets of interest. Airborne, ground and ship-based platforms have been evaluated in field tests over relatively short ranges(< 20 Km) to verify operability of the systems. The extension of this technology to long-range scenarios (satellite observation) requires a re-evaluation of the influence of those factors unique to long-range operation (atmospheric effects, site location, source coherency, transmitter power, macroDoppler frequency ranges, large scale optics,---). The Phase 1 program addresses the relevant factors applicable to long range operation and defines those modifications of existing hardware (software) needed to mechanize the system. Laboratory tests will be conducted using legacy hardware to confirm operability using realistic ground-based (stationary) targets.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Russell Kurtz
AF 05-004      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Phase Conjugate Micromotion Detection-Based Interferometric Vibrometer
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is seeking a laser vibrometry system for monitoring the health of our satellites, and monitoring and recognizing foreign satellites. To address the Air Force need for a high-resolution, long-distance vibrometer, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Phase Conjugate Micromotion Detection (PCMD)-based Interferometric Vibrometer (PIV). The PIV consists of a laser to illuminate the target, a telescope to receive reflected light from the target, and a PCMD interferometer to measure vibrations. The return signal is Doppler-shifted due to satellite motion. This shift is amplified using PCMD technology, which reduces the required reflected signal by a factor of >1000. The PIV will measure vibrations with amplitudes as small as 5 nm and vibration velocities as low as 20 nm/s, exhibiting a sensitivity of a factor of 500 more than current systems, at a distance of >2000 km, which is an improvement of a factor of 8 over the state of the art. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of PIV through computer modeling and testing of a proof-of-principle prototype. In Phase II POC will develop an engineering prototype to measure vibration through testing at Air Force test sites.

ACREE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
308 Jackson St., Suite 2
Oakland, CA 94607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 923-0291
Dr. Mike McFarland
AF 05-005      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Refractory Coatings on Mechanically Resilient Insulators
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of using ceramic coatings on plastic high-voltage insulators to increase their surface breakdown voltage and improve their recovery after a breakdown event. The goal is to produce a coating that can be applied to high-power microwave tube, coaxial plasma gun and z-pinch insulators that will allow higher voltage operation, reduce flashover events, and minimize the effects due to flashover, thereby reducing operating costs and increasing uptime.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Ms. Sara L. Rolfe
AF 05-005      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Refractory Paint for High Voltage Insulators
Abstract:This Phase I program will result in a tough refractory paint that adheres to a variety of plastic insulators with complex shapes creating a strong, adherent, refractory coating with optimal surface roughness. The proposed program targets the properties of the vacuum-insulator interface for high voltage applications and has commercial applications in a wide range of electronic and electrical devices and systems including High Power Microwave tubes and high-energy particle accelerators. Plastic insulators with a thin layer of refractory paint will have increased surface flashover voltage and improved strength in high voltage applications. The refractory paint developed within this Phase I opportunity will be easily sprayed onto the surface, cured at a low temperature, and adherent to a wide variety of insulating plastics. The surface roughness of the insulator will be optimized by the inherent roughness of the paint. The vacuum outgassing characteristics and durability of the paint during plasma gun discharges will be identified. Since the refractory paint developed in this Phase I program will be sprayed using commercially available paint sprayers to form uniform films, complex shapes will easily be coated.

NEI CORP.
Suite 102/103, 201 Circle Drive
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-1906
Dr. Mohit Jain
AF 05-005      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:A new class of ceramic coatings on plastic insulators
Abstract:Refractory coated polymers are a superior alternative to uncoated polymers or pure ceramic insulators, as they provide the flexibility of polymers and the superior properties of ceramic as insulators. The proposed program aims to develop a technology which will address the problems associated with currently available refractory coated ceramics. Building upon our expertise with nanoparticle synthesis and processing, we propose to develop fully dense ceramic coatings with significantly high adherence to polymers compared to conventional coatings, which will make them suitable for use in high microwave tubes, particle beam accelerators, and other pulsed power applications. In Phase I, we will develop coating formulations, deposit coatings on polymer substrates, characterize the structure, and determine the peel strength and vacuum surface flashover. The properties will be benchmarked against currently available coatings. Additionally, commercialization and scale up plans will be developed during Phase I to be implemented in Phase II, so that the product can be manufactured and marketed in Phase III.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R Mayes
AF 05-006      Selected for Award
Title:Tuneable Low Frequency Microwave Source
Abstract:High voltage RF sources designed to deliver frequencies from 10's of MHz to 1 GHz can be excessively large systems due to the geometric dependence on the radiating wavelength and the high voltage insulation requirements. Past efforts have targeted specific frequencies with specific temporal signatures and typically require large overhead in ancillary devices. Applied Physical Electronics, L.C. offers a method for delivering frequency agile, high voltage RF with variability in the temporal signature. With a frequency range from less than 100 MHz to more than 500 MHz, and with antenna voltages in excess 600 kV, the proposed design offers frequency agility and variable signal damping in a very compact package and with minimal ancillary device requirements.

ASR CORP.
7817 Bursera, NW
Albuquerque, NM 87120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 830-3000
Mr. Michael D. Abdalla
AF 05-006      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Tuneable Low Frequency Microwave Source
Abstract:The ASR Corporation has developed a novel pulse forming system based on a variable geometry Blumlein source. ASR Corporation proposes to design and fabricate a variant of this new pulse forming network to explore it's usefulness in fulfilling the requirements in SBIR topic number AF05-006. The novel Blumlein pulse forming system utilizes a demonstrated approach to obtaining tunability in a pulsed power system.

SPARKTRONICS, INC.
2300 Chelsea Road , PO Box 1151
Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 529-8649
Dr. Joseph Yampolsky
AF 05-006      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Tuneable Low Frequency Microwave Source
Abstract:Air Force systems such as Ultra Wide Band impulse radiators require advancement past the current state of the art in pulse power technology. Systems operating at several 100kV to MV at repetition rates of 500Hz to 2kHz have been large, complex, expensive and difficult to deploy as airborne systems. Present components are being pushed to their limits which results in issues of reliability and repeatability. We propose a different approach. We have developed a repetitive modular pulse power generator using innovative circuit topologies that allow present components to operate at higher performance levels. The system consists of a solid state pulsed charged multiple Blumlein generator using sparkgap switches combined with a variable pulse forming line and fast output switch. The system is designed to produce a damped sine waveform output that can be varied over the frequency range of 100MHz to 700MHz. The phase I proposal will demonstrate this device at >100kV and >1kHz repetition rate.

RF ENGINEERING
157 North Reamstown Road
Stevens, PA 17578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 336-6721
Dr. Ronald J. Focia
AF 05-007      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Solid State Ultra-Wideband Microwave Source
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal outlines an effort that will advance the state of the art in high repetition rate solid state pulse generators. For this effort, we have assembled a team of key people with direct experience in high peak power solid state pulse generator design, measurement and characterization of fast transient waveforms, and semiconductor interconnection and packaging techniques. The main thrust of the effort involves assembling a very low inductance, high voltage and high peak power solid-state silicon diode stack from the chip level rather than modifying pre-packaged devices. The diode chips used to assemble the high voltage stacks will not be fabricated in this effort, but rather, will be purchased from a well known semiconductor supplier. The new diode switches developed in this effort will be combined with high repetition rate capacitor charging techniques and be used as closing switches in a novel solid-state Marx-like design to form an all solid state, high peak power, high repetition rate pulse generator. The resultant pulse generator will be an ideal candidate for use as an ultra-wideband radar source. A prototype pulse generator that will provide a peak voltage of >30 kV, a rise time of <1 ns, a pulse width of ~20 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of >1 kHz will be demonstrated in the Phase I effort.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike, Suite 250
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-6326
Mr. Alan Petroff
AF 05-007      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Solid State Ultra-Wideband Microwave Source
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to design a low cost pulser that can produce a 100kV pulse with a continuous repetition rate of 2kHz. The objective device will have the size, mass and reliability to be compatible with use in aircraft. In contrast, current pulsers tend to be bulky, expensive, have limited lifetimes, and require substantial cooling systems. Time Domain Corporation (TDC) intends to use Drift Step Recovery Diodes and Transistors, a novel semiconductor technology, to produce the required pulses. TDC will also investigate coherent addition of pulses and the use of Silicon Carbide for key components. Experience to date indicates the objective is feasible and can be accomplished by making a single large device or by coherently summing the outputs of smaller devices.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Dawn Meekhof
AF 05-008      Awarded: 11MAY05
Title:Optical fiber coupled infrared laser
Abstract:Fiber coupled mid-infrared and infrared semiconductor lasers provide potential technology for proactive infrared countermeasures systems, potentially reducing life cycle costs for these tactical military systems compared to current lasers. Research will be conducted to explore the feasibility of developing low loss infrared transmitting chalcogenide glass fiber optics. The proposed work will also investigate the feasibility of fiber coupling moderate power infrared semiconductor lasers in military environments. The overall project will assess the practicality of developing a moderate power, fiber coupled, multiband infrared laser for use in military aircraft environments.

G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Terry J. Brennan
AF 05-009      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Simulation of Extended Scene Imaging through Turbulence
Abstract:The computational burden of simulating the process of imaging incoherently illuminated extended objects, through high turbulence, using conventional wave optics simulation techniques is very significant. This simulation capability is crucial for evaluating performance of such systems as the Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL). An innovative approach to this problem, that will significantly reduce the computational requirements, is proposed. The approach is based on a very fast technique for propagating point spread functions. A key feature of the approach is the capability of propagating in both directions, that is, imaging a target through turbulence and propagating a source back to the target which experiences the same turbulence as the imaging direction. This allows the simulation of closed loop laser projection systems. In spite of simplifications introduced to reduce computational requirements, the approach has the potential of a high level of imaging fidelity, even in severe turbulence.

LRK ASSOC.
18223 Indian Creek Drive
Lake Oswego, OR 97035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 620-9977
Dr. Laurence Keefe
AF 05-009      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Fast Algorithms for Imaging Simulation through Turbulence
Abstract:Current techniques for simulating light propagation through atmospheric turbulence employ Fourier transform methods for calculation of diffraction effects. Although highly accurate, these methods are computationally burdensome, and substantially slow the task of computing extended scenes on a time-varying basis, as is required for closed-loop analysis of laser weapons systems' performance. In other areas of computational wave simulation (fluids and electromagnetics) Fourier techniques have been replaced by specialized finite-difference techniques which offer comparable accuracy for substantially reduced computational cost. Alternatively, these same diffraction effects seem amenable to local solution by integral techniques which would also provide a speed-up over use of Fourier methods. Potential speed-ups for the diffraction portion of the simulations range from 6 to over 150. Both alternative methods handle general boundary conditions much more gracefully than Fourier techniques. LRK Associates proposes to adapt both the finite-difference and integral techniques to the scene propagation problem, testing their accuracy and measuring their computational advantages on some simple test problems. This will lead to recommendations on which techniques are the best candidates for implementation in the Phase II to replace Fourier transform techniques for this optical simulation application.

CRYSTAL RESEARCH, INC.
48501 Warm Springs Blvd., Suite 103
Fremont, CA 94539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 445-0833
Dr. Suning Tang
AF 05-010      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:A High-Speed Electro-Optic Phase Compensator for Aero-Optic Applications
Abstract:Airborne lasers undergo extreme disturbances due to shock waves, turbulent shear layers, and regions of separated flow, caused by the aircraft motion. The net effect of rapidly-varying wavefront turbulence produces degraded beam quality and decreased laser energy-on-target. Unfortunately, progress in adaptive-optic correction has been essentially non-existent because that the required spatial and temporal frequencies are at least an order of magnitude greater than those presently correctable by adaptive-optic systems for the atmospheric-propagation case. In this SBIR program, Crystal Research, Inc. (CRI) proposes to develop a high-speed electro-optic phase compensator for aero-optic aberration corrections. The proposed device is based on high-speed two-dimensional electro-optic phase modulation in a novel crystal that has an electro-optic coefficient 20 times larger than that of conventional electro-optic crystals such as LiNbO3. The proposed electro-optic adaptive system is capable of performing high bandwidth (>100 kHz) wavefront sensing and distortion correction without using any mechanical moving part. In Phase I, we will fully exploit the advantages and feasibility of the proposed concept by designing and fabricating a 2-D EO phase compensator in lieu of a completed adaptive optical system. In Phase II, we will develop and demonstrate a high-speed electro-optic phase compensator for high bandwidth aero-optic applications.

KESTREL CORP.
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Dr. Leonard J. Otten
AF 05-010      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Ultra High Speed Aero Optics Compensation
Abstract:Over the last several years the Kestrel Corporation has been investigating the use of a phase diversity distorted grating wavefront sensor (DGWFS). This earlier research revealed several unexpected aspects of the technology as a technique that has the potential of generating extremely wide bandwidth error signals to control an adaptive optics compensation system while maintaining wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and very high spatial sampling of the wavefront. These attributes make possible the introduction of adaptive optics compensation of aero optics aberrations. The new technology is based on the direct coupling of a DGWFS to control a deformable optical element. Using this approach avoids the requirement to reconstruct a wavefront to generate an error signal and makes possible extremely efficient non-iterative signal processing. The proposed Phase I SBIR will analytically determine the expected performance envelope for a direct control DGWFS system used to reduce aero optics aberrations. While the technology has direct application to airborne uses of directed energy weapons, there are also uses in improving airborne optical communications and adaptive optics compensation under battle field conditions. Uses in medical imaging have secured strong commercial interests.

STRATONICS, INC.
23151 Verdugo Drive, Suite 114
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 461-7060
Dr. James E. Craig
AF 05-010      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Aero-Optics Research & Development
Abstract:Stratonics proposes to develop an aero-optics (AO) wind tunnel facility and the methods for evaluation of a range of advanced, high energy laser, compensation technology, required to improve mission effectiveness and greater missile self-defense coverage. The AO facility would provide for the development and evaluation of advanced aero-optical technology, such as, high bandwidth laser wavefront sensors, adaptive "mirrors", near-field laser beacons, and means to mitigate aero-optical turbulence. This AO evaluation capability does not currently exist in any large-scale, ground test facility, which must be suitable for aero-optics research (turbulence level, Reynolds and Mach number). Major wind tunnel facilities will be surveyed before selecting one suitable for conversion into a facility for AO research and development. This effort will provide for the development of novel turret, pod, fairing and cavity designs and means for active flow control to minimize flow field effects, including approaches that utilize electro-optical mechanical hardware, all optical, or hybrid concepts. The AO wind tunnel facility will prove indispensable to defense contractors and other professional's in universities and government laboratories in their efforts to develop advanced compensation technology, and to transition it to flight qualified HEL systems.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Mark R. Stevens
AF 05-011      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Image Sequences to Image Pairs
Abstract:Space situation awareness (SSA) requires the ability to monitor, identify, and catalog a wide variety of uncooperative space objects. To help improve Air Force SSA capabilities, we propose the Image Sequences to Image Pairs (ISIP) system. ISIP's input is a sequence of images from a telescope (or micro-satellite such as XSS-10/11) showing an uncooperative space object passing overhead. ISIP processes the sequence in real-time to select sets of stereo image pairs. Each pair is combined into a single anaglyph stereo image and also used for 3D stereo reconstruction. At the core of our system is a structure-from-motion algorithm that computes an estimate of the satellite's full six-degree of freedom pose, based on frame-to-frame changes in satellite appearance. This estimate is used to determine which two input images would make a good stereo pair. Note that as desirable byproducts, our technique recovers the 3D motion of the object (position, orientation, and angular velocity) and the 3D shape of the object. In Phase I, we will develop a fully functional ISIP software system in C++ and perform an evaluation using simulated sensor data of uncooperative space objects. Our Phase II effort will focus on tuning the system to space surveillance imagery and optimizing the system to increase accuracy and throughput.

STELLAR SCIENCE LTD.CO
401 Serenity Ct SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 299-2686
Mr. Robert A. Radtke
AF 05-011      Awarded: 08APR05
Title:Algorithms for Stereo Image Creation from a Sequence of Two Dimensional Images
Abstract:We propose to develop an algorithm capable of autonomously converting standard 2D space surveillance imagery sequences into 3D stereo movies. We will extend and integrate our existing algorithms, which have already been demonstrated to handle space surveillance data, to build a system that requires no sensor or hardware upgrades. The key to automating the solution is to determine the pose of the imaged object from one frame to the next. We will use existing feature-based shape-from-motion code to solve for this unknown, and then use that information to select stereo image pairs whose displacements are compatible with binocular human vision. Because of the low frame rates of existing space surveillance sensors, we realize that many data collections may not contain suitable stereo pairs. To handle such situations we propose a novel technique to generate intermediate frames based on 3D information extracted from the image sequence. The goal is to produce a high-quality 3D stereo movie at video frame rate, even from even relatively sparse image data. For Phase I we will deliver a working prototype system stable enough for Air Force use on research and special analyses missions.

CROSSFIELD TECHNOLOGY LLC
4505 Spicewood Springs Road, Suite 360
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 795-0221
Dr. Gary McMillian
AF 05-012      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Compact Ultra-Wideband Target Identification System
Abstract:Crossfield proposes a high dynamic range, ultra-wideband, receiver-digitizer that will enable implementation of a compact UWB target identification system for the detection and location of targets and weapons concealed behind walls or foliage or hidden on a person. The design features an ultra-wide bandwidth, high dynamic range sampler developed by Picosecond Pulse Labs, followed by a track-and-hold amplifier (THA) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The digitized waveforms are captured in a high-speed memory for analysis and display. Crossfield will investigate two approaches to ultra-high-speed sampling: real-time sampling using parallel samplers, THAs and ADCs, and equivalent-time sampling using a single sampler, THA and ADC with precision timing offsets between waveform digitization cycles. At high pulse repetition rates, the later approach will provide high spatial resolution at a much lower cost, lower power and in a more compact size.

Q-DOT, INC.
1069 Elkton Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Thomas E. Linnenbrink
AF 05-012      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Ultra-Compact UWB Transient Receiver/Digitizer (9693)
Abstract:Q-DOT proposes to develop an Ultra-Compact (1-2 chip) UWB Transient Receiver/Digitizer to enable the practical military application of UWB for identifying targets behind walls or in foliage. To date, UWB target identification system (TIS) deployment has been severely impeded by the rack-mounted, laboratory equipment required for the receiver/digitizer function. The proposed Receiver/Digitizer will enable numerous UWB TIS equipment for a variety of ground-based and airborne operations, specifically including a handheld UWB TIS. The Receiver/Digitizer will be realized in IBM's 8HP SiGe BiCMOS process via DoD's ITAR-compliant Trusted Foundry Agreement (TFA). During Phase I, the Receiver/Digitizer will be configured to meet mission requirements. Critical elements will be conceptually designed to project their performance. A prototype Receiver/Digitizer will be developed in Phase II prior to developing a handheld UWB TIS in Phase III.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Christopher M. Gittins
AF 05-014      Awarded: 11MAY05
Title:Advanced Algorithms for Exploitation of Space-Based Imagery
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. and its subcontractor, SAIC-Boulder, propose to implement and evaluate two novel pattern recognition methods to mitigate cluster noise and enhance the contrast between targets and backgrounds in an automatic target recognition (ATR) applications. The proposed methods are relevant to subpixel target detection using hyperspectral data and are compatible with real-time implementation on airborne and spaceborne operating platforms. Our approach is to integrate a statistically-robust blind source separation algorithm for spectral signature recognition with a Bayesian Evidential Reasoning framework to enable context-based false alarm mitigation. The Bayes net will be used to reduce false rate by evaluating the spectral characteristics of the region surrounding the potential target detect. The proposed spectral pattern recognition approach is robust with respect to the form of clutter noise in the data, i.e., non-Gaussian noise statistics, and will enable modeling of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves for any user-specified clutter noise distribution. The Phase I program will involve benchmark testing of the proposed methods using real and synthetic data sets and will enable recommendation of an ATR approach to be implemented in hardware in Phase II.

SPACE COMPUTER CORP.
12121 Wilshire Boulevard , Suite 910
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
Dr. Scott G Beaven
AF 05-014      Awarded: 21APR05
Title:Advanced HSI Change Detection Algorithms for Exploitation of Space-Based Imagery
Abstract:This proposed effort will capitalize on recent advancements in hyperspectral imagery- (HSI-) based real-time registration and spectral change detection processing to enhance our capability to detect, identify and track objects from space-based imagery and high-altitude surveillance imagery. Existing approaches based solely on spatial, temporal or spectral information fall short of demanding DoD needs because of several limiting factors. Primary among these is the complexity of the clutter environment viewed by down-looking spaceborne instruments. This is compounded by the limitation on optical instruments for simultaneously obtaining high-resolution temporal, spatial, and spectral information. We propose to incorporate target spectral signature information into multi-look change detection and tracking algorithms to significantly enhance capabilities of multi-spectral and hyperspectral systems to provide high-performance target detection, identification and tracking.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Marc R. Schultz
AF 05-015      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:TEMBOr Bi-Morphing, Controllable Composite Laminates for SBR Applications
Abstract:The proposed program will develop and demonstrate an innovative concept for achieving bi-morphing shape control in composite panels and structural elements, through the use of TEMBOr BiPolymericT actuator technology. The concept represents a novel adaptation of Elastic Memory Composite technology to the challenging application of shape control of lightweight composite structures.

MMICMAN, LLC
826 N. Red Robin St.
Orange, CA 92869
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 980-3039
Mr. Rick Sturdivant
AF 05-015      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Transmit/Receive Module
Abstract:Space based radar and T/R module performance goals require very light weight T/R modules. The radar may be folded out to form large arrays. Aggressive packaging techniques must be used to achieve a radar that is light weight. In fact the solution to the light weight space based radar is a microwave packaging challenge. MMICMAN proposes to prove the feasibility of achieving 2kg/m2 using innovative methods.

STARSYS RESEARCH
4909 Nautilus Ct. North
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Mr. Jeff Harvey
AF 05-015      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Development of a Self deploying Articulated Spacecraft Boom
Abstract:The ability of space borne systems to gather information can be enhanced by separating instruments from the spacecraft or by increasing antenna apertures to many times the size of the spacecraft. These deployments are often accomplished by using deployable booms as both deployment linear actuators and deployed structure. In many cases the ability to deploy structures that are extremely stable thermally and structurally is a requirement. There are several variations of deployable booms for systems that require precise thermal stability, articulated trusses are unequalled because they can use low coefficient of thermal expansion materials and provide the requisite stiffness. Articulated booms require a motor and deployment mechanism to form the boom once on orbit. The state of the art deployment mechanisms, used in articulated booms are large, massive and complex, requiring power from the host spacecraft to deploy. Starsys research is developing a new type of self deploying articulated spacecraft boom that does not require a conventional deployment mechanism therefore exhibiting lower volume, lower mass, lower parts count, lower cost and has enhanced capabilities over existing deployment mechanism and boom technologies.

STARSYS RESEARCH
4909 Nautilus Ct. North
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Mr. Jeff Harvey
AF 05-015      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Jack Screw Deployed Articulated Boom
Abstract:The ability of space borne systems to gather information can be enhanced by separating instruments from the spacecraft or by increasing antenna apertures to many times the size of the spacecraft. These deployments are often accomplished by using deployable booms as both deployment linear actuators and deployed structure. In many cases the ability to deploy structures that are extremely stable thermally and structurally is a requirement. There are several variations of deployable booms for systems that require precise thermal stability, articulated trusses are unequalled because they can use low coefficient of thermal expansion materials and provide the requisite stiffness. Articulated booms require a motor and deployment mechanism to form the boom once on orbit. The state of the art deployment mechanisms, used in articulated booms are large, massive and complex, requiring power from the host spacecraft to deploy. Starsys research is developing a new type of articulated spacecraft boom with a revolutionary deployment mechanism that exhibits lower volume, lower mass, lower parts count, lower cost and has enhanced capabilities over existing deployment mechanism and boom technologies.

STARSYS RESEARCH
4909 Nautilus Ct. North
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Mr. Jeff Harvey
AF 05-015      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Development of Analysis Tools for a Jack Screw Deployed Articulated Spacecraft Boom
Abstract:Deployable booms are critical in enhancing the ability of space borne systems to gather information by separating instruments from the spacecraft or by increasing antenna apertures to many times the size of the spacecraft. Examples of currently envisioned missions exist in both the commercial and military worlds. Deployable booms act as both deployment linear actuators to form the structure and, once fully extended form the deployed structure. In most cases spacecraft booms are designed and analyzed on a "one off" basis, that is, slow and inefficient. Access to space in a rapid manner would be enabled by developing analysis and design packages for booms to reduce the design and analysis cycle. Starsys Research is developing a new generation of articulated boom assemblies for space craft. The design and analysis time, as well as the accuracy of the results of the effort would be improved significantly by creating and validating tools for this sizing process.

TIALINX, INC.
8 Halley
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 285-6255
Dr. FRED MOHAMADI
AF 05-015      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Transmit/Receive Module
Abstract:Space-based radar (SBR) and mobile surveillance systems require effective integration of phased-array antenna modules for beamforming. This proposal in response to the SBIR phase I solicitation addresses reduction of components by combining desired performance features and integrates them on a Si-based wafer. Additionally, wafer scale antenna module (WSAM) includes integration of large number of antenna elements on the same substrate. Wafer scale integration objectives have been addressed by focusing on incorporation of interconnects and radio frequency active components, direct current, and control signals for an optimum power dissipation. The proposal predicts a 40X weight reduction and better than 37X volume reduction for beamforming module, while operating without a cooling system. Furthermore, integration of the antenna array with fully integrated electronics on a Silicon wafer enables removing connectors that cause serious insertion losses, hence, improving the signal-to-noise for more efficient transmission and less required sensitivity for signal receiver.

LINQUEST CORP.
6701 Center Drive West, Suite 425
Los Angeles, CA 90292
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 410-2411
Mr. Aaron Tu
AF 05-017      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Field Programmable Gate Array Based Channelizer
Abstract:Transformational Communications require the development of a reconfigurable low power radiation hardened channelizer capable of scaling up to support 25 20 MHz narrowband and wideband channels. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology is ideal for rapid development of customizable circuit. Xilinx and Actel are the only vendors with radiation hardened FPGA having over a million usable gates count. Xilinx FPGA is based on SRAM technology which requires Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) to eliminate Single Event Upset (SEU) while Actel FPGA is based on anti-fuse technology with triplicated gates. LinQuest is proposing to use Xilinx QPRO-R FPGA to satisfy Transformational Communications Channelizer requirement. This proposal will also review various channelizer architectures and implementations approaches. The final architecture will be simulated in C/C++, MatLab, and Verilog/VHDL. The channelizer design will be synthesized and routed for the purpose of accessing resource utilization, power consumption, and maximum clock speed. The final analysis will be Phase I deliverable. LinQuest is an employee-owned small business with exceptionally strong qualifications in the Military & Commercial Satellite Communication Systems, Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) arena. LinQuest has over 20 years of experience development state-of-the-art end-to-end simulation platforms (MEESE) providing SETA support for Milstar, AEHF, and now Transformational Communications (TSAT). Over the years, LinQuest has developed a library of channelization capabilities including channel coding, modulation, fading, jamming, and nuller functionalities. LinQuest's engineers hold advance degrees and have extensive experience in flight hardware design including AEHF transponder and channelizer. Thus, LinQuest is uniquely qualified to support the development of Transformation Communications Channelizer.

THE ATHENA GROUP, INC.
3424 N.W. 31st Street
Gainesville, FL 32605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 371-2567
Mr. Michael P. Lewis
AF 05-017      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Field Programmable Gate Array Based Channelizer
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project, called the Athena Channelizer Technology 1, or ACT1, involves the innovation and evaluation of a new channelizer technology that will meet the needs of Department of Defense Transformational Communications program. Transformational communications is part of the military's overhaul of its currently diffused communications assets into an integrated system that expands military communications capabilities by an order of magnitude (10x). A critical enabling technology is a new class of 300 Mbps channelizers capable of assembling information channels by adaptively combining subbands found within a broadband spectrum, and also capable of efficiently operating in hostile environments using radiation hardened FPGA components. The proposed ACT1 solution is based on fusing a number of Athena authored and demonstrated innovations in the area of multi-band channelizers design, signal processing, design implementation, and fault tolerance. In Phase I, the proposed ACT1 solution will be developed and analyzed. When complete, ACT1 will provide the Transformational Communications Office with an infrastructure technology capable of adaptively maintaining acceptable bit-error-rates (BER), signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), and other signal quality metrics required to ensure the reliable delivery of information under a variety of satellite-borne conditions and circumstances.

AMERICAN SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
3100 S. Vista Ave., Suite 230
Boise, ID 83705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 336-2773
Mr. Kelly DeGregorio
AF 05-018      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Advanced Commercially Available Inherently Radhard Primitive Cell Designs.
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Military Satellite Communication (MILSATCOM), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have a current and future need for advanced commercially available inherently radhard primitive cell libraries to support new designs for satellites and other spacecraft. American Semiconductor Inc. proposes the use of double gated Flexfet technology for primitive cells. This can enable next generation spacecraft for operations and missions with high density, low power, and high speed radhard components. Moreover these primitive cells endow spacecraft designers with the ability to increase spacecraft performance over current designs without having to use large chip area or redundancy and still have low power and high speed reconfigurable performance. This SBIR Phase I proposal will result in primitive cells in scaleable, sub-lithographic, low power, low cost, and inherently radhard Flexfet CMOS. These primitive cells have commercially viability and will be of significant commercial interest to industry.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Wesley H. Morris
AF 05-018      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Radiation-Hardened By Design Techniques for Total Dose and Single Event Upset
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology and team member ATK Mission Research, in collaboration with Jazz Semiconductor, propose to develop and demonstrate a very deep submicron cell library and design system for radiation hardened ASICs and standard products. Specifically, we will develop a scaleable 180 nm, hardened-by-design (HBD) cell library to support the radiation-hardening of ASICs fabricated in commercial silicon foundries. The performance and radiation hardness will be demonstrated in Phase I by extensive modeling and simulation of the process. Our team has extensive expertise in commercial process integration, device development in leading-edge commercial technology, device development in traditional HBD, and radiation-hardening techniques using HBP and HBD technology. This critical combination is the key to successful implementation of the radiation-hardened process modules. Silicon Space Technology's proprietary HBI approach, combined with leading-edge silicon foundry manufacturing and an industry leading HBD innovator, should realize significant performance and manufacturing advantages over existing RHIC producers, while reducing component cost and time-to-market. The emergence of such products from leading-edge CMOS foundries should achieve the previously unattainable goal of deploying the latest electronics while minimizing the risk of mission failure due to space radiation.

ADVANCED SCIENCE & NOVEL TECHNOLOGY
27 Via Porto Grande
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 377-6029
Dr. Vladimir Katzman
AF 05-019      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Low Power Ultra-Fast Analog-to-Digital Converter with Integrated DSP
Abstract:The front end digital processing of a communications satellite/warfighter typically consists of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) followed by a demodulator and Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The integration of both functions in an ADC/DSP monolithic Integrated Circuit (ADIC) is an effective way to overcome the difficulties associated with propagation delays and transmission line effects in the required high-speed parallel interconnects between the ADC and the DSP application specific integrated circuits. In order to satisfy the described need, our company in cooperation with the Georgia Tech University team under management of Byers Professor John Cressler proposes to develop a novel ADIC architecture based on a proprietary, extremely low power, 2.5 Gs/s ADC block, which will be implemented in one of the most advanced modern SiGe technologies. ADIC architectures with either an analog demultiplexing scheme based on a proprietary dual-bridge sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA), or a high-speed SHA and a signal splitter will be evaluated in order to select the best design approach.. The required reduction of supply voltage and power consumption will be achieved at the basic cell hierarchical level through application of the fully differential bipolar-based current-mode logic or MOS-based source-coupled logic with ADSANTEC's proprietary voltage referencing scheme.

CSWITCH CORP.
3101 Jay St , Suite #110
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 986-1964
Mr. Narbeh Derhacobian
AF 05-020      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Chalcogenide Based Field Programmable Gate Array
Abstract:Cswitch is planning to investigate the implementation of non volatile chalcogenide material as a replacement to the 10-50Mbits of SRAM used to configure the FPGA LUTs and switches. The Cswitch FPGA will as a result eliminate the triple redundancy required in RAD Tolerant FPGAs used for military and space applications. Cswitch's core technology team has spent roughly 9 months researching FPGAs and memory technologies.

RESONANT MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
2900 Lakeridge Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 634-2741
Dr. Shui-Lin Chao
AF 05-021      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:MEMS Components for Phased Array Applications
Abstract:High bandwidth free space communication links are critical for next generation DoD systems, including low-loss phased shifters for a MEMS-based ESA and mirror arrays for turbulence compensation. For the proposed SBIR project, Resonant Microsystems will model and simulate free space links and design a K-band MEMS phase shifter.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Ms. Shannon M. Petzold
AF 05-021      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems Based Electronically Steerable Antenna
Abstract:The use of multiple beams and frequencies make phased arrays desirable elements in modern communication systems. Phased arrays enable area scanning with much greater detail and speed than traditional antenna systems. High insertion-loss phase shifters in the array currently create the need for expensive hardware to compensate for poor phase shifter performance. MEMS switches have features that make them an ideal candidate as a device technology for high-performance phase shifters. The offer very low insertion loss, small physical size, and demonstrate proven results for high performance phase shifters. The insertion loss of the phase shifter will be improved by an innovative approach which eliminates the longest true time delay bit in a multi-bit system. Toyon Research Corporation and Rockwell Scientific Company have outlined a comprehensive Phase I project for the design of a low-loss, reliable, MEMS multi-bit phase shifter, including the design and simulation of a complete multi-bit phase shifter and the development of a production plan for the completed system. The final application of the completed phase shifter is for use in an antenna phased array system which Toyon will focus on during the Phase II effort. A cost analysis will be performed for transitioning the phase shifter to commercial production.

HYBRID PLASTICS
55 WL Runnels Ind. Dr.
Hattiesburg, MS 39401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(601) 544-3466
Dr. Joseph D. Lichtenhan
AF 05-022      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Radiation-Resistant Nanoscopically Enhanced Solar Cell Coverglass
Abstract:Hybrid Plastics proposes to develop a low cost, and versatile method for shielding commercial and military solar cells from damage against proton and electron radiation. The technical approach utilizes metallized nanoscopic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes as conformal coatings on coverglass and on solar cell surfaces. Such coatings would permit spacecraft designers to increase duty cycles while operating in half-geo orbits. Also, POSS coatings may provide a means to shield flexible solar cells against space radiation, a task that conventional cover glass cannot do. Hybrid Plastics also proposes to perform fundamental proton and electron testing of coatings coverglass and cells to determine their shielding effectiveness.

ION BEAM OPTICS, INC.
2060 E. Ave de Los Arboles #D243
Thousand Oaks, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 493-1631
Mr. Michael Fulton
AF 05-022      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Radiation-Resistant Solar Cell Coverglass
Abstract:Solar cell coverglass coatings are subject to darkening under the Half-GEO radiation environment, and require increased radiation resistance. Premature power loss reduces satellite life below the required 15 year EOL goal and impacts the expense of satellite operation. We propose to apply advanced high-energy deposition technology to produce optical coatings for the cover glasses that exhibit high radiation resistance due to their superior micro-structural properties. These properties include bulk-like packing density, lower defect density, better optical homogeneity, and uniform morphology. We shall evaluate three of these deposition technologies in parallel, and after evaluating the results recommend one for production development. The research team brings nearly 70 years of experience in coating technology innovation and production development, with relevant experience in solar cell cover coating deposition, problem analysis, and solution development. The results will be applicable to all applications and requirements; military and commercial regardless of orbit, and could be marketed to the international solar cell panel industry.

NANOHMICS, INC.
6201 East Oltorf St., Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Dr. Keith Jamison
AF 05-022      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Radiation Hard Amorphous Nitride Based Solar Cell Coverglass Anti-reflective Coatings
Abstract:Solar cells are typically protected from the environment by a coverglass that has good light transmission properties in the response region of the solar cell. Newer generations of multilayer solar cells are extending the response region from the UV into the infrared portion of the spectrum to increase the efficiency of the solar cells. This is critically important for space based solar cells where the electrical output per unit weight is paramount. Unfortunately, solar cell coverglass materials have not kept up with the improvements in solar cell spectral range. It is difficult to fabricate the anti-reflective coatings and index matching layers to be efficient over the wider wavelength region of the newer solar cells. In addition for satellite power, the high radiation environments common at certain earth orbits cause the solar cell coverglass to lose transmittance (darken) through the formation of color centers in the glass or oxide materials. In this program Nanohmics proposes to examine the use of amorphous wide-bandgap nitride coatings to improve the performance radiation-resistant solar cell coverglass material. The amorphous nitrides will be used as an anti-reflective and index matching interface layer for the solar cells with the intent of increasing their spectral absorption and efficiency.

AONEX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
129 North Hill, Suite #108
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 583-9101
Mr. James Zahler
AF 05-023      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:A New Class Of High Efficiency, High Specific Power, Multi-junction Photovoltaic Cells Using Wafer Bonding And Layer Transfer
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a process for producing ultra-high conversion efficiency (37-41%) AM0 multijunction solar cells from dislocation-free non-lattice matched heterostructures using a proprietary wafer bonding / layer transfer process. The overall cell fabrication process will yield a two terminal, series-connected four junction InGaP/GaAs/InGaAsP/InGaAs/InP/Si solar cell. Specifically, as a proof of principle, we will transfer of Ge layers < 500 nm thick and 50 mm in diameter onto Si substrates, and then use the resulting Ge/Si substrates as epitaxial growth templates for high bandgap InGaP/GaAs tandem cells. We will also transfer < 500 nm thick InP layers and 50 mm diameter onto Si substrates and use the InP/Si substrates as epitaxial growth templates for low bandgap InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem cells. Device active region structure will be characterized via electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and minority carrier lifetime will be characterized via time-resolved photoluminescence. The dark and AM0-illuminated current-voltage characteristics of an InGaP/GaAs dual junction cell on Ge/Si templates will be determined. The results obtained will be used to estimate the overall four junction cell efficiency potential and guide development of a commercial prototype four junction cell process in Phase II.

EPIWORKS, INC.
1606 Rion Drive
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 373-1590
Dr. Brian McDermott
AF 05-023      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Next-Generation 30-45% Efficient Multi-Junction Solar Cell
Abstract:We will demonstrate novel, Si-based technology for ultra-lightweight, high-efficiency, triple junction solar cells. Next-generation satellites require increased payload mass and power budget capabilities. Ultra lightweight, 40% efficient solar cells employing Silicon substrates will reduce array size and solar cell payload mass while still enabling power level scale-up. Our advanced, next generation design will enable extremely high efficiency by using materials with ideal band gaps for efficient solar cells. By employing Si substrates (> 2x lower density than Ge), solar cell payload mass will be reduced by more than two times over current Ge-based technology. Current state-of-the art solar cell technology employs tandem Ge/GaAs/InGaP junctions on Ge substrates. This approach has shown promise for 40% converstion efficiency by employing 1.0 eV InGaAsN material as an intermediate cell between Ge and GaAs. However, InGaAsN has shown fundamental limitations due to the presence of deep level traps. A new alternative Si-based approach could result in similar 40% efficiencies in addition to substantially lower weight and cost. Silicon has a 1.1 eV bandgap, significantly lower cost and weight than Ge, and provides superior mechanical stability and radiation hardness.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
Suite 103, 201 Circle Drive
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Dr. Catherine E. Rice
AF 05-023      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:High Efficiency InGaN Solar Cells
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program will demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating high efficiency solar cells based on InGaN photovoltaic devices using MBE for material parameter optimization and MOCVD for manufacturability. Recent results demonstrating that InN has a much narrower bandgap than previously believed open the door to fabrication of photovoltaic devices responsive from the near infrared through UV ranges. Thus, unprecedented efficiencies should be possible. Currently, Structured Materials Industries (SMI) and Cornell University are conducting a Phase I STTR in InGaN solar cell development. In this program we have identified that crucial developments in InN and In-rich InGaN are the key to realizing the potential of InGaN full spectrum solar cells. Specifically, (1) the achievement of thick (>2 m), adherent InN layers; (2) p-type doping in InN; and (3) understanding and control of surface carriers. In this program we propose to focus on and solve these important material issues. In Phase I, together with Dr. William Schaff of Cornell University, a pioneer in InN and InGaN technology, SMI will deposit InN and In-rich InGaN films and evaluate deposition and post-processing parameters enabling these material goals. Fabrication and demonstration of prototype devices and process scale-up will take place in Phase II.

ORORA DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
17371 NE 67th Court, Suite 205
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 702-9196
Dr. Monte Mar
AF 05-024      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Design-Hardened Analog/Mixed-Signal Electronics
Abstract:• Orora Design Technologies, teamed up with ATK Mission Research, proposes to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a template-based synthesis approach to the design of high performance radiation hardened analog-to-digital converters with 100 MSPS sampling rates at 12-bit or greater resolution with 250 miliwatts or less power consumption. The output of this research is a parametric cell and architecture library that captures expert radiation-hardening design techniques and can be adapted to different design performance requirements and fabrication processes, along with the computer-aided design toolset that enables such template-based automated radiation hardened synthesis in a mainstream EDA design environment that can be used by satellite electronics designers. The technical novelty of this research consists of (a) joint optimization of architectures, processes, and circuits for varying applications and radiation hardenness, (b) adaptive design templates, and (c) hierarchical radiation-aware parametric behavioral modeling.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Dr. Peter J. Shea
AF 05-025      Awarded: 18APR05
Title:Adaptive Tasking of Radar and Optical Sensors
Abstract:Today's battlefield environment contains large number of sensors onboard multiple platforms. This set of sensors types includes SAR, EO/IR, GMTI, AMTI, HSI, MSI, and video and for each sensor type there may be multiple modalities. In an attempt to maximize sensor performance, today's sensors employ either very simplistic tasking approaches or require an operator to manually change sensor tasking operations. As such, the sensors become less effective as the sensing environments deviates from the assumed conditions. In order to improve the overall system capability, this effort examines a genetic algorithm approach to solving the adaptive sensor tasking problem. The genetic algorithm approach is a method for intelligently searching a large solution space with the added benefit that it is highly parallelizable and easily incorporates prior solution information. This Phase I effort will develop an objective function that accurately models the adaptive sensor tasking problem, develop a genetic algorithm solution for this problem, and provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of this capability.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Wenjian Wang
AF 05-025      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Adaptive Sensor Tasking for Missile Defense
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for adaptive tasking of RF and EO sensors based on background clutter and signal detection limitations, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Controllable Robust Integrated Management Sensing Optimal Network (CRIMSON) system. CRIMSON is based on constrained optimization, dynamic resource/QoS performance management, and a controllable Petri net. The CRIMSON system will dynamically allocate resources to multiple networked sensors, with self-configuration to optimize performance of target sensing, detection, recognition, and tracking for missile defense. The CRIMSON system can configure itself and the onboard sensor assets to optimal operational status for available power, sensors, environments, mission objectives, and targets of interest. Even when faced with threats and environments outside the design optimization space, the CRIMSON system can ensure functionality (surveillance, detection, tracking, and discrimination) of the sensor platform. In Phase I POC will design the CRIMSON system, analyze its theoretical performance limits, and demonstrate its feasibility by simulation. In Phase II POC will optimize the CRIMSON system architecture and adapt it to an ACTD program such as the Multi-sensor Aerospace-Ground Joint ISR Interoperability Coalition (MAJIIC), demonstrating its strategic advantages for adaptive tasking.

SAGE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1601 N Sepulveda Blvd, PMB 501
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 455-0665
Dr. Keith Norsworthy
AF 05-026      Awarded: 22APR05
Title:Electro-Optical (EO) Signal Processing for Detection and Classification of Cruise Missiles
Abstract:This program evaluates the feasibility of a spaced-based infrared sensor for detecting, tracking, and spectrally classifying cruise missiles that fly over a structured earth background. Recent advances in image processing technology, by SAGE and subcontractors Boeing and DRS, have shown improved suppression of (time varying) structured earth backgrounds, and a capability for multispectral characterization of detected targets. SAGE, and its team members Boeing and DRS, plan to review available SSGM and Air Force optical sensor databases (from previous airborne and space-based missions) and perform trade studies to define the most appropriate spectral bands for a space-based cruise missile detection sensor. Novel image processing algorithms that exploit spatial, temporal (hyper-spatial) and spectral features of the targets and background will be used to detect flying objects and classify them on the basis of spectral surface features and exhaust constituents. The planned space-based IR sensor design uses a fast-sampled large-mosaic infrared detector array in contact with a linear gradient spectral filter, both cryogenically cooled to minimize noise. Clutter suppression and target discrimination performance will be evaluated versus the number of spectral bands in the IR sensor (single color, 2-color, 3-color, or multi-color with up to 20 color bands).

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 598-1194
Dr. James E. Murguia
AF 05-026      Awarded: 04MAY05
Title:CDP Cruise Missile Algoritms
Abstract:The objective of this program is to develop algorithms for detecting and classifying cruise missiles observed from space platforms in support of future theater advance warning systems. The algorithms will be developed for hyperspectral sensor data with hyperspatial resolution (imaging with 2-5m spatial resolution). Detection of cruse missiles from space is distinct from most applications of hyperspectral imaging since the target of interest is moving. Further, in the context of hyperspatial imaging the target movement can be large relative to the spatial and temporal sampling. It follows that the architecture of the hyperspectral-hyperspatial sensor must be appropriate for detection and classification of moving targets. The algorithms developed will be specific to moving cruise missiles observed with a CD sensor positioned on a space platform. These algorithms are expected them to be similar to those SSSC has developed for shoulder-launched missiles and air-to-ground rockets.

SPACEDEV
13855 Stowe Drive
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 375-2079
Mr. Assi Friedman
AF 05-027      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Small Launch Vehicles (SLV) Technologies
Abstract:SpaceDev has made extensive use of commercial standards to achieve more responsive flexibility in its subsystems. SpaceDev would undertake an approach similar to an advanced microsat systems. It will utilize commercial communications busses (such as Ethernet and LVDS) and communications protocols such as TCPIP to interconnect the various subsystems. Instead of routing hundreds of wiring harnesses to various sensors, smart nodes would be utilized to instrument the vehicle and control actuators. In addition, programmable circuitry would be used to upload operational profiles without having to perform hardware denegation. SpaceDev's goal is to take advantages of its microsat approach to first increase the responsiveness of the launch vehicle and second to reduce the mass fraction of avionics. On a medium size launch vehicle, total mass of avionics could be as much as 500kg. If the mass of the avionics could be reduced by 30% roughly one more 150kg microsat could be launched on the same vehicle.

WICKMAN SPACECRAFT & PROPULSION CO.
3745A Studer
Casper, WY 82604
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 265-5895
Mr. John Wickman
AF 05-027      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Small Launch Vehicles (SLV) Technologies
Abstract:Difficulties in using foreign air bases and airspace is constraining the Air Force from striking high-value, time critical targets. The Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) and Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) that deploys weapons over the target within minutes after being launched from the United States can solve this. The SLV can also be used to launch satellites. Wickman Spacecraft & Propulsion Company is proposing a versatile and low cost SLV that will be air launched from Air Force cargo planes. It uses an innovative solid rocket motor with individually controlled nozzle throats providing real time controllable thrust and steering with a fixed nozzle. With an expansion-deflection exit cone, it has an optimum expansion ratio at all altitudes. The propellant is an environmentally friendly, low cost, phase stabilized ammonium nitrate propellant with a delivered specific impulse equal to ammonium perchlorate propellants. The solid rocket motors are "field" reloadable. Phase I determines the feasibility of this approach while Phase II demonstrates all the enabling technologies.

GENERAL SCIENCES, INC.
205 Schoolhouse Road
Souderton, PA 18964
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 723-8588
Dr. Peter D. Zavitsanos
AF 05-028      Awarded: 26APR05
Title:Practical Ionospheric Enhancement Technology
Abstract:The main objective of the proposed program is to develop highly exothermic compositions capable of generating temperatures up to 4,000K in order to achieve significant vaporization of certain metals, with boiling points in excess of 3,000K, which are capable of generating ionization in the presence of atomic oxygen. Laboratory studies are proposed to show proof-of-concept and derive vaporization yields for at least two such metals. Part of the laboratory study will include metal atom emission measurements, and canister design for 500g releases as well as potential atmospheric releases in the 10 kg size.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 329-3700
Mr. John F Kline
AF 05-028      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:The Microwave Ionosphere Reconfiguration Ground-based Emitter (MIRAGE)
Abstract:Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Microwave Ionosphere Reconfiguration Ground-based Emitter (MIRAGE). MIRAGE will use a novel combination of an inexpensive, portable microwave transmitter array on the ground and a small chaff-carrying launch vehicle in the air. The goal will be the creation of artificial ionization, either below or within the ionosphere, for a variety of tactical purposes including reflection of signals for over-the-horizon radar or radio transmissions as well as jamming of satellite signals to the ground. The concept will utilize RSI's experience in atmospheric pressure microwave plasmas to produce a mobile solution to future Air Force challenges in radar and radio communications. Microwave power less than that required for breakdown will encounter metal chaff released by the small rocket, triggering formation of a microwave plasma. This plasma can be formed below the natural ionosphere to produce an artificial ionosphere, or modify the natural ionosphere. MIRAGE would fit in mobile trailers and be easily assembled in theater operations. In Phase I, RSI will demonstrate free-space microwave plasma breakdown using metal field enhancement at short range in the laboratory, and use the results to predict scaling and design a large-scale system for Phase II.

MS TECHNOLOGY
7922 Avenida Kirjah
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 558-6363
Dr. Saeid Ghamaty
AF 05-029      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:New Sensing Capabilities for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:MS Technology (MST) proposes to develop a new type of low cost, low power, fast and small magnetometer that could attain a sensitivity of approximately 1 femto Tesla (10-15 T) per root hertz. Magnetometers with such sensitivity could easily be used for space situational awareness , and small target identification from rifles, to vehicles, or large targets such as planes, boats and submarines, on space, ground, air, or water. This new magnetometer could be in a small (~SO8, ~5x4x2mm3), low power instrument package operating at ambient temperature. Such sensitivity currently requires costly superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) that needs expensive and cumbersome cryogenics to operate. In Phase I, MST will quantify the performance gains possible from this new magnetometer and its measurement of magnetic field and noise in operational contexts for space situational awareness. MST will develop system concepts, evaluate and benchmark performance, cost and compatibility for a complete magnetometer system. MST will explore all additional uses/value-added of the sensor option, and will specify hardware/software requirements and sources for a complete prototype system. MST will limit demonstration of selected sensors to provide proof of feasibility.

NDP OPTRONICS LLC
236 Saint Martins Dr SE
Mableton, GA 30126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 463-9623
Dr. S. G. Matsik
AF 05-029      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:New Sensing Capabilities: GaN Based Dualband UV-IR Detectors
Abstract:The proposed innovation is the development of a novel dual band detector responding in both the UV and IR regions, based on a GaN/AlGaN heterostructure. The IR response is based on HEterojunction Interfacial Workfunction Internal Photoemission (HEIWIP) detectors, which have been demonstrated using AlGaAs/GaAs structures. By also using interband transitions, response in the UV range can be incorporated into the device. A GaAs detector structure was shown to respond in both the NIR and FIR regions demonstrating the dual band capability. A material system change to GaN/AlGaN is expected to shift the NIR response into the UV range providing a UV-IR dual band detector. By varying the material compostion the spectral ranges can be tailored for the specific application. The initial detectors will operate in the 0.2 - 0.35 micron UV range and 8--14 micron IR range. The proposed detector would allow simultaneous imaging of both spectral ranges using a single detector array. This would provide a large advantage over current approaches which use separate detectors to image the two regions. By varying the Al fraction in the AlGaN, the detector can be easily extended to cover the range up to 40 microns.

NOVASPECTRA, INC.
777 Silver Spur Road, Suite 112
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 408-3225
Dr. William S. Chan
AF 05-029      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Mega-pixel, 16-micron FPA for Space Situational Awareness Surveillance
Abstract:We propose to develop a mega-pixel, long wave infrared (LWIR, 8-16 micron) focal plane array (FPA) for space situational awareness surveillance, for which the high resolution detects closely-spaced objects in a large expanse of space. It consists of 1,900x1,400 pixels of micro-antennas each coupled to a micro interferometric sensing element capable of high sensitivity, high speed, high fillfactor and high uniformity when cooled to 40K for detecting faint objects against a cold space background. It can also operate at temperatures between 40-300K for higher background detection. The large antenna area maximizes the LWIR wave reception while the micro interferometric sensing small area minimizes the thermal mass and thermal conductance for high sensitivity. The entire FPA is highly producible by conventional CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) foundries for low-cost production. Phase I will analyze and design the FPA and layout, delineate the processes for fabrication and fabricate a simple structure to demonstrate its fabricability. Phase II will fabricate the FPA and integrate it with support optics and electronics for test.

PHOEBUS OPTOELECTRONICS LLC
15 West 72nd St, Apt. 5A
New York, NY 10023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 838-0187
Dr. Sujata Mahapatra
AF 05-029      Awarded: 17MAY05
Title:Semiconductor Heterostructure Quantum Wire Multiwavelength IR Photodetectors for Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:The objective of this program is the study of the feasibility and an analysis of the scientific and technical merit of using a nanotemplate, developed by Phoebus Optoelectronics LLC and it academic collaborators, to electrochemically grow II-VI/II-VI semiconductor quantum wire heterostructures (QRHS), specifically CdTe/CdS for LWIR and CdTe/CdSe for MWIR and LWIR sensing applications. These structures and materials will be used to fabricate superior performing and more cost effective forward-looking multiwavelength IR focal plane arrays (FPA). Increased optoelectronic integration leading to increased performance and decreased costs are expected.

DATA DESIGN CORP.
7851-A Beechcraft Avenue, Department SH
Gaithersburg, MD 20879
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 670-1157
Mr. Mark A. Shaw
AF 05-031      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Innovative Data/Electrical Interfaces for Modular Spacecraft
Abstract:Spacecraft systems generally contain an array of sensors connected to a central controller via a myriad of electrical interfaces. An interface control document that contains a detailed description of each of the electrical interfaces is required to specify the interconnection of the various subsystem components. Satisfying all the electrical requirements imposed by this document is time consuming, and adds a significant cost to the overall integration effort. In many final spacecraft designs, the engineering effort expended to interconnect many different sensors each having unique electrical interfaces involves as much time as does the design of the actual sensor electronics. Data Design is proposing to investigate an alternative method of interconnecting spacecraft subsystem components or sensors using one of the standard protocol interfaces employed with connectivity of personal computers to peripheral devices. The approach will work both with new sensor designs as well as with legacy ones.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 400, Reston Plaz
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 242-7840
Mr. Joseph Wieber
AF 05-031      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Plug and Play Compatibility Enhancements for the Network Data Acquisition System (NDAS)
Abstract:The Air Force has an operational need to launch satellites on demand for a variety of missions as well as to provide last minute tailoring for dynamic mission requirements. One of the critical capabilities required to achieve this goal is the ability to rapidly integrate all the necessary satellite subsystems, including mission specific payloads, in a short time period before launch. The capability to rapidly integrate components prior to launch also supports the ability to rapidly reconfigure a spacecraft to accommodate changing mission requirements. In support of this operational need, the AF has established a roadmap for the development of satellite components that can perform these functions, with the initial phase concentrating on establishment of a "Plug and Play" (PnP) interface similar to those implemented on standard personal computers via Universal Serial Bus (USB). In support of this Phase I SBIR, PSI is modifying their existing high-speed, dual redundant, multi-drop network for space (Network Data Acquisition System - NDAS) by adding USB compatibility. We will provide an integrated PnP design that that can plug into an existing USB device as well as host numerous USB components along the network. The Phase II effort completes the design work for an ASIC implementation.

REAL-TIME INNOVATIONS
155A Moffet Park Drive, Suite 111
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 203-9322
David Mintz
AF 05-031      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Innovative Data/Electrical Interfaces for Modular Spacecraft
Abstract:This proposal is to develop a limited Publish-Subscribe networking infrastructure suitable for use in the development of modular, reusable spacecraft components. The proposed infrastructure, or middleware, is based upon the OMG standard Data Distribution Service (DDS). The limited offering, NDDS-Lite, derives from RTI's NDDS middleware, which is compliant with the DDS standard. NDDS-Lite will support smaller, less capable processors likely used in spacecraft components. The work proposed herein will culminate in a set of concrete requirements for the NDDS-Lite middleware, as well as a functioning prototype that will implement some of the features proposed as part of the Phase I requirements specification tasks. Features to be examined include:  OS independence: Identical source code modules will be used on nodes running different operating systems  Platform Independence: Support a variety of hardware platforms, including small, resource poor boards.  Fault tolerance: System robustness to various single point failures will be shown  Plug & Play: Demonstrate automatic discovery of added and removed nodes.  No OS version: Run on a processor with no OS Interoperability between NDDS-Lite and DDS-compliant NDDS will be demonstrated in a realistic experimental testbed containing both fully-capable computers and "thin-client" nodes.

DESIGN_NET ENGINEERING LLC
10311 Hampden Ave. Suite A107
Lakewood, CO 80227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 462-0096
Dr. Ken Center
AF 05-032      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Low Cost, Tailor able Avionics for Rapid Response Satellites
Abstract:Responsive Space goals include the ability to design, fabricate, and launch a small tactical satellite in 7 days. One required enabling technology is a framework with which to define and assemble standard components from mission requirements. The focus of this research effort is the definition of a "Device Object Module" standard. This "DOM" contains all information necessary to support analysis within the various systems engineering disciplines (thermal, structural, power, etc.). It also contains characteristics of the component to allow configuration to mission requirements and a behavioral model to support simulation activities. Packaging modular components in this fashion naturally facilitates the implementation of a Knowledge-Based Satellite Engineering Design Tool, allowing a satellite system engineer to interactively configure a satellite to requirements while ensuring system integrity in parallel. As the tools are applied to an increasing number and variety of missions, the accumulated "mission knowledge" can be used to gradually diminish the role of systems engineering in the design loop. Ideally, a mission could ultimately be configured to tactical requirements in a period of days.

INTERFACE & CONTROL SYSTEMS, INC.
8945 Guilford Road, Suite 120
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 723-0399
Mr. Brian Buckley
AF 05-032      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Sleuth & Guide - Auto Checkout and Tasking for PnP
Abstract:The problem of long and costly development cycles for satellite command and control flight software is not unique to the AFRL's TacSat Programs. In order to shorten the time-to-flight for spacecraft software systems, Interface and Control Systems has devised a software ontology which will greatly reduce the development and validation time required to field new flight software systems on Spacecraft. Our Phase 1 SLEUTH and GUIDE products will automate the discovery of device and service capabilities and adapt the onboard system based on the information provided by SPA compatible, plug and play avionics hardware and software. The proposed architecture will replace labor intensive, hand-generated logic with auto-generated embedded systems code in an extremely cost-effective manner. The round trip time to sense PnP device capabilities, generate code, load the code to the target processor, and validate functionality will be reduced to minutes. Auto-coding tools will allow rapid reconfiguration of algorithms and flight profiles. ICS will demonstrate a highly automated test and checkout capability with the Sleuth architecture and provide an advanced planning and tasking capability (Guide) which shares a common infrastructure for definition of relationships between onboard sensors and subsystems.

SEAKR ENGINEERING, INC.
6221 S. Racine Circle
Centennial, CO 80111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 790-8499
Mr. Paul Murray
AF 05-032      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Low Cost, Tailor able Avionics for Rapid Response Satellites
Abstract:A significant element of costs and development time for a satellite is the complexity of the avionics (command and control, interface electronics, data storage, etc.). Typically, the approach is to design a unique system for a specific mission incurring high costs and risk associated with developing a once-use only system. Additionally, these systems have not been very flexible and are typically not able to adjust to changing mission demands or correct unforeseen design errors that might not have identified prior to launch. SEAKR's ReConfigurable Computers (RCC) offers a flexible reprogrammable platform that could be used in a number of spacecraft applications from interface electronics controls, guide and navigation control, high end processing of sensor data such as loss-less compression or image processing, robotic controls, real time encryption/decryption, packet switching, or target recognition and identification. The RCC architecture reduces risk, costs, and schedule for satellite missions by providing a reprogrammable space based platform that could be used for a number of different spacecraft avionic applications. For this proposal, SEAKR will develop an engineering flight design of a two CoProcessor (COP), Virtex II-Pro RCC (RCC3). In phase II, the flight design could be easily manufactured and delivered in time to fly on the AFRL JSW-D2, Advanced Responsive Tactically Effective Military Imaging Spectrometer (ARTEMIS) satellite formerly known as TACSAT-III.

MICROCOSM, INC.
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Mr. Thomas Morphopolous
AF 05-033      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Innovative, Low Cost, Plug-and-Play Intertial Measurement System
Abstract:For this Phase I SBIR, Microcosm proposes to coordinate with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Plug-and-play Avionics (SPA) working groups to develop a breadboard Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) interface that meets the latest SPA interface standards. In addition, Microcosm will study implementations for other plug-and-play GN&C components. Today's spacecraft components come with a variety of electrical interfaces and non-standard data interfaces. Changing the IMU on a spacecraft usually requires custom changes to the flight software. Plug-and-play spacecraft components offer the flexibility and simplified integration that will be required to realize a 6-day spacecraft. With a standard interface, spacecraft components will be interchangeable and can be selected specifically to meet mission needs. The AFRL is coordinating SPA working groups to define a plug-and-play standard. The final result of this Phase I SBIR effort will be a breadboard plug-and-play IMU unit based on a Microelectromechanical (MEMS) device that meets those standards. In the Phase II SBIR effort, Microcosm will apply the same underlying technology to build other plug-and-play GN&C components, such as magnetic torquer drive electronics and star sensors. In a related Phase II SBIR, Microcosm built a breadboard GN&C system to internally defined plug-and-play standards.

STARVISION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1700 Research Parkway Suite 170
College Station, TX 77845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 458-1445
Mr. Michael Jacox
AF 05-033      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:SpeedStar: A Plug and Play Stellar Gyroscope for Responsive Spacecraft
Abstract:StarVision Technologies proposes an innovative concept to significantly reduce cost and increase flexibility of tactical satellites. By employing the stellar gyroscope, we replace separate attitude and rate sensing instruments with a single device that is capable of measuring spacecraft inertial rates and attitude by observing the celestial reference - the stars. The SpeedStar innovations allow a star tracker instrument to operate at update rates greater than 100 Hz, providing a tactical spacecraft with inertial rates and attitude at low cost without sacrificing the accuracy of conventional star tracker/gyro systems. The Phase I tasks will result in a hardware test bed to measure the performance and verify the feasibility of the concept.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth Street, Suite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Brad Sallee
AF 05-033      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Low Cost Satellite Inertial Measurement System (LCSIM)
Abstract:Satellite Inertial Measurement (LCSIM) sensor suite which incorporates a grouping of sensors that are capable of both short-term lockdown of the inherently quick moving objects, as well as long term positional and angular update capability to maintain zero drift orientation control. In order to allow cost effective quick turn satellites for a variety of missions, there is a need for a miniature, low cost, low power, and extremely capable inertial measurement unit. Recent advancements in MEMS sensors, GPS sensors and imaging sensors allow such a unit to be constructed using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components. By optimizing the synergy between the sensors, the strengths of each sensor can be used to enhance the overall suite, compensating for sensor weaknesses. The result is a high speed, quick lock down, ultra high accuracy suite made up of a large number of miniature sensors rather than a few ultra high accuracy (and high cost) ones. With the miniature high accuracy system small satellites could be used, in place of some sensor suites now capable of flying only on larger attitude controlled busses.

NU-TREK
16428 Avenida Florencia
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 864-7858
Mr. William Poland
AF 05-034      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Self Organizing Sensor Arrays
Abstract:Using Nuclear Event Detectors (NEDs) and Dosimeters, Nu-Trek, SAIC, and Kinney Consulting will demonstrate, feasibility and benefit, of sensors that self-organize during assembly. Sensors are part of the spacecraft avionics and can be reconfigured as needed. Our Space-ZigBee architecture, combines the approach of the ZigBee wireless standard with the SPA-U plug and play interface, for a "wired" approach especially well suited for sensors and control devices. In the context of a nuclear threat, Nuclear Event Detectors (NEDs) are used to initiate circumvention. In NED implementation internal shielding greatly impacts the dose rate reaching the NED and it is VERY difficult to determine computationally where to place the NED. In the demonstration, the dosimeters will activate the NED that is closest to the location in which the dose is highest. We will also perform a Trade-Of-Study and prepare a roadmap for the development of the dosimeters and NED/dose rate sensing arrays.

VULCAN WIRELESS, INC.
7009 Rockrose Terrace
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 473-7656
Mr. Kevin Lynaugh
AF 05-034      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Reconfigurable Electronics for Responsive Space Systems
Abstract:Vulcan wireless is proposing a highly integrated, reconfigurable satellite communications and sensor payload. Antenna systems are multi-band, multi-beam and multi-polarization using the same aperture. RF transceiver electronics provide multi-band and multi-channel utilizing the reconfigurable antenna-systems. The modulating and demodulation hardware is implemented in a Software Defined Radio architecture enabling JTRS waveforms and protocols. Due to the highly flexible reconfigurable DSP processor engine it is also able to be used for sensor applications. Data encryption is done in a general purpose encryption engine. The entire payload is highly integrated to minimize mass and is also low power.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5223
Dr. Margaret Lyell
AF 05-035      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Cognitive Agent Framework for Self-Aware Satellites
Abstract:Enhancing satellite Situation Awareness (SA) requires increased on-board automation for data processing,, intelligent decision making and capability for re-configuration and re-tasking. Our innovative solution to meet these goals is integrated agent-based framework coupled with innovative application of recent developments in ontology representation. Our solution has been based on the premise that any solution enabling situation awareness requires three core components: 1) a common model for the representation of the shared notion of the `Situation' between the satellite and ground station, 2) a mechanism for the semantic exposure of on-board sensory capabilities and the data generated by them, and 3) an integrated, composable and adaptable framework for processing raw `data' into critical `information', intelligent decision making and resource management. We propose ontological mechanisms for the representation of the situation model and the sensor metadata. The basis of the SA framework is a set of cognitive agents and a library of formally defined protocols and roles that describe the interactions between these cognitive decision components. This framework is built upon IAI's Cybele Agent Platform, which has been proven in large-scale decision making frameworks for air traffic control, logistics decision support systems, and distributed battle management (BMC2) systems.

MULTIMEDIA DATA SERVICES CORP.
P.O. Box 73
Hyde Park, UT 84318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 787-7429
Ms. Angelique Crane
AF 05-035      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:The Self-Aware Satellite
Abstract:A Task Manager software module compatible with the AFRL Satellite Data Model will be developed. This software system will support a complete task and process management system appropriate for future rapid-deployment satellites.

NEMOMETRICS CO.
28 Constitution Road
Boston, MA 02129
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 242-0050
Dr. John I. Rodriguez
AF 05-035      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Satellite Awareness through Power Monitoring
Abstract:This SBIR project will develop a new technology for in-depth measurement of operation and health of satellite systems and components and so enable self-awareness. By careful measurement of voltage and current at the power supply and in-depth analysis of power transients, the Non-intrusive Electronic Monitor (NEMO) will assess satellite operation and evaluate systems. Because NEMO makes multiple use of existing power supply wiring and requires very few sensors, space and weight requirements are minimal.

STAR TECHNOLOGIES CORPORTATION
10303 Galpin Court
Great Falls, VA 22066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 759-2933
Mr. Robert R. Strunce, Jr.
AF 05-035      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:3D Satellite Builder
Abstract:The Air Force is developing new approaches to the Rapid Response or Rapid Fielding of small spacecraft such as Road Runner and DSX which represent an aggressive approach to developing and launching satellites in a short period of time. Road Runner is aimed at developing a spacecraft from concept baseline to launch readiness in under 14 months with the ability to deploy the spacecraft from storage to full on-orbit functionality in 7 days. The current research is aiming at being even more aggressive where a spacecraft could be designed, developed, integrated, tested and launched within 6-7 days. Star Technologies Corporation proposes to develop a "3D Satellite Builder" that provides (1) a flexible Plug-n-Play software architecture for prototyping of subsystems such as the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS), the Propulsion Subsystem (PS), Flight Computer System (FCS) or the Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADACS) using hardware components such as batteries, solar cells, attitude sensors and actuators; (2) the ability to swap hardware components with equivalent software emulators in a real-time ?Integration & Test? environment; (3) 3D Visualization User Interface (UI) in support of spacecraft design, development, and testing.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Gary E. Galica
AF 05-036      Awarded: 26APR05
Title:Enhanced Scattering of Trapped Energetic Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a High Energy Imaging Particle Spectrometer (HIPS) to act both as a diagnostic for Radiation Belt Remediation flight experiments and also as an operational space-weather threat sensor. HIPS directly supports AFRLs SWx payload and CYGNUS RBR payloads. During periods of high geomagnetic activity, new radiation belts can form as a result of the energy deposited in the earth's magnetosphere. A high altitude nuclear detonation (HAND) can also produce a similar effect. HAND electrons can become trapped in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, form new radiation belts, and in turn damage space systems. Technologies that reduce the natural lifetimes of HAND belts can dramatically improve space system survivability and ensure the continuation of space-based services. In order to determine the effectiveness of any radiation belt remediation technique, one must measure the energy and pitch angle distributions of ambient electrons, particularly at energies >0.5 MeV. HIPS would characterize the energy and angular distributions of the high energy electrons and protons (0.5-30 MeV electrons and 3-400 MeV protons). While a new instrument design, the HIPS sensor is closely based both on PSI's LPD sensor currently flying on the SERVIS-1 satellite, and the LIPS sensor developed for AFRL/VSB.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 400, Reston Plaz
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 242-7840
Mr. Dan Cohen
AF 05-036      Awarded: 18APR05
Title:Antenna Design, Modeling, and Space Flight Validation Enabling Operational Systems that Enhance Scattering of Trapped Energetic Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract:DoD has identified the potential posed by a hostile nation detonating a nuclear device at high altitude as a very damaging asymmetrical threat. Such a high altitude nuclear detonation (HAND) event can result in severe damage to our nations' critical space assets, as well as to our commercial space infrastructure. Because the energetic electrons produced by HAND can become trapped in the Earth's inner magnetosphere and form new radiation belts hazardous to space systems that can last for many months, replenishment of replacement satellites into their operational orbits may not be possible unless methods are available to remediate the elevated environment. AFRL scientists in concert with academic researchers have developed a promising method that could reduce the natural lifetime of HAND belts from months to days, allowing dramatically improved space system survivability and ensure the continuation of space-based services. This method involves enhancing the electron pitch-angle scattering rate via cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions. The primary objective of this effort is to identify issues of implementation and provide design solutions for the injection of waves into the inner magnetosphere from a space-based platform at frequencies of interest for stimulating the pitch-angle scattering of energetic electrons.

RADEX, INC.
131 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 761-2288
Dr. Michael J. Kendra
AF 05-037      Awarded: 22APR05
Title:Nowcasting/Forecasting the Battlespace Environment
Abstract:This effort will characterize the real world features and spatial structure of stressing atmospheric phenomena and demonstrate the feasibility of forecasting such phenomena using data-driven infrared background models. Our approach to this problem involves locating and identifying stressing backgrounds contained in measurements and extracting key structure characteristics in a form that allows their insertion into radiance codes such as MODTRAN and SAMM2. Techniques proposed herein cover spatial and temporal domains. Atmospheric features will be properly located in the global/geophysical environment, accounting for the dependence of real world phenomena on time, latitude, and season, in order to ensure real world fidelity. The feasibility of nowcasting and forecasting these clutter sources will be assessed, and prediction methodologies will be demonstrated when practical.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Peter Rochford
AF 05-037      Awarded: 18APR05
Title:Multi-scale Atmospheric Prediction System for Radiance Clutter (MAPS-C)
Abstract:Atmospheric radiance clutter is a significant impediment to remotely-sensed target identification and surveillance. Clutter events arise from atmospheric phenomena occurring over wide vertical and horizontal scales. These include polar mesospheric clouds, aurora, stratospheric warming, thermal inversions, gravity waves, and mesospheric bores. To forecast radiance clutter from these events for any viewing geometry requires modeling of whole atmospheric conditions (i.e., troposphere to thermosphere) on a global scale. Furthermore, surveillance needs dictate that this be provided at the highest spatial resolution (e.g., ~100 m). To address this critical need, we propose to develop the MAPS-C (Multi-scale Atmospheric Prediction System for Clutter) system to provide 72-hour forecasts of atmospheric clutter conditions. The difficult computational task is addressed by incorporating into MAPS-C, state-of-the-art global and mesoscale atmospheric models (WACCM and WRF) being developed by the scientific community, and the SSI-developed all-altitudes radiation transport code (SAMM2). In Phase I, user-defined clutter phenomena will be embedded into the dynamical core of these models to provide a unified system for modeling the spatial-temporal evolution of clutter radiance. Additionally, a sub-kilometer statistical description of clutter will be provided by an ensemble forecasting tool.

NANTERO, INC.
25D Olympia Avenue
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 760-0273
Dr. Jonathan W. Ward
AF 05-038      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Space Qualified Nonvolatile Memory
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase I SBIR project is to reduce the power and increase the speed of reprogrammable non-volatile chalcogenide devices. The proposed method employs a porous monolayer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as local heating elements for chalcogenide devices. By exploiting the molecular nature of carbon nanotubes, very large local temperature changes can be induced on timescales much shorter than using traditional thin film resistors. This innovation directly addresses the bottleneck in performance stemming from the relatively long delay associated with the crystallizing transition of Ge2Sb2Te5 layers. Also, due to the increased heating efficiency of CNT fabrics, a lower total overall power is required to effect each state transition. The proposed Phase I project focuses on electrical and thermal measurements of patterned CNT fabrics and patterned CNT/Ge2Sb2Te5 bi-layers. Completion of a successful Phase I program will allow CNT/Ge2Sb2Te5 test devices to be designed in Phase II and incorporated into BAE's current CRAM technology, increasing the speed and decreasing the power of the integrated chalcogenide devices, which forms a critical component in the effort to exploit higher performance, reprogrammable, reliable and "agile" radiation tolerant non-volatile memory systems for space.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
Suite 103, 201 Circle Drive
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 260-9589
Mr. Joseph D. Cuchiaro
AF 05-038      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Space Qualified Nonvolatile Memory Leveraging Commercial Fabrication Technolofy
Abstract:Structured Materials Industries, Inc. recently demonstrated excellent nonvolatile memory properties of a nonlinear dielectric. Within this Phase I SBIR we will transition our preliminary results to model the device and thin-film for a backside gate control EEPROM architecture to be integrated within an established foundry process. This revolutionary architecture is applicable to military and commercial applications, however our intention is to establish a complete radiation hardened device capability by characterizing the intrinsic radiation hardness of the intended state-of-the-art foundry process. Once installed, the technology has the potential to introduce a wide range of radiation hardened nonvolatile memory products that are produced in a cost effective silicon process. Our Phase II effort will begin the installation of the thin-film into the foundry, develop a test chip vehicle for employment of design hardening techniques targeting TID 1Mrad(Si) or greater and prompt dose hardening of 1E10 rad/s or greater and verify program produced devices radiation performance. Our Phase III commercialization will consist of introducing strategically hardened nonvolatile EEPROM (16 - 32Mbits in density) followed by other components requiring embedded memory, as well as the sales of process equipment and licensing of program produced technology. Successful completion of this program will benefit military and aerospace end users with low cost per memory bit nonvolatile memory, system designers requiring radiation hardened nonvolatile memory, as well as commercial device manufacturers utilizing the backside gate control process.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Dr. Wolfgang Kober
AF 05-039      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Improved Through Waveform Diversity
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company propose the development of a technologically feasible radar system using coded waveforms with enhanced Space Based Radar SAR performance. This concept will be relevant to both synthetic aperture radar (SAR) modes as well as moving target indication (MTI) modes.

MMICMAN, LLC
826 N. Red Robin St.
Orange, CA 92869
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 997-9226
Mr. Edward W. Ray
AF 05-040      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Low-Power Phased Array Control Technologies
Abstract:The silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (SiGe HBT) is the first practical bandgap-engineered device to be realized in silicon. SiGe HBT technology combines transistor performance competitive with III-V technologies with the processing maturity, integration levels, yield, and hence, cost commonly associated with conventional Si fabrication. In the seventeen years since the first demonstration of a functional transistor, SiGe HBT technology has emerged from the research laboratory, entered manufacturing on 200-mm wafers, and is poised to enter the commercial RF and microwave market. State of-the-art SiGe HBT's can deliver: 1. fT in excess of 90 GHz; 2. fmax in excess of 120 GHz 3. minimum noise figure below 1.5 dB at 10.0 GHz 4. 1/f noise corner frequencies below 500 Hz. 5. cryogenic operation 6. excellent radiation hardness 7. reliability comparable to Si. A host of record-setting digital, analog, RF, and microwave circuits have been demonstrated in the past several years using SiGe HBT's, and recent work on passives and transmission lines on Si suggest a migratory path to Si-based monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) is possible. The combination of SiGe HBT's with advanced Si CMOS to form a SiGe BiCMOS technology represents a unique opportunity for Si-based RF system-on-a-chip solutions.

OPEL
22 Quail Run Road
Storrs/Mansfield, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Heath Opper
AF 05-040      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Optoelectronic control technology for Phased Arrays.
Abstract:Phased arrays are critical for surveillance and tracking. Current TR modules use numerous MMIC chips, ferrite circulators and phase shifters and quasi-optical true-time-delay (TTD). A major power requirement is distribution and synchronization of the T/R function across multiple RF interfaces. Large scale integration could address the problem of interconnecting boards with GHZ RF outputs but is currently not possible. Such integration with optical control holds the key. OPEL proposes a monolithic IC solution based upon novel optoelectronic (OE) thryistor circuit design. Thyristor/HFET circuits implement a novel power amplifier using a gated OE oscillator driving a Class E output. The receive channel is implemented with a thyristor LNA/mixer to achieve down-conversion with gain followed by digitization with a new A-' modulator. Control data/return data are coupled optically to/from a processor at a central distribution point. Clock recovery, deserialization, and optical distribution implement a low power control system. A thyristor based ripple counter implements a serializer circuit and produces the inverse TTD function for return signals. Both T and R channels are integrated using novel dielectric isolation. Optical and RF signal paths are maximized and minimized respectively to achieve a dramatic reduction in overhead power loss. OPEL will demonstrate this optoelectronic approach.

SARASWATI ASSOC.
650 5th street, Suite 505
san francisco, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Mr. James Coward
AF 05-041      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Electronic Protection for Space-borne Phased Array Antennas (EP-SPAA)
Abstract:Our baseline incorporates a unique photonic approach. a)Photonic sampler antenna with unparalleled features: low EMI and EMP inherent in optical fiber, b) conformal elements fed by optical fiber resulting in easy S/C integration, c) photonic beamforming network for millisecond rate direction finding, d) very low footprint photonic receiver with embedded signal processing.  Unified photonics systems concept resulting in low mass and low cost.  Low risk- all elements of system have been demonstrated.  Supported by Lockheed Martin, which is separately investing in situational awareness systems and in particular in photonic antenna systems. (see attached letter)

THE HALEAKALA RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
7 Martin Road
Brookfield, MA 01506
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 409-1010
Dr. Theodore R. Anderson
AF 05-041      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Plasma FSS Radomes for Electronic Protection for Space-borne Phased Array Antennas
Abstract:The Haleakala R&D Inc.will advance state of the art in antenna radomes as an electronic and RF protection for space-borne phased array antennas. The plasma frequency selective surface antenna radome acts as a reconfigurable shield for the antennas inside. We propose to use our plasma frequency selective surface radomes with plasma tubes embedded in an ultra-light and ultra -strong material called Synfoam (http://www.udccorp.com/synfoam.html). We will investigate and develop protection technologies with our plasma FSS radome for space-borne phased array antennas used for communications and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR). Since future transformational communications and radio frequency based intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) space systems will likely involve advanced, high dynamic range transmitter/receiver devices and large but light-weight apertures, our plasma FSS radome technology is needed to address satellite system vulnerabilities that are associated with high dynamic range sensors and such large apertures. The type of ulnerabilities that our plasma FSS radome technology can address include Net-centric Warfare (penetrate satellite command uplink, insert false instruction and/or data, etc.) and direct radio frequency (RF) attack (spurious signal attack, spoofing attack, etc.). We will compare this to metal frequency selective surface radomes with slots filled with Synfoam and hybrid plasma-metal frequency selective surface radomes. We will research plasma frequency selective surfaces with plasma tubes embedded in Synfoam, and metal slot FSS filled with Synfoam, and hybrid models to meet the Air Force goals

OPEL
22 Quail Run Road
Storrs/Mansfield, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Jianhong Cai
AF 05-043      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:High Frequency Optoelectronc Oscillator
Abstract:Clocks and pulse sources are essential elements for radar systems. Timing control determines total system operation and the fundamental limitation for next generation sub-systems is clock jitter (phase noise). For multi GB/s systems, the clear choice is an optoelectronic oscillator in which the clock period is an optical delay. The phase noise is thereby reduced because the variability of the delay lies only in stability of the refractive index. The major source of phase noise then lies in the mechanism to adjust the clock period and the spontaneous noise on the optical source. Optoelectronic oscillators have been reported that use a collection of lasers , modulators, delays and RF amplifiers. Although phase noise is improved, the system is bulky and power consumptive. OPEL proposes an integrated version based upon a unique switching device that performs both as the optical source and detector. By integration with control HFETs and optical waveguides, the oscillator consumes minimal chip space and achieves phase noise approaching the quantum limit, since the RIN noise is that of the VCSEL (-160dB/Hz) and the control noise is only the shot noise on the injection current (<10fs jitter). In this SBIR, OPEL will produce the integrated OEO.

TLC PRECISION WAFER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1411 West River Road North
Minneapolis, MN 55411
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 341-2795
Mr. S. VAJHA
AF 05-043      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Novel Integrated X-band and Ku-band Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) MMICs
Abstract:New fully integrated low-cost, low-phase noise microwave Voltage control oscillator MMICs will be developed after the successful demonstration of the proposed effort. TLC will integrate exclusive doping profiles of their patented varactor diode capabilities with their patented VCO MMIC desings on a lattice engineered substrate to develop and deliver a family of single chip VCOs with more than 2 GHz tuning bandwidth, phase noise less than -140dBc/Hz at 100KHz, and output powers greater than 16dBm. The proposal presents a novel method of integrating varactor diode to the VCO MMIC, there by, avoiding time consuming, unreliable, error prone usage of external varactor diodes with VCO MMICs. The proposed VCO is an ideal solution for the future Space Based Radar Constellation application.

PLANNING SYSTEMS, INC.
12030 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 400, Reston Plaz
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 768-6500
Mr. James Carter
AF 05-044      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Enhanced Radar Metrology by Means of Miniature Angle Sensors
Abstract:The physics of future space-based radar systems that are capable of tactical-grade target tracking require very large apertures operating at high orbital altitudes. It is essential to develop a system for locating the critical RF antenna components in response to thermal and dynamic inputs if the required coherent performance is to be achieved. For the large aperture architectures PSI has studied, basic geometric considerations mandate that angle measurement techniques have the greatest usefulness for the radar problem. PSI has chosen laser-scanning instruments as its basic angular measurement technology for space, due to their combination of speed, accuracy, simplicity of processing, and size. Our proposed innovation reduces by approximately a factor of ten the errors associated with temperature drift and digital processing in comparison with todays similar market technologies. Our proposed miniature angle sensor enables measurement of an example large, flexible antenna to better than /100 accuracy.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 889-3616
Mr. William Joseph Arnold
AF 05-044      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Advanced Metrology Technologies for Next-Generation Space-Based Radar
Abstract:Space-based radar concepts employing large (~ 300 m length) semi-rigid, active phased array antennas are being investigated for surveillance missions that include detecting surface moving targets in severe clutter environments. To achieve the required transmit and receive antenna pattern characteristics, metrology concepts are needed to address aggregate phase errors from structural, electronic and propagation sources. These error sources degrade the knowledge of the relative phase between sub-panels thereby producing an ineffective antenna pattern and poor beam pointing control. Technology Service Corporation and BBN Technologies will develop innovative techniques to isolate the phase and differential range errors. Our layered metrology concept utilizes miniaturized electronics already designed into the waveform generation and reference signal paths and that are distributed in the antenna. In Phase 1, a dedicated radar antenna calibration mode will be formulated for a candidate payload design to develop mission performance models and orbital demonstrations. Feasibility studies of how observations can be made both locally and in the far-field of the antenna to support the calibration will also be conducted. Novel orthogonal waveforms to support calibration will also be investigated by our team. In Phase 2, TSC and BBN will implement a metrology concept that is compatible with emerging AESA designs for Air Force SBR programs.

JACKPINE TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
1380 Corporate Center Curve, Suite 108
Eagan, MN 55121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 452-8468
Mr. Robert J Shepherd
AF 05-049      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Air Traffic Control (ATC) Tactical Briefcase
Abstract:Jackpine Technologies, teamed with Lockheed Martin Transportation and Security Solutions, present a plan to build an Air Traffic Control Tactical Briefcase (ATCTB). The ATCTB will be used by personnel who require airspace situational awareness, but need to hand carry their ATC equipment. In addition to providing the necessary functionality, the system will need to meet size, ruggedness and reliability requirements, and adhere to standards contained in the DoD IT Standards Registry (DISR) and Joint Tactical Architecture (JTA). Our proposed solution will be based on well-tested, stable software and off-the-shelf hardware components, but use a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) to deliver a migration path for net-centric warfare, specialized decision aids, and integration with the Global Information Grid (GIG). The overall Phase I goal is to analyze the ATCTB requirements and design the system, using an optimal mix of off-the-shelf components and innovative new ideas.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
2661 Commons Blvd., STE 242
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Mr. Nick Longinow
AF 05-049      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Air Traffic Control (ATC) Tactical Briefcase
Abstract:The MCATS system will provide two fundamental capabilities. 1) Initiating air traffic control and air surveillance for where none previously existed, and 2) Improving the overall mission effectiveness of advanced party teams. The approach is to integrate advanced materials, network centric interoperability, and advanced work-center techniques. This will broaden its effectiveness as a multi-role sensor integration system in providing ATC, or terminal approach and enroute or air surveillance. Basic air traffic control capabilities define the core requirements for providing sensor interfaces, developing the air picture, and providing basic approach control. More stringent communication requirements are introduced to support the tactical and covert operating environment. This would support a scenario for an advanced party establishing basic ATC capabilities prior to the deployment of the MACS or Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS). The MCATS vision is to provide sufficient ATC capability to meets performance requirements and to be able to do this in an expeditious or covert manner.

VIPMOBILE, INC.
655 Montgomery Street, 5th Floor
San Francisco, CA 94111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 837-3201
Dr. Ben Knapp
AF 05-049      Awarded: 02MAY05
Title:VIPMobile Air Traffic Control (ATC) Tactical Briefcase
Abstract:Current air traffic control (ATC) tactical operations require disparate pieces of software and hardware equipment that fail to provide the controller or the pilot with network-centric real time information. The controller does not have a single unified graphical view of the area of operations (AO) that would allow him to make quicker decisions. This requires both the operator and pilot to envision a "mental picture" of the AO. The controller must use of multiple pieces of gear, which include a laptop, radios, lazing device, lights, and GPS. Scalability is dependent on the number of controllers who can carry all the ATC gear. VIPMobile will investigate and design a highly integrated network-centric, software/hardware solution that will provide the controller with up-to-date situational awareness to allow optimal information transfer, improved decision-making, and succinct communications between controller and pilot. The VIPMobile Integrated Software Visualization (VIP ISV) package combines VIPMobile's existing visualization and interactive GUI software, Georgia Tech's FalconView, and Harris' Multiple Image Exploitation Tool (MET) to create a single unified combat controller interface with multiple selectable dynamic layers that can be customized for mission type and data availability. The innovation is in the ability to dynamically register and update these layers and will be one of the key technical outputs of this project.

INFRARED IMAGING SYSTEMS, INC.
1275 Kinnear Road
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 675-3729
Dr. Dale Siegel
AF 05-051      Awarded: 04MAY05
Title:Novel Methods for Delivery of Lifesaving Fluids and Medications
Abstract:Devices to improve the field medic's capabilities to insert IVs into injured warfighters are designed to resolve the problem of difficult venous access when veins collapse from blood loss and shock. Intraosseous access devices are an option to failed venous access but exhibit drawbacks in resilience to harsh conditions, size, weight, ease of use, and battery power in some cases; additionally they are used after several peripheral access attempts have failed and critical time is lost in casualty care management. A novel technology invented by scientists at AFRL is capable of visualizing peripheral veins using small, low power near-infrared light and tactical night vision goggles. The technology has FDA clearance and shows exceptional clinical results in gaining first time vascular access. This project proposes to modify the FDA cleared device for use by field medics to withstand the rigorous working conditions of typical Special Operations Pararescue personnel in combat. The project will define product characterization for the final specification of a device that meets the following requirements: lightweight, small, stowable in a tactical pack, durable against impact forces, temperature extremes, submersion, dirt and sand exposure, simple and quick to use with minimal parts, controls, training, and with long-lasting power.

VIDACARE CORP.
722 Isom Road
San Antonio, TX 78216
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 375-8500
Dr. Larry J. Miller
AF 05-051      Awarded: 02MAY05
Title:Novel Methods for Delivery of Lifesaving Fluids and Medications
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to evaluate a number of optional device designs for use in obtaining intraosseous access in combat conditions. Through discussions with experienced combat medics, one design will be selected and a proof-of-concept prototype built. The device will be designed to permit infusion through the sternum, tibia, humerus or other long bones. The proposed innovation, will offer several advantages over the current alternatives for IO infusion. Drawing on the observation that orthopedists use drills rather than nail guns in working with bones, the new device should be designed to penetrate to the IO space by drilling rapidly through the bone with a hollow drill, thus securing its correct placement with little chance of dislodgement during transport. This approach features a high safety margin for both the medic and the wounded.

PAYLOAD SYSTEMS, INC.
247 Third St.
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 868-8086
Dr. Javier de Luis
AF 05-052      Awarded: 26APR05
Title:Smart Restraint System (SRS)
Abstract:Rear helicopter aircrew need to move around to perform their missions. They often kneel or stand while moving around and working in the rear of the aircraft, which means that they cannot be restrained to their seats in the same way as the pilots can. Because of this necessity for movement they are exposed to the danger of potentially serious injury, particularly during high-g evasive maneuvers, and of course, in crash situations. Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) proposes to solve this problem through the development of an innovative Smart Restraint System (SRS) combining active and passive energy absorbing elements that will allow free movement under normal flight conditions, but intuitively adjust the level of restraint in response to aircraft flight maneuvers, or impending crash. This would permit the crewmember to perform his or her duties without being distracted by having to pay attention to the aircraft's movements in order to avoid injury. The result would be reduced stress and improved mission effectiveness.

WOLF TECHNICAL SERVICES, INC.
6836 Hawthorn Park Drive
Indianapolis, IN 46220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 842-6075
Mr. Michael D. Pepe
AF 05-052      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Helicopter Aircrew Restraint
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to develop magnetic technology to be incorporated into aircrew restraint system designs that will address limitations of current restraint systems in protecting crewmembers in the full range of dynamic flight environments. The new restraint technology will supply a continuum of restraint level that will automatically adapt to the severity of the flight dynamics of the aircraft, while still allowing crewmembers the necessary freedom of movement during normal flight conditions. It will be compatible with inertia reel technology used on the lap and shoulder harnesses for the cockpit crew and seated cabin crewmembers. It will also be applicable for use on the tethers used by cabin crew that move about the aircraft during flight. The technology will be aircraft-independent, so that it can be retrofitted into existing airframes, or incorporated into new designs of more modern aircraft.

APPLIED NANOTECH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd., Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Dr. James. P. Novak
AF 05-053      Awarded: 26APR05
Title:Metal Oxide Nanoparticle CO Detector Kit
Abstract:Applied Nanotech Inc. proposes a miniaturized, low power, rapid responsive CO sensor based on molybdenum oxide nanoparticle networks applied to a thin-film transistor architecture. This sensor will be designed as a low maintenance detector for CO levels in air vehicles. Molybdenum oxide is an n-type semiconductor that shows an increase in conductance due to the oxidation of CO. The thin-film transistor architecture creates a selective, sensitive approach providing considerable improvement over the most successful commercial technology of CO detectors.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Jimmy Luo
AF 05-053      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Nano-Structured Carbon Monoxide Detector for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:To address the Air Force need to detect carbon monoxide (CO) levels on military airlift aircraft and warn aircrew members once CO levels rise beyond a safety limit, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new and reliable Aero CO Detector (ACOD) based on a microcontroller and solid-state nanotechnology. Use of a nanostructured metal oxide semiconductor sensor and a microcontroller for signal processing make the ACOD light and compact. ACOD will accurately and reliably display real-time readings of CO concentration in parts per million (ppm) by volume, and emit distinctive visual and audible warnings when a CO level above the 35 ppm warning threshold is detected, as well as a further alert when CO level rises above the 200 ppm danger level. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of ACOD by designing and developing a prototype ACOD, and testing it. In Phase II POC plans to optimize the ACOD design, and ACOD performance, and to consolidate the ACOD structure to increase sensitivity, stability, reliability, and durability even under extreme environmental conditions such as those in an airlift aircraft cabin during aircraft normal and emergency operations.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Stephen Kupiec
AF 05-054      Awarded: 22APR05
Title:Multiple View Autostereoscopic Display via Temporal Multiplexing
Abstract:In this project, MetroLaser proposes to develop a conceptual design for a prototype time-sequential multiperspective autostereographic display (ASD). This system will have multiple stereoscopic viewing zones over an extended field of view. The envisioned architecture for the ASD will extend the capabilities of the display so that three-dimensional images can be seen by multiple viewers. In the Phase I program, we will develop a breadboard system and conduct a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology and experimentally verify the key components of the system. Part of the Phase I work will also include a commercialization plan for the ASD system. The display system to be built in Phase II will provide high quality 3-D imagery without the need for glasses, goggles, or other viewing aids. Ultimately, a commercial system will be built that will provide multi-user interactivity at near real-time speeds.

THIRD DIMENSION TECHNOLOGIES
3601 Bluff Point Drive
Knoxville, TN 37920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 579-0113
Dr. C. E. (Tommy) Thomas Jr.
AF 05-054      Awarded: 28APR05
Title:Warfighter 3-D Display
Abstract:Third Dimension Technologies proposes a truly innovative combination of the very latest state-of-the-art developments in optics and electronics to produce a true 3D display that approaches the limits of what the human eye can resolve. A proprietary optics tiling technology allows complete modularity and scalability of the display. For an HPO (horizontal parallax only, three-dimensional in the plane of eye separation) panel the requirements for a 50 cm (20-inch) high-resolution color display would be an effective 120 Mpixels per 3D image. That is, 1600 x 1200 resolution with a 60 degree FOV, one-degree resolution, each pixel in color. This is more than three orders of magnitude down from the true holographic HPO display requirements, but would provide resolution close to the limits of human perception. The display would be readily scalable from a few cm to 100 cm or larger. This provides visual data at densities very close to the highest resolution the human eye can perceive. The display is fully adaptable to both HPO and full parallax (both horizontal and vertical).

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Steven Rowe
AF 05-055      Awarded: 28APR05
Title:Enterprise Portal Software for Improved Situation Awareness
Abstract:We propose to develop an enterprise portal architecture for integrating Air Force data sources, making this information accessible through standard web appliances. Our proposed solution is a two-fold approach. First, we will develop an enterprise portal server technology that makes use of and extends Cybernet Systems OpenSkies networking and simulation technologies. Second, we will design and implement a framework for situation awareness including a thorough investigation and trial of prototyped human-computer interfaces. We will design the visual presentation of the portal website with a focus on improving situation awareness on a variety of web-enabled platforms in a distributed ground network.

MAK TECHNOLOGIES
10 Fawcett Street
Cambridge, MA 02318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 876-8085
Mr. Russell Lane
AF 05-055      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Portal Workstation Development: Multi-Sensor Network-Centric, Open Systems Portal
Abstract:MK Technologies (MK) will specify a service oriented, open standards based architecture that lets data from a variety of live and simulated sources be combined in flexible ways to compose an integrated model of the battlespace. This model will represent the common operations picture (COP) shared by all warfighters, and will be presented to each user through a common point of access or portal in ways that best support their particular mission. The architecture will be defined as a set of well-documented, open standards based interfaces, services, and processes, and will allow the convenient integration of independently developed components including HLA/DIS based simulations. MK?s approach enhances the warfighter?s situational awareness by leveraging the open standard HLA simulation architecture to compose a rich, realistic, and responsive model of the battlespace. The use of HLA in this way directly supports the compatibility of the architecture with the HLA-based AFRL/HEC SAFIRE simulation suite.

RESEARCH ASSOC. OF SYRACUSE
6780 Northern Blvd, Ste 100
East Syracuse, NY 13057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 463-2266
Mr. Stan Hall
AF 05-055      Awarded: 20APR05
Title:Portal Workstation Development: Multi-Sensor Network-Centric, Open Systems Portal
Abstract:While great strides have been made in converting service-specific military operations into joint operations, USAF's Common Operating Picture (COP) is still stove-piped. Attempts have been made to use portals for faster, easier access to data by multiple users and user groups. The results have been mixed, with some portal development efforts successful and others not successful. Research Associates of Syracuse proposes to develop an Operator Centric Collaborative Intelligence System (OCCIS) as a COP portal to address this need. This COP portal will allow multiple users and user groups to easily access, contribute, and consume information. It will format and display data in intuitively obvious and easy-to-use ways, each determined by the information user, not the information provider. It will accept data, especially all the INTs, from multiple streams and sources, at multiple security levels, and permit humans to compare and correlate that data. It will permit the reverse flow of that finished intelligence up to decision makers at remote locations. This portal will use open standards and COTS software whenever possible, and it will always use COTS hardware.

KUTTA CONSULTING, INC.
2525 W. Greenway Road, Suite 332
Phoenix, AZ 85023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 896-1976
Mr. Jeff Getzlaff
AF 05-056      Awarded: 19APR05
Title:Network-Centric Communications: Distributed Real-Time UAV Access
Abstract:This proposal addresses the significant need for the design of a Human Computer Interface (HCI) in a Distributed UAV Access System (DUAS). The DOD roadmap goals of UAV interoperability are addressed utilizing the Global Information Grid (GIG). Goals and objectives for the design of two desired Distributed UAV Access Systems are presented, along with goals for simulations of the systems. An impressive team of industry partners is assembled, including The Boeing Company. The Phase 1 work plan employs the Rational Unified Process (RUP) to ensure a focus on user needs. Examples of unique and innovative proposed functionality for the HCI DUAS solutions include 3D situational awareness, mission plan comparison and visualization, UAV filtering, and route retasking. Technologies developed from Kutta's previous work creating a hand-held PDA controller for small UAVs are leveraged. Kutta captures the requirements of two candidate systems in a system and software requirements specification document and creates a simulation integration plan. At the end of Phase 1, time sensitive targeting prototype demonstrations are presented for both proposed solutions. Military and civilian market segments are defined, including the DOD, Coast Guard, Border Patrol, and police departments.

OR CONCEPTS APPLIED
7032 Comstock Avenue, Suite 100
Whittier, CA 90602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-6700
Dr. Michael Leen
AF 05-056      Awarded: 28APR05
Title:UAV Access Design Experiment (UADE)
Abstract:This SBIR effort will result in human-computer interface (HCI) design requirements to support expanded interoperability among and between unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). A key research issue is how information can be tailored by mission type, user level of access authority, and display/input device for a particular HCI. This proposal discusses what information could be presented to an operator. Although raw data is important and useful, it is possible to present the operator with information, consisting of interpreted data, as well as automated mission planning tools. OR Concepts Applied (ORCA) will document the data, information, and tools that are available as well as document how a given HCI could be tailored. ORCA will then apply human effectiveness techniques to build two separate UAV access systems. To facilitate software development, ORCA will leverage commercial off-the-shelf mission planning software that can be tailored and customized. ORCA will both demonstrate the UAV access systems using a time sensitive targeting (TST) scenario and describe a mechanism to integrate with existing simulation suites. ORCA will also perform an analysis of tradeoffs associated with semi-automating the information tailoring. HCI design requirements will be created as a result of this research.

ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2020 Kraft Drive, Suite 3040
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-1284
Mr. Andre Goldstein
AF 05-057      Awarded: 19APR05
Title:Actuator Design and Development for Optimized CIC Audio
Abstract:Advancements in subminiature earphone drivers are sought to provide desired improvements in active noise reduction (ANR) earplug attenuation magnitudes and bandwidth. Prior investigations have illustrated a need for improvements in frequency response, sound power output, geometrical configurations, and ease of manufacturing for drivers that are optimized for military ANR earplug applications. This Phase I program begins with theoretical descriptions of existing earphone driver parameters, followed by further investigations of specific conceptual improvements described herein. All Phase I program objectives seek to identify advanced earphone driver designs that are feasible, with low-risk paths to reasonable-cost manufacturing methods. The success of the program will rely on ATI's extensive experience designing completely-in-the-canal ANR earplugs. Past development work has led to precise information about desired open-loop earphone driver frequency response characteristics that will optimize the closed-loop attenuation performance. This information will be used in considering new advancements in electromagnetic and piezoceramic earphone driver concept designs, with an initial prototype available at the end of the Phase I program.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Keehoon Kim
AF 05-057      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Micro-Sized Smart Material Earphone Driver
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for an advanced high output subminiature loudspeaker/earphone driver for use in active noise reduction (ANR) earplug systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new communication earplug driver for a side-impact-safe-bidirectional transmission earplug based on micro-sized smart material actuators (MSMA). The MSMA system will consist of a micro-size earplug (MEP) in a protective housing with easy connectivity to an external linear amplifier and an Air Force selected ANR controller to actuate the MEP. The MSMA will be designed to produce high-fidelity sound up to 140 dB within a 6 mm diameter by 7 mm long cylindrical volume. The MEP will have a safe, simple structure of just two simple non-protruding components -- an earplug housing and a smart material acoustic membrane embedded in the housing -- to generate counter-acoustic energy according to ANR control signals. In Phase I POC will develop a feasibility demonstration laboratory model MSMA system, including a system analysis of output, magnitude and phase of the frequency response, total delay, and size. In Phase II we will refine the MSMA design and then fabricate/test three prototype advanced high output subminiature earphone drives, and deliver ten units for testing.

RH LYON CORP.
691 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 864-7260
Dr. Richard H. Lyon
AF 05-057      Awarded: 22APR05
Title:Advanced Subminiature Loudspeaker/Earphone Driver
Abstract:Communication and ear protection in an extremely noisy environment has been aided by the development of noise reduction headsets that employ active feedback between a loudspeaker and microphone, both located within the headset. But externally worn muffs can be dislodged, imperfectly worn, and subject to sound leakage. In addition, their passive noise reduction is limited, particularly at lower frequencies. The development of in-the-ear hearing aids using small electrodynamic receivers and electret microphones has raised the opportunity to incorporate such elements in an in-the-ear active noise reduction communications unit. The principal challenge in doing so is the output capabilities of the receiver. The noise levels at the eardrum with an insert in place may still reach damaging proportions. The receiver must be able to generate pressures of similar magnitude in order to cancel the intruding noise. The purpose of the work described here is to develop a systems model for the ANR earplug and employ that model to evaluate a variety of driver configurations that employ both electrostatic and electromagnetic transduction as a basis for fabrication and testing of candidate drivers in Phase II.

LASAIR DESIGN
4747 Oceanside Blvd. Suites J & K
Oceanside, CA 92056
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 724-6576
Mr. Rene Brown
AF 05-059      Awarded: 28APR05
Title:MEMs Co-located Integrated Microphone/Earphone for Active Noise Reduction
Abstract:An innovative approach for a hearing aid with active noise cancellation. A microphone that performs frequency spectrum analyzation during acoustic signal detection is proposed. The device would be low cost to manufacture and able to be integrated with a low power actuator on a similar substrate. The system is proposed with colocated driver and CMOS processing electronics. The sensing of the signal would be insensitive to amplifier variations by using a fast sampling amplifier operating in a sigma delta mode. An adaptive filter is proposed for the active noise cancellation. The sensing of all the frequencies would be performed by a single ratiometric source multiplexing the input to create a time multiplex input of the data to the signal processor.

RESEARCH SUPPORT INSTRUMENTS
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 329-3700
Mr. John F Kline
AF 05-059      Awarded: 20APR05
Title:A Microformed Magnet-Based Microphone/Speaker Array for Active Noise Reduction
Abstract:Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop a MEMS microspeaker/ microphone array for use in active noise reduction (ANR). Micromachined pressure transducers using piezoresistive or capacitive sensing techniques are well developed; this project will instead develop a magnetic microphone. Magnet-based microphones in macroscale technologies have advantages in sensitivity, bandwidth, and ruggedness; similar advantages can be expected on the microscale. The same technology will be used to develop a microspeaker. RSI has an innovative technology to develop micromagnets; using micromagnets in both the microphones and the speakers will ease integration of the two circuits, and take advantage of both technologies. The Phase I program will involve design, fabrication, and test of magnet-based MEMS microphones and speakers to determine their sensitivity, speaker amplitude, ruggedness, and bandwidth. RSI will use its experience in silicon nitride membranes, micromagnets, and pressure sensors to employ a highly innovative microfabricated technology - the magnetic MEMS speaker/microphone array - in order to develop speakers and microphones with a combination of sensitivity and speaker amplitude previously unattained by MEMS-sized devices.

SEGMODE TECHNOLOGIES
24332 Acaso, #6
Laguna Hills, CA 92656
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 705-9041
Dr. Mark Bachman
AF 05-059      Awarded: 02MAY05
Title:Feedback-controlled multifrequency MEMS for active noise cancellation
Abstract:This proposal seeks to explore the use of a multi-resonator, directional MEMS microphone as an enabling technology for ANC ear plugs. The basic strategy is to use force-balanced feedback of the MEMS transducer into an adjacent speaker to produce zero noise at the MEMS transducer in sub-bands of interest. This strategy does NOT employ the use of a DSP, making it a potentially powerful technology for ANC ear plugs.

DISPLAYTECH, INC.
2602 Clover Basin Drive
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 772-2191
Dr. Mark A. Handschy
AF 05-060      Awarded: 09MAY05
Title:Helmet Mounted Image Source/Display for Tactical Air Combat Operations
Abstract:We propose development of innovative head-mounted display (HMD) imagers that combine a commercially-proven technology with performance characteristics that would let a single display product serve a wide range of military HMD applications. Our HMDs are based on low-voltage/fast-switching ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon (FLCOS) display panels with LED illumination. This combination enables HMDs with the following distinguishing characteristics: (a) all-digital gray-scale with integrated drive electronics including programmable gamma control and refresh-free display of stored images and (b) ultra-high brightness up to 30,000 fL and beyond. These characteristics enable single-chip, low-power HMD image-generation systems in compact packages with few-wire cable interconnects. The Phase I effort will demonstrate an ultra-high brightness 1280 x 1024 full-color laboratory-prototype HMD. Through the design, fabrication, and characterization of a CMOS test chip, it will also prove the feasibility of an innovative all-digital gray-scale pixel architecture providing the foundation for one-chip HMDs with resolution roadmap driven by Moore's Law from 1280 ' 1024 to 2K ' 2K.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division, 20600 Gramer
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin Aye
AF 05-060      Awarded: 09MAY05
Title:Parallel Reconfigured Line Image Scanning Miniature Super-High-Resolution Light Engine
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for an innovative core image source technology for high performance helmet mounted displays, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposed to develop a novel full color super high resolution high luminance miniature head mounted display (HMD) based on line image scanning of laser illumination, a high speed liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) display, holographic optics, and a simple one-dimensional scanner. The proposed approach offers superior resolution (5k x 4k pixels) from a relatively low resolution LCOS, taking advantage of its high refresh speed and only using relatively slow line image scanning. The proposed technology is made commercially attractive by its unique integration of available commercial components and low cost fabrication techniques. The effort will focus on developing a compact Parallel Reconfigured Line Image Scanning Miniature (PRISM) display demonstration unit in which commercially available LCOS microdisplays will be integrated with compact laser diodes and POC's 2D-image-to-1D-line-image transforming optical element to generate color sequential full resolution images for current U.S. Air Force HMDs. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach through computer design, performance analysis, and an experimental proof-of-concept demonstration, so that in Phase II we can build a brassboard prototype HMD miniature display.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen, Ph.D.
AF 05-061      Awarded: 19APR05
Title:Multi-Modal Hands-Free Interface for Aircraft Maintainers
Abstract:We propose a hands-free data entry system to be used by Air Force aircraft maintenance personnel in noisy environments. To mitigate the noise sensitivity of voice recognition systems, we propose using simultaneous methods of input including voice, non-interfering gestures, facial feature extraction, and workspace analysis to disambiguate user focus of intention.Cybernet is ideally suited to do this work because of our corporate focus on man/machine interfaces, our current work creating aircraft maintenance aids, and our previous work with all of the component technologies including voice recognition, gestures, facial feature extraction, and real-time image processing.

TOTAL QUALITY SYSTEMS, INC.
1990 West 2550 South
Ogden, UT 84401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 731-2150
Mr. Kevin Berk
AF 05-061      Awarded: 22APR05
Title:Hands Free Data Collection for Aircraft Maintainers
Abstract:Hands-free access to maintenance, logistics, and emerging IT Systems will enhance the ability of maintainers to concentrate on performing critical aircraft maintenance functions without being interrupted to physically enter or retrieve maintenance data. The focus of this research project will be systematic and emphasize the integration of innovative, cutting-edge technologies that provide effective, efficient, and transparent maintenance data capture and information feedback to the flight-line technician while improving the accuracy of maintenance data collected. Input technologies to be evaluated will include haptic devices, and devices that track movement, such as head-trackers, eye-trackers, and magnetic or optical motion trackers. Effective human-computer interaction techniques to "attentive environments" will also be considered, such as multi-modal input methods that will include avatar and agent data translation taxonomies. This technology should also be able to withstand the noise, vibration, and generally harsh environment of the flightline. The concept of this Phase I research project will enable interoperability with existing legacy logistic systems, as well as the future autonomic logistics systems of the F-35.

DYNAMIC EYE, INC.
243 Brantwood Road
Amherst, NY 14226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 837-5499
Dr. Christopher Mullin
AF 05-064      Awarded: 29APR05
Title:Segmented Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal TFB Glasses
Abstract:Surface mode nematic liquid crystal light shutters have previously been shown to supply sufficient switching speeds and optical densities to serve as thermal flash blindness (TFB) protection shields. Ferroelectric liquid crystal light shutters exhibit similar switching speeds and contrast ratios to surface mode nematics. In addition, ferroelectric liquid crystals shutters are bistable, so they can be employed in a multiplexed, segmented array of pixels. Segmented ferroelectric shields would improve the operational effectiveness of the aircrew by only darkening the portion of the shields between the operator's pupils and the blinding light source while leaving the remainder of the field of view unaffected. This proposal demonstrates the feasibility of segmented ferroelectric liquid crystal flash blindness shields by assembling a specialized segmented sensor, a microcontroller, driver circuitry, and ferroelectric shields into a proof-of-principle prototype. The prototype is tested for response time, switching speed, viewing angle, and spectral characteristics. Segmented shields would have an impact far beyond TFB protection. Configured as sunglasses, they would revolutionize glare protection throughout the military by improving visual acuity and curtailing eyestrain due to glare.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division, 20600 Gramer
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Parfenov
AF 05-064      Awarded: 02MAY05
Title:Flexible Liquid Crystal Eye Protection System
Abstract:The Air Force is seeking goggle for aircrew eye protection against high intensity, rapid-onset thermal flashes such as from nuclear blasts. Existing protective devices are heavy, bulky, and logistically unsupportable. To overcome these limitations, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Flexible LIquid crystal eye Protection (FLIP) system based on high speed electro-optical effects in liquid crystals (LC) on flexible substrates. Protective devices based on FLIP system technology will have a large dynamic range (switching transmission from 20% in the open state to an attenuation density of 3, a change of more than a thousand times, and a high switching speed (within 100 microseconds). It will be stable despite nearby radar radiation, and resistant to false alarms from natural events such as lightning and reflection of sunlight from clouds, sea surfaces, etc. In addition, it will be lightweight and compact, with a wide viewing angle, made possible by new liquid crystal technology and commercial display development. Phase I will culminate in proof of the feasibility of the proposed design by experimentally building a working model and testing it. In Phase II a FLIP system will be developed for testing at an Air Force site.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road, Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6110
Mr. Jeff S. Collier
AF 05-065      Awarded: 02MAY05
Title:DYNAMO--Dynamic Network Analysis and Monitoring Agency
Abstract:A DMO network topology is critical to the proper operation of distributed training exercises. The ad-hoc nature of most simulation networks provides a measure of flexibility but at the expense of easily quantifiable performance characteristics. There are many commercial tools that address network performance. Unfortunately, solutions targeted at industry are based on an office model and not a DMO training simulation network model. As such, they are able to ignore two important characteristics that must be addressed with a DMO system: (1) the need for an embedded measurement system to have negligible impact on the network particularly at critical points in the simulation, and (2) the need for the measurement system to adapt to rapidly-changing network topography and the effect of a particular simulation on the network performance. SYTRONICS proposes to develop an embedded network monitoring system, utilizing multi-agent design that can be used to efficiently measure and optimize the interactive performance of entities within and across DMO training simulations. The intelligent agents are distributed, highly-configurable, capable of integrating information at a high level from various sources, and unobtrusive to the networks on which it is deployed.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5510 Cherokee Ave, Suite 350
Alexandria, VA 22312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 333-6205
Mr. Stephen Berglie
AF 05-065      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Network Health Monitoring and Diagnosis for Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) Training
Abstract:The promise of simulation to make training more effective, reduce cost, and increase operational readiness is nowhere more apparent than in Air Force Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) training simulations. With increased complexity in simulation systems, particularly in distributed environments, it is necessary to ensure simulator system performance does not negatively impact training transfer. Under this research effort, Virtual Technology Corporation will design and prototype an embedded network monitoring and diagnosis system that can efficiently measure and optimize the interactive performance of entities within and across DMO simulations. This tool, called Distributed Mission Operations - Networked Simulation Training Remediation Automation Tool (DMO-NSTRAT), will provide a fully integrated, real-time, simulation performance monitoring and measurement capability, compatible with current DIS and HLA standards to support operation within a DMO. This will permit engineers and training researchers to understand the linkage between simulation performance and training effectiveness, display relevant entity attributes, and display performance information in a format that is easy to understand and allows pinpointing of potential simulation performance and training issues. This research builds upon VTC's considerable expertise and experience in distributed simulation design and infrastructure and our capable federation management and control, data collection and analysis, and enterprise management tools and technologies.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2489
Ms. Jeanine Ayers
AF 05-066      Awarded: 25APR05
Title:Role Based Real-Time Virtual Collaborative Toolkit for TST
Abstract:Military operations are transitioning from a platform-centric (or unit-oriented) approach to a network-centric (or enterprise-oriented) architecture. This architecture will provide decision makers with unprecedented amounts of information. However, information availability alone is insufficient to attain the timeliness demanded by operations. What is needed is the right information to the right person at the right time. To achieve this, we must manage the flow of information within distributed collaborative environments. The Air Force environment presents particular challenges such as complexity, dynamism and integration, to the application of traditional workflow management systems. We propose an alternative solution which will accommodate complex, dynamic environments. The overall approach is twofold. First, emphasize role-based, local decision making which decentralizes the process and contributes to an increase in efficiency. Second, develop a smart INTEL object that encapsulates state information and contributes to a more secure and flexible system. The approach will use intelligent agents in conjunction with human input to facilitate workflow decisions.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
AF 05-066      Awarded: 28APR05
Title:Toolkit for Role-aware Exchange of Knowledge
Abstract:Real-time collaboration often involves fluid, dynamic assignment of responsibilities within a community of users. As a task develops, users are asked to fulfill a variety of roles that shape their interaction with the system. Each role may have different information needs, possibilities for action, and skill requirements. However, existing collaborative software does not generally take into account the role(s) a user is fulfilling when the interaction of the system is designed; additionally, systems that do provide tailored, role-specific interfaces do not provide capabilities for fluid role membership, role creation, or on-the-fly transitioning of roles from user to user. To address these concerns, we propose developing a Toolkit for Role-aware Exchange of Knowledge (TREK), supporting development of collaborative, real-time, role-based information-sharing systems. Our target domain for the Phase I work will be Time-sensitive Targeting, a complex real-time task domain involving a variety of interrelated roles and numerous sources of noisy and uncertain information. The domain offers challenges to the users in making decisions, building a consensus, and executing fateful tasks in a rapid, effective fashion. TREK will make use of in-house expertise in knowledge modeling, user modeling, and information presentation to provide cutting-edge technological solutions to these complexities.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 495-7969
Mr. Thomas Resha
AF 05-069      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Grid-Group Cm-alpha, Profiling Cultural Factors for Decision Aiding
Abstract:Culturally diverse people are now participating in military multinational coalition applications as well as in extreme environments - once the province of American males drawn from a relatively homogenous cultural pool. Human biases and routines, capabilities and limitations strongly influence overall system performance; whether during operations or in simulations using models of humans. Many missions and environments challenge human capabilities (e.g., combat stress, waiting, fatigue, or long tours of duty). The capability to measure and model individual human performance is important, but mission, team, and relationships add a very important dimension. A team that consists of a culturally diverse group requires performance measures for measuring the group's performance in command and control centers. 21st Century Systems, Inc is pleased to propose an approach that is based on social components of a grid-group model for the representation of culture, a coherence-based model of cultural change, and a rational actor model given particular cultural values and beliefs. We make the case that Grid-group and military physiological variables represented can be modeled as stresses in simulated multidimensional volume producing strain as a measurement. To bring together the disparate military factors we start visualization of the models using a stress-strain analogy from theoretical physics.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL, P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Michael D. Silver
AF 05-069      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Identifying Cultural Factors Relevant to Human Behavior Modeling and Simulation
Abstract:Current models used in military simulations generally do not include representations of human behavior that vary realistically between humans of different cultures. This lack of realism has the potential to result in tragic consequences for US military personnel and others through, for example, inappropriate planning or being inaccurately trained to anticipate an opponent's reaction to a particular military action. In Phase I we will gather data from existing studies (translated as necessary when conducted in other cultures) and perform several meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the influence of cultural variables (e.g., individualism and collectivism) on other high-priority variables of interest to military modelers (e.g., the relationship between stress and team or individual decision-making). The combined effect sizes identified through these meta-analyses will allow the explicit comparison of the relative strengths of selected cultural variables on the effects that are investigated. The results of these meta-analyses would be used in Phase II to develop statistically-valid models of the effects of interest that for the first time accurately take into account cultural variation. Additionally, the quantitative review work conducted in Phase I will result in the identification of existing data gaps and will serve as highly-focused guides to future research on high-priority effects.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Justin Boesel
AF 05-069      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Simulation of Cultural Identities for Prediction of Reactions-(SCIPR)
Abstract:A central challenge for the U.S. armed services lies not in fighting nation-state armed forces, but in dealing with more irregular forces. The glue that holds many of these forces together and motivates them to fight is a common belief system, or shared cultural identity. Hence, it is essential to grapple with cultural identities and cultural issues. This is difficult because cultural identities are neither monolithic nor static. An individual person can have multiple cultural identities because he or she belongs to a number of different groups. Cultural identities are also dynamic. To address these difficulties, we propose to create the Simulation of Cultural Identities for Prediction of Reactions (SCIPR) system. SCIPR is a set of analysis methods and a simulation modeling tool that combines a method for determining relevant cultural identities with an agent-based simulation tool to predict responses to U.S. courses of action (COAs). SCIPR draws on cultural anthropology to understand how cultural identities are defined and how they may change over time in response to events and actions, and employs agent-based modeling to simulate these dynamics and predict responses to COAs.

SMART INFORMATION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, D/B/A SIFT
211 N 1st St., Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 716-4015
Dr. Christopher A. Miller
AF 05-069      Awarded: 19APR05
Title:Cultural Etiquette and its Impact on Directive Human Performance
Abstract:We argue that traditional definitions of cultural factors (e.g., Hofstede, Nisbett, etc.) are too abstract to provide good, predictive models of important human performance behaviors. Instead, we propose examination of culture-specific "etiquette" as a more concrete and quantifiable bridge between abstract cultural factors and human performance regarding compliance with issued directives. We describe a quantitative, computational model of etiquette and face threat perceptions that we are developed under other funding. We propose to integrate abstract cultural factors models into our quantitative etiquette model in the form of specific, hypothesized weighting factors, and then validate and tune these factors via a series of human performance experiments in a testbed that we will design in phase I and construct in phase II. Experiments will involve human task performance in a militarily-relevant domain where directives are given. Experimenters will select participants for cultural factors and will quantitatively control the level of etiquette of the directives. Relevant compliance data (e.g., accuracy, response time, attitudes, etc.) will be collected as a dependent variable. While we will select a testbed simulation and domain as a part of Phase I, candidates already exist in aviation cockpit interactions, multi-cultural air traffic control, and joint force urban stability operations.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
26 Castilian Drive, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
AF 05-070      Awarded: 19APR05
Title:Decision Support Technologies for Logistics Readiness Center
Abstract:This proposed research combines Frontier Technology, Inc.'s AFSPC and decision aide experience along with Synergy's insight and knowledge of the Virtual Space Logistics Readiness Center (VSLRC) to develop and demonstrate a decision support system that predicts ground support failures before they occur and their operational impact. The existing VSLRC, an interactive system that increases support to the space systems surface-fighter by providing access to near real-time system operational and equipment status and linking logistics data to its impact on operational readiness, will be the demonstration platform. The FTI/Synergy Team will model the reliability of system components and provide a probability of system failure based on system components and their relationship to the function of the system as well as the impact to the overall mission. The Phase I research effort will determine the feasibility of developing the algorithms into a prototype capability and then integrate PC-based reliability evaluations and decision support tools into a support environment with which analysts can evaluate operational readiness of the system(s). This effort will provide for the space community with real-time access to ground-support space systems' health and operational status data which will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of sustainment and logistic activities.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
100 Great Meadow Rd., Suite 501
Wethersfield, CT 06109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 257-8014
Dr. Amit Mathur
AF 05-070      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Decision Support Technologies for Logistics Readiness Center
Abstract:Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) proposes to develop a comprehensive software environment for evaluating space system designs for mission reliability, supportability, and diagnostics (Integrated Health Management) performance. In addition to providing the capabilities to identify single points of failure and to estimate the probability of system failure as a function of the age of the system's components, the software tool set will enable system engineers to model complex and evolving system designs, trace design decisions, assess the system/mission reliability and availability, and perform a suite of analyses in support of performance enhancement. Specifically, the objectives of the software environment are to: (1) identify and model potential failure modes of a space system, (2) estimate the system reliability and the impact of the failure rates of the single point failures have on the overall reliability of the space system, (3) evaluate the mission reliability taking into account the interactions among different systems, and (4) incorporate system reliability in maintenance scheduling decisions. While Phase I will address algorithmic requirements and feasibility, Phase II will focus on tool development and integration needs with the Air Force Space Command's Virtual Space Logistics Readiness Center.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Michael Paley
AF 05-071      Awarded: 28APR05
Title:The Resource for Applied Cognitive Engineering - (TRACE)
Abstract:Future C4ISR capabilities must provide warfighters with the abilities to clearly and comprehensively understand the battlespace and quickly decide on appropriate courses of action. Future systems must account for the cognitive capabilities and limitations of users, giving warfighters the ability to truly "leverage asymmetric advantages". Better, faster decision making by warfighters is the ultimate goal; developing new systems that will support the warfighters in reaching this goal is part of the solution. Traditional systems engineering practices do not expressly consider cognitive factors, consider them but underestimate their importance, or consider them too late in the design process. Cognitive engineering methods must be embedded within the systems engineering process, but their application to systems design is still a difficult, risky process. Intelligent designers with the best of intentions can create a system that is hopelessly unusable for its users. Even designers with knowledge of usability pitfalls can develop a system that does not support its users. We propose developing The Resource for Applied Cognitive Engineering (TRACE), a web-based resource to be used in conjunction with the current Defense Acquisition System. By embedding cognitive engineering processes into systems engineering practices, TRACE will help bridge these gaps between these two disciplines.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
AF 05-071      Awarded: 25APR05
Title:A System for Facilitating Interaction Between Cognitive Engineers And System Engineers (FIBEA)
Abstract:As today's military adapts to meet new challenges, a concomitant change in perspectives about technology acquisition has occurred. Central to this evolving viewpoint is the need for increasingly human-centric support systems, developed with traditional Systems Engineering (SE) processes, but incorporating Cognitive Engineering (CE) principles and practices. To support the coupling of these engineering approaches, we propose to develop and prototype a system for Facilitating Interaction Between Cognitive Engineering And System Engineering (FIBEA). Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will devise a common spiral engineering process incorporating SE and CE approaches to ensure acceptability in both communities. Second, we will develop methods for dynamically: (1) translating the requirements produced by the CE process into concrete system requirements; and (2) translating the system's functional capabilities and limitations into implications for the cognitive system design. Third, we will prototype a software system that provides this translation functionality, along with displays and interfaces designed for both cognitive and system engineers. We will leverage our team's expertise in both SE and CE practices to develop the common engineering process and the supporting FIBEA system, and will demonstrate the application of the process to the development of command and control decision-support software.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia Drive, Suite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 277-9288
Dr. Jennifer Fowlkes
AF 05-071      Awarded: 04MAY05
Title:Joint Systems Engineering Methodology (JSEM)
Abstract:Systems Development (SD) processes demonstrate a need for improvement, particularly to increase the frequency with which systems succeed in real world settings. Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) offers numerous principles, methods, and tools that are well-suited to addressing areas in which SD is currently most weak (e.g., handling complexity and supporting the design phase). In response to this opportunity, CHI Systems, Inc. proposes to develop CogLink, an SD model that integrates strengths of existing SD models with relevant CSE practices. The proposed Phase I effort will focus on the development of Command and Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C2ISR) technologies. To derive the CogLink model, we propose to conduct a documentation analysis and case-based interviews with SD and acquisitions professionals to identify obstacles and affordances associated with current SD models; assess CSE methods as they address the obstacles and the identified opportunities; and develop a structured representation of C2ISR systems acquisition processes. The resulting Phase I products will include the CogLink model for an integrated SD process, recommendations for developing and adapting methods and tools contained within CogLink, and a structured plan for developing CogLink during the Phase II effort

DEAL CORP.
131 North Walnut Street
Yellow Springs, OH 45387
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 767-1366
Mr. Steven Deal
AF 05-071      Awarded: 23APR05
Title:Embedding Cognitive Systems into Systems Engineering Practice
Abstract:Cognitive engineering when integrally practiced with systems engineering, enriches both the human and the equipment sides of interfaces to improve situational awareness, speed information to the warfighter, and enabling more rapid decision-making. The design of highly effective human-equipment interfaces requires specification of the information required by operators as well as the equipment's components that provide the information. A process that provides Cognitive Systems Engineers (CSE) with a full-scope perspective of the hardware, software and human components can impact the equipment and the human interface to enhance human cognitive performance. This work investigates the feasibility of a model cognitive engineering-systems engineering process. It breaks down the DoD acquisition process and attributes of system types to identify information-driven entry points for the methodologies of cognitive engineering. It identifies the CSE influence sphere. A requirements set is developed from these. A draft model process results. Cognitive engineering techniques are matched to informational entry points to identify opportunities for integration, new technique requirements, and 3) implementation barriers. Technique inputs are compared with systems engineering products to determine discipline interfaces and remove process redundancy. A panel of cognitive and systems engineers reviews the model process with techniques. A Phase II maturation plan is developed.

KLEIN ASSOC., INC.
1750 Commerce Center Blvd. North
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 873-8166
Dr. Thomas E. Miller
AF 05-071      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:CSE-I: Integrating Cognitive Systems Engineering Within the Systems Engineering Life Cycle
Abstract:Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) extends the concept of Systems Engineering (SE) with the intent of presenting a framework for engineering systems to support and extend human cognitive capabilities. Unfortunately, the two disciplines, CSE and SE, are rarely coordinated in practice. Both share a common goal of designing and developing complex systems of people and technology that get the job done well. Having been developed to this point by different communities, these endeavors have focused on different priorities. There is some overlap in concerns, processes, tools, and representations, but not yet a pleasing harmony. We will integrate CSE approaches into the appropriate phases and products of the Systems Engineering lifecycle. We will begin by refining our initial list of barriers to the integration of CSE within SE, assessing best practices of the current CSE approaches on the market, and developing a model process for integration which features the constant coordination and iterative change management principles of Agile Development (AD). We have assembled a team well-versed in a variety of CSE approaches, systems engineers from Northrop Grumman Information Technology (NGIT) which holds SEI CMM-I level 5 certification, and Dr. Alistair Cockburn, an expert methodologist and pioneer in AD to create an innovative multi-disciplinary team.

GENEGO, INC.
500 Renaissance Dr. Ste. 106
Saint Joseph, MI 49085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(269) 983-7629
Dr. Andrej Bugrim
AF 05-073      Awarded: 29APR05
Title:Developing Bioinformatics Tools for Proteomics Research
Abstract:We propose to develop an analytical system for import, visualization and comprehensive network analysis of proteomics data. Proteomics data will be integrated with other datasets relevant for the same biological system, and compared in the framework of biological networks. The system will be based on our existing comprehensive database of human protein-protein interactions MetaBase, the toolkit for visualization and computational analysis of biological networks MetaCore and the medicinal chemistry tool MetaDrug. The new platform will be capable of recognition and incorporation of proteomics data of different formats and aligning them with microarrays gene expression, DNA sequences, metabolomic data and human diseases. On the next step, we will develop and validate algorithms and methodology for identification of biological networks from the assembled data. When developed, the new platform will have a broad range of applications in drug discovery, bio- and chemical defense and academic research in several disciplines.

NUVERA BIOSCIENCES, INC.
400 West Cummings Park, Suite 2850
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 938-3844
Dr. Christos Hatzis
AF 05-073      Awarded: 26APR05
Title:Developing Bioinformatics Tools for Proteomics Research
Abstract:In this program, Nuvera Biosciences, proposes a practical approach to connect diverse molecular events monitored at the genomic and proteomic level. The objective of the proposed project is to develop a much-needed framework to facilitate construction of molecular pathways of pathological or physiological responses from relevant large-scale archived data. Although data repositories are available today for accessing and processing the information generated from genome-wide research, none of these resources offers a complete, integrated view of the data that is crucial for analysis and understanding the relationships between genes and proteins. In the absence of such infrastructure, the research data generated through large-scale gene and protein expression efforts are likely to produce incomplete or inaccurate molecular pathways of response and derive limited benefit in understanding the biological underpinnings of physiologic stress responses. In Phase I, we propose develop a methodology and prototype for integrating information-rich repositories, with gene expression and proteomic-level measurements to facilitate elucidation of physiological-response pathways. The prototype Phase I effort aims at an analytic framework to help visualize upstream and downstream pathway effects and key molecular effectors of a monitored phenomenon irrespective of whether the critical effects are at the genomic or proteomic level.

SEIRAD, INC.
3900 Paseo del Sol
Santa Fe, NM 87507
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 438-1881
Dr. Callum Bell
AF 05-073      Awarded: 03MAY05
Title:Developing Bioinformatics Tools for Proteomics Research
Abstract:High throughput proteomics and genomics methods have gained widespread acceptance as ways of monitoring global changes in gene transcription and translation in response to environmental changes. While quantification and identification of mRNA and protein is now routine, software is still required to relate expression patterns to broader biological phenomena. Specifically, given an mRNA or protein expression experiment, can the observed changes be used to make inferences about events upstream and downstream of the point in time that the experiment represents? We propose to develop software that that helps researchers predict what cellular and molecular events may have preceded a given expression profile, and what events may follow, including physiological changes, and pathological and clinical conditions. This will be done by integrating a set of highly-respected, human-curated data sources in biology and medicine, and developing a software inference engine that mines this data resource for associations. Predicted upstream and downstream events will be displayed graphically, in a browsable format wherein the user directs the line of inquiry through the data.

SEVEN PEBBLES CORP.
57 Brentwood Circle
Needham, MA 02492
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 223-6508
Dr. John Zhang
AF 05-073      Awarded: 29APR05
Title:Bioinformatics Software for Proteomics Research
Abstract:The overall objective of this project is to develop an innovative bioinformatics software to aid in the analysis and interpretation of proteomics data. The software is capable of quantifying and interpreting complex and time-dependent global changes in various biological pattern profiles. It will identify the links between protein expression changes with upstream and downstream events in the context of biological pathways. Phase I effort will be focused on defining and developing the software concept that will be used to identify or link to databases that identify altered protein expression. The feasibility for further development will be demonstrated by a prototype system on PC. Protein expression and post-translational modification data such as protein arrays, LC/MS and gel electrophoresis (1-D or 2-D) data will be used to identify protein expression changes. The proteomics data will be integrated with gene expression data and metabolomics/metabonomics data to identify the molecular events up- and down-stream of these protein changes in the pathways involved in the cellular response to the external insults.

YAHSGS LLC
182 Bradley Blvd.
Richland, WA 99352
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 946-9686
Mr. Anthony Knepp
AF 05-073      Awarded: 29APR05
Title:Bioinformatics Tools for Proteomics Research
Abstract:The goal of this project is to create bioinformatics software that will rapidly and accurately search and mine proteomics-related information from multiple databases and relate the expression of proteins to upstream or downstream events. The proposed product will link upstream and downstream data to those from multiple biotechnologies (e.g., two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, microarray), as well as other files such as ADMET (adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology) resources, and present results in a form that will help researchers to understand biologically-significant molecular responses. We propose a web-based proteomics discovery tool using intelligent agents with enhanced search capability based on a semantic similarity measure between ontology terms which takes into account the semantic, syntactic, and structural information available in protein databases. Using the similarity measure, weighted links are induced across ontologies from the textual description, biomedical references, and protein sequences associated with those in protein databases. This approach will make it possible to capture similarities that arise from orthogonal, but de facto closely related, ontology annotations, while resolving the problems of synonymy and polysemy. Intelligent agent technology will be used to continuously search databases for correlations and alert researchers when new relevant information is obtained.

EXCITON, INC.
400 Linden Ave.
Dayton, OH 45403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2989
Dr. Paul Cahill
AF 05-074      Awarded: 29APR05
Title:Laser Eye Protection Contact Lens
Abstract:Exciton demonstrated that two classes of Exciton's laser eye protection (LEP) dyes (absorbers) can be doped into soft contact lenses to useful optical densities. There was no obvious haze or distortion of the scripted contact lenses used for these experiments. The successful integration of dyes into a soft contact also suggests how other LEP dyes for additional wavelength of interest might be modified for incorporation into soft contact lenses to high OD. LEP dyes have also been incorporated into rigid gas permeable (RGP) materials. The technical proposal includes a detailed work plan.

NANOSPECTRA BIOSCIENCES, INC.
8285 El Rio Street, Ste 130
Houston, TX 77054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 842-2720
Dr. Joseph B Jackson
AF 05-074      Awarded: 09MAY05
Title:Nanoshell-Based Near-Infrared Blocking Contact Lens
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal involves the design of a contact lens that will provide nanoparticle-based protection from high intensity near-infrared illumination. The near-infrared protection is provided by embedding a new class of optically tunable nanoparticles, called nanoshells, within the contact lens. Nanoshells consist of a non-conducting core surrounded by a thin metal shell. This structure allows the particle to be designed to extinguish target wavelengths of light throughout the visible and infrared spectrum. Our preliminary review of "off the shelf" nanoshells indicates a substantial level of feasibility can already be demonstrated. In separate work, nanoshells have been demonstrated to be relatively inexpensive to manufacture and have a high safety profile when used in vivo. We believe the proposed technology will provide a high luminance transmission while delivering protection in the region of 670 nm to 1200 nm. Additionally, we believe that our plasmon resonant nanostructures embedded in contact lenses will have no haze, distortion, aberration, prism, or artifacts that impair visual performance or create distractions in the visual field and will not disturb desired contact lens properties such as oxygen permeability or wettability.

REVEO, INC.
3 Westchester Plaza
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 345-9555
Dr. Bunsen Fan
AF 05-074      Awarded: 29APR05
Title:Contact Lens with Selective Reflection for Laser Eye Protection
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research project is to develop and commercialize contact lenses for laser eye protection (LEP). LEP is achieved by incorporating a thin, flexible, polymeric reflecting film on or within the lens. The film can be incorporated on soft lenses made from hydrogel materials, as well as "rigid" or "hard" lenses, including gas permeable lenses. This film is based on special polymers and is self-assembled to form a periodic structure. The film is engineered to reflect completely incident light in the far red and near infrared (670 nm - 1,200 nm) regions, while remaining highly transparent (> 90%) elsewhere in the visible range. The film will be made with high optical quality, such that it does not impair visual performance or create distractions in the visual field. The film is also processed to be nanoporous for exceptionally high oxygen permeability, thereby increasing comfort for the lens wearer. Phase I will develop the LEP films and demonstrate the selective light-blocking capability of the contact lens with such films.

APPLIED SPECTRA
P.O. Box 5049
Walnut Creek, CA 94596
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 945-7753
Dr. Jong Yoo
AF 05-075      Awarded: 09MAY05
Title:Remote propellant residue detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR Phase I proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for detecting propellant residues (exploded and unexploded) on various surfaces (emphasis on clothes initially) that support shoulder-launched rockets. Applied Spectra will work with LIBS experts at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and an expert on high explosives (HE) from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Critical issues related to sensitivity and precision of analysis will be addressed in the experimental program.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Mr. Asher Gelbart
AF 05-075      Awarded: 09MAY05
Title:FLUOR-Scope
Abstract:Remote detection of shoulder-fired rocket residues (SFRR) on enemy combatants is needed to discriminate enemy combatants from civilians in urban warfare environments. Arete Associates' FLUOR-Scope sensor concept utilizes thermal imaging and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy for identification of combatants that have recently fired shoulder fired rocket weapons. A miniature thermal camera is used for day/night video surveillance. A novel, low-power, eye-safe laser induced fluorescence spectrometer that is insensitive to ambient daylight irradiance is bore-sighted to the video imager and detects the presence of SFRR. Under the Phase I effort, Arete Associates will measure laser induced fluorescence spectra of SFRR on cloth samples to identify a unique fluorescence signature in the vis-NIR spectrum for SFRR. We will also team with Final Analysis Forensics to perform x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) to characterize the constituents of SFRR. A conceptual design of the FLUOR-Scope will be performed that utilizes existing technologies to comprise a compact, low-cost, light-weight, battery operated, day/night sensor for identification of enemy combatants at standoff distances of a few to 10s of meters.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Stephen Kupiec
AF 05-075      Awarded: 29APR05
Title:Visualization of Propellant Residues From Shoulder-Fired Rockets Upon Skin and Clothing
Abstract:Shoulder launched missiles, particularly the RPG-7, constitute 50% of all casualties in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Returning direct fire is difficult due to the insurgents use of crowds as cover. As a result, the Air Force requires a means of detecting propellant residue on skin and clothes in order to identify individuals who have recently fired rockets. In response to this need, MetroLaser, proposes the standoff optical acquisition propellant detection (SOAP-D) system based on a recently discovered photoluminescence effect which generates a sharp 705 nm emission in response to the vast majority of modern explosives and propellants, including the four major components of RPG propellant. The technique does not require contact or deposition of chemicals and can be used in real time over considerable distances. Initial testing using smokeless powder firearm discharge residue indicates that detection is possible under realistic conditions. The SOAP-D system will implement a rugged, portable, easy to use system for the detection of propellant residues. In Phase I, MetroLaser will obtain samples of propellant residue, evaluate and optimize the photoluminescent effect employed, and demonstrate an optical breadboard system capable of detecting operation over distances of several meters. Commercial applications include screening of baggage and parcels and forensics.

OPTON TECHNOLOGIES
1400 Main Street, Suite 1206
Columbia, SC 29201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(843) 814-2907
Dr. John C. Blackburn
AF 05-075      Awarded: 10MAY05
Title:Visualization of Propellant Residues From Shoulder-Fired Rockets Upon Skin and Clothing
Abstract:Opton is developing an MOE-based solution to enable the warfighter to detect the residue from RPG launch propellant on the clothing of hostile combatants. Samples will be collected and analyzed to determine the feasibility of using optical processing to identify the residues of interest and to distinguish them from background signals from clothing, skin, and other materials.

GENEXPRESS INFORMATICS, INC.
13091 Ponds Springs Road, Suite 150
Austin, TX 78729
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 219-8588
Dr. Robert Chin
AF 05-076      Awarded: 03MAR05
Title:Multi-IMmmunotoxicity Assay System (MIMAS)
Abstract:GeneXpress Informatics, Inc. (GXI) proposes to develop a Multi-IMmunotoxicity Assay System (MIMAS) based upon the Luminex Corporation (Austin, TX) xMAP system, a flexible analyzer based on the principles of flow cytometry. The proposed MIMAS will utilize three core technologies. The first is the Luminex xMAP microspheres, a family of 100 fluorescently dyed polystyrene microspheres that act as both the identifier and the solid surface to build the immunotoxic assays. The second is a handheld flow cytometry-based instrument, which integrates key xMAP detection components such as lasers, optics, advanced fluidics and high-speed digital signal processors. The third component is a disposal cartridge containing immuno-coded beads, assay incubation chambers and a flow cell. GXI and Dr. Claudia S. Miller of the University of Texas Health Science Center (UTHSC) will also identify immunotoxic biomarkers for bead assay development. In Phase I, GXI and Dr. Miller proposes to integrate immunotoxicity assays into a field portable MIMAS system. The Phase II program will result in a bench MIMAS prototype system for use in demonstrating the integration of these technology components. The envisioned MIMAS system will be used to assay human samples (i.e. blood, saliva, sweat).

PATHOLOGICS, LLC
625 Elmwood Avenue
Rochester, NY 14618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 275-8396
Dr. Scott R. Horner
AF 05-076      Awarded: 27APR05
Title:Immunotoxicity Monitoring Method for Unknown Noxious Exposures (IMMUNE)
Abstract:Even minute exposure to toxic substances elicits a marked immunological response, most notably the release of cytokine and chemokine markers into the blood. Thus, technologies capable of real-time detection and quantitation of key serum components could potentially serve as early warning systems to chemical exposure and aid in the diagnostic process. We have developed a highly sensitive optical technology, Reflective Interferometry (RI), which allows specific, rapid, and label-free detection of analytes (microgram to nanogram quantities) in complex molecular mixtures. These biosensors have been utilized for the detection of nucleic acids and protein markers that are indicative of human infection and disease. We have recently adapted the technology for use with antibody components as our capture agents, which as allowed us to significantly broaden our application arena and the biomarkers in which we target.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Mitchell R. Zakin
AF 05-076      Awarded: 27APR05
Title:Immunotoxicity Monitoring Method for Unknown Noxious Exposures (IMMUNE)
Abstract:In this proposal we describe the development of a technology (nanoCyl) that can assay multiple protein biomarkers in small sample volume physiological fluids. It offers the potential for a novel immune assessment tool that can be deployed in the field for the rapid assessment of exposure of troops to a wide range of toxic agents. Proof of concept for the technology will be provided through the measurement of cytokine/chemokine expression profiles that characterize the immune system response to respiratory tract pathogens, through collaboration with Dr. Wayne Ensign of the Naval Health Research Center. A model profiling system will be demonstrated that will assay TNF-alpha and IL-1beta with an analyte detection sensitivity of < 10 pg/ml and a coefficient of variation of < 20%. This detection sensitivity is consistent with the changes in TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels secreted into sputum. A subsequent Phase II project would involve the development of a prototype system suitable for deployment in the field.

SPORIAN MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Dr. Kevin Harsh
AF 05-076      Awarded: 28APR05
Title:Handheld Biomonitoring Device for Estimating the Adverse Health Effects of Noxious Exposures
Abstract:Environmental monitoring is not always an adequate method to evaluate human exposure to toxic chemicals. There exists a need for a biomonitoring device to measure immunotoxicity and exposure to toxic industrial chemicals and materials in the body fluids of military personnel. Chemicals concern include: common heavy metals (lead, uranium, cadmium), industrial compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes), and agricultural pesticides (pyrethrins, organophosphates). The objective of the proposed work is to develop an immunoassay-based biomonitoring device similar in size in function to a Personal Digital Assistant. The proposed immunoassay approach allows for a potentially small, low cost, highly selective biomarker detection system for immunotoxicity monitoring. The system will include signal conditioning circuitry, a human interface, and replaceable and expandable immunoassay based sensor elements. Work will concentrate on evaluation of potential molecular detection elements and supports, evaluation and demonstration on potential optical sensor configurations of which there are several, and evaluation and development of the signal conditioning, display, and human interface hardware. Phase I efforts will focus on sensing representative biomarkers in order to demonstrate the concept. Later work will expand the detection capabilities to a wider range of biomarkers as a broad immunotoxicity indicator .

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Frank Adelstein
AF 05-077      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:CYDEST: CYber DEfense Simulation Trainer
Abstract:As the level of conflict increases in the new battlefield of our nation's infosphere, the demand for better training of cyber security professionals is critical. In response, a small number of efforts have attempted to provide network defense training simulators to prepare students for real-world conditions. Most of these early efforts have fallen short of the mark, generally by oversimplifying their simulations and thereby providing only a basic level of instruction. ATC-NY envisions a modular cyber defense simulation framework that will allow for a level of detail previously only achievable using real networks. We will use this framework to create CYber DEfense Simulation Trainer (CYDEST), a training simulator designed to provide students with a realistic and dynamic training experience and to give trainers a flexible instruction platform that allows them to teach at any level. CYDEST will incorporate a number of innovations, including (1) an automated evaluation facility, (2) simulation of hosts as well as the network itself, (3) a realistic and unrestricted training interface, and (4) remote accessibility to students.

MILCORD LLC
1050 Winter Street , Suite 1000 #10008
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 905-1486
Dr. Alper Caglayan
AF 05-077      Awarded: 29APR05
Title:An Attack Graph Simulation Approach to Cyber Defense Training
Abstract:With increasing levels of vulnerabilities, exploits, worms, viruses, and the increasing sophistication of the attacker profile, the training of security personnel is essential in the protection of DoD infrastructure and mission critical information assets. Here we propose an attack graph simulation approach to cyber defense training. In the vulnerability assessment area, attack graphs create a graphical structured model to describe the ways in which a system may be compromised. By using network topology based graph attack simulations that are synched with a vulnerability dictionary, students will be able to understand the ways in which computer networks will be attacked, determine the likelihood and impact of these attacks and decide what action to take where the risks are unacceptable. Our attack graph simulation approach captures attackers' techniques and multi-stage decision processes to develop a vulnerability assessment picture for the student. Our approach will be able to display domain expert's decisions both visually as attack maps and textually as reports to guide students towards achieving the same. In Phase I, we will design, analyze and demonstrate the feasibility of an attack graph simulation approach to cyber defense training by developing student, teacher and curriculum models.

SKAION CORP.
51 Middlesex Street, Suite 114
North Chelmsford, MA 01863
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 396-1095
Mr. Sam Gorton
AF 05-077      Awarded: 26APR05
Title:Using Realistic Network Traffic to Create a High-Fidelity Training Environment
Abstract:Skaion proposes to create an automated training system using realistic network traffic (whether stored, replayed, or generated using Skaion's existing Traffic Generation System). During Phase I, Skaion will analyze this approach for the IDS analyst domain. Skaion will research which situations are most effective for testing, and derive test scenarios that illustrate the lessons we wish to teach. Skaion will create a proof-of-concept environment using a real Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) system by implementing prototype test scenarios. These test scenarios will use background traffic generated by Skaion's Traffic Generation System, overlaid by attacks created via open source probing and attack tools such as nmap and Metasploit. Generalized knowledge and skill training with these test scenarios can be applied to a variety of COTS and GOTS NIDS systems - low-level network traffic fidelity keeps the training technology vendor-independent.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
AF 05-077      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:A Simulation-based Intelligent Tutoring System for Enhancing Decision Effectiveness in Computer Network Defensive Operations
Abstract:Arguably the most crucial aspect of maintaining Computer Network Defense (CND) readiness is having adequate supply of highly trained personnel to serve on the frontlines. Training today is mostly limited to classrooms, books, and expensive seminars, all of which fail to provide the practical experience necessary to make effective decisions under pressure. We propose a new approach to training CND that marries an innovative and affordable approach to producing high-fidelity simulations of complex computer networks with an intelligent tutoring capability that enables effective automated performance measurement and feedback to optimize the training experience. The proposed distance-learning solution will provide hands-on scenario-based exercises augmented by automated tutoring to provide customized coaching, feedback, and after-action review. Our approach to simulation overcome barriers to simulator development through the exploitation of COTS network traffic simulators with commodity hardware running genuine operating systems and software applications. Through automated assessment, in-depth explanations of expert solutions, what-if analyses, and interactive dialogs, the tutor will address higher-level cognitive skills like pattern recognition, hypothesis formation and testing, and decision-making. The system will include an authoring tool for the development of custom scenarios by SMEs. Phase I prototype development will provide a solid foundation for complete implementation in Phase II.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2400
Dr. Kevin Gildea
AF 05-078      Awarded: 27APR05
Title:Performance Effects Related to FORce-Cueing Manipulation- (PERFORM)
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed effort is to develop a predictive model-based tool, and associated metrics, to assess the impact of various levels of simulator fidelity on training effectiveness and combat mission performance. Aptima will base the proposed tool on an updated categorization of the levels of fidelity associated with various combinations of simulator subsystems. Aptima will identify the combat performance metrics currently being collected and identify new metrics that are appropriate for comparative assessment. In addition, Aptima will identify the technological, cognitive, and perceptual factors that may be mediating or moderating the effects of simulator fidelity on combat mission performance. In Phase II, Aptima will validate the model and metrics via experimentation utilizing operational subject matter experts (SMEs) and force cueing technology representing various categories of simulator subsystem fidelity.

COMPUTER GRAPHICS SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT CORP.
2483 Old Middlefield Way #140
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 903-4922
Mr. Roy W. Latham
AF 05-078      Awarded: 18APR05
Title:Force Cueing Technology Integration and Feedback Metrics to Improve DMO Simulator Effectiveness
Abstract:The proposed effort comprises four parts: (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature on cueing fidelity and associated metrics, (2) identification of metrics and a scenario, and subsequent implementation of a Phase I demonstration, (3) definition of an approach to the implementation and testing of software tools to be implemented in Phase II, and (4) development of a new methodology for relating metrics to actual training costs. The review and analysis of force cueing metrics will be performed in conjunction with consulting researchers having substantial familiarity with work done in the field. The scenario development for the Phase I demonstration will be done in close coordination with the Air Force. Planning for Phase II software tool implementation will be done with emphasis on end user ease of use and commercialization. The proposed method for relating metrics to training costs has the potential for substantial lowering the costs of evaluating training system effectiveness by reducing the required number of subjects needed for evaluation.

SDS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Crystal Park, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 282-4432
Dr. Fred Patterson
AF 05-078      Awarded: 10APR05
Title:Force Cueing Technology Integration and Feedback Metrics to Improve DMO Simulator Effectiveness
Abstract:In many cases, simulator quality is equated to the physical characteristics of hardware and software contained within a simulator system. In conjunction with this practice; the term fidelity" is often used to express compiled performance of various simulator components. In view of these comparisons, between mechanical parameters and software performance, it is not unusual to find that fidelity requirements frequently reflect how much technology an organization can afford, instead of defining the level of technology necessary for producing an optimal training environment. Rather than base fidelity requirements solely upon inanimate parameters (optical, mechanical, and piezoelectric) SDS proposes development of a Biometic Fidelity Assessment Standardization Tool (BioFAST) that is based upon physiological responses, related to sensory and cognitive functions. Among the variables planned for BioFAST evaluation are sensory spatial reflexes such as: opto-kinetic cervical reflex, opto-kinetic nystagmus, vestibular ocular shifts, digital EEG, and stick control variations. This information will be integrated into a software package that also permits subjective scoring of fidelity criteria using simulator sickness questionnaires and Cooper-Harper surveys of observed vs. desired training outcomes. These and other potential measures can be combined into a composite score that will define simulator fidelity in terms of human compatibility and training accomplishment.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7841
Dr. Micah Yairi
AF 05-080      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Programmable Microfluidic Pump with Skin Penetration Enhancement for Drug Delivery
Abstract:Our country's safety often falls on the shoulders of soldiers called on to perform their best for extended periods of time, often days at a time. During such situations, the ability to stay awake (or quickly fall asleep) is essential. Properly administered, pharmaceutical agents can play a critical role helping soldiers in these situations. Unfortunately, oral ingestion may result in unwanted drug peaks and valleys or gastrointestinal drug degeneration, while transdermal application is slow and limited to low molecular weight drugs. To provide a solution, Los Gatos Research has developed a massively parallel microfluidic pump capable of providing large flow rates (100 microliters/minute) at low voltages (less than 3 Volts). This unique pump is small, robust, and lightweight without moving parts or inlet/outlet adaptors. Such a pump can be battery-powered and integrated with a microprocessor to provide programmable drug delivery over an extended period of time (up to three days). Furthermore, in conjunction with chemical enhancers and microneedle arrays, our integrated micropump will be able to increase effective skin permeability for pharmacological agents by orders of magnitude. Together, these components will be combined inside a transdermal patch to create a simple, portable, rugged, disposable, and non-intrusive drug delivery vehicle.

CYMFONY, INC.
600 Essjay Road
Buffalo, NY 14221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-9114
Dr. Wei Li
AF 05-084      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Fusion of Entity Information from Textual Data Sources (e.g. HUMINT)
Abstract:Fusing entity information based on discourse coreference will be explored. This research leads to capabilities such as change detection, the process of automatic notification when significant changes in a person or organization profile are detected. Change detection is an important element of the global awareness requirement and, in turn, supports Homeland Defense activities. One bottleneck in entity fusion is the insufficient support from coreference of entity mentions. About half of the locally extracted entity information cannot be successfully fused into profiles. The dilemma we face is this: if we indistinguishably use the results of coreference in fusion, the fused object is too noisy to be trustworthy. If we only use the high performance part of coreference, however, the fused object does not contain enough information to be valuable. A focused research effort is needed to advance the development of this critical enabling technology for IE fusion. The key is to develop a highly configurable and domain portable coreference capability which will demonstrate its value in generating high accuracy entity profiles. Our approach involves a combination of machine learning and grammatical processing.

INXIGHT SOFTWARE, INC.
500 Macara Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 738-6443
Dr. Masayo Iida
AF 05-084      Selected for Award
Title:An Extensible NLP Approach for NE Coreference Resolution
Abstract:Inxight proposes to develop an extensible linguistic approach for resolution of Named Entity (NE) Coreference. We employ a pipeline approach - where text is first fed through a set of linguistic preprocessing services, then through a series of finite-state grammars to extract candidate entities, and finally through the entity co-referencing process. The new work to be performed in coreference resolution includes new knowledge sources, corpora, parsers, and a complete Coreference Resolution Module (CORM), implemented as a rule-based linguistic system. Syntactic, semantic, and discourse capabilities are provided. Our approach includes innovations in the application of Optimality Theory for constraints reasoning, and the development of discourse features in a hybrid approach that employs finite state transducers and grammar formalisms such as Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG). The proven implementation of finite-state grammars and techniques in the base platform, combined with new coreference research adapting a lexicalist approach such as LFG, provide a performance optimized approach necessary to perform the intermediate-level parsing required to meet the computational demands of coreference chaining. The technology platform also supports the language and domain coverage, and services oriented component architect as may be required by future operational applications.

3 SIGMA RESEARCH, INC.
503 S. River Oaks Dr.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 674-9267
Mr. Michael Winburn
AF 05-085      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Satellite Ontology Fusion Investigation (SOFI)
Abstract:An advanced concept is used to provide for the dynamic fusion of multi-security level satellite attack data. The project, called the Satellite Ontology Fusion Investigation (SOFI) provides an ontology for the fusion, classification, and tagging of satellite attack information and other related intelligence products in a multi-security domain. SOFI provides a mechanism for describing and reasoning about sensor data, objects, and relations in the real-world. It provides the foundation to develop a satellite attack fusion engine that interfaces with software-based security guard systems.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Brian Xu
AF 05-086      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Integrated Intelligent Decision and Information System
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Integrated Intelligent Decision and Information (IIDI) system integrating grid fuzzy evolutionary algorithms (GFEAs), grid fuzzy neural networks (GFNNs), fuzzy expert systems (FESs), real-time expert systems (RTESs), and relational database management systems (RDBMSs) for the NORAD/USSPACECOM Warfighting Support System (N/UWSS). In the IIDI system, GFEAs will search for optimal solutions to such N/UWSS tasks as scheduling and planning. Each GFEA will work with each subsystem in command and control (C2) systems to accomplish the required tasks. GFNNs will monitor C2 data and mission-critical operations of the sensor networks, identify anomalous behavior, and detect potential external attacks by learning from successful past examples. RTESs will encode and reuse the well-formed knowledge from the C2 systems experts to make decisions in real time. RDBMSs will collect and manage all N/UWSS related data, and communicate with C2 systems, and with other current and legacy systems. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the IIDI system for N/UWSS to improve data access, integration, storage, control, and decision making for space-based sensors across C2 systems. In Phase II we will develop an IIDI system prototype that can be directly integrated with current and future C2 systems.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway, Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Mr. Craig Lammers
AF 05-086      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Neuro-Networking Techniques for N/UWSS
Abstract:The NORAD/USSSPACECOM Warfighting Support System (N/UWSS) aims to provide a highly responsive and cost-effective "sensor-to-decision-maker-to-shooter" capability, encompassing all of the known Battle Management Command and Control (BMC2) deficiencies. An intelligent data filtering tool will provide improved data access, integration, storage and control for space-based sensors across C2 systems. The tool will test a variety of algorithms for their effectiveness and efficiency in tuning filters and reducing network traffic across sensors. The algorithms tested will include neural networks, genetic algorithms, and clustering algorithms such as K-means and Kohonen's Self Organizing Map. The search tool will be based on RAM Laboratories' WarpIV kernel, which will link our search tool with real-time databases via the communications infrastructure, and run efficiently via parallel and distributed processing. Specifically, this Phase I effort will (1) demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an intelligent data filtering tool for space-based sensors, (2) research and develop a variety of artificial intelligence algorithms to conduct filtering, and (3) develop a physical proof-of-concept prototype that will improve data access, integration, storage and control for space based-sensors across C2 systems.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. Maher Kaddoura
AF 05-087      Awarded: 11APR05
Title:End-to-End QoS IP techniques for heterogeneous networks
Abstract:A lot of work has been done to develop security and QoS techniques for IP networks. However, existing work doesn't provide a complete solution for addressing security and end-to-end QoS provisioning for multimedia flows traversing heterogeneous networks. Thus, there is a need for a system that can provide end-to-end guarantees to flows in IP networks consisting of wireline and wireless links. The system must accomplish its objectives without modification to existing military and commercial networks. Such a system will be relevant to military and civilian applications. Leveraging extensive experience in network technology and security, Architecture Technology Corp (ATC) will develop a system that provides security and end-to-end QoS to multimedia flows in heterogeneous networks. The system will utilize existing networks' infrastructures and protocols to achieve security and end-to-end QoS for multimedia flows. As a result, the system can be easily incorporated within current military and commercial networks.

DATALINE, INC.
2551 Eltham Avenue, Suite O
Norfolk, VA 23513
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 858-0600
Mr. Charles Brewton
AF 05-087      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Priority/Preemptive Capability within IP (SIP QoS in GIG-ES)
Abstract:In this proposal, our team (Dataline and Covergence in subcontract) proposes to develop a Policy and Security Manager that provides Quality-of-Service (QoS) aware mechanisms to assure TCP/IP communications in tactical networks. Our approach is based on the SIP protocol, the IETF standard for monitoring, controlling, and securing real-time collaboration (RTC) applications such as VoIP, Chat, and Video Conferencing. Our approach includes significant innovations that address the need for assured delivery and the low tolerance for delay (latency), delay variation (jitter) and packet loss of real-time applications in tactical networks. These include policy management and control across all SIP devices for: QoS Operations and Management including layer 2/layer 3 QoS marking, QoS based routing, bandwidth policing & rate limits, call admission control, policy based session routing, shortest path media routing, and SLA monitoring and verification; Application Level Security including cryptographic authentication, identity-based access control, signaling and media encryption, protocol validation, PKI integration, and denial of service (DOS) prevention; and Interoperability, including near-end firewall traversal, far-end firewall traversal, and protocol normalization. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by building a testbed that leverages our extensive experience in, mixed-bandwidth, tactical networks for real-time collaboration.

SALO IT SOLUTIONS, INC.
322 Warwick Street
Saint Paul, MN 55105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 698-9110
Timothy J. Salo
AF 05-087      Awarded: 11APR05
Title:An Extensible QoS Framework for Secure Tactical Networks
Abstract:Salo IT Solutions, Inc. (SaloITS) will investigate, design, document, model, prototype and demonstrate an extensible architectural framework, protocol enhancements and other technologies that will provide scalable, fine-grained, quality-of-service (QoS) assurances in secure IP networks. The Extensible QoS Framework for Secure Tactical Networks ("the Secure QoS Framework") will be particularly beneficial in networks that experience congestion as a result of bandwidth-constrained links or rapid changes in topology or traffic flows, or that employ security measures such as the IP security protocols. The Secure QoS Framework will enable content-aware QoS assurances that will, for example, ensure geographically localized priority for location-specific, time-critical or survival-critical, situational-awareness information. The Framework will also support the development of highly efficient publish/subscribe dissemination systems that will minimize the unnecessary or redundant forwarding of messages that are not desired by any downstream subscribers.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia Drive, Suite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 398-6753
Dr. J C Le Mentec
AF 05-088      Awarded: 01APR05
Title:Cognitive Architecture Bridge (CAB)
Abstract:Years of research in human behavior modeling have yielded a wide array of cognitive architectures. The most vital challenges confronting the field are to find an economical way to leverage the strengths of each of the multiple existing architectures and to facilitate and simplify the manner in which new cognitive models are produced, as well as to reduce the time entailed in their production. Requirements such as cultural effects add another layer of complexity that needs to be addressed. The Air Force is investigating new integrative architectures that incorporate more realistic human and organizational behavior. CHI Systems proposes to address this challenge by developing a new meta-architecture intended to serve as a bridge between existing cognitive modeling architectures. Specifically, CHI proposes the "Cognitive Architecture Bridge" (CAB), using a blackboard-system approach to combine different pre-existing components working at different levels of abstraction. CAB will give model developers the ability to assemble existing components from supported cognitive architectures, together with the ability to represent multiple levels of abstraction and cultural effects. Phase I products will include a design for the CAB meta-architecture, a proof-of-concept and demonstration model interface with CAB, an assessment of non-conventional architectures, and a Phase II plan.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 05-089      Awarded: 05APR05
Title:Adaptive Model-based Adversarial Reasoning System (AMARS) for Enhanced Synthetic Battlespaces
Abstract:Recent military operations have demonstrated the use by adversaries of non-traditional or asymmetric military tactics to offset US military might. This issue has thus come into the forefront of national security. Rogue nations with links to trans-national terrorists have created a highly unpredictable and potential dangerous environment for US military operations. In his testimony to the US Senate, Vice Admiral Wilson, Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) identifies several characteristics of these threats including extremism in beliefs, global in nature, non-state oriented, and highly networked and adaptive, thus making these adversaries less vulnerable to conventional military approaches. Additionally, US forces must also contend with more traditional state-based threats that are further evolving their military fighting strategies and capabilities. What are needed are solutions to assist our forces in the prosecution of operations against these diverse threat types and their atypical strategies and tactics. Here, we propose an Adaptive Model-based Adversarial Reasoning System (AMARS) that supports both training and simulation based acquisition requirements for effective responses to enemy asymmetric tactics and strategies. The proposed system merges model-based reasoning about individual, group, and organizational behavior within a genetic algorithm-based model adaptation and development environment.

STILMAN ADVANCED STRATEGIES
1623 Blake Street, #200
Denver, CO 80202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 490-2701
Dr. Vlad Yakhnis
AF 05-089      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:LG for Integrated Adversarial COA Generation
Abstract:We propose to develop LG-WARGAMER, a new an asymmetric adversary simulation environment that can support existing military simulations such as the Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) and the Air Force M&S Foundations initiative for Air Force acquisition and training. In Phase I, we will establish feasibility and develop principles for a high level LG-based architecture for such tool. In Phases II and III, a succession of progressively more powerful software prototypes of LG-WARGAMER, implementing the framework developed in Phase I, will be developed. The approach is based on Linguistic Geometry (LG), a new type of game theory changing the paradigms of battle management and mission planning. The most significant advantages of the LG approach are modeling of the intelligent enemy and extraordinarily fast automatic generation of advantageous strategies, tactics, and COA for all the sides of a conflict. LG-WARGAMER shall be capable of interfacing with simulation environments (such as JSB) and providing adversary tactics and strategy to the simulations. Using these capabilities LG-WARGAMER will assist the operators, commanders, warfighters, and trainees in describing, assessing, and predicting the activities of individuals, teams, and organizations. LG-WARGAMER will be capable to consider factors such as the social, cultural, political, economic, religious, ethnic, and ideology of the adversary. Working with JSB, LG-WARGAMER will permit modeling and evaluation of new conceptual military hardware in terms of its functionalities and new strategic and tactical concepts. If a hardware functionality would have hidden flaws (e.g., too low bandwidth of the communication network), the simulated enemy guided by the LG strategies would be able to exploit them providing the hardware evaluators with hands-on proof of failure. Moreover, assisted by the analyst, LG-WARGAMER will discover the direction of changes toward correcting the flaw. Contrariwise, if the functionality has spectacular advantages, LG-WARGAMER would be able to convincingly demonstrate how these advantages could be translated into victory for the Blue forces.

CYMFONY, INC.
600 Essjay Road
Buffalo, NY 14221
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-9114
Dr. Rohini K. Srihari
AF 05-090      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Enabling Visualization of Event Information from Unstructured Text
Abstract:We propose to address two outstanding problems encountered in event extraction and visualization. The first focuses on recognizing events in nominal expressions. This is important because nominal coreference among event mentions offers a way of propagating information (e.g. time). It is difficult because not all ``event words'' denote actually occurring events, or even events at all (e.g., `devastation' may refer to the result of an event). The second problem is linking participants to events. When participant roles are defined at too low a level, information extraction systems experience a knowledge bottleneck making them expensive to customize with new event types. We believe that the development of the FrameNet database offers solutions here since the ``frame'' level of detail is more general than event specific template slots. A frame-based approach also simplifies customization: new events are defined mainly by example. Both problems (recognizing events and linking event participants) will be addressed using unsupervised machine learning techniques, mainly bootstrapping techniques. These techniques learn extraction patterns by using a high precision, low recall classifier to automatically construct a very large training corpus. This research if successful will significantly enhance the ability to identify events that can be displayed on a timeline.

LANGUAGE COMPUTER CORP.
1701 North Collins Blvd., Suite 2000
Richardson, TX 75080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 231-0052
Dr. Sanda Harabagiu
AF 05-090      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:High Precision Event Extraction Using Predicate Arguments (HIPEPA)
Abstract:Our goal is to facilitate visualization of event information using a novel event extraction paradigm that achieves accuracy close to that of human analysts and allows both a simplified customization to new domains and extraction of complex events expressed as an event extraction framework. The event extraction framework replaces the pattern-based paradigm with predictate-argument structures that allow extraction of events in any domain. Mappings to new domain of interest can be learned in this new paradigm by making use of maximum entropy models. Furthermore, this novel paradigm that we propose takes advantage of several novel open-domain features including (1) an open domain semantic parser used to extract syntactic and semantic information (e.g. predicate-argument relations) from source documents and (2) discourse processing techniques such as coreference resolution of events produced by event normalization and event fusion. This paradigm allows temporal and spatial normalization of events such that space or time expressions are recognized and normalized when they are not explicit references e.g. "last summer", "four years" (duration), every month (set), and "a year after the earthquake (event anchored expressions). Similarly, in the case of special expressions, we consider implicit references e.g. "second house", areas of the country such as "The South", sets "every river", and event anchored expressions, e.g. "twenty miles north of Baghdad". As technical leaders in the field of Natural Language Processing and its application to unstructured text understanding for the military and intelligence communities, Language Computer Corporation (LCC) is well suited to provide this capability. Our proposed work on this SBIR, called High Precision Event Extraction Using Predicate Arguments (HIPEPA) will provide a framework for event extraction that is accurate, domain relevant, and easily customized to the dynamic information needs of the intelligence analyst. LCC will build on our experience and existing capability to provide a prototype pattern-free event extraction framework that normalizes spatial and temporal information for visualization and supports the detection and fusion of event data.

EXPAND, INC.
4303 Vineland Road, , Suite F-7
Orlando, FL 32811
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 540-0920
Dr. John Woodring
AF 05-091      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Modeling and Executing System and Operational Architectures with Representational Languages
Abstract:The current generation of executable architecture tools is based upon a monolithic design that does not accommodate modularity and thus forces users to make design and analysis trade-offs based upon the capabilities of the single tool that best suites their particular requirements. Expand proposes to investigate the feasibility of creating tools with interchangeable components, allowing analysts to select the most appropriate combination of features extracted from several tools. The resulting virtual tool will provide performance optimized for a specific task. Two major components are investigated: the design language and the execution engine. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the execution engine of CPN Tools will be investigated as replaceable components. Verification and validation of the approach will be performed by integrating these components with Visual Simulation Objects (VSO), a general-purpose modeling and simulation tool kit developed by Expand. Interoperability among tools using module interconnection is an extension of the basic concept of interoperability among simulations, which has resulted in the development of the High Level Architecture specification and application tools that support it. Modular tools can provide analysts with greater power to investigate the dynamic properties of complex systems and operations by providing multiple, independent views of the same architecture.

HIRSCH ENGINEERING & COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
10300 N. Cassel Rd.
Vandalia, OH 45377
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 454-9662
Mr. Herbert L. Hirsch
AF 05-092      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Fusion And Registration System using Innovative Technology Extension (FARSITE)
Abstract:Hirsch Engineering and Communications, Inc. (HEC) and CACI-MTL Systems propose a unique and commercially-viable solution to the problem of multi-modality image registration and object/target detection for locating HDBTs. Our proposed "Fusion And Registration System using Innovative Technology Extension" (FARSITE) approach will synergistically integrate several methods, including (1) a demonstrated, revolutionary image registration and object/target detection technique called TWIST* (TWo-axis Image Sorting Technique), (2) innovative complexity-domain processing methods, and (3) digital filtering and metric combining. FARSITE captures image complexity information from a images, into a concise feature set, to provide a reliable, accurate, robust method to register images or to detect objects and targets, in multi-modality (EO, IR, SAR, etc.) digital imagery, and associated training aids. Multi-modality fusion is also a feature of this process, and will provide higher-order target or object detection with improved speed and accuracy performance. In Phase I, HEC will perform (1) a prototype development, (2) experimental and analytical feasibility assessments using actual, multi-modality images, (3) a prototype demonstration, (4) a preliminary system design to carry forward into Phase II, and (5) an initial assessment of commercialization potential.

LPA SYSTEMS, INC.
290 Woodcliff Drive
Fairport, NY 14450
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 419-3900
Mr. David Russell
AF 05-092      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Hardened or Deeply-Buried Target (HDBT) Optimization Techniques for Detecting Obscure Geomorphic States (HOTDOGS)
Abstract:On recent AFRL/IFEC projects, it has been demonstrated that multi-sensor data and exploitation techniques can interoperate and coexist through a reusable library toolkit architecture. This software library toolkit has and is being assembled and demonstrated as an application called Geo*View; although, custom or commercial application developers can use the toolkit to develop or augment their own application. For this HOTDOGS system design and development, the LPA and PAR Team proposes to augment the current toolkit with Government and Commercial Off-the-Shelf (GOTS and COTS) algorithms and software libraries to develop an integrated system that can support the automated generation of MASINT products from both active and passive imagery sources. The Team will maximize use of existing exploitation techniques and software developed for the DoD, and the Team will use a plug-in design approach similar to that used during the implementation on the AFRL HyperVISE capability.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5275
Dr. Jason Li
AF 05-093      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:An Agent-based Multi-Tiered Key Management Scheme for Secure Multicast Communication
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose an innovative agent-based multi-tiered key management (MTKM) scheme for secure TCP/IP multicast communications. The scalability problem is solved by partitioning the group members into subgroups, with a leader in each subgroup, and further organizing the subgroups into hierarchies. Each level of the hierarchy is called a tier. Key generation and distribution will follow the hierarchy, resulting in efficient re-keying operations. Actual communications are generally limited within a subgroup at a tier. Only subgroup leaders can propagate data transmissions across the hierarchies in most cases, and leaders can multicast data to selected subgroups. By doing such, our scheme is more secure and scalable without losing communication capability and flexibility. Further, subgroups can be reorganized to reflect member dynamics and deployment needs, plus we use soft states to adapt to network disruptions and provide added security guarantees. MTKM matches naturally the satellite-based military communication infrastructure, and mobile and/or less equipped users also fit in our scheme. Comparing with most other key management schemes, our approach is extremely scalable and efficient, provides more security guarantees, and is selective, adaptive and robust. Finally, our distributed agent infrastructure provides a reliable and efficient environment to fully explore and verify the proposed scheme.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 847-9123
Mr. Scott Thomas
AF 05-093      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Secure TCP/IP Broadcast/Multicast
Abstract:The military is transitioning to a fast reaction mobile strike force with increasing reliance on unmanned, autonomous systems, such as the GIG and TCA, which support packet-based communications. There remain significant obstacles, however, before broadcast/multicast data can be transmitted securely over wireless channels. New research into technologies that ensure secure, selective, networked information delivery are key solutions to these mission challenges. Furthermore, issues regarding how information is shared between differently classified networks must also be addressed. Trident has designed a Wireless Reliable Multicast protocol that provides end-to-end, flow-controlled reliable multicast data transfer. As part of this effort, Trident delivered a high-level design of a multicast protocol framework, which allows for heterogeneity of protocols for different applications, yet provides a common API, including much needed security services. Additionally, Trident has developed the Collaboration Gateway (CG) for AFRL/IFEB. The CG enables users on different classified networks to securely share information across a certified guard. Trident proposes the application of these technologies to the problem space of secure multicast transport. We will design a Secure Multicast Framework (SMF), leveraging current state-of-the-art technologies. Trident will leverage our Multi-Level Secure Collaboration Gateway to enable cross-domain information sharing for C2 applications, such as CCIC2S and SEWS.

WESTERN DATACOM CO., INC.
929 Bassett Road
Westlake, OH 44149
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 835-1510
Mr. Jim DeFrank
AF 05-093      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Secure TCP/IP Broadcast/Multicast
Abstract:During Phase I, Western DataCom proposes to develop a secure multicast implementation including an algorithm/key distribution design directed at secure distribution of broadcast and multicast information over a variety of infrastructures. Of particular interest are satellite and wireless networks and the ability to securely operate over shared infrastructure (domains that are owned by uncontrolled entities). Hardware and firmware modifications of existing Western DataCom encryption units that enable deployment of the secure key distribution will be accomplished during phase II and a the resulting secure algorithm/key distribution will be demonstrated over a prototypical network that includes SATCOM and wireless domains.

CHILIAD PUBLISHING, INC.
44 Belchertown Road
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 253-7430
Mr. Paul McOwen
AF 05-095      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Predictive Analysis Tools for PBA/IPB
Abstract:Chiliad's Phase I effort will design a continuous monitoring analog to the successful retrospective concept recognition and metadata generation capability that has been deployed successfully across the FBI. Current approaches provide ad-hoc analysis with a human in the loop at each stage, with enterprise-wide data fusion; contextual analysis; concept recognition; automatic metadata generation and extraction; dynamic knowledge navigation and discovery; and task-driven collaboration across pre-indexed decentralized intelligence collections. Data are stationary, while analysis is dynamic. Unlike traditional approaches to predictive analysis driven only by historic data models, the proposed approach will combine well-understood behavior and patterns to anticipate likely courses of action, with new behavior patterns detected from live field sensor data, leveraging value from real-time analysis of `unstructured' content, deriving structured data from these sources, and leveraging further value from these structured data with triggers on relational databases. Analysis and metadata generation are executed on-the-fly, moment-to-moment using live network data, not yet indexed. Detected strategy changes from field data are fed back into the continuous monitoring loop in near real-time, improving adaptive and responsive capability that is proactive, anticipatory, and reactive at the same time. Data are moving, and profiles are stationary, but adaptive. Humans receive instant alerts based on inferential analysis, pattern prediction algorithms, and dynamic Bayesian networks, using real-time field sensor data. Response-time can be almost immediate in time-critical situations.

ZEL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
54 Old Hampton Lane
Hampton, VA 23669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 722-5565
Dr. Ken Williams
AF 05-095      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Predictive Analysis Tools for PBA/IPB:Automated Course of Action Modeling
Abstract:Zel Technologies proposes an important subset of the full capabilities requested in this topic. We offer to augment Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (JIPB) tools, Automated Assistance to IPB (A2IPB) and Intelligence Preparation of the Information Battlespace (IPIB), with a capability for automatic modeling of Courses of Action. Currently, COA development entails substantial manual analyst effort, to the extent that the labor requirement is the main user complaint about JIPB tools. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of automated production of COA models by treating a variety of JIPB domains as complex networks, inserting topological network penetration analysis algorithms developed by George Mason University's Center for Secure Information Systems to expand and instantiate enemy sub-goals in effects-based COAs, and remapping the resulting topological attack graphs back into Attack Trees and COA scenarios in A2IPB and/or IPIB.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Robert Joyce
AF 05-097      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Dynamet: A Dynamic, Enterprise-Scale Information Flow Management Environment
Abstract:Mission success requires accurate, timely, and relevant information to be available to decision makers and those taking action in the field. Too often, this information is not available because the needed systems do not interoperate, or because the end user doesn't have the software or access necessary. Worse, changes in the operating environment, mission goals, or incoming information cannot entirely be anticipated by information system designers, resulting in a glut of irrelevant information and clouding situational awareness. ATC-NY and SBS, Inc. will design and develop a dynamic enterprise-scale information flow management environment, Dynamet, allowing the commander to optimize information processing in continually changing, mission critical environments. Dynamet builds on the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) platform and employs Intelligent Business System concepts to optimize dynamic information flows, while keeping the human in the decision loop.

PEERLESS TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
714 East Monument Avenure, Suite 117
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0112
Mr. David Russell
AF 05-097      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Dynamic Enterprise Workflow Management
Abstract:The purpose of this SBIR is to provide an intelligent dynamic workflow management capability that supports reconfiguration of the operations process in near real time without stopping the enterprise. The intent is to provide users with the tools to access information needed to effectively deal with rapidly changing mission tasking. Our approach enables reprioritization of tasks based on manual intervention, changes in the system and data sources, or metadata in accordance with the commanders' guidance. Key features include XML feeds and application server messaging to interface to legacy data sources, utilization of the dynamic workflow of KnowledgeKinetics (K2) and integration of NetOps to provide flexible end to end task management. Building on the Web Logic and NCES infrastructure application services, the integrated workflow capability will enable rapid publishing of information, empower users to pull whatever information they want, clearly identify information authorities, and provide decentralized information management to multiple Communities of Interest (COIs). We will employ web services to enable cross system access to capabilities and to allow data producers and consumers to find each other.

ARGTEC, INC.
8640 Guilford Road, Suite 241
COLUMBIA, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 290-9891
Dr. Monndy Eshera
AF 05-098      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Automated Assistance with Metadata Generation (A2MG) Tools for PBA/IPB
Abstract:ARGTEC is developing a new and innovative technology based on the theory of Attributed Relational Graph (ARG) for automated indexing and retrieval in multi-channel, unstructured environments for the Global Information Grid (GIG). Our system captures the information contents of unstructured (as well as structured or semi-structured) data through the use of a hierarchical ARG representation scheme. The scheme does not rely on pre-defined concepts; it automatically defines and extracts relevant sparse information contents and multi-feature concepts from the user query and from the multi-channel data itself. This feature of our approach render our system to be the most suited to deal with the challenges of finding concealed information in difficult scenarios. We have achieved several breakthroughs in the development of this technology which proved it to be very successful in Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) as well as in web-based indexing and retrieval using the contents of free-text documents. ARGTEC proposes to develop and implement a generalized hierarchical ARG model as an Automated Metadata Representation scheme tailored for Predictive Battlespace Awareness (PBA) and Intelligence Preparation of the Battlesapce (IPB). We will show that the hierarchical ARG representation technique, coupled with our suites of inexact matching algorithms are especially effective for identifying and retrieving various types of relevant information, especially in the unstructured GIG environment. We have worked with several industrial partners in both defense and commercial arenas to infuse our technology nuggets into fielded, operational systems.

CHILIAD PUBLISHING, INC.
44 Belchertown Road
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 253-7430
Mr. Paul McOwen
AF 05-098      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Automated Assistance with Metadata Generation (A2MG) Tools for PBA/IPB
Abstract:Chiliad's Phase I effort will design enhancements, extensions, and integrations of a successful concept recognition and metadata generation capability, already deployed successfully across the FBI. This software provides enterprise-wide data fusion; contextual search; full text analysis; on-the-fly concept recognition; automatic metadata generation and extraction; dynamic knowledge navigation and discovery; and task-driven collaboration across decentralized information sources and servers. Having already purchased a worldwide enterprise license to Chiliad Discovery, the FBI has been pushing the technology envelope for dynamic analysis across distributed collections of full-text messages and documents, merged with structured data from relational databases. This software is deployed to a user community of over 6,000 in an operational system providing unified analysis over a classified network to more than 85 million full-text documents and RDBMS records across multiple Bureau programs. Enhancements will include the capability to import and export standards-based ontologies; additional user tools to enable analysts to easily and rapidly create new concept types and named entities for automated extraction in conformance with XML standards; Web Services extensions; and tight integration of COTS visualization software. These dynamic techniques provide more unified views by connecting the dots across distributed sources of unstructured and structured data located on multiple decentralized server systems to reveal and exploit explicit, implicit, and tacit knowledge and facilitate more informed and effective data-driven decision making.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Paula deWitte
AF 05-099      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Automated Tools to Assist FDO Duties
Abstract:21st Century Technologies presents the Phase I SBIR project, TEGO (from Latin, tego, to conceal, protect, shield). TEGO will analyze text messages between US and foreign coalition personnel to detect disclosure-perhaps unintentional-of sensitive information to generate an alert for a human decision maker (i.e., a Foreign Disclosure Officer or FDO). The process is currently too manual to be of effective timely use. What is needed is an automatic system that alerts human decision makers as necessary, thus providing a force multiplier to the FDOs. TEGO will automate much of the analysis of textual communication and provide the alert as information disclosure becomes an issue, thereby resulting in significantly improved security with reduced manpower. This will enable the FDOs to concentrate on the important decision-making tasks. TEGO will work by analyzing natural language text using a combination of graph matching and semantic approaches. Basically, TEGO will represent the semantic content of text in a graph structure and perform graph matching against patterns representing sensitive information. The graph structure will be built from mapping machine analyzed natural language into a semantic graph representation. An ontology will be used to understand the relationships and meanings of concepts within the domain.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-3295
Mr. Tony Stirtzinger
AF 05-099      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Automated Tools to Assist FDO Duties
Abstract:Foreign Disclosure officers are the personnel in the United States AOC responsible for implementing National Disclosure Policy (NDP) that governs disclosure of United States Classified Military Information (CMI) to foreign governments and international organizations. Increasing emphasis on collaborating with multinational forces has put significant burden on release authorities, especially since the release process requires a manual, review of products. The advent of chat tools have greatly benefited communication among AOC and CAOC personnel but chat communications are impossible for an FDO to manually review. Attempts to solve these types of boundary problems based on keywords have proven to be inadequate. Natural Language Processing techniques can contribute to a solution by extracting linguistic artifacts to get the gist of the input, however, that gist still needs to be evaluated. Even if gist or summaries of chat sessions are captured, it is impractical for the FDO to review all of them. Securboration, teaming with Inxight Corporation and Northrop Grumman Mission Systems Division is pleased to propose an innovative solution entitled Automated Assistance for Foreign Disclosure (A2FD) that addresses these problems by leveraging and extending state of the art natural language processing (NLP) techniques to understand the gist, and using ontology-based inferencing to automate the evaluation of the gist, with only potential violations forwarded to the FDO.

CLEAR METHODS
One Broadway, 14th Floor
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 549-2333
Mr. Christopher Fry
AF 05-100      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Web-Enabled Information Sharing and Data Distribution
Abstract:A vast amount of intelligence information is being spewed by the C2ISR systems of advanced sensor systems and collection assets belonging to the US and coalition forces. Intelligence in the military sphere is produced from imagery (IMINT), signals (SIGINT), measurement and signatures (MASINT), and humans (HUMINT). It has become a supreme challenge to effectively deal with this overwhelming amount of data in a time-critical manner. A correspondence can be drawn to the multiple information sources of Distributed Common Ground Systems (DCGS) and sources used for commercial business intelligence. The ability to distribute and analyze intelligence is seriously limited not only by the sheer volume of information involved but also by the diversity of technology required. Analyst, warfighters, as well as business managers need to focus on understanding the information rather than the processes to collect and disseminate the information. This proposal offers a solution, built on the Water language and ConceptNet, to the problem of extracting usable information from the range of data flows as well as a means to easily and adaptively make that information and knowledge available to the appropriate parties in a time-critical manner.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Mr. Ed Smith
AF 05-100      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Web-Enabled Information Sharing and Data Distribution
Abstract:Williams-Pyro, Inc. proposes to develop an Intelligent Time Sensitive Reconnaissance System (ITSRS) that automatically determines the time-sensitive nature of any intelligence product and distributes that information to the right analysts via a personalized web page. Combined with data gathering, metadata processing, and user profiles, this system will seamlessly automate the delivery of time-sensitive intelligence information to analysts. Specifically, ITSRS will be an open source, Java/J2EE-based system that integrates with a rich set of existing services and components from IOTA, an infrastructure architecture developed by AFRL to interface with multiple intelligence data sources. ITSRS comprises of two major application components:  Feedback Loop System (FLS)  Personalized Web Interface (PWI)

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Perakath Benjamin
AF 05-101      Selected for Award
Title:Framework for Adaptive Modeling and Ontology-driven Simulation (FAMOS)
Abstract:We propose to research, design, and demonstrate an innovative Framework for Adaptive Modeling and Ontology-driven Simulation (FAMOS). We propose a hybrid approach that combines ontology and process analysis methods with ontology-driven translation generation techniques to facilitate (i) robust simulation composability analysis and (ii) semantic modeling and simulation interoperability. The technical and pragmatic viability of the proposed approach will be validated in Phase I through focused military simulation model composition experiments. The Phase I effort will (i) establish FAMOS requirements, (ii) formulate analysis methods for composable modeling and simulation, (iii) design the FAMOS architecture, and (iv) configure and demonstrate a prototype FAMOS. The Phase II project will harden the software and demonstrate its benefits on a focused Air Force application leading to rapid technology transition and commercialization. Key innovations include (i) advanced ontology, process, and information model analysis methods to assess and facilitate semantic simulation model composability; (ii) novel methods to analyze simulation models at multiple levels of abstraction; (iii) innovative ontology-driven translation generation methods that facilitates semantic information integration; and (iv) novel, scalable component-based software design strategy that will facilitate rapid and cost effective integration and deployment of the solution into critical military applications.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7781
Mr. Michael Stoddard
AF 05-101      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Integration of Composable Simulations with Real-time Applications and Databases
Abstract:Federated simulations address the need for interoperability, as well as the improvement of reuse and composability. The focal goal in a federated simulation is to facilitate composable simulations by standardizing interfaces to assure technical interoperability among disparate simulations. Yet, existing federated simulation infrastructures neither facilitate substantive interoperability nor are dynamically extensible. Emergent semantic Grid service technologies hold out the potential to significantly improve the development of interoperable, extensible, and dynamically composable federations. As such, recent initiatives such as Extensible Modeling and Simulation Framework are urging the use of open standards that can be applied within an extensible framework for next generation modeling and simulation applications. We propose to research, design, partially prototype a run-time extensible simulation modeling infrastructure that builds on our earlier work on agent-mediated model marketplaces and dynamic composability. Contextualized introspective simulation models along with agent-based mediation, brokering, and matchmaking strategies are proposed to enable dynamic model and simulation updating at run-time. The premise of the strategy entails semantic web services in conjunction with agent technology to provide facilities for run-time model discovery, location, retrieval, composition, and interoperation.

LINQUEST CORP.
6701 Center Drive West, Suite 425
Los Angeles, CA 90292
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 365-2550
Mr. Lou Sparace
AF 05-102      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Dynamic Resource Reservation on satellite Communication Links
Abstract:AF05-102 Dynamic Resource Reservation Proposal Abstract The objective of this SBIR is to design, develop and implement dynamic resource reservation (DRR) hardware/software for operation over transponded satellites. The demand for high capacity network centric satellite communications requires more efficient ways to utilize the existing bandwidth and provide real-time bandwidth management. Given the bursty nature of IP traffic and the use of QoS mechanisms such as DSCP to manage traffic streams, the network, link, and physical layers of the OSI model must be designed such that the interfaces and algorithms operate cooperatively to effectively and efficiently support real-time DRR. There are a number of factors that must also be considered that will influence the final implementation. These include the use of `Open Standards' where possible, JTRS SCA compliance, the use of the AES Encryption, netted, as well as, hub-spoke operation, and Communications on the Move requirements. The current IP modem industry would like to use the existing DVB-RCS/S2 standards with extensions to meet the DoD requirements. This standard is of interest because of its built-in Multiple Frequency (MF)-TDMA scheme that allows multiple terminals to move between and share channels. Access is determined based on each terminal's traffic load, resulting in very efficient bandwidth usage. Both the DVB extensions and the IP Modem Function Capabilities Documents (FCD) are being developed today. Both should be available to influence the final algorithms/protocols selected during Phase I of this SBIR. However, it should be noted that there are a number of challenges with the current DVB standards. First, DVB lacks the ability to include priority information with requests for more bandwidth. Second, it was not designed to handle mobility, and third, it was designed for hub-spoke configurations and the DoD needs netted operations. LinQuest is considering three unique DRR implementations to be evaluated during Phase I; an IP modem like design, an IP router TDMA line card, and an external DRR device. This proposal reviews all three architectures and implementation details. The final architecture selection will be heavily influenced by our ability to leverage existing chips sets and hardware being developed today. The key objective on this project is to maintain acceptable risk, a short development cycle, while targeting a low cost product. LinQuest is an employee-owned small business with exceptionally strong qualifications in the Military & Commercial Satellite Communication Systems, Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) arena. LinQuest was formed in the fall of 2003 started out as LinCom in 1974. LinCom was acquired by Titan in April 2000 becoming the Titan-Communications & Software Solutions Division (CSSD). The Lockheed/Titan merger announcement in September 2003 caused numerous Organizational Conflict of Interest (OCI) problems with Titan-CSSD's customer base. As a result, Lockheed/Titan divested and sold a large portion of Titan-CSSD to LinQuest in January 2004. So although the name is new, LinQuest has been providing SETA support to government organizations for over thirty years. Thus, LinQuest brings a staff of experienced engineers, analysts, and computer professionals most of which hold advanced degrees. LinQuest is uniquely qualified to support the development of DRR hardware and software given our strong background with Satcom waveforms, DAMA, IP, and QoS traffic management.

MAXENTRIC TECHNOLOGIES LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 242-9800
Mr. Houman Ghajari
AF 05-102      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Dynamic Resource Reservation on satellite Communication Links
Abstract:US military reliance on SATCOM links has been steadily on the rise as more and more IP intensive applications with high throughput requirements integrated into military applications. Satellite transponder bandwidth has always been at a very high premium, and more efficient use of this scarce asset is highly desirable. Operator around the world (with military or commercial applications) are demanding smarter satellite systems capable of optimized dynamic bandwidth allocation as well cost effective end-user terminals and ground stations based on commercial standards to benefit from global economies of scale. MaXentric is offering a solution that will calumniate in the selection of one of the commercially backed broadband satellite technologies that meets Air Forces requirements in terms of cost, efficiency and performance. This comprehensive study named XTAR Broadband-Satellite Air Force Research (XBAR) will include a thorough analytical and practical evaluation of all currently commercially available broadband satellite technology such as DVB-RCS, IPoS and DOCSIS over Satellite. Based on this study, an end-to-end satellite network system for XTAR satellite is developed. As data throughputs highly depend on actual physical implementation of a satellite broadband technology, XBAR will also include a demonstration of the three most likely technology contenders.

MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICES CORP.
18221 Flower Hill Way #A
Gaithersburg, MD 20879
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 631-1111
Mr. Alain Zarembowitch
AF 05-102      Awarded: 12APR05
Title:Dynamic Resource Reservation on satellite Communication Links
Abstract:For several decades, communication satellite resources, namely time, bandwidth and power, have been apportioned among multiple users with various degrees of dynamic allocation: long-term lease, shorter-term reservation, and on-demand. The lack of resource allocation flexibility, both in the commercial and technical sense, often results in a highly inefficient use of expensive satellite resources, especially for new IP based services which exhibit increasing dynamic bandwidth variations, through their packet nature or through the use of variable data rate data compression techniques. DVB-RCS is the first open standard to specify a complete, cost-effective and flexible satellite data network with dynamic resource allocation. The standard is being widely adopted internationally by satellite operators, service providers and equipment manufacturers alike. Yet, it could further benefit from lower-cost hubs (through open-source software) and portable user terminal software (in the form of licensable and portable VHDL core). The main objectives are to perform realtime simulations of various dynamic resource allocation algorithms, and to perform the preliminary design of a dynamically reconfigurable satellite communication network, relying as much as possible on successful standards and new mass-produced commercial integrated circuits, while focusing on two strategic subsystems to facilitate commercialization: user terminal software and network management software.

SAN DIEGO RESEARCH CENTER, INC.
6885 Flanders Drive, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 623-9424
Dr. Bo Ryu
AF 05-102      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:High Performance, Versatile, and Cost Effective Broadband Satellite Networking System for GIG
Abstract:San Diego Research Center proposes to develop an end-to-end satellite networking architecture with corresponding hardware, software, and networking protocol stack specifications to provide high satellite link utilization, low access latency (from terminal to hub), high end-to-end performance and security, and the capability to send emergency and high priority traffic at any given time. This design will leverage the Digital Video Broadcast - Return Channel via Satellite (DVB-RCS) standard to the extent possible in order to achieve low system cost provided by the wide adoption of the standard by the satellite industry. Our approach consists of: (i) enhancing the dynamic resource allocation algorithm of DVB-RCS to support end-to-end QoS specified by Multi-Protocol Label Switching standard; (ii) incorporating accurate prediction to greatly reduce the latency penalty caused by large propagation delay and bandwidth-on-demand feature; (iii) simultaneously supporting HAIPE and TCP performance enhancing features that are inherently in conflict by investigating the new promising transport protocol named eXplicit Transport Protocol (XCP); and (iv) leveraging hardware, software and protocols of existing and evolving DVB-RCS technologies. The overall design will allow for seamless integration of the proposed satellite system with the Global Information Grid while enjoying low development cost.

3DB LABS, INC.
7083 Birch Hollow Lane
West Chester, OH 45069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 265-4062
Mr. David Evans
AF 05-103      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Signal Processing for Emerging Wireless Technologies
Abstract:In many cases the analyst's problem is one of finding a needle in a haystack. The ever increasing flood of communication technology and traffic has resulted in a large and growing haystack and presents a daunting problem. The key to maximizing analyst productivity is the development of intelligent tools which automatically and accurately extract potential activity of interest while only rejecting uninteresting activity. As a case in point, the advent of third generation (3G) wireless communications is producing exponential growth of wireless information exchange. Existing stove-pipe systems are inadequate and too inflexible to handle this proliferation. 3G systems exacerbate the problem with increases in bandwidth, data rate, number of users and volume of traffic. Furthermore, complex modern modulation techniques push the envelope of processing requirements. Particularly challenging is the CDMA2000 standard (and its variants) and is the subject of the proposed effort. The focus of this proposal is the study of signal processing algorithms and architectures that will advance the current state of the art an order of magnitude, enabling processing of new and difficult signals and providing a 10X increase in analyst productivity.

ATLANTIC COAST TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
11499 Columbia Pike, Suite 200
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 625-9315
Dr. William J. J. Roberts
AF 05-103      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:MASINT Using Acoustic Signals
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing an extended and more comprehensive MASINT capability using acoustic background signals. Phase 1 will demonstrate the feasibility of identifying the environment of cellular phone conversations from the signature of background noise. The overall concept extends to entail the categorization and identification of engines, aircraft, vehicles, and ambient acoustic backgrounds using communication channels and external acoustic sensors, and of distant events using infrasound.

VEXCEL CORP.
1690 38th Street
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 583-0220
Mr. David R. Ohm
AF 05-103      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Information Exploitation
Abstract:Through this effort we will introduce a new unattended ground sensor design and architecture for measurement and signatures intelligence (MASINT). The proposed architecture will integrate several of our existing technologies including; radar tags, ground sensors, SAR image processing and ground stations. Our architecture will integrate key exploitation tasks into the sensor design in order to reduce the overwhelming volume of sensor data requiring evaluation by the analyst. The highest priority information will be inherently prioritized through a simple methodology, providing the analyst with initial choices that do not require time consuming processing and signature recognition steps. It is our belief that our unattended ground sensor design and architecture can be extended into other application areas, and we will demonstrate the potential for our sensor/tag architecture with sensor systems designed to perform such operations as SIGINT, COMINT, biological, and radiation detection. The development of these other sensor/tag combinations could be completed under follow-up contracts or other commercial efforts.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia Drive, Suite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. James Eilbert
AF 05-104      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Cycles Of SiTuation Update with ModEls (COSTUME)
Abstract:An extensible system for level 2 and 3 data fusion utilizing new classes of Behavioral, Situation and Threat Models will be developed. The framework for this system is based on a model of the human analytic process in which cycles of situation update and revision are performed as evidence arrives incrementally. We argue that people learn a combination of localized information, that we call a mental space, which provides the models people need to update their understanding of the current situation as information arrives incrementally. People gain computational efficiency and flexibility by using a hierarchy of these mental spaces and rules for transitioning between them. We have already developed portions of a system for performing cycles of situation update on incrementally arriving intelligence reports using an iGENTM cognitive model. In this new effort, we will create an autonomous and flexible data fusion system that performs Cycles Of SiTuation Update with ModEls (COSTUME) by adding mental spaces and mechanisms for utilizing them to the existing model developed as part of our effort on Rome Labs' EAGLE program. We will also use an interactive gaming environment to create a set of simple threat scenarios against which COSTUME can be tested.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Ms. Laurie Spencer
AF 05-104      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Innovative Approaches to Behavioral Modeling, Threat Modeling and Threat Prediction
Abstract:While great progress has been made in the lowest levels of data fusion, practical advances in behavior modeling and prediction remain elusive. While certainly there remains much room to improve data fusion algorithms, the most critical failing of existing approaches is their inability to support the required knowledge modeling and continuing refinement under realistic constraints (e.g., few historic exemplars, lack of knowledge engineering support, and the need for rapid system deployment). The proposed Propheteer systems will directly address this issue through a self-facilitating knowledge modeling approach that can flexibly exploit a range of knowledge contributions made by individual SME's including historic exemplars, hypothetical scenarios, existing probabilistic models and model fragments, key constraints, etc. Propheteer will support the integration of these different perspectives into a uniform model that will be employed to intelligently appraise and fuse available evidence and reason about multiple situation interpretations. Finally, Propheteer will provide analysts with the insight required to recognize model shortcomings, and will exploit its ability to compose models from fragmentary knowledge to streamline ongoing model refinement. Our prior experience and existing software components will allow for rapid progress in Phase I prototyping and provide a solid foundation for a complete implementation in Phase II.

ANABAS, INC.
440 Davis Court, Suite #1316
San Francisco, CA 94111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 637-4198
Mr. Alex Ho
AF 05-105      Awarded: 07APR05
Title:Information Mangement
Abstract:We will develop a Semantic Grid system for provenance creation, management, retrieval and representation that has broad applicability including to Joint Battlespace Infosphere applications. We propose to design and evaluate a metadata management system that can be used specifically to manage linked provenance/pedigree data that can establish the versioning and history of web entities. The provenance system that we envision is an example of a Web Service Grid architecture. This system is intended to be both a comprehensive information management system that meets the needs of the SBIR, as well as an open architecture that may be extended to provide additional capabilities.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Matt Stillerman
AF 05-105      Selected for Award
Title:PMAF, a Pedigree Management and Assessment Framework
Abstract:Warfighters need information that is both timely and trustworthy. New initiatives such as the Joint Battlespace Infosphere and Net-Centric Enterprise Services have the goal of getting "raw" information to the warfighter as quickly as possible. In order to assess the trustworthiness of such information, the warfighter must be able to automatically check its provenance. PMAF will provide an extensible standard for recording provenance in pedigrees as well as a set of tools for exploring pedigrees and assessing trustworthiness according to user-provided policies. In addition, PMAF will support the generation and checking of pedigree policies to help ensure that they accurately reflect stated user intentions.

PEERLESS TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
714 East Monument Avenure, Suite 117
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 281-0112
Mr. David Russell
AF 05-105      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Information Mangement
Abstract:This SBIR is to develop a Multi-modal Advanced Technology for Information eXchange (MATRIX) environment that will provide a distinctive way for organizations to share, reason, and collaborate on information and events. MATRIX will enable the Air Force to effectively manage organizations and data to support initiatives like Network Centric Warfare (NCW) and Global Information Grid (GIG). It will enable a user to construct persistent representations of organization structures (directorates, groups, response teams, etc.) that then can be used as roots in MATRIX to communicate, collaborate, share information, perform virtual meetings, etc. The MATRIX tool will be based heavily on open source, public domain software, and libraries to (1) control costs; (2) maximize acceptance; (3) provide the necessary compatibility and interoperability. During Phase I, the Team will demonstrate an operational prototype of MATRIX that can offer much needed organizational, team, and NCW features to meet emerging information management needs, including: (1) web based services for interoperability with other systems; (2) core presence management and collaboration suite of features; (3) efficient thick client plug-ins/interface to enterprise systems like AFRL's Collaborative Enterprise Environment (CEE) and the Air Force Portal; (4) support for human collaboration features (secure chat, VTC), meeting management, audio conferencing.

QUANTUM LEAP INNOVATIONS, INC.
3 Innovation Way, Suite 100
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 894-8029
Mr. Srikanth Kallurkar
AF 05-105      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:AIMS: Agent-based Information Management System
Abstract:The determination of information provenance in order to establish trust about sources of information and its subsequent quality is an important aspect of information management. The volume of digital information and the scale of its growth, both in terms of proliferation of sources as well as the size of digital information, presents a myriad of problems in their management. Validity and quality assessment of information allow the participants in information systems to associate confidence levels with the operations that utilize or are influenced by the information. The AIMS project will develop enabling technologies for managing and exploiting provenance to facilitate the information source trust and quality assessment of information in the Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) at minimal cost as well as complete provenance at corresponding processing and time-related costs. We propose the novel concept of information chromosomes that associates approximate provenance in specific bits associated with the information. Provenance maintenance and look-up services are provided by corresponding agents in a network-centric architecture. We will also develop evaluation metrics for in-depth analysis of effectiveness and efficiency of provenance obtained through the AIMS architecture.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 05-106      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Integrated Network Attack Fusion System (INAFS)
Abstract:In today's information age, the shift is being made from the traditional platform-centric warfare to network centric warfare (NCW). While this shift provides increased capability, it relies on an extensive network of systems that form the Global Information Grid (GIG). The GIG is threatened by numerous entities including terrorist organizations, hackers sympathetic to America's enemies, criminal organizations, and also numerous nation states who have declared their intent to develop cyber warfare capabilities (Bryan, 2003). The ability to prevent, detect, and respond to these cyber attacks is a crucial component for the protection of our computer networks and the mission critical software that relies on them. Here we propose an Integrated Network Attack Fusion System (INAFS) to support cyber attack assessment and defense. Our approach leverages three synergistic technologies: intelligent agent-based information retrieval of network data; a rule-based mechanism for event and alert generation based on retrieved information; and a Bayesian belief network approach to cyber attack detection and assessment. We see considerable potential for this approach in ensuring network survivability from cyber attack and maintaining continuity of operations.

CYBER SPK, LLC
74 Northeastern Blvd., Suite 12
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 880-1911
Dr. Duen-Ping Tsay
AF 05-106      Awarded: 13MAY05
Title:Protecting IT Systems From Cyber Attacks
Abstract:This proposal describes a plan to enhance cyber attack assessment abilities in a way that reduces both the threat to the network and the time it takes to defend it. It will be accomplished by fusing digital forensic data from 4 primary sources and then mining those sources. The data sources will include traditional Intrusion Detection Systems (including IDS/IPS/network management, etc.) and 3 additional sources not normally included. The additional sources will be system configuration snapshots, memory dumps, and both internal (private) and external (public) Cyber Threat Repositories (CTR). The system snapshots will provide all delta to the system configuration linearly over time while the memory dumps will report the state of the system in RAM in a vertical slice in time. The CTR will report actual threats experienced by others as well as any detail or resolutions added by IT staff. Mining will include direct searches as well as Bayesian probability filtering. To ensure that the process is as simple and efficient as possible, it will be incorporated into a design for a new software utility called Cyber SPKT (System Protection Kit). The Cyber SPK will represent a valuable product applicable to any component of the DoD as well as to any commercial office but will be especially valuable for industries including banking, investment, and insurance. Should this Phase I project prove the value it proposes, Phase II can follow on with the building of a demonstrable prototype.

OPEN SERVICE, INC.
110 Turnpike Road Suite 308
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 599-2000
Mr. Joe Minieri
AF 05-106      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Incident Response Decision Aid - irDA
Abstract:An event correlation and incident response capability is necessary for rapidly detecting damaging and disruptive incidents, minimizing disclosure, alteration, and destruction of digital assets, mitigating the vulnerabilities that were exploited, and restoring computing services. The first line of defense in this war is fought by the Level I information security operators tasked with monitoring the various security software tools. Here we propose to develop an incident response Decision Aid (irDA) that will guide Level I operators in the analysis, verification, notification and remediation of security incidents. In particular, we propose to integrate belief -net based course of action planning technology with our security threat management correlation engine. The belief net-based irDA will fuse the outputs of security threat manager with other in-context digital evidence and dynamically in real time recommend the optimal course of action (i.e. analysis, containment, notification, eradication, recovery) to the operator. Given the relatively inexperienced frequently changing Level I security operator cadre in the DoD workforce, the development of our incident response decision aid will have a substantial impact on improving the risk posture of DoD information assets by providing a 24x7 online help to operators.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Darrin Taylor
AF 05-107      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:ATO-STREAM: Streaming ATO Generation
Abstract:Today's ATO process is inherently complex, and the complexity increases as the Air Force moves to Effects-based Operations (EBO) and dynamic tasking. To support these next generation Air Tasking requirements, 21st Century Technologies and C3I Associates present ATO-Stream, a capability, leveraging previous work, that takes a continuous stream of targets, resources, and battlefield conditions and produces a continuously updated Air Tasking Order (ATO). Our Phase I ATO-Stream prototype will accomplish these aggressive requirements by designing and implementing technical innovations that allow the ATO process to accept streaming inputs and output updated ATO plans based on considerations such as pop-up targeting opportunities, and other dynamic information (e.g., weather and target classes). ATO-stream will dynamically consider competing and changing priorities and account for changes in the status of Air resources. 21st Century Technologies can leverage, ATO-Link, a system developed under SBIR Phase II+ contract, that has been delivered to C2 Battlelabs and successfully evaluated for AOC use, as a basis for the working prototype to be delivered in this effort.

GCAS, INC.
1531 Grand Avenue, Suite A
San Marcos, CA 92078
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 591-4227
Dr. Tuan Chi Le
AF 05-107      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:A Logic Model-based Interactive and Dynamic Planner for Command and Control
Abstract:In this proposal we present the design of an interactive and continuous planning system based on the Logic Modeling paradigm. The Logic Model based approach allows us to devise the planning system's architecture that supports outcome-based planning and evaluation at multi levels of authority and collaboration. In addition, this architecture naturally integrates assumptions and external factors that contribute to the success or failure of a plan. Plans are continuously generated and adapted by a Planning/Replanning module that lies at the heart of the planning system. The Planning/Replanning module is designed in such a way that planning is de-coupled from scheduling and they interact with each other in either a master-slave or a peer-to-peer manner. Such decoupling is expected to improve efficiency in plan generation and flexibility in resource allocation. With a User Interface module, the planning system will allow users to interact with the Planning/Replanning module in order to direct plan generation, monitor plan execution, and update information at different levels of operations. Considered as a crucial part of our effort towards building such a planning system, we will investigate several knowledge representation languages, including goal specification language, action and task representation languages, and a domain knowledge language.

INFORMATION EXTRACTION & TRANSPORT, INC.
1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 752-7473
Mr. Chester Ornes
AF 05-107      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Command and Control
Abstract:The concept of Effects-based operations (EBO) has been introduced to address new and emergent threats. For successful EBO, the question isn't "Did the weapon hit the target?"; but rather, "Did the weapon, attack, or campaign yield the desired effects?" By creating plans based on the assessment of the current situation, the planner can make decisions to shape the battle space that enhance the effectiveness of operations while limiting enemy options. The proposed Multi-Objective Bayesian Situation Assessment for Interactive Planning (MSBSA) system will support multiple aspects of EBO operations including fusion of sensor reports, situation assessment, and planning/replanning. The proposed system will efficiently create utility-optimal strategies that maximize the chance of achieving desired effects with minimum costs, continuously adjusting to changes in the environment. The MSBSA system for EBO planning uses Bayesian networks as a mean of seamlessly integrating sources of planning uncertainty into the final plans. Bayesian networks will be dynamically constructed from smaller Bayesian network fragments which we term Multi-Entity Bayesian Networks (MEBNs). A stochastic learning algorithm called popMCMC will use situation assessments from these MEBNs to find an optimal set of plans. System users can select any of the resulting plans based on the current objective priorities.

SCA TECHNICA, INC.
17 Port Chester Drive
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 321-6536
Dr. David K. Murotake
AF 05-108      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Connectivity Technologies for the Warfighter Network Using Smart Radio
Abstract:DoD networks require increased digital bandwidth to wirelessly connected users, and is deploying a family of new software-defined radios (SDR) and networks called Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), based on the Software Communications Architecture (SCA). Current mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) approaches focus on homogeneous collections of devices. JTRS waveforms can allow internetworking gateway layers that integrate multiple, incompatible radio devices and networks. JTRS waveforms such as Soldier Radio Waveform (SRW) and Wideband Networking Waveform (WNW) employ modular components, such as routing algorithms, which can be replaced with improved versions to be developed under this SBIR. In Phase I we conduct requirements analysis, define wireless networking architectures and develop initial designs that provide high bandwidth, energy efficient, communication links between disparate wireless networks. We identify the best two routing algorithms employing location awareness for minimum-energy routing and Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) to establish cost-effectiveness, using MATLAB and SIMULINK to simulate their performance. We leverage our SCA compatible "Smart Radio" prototype currently being developed under an AFRL sponsored Phase II SBIR. We will embed our new algorithms as a component of our SCA waveform stack, which shares many common components with WNW and SRW. This guarantees smooth technology transfer to JTRS waveforms.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Joao B. D. Cabrera
AF 05-108      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Connectivity Technologies for Tactical Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Abstract:Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) operate in hostile environments, and consist of a highly connected heterogeneous mixture of nodes. Current routing protocols for MANETs disregard node heterogeneity and high connectivity, leading to poor bandwidth utilization. Environmental hostility is also disregarded, making the network susceptible to packet interception and eavesdropping. The proposed effort (Phases I and II) will develop and prototype a suite of novel routing protocols which will dramatically increase the digital bandwidth of tactical MANETs, while making them robust against packet interception and eavesdropping. The suite will be based on HSLS (Hazy Sighted Link State) routing, which is the first ad hoc routing protocol that scales with network size. HSLS routing will be enhanced in two ways: (1) To benefit from node heterogeneity and to account for a hostile environment, we define an Entity Capability Profile (ECP) for nodes, describing several characteristics of the nodes, including its degree of attack susceptibility; (2) Taking advantage of high-connectivity, we propose a novel multiple path routing technique we call multi-ply routing, centered on multiple, nested parallel paths. The resulting ECP sensitive multi-ply HSLS suite of routing protocols -- ECP-mp-HSLS routing -- will dramatically increase network capacity, while protecting the network against eavesdropping and packet interception. BBN Technologies will serve as a subcontractor, providing unique expertise on MANET routing and support for prototyping in Phase II.

TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, INC.
429 West Airline Highway, Suite S
LaPlace, LA 70068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(985) 652-1127
Dr. Zeinab A. Sabri
AF 05-108      Awarded: 13APR05
Title:Connectivity Technologies for the Warfighter Network
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR Project foundational innovations in connectivity technologies are developed for the warfighter network to effectively increase the digital bandwidth to wirelessly connected users. The innovations involve wireless networking architectures and initial designs that provide high bandwidth, energy efficient, communication links between disparate wireless networks; the best two routing algorithms and projected throughput enhancement from their use; and approaches to model and simulate their performance. The innovative applications of radio and networking technologies are based on exploitation of the dense concentrations of wireless users to support high bandwidth but bursty applications such as image and video transfers. Communication between ad hoc networks containing nodes of disparate types can be accommodated by fitting some nodes with multiple radios, in order to bridge the different node types. Route discovery in the next-generation ad hoc routing protocol must then take into account the types of nodes involved in a transmission, to ensure that communication between the endpoints is possible. By studying the existing ad hoc routing protocols, suitable candidates can be selected to form the basis of new ad hoc routing protocols. Accordingly, new protocols can then be developed and tested, embodying the next-generation features.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2486
Dr. Paul Allopenna
AF 05-109      Awarded: 11APR05
Title:EBP: The Ersatz Brain Project
Abstract:This proposal arises from an attempt to design a computer suitable for the efficient execution of software that displays human-like cognitive abilities. Examples of such software applications include natural language understanding, text processing, conceptually based internet search, natural human-computer interfaces, cognitively based data mining, sensor fusion, image understanding, and higher-level cognitive tasks, such as combining lower-level data originating from different sources (senses) into coherent concepts. We base our fundamental architecture on the design of the mammalian neocortex. Our proposed architecture, is named the Ersatz Brain Project (EBP), because current knowledge will only allow us to build a weak approximation of human cortex. Even so, such a computer will be a starting point for projects that progress further in realizing systems with the power, flexibility, and subtlety of the actual brain. In Phase I, we intend to build and test a small software prototype of the EBP, and test it in a natural language (NLP) task. We suggest that a "cortex-power" massively parallel computer is technically feasible, requiring on the order of a million simple CPUs and a terabyte of memory for connections between CPUs. Furthermore, we maintain that such an architecture meets a necessary if one wants to build a realistic cognitive computing in the future.

LEXXLE, INC.
1121 Pembroke Jones Dr.
Wilmington, NC 28405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(910) 616-7327
Dr. Edwin R. Addison
AF 05-109      Awarded: 11APR05
Title:Agent Based Computing Machine
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR project is to develop an attached processor called an "agent based computing" module (ABC Machine) that is optimized to convert information into knowledge and enable "cognitive computing" for higher understanding. The architecture of the ABC Machine is based upon a concept called "statistical dataflow computing" and it operates in local contexts over string operators. It is motivated in part by analyzing the biochemical processing in biological cells, but with a goal to provide an architecture for computing problems not easily solved by traditional machines.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Dr. Carl Stern
AF 05-109      Awarded: 11APR05
Title:Computer Architectures for Understanding
Abstract:We describe a new Bayesian architecture for knowledge-based information exploitation and situation assessment, the Cognitive Bayesian INformation EXploitation (CBNX) architecture. CBNX provides mechanisms for the effective transformation of data into information and the dynamic integration of information into higher level cognitive structures supporting situation assessment and dynamic decision making. CBNX combines three distinct forms of knowledge representation. At the top level, schemas encode cognitive "design patterns", i.e., patterns for the large scale organization and interpretation of information. Domain knowledge is encoded at the middle level into a version of first order probabilistic logic with recursion called Loopy Logic. Finally, this time-independent domain knowledge is dynamically compiled into Situation Specific Bayesian Models at the bottom level. CBNX builds on recent work in frame-based probabilistic models, probabilistic relational models, and probabilistic logic, but extends it with new schema-based meta-representations and algorithms. This architecture provides a powerful set of mechanisms for aggregating data and information into interpretive frames, filtering out data that is contextually irrelevant, and illuminating the potential significance of the relevant information in context. It also allows the opportunity for dynamic data management and dynamically configured displays that clearly exhibit the relationship of new information to situation or threat components.

SAFFRON TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1600 Perimeter Park Drive, Suite 150
Morrisville, NC 27560
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 468-8201
Dr. Manuel Aparicio
AF 05-109      Awarded: 11APR05
Title:Computer Architectures for Understanding
Abstract:Saffron Technology, Inc., www.saffrontech.com, is the leader in the application of associative memory technology in cognitive computing applications. This work will identify and solve the computational architecture issues associated with creation of a hardware associative computing element and its integration into emerging cognitive computing architectures. This phase one effort will lead to a demonstration of critical design features and functionality in a FPGA test bed. Subsequent phases will lead to the development of a hardware component (a memory appliance) that can be marketed commercially as part of our current product offerings.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
AF 05-110      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Hybrid Model Based/Knowledge Discovery Approach to Situation Assessment
Abstract:This proposal explores a hybrid model based/knowledge discovery approach to situation assessment (SA), especially suitable for detecting and identifying targets in urban network centric warfare (NCW) environments. The approach recognizes significant enemy activity patterns from messages collected at distributed NCW nodes (e.g. sensors and various units) by taking into account environmental clutter. It uses clustering to perform a space and time-series analysis of messages without requiring semantic information. The approach, for example, will be able to detect spatially correlated moving units over time within the environment. Detected patterns trigger the need for assessing newly developed situations, resulting in invocations of various doctrine-based computational models, including causal static and dynamic Bayesian belief networks (BNs) considered in this proposal. The selected models then perform SA based on other observables propagated as evidence into the models. Our approach extends further by recognizing significant patterns without relying on doctrinal knowledge. It is based on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), which is a proven technique in text based information retrieval applications. We use LSI to extract underlying patterns from observables reported in formatted or text messages. These patterns form a "normal" profile against which incoming observations are matched so as to detect any unusual activities.

R & D SOFTWARE SYSTEMS, INC.
P. O. Box 199
Marcy, NY 13403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 794-5540
Mr. Robert A. Labuz
AF 05-110      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Situation Awareness within a Network Centric Operations Construct
Abstract:Situational Awareness for Network Centric Warfare requires the ability to access raw and exploited data and to be able to transform that data into information. Currently, battlefield intelligence data is provided by real-time sensors (GMTI, ELINT, TRAP/TRE), databases (MIDB, IPL, and AODB), finished intelligence products, plus exploited HUMINT, COMINT and UAV. These systems all provide their information in various formats such as streamed text, USMTF messages, PDF, HTML, Word documents and relational databases. Access methodologies vary from proprietary APIs to more standard methods such as JDBC, HTTP and Web Services. In phase I, R & D Software Systems proposes to design and develop a prototype distributed Intelligent Data and Information Collection system which will provide secure access to the both the structured and semi-structured data sources mentioned above plus the unstructured data available on the Web delivering the data in a single format such as XML. The proposed system has many dual use applications. For example, the commercial side may require access to both structured and unstructured data to perform both market and product research. Law Enforcement requires access to many structured and semi-structured data sources in order to perform a thorough money laundering or drug trafficking investigation.

BIG FUN DEVELOPMENT CORP.
620 Lakeshore Drive
Berkeley Lake, GA 30096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 300-0308
Mr. Dov Jacobson
AF 05-115      Awarded: 14APR05
Title:Battlefield Airman: Tactical Air Control
Abstract:Tactical Air Control is a complex problem with high stakes. A failed strike leaves the ground unit vulnerable and may inflict collateral damage. Fratricide is a grave risk. Respect for this reality demands that the highest value in the game design cannot be technology, nor feature list, nor dramatic graphic effects. The highest value must be fidelity. "Battlefield Airman: Tactical Air Control" is a wargame designed to address: Training, Certification, Readiness, Rehearsal, After Action Analysis. Workplan: Research-- Continue experimental evaluation of speech recognition, comprehension and conversation (including COTS hardware), Engineer CAS radio-traffic simulation. Design-- Collaborate with Hurlburt Field and Nellis AFVB so game meets future syllabus. Tooling-- Assemble toolset for rapid content development, mixing developmental (scenario generator) and non-developmental (AI designer) applications. Construction-- Complete two playable prototype scenarios during Phase I. Technical Qualifications: The proposer brings a unique set of functional components to this assignment: - Speech recognition, conversation engine (SAPI, VoiceXML, ConvX) - Optimized 3D engine, high capacity terrain manager (DEM, NIMA) - Mission Planner -with waypoints, threats, behaviors, and validator - AI for characters, vehicles, etc (including SimBionic standard) - SME relationships - many networked and singleplayer games delivered to commercial market and DoD.

ENERGID TECHNOLOGIES
124 Mount Auburn Street, Suite 200 North
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 547-4100
Mr. Brian O'Flynn
AF 05-115      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Tactical Air Controller Wargame
Abstract:Energid Technologies proposes a JTAC training system that combines spoken dialog with a 3D spatial-reasoning module based on rendering the environment with synthetic colors. The use of high-speed PC graphics cards will allow the reasoning module to execute in real time on a PC. In addition to the synthetic-vision-based reasoning module, the Energid system will use an advanced dialog module and a module to integrate the virtual pilot's world knowledge into a context system. This software framework will be refined based on the expertise of members of the team in close air support. An innovative engineering design combined with the best field expertise will allow the creation of a realistic and useful JTAC training system.

FEDERAL FABRICS-FIBERS
45 W. Adams St
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-3037
Dr. Fred geurts
AF 05-117      Awarded: 05APR05
Title:Chemical/Biological (CB) Protected Mobile Maintenance Shelters
Abstract:Servicing fighter aircraft continuously and effectively requires a shelter, especially during adverse weather or during a suspected Chemical and Biological attack. Continuous and effective service will bring the fighter back to its next sortie faster, thus maximizing this high value asset. While a full size hanger for each and every aircraft is desirable, during an overseas bare base operation, the likelihood of such hanger availability is remote. A solution is required to protect the maintenance crew from the environment, such as sand storm and a Chemical or Biological attack. An AirBeam frame (AirFrame) supported structure will offer stability in high wind, and relatively fast setup. An AirBeam supported shelter is self supporting and once inflated does not require a continuous air supply to remain deployed. This shelter will then require only a small continuous flow of fresh CB filtered air, the amount of which is dependent on the number of personnel, their activity levels, and the leak rate (through airlocks, doors, or vents). In the event of a power interruption the AirBeam frame will continue to support the structure (essentially indefinitely) and the shelter will function as passive protection. The shelters are designed such that the end wall can be completely removed without compromising the integrity of the system. The AirBeam frame can encapsulate the part of the aircraft that is being serviced.

PRODUCTION PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING & SALES, INC.
1285 Dunn Road
St. Louis, MO 63138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 868-3500
Mr. Barry M. Corona
AF 05-117      Awarded: 04APR05
Title:Chemical/Biological (CB) Protected Mobile Maintenance Shelters
Abstract:Production Products is proposing a rapidly deployable Chemical/Biological (CB) protected shelter to house fighter aircraft or portions of the aircraft during maintenance operations. The shelter system will be rapidly deployable, have its own filtration and air handling system, and will be highly adaptable to sealing against surfaces. Furthermore, the shelter will be able to ship on the standard military air cargo pallet. The proposed shelter technology to be developed under this program will enable Air Force ground crews to service fighter aircraft in a mobile enclosure that can be quickly positioned over any portion of the aircraft while providing an environment that is protected from CB contamination. In Phase I, the design concepts for the shelter will be developed. We will perform material and equipment trade studies and downselection to optimize CB protection. Further, analysis will be completed to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and incorporating CB protected materials into a protective system with an integrated filtration system coupled with and ECU that meets the program goals for protection levels inside the shelter. To demonstrate the feasibility of the shelter, subscale shelter components (shelter body seams and interfaces) will be fabricated and tested. In Phase II, we will fabricate a full-scale prototype that will be field tested to evaluate its CB protection capability, ease of deployment, and ability to meet the program requirements.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. John Bulluck
AF 05-118      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Lightweight Durable Intumescent Paint
Abstract:The USAF has a critical need for innovative, low observable, flame and heat resistant coatings for composite aircraft structures. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. proposes to build on our previous successful work with preceramic coatings to develop a new class of fire retardant, low observable intumescent coatings. Upon exposure to fire, this new coating swells into a tough, durable, insulating char that extinguishes burning and protects the underlying composite substrate. Our preceramic binder does not burn; it converts to a ceramic. Presently, commercially available intumescent coatings do not provide the adequate heat and fire protection required in the solicitation. The purpose of the proposed program is to develop new protective coatings that can be applied over composite aircraft structures and impart unique and vastly improved flame, smoke, and toxicity (FST) characteristics to the composite. Our approach uses novel materials, including preceramic binders, intumescing agents, RAM fillers, and glass microspheres. The proposed new flame retardant preceramic coating binders are very new materials, with revolutionary application possibilities emerging within the last few years.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng C. Tan
AF 05-118      Awarded: 01APR05
Title:Lightweight Durable Intumescent Paint for Aircraft Composite Protection from Fire Damage
Abstract:Many military and commercial aircraft industries have been increasing the use of advanced polymeric composites to reduce fuel consumption. One of the main challenges, however, is the flammability of these organic composites when exposed to fire. Most organic composites ignite within 1 minute when exposed to fire and their structural integrity are significantly degraded. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a lightweight flame resistant coating to protect aircraft and aerospace structures. It is also desirable for many commercial structures to have fire protective coatings. Commercially available intumescent paints are usually applied with a thickness from 3 to 18 mm. Normally, a coating with thickness of 9 mm or higher is needed to provide sufficient protection of a structure from fire damage. These values of thickness and weight are too high for aircraft and aerospace structures applications. Current intumescent paints have another major concern; that is, they all contain additives that release inorganic acids. The acid reacts with the existing paint and negatively affects the durability of the coating. In this SBIR Phase I project we propose to develop an inert, lightweight, intumescent coating material to protect military and commercial aircraft structures from fire damage. The proposed technology has no negative impact on the existing aircraft paint and is environmentally safe. Preliminary test results demonstrate that the proposed intumescent paint can protect a thin aluminum sheet from fire damage at fire temperatures up to 900C.

MACH I, INC.
340 East Church Road
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 279-2340
Mr. Albert C. Condo
AF 05-119      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Fuel Processor Hardware Components For Deployable Fuel Cell Power Generation
Abstract:The objectives for this SBIR Phase I study are to establish feasibility for deployable logistic-fuel processor to produce a clean hydrogen gas (sulfur free) from JP-8 fuel. The processor is a portable laboratory or beta-site (off-site) non-thermal plasma (NTP) cell. The portable NTP cell is believed capable of hydrogen gas extraction from logistic-fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8 and petroleum refinery products. In a NTP plasma environment, dissociation of the JP-8 fuel molecules acts to produce a hydrogen reformate stream. The hydrocarbon feed molecules are reduced to their elemental states resulting in an effluent containing hydrogen gas and various C, S and metallic particulates. The hydrogen effluent is processed for removal of contaminates by recycling the effluent via a closed loop to the NTP cell for increased residence. To achieve ultra pure hydrogen (UPH) for fuel cell application, furthur processing, as needed, will be chemically and/or Ag/Pd Membrane Diffusion cell processed, as needed. The UPH stream is charged to an auxiliary portable SOFC (Solid Oxide) or a PEM (Polymeric Electrostatic Membrane) fuel cell deployable power unit. The Phase I Targeted objectives are focused on demonstrating feasibility for hydrogen extraction from JP-8 logistic-fuel in a compact, efficient and compatibility non-thermal (NTP) plasma cell. As currently configured, the Pioneer Industrial Technologies Co. has designed and patented state-of-the-art arc barrier discharge systems (DBD) for portable NTP units of various sizes. Pioneer's recent tests have indicated that, in the presence of gas feed-stocks, a higher order of the combustion chain is being formed. When in the presence of hydrocarbons, reformed hydrogen gas will be separated from contaminates and processed for fuel cell application. MACH I, Inc. plans to partner with Pioneer Technologies. A fuel cell company (Power & Energy Corp.) has expressed interest in working with MACH I, Inc. on the necessary steps to achieve ultra pure hydrogen (UPH) gas for fuel cell application. For a portable in-situ beta-site hydrogen generation-fuel cell capability, a Phase II development will optimize conversion efficiencies and prepare a design scale-up to 10 kW levels and commercial proto-type portable off-site (beta) for field demonstration suitable to meet AF operating parameters for Phase III commercialization.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9380 SW 72nd Street, B-180
Miami, FL 33173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Mrs. Sangyup Song
AF 05-119      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Development of single-cell partial oxidative reformer/solid oxide fuel cell
Abstract:There is strong demand to develop and increase the use of electric aircraft in future military and aviation applications. All electric aircraft concepts and aircraft maintenances require reliable, compact, and efficient electric power sources. Fuel cell electric generator using JP-8 fuel is identified as the electric power source of choice. Current designs of the fuel cell systems have two major subsystems: a fuel cell itself and fuel processor that extracts clean hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide from JP-8 fuel. These fuel cell systems are unable to meet the requirements on compactness, efficiency, and compatibility. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. teaming with the fuel cell group of Dept. of Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology of the Florida International University hereby proposes to develop an innovative single-cell catalytic partial oxidative reformer (CPOR) /solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The concept integrates a burner, electrochemical promotion section for partial oxidative reforming, and tubular SOFCs in a single reaction chamber. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed concept. Phase II will develop a working fuel cell prototype system.

FEDERAL FABRICS-FIBERS
45 W. Adams St
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-3037
Dr. Fred Geurts
AF 05-120      Awarded: 01APR05
Title:Advanced Shelter Technology
Abstract:The ultimate objective is to produce a light weight, robust, rapidly deployable shelter that will perform reliably for the entire duration of the mission (however long that may be) and then can be simply and easily struck down (reversable)and stowed in a small cube until it is once again needed. FFF believes that with the new innovations and advances in our AirBeam shelters that this objective can be readily achieved without further modifications to the AirBeam shelter system. With this in mind the AirBeam frame and shelter will be designed to optimize the robustness of the system as a stand alone item, while allowing for the possibility to subsequently rendered the "temporary" shelter into a more permanent structure by applying a rigidifying technique. Once a shelter has been treated to render it "permanent" it must be able to withstand the forces imposed upon it by nature for the desired life span of the "building". What ever technique and materials utilized to solidify the structure they must be tested and evaluated to insure that the building will last.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Mark Snyder
AF 05-120      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Self-Rigid Re-Stowable Composite Replacement for High Pressure Airbeam-Supported Shelter
Abstract:Self-deploying fabric structures supported by high-pressure airbeams have significantly reduced logistical requirements compared to metal-frame shelters. They require 75% less packing volume, weigh 66% less, and reduce deployment time by 60%. Airbeam-supported shelters are, however, susceptible to unintentional deflation and degraded integrity from large cuts, tears and punctures. Dedicated inflation systems are required to maintain pressure. Some military operations require fast deployment followed by long-term use, where durability with minimal maintenance and logistical support are essential. At some point advantages of airbeam deployment become outweighed by burden of keeping beams inflated. One suggested solution is to deploy and erect a shelter using air, then rigidize beams to eliminate need for maintaining pressure. This solves one problem but introduces others, including making the task of repacking and moving to a new location more difficult. KaZaK will investigate feasibility of a new light-weight, low maintenance, self-deploying hanger-type shelter that has many advantages of fabric airbeam shelters, including dense packaging and simple erection, but once erected, is rigid. For load-carrying structure, we will modify a novel composite construction used with success by KaZaK for other difficult design problems that required a balance between deployed stiffness and compact coiling for transport.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P Scaringe
AF 05-121      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Optimization, Design and Fabrication of a Prototype 5-Ton ECU Using Hydrocarbon Refrigerants
Abstract:Mainstream has a long history of investigating the use of hydrocarbon refrigerants in heat pumps and air conditioners. Experimental data has demonstrated the performance of some hydrocarbon refrigerants to be about 7% better than R-410A and 10% better than HCFC-22. Experiments have also demonstrated that hydrocarbon blends can be formulated to match the saturation temperature/pressure behavior of HCFC-22. Compressor tests have shown that the hydrocarbons are compatible with conventional mineral-oil refrigeration oils. This Phase I effort proposes to: A) evaluate the performance of various hydrocarbon refrigerants and mixtures using our in-house heat pump models, B) select the optimum hydrocarbon working fluid for this Lightweight ECU application, C) experimentally determine the flammability characteristics of the potential hydrocarbon refrigerant, D) Design and Build a full-scale prototype 5-Ton Lightweight ECU, E) measure the performance of this improved ECU, and F) compare the performance, size and weight benefits to Mainstream's existing ECU which uses R-410A. Phase I also includes the delivery of the prototype 5-ton Lightweight hydrocarbon-refrigerant ECU. Our accelerated schedule not only reduces the risk to the government and provides more value, it also allows the follow-on Phase II to focus on Military Field Tests, Life Tests, and more extensive performance testing.

TIAX LLC
Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5821
Mr. Detlef Westphalen
AF 05-121      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Lightweight Environmental Control Unit (ECU)
Abstract:An analytical model will be developed to assess air-conditioning system performance operating with hydrocarbon refrigerant. Different hydrocarbon refrigerants and blends of refrigerants will be evaluated to determine which option provides the best performance with the least flammability risk. Flammability testing will be done as required to quantify the blend's characteristics, if such information is not publicly available. A design concept will be established, consisting of preliminary selection of key components and a preliminary system layout. Targets for key system characteristics are: (1) Performance equivalent to that of the FDECU, (2) Size allowing stack of 18 units on a 463L pallet, and (3) Weight of 475 or less pounds.

SCIENTIFIC FORMING TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
5038 Reed Road
Columbus, OH 43220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 451-8322
Dr. Wei-Tsu Wu
AF 05-122      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Efficient Superalloy Ingot Breakdown
Abstract:Currently, all the major material suppliers use DEFORM to help understand and design their cogging process. From the perspective of the material suppliers, being able to use the modeling techniques to predict, control and optimize ingot breakdown processes to achieve the desired microstructures has been their top priority. The proposed work focuses on microstructural modeling of IN718 ingot breakdown processes. In the first phase of this SBIR project, we propose to investigate appropriate microstructural models to predict the evolution of grain size and microstructure occurring during the ingot breakdown process. We would also investigate the appropriate kinetics models for recrystallization and grain growth. At the end of the first phase, we would study and propose models for precipitate nucleation, growth and dissolution. In order to achieve an efficient ingot breakdown modeling procedure, we would evaluate domain decomposition methods and special numerical techniques to achieve a substantial increase in computational efficiency. Technical feasibility studies and investigations conducted in the first phase of this project would directly benefit in the development and implementation of microstructural models for IN718 ingot breakdown process.

VISTA ENGINEERING, INC.
2800 Milan Ct, Suite 115
Birmingham, AL 35211
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 943-6720
Mr. William Carden
AF 05-122      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Efficient Superalloy Ingot Breakdown
Abstract:The team proposes to make revolutionary advances in computational design tools that will accurately predict the Processing - Microstructure Relationships in the ingot-to-billet conversion processes. The capability of Vista's current MEMICc model to predict microstructure evolution in the middle stages of the ingot conversion process has been demonstrated in earlier work and is currently in the process of verification and validation. In Phase I, the prototype will be expanded and the feasibility of modeling the early stages of ingot conversion will be demonstrated. The arduous task of developing material specific constants to describe material behavior and model validation will be addressed in Phase II. The work will build on our current MEMICc prototype and our extensive experimental work already performed. The output of the project will be software tools that model/simulate the microstructural evolution during the ingot-to-billet conversion process and direct it to the optimal grain-refinement path. These products will be commercialized by Vista though the chain of turbine disc production involving billet makers, forgers, engine manufacturers and the DoD. Many non-DoD commercialization opportunities exist in private aerospace, NASA, DOE, nuclear and petrochemical industries.

H&R TECHNOLOGY, INC.
95 Rock Street, 3d Floor
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 453-6400
Mr. Joshua Rabinovich
AF 05-124      Awarded: 30MAR05
Title:PMD In situ Repair of Ti-6-2-4-2 Structures
Abstract:Modern military aircraft widely employ hot metallic structures comprised of thin (up to 0.160 inch) panels made of titanium alloy Ti-6-2-4-2. These hot structures are operating in harsh environmental conditions and are subjected to cyclical loads causing cracking problems. In many instances the repair and replacement of these damaged structures is extremely labor and time intensive in disassembly and reinstallation operations. In situ repair of the damaged structures would provide a cost effective solution to restoration of the damaged structures by eliminating the need in costly and time consuming disassembly and reinstallation operations potentially saving millions of dollars. The proposed advanced manufacturing process offers a low heat input metal deposition with a reliable metallurgical bond, while combining pre-and post-deposition machining operations in one automated repair process and machine. This promises to revolutionize the cost and time of repair of cracked aircraft hot structures. Recent advances with PMDT low heat input flat wire metal deposition encompasses the metal deposition and machining capabilities into one integrated system. Implementation of this technology would have significant technical and economic value for a myriad of US Government and commercial industrial applications.

KEYSTONE SYNERGISTIC ENTERPRISES, INC.
542 SW Keats Ave
Palm City, FL 34990
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(772) 879-3634
Mr. Ralph Anderson
AF 05-124      Awarded: 30MAR05
Title:In-Situ Repair of Ti 6-2-4-2S Structures
Abstract:It is well established that titanium alloy structural components will crack when exposed to excessive heat and stress. However, occasionally components are under designed for the application and premature cracking occurs in opterional aircraft. This proposed project is designed to address the issues associated with in-situ crack repair of Ti 6-2-4-6 S components using techniques that will restore near parent material microstructures and mechanical properties to the repaired area. Low temperature metal deposition techniques will be demonstrated to replace lost material in the area of the crack. Local heat treat approaches will be applied to the repair area to minimize rsidual stresses. Solid state weld repairs will be demonstrated using techniques that will enable in-situ repair procedures and evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility of the repair to retain near parent metal properties and microstructure.

LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6145 Scherers Place
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 718-3000
Dr. David W. Sokol
AF 05-125      Awarded: 25MAY05
Title:Advanced Laser Technology for Composite Bond Evaluation
Abstract:To reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency, bonded composites are being used in aircraft structures. Once a structure is assembled, there is no conventional NDI method available to assure that the strength of the bond is adequate for service. This program will develop processing heads and inspection techniques that will 1) allow the NDI of joints in remote locations accessible only through small access ports, 2) interrogate layered assemblies, and 3) develop techniques for inspection of thin plate structures.

SONIPULSE, INC.
4919 WINDPLAY DR, SUITE 1
EL DORADO HILLS, CA 95762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 941-7600
Mr. Robert Cribbs
AF 05-125      Awarded: 16MAY05
Title:Composite-Bonded Joint Strength Evaluation
Abstract:This is a proposal to develop the technology to measure bond strength. The approach is to use a novel ultrasonic transducer that is capable of generating pulse amplitudes that produce strains just below the required bond strength. If the bond survives the pulse it is considered good. Previous work by others has shown the feasibility of this approach, however the equipment that was used requires a vacuum chamber and has other limitations that make it impractical for production or repair inspection. Piezoelectrics are incapable of generating ultrasonic pulses of sufficient amplitude and bandwidth for this application. The new approach sends an extended signal from a piezoelectric into a "broadband resonator". By selecting the correct input signal all frequency components arrive at the output in phase at some later time to produce the pulse. A portable, battery powered system could be developed to handle a wide range of material thickness with hand-held transducers spanning a broad range of center frequencies. The experimental plan is to fabricate specimens containing bonds of various strengths by changing the bond material characteristics, subject the bonds to pulses just below the bond strength, note any failures, then test the strength of any intact specimens with destructive tests.

BRIGHTON TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
11379 Grooms Road
Blue Ash, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 469-1800
Dr. Giles Dillingham
AF 05-126      Awarded: 18MAY05
Title:Quality Assurance of Composite Bonding Processes
Abstract:Adhesive bonding of composite materials is a critical component of modern aircraft construction. Adhesive bonding of metals such as aluminum is well understood, and the processes currently used for manufacture of adhesively bonded metal aircraft components are robust and controllable. However, the factors responsible for obtaining strong and durable adhesive bonds to fiber reinforced composite materials are only poorly understood. Current practice usually involves abrasive blasting of the adherend surface. This is believed to improve adhesive bond strength through improved wetting of the substrate by the adhesive and by providing for mechanical interlocking of the adhesive and the substrate. While this process can result in strong and durable bonds, variations in bond performance can occur unexpectedly. Quality control techniques for ensuring reproducibility of the bond performance are needed. Our previous work has shown that surface energy of a prepared composite correlates well with the adhesive joint performance, and can potentially serve as the basis for a shop floor-level quality assurance tool. The goal of Phase I of the proposed research is to develop and evaluate at least two techniques for predicting wettability of a composite surface by a room-temperature paste curing adhesive.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-9295
Dr. Michael Featherby
AF 05-126      Awarded: 15JUL05
Title:Quality Assurance of Composite Bonding Processes
Abstract:Composite materials are being increasing used on aircraft structures and as they are used in more critical areas, the quality of the adhesives bonds must be assured. Among the various bonding techniques, surface cleanliness is most important for adhesive bonding and especially for fluxless brazing /soldering. Similar problems arise in the painting of aircraft although structural integrity is not involved in this case. Current methods of checking the surface cleanliness leave a lot to be desired as they risk further contamination of the surface and are subject to the skill of the technician performing the test. An operator-friendly non-contact method capable of detecting any contaminant over a large area just prior to bonding is the ideal solution. Space Micro Inc. (SMI) in partnership with San Diego Composites LLC (SDC) proposes to define and develop a novel instrument for quantitatively assessing the bond surface quality of composites and structural metals. The innovation described in this proposal is to select and adapt existing equipment and technology for this application to minimize the technical risk and development time.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES CORP.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 842-8100
Mr. Richard Guiler
AF 05-127      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Machining of Complex Integral Airframe Structures
Abstract:Currently the construction of complex aircraft structures such as the skeleton within a wing is extremely time consuming and expensive. Traditionally these structures are assemblies of sheet metal parts, machined parts and composite parts, which are bonded and riveted together. Replacing an assembly of this type with a single machined part has the advantages of reducing the total number of build hours, decreasing weight, and increasing strength, but the machining techniques used for this are very expensive. There have been a number of advances in machining techniques and equipment, which may allow an entire wing skeleton type of structure to be affordably machined as one piece with a minimal number of set-ups using much smaller machines. The combination of Plunge rough cutting, Sonically tuned milling equipment, Heat shrink coupling of cutting tools, Cutting tools designed with frequency in mind, Relieved cutting tools, and the use of High-speed fluid driven or gear driven right angle heads will allow smaller machines to build affordable complex integral aircraft structures from aluminum or titanium, like those found in aircraft such as the F-35A.

BECK ENGINEERING
3319 21st Ave NW
Gig Harbor, WA 98335
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 876-9710
Dr. Douglas S. Beck
AF 05-127      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:High-Speed Headstock with B-Axis for Machining Aircraft Structures
Abstract:The Air Force needs new higher productivity, higher accuracy equipment and processes for machining integral, complex aircraft airframe structures cost effectively. Structures with simply shaped pockets and straight walls can be effectively end milled using large high velocity machine tools. However, these machines cannot efficiently mill structures with integral return flanges and other complex internal features. We propose to develop a High Speed Headstock with B-Axis (HSHBA) that will enable large high velocity machine tools to efficiently mill complex internal features. Our HSHBA mounts in the spindle nose of the large machine tools. Our HSHBA allows the cutting tool to be positioned with complex motions on a small scale while utilizing the large-scale motions of the high-velocity machine tool. The HSHBA also enables rapid end milling even when small tools with less than " diameter are used because the miniature headstock rotates at up to 150,000 rpm and can deliver up to 5 horsepower of power to the small cutting tool. In Phase I, we will design a pre-prototype HSHBA and calculate its operating characteristics. In Phase II, we will build and test a prototype HSHBA. In Phase III, we will sell HSHBAs in the aerospace manufacturing market.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Mr. Wei Shih
AF 05-128      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Advance Liquid-Cooled Avionics Enclosure
Abstract:As the chip power increases, aluminum avionics enclosures (chassis) equipped with liquid-cooled cold wall are currently being proposed and qualified for advanced military fighters. There is an urgent need to further reduce the weight and to improve the performance of these enclosures. The ability to use both structural and high-conductivity carbon fiber composites materials offers a realistic possibility to achieve both performance goals at the same time. For example, an advanced fiber composite electronic enclosure equipped with advanced liquid-cooled cold wall is predicted to weigh 30 - 50 percent less than current state-of-the-art counterpart. Under this proposed program, advanced composite cold walls will be designed, fabricated and tested. These cold wall will be integrated with advanced liquid-cooled heat exchanger and be designed to dissipate large amount of waste heat. A successful demonstration of a low-cost composite cold wall will significantly enhance our ability to design, fabricate and demonstrate an all-composite enclosure at affordable cost for both military and commercial applications.

MATERIAL INNOVATIONS, INC.
15801 Chemical Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 893-0367
Mr. James Calder
AF 05-128      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:High-Performance Hybrid Electronic Enclosure
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to establish and demonstrate the feasibility of a low cost, high thermal performance, lightweight liquid cooled ATR chassis utilizing a hybrid of ultra high thermal conductivity graphite fibers, structural composite incorporating low cost discontinuous 3D fibers, and metallic materials where necessary. This innovation partners the conductive heat transfer capability of high modulus pitch-based graphite fibers exceeding 500 W/mK with the capacity to transmit large amounts of heat with small temperature gradients into closed looped liquid coolant system. Key technical focal points will be to establish cost effective hermetic liquid flow through while designing the system solution to minimize or eliminate internal stress at interfaces as a result of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch. The primary technology development will be to design an enhanced low cost material and manufacturing solution and to maximize thermal performance between the card rail/slot liquid cooling paths. Cooling efficiency goals are targeted to exceed current baseline aluminum chassis configurations. Key technologies including materials and processes will be demonstrated in Phase 1. The application of this opportunity will result in implementation of a low cost manufacturing design leading to production of a full-scale qualifiable working chassis in Phase 2.

SPACEWORKS, INC.
7301 E. Sundance Trail, P.O. Box 2014
Carefree, AZ 85377
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 575-1676
Mr. John DiPalma
AF 05-128      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:High-Performance Hybrid Electronic Enclosure
Abstract:The power levels of avionics and vetronics have increased with each successive generation of air, space and ground vehicles. The corresponding approaches to thermal management, including liquid cooling and spray cooling, have resulted in more complex designs, higher costs and increased weight. SpaceWorks will develop a lightweight avionics enclosure design to take advantage of the higher specific strength, stiffness and thermal conductivity of graphite fiber composites and pyrolytic graphite materials. A low-cost molding process will be used to produce a lightweight structural component with embedded high-conductivity pyrolytic graphite inserts and internal passages for coolant flow. The resulting single-piece item replaces several individual components for reduced weight, parts count and assembly costs. During the Phase I project, SpaceWorks will develop a conceptual design for a liquid-cooled enclosure that accommodates a standard circuit-card form-factor, such as VME, cPCI or SEM-E. SpaceWorks will fabricate a proof-of-concept part and perform thermal and structural testing to demonstrate improved thermal transport, structural integrity and reduced cost.

IBC MATERIALS & TECHNOLOGIES
902 Hendricks Drive
Lebanon, IN 46052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(416) 213-9833
Dr. L. Segal
AF 05-129      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Fretting Wear Elimination in Gear Box Housings
Abstract:'IBC Materials&Technologies'is proposing to use Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) technology to apply a hard, ductile, 100-150 micrometer (.004 - .006 in) thick coating on the bearing housing wall, to be used as anti-fretting, anti-wear, anti-corrosion protection in contact with the bearing steel surface. PEO performance is superior to conventional hard anodizing or plasma spray, is applied at temperatures under 100 degC (212 degF), using environmentally acceptable electrolytes. The microhardness is in the range of 1,800 - 2, 500 HV (microhardness Vickers)and lubricated friction is very low. The porous surface can be easily impregnated with the gear box lubricant

UCT DEFENSE, LLC
7825 SW Ellipse Way
Stuart, FL 34997
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(772) 223-6699
Dr. Yancy W. Riddle
AF 05-129      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:Fretting Wear Elimination in Gear Box Housings
Abstract:This proposal responds to the problem of fretting and galling occurring at the interface between steel inserts and A357 aluminum alloy gear box housings. UCT Defense proposes to apply Boronizing and/or Ni-B surface modifications to eliminate corrosion, fretting, and galling and to allow the steel inserts to be removed from the design, which will also reduce the weight of the system. The innovation that responds to this problem is an advancement in engineered surface finishing for galling, fretting, and corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy gearbox housings using the UltraCemT family of nickel boron coatings and/or a novel boronizing surface modification.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. H.Q. Yang
AF 05-130      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:A Comprehensive Modeling Tool for Cold Hearth Melting Processes
Abstract:CFDRC proposes to develop a comprehensive, high fidelity commercial quality simulation tool for modeling the Cold Hearth Melting (CHM) processing of Titanium alloys. The code will accurately predict the transient temperature distribution, flow patterns, skull shape, species evaporation, and particle fates in the hearth region for a given set of dynamic operating conditions. The foundation for this tool will be the proven multi-physics package, CFD-ACE+. In Phase I, we will demonstrate parity with the current state of the art by comparison with the results of two selected models. In Phase II, we will improve the scope, speed and accuracy of the tool using an innovative combination of advanced numerical tools and expertise unique to CFDRC. These advanced tools include parallel processing, adaptive grids, advanced turbulence models, particle tracking, free surface modeling with Marangoni effects, Monte Carlo for radiative heat transport, and rarified gas dynamics with evaporation and deposition. These capabilities will be coupled and integrated into a user-friendly software package. The development will be performed in close collaboration with the industry to ensure relevance and facilitate technology transfer.

INNOVATIVE RESEARCH, INC.
3025 Harbor Lane N, Suite 300
Plymouth, MN 55447
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 519-0105
Dr. Kanchan M. Kelkar
AF 05-130      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Computational Modeling of Cold-Hearth Melting Processes
Abstract:The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a comprehensive, efficient, and well-validated computational model for the prediction of the process performance and quality of the titanium alloys produced using the Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Plasma Arc Melting (PAM) processes. The computational model will analyze all the underlying physical phenomena in cold hearth melting namely, flow, heat transfer, phase change, electromagnetics, inclusion transport, alloy element volatilization (EBM), and helium entrapment (PAM). The model will also consider the transient effects caused by the motion of the heat source and periodic freezing and melting of the conduits connecting successive hearths. The computational solution will utilize many novel features for obtaining computational efficiency. These include an efficient treatment of the coupling among the hearths, a multigrid solution technique, and use of a Lagrangian technique for the prediction of the motion and dissolution of the inclusions. The model will be validated with reference to available measurements on practical EBM and PAM furnaces. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a computational model for the EBM and PAM processes by focusing on the analysis of flow, heat transfer, alloy vaporization, and helium entrapment phenomena in a single hearth.

SURFACES RESEARCH & APPLICATIONS, INC.
8330 Melrose Drive
Lenexa, KS 66214
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(913) 541-1221
Dr. Paul Sutor
AF 05-131      Awarded: 28MAR05
Title:Robust Solid Lubricant Coating for Gears of Cryogenic Fuel Turbopumps
Abstract:Surfaces Research proposes development of a highly durable solid lubricant coating to eliminate wear and vibration problems in liquid hydrogen turbopump gears. The cryogenic turbopumps are used in rocket engines for Air Force expendable launch vehicles. Our new coating will exceed the cryopump manufacturer's goal life of twice that of the current coating. Our sound, novel approach uses three strategies to greatly increase coating wear life: a more cryogenically-durable polymer binder, a new solid lubricant adjuvant additive, and a hard coat underlayment for the solid lubricant. This approach is strongly supported by wear results at cryogenic temperatures and specifically in liquid hydrogen. We will conduct cryogenic wear life tests by the same method used to qualify the current liquid hydrogen turbopump gear coating. Our approach is particularly advantageous because. Our direct replacement for the current coating preserves the substantial investments already made by Pratt and Whitney, the manufacturer in standards and specifications, automated coating application, and predictive test methods. We are working with Pratt and Whitney to conduct gear rig and actual engine tests of our superior coating within one year of the Phase I feasibility demonstration.

TRIBOLOGIX LLC
30 Shockton Court
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 271-3858
Mr. Andras Korenyi-Both
AF 05-131      Awarded: 26APR05
Title:Robust Solid Lubricant Coating for Gears of Cryogenic Fuel Turbopumps
Abstract:Several advanced solid film lubricant coating processes are evaluated to be used for turbopump gears operating at high speeds and high contact pressures in an RL-10 rocket engine at cryogenic temperatures. Based on existing application data concerning the performance of the proposed advanced coatings a significant improvement in turbopump gear operation is expected. Improvements in coating uniformity, structure, wear life with a reduction in friction and vibrations yield improved turbopump operations. This study details specific characterization and cryogenic testing at appropriate loads and speeds similar to that of rocket fuel pump. Characterization includes microscopy, metallurgy and surface characterization. Cryogenic WAM testing is used to provide the proper tribological test conditions. Coating compatibility with liquid hydrogen is investigated. Advanced coatings include PVD, Spray, Burnish and Smart Surface Laser Textured solid film lubes and Soft Metallic coatings by PVD and Hybrid PVD. We deliver a reference database of the various coating properties and test results of the surface treatments as well as recommendations for treatment of the RL-10 turbopump gear based on our results with deliberate concern for economic industrial viability. Additionally we deliver a robust storage method for treated samples and gears which insures full protection from terrestrial coating degradation primarily caused by oxidation during storage, pre-assembly and ground transportation.

CULLIMORE & RING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9 Red Fox Lane
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 455-3902
Mr. Mark J. Welch
AF 05-132      Awarded: 18MAY05
Title:Integrated Trajectory Shaping Vehicle Simulation for Evaluating Thermal/Structural Design Strategies
Abstract:Stand-alone tools exist which are capable of calculating the aerothermal loads, the thermal protection system (TPS) response, and the dynamic thermal/structural response of airframes and components of hypersonic trajectory shaping vehicles (TSVs). However, a coupled design and analysis tool is needed to accurately model and evaluate thermal protection systems, airframes, and internal electronic components for the developmental TSVs. Furthermore, future missions require not just TPS sizing verification, but also rapid evaluation of candidate strategies for withstanding long term heating, which often involve vehicle-level trade-off studies. This proposal will demonstrate that an integrated design simulation capability can be readily achieved using existing technologies and in some cases even commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) CAD-integrated software packages, with the benefit of yielding self-sustaining tools. The key to our approach is assembling a unique team consisting of the developers responsible for the leading thermal, aeroheating, and TPS analysis software.

THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1936, 499 Mount Herman Road
Shelbyville, TN 37162
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(931) 680-1295
Mr. Henry Moody
AF 05-132      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:High Altitude Thermal Response Modeling of Trajectory Shaping Vehicles (TSVs)
Abstract:Phase I shall determine if the phenomena and material performances being observed in MLBC ground tests simulating Extended Range trajectories envisioned for TSVs are representative of actual flight. In this effort, preliminary thermal-ablation models will be developed for the class of C-C currently showing great promise in TSV missions. The Catalytic Wall analytical techniques developed for NASA reentry TPS shall be applied to these thermal-ablation models and recent MLBC ground tests. From these correlations, the analyses will determine the Catalytic Wall and Kinetic coefficients of the selected materials. These coefficients and analyses shall be applied to representative points on a TSV flight trajectory to determine the importance of Catalytic Wall and Chemical Kinetics in flight. These results shall determine if the ground tests are simulating flight and if not, then what needs to be done to improve the ground test evaluation methods.

HENTZEN COATINGS, INC.
6937 WEST MILL ROAD
MILWAUKEE, WI 53218
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(414) 353-4200
Dr. Robert Chiang
AF 05-133      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Multifunctional Aircraft Protective Coating
Abstract:The objective of proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a coating with nearly all the performance properties of a MIL-PRF-23377 epoxy primer and a MIL-PRF-85285 urethane topcoat, particularly the adhesion, corrosion, and the weather resistance properties of those specifications. Hentzen's prototype coating will also be fast curing and near zero VOC. Hentzen believes these addition properties will provide a coating that is extremely production and environmentally friendly.

LIGHT CURABLE COATINGS
6830 Bryden Court
Valley View, OH 44125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 642-0626
Dr. Ben Curatolo
AF 05-133      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:UV Curable Multifunctional Aircraft Protective Coating
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is designed to determine the feasibility of utilizing chrome-free solvent-free zero VOC ultraviolet (UV) light curable self-priming coatings as environmentally compliant multifunctional aircraft protective coatings. UV technology has the potential to satisfy the significant need for the reduction of chromate, VOC, and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) use in the aerospace industry as well as the need for cycle time reduction for coatings application. Light Curable Coatings is a technology leader for solvent-free environmentally compliant coating systems, with proprietary technology to rapidly cure heavily pigmented coatings with UV light, including low gloss camouflage color UV coating systems. This Phase I work will identify the most promising monomer, oligomer, pigment, and photoinitiator combinations to satisfy adhesion, corrosion, flexibility, gloss, and weatherability requirements of primer and topcoat specifications MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF-85285. Properties will be determined for UV curable formulations applied to both untreated and anodized aluminum alloy 2024 panels. This research will provide the groundwork for further development, characterization, and optimization of this technology to satisfy all military primer and topcoat specification requirements with a single coat multifunctional environmentally friendly aircraft protective coating.

INNOVATIVE DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY LTD.
P. O. Box 2099
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 497-3921
Mrs. Brenda S. Sadeghi
AF 05-134      Awarded: 28MAR05
Title:Microelectronical Devices for the Health Monitoring of Nonstructural Materials
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to take advantage of advancements in micro-electronics and develop micro-electromechanical device-based sensors (MEMS) for in-situ health monitoring and damage detection of coatings and tribological components (i.e. ball and rolling element bearings) for military aircrafts and space systems. This investigation will include: i) review of existing research on low temperature (140oC) and high temperature (300oC) radio frequency (RF) MEMS temperature and strain telemeters, ii) continued development and advancement of currently available radio temperature, strain and resistive continuity telemeters technology in Innovative Design & Technology Ltd. (ID&T) to MEMS scale and iii) and collaboration with Air Force personnel and a gas turbine engine manufacturers to determine the realistic operating conditions (i.e. speed, etc.) for application and use of our technology. Technology currently available in ID&T will provide the impetus for unique imbedded MEMS for intelligent condition based health monitoring of coatings and machine components. This technology will provide the critical knowledge necessary for smart condition monitoring, detect imminent failure, extend useful life and make obsolete scheduled maintenance. The key personnel and the PI for this project will be Mrs. Brenda Sadeghi President of ID&T who will work closely with Dr. Farshid Sadeghi, the VP of R&D at Innovative Design & Technology, Ltd (ID&T). ID&T will work closely with Professors Dimitrios Peroulis and Saeed Mohammadi of Purdue University (PU)'s Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE). ID&T plans to hire up to four new employees for Phase II of this project.

INTERSPACE, INC.
9700 Great Seneca Highway
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 527-0606
Mr. Matthew Price
AF 05-134      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Microelectronical Devices for the Health Monitoring of Nonstructural Materials
Abstract:Hydraulic systems are vital to aircraft. They are responsible for functions ranging from highly sophisticated flight controls to brakes. The Air Force uses approximately 1.5 million gallons of hydraulic fluid per year, resulting in over $15 million in procurement and disposal costs. Hydraulic fluid is usually drained from the aircraft during routine maintenance and disposed of as hazardous waste. Recently the Air Force has started purifying hydraulic fluid for reintroduction to aircraft. These purification systems require an online sensor to measure the quality of hydraulic fluid in real-time. The rapid, on-site ability to ensure hydraulic fluid contamination is at an acceptable level is essential to avoid significant delays in servicing aircraft. Although sensors are currently available to measure particulate, water, and solvent contamination, no online sensor exists to measure air content of hydraulic fluid. Air causes problems such as hotspots, cavitation in pumps, poor heat transfer, loss of power, decreased viscosity, foaming, and decreased flash point, which increase the risk of an explosion. InterSpace proposes to develop a unique sensor that noninvasively measures the percent air in hydraulic fluid. The sensor makes measurements in real-time and works with operating hydraulic systems over a wide range of temperatures and pressures.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Ms. Andrea Hill
AF 05-134      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Polymer MEMS Nanostructured Sensors for Coating Analysis and Health Monitoring of Nonstructural Materials
Abstract:NanoSonic proposes to develop a Polymer MicroElectroMechanical System (PMEMS) device-based sensor for the health-monitoring of wear and corrosion in coatings for this Air Force SBIR program. During Phase I, NanoSonic would design and fabricate novel electrically-conductive, nanostructured thin film sensors formed by Electrostatic Self-Assembly (ESA) to detect surface-related phenomena, such as wear and corrosion, of military aircraft non-structural components. With recent development of Metal RubberTM (MR), we now have the opportunity to implement such Polymer MEMS nanostructured sensors into coatings and materials. MRTM, a new free-standing multifunctional nanostructured material that has high electrical-conductivity, low modulus, and low weight, can be used as an in-situ sensor of chemical modifications and breakdown of surface coatings. NanoSonic has established techniques to control multiple constitutive material properties in coatings and free-standing organic/inorganic thin and thick materials using molecular layer-by-layer ESA processes, by varying the type, size, and structure of incorporated molecules. We would use this low-cost method to fabricate conformal conductive coating materials that could be easily applied on existing composite structural components. MRTM elements may be incorporated into the coating by patterning or ink-jet printing. Integrating co-located interconnected RF circuits into the coating would allow for remote RF mapping of the coating properties.

EM PHOTONICS, INC.
51 East Main Street, Suite 203
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 456-9003
Dr. Ahmed Sharkawy
AF 05-135      Awarded: 01APR05
Title:An Efficient Method for Fabricating Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Structures with Engineered Defects using High Index Polymer Materials.
Abstract:In this proposal we will develop a general method for fabricating 3D polymer based Photonic Crystal structures (PhCs) with engineered defects. The criterions of such a method include the generality of producing various periodic arrangements of 2D, 3D PhCs with or without aperiodic features, compatibility for different polymer materials and their synthetic processes, batch manufacturability for low cost duplication, integratability for tuning elements and extendibility for other fabrication approaches. In this effort, we propose such a fabrication method. Derived from the mature planar lithography, this method accomplishes 3D confined exposure with mask-controlled in-plan patterns and an absorption-controlled vertical exposure depth. Based on specially selected polymer chemistry, new polymer layer can be applied on the top of previously patterned polymer layer. 3D structure can be built up in a layer-by-layer if the above two processes are repeated for multiple times. Depending on the application, the resulted 3D PhCs can act as the final product or intermediate template for the infiltration of desired polymer material. The ability to efficiently fabricate 3D PhC structures with engineered defects will open a new paradigm for tuning the optical as well as the dispersion properties of PhCs using polymers with refractive index as low as 1.4.

HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES
Baird Research Park, 1576 Sweet Home Road
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 689-9797
Dr. Ryszard Burzynski
AF 05-135      Awarded: 07APR05
Title:Fabrication of Polymeric Photonic Crystals for Photonics Applications.
Abstract:Hybrid Technologies proposes in this Phase I feasibility program to develop a versatile method of fabricating high refractive index contrast photonic crystal structures. In our approach we will utilize a modified holographic interference method to produce the desired symmetry in a polymeric material. An organic-inorganic hybrid resin will be developed for this purpose comprising a photosensitive polymer and inorganic high index nanoparticles. The strength of this approach is that (i) various symmetries can be achieved through appropriate holographic interference (ii) the use of nanocomposites containing high refractive index nanoparticles lends to produce high index contrast and (iii) the polymer is amenable to functionalization to bring the desired linear and nonlinear optical properties. When the method and material(s) are fully developed, the proposed technology will provide a low-cost means to manufacturing optoelectronic devices for optical communication, information processing and other applications.

OMEGA OPTICS, INC.
10435 Burnet Rd., Suite 108
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 996-8833
Dr. Wei Jiang
AF 05-135      Awarded: 05APR05
Title:Vertically Constructed Three-dimensional Polymeric Photonic Crystals Based on Nano-Imprint Technology
Abstract:Nanophotonics promises to have a revolutionary impact on the landscape of photonics technology. Photonic crystal based structures are anticipated to play a significant role in next generation photonic devices. Incorporating the photonic crystal nanostructures provides an unprecedented opportunity to enhance the dispersion, anisotropy, and wavelength/angular sensitivity of photonic materials, which leads to novel approaches to beam steering devices and optical true time delay devices with ultra-compact sizes, among numerous other possibilities. In this program, Omega Optics proposes to employ nano-imprint technology to fabricate three-dimensional(3D) photonic crystals where each 3D layer formation can be completed by only one step instead of 3 to 4 steps through conventional approaches. The proposed fabrication method exploits the unique nature of polymeric materials and offers high throughput, improved yield, and ample design freedom. The imprint technology also results in smooth structural interfaces, which are critical for reducing optical loss. Polymeric photonic crystal samples will be fabricated for the proof-of-concept demonstration of slow photon based true time delay lines suitable for phased array antennas, and superprism effect based beam steering applications in the Phase I program. To this end, these samples will be carefully characterized with regard to structure, group velocity dispersion, and beam steering capability.

BLUE ROAD RESEARCH
Clear Creek Business Park, 376 NE 219th Ave
Gresham, OR 97030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 667-7772
Mr. Eric Udd
AF 05-136      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Technologies for In Situ Interrogation of Damage States in Structural Materials
Abstract:A system based on multiparameter fiber optic grating sensors is proposed that is capable of measuring multi-axis strain, pressure and temperature and axial strain and temperature simultaneously. These capabilities enable a system that is uniquely qualified to performed damage state analysis on structures.

GLOBAL CONTOUR LTD.
1145 Ridge Road West
Rockwall, TX 75087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 514-4085
Dr. Jaycee Howard Chung
AF 05-136      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:Technologies for In Situ Interrogation of Damage States in Structural Materials
Abstract:The purpose of this SBIR Phase project is to develop a self-powering low-power consuming wireless active sensor architecture that will enable quantification of specific degradation states, failure modes, and usage conditions of structural components that simulates vehicle-operating conditions in harsh environments. Under this proposed SBIR project, the aggressive harsh environment operating active structural health diagnostic sensor/technique, viz., high-temperature piezoelectric wafer active sensors (HT-PWAS) will be developed. Ultimately, HT-PWAS is the structural health monitoring technique in aggressive harsh operating environments to make our self-powering wireless active structural health monitoring sensor architecture (Sp-WASHMS) versatile. SBIR Phase I incorporates three major functional elements, i.e., Energy Scavenging, HT-PWAS and Wireless Transceiving circuits to meet the SBIR requirements by demonstrating aggressive environment structural health diagnostic (HT-PWAS) technique. For the feasibility demonstration, structural damage active sensing at elevated temperatures will be performed on lab specimens (i.e., aircraft jet engine turbine blade and thermal protection system panel) to identify representative materials damage. Phase II is basically the full-scale development (FSD) of a robust field-use versatile Sp-WASHMS system for practical applications to aerospace vehicle power plant and structural thermal protection system (TPS).

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS CORP.
650 Vaqueros Ave., Suite A
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8610
Dr. Behzad Moslehi
AF 05-136      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:High-Temperature Fiber Grating Technologies for In Situ Interrogation of Damage States in Structural Materials
Abstract:Fiber optic gratings are critical components for advanced multi-point sensor systems that can be used to assess the remaining lifetime of components in highly complex mechanical systems. . Standard gratings, however, degrade at temperatures below the melting point of glass. Thus, the gratings lose their sensing capability in thermally harsh environments. To respond to the Air Force's need for in situ harsh environment sensing technologies to interrogate material and damage states for engine, airframe, and hot structure components, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems (IFOS) is proposing a grating writing method to significantly extend the operating range of grating-based sensors to temperatures close to the melting point of glass. IFOS will develop a robust high-temperature grating fabrication process and design a multi-point sensor system to demonstrate survivability and operation at high temperatures. The system, which will include a compact interrogator, can simultaneously measure strain, vibration, acceleration, and temperature. The system can be deployed for physical as well as chemical and bio-agents sensing, and is thus applicable to gases in combustion environments and high temperature spectroscopy. It allows for distributed and remote measurement in harsh environments. Sensor readout is accomplished at extremely high speed and high resolution using secure fiber optic links.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Dr. Alan Thomas
AF 05-137      Awarded: 25MAY05
Title:Development of Durable, Fiber-Reinforced Refractory Composites for Thermal Protection Systems (TPSs)
Abstract:Next-generation endo/exoatmospheric hypersonic vehicles require durable thermal protection systems (TPSs) for leading edges, control surfaces and skin acreage that are resistant to impact damage. Fiber Materials Inc. (FMI) proposes a multidirectional fiber reinforced C/C-SiC TPS that demonstrates high impact durability for both low and high velocity debris. FMI's multidirectional C/C-SiC outer skin will be bonded to multiple layers of varying density foam filled with phase change material for thermal management. The developed TPS will be suitable for application in a variety of hypersonic space vehicles. A multi-phase program will be employed for development and analysis of an impact resistant TPS; results will be confirmed by testing under representative conditions. TPS prototype architectures will be fabricated; mechanical, thermal, and low- and high-velocity impact properties will be tested and analyzed.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Pavel Bystricky
AF 05-137      Awarded: 19MAY05
Title:Unique Reinforcement Architecture for Impact Resistant Carbon-Carbon Leading Edge
Abstract:The 2003 Columbia tragedy, in which impact damage to the Shuttle's reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) leading edge thermal protection system caused later disintegration of the spacecraft upon reentry, has highlighted the need for more impact resistant carbon-carbon composite materials. It is believed that the conventional 2D carbon fiber ply architecture used by NASA may not be capable of providing adequate impact resistance. KaZaK proposes to use its expertise in manufacturing carbon-carbon composite precursors to develop and test RCC composites with a unique reinforcement architecture based on novel woven carbon fiber preforms augmented by carbon nanotube toughening. Composites manufactured from carbon fiber preforms similar to the ones proposed here have recently been shown to exhibit surprising improvements in mechanical properties over conventional composites, including 30% increase in tensile strength, greater than an order of magnitude improvement in fatigue life as well as increase in stiffness and reduction in delamination damage. KaZaK will test the assumption that impact resistance will be greatly improved over RCCs based on 2D or 2.5D conventional ply technology by the combination of more microscopically uniform reinforcement architecture and whiskerized carbon fibers (via CNT addition) in C-C composites manufactured from this novel precursor technology.

SYSTEMS & MATERIALS RESERACH CONSULTANCY
19300 Crosswind Circle
Spicewood, TX 78669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-0822
Dr. Alan V. Bray
AF 05-138      Awarded: 28MAR05
Title:High-Temperature Integral Tank Sealant
Abstract:Chemical modification of AMS 3277 sealants has reached a point that gains in service temperature are becoming more and more difficult to achieve while retaining important sealant properties. The proposed approach forms nanocomposite high temperature sealants from existing off-the-shelf PRC 2001 and PRC 1826 sealants, and surface modified Cloisite nanoparticles. A pre-bid experiment showed that the storage modulus PRC 2001 achieves at 320F can be achieved in the nanocomposite at 405F - an 85F improvement without optimization. Using nanoparticle surface modification methods developed by our team the sealants will be optimized with a goal in Phase I of a 400F service temperature without loss of sealant properties as defined by AMS 3277 and PRC 2001/1826 data sheets. Deliverables include a full suite of test data for each sealant with a 1 to 1 comparison against current PRC 2001/1826 properties, a Phase I specification, and sample material for independent testing. Blends of commercial sealants with 6-8 off-the-shelf nanoparticles will be made to identify those that demonstrate improving thermal stability. The best performing nanoparticles will be modified through surface and edge treatments to optimize sealant formulations for high service temperatures while retaining physical, thermal, rheological, and curing properties.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. R. Moore/G. Hansen
AF 05-138      Awarded: 05APR05
Title:High-Temperature Integral Tank Sealant
Abstract:The Air Force has a long history of utilizing integral fuel tank technology as a mechanism for lowering weight and extending flight range and payload of its aircraft. A critical element in the use of these fuel tanks is that they be well sealed to the airframe. These elastomeric seals have been a continual source of leak and degradation problems that have resulted in expensive maintenance and significant aircraft downtime. Sealant materials developed to date do not meet the requirements for high temperature fuel resistance combined with high strength and toughness required by the new generation of military aircraft. TRI/Austin is proposing to meet this need with a new type of tough, high adhesion polymer that can be formulated into a sealant that will be applied to integral fuel tanks using current processes. This polymer is expected to provide excellent inherent fuel resistance along with good strength and toughness, low and high temperature flexibility and adhesion, and good heat resistance in air and fuel vapors.

AGILTRON CORP.
220 Ballardvale St., Suite D
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 694-1006
Dr. Jack Salerno
AF 05-139      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:A New Generation of Polymer Fiber Optic Image Inverter
Abstract:In this program, leveraging our extensive experience in micro-precision fiber optic products and nano-composite engineering, Agiltron Incorporated proposes to realize high refractive index polymer fibers and associated polymer optic inverters, potentially meeting all the required level of performance. The new class of high performance polymer fiber consists of high refractive organic/inorganic composite core, organic cladding, and high efficient absorption coating. In additional to achieve the anticipated over 70% weight and cost reduction, our approach offers excellent image resolution with minimum distortion and maximum light efficiency. This is achieved through synthesizing large index refraction nano-composite polymer fiber core with unconventionally large optical collecting power. Moreover, a novel organic chromophores technology will be incorporated to produce a highly efficient stray light thin absorb layer for high clarity and resolution. Agiltron will develop the entire inverter fabrication process of polymer synthesis, fiber drawing, assembled, fused, and twist to form high resolution, vacuum tight, solid fiber arrays. This device holds a promise of replacing current glass fiber optic inverters for a new generation of night vision goggles. In Phase I, the feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated.

PARADIGM OPTICS, INC.
Suite B106, 14615 NE 13th Court
Vancouver, WA 98685
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 573-6500
David Welker
AF 05-139      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:High-Refractive-Index Polymer Fibers for Imaging Systems
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project is focused on the design and development of novel fiber optic arrays for use as image inverters. In a collaborative effort with scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory we will investigate new methods for incorporating nanoparticles into polymer optical fibers for use in these arrays. To the best of our knowledge this research will lead to the first optical fiber doped with inorganic nanoparticles. The polymer optical fibers produced as a result of this research will be optimal for imaging applications such as fiber optic inverters. Nanoparticle doping of the polymer allows for inexpensive realization of a high refractive index without adversely affecting the optical qualities of the polymer. Conventional doping or copolymerization techniques cannot achieve a high refractive index while maintaining optical quality. Nanoparticle doped polymer image inverters have several distinct advantages over their glass counterparts, including lighter weight and the ability to be doped with organic or inorganic compounds to add functionality to the fiber array and to increase image clarity and resolution of the fiber optic array (inverter).

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. William F. Fischer, III
AF 05-140      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Optimized Surface Quality of Chemical Vapor Composite Silicon Carbide Mirrors
Abstract:With the increasing need for high performance optical mirrors, Trex will look to further optimize the as-deposited surface properties of CVC SiC. Improvement in the as-deposited surface figure or finish offers significant potential to reduce the fabrication cost and delivery time. Optimization of the surface quality of as-deposited its proprietary CVC SiC will compress the procurement schedule for CVC SiC mirrors, especially as the aperture increases towards 1.5-meter class structures.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-9829
Dr. Tai-Il Mah
AF 05-140      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:Replicated Hybrid/Composite Mirror Technologies
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR program is focused on developing engineered materials for a replicated hybrid/composite mirror that can operate in the visible optics range at ambient air or space condition and that has an areal density <7 kg/m2. The proposed replicated mirror system is based on the nano-laminates of SiC and Si3N4. The underlying concept of using SiC and Si3N4 is to construct the mirror, attachment bonding material, and SiC substructure in such a way that they all possess very close thermal expansion coefficients. The replicated SiC/Si3N4 nano-laminate mirror surface will be characterized optically to meet the requirements of the surface figure error and surface roughness (63 nm RMS and 2 nm RMS, respectively).At the end of the program, 10 cm flat replicated mirror with required optical quality will be delivered.

XINETICS, INC.
115 Jackson Rd.
Devens, MA 01432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-0352
Mr. Jerry Weaver
AF 05-140      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Rapid Mirror Fabrication Using Agile Replication
Abstract:Lightweight meter class aspheres had been limited to serial glass production prior to the advantages in cost, schedule, and production that were enabled using hybrid SiC and replicated nanolaminate technologies. The proposed program will extend the hybrid mirror advantages to all optical substrate materials. Recent actuated hybrid mirror efforts have focused on areal density, agile fabrication, areal density, natural frequency, and mirror print-through mitigation, and results indicate that highly functional regions exist for both passive and active mirrors fabricated from a host of optical materials. For those applications in a more benign environment, other substrate materials are both viable and can greatly benefit from the hybrid mirror approach. It is our intent during the proposed program to transfer the LLNL developed nanolaminate technology to industry and also develop nanolaminate formulations compatible with the thermal expansivity of other substrate materials. Analytical models developed under the Advanced Mirror Telescope (AMT) program will be used to define both passive and active design regions using alternate substrate materials. Taking advantage of both material properties and processes that exist within the present optical infrastructure, it is our vision that replicated hybrid mirrors will be made with the material that best suits the need.

ADHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 346-1685
Dr. Ronald E. Allred
AF 05-141      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:High Quality Powder Towpregs and Tapes for Use with Automated Placement Processes
Abstract:Manufacture of polymer matrix composite (PMC) jet engine parts is expensive due to the high cost of needed high temperature materials and fabrication processes currently in use. To reduce costs and improve quality, automated composite fabrication methods such as filament winding, automated tape placement, and fiber or tow placement coupled with non-autoclave processing offer great promise for use in a variety of applications. This Phase I program focuses on the development of high temperature towpregs and tapes for use in ATP methods, using ATI's high speed powder impregnation process. The materials to be evaluated will include several commercially available polyimide matrix materials on carbon fibers that are suitable for high-temperature applications, such as fan bypass ducts and front and rear augmenting ducts in jet engines. Coupled with on-line tape production, this method should dramatically reduce the costs associated with producing high-quality impregnated tows and tapes. These 100% solids materials better utilize the expensive high tempreature polyimide resins (low resin loss), provide better uniformity of the matrix resin throughout fabricated parts, and should provide improved mechanical properties in the final components. As such, this approach has the potential for reducing costs by a variety of means.

EXTRUDE HONE CORP.
1 Industry Blvd, P.O. Box 1000
Irwin, PA 15642
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 864-8420
Mr. Randy Gilmore
AF 05-141      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Aircraft Engines
Abstract:Critical components for aircraft engines are forcing increasing demands for higher accuracy, advanced materials and smaller features to enable advanced designs. The proposed effort will examine the ability of short pulse laser machining to machine aerospace materials at an acceptable throughput rate with minimal subsurface damage. Materials to be investigated will include commonly used aerospace materials, such as high-nickel alloys, single-crystal material and metallic substrates with a thermal barrier coating. Materials currently being considered for future generation aerospace engines will also be investigated, including ceramic materials. Phase I will establish guidelines for the machinability of a variety of current and future generation aerospace materials, quantify the level of damage caused by short pulse laser machining, establish beam manipulation methods best suited for aerospace geometry requirements and produce an economic model that will define cost savings for selected aerospace components.

FOPAT LLC
3155 Research Blvd
Kettering, OH 45420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 259-1341
Mr. Robert Dzugan
AF 05-141      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Aircraft Engines
Abstract:FOPAT LLC of Dayton Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. Manufacturing of aircraft engine components affordably and accurately is highly dependent on the investment casting process capabilities. The present method for investment casting is "The Lost Wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or `lost' from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is the same, wax. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (a FOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process. FOPAT's team approach of CTM, the machine builder, HPDC, the material developer, S&A, the investment casting expert, and buyCASTINGS the commercialization outlet and program manager, will ensure that the proposed innovation is demonstrated in Phase I, commercialized successfully in Phase II, and meets Air Force's and AMPICC's cost reduction goals.

MAVERICK CORP.
11379 Grooms Road
Blue Ash, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 469-9919
Dr. Robert A. Gray
AF 05-141      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Aircraft Engines
Abstract:The overall objective of this SBIR Phase I program is to develop a cost-effective method for manufacturing resin transfer molding (RTM) polyimide resins on a continuous basis. Specialized compounding equipment will be utilized to convert a "dry blend" of monomers into Maverick's high-temperature MM-10.8 resin system. This technology will not require the use of a solvent, and thus is considered to be an environmentally friendly process. The cost savings associated with removing the polyimide reactor and subsequent oven unit operation will be extremely significant. Experimental compounding trials will be conducted in order to determine temperature profiles and overall process parameters. Molecular weight distribution, monomer to polyimide conversion, and minimum melt viscosity will be determined on all prospective samples. Maverick plans to team with Berstorff to design the extrusion experiments, and to work with Fiber Innovations, Inc. to RTM composite panels for physical and mechanical testing. This unique collaboration will be key towards the successful development of a low-cost, high-temperature RTM system.

MIKRO SYSTEMS, INC.
770 Harris Street, Suite 104
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 244-6480
Mr. Michael Appleby
AF 05-141      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Aircraft Engines
Abstract:This SBIR project introduces an innovative manufacturing technology that can enable advanced and affordable manufacturing of aircraft engine components. Using micro-molding and casting techniques and application-specific materials, this process has successfully produced fine-featured grids and collimators for x-ray imaging using a tungsten powder/polymer casting composite. Recently, MSI has applied the technology to casting complex 3-D ceramic structures. Preliminary results are promising. An immediate application exists for ceramic strainers used by the investment casting industry to produce precision parts for the aerospace industry. This industry is continually pressured by their customers to reduce the size and number of detectable non-metallic materials in their castings. To accomplish this, the molten metal is poured and filtered through one or more ceramic strainers during the production process. MSI's manufacturing technology provides a cost-effective process for molding and casting micro-scale structures and surfaces over large areas (>40 cm diameter). This forming technology could advance the state-of-the-art in cost-effective, high-efficiency, ceramic strainers by offering: finer pore size, increased flow rate, greater accuracy, and improved filtration performance. Phase I will create and test a number of sample strainers and evaluate the technical feasibility of this manufacturing method for this application.

ASPEN SYSTEMS, INC.
184 Cedar Hill Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. Jae Ryu
AF 05-142      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Compact Water Recovery System Utilizing Permselective Membranes
Abstract:Aspen Systems proposes to develop a highly efficient and compact water recovery system from the fuel cell exhaust stream by utilizing an innovative water permselective membrane technology. In the proposed water recovery technology, water vapor will be absorbed and transported through a superabsorbing membrane layer. From the superabsorbing membrane, water will be collected via a pervaporation or facilitated transport mechanism by using reduced pressure or air sweeping, respectively. In the proposed concept, the water recovery system and process are completely separate from the fuel cell exhaust stream by the membrane, and therefore, the process can be optimized independently and integration into the existing fuel cell system will be relatively simple. In Phase I, we will experimentally demonstrate the proposed concept of high efficiency water recovery system performance by developing nanocomposite-based water superabsorbing membranes. Based on these experimental results, we will also complete the conceptual engineering design of the prototype water recovery system, including design and performance specifications. In Phase II, we will fabricate and test the prototype permselective membrane-based water recovery system which can be easily integrated into the existing fuel cell power generation system, operating on logistic fuel reformates.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Michael G. Izenson
AF 05-142      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Compact Water Recovery for Fuel Cell Power Systems
Abstract:Compact, efficient, and sustainable generators are needed to provide electric power for deployable military bases. Fuel cells with fuel processors that run on logistic fuel are attractive candidates due to their high efficiency. For good sustainability, these systems require compact water recovery units so they will be self-sufficient for water. We propose to develop a compact water recovery unit. In Phase I we will prove feasibility by assessing candidate technologies, recommending the optimal approach, and demonstrating the key physics in proof-of-concept experiments.

INTERMAT
389 Hill St.
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 283-1156
Mr. Richard McLaughlin
AF 05-143      Awarded: 21JUN05
Title:Innovative Thermal Protection Systems (TPSs) for Trajectory Shaping Vehicles (TSVs)
Abstract:Advanced reentry vehicles desire extended time durations in oxidizing environments, at temperatures in the range of 3000K. State of the art nosetip materials utilize a high density carbon/carbon (C/C) composite that has a carbide center core. This attribute results in maintenance of the aerodynamic shape of the nosetip for the vehicle. Intermat has produced nosetip billets with a variety of `carbide core' configurations. These cores have been made, flush with the surface of a billet, or with the `core' submerged below the surface of the final nose tip. This technology can be applied to placing carbide material within other defined regions of a parent C/C billet such that either internal or external exposure of the carbide loaded region on the final machined nosetip surfaces. This technology could produce a nosetip with a carbide surface barrier over the shoulder and body areas of the nosetip or submerged under a layer of carbon/carbon. A "shielded" nosetip design having the outer surfaces protected by a carbide layer would permit extended flight time at high altitude, preserve shape stability of the nosetip, while providing a C/C nosetip configuration with integrated core for terminal dive.

STARFIRE SYSTEMS, INC.
10 Hermes road
Malta, NY 12020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 899-9336
Ms. Tatiana Russell
AF 05-143      Awarded: 23JUN05
Title:Graded CMC Structure design for TPS Leading Edge
Abstract:The program will demonstrate a graded ceramic composite structure design and manufacturing process that supports both sharp edge and large acreage structural TPS fabrication. The ability to combine carbon fibers and silicon carbide fibers in woven reinforcements with graded fiber volume for control of thermal expansion and the ability to form complex shapes integrally into the preform will support fabrication of a graded CMC TPS Leading edge. The proposed innovation will provide a low cost, durable and lightweight CMC structure with an integral Environmental/erosion Barrier (EB) with a low CTE structurally graded CMC TPS system particularly suited for hypersonic vehicle leading edge applications with predicted use temperatures in excess of 3500F. The grading of the fiber volume in the preform, along with the inclusion of particulates and both SiC and carbon fibers, can be accomplished using a custom gradient density 3WeaveTM 3D woven preform from 3TEX Inc.. The preform can transition from 45% fiber volume to 10% fiber volume through the thickness and the graded matrix is made possible through the use of preceramic polymers that enable the inclusion of particulates or fibers to form low CTE engineered ceramic structures ranging from stoichiometric SiC to solid solutions of HfZrSiC.

RADIATION EFFECTS RESEARCH ASSOC.
4075 Judee Dr.
Bloomington, IN 47401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 388-7293
Mr. Steve Maegerlein
AF 05-145      Awarded: 25MAY05
Title:Insensitive Munitions Booster Explosives
Abstract:This proposal will develop a booster explosive formulation with a polymetric binder system that will show output improvement over the PBXN-5 explosive performance. The development of the formulation in Phase I will include CL-20 and the polymetric binder system HyTemp 4454. Other binder systems will also be considered if they show a technological advantage. The formulation proposed for research & development in Phases' I & II of this proposal will be evaluated and tested to include a reduction of volume to be used in smaller munitions. The proposed formulation will provide a 15 % increase or better goal in output for the booster formulation without compromising the hazard classification. The team we have assembled is particularly suited to perform this work. This proposal is a joint venture between Radiation Effects Research Associates and Maegerlein Materials Investigations. Our mentoring larger business is ATK Thiokol which holds many patents for explosive formulations. Mr. Maegerlein is the Principle Investigator and has many years of experience in the testing and analysis of chemical explosive formulations. ATK Thiokol has the facilities for manufacturing and testing as described by the SBIR topic.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Keith Higginson
AF 05-146      Awarded: 06JUN05
Title:Quantum Dot Bar Codes For Target Tagging(1000-685)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. will use semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as spectral target markers for small munitions. These are high yield fluorescent materials with some unique advantages: they are resistant to bleaching, they have high quantum yields and large extinction cross sections, and their emission band is narrow but their absorption spectrum is broad. Because of this, multiple species of QDs can be used in the tag to create a unique signature which can positively identify labeled targets with a low probability for false alarms. The quantum dots will be engineered into an inorganic matrix to impart stability during the blast and during subsequent weathering. They will be interrogated with a laser and recorded spectroscopically. The feasibility of observing this from 20,000 feet and against a daylight background is considered.

CENTEYE, INC.
6 Logan Circle NW, Suite 5
Washington, DC 20005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 238-9545
Dr. Geoffrey L. Barrows
AF 05-147      Awarded: 04MAY05
Title:Multiaperture Optical Systems
Abstract:We will develop a multi-aperture compound eye, with embedded processing, that conforms to the shape of a warhead, UAV, or other robot nose or front-end. The compound eye architecture will be an "array of arrays" structure, with individual elements comprised of low-resolution vision chips having on-chip mixed-signal processing circuitry. The compound eye structure will also include multiple processor cores, embedded in the vision chips, to support a wide variety of image processing functions. The resulting compound eye will have a low mass and volume, will have a wide field of view, and will process images at a rate of hundreds or thousands of frames per second. The compound eye will be inexpensive to manufacture in large quantities.

SPECTRAL IMAGING LABORATORY
1785 Locust St. #10
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 578-0626
Dr. Francis Reininger
AF 05-147      Awarded: 19APR05
Title:Conformal Array Superposition Sensor
Abstract:The U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has an interest in developing a very wide field of view (FOV) sensor that can be made conformal to an aircraft surface. The new sensor should be adaptable to imaging in both the visible and the 8 - 12 micron long wavelength infrared (LWIR) regimes. The optics of the sensor will resemble the eyes of arthropods, which have evolved tiny, multi-aperture structures consisting of large numbers of independent facets on a convex surface that can collect light through a very large FOV (i.e. 180 degrees). These "compound eyes" are built as conformal structures around the outside of an animal's head in order to displace a minimal volume for maximum utility. The large FOV and small, conformal shape make these optical architectures worthy of investigation for the AFRL seeker/sensor project. The Spectral Imaging Laboratory will design large FOV, conformal superposition optics that utilize multi-aperture array optics and shaped fiber optics. The superposition architecture is desirable because it can yield a 10,000 fold increase in sensitivity over apposition optics.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Sorin Teodorescu
AF 05-148      Awarded: 20MAY05
Title:A Novel, Small High-power Output Biofuel Cell
Abstract:The development of small, high-power output biofuel cells as alternate power sources are very important for stand-alone sensors, sight and illumination devices, implantable devices, and biological sensors. The biofuel cells must be lightweight, cost-effective, and provide greater power densities than currently available power sources. This Phase I SBIR proposal describes the development of a dual enzyme-based biofuel cell that contains a specially formulated polymer for each electrode. The polymers will enhance the stability of the enzymes, improve their immobilization on the substrates (electrode), increase the electron transfer rate between electrodes and boost the power output of the biofuel cell.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Mr. Jonathan Graf
AF 05-149      Awarded: 12MAY05
Title:Dynamic Module Server for FPGA Defragmentation
Abstract:Luna Innovations proposes to develop a Dynamic Module Server (DMS) that manages dynamically reconfigurable modules to prevent fragmentation in runtime-reconfiguring FPGA applications. The DMS will be capable of maximizing the available contiguous FPGA resources by efficiently floorplanning the modules currently running on the FPGA. While many FPGA defragmentation approaches model the FPGA as a two dimensional (2D) memory grid and the configurable elements running on the FPGA as easily distributable blocks in that grid, such modeling simplifies the real-world complexities of routing between the interrelated configurable elements and external I/O. Luna's proposed Dynamic Module Server will take into account not only fragmentation within the FPGA, but it will also provide for module interconnections and external I/O connections by pre-compiling both the modules and their interconnects. This simplifies the runtime routing of these modules because most of the work will have been performed at compile time. Optional pre-computations allow connections to be incorporated in the module's bitstream without incurring any runtime overheads. The Phase 1 effort will consist of the research and design necessary to create the DMS. At the end of the Phase 1 effort, a working first-generation DMS prototype will be demonstrated using a Xilinx Virtex-II FPGA.

SPACE PHOTONICS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 575-5221
Mr. Fred Orlando
AF 05-149      Awarded: 13MAY05
Title:Performance Enhanced Managed FPGA
Abstract:The Managed FPGA is a system component that contains a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), System-on-a-Chip (SoC), and security features, packaged within a Multichip Module (MCM), that make this enhanced FPGA a sustainable, upgradeable component for use in DoD applications. Innovations include the use of a SoC to manage FPGA configurable logic block (CLB) defragmentation and perform security functions. The CLB defragmentation algorithm is implemented in a standard high level language (i.e., C/C++) on the SoC, easing the upgrade and maintenance cycle as new technologies become available. Security features include basic key management, programmable decryption algorithms for bit stream security, and future Anti-Tamper management. Leveraging our team's experience as one of the Nation's leading aerospace innovators and developers (FireFiberT transceivers, IEEE 1393 FireRingT network, LaserFireT laser-com link and IntelNodeT gateway), Space Photonics, Inc. (SPI) is in a unique position to successfully develop the Managed FPGA system component. Previous development efforts will also be leveraged including SPI's experience with MCM development and production for NASA, NRO and AFRL.

ACTA, INC.
2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1008
Dr. Timothy K. Hasselman
AF 05-151      Awarded: 16MAY05
Title:Development of Multi-Hit Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Models for Fixed Targets
Abstract:A Phase I Project is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of developing Multi-hit Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Models for Fixed Targets. The stated objective is to develop High-Fidelity Physics-Based (HFPB) fast-running models (FRMs) for simulating the nonlinear progressive collapse of aboveground fixed target structures damaged by multiple air-delivered conventional weapons. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of (a) developing nonlinear resistance functions for building components (beams and columns) damaged due to air blast and fragment loading of Air Force weapons, (b) implementing these functions in a nonlinear structural analysis program for collapse analysis and (c) using energy methods to compute approximate collapse ratios efficiently for the multi-hit optimization.

WEIDLINGER ASSOC., INC.
375 Hudson St FL 12
New York, NY 10014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 229-1549
Mr. David Vaughan
AF 05-151      Awarded: 16MAY05
Title:Development of Multi-Hit Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Models for Fixed Targets
Abstract:Weidlinger Associates Inc. (WAI) proposes to develop a High Fidelity Physics Based (HFPB) Fast Running Model (FRM) to assess the potential for Progressive Collapse (PC) of aboveground fixed structures as a result of targeting by air-to-ground munitions. Both single and multi-hit targeting scenarios will be supported. This effort will produce a prototype PC assessment tool that may be incorporated into AFRL's MEVA (Modular Effectiveness Vulnerability Assessment) software environment in a later development phase. The availability of an HFPB FRM for PC assessment will facilitate the development of optimized targeting plans that minimize the potential for collateral damage. WAI's FLEX finite element software, extensively verified and validated for blast and progressive collapse applications, will be used to provide the HFPB component of this work. A theoretical approach first explored in the ProCAT FRM tool for progressive collapse will be adapted to meet MEVA's targeting requirements and structural modeling demands. The FRM developed in this effort will have a short run time and 80% statistical reliability

KARAGOZIAN & CASE
2550 North Hollywood Way, Suite 500
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 303-1254
Mr. David Bogosian
AF 05-152      Awarded: 12MAY05
Title:Structural Response Models for Masonry and Stud Walls
Abstract:An eight month, $99,918 Phase I SBIR effort is proposed for demonstrating the feasibility of generating fast-running models to predict the response of masonry walls to cased munitions effects. The models will be based on the results of high-fidelity physics based models. Project scope includes walls of brick, structural clay tile, adobe, and stone masonry, plus wood and metal stud walls. Proposed innovative features include application of combined blast and fragment loads to finite element models of masonry walls, use of finite element models to represent attachment failure for metal stud walls, and use of probabilistic three-dimensional P-I-I surfaces as the fast-running model. Phase I will primarily address validation of the high-fidelity models, definition of parameters and their ranges, evaluation of analytical options for characterizing the wall's residual capacity, and investigation of the 3D P-I-I surface methodology. The primary deliverable will be a final technical report summarizing all findings and establishing a clear work plan for Phase II.

NUMEREX
2309 Renard Place SE, Suite 220
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 277-4272
Dr. John W. Luginsland
AF 05-153      Awarded: 24MAY05
Title:Computational analysis of the physics of electrically-enhanced, high velocity impact initiation of volumetric explosives
Abstract:NumerEx will provide computational support to on-going Air Force efforts to develop the means to robustly initiate and focus volumetric blast weapons, such as thermobarics and fuel-air mixtures, via electrified shape charge jets . Based on detailed multi-dimensional first-principle calculation, NumerEx will validate the model against experimental data, design a suitable proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate focused blast effects, and develop an assessment of potential issues facing focused blast technology as it transitions from basic research to development, test, and evaluation.

WILFRED BAKER ENGINEERING, INC.
3330 Oakwell Court, Suite 100
San Antonio, TX 78218
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 824-5960
Dr. Kelly Thomas
AF 05-153      Selected for Award
Title:Methods to Direct and Focus Blast
Abstract:This project will determine a means of focusing blast waves from volumetric explosives such as thermobaric and vapor cloud explosions. The work will be carried out using a combination of numerical and experimental approaches and will produce a first optimization of the selected solution.

TROUT GREEN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9415 Burnet Rd #302
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 873-9899
Dr. Gary Marsden
AF 05-154      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:Active Camouflage Techniques for Micro Vehicles
Abstract:We propose a pair of active camouflage architectures for micro air vehicles based on optical sensors and a novel yet practical optoelectronic packaging scheme.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Bradley A. Davis
AF 05-155      Awarded: 13MAY05
Title:Target Detection using a Computationally Efficient Physics-Based Modeling Tool
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR program, NanoSonic would apply its expertise in analytical and computational techniques in electromagnetics to implement and validate a powerful solution for detection of obscured and hidden targets. In accomplishing this program, NanoSonic has significant experience with random media propagation as well as computational techniques. In addition, NanoSonic would work with an expert from a major research university who specializes in random surface scattering and the radar systems group from a prime defense contractor. Although most current approaches use a radiative transfer method, they are either purely phenomenological or too complex for rapid solution. Alternatively, assuming independently scattering between scattering centers, it is possible to convert single-frequency models of the individual RCS of discrete constituents and the RCS per unit area for an extended surface into models for the incoherent time-dependent average scattered waveform produced under pulse illumination. We have used this impulse response approach to characterize time-domain the return from a random medium over a rough interface with a hidden target. The reduced-order model yields the returned power waveform from both the surface and volume in a convolutional form. This permits the rapid and efficient evaluation of the waveform using the FFT.

POLATIN CORP.
57 Janet Terrace
New Hartford, NY 13413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 731-9433
Dr. James I. Tonnison
AF 05-155      Awarded: 06MAY05
Title:Realistic Simulation and Accurate Detection of Targets Obscured in Terrain Clutter
Abstract:The research described in this proposal is intended to provide a basis for the development of advanced software technologies for accurate simulation and robust detection of targets obscured by natural clutter. The specific purpose of the proposed work is to: (1) develop a simulation package capable of reproducing the sensor signatures of targets obscured by environmental factors; and (2) formulate efficient algorithms to reliably detect man-made targets in clutter. Using the methodologies that are the product of this effort, it should be possible to implement a real-time processing system capable of detecting targets in a wide range of natural environments.

NANOCOMPOSIX, INC.
4336 Proctor Pl.
San Diego, CA 92116
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 890-0704
Dr. Steven Oldenburg
AF 05-156      Awarded: 24MAY05
Title:Transport, Compartmentalization, and Effects of Nanoparticles in the Environment
Abstract:The inclusion of nanoparticle-based materials into advanced weapon design has raised issues concerning the fate of the nanoparticles once they are released into the environment. In order to ensure that these materials are safe, new testing methodologies are required for quantifying (1) the transport of nanoparticles through soil, water, and the atmosphere; (2) the uptake and bioaccumulation potential of nanoparticles in plants and lower organisms; and (3) the impact of nanoparticles on animals and humans. To facilitate this analysis, multi-functional nanocomposite simulant particles will be precisely fabricated that allow for control over the size, shape, density, charge, hydrophobicity, and reactive state of the particles. This new class of environmental tracer particles have high extinction cross sections and are easily identified using optical and electron microscopes. Nanoparticle release, transport, degradation, and accumulation of simulant nanoparticles will be studied in soil, water, and atmospheric testing environments.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Thayne Coffman
AF 05-159      Selected for Award
Title:Foveated ACquisition, Tracking, and Object Recognition (FACTOR)
Abstract:Recently-developed foveating optical sensors like the VASI camera offer new opportunities to significantly increase the effectiveness of automated munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles, and missile defense systems. Foveating sensors reduce the bandwidth and computation required to perform image processing. Without appropriate image processing algorithms, however, these cameras cannot be effectively used. Robust algorithms for solving these problems do not yet exist. This proposal describes the Foveated ACquisition, Tracking, and Object Recognition (FACTOR) effort, which will develop the algorithms needed to demonstrate the advantages of foveating sensors on the modern battlefield. FACTOR will leverage the new sensors by developing novel algorithms for camera foveation control, and by tailoring existing target acquisition, tracking, and recognition algorithms for use on foveated imagery. FACTOR will let the U.S. Air Force exploit its new sensors to simultaneously achieve wide fields of view, high spatial resolution on multiple targets of interest, and extremely high frame rates. The result will be more effective smart munitions, lower bandwidth requirements for video transmission off of UAVs, and new opportunities for tracking extremely fast targets like incoming ballistic missiles.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Matthias Savage-Leuchs
AF 05-159      Awarded: 18APR05
Title:Fiber laser for advanced guidance research
Abstract:The DoD requires new sources of eye safe, short pulse, laser radiation to enable the next generation laser radar (LADAR) seekers. Conventional eye safe laser sources using diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) and optical parametric oscillator (OPO) technologies have difficulties to meet the packaging requirements and to operate with constant pulse width at variable repetition rate. Also, the efficiency of DPSSL+OPO systems is two times lower compared to 1.5Ym fiber laser systems. In Phase I of this project, Aculight will build and deliver to the DoD a prototype fiber laser that will meet the pulse duration, beam quality, and polarization requirement for the next generation LADAR lasers but at slightly reduced power. In Phase II Aculight will deliver a full power all-fiber laser transmitter meeting the DoD requirements. Our novel approach enables flexible compact packaging without the need for any free space propagation and leverages heavily from the telecommunications industry, using off the shelf fiber-optic components where available.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Michael Booth
AF 05-159      Awarded: 22APR05
Title:Guidance Research
Abstract:Sensors used for small weapons guidance include radars operating in microwave and millimeter wave frequencies, which are built into a phased-array with T/R modules. In traditional phased-array antenna systems, a common source is connected to a power distribution network that generates RF signals for each T/R module. This proposal describes a revolutionary approach of integrating unique signal sources within each T/R module, based upon recent demonstration of a single-chip phased-locked oscillator developed at Hittite Microwave Corporation. The proposed design achieves beamsteering by a time delay circuit contained within the phase-locking loop, and it allows single-plane integration of RF circuits, thus eliminating all vertical RF connections. This approach eliminates the high-power signal generator, reduces the circuit loss, and enables low-cost assembly of planar RF modules. Hittite has demonstrated some of the basic building blocks including a totally integrated synthesizer and a time delay circuit, and developed a packaging concept for complete arrays and sub-arrays. The proposed program will lead to implementation of a miniaturized RF seeker for application in small platforms. The proposed RF seeker may be used in conjunction with electro-optic seekers with all-weather operational capabilities.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
AF 05-159      Awarded: 18APR05
Title:Acquisition and Tracking Algorithms to Exploit Foveal Sensors
Abstract:A new class of imaging sensors, "foveal sensors", have been developed recently for the purpose of providing (a) wide field of view, (b) high frame rate operation and (c) very high spatial resolution. Patterned after the model of the human visual system, these new imaging sensors will enable the development of a large new class of real-time algorithms specifically designed to acquire and track targets of interest. This proposed program will seek to exploit the new capabilities of foveal sensors by developing a suite of algorithms that efficiently detect and track moving objects in moving cluttered backgrounds. Under past and concurrent AFRL/MNGI sponsorship, the "Variable Acuity Superpixel Imager" (VASI) devices developed at Nova Sensors is just such an enabling device; it provides the capability for the user or controlling processor to change the spatial configuration of high- and lower spatial resolution pixels at the frame rate. It will be increasingly important to exploit the use of this class of imaging sensor with new algorithms that are specifically designed to make use of the spatially-tunable nature of the focal plane array (FPA).

POLARIS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5710 Jones Valley Drive
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 824-3230
Mr. John Harchanko
AF 05-159      Awarded: 16MAY05
Title:Guidance Research
Abstract:Traditional seeker optics are composed of domes, gimbals, and other expensive components that can be difficult to integrate into the missile. A concept in which the seeker components are more easily integrated and conformal to the missile airframe is desirable. The proposed concept utilizes a multiple non-imaging detector scheme to collect the target signature that can be wrapped around the airframe, similar to a compound eye. Placement of the sensors is much less critical allowing for optimal warhead placement which helps provide for more predictable, lethal warheads. Sensors are constructed to be low-cost and occupy a small volume. This proposal discusses our concept for these sensors, their construction, and our design approach.

TERNION CORP.
3325 Triana Blvd.
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 881-9933
Mr. William Brinda
AF 05-159      Awarded: 09JUN05
Title:Guidance Research
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed effort is to study the feasibility of developing an analysis system that will optimize technological parameters within the Integrated Concept Analysis Tool (ICET) at the Air Force Research Lab's Munitions Directorate (AFRL/MN). The goal is to leverage the capabilities of advanced optimization codes such as Sandia Laboratory's Dakota Project by using the metric's collected by an ICET scenario as iterative inputs to the optimization codes.

ANYAR, INC.
891 Coldwater Creek Circle
Niceville, FL 32578
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 217-9938
Mrs. Lisa Radliff
AF 05-160      Awarded: 13MAY05
Title:Ordnance Research for Complex Dispensing Warheads
Abstract:The primary purpose of this proposal is to study and demonstrate the feasibility of building a fast-running physics based simulation of a warhead that dispenses several independent submunitions from the warhead using a Windows based PC to host the simulation. In the simulation system to be designed, each submunition will "guide" itself independently to a representative above ground (or hard) target. The collection of dispensed submunitions will penetrate into dispersed target void spaces in the target model, which will allow each submunition to interact with target subcomponents such as barrels, computers, etc. To couple the evolving forces and moments on objects in the simulation, the simulation system must be designed to employ a basic 6-DOF integrator that will accurately and efficiently estimate the new state of multiple colliding, interacting objects.

MUSTANG TECHNOLOGY GROUP, L.P.
400 W. Bethany, Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 747-0707
Mr. David Boroson
AF 05-160      Awarded: 19MAY05
Title:Urban FAST
Abstract:The objective of SBIR F051-160-0885 is to "demonstrate the merit and feasibility of a height-of-burst (HOB) fuze proximity sensor operating in an urban environment. Mustang Technology Group, LP has successfully demonstrated the FAST proximity sensor that meets the Air Force need for an affordable next generation height-of-burst (HOB) fuze sensor. The FAST concept offers many key system benefits including; (1) programmable 0.5 meter accuracy height-of-burst, (2) ground profiling, even with heavy foliage, (3) height-of-burst, near surface burst, and penetrator operating modes, (4) affordable design based on low cost commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, and (5) meets production goal costs of $1500 for nose mount and $2000 for tail mount variants. This effort will consist of developing and implementing innovative algorithms that will enhance the capability of the existing FAST sensor so that it can meet the unique requirements associated with an urban environment. This will enable the key system benefits listed above to still be maintained, plus will provide a significant reduction in the collateral damage potential associated with dropping bombs in an urban environment.

TRILION QUALITY SYSTEMS
200 Barr Harbor Drive, Suite 400
West Conshohocken, PA 19428
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 722-5100
Mr. Timothy E. Schmidt
AF 05-160      Selected for Award
Title:Revolutionary Materials Research Technology for High-Strain-Rate Ordnance Research
Abstract:The development of aerospace technology is in part limited by the development and implementation of advanced materials. The challenge is to accelerate the maturation and insertion times of advanced materials to support the delivery of technically advanced systems. The precise modeling of these advanced materials and structures is only possible with accurate measurements of their real dynamic response. High-strain-rate testing of these advanced materials is limited by existing methods. Non-contact, high-speed, optical strain measurement looks to broadly extend the capabilities of the split-Hopkinson bar high-strain-rate test method, currently applicable for homogeneous, ductile materials, to be valid for the study of advanced brittle and composite materials. This capability will offer broad abilities to measure the high-strain-rate material properties at the sample, rather than inferring these properties from remote gages, reducing the limitations on materials, geometries and environments, producing better material data for the advancement of aerospace and ordinance technologies. Modern ordinace systems are operating at higher temperatures and using brittle and composite materials. This work is corner stone to the further development of these advanced materials.

PERCEPTEK
12395 North Mead Way
Littleton, CO 80125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 344-1037
Mr. William Severson
AF 05-161      Selected for Award
Title:IR Algorithms for Video-Aided Navigation
Abstract:This project will develop a FLIR-based visual odometry capability for Unmanned Air Vehicles, giving them a robust autonomous navigation capability. The system will allow UAVs to maintain an accurate estimate of their own motion in the absence of GPS, with INS drift, and in day or night operating conditions. Key aspects of our development strategy are to (1) fully exploit all available FLIR phenomenology to make the system most generally applicable, (2) consider a wide variety of navigation system sensory inputs to be useful to many UAV platforms, and (3) not be tied to a single motion estimation approach but rather evaluate several candidate approaches in the development of our preferred approach for real-time implementation and demonstration on Phase II. During Phase I we will develop feature extraction methods appropriate for FLIR and motion estimation, conduct trade studies of motion estimation approaches using FLIR features, and develop a preferred approach for Phase II.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 350
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 220-2123
Dr. Reuven Meth
AF 05-162      Selected for Award
Title:Real-Time Video Stabilization for Micro-Air Vehicles
Abstract:Real-time stabilization of videos aquired by Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) is a challenging problem due to unconstrained platform motion and the quality of video frames. As the potential of video exploitation using MAV platforms is being realized, real-time stabilization of MAV videos for presentation to warriors as well as for subsequent exploitation has become a key technology enabler. In this Phase I effort, SET Associates proposes to develop a real-time video stabilization algorithm appropriate for EO video cameras on MAVs. Our approach fuses two complimentary approaches: one based on optical flow and the other on tracking horizons. Both approaches are inspired by biological systems. The optical flow based approach yields real-time stabilization but suffers from lack of robustness due to errors in computing optical flow. The horizon-based approach is more accurate, but can only estimate pitch and roll. Our fusion approach achieves more robust stabilization through the use of an extended Kalman filter that incorporates error covariances of the optical flow and horizon tracking algorithms. We will demonstrate evaluate the performance of the fused algorithm on a variety of MAV video clips.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Christopher D. Hemmelgarn
AF 05-164      Awarded: 10MAY05
Title:Vectored-Thrust MAV for BIA Operations in Urban Environments
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to design and demonstrate a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) micro air vehicle (MAV) with vectored thrust for high maneuverability and platform stability. CRG will design and demonstrate a MAV providing the capabilities necessary for operating in cluttered urban environments while transferring real time reconnaissance information for bomb impact assessment (BIA). The proposed multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MAV will use a vectored thrust propulsion system designed to allow the MAV body to remain level during all stages of flight while providing high maneuverability for collision avoidance in low-altitude operations. Lightweight structural components are essential to the design of a VTOL MAV where thrust-to-weight ratios greater than 1 are required. To accomplish this, CRG will employ its lightweight high-strength syntactic materials in the design of the MAV structure. In Phase I CRG will develop and validate performance of the vectored thrust propulsion system, design a lightweight integrated structure, and select and evaluate microelectronics for control architecture (stability, navigation, communications). In addition, CRG will fabricate and demonstrate a radio-controlled (R/C) prototype MAV.

LITE MACHINES CORP.
1291 Cumberland Ave #H
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 463-0959
Mr. Paul Arlton
AF 05-164      Awarded: 18APR05
Title:Rotary Wing UAV for Bomb Impact Assessment within an Urban Environment
Abstract:Warfare within a city is a difficult business not only because of the abundance of man-made obstacles, but because the effects of bomb strikes are difficult to measure. Reconnoitering at low altitude and close range by a manned aircraft is often prohibitively dangerous because of the lack of maneuvering room and the high probability of hostile fire. A small, unobtrusive UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) capable of transporting sensors such as a video camera to a bomb impact site would greatly assist in determining, in real-time, the efficacy of the strike without exposing the operator to danger. In this Phase I study, Lite Machines will develop a variant of its rotary-wing UAVs and will study possible launch strategies from an existing munitions platform and the effectiveness of the UAV for bomb impact assessment in a cluttered urban environment.

FIRST POINT SCIENTIFIC, INC.
5330 Derry Avenue, Suite J
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 707-1131
Dr. Rod Greaves
AF 05-165      Awarded: 13MAY05
Title:Positron Source for Enhanced Endurance Platforms
Abstract:Antimatter offers the highest energy density of any known material; its energy density is more than ten orders of magnitude greater than conventional fuels and about 1000 times greater than possible with fusion energy. Thus, if the feasibility of a practical antimatter power source can be demonstrated, it will have a fundamental impact on the capabilities of enhanced duration airborne weapons platforms as well as many other applications. The key elements of an antimatter power system are: (1) the antimatter source; (2) antimatter storage; and (3) antimatter energy conversion. In the near term, a positron-based antimatter system is most practical based on the large amount of positron research that has been done. First Point Scientific, Inc. together with the University of California Riverside, both leaders in positron technology development, propose to provide an initial demonstration of the feasibility of a positron-based power system by developing a High Flux Positron Source (HFPS). The Phase I project will evaluate the feasibility of the technologies necessary to accomplish this, and will result in the preliminary design for an HFPS of highly advanced and scalable capabilities that will be constructed and demonstrated in Phase II.

STARVISION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1700 Research Parkway Suite 170
College Station, TX 77845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 458-1445
Mr. Michael Jacox
AF 05-165      Awarded: 15APR05
Title:AARS: A System Solution to Autonomous Aerial Refueling of Powered Munitions
Abstract:StarVision Technologies proposes to conduct an experimental feasibility assessment of an innovative and robust Autonomous Aerial Refueling System (AARS). The system has been developed specifically for powered munitions and will provide significant battlefield enhancements by allowing persistent and sustained air operations. The AARS proposed is the result of several years of studies and feasibility assessments and includes a novel vision-based relative navigation sensor, an Intelligent Supervisory Control system and customized refueling hardware. Leveraging prior feasibility assessments, the proposed Phase I effort will include an innovative flight experiment including the critical components of the AARS, a Boeing-donated vehicle and ground support contributions from the Texas A&M University's Flight Mechanics Lab. The proposed Phase I flight experiment will help benchmark a high fidelity simulation model of the AARS with a powered munition. The flight experiment will address key feasibility issues and mitigate risks of conducting a Phase II aircraft-to-aircraft demonstration of the AARS in a relevant environment.

ATA ENGINEERING, INC.
11995 El Camino Real, Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 480-2085
Dr. Gareth Thomas
AF 05-166      Awarded: 25MAY05
Title:Development of Techniques to Reduce Jerk for High Impact Munition Fuzes
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of techniques to reduce the jerk experienced by electronic components mounted in high impact munitions fuzes. The general approach that will be adopted in the proposed program attacks the shock protection issue at two levels. At the warhead housing level, device concepts will be explored that dissipate energy by plastically deforming in a controlled way. This strategy will lead to lower acceleration levels throughout the system and hence reduce jerk across the board. A limitation of this method is that excessive flexibility in the housing may compromise its penetration capability. The possibility of mounting the fuze from an energy dissipation structure with a parallel load path to the main housing will be considered because of this concern. The second level of protection will be provided at the electronic component level. Careful tuning of the mounts used to support the sensitive components will help avoid damaging dynamic amplification due to ringing after impact. Insight into this issue will be generated by calculating shock response spectra in the housing level impact analyses. These analyses will be undertaken using an explicit nonlinear dynamic analysis code after preliminary analyses have been undertaken with more time-efficient tools.

LRK ASSOC.
18223 Indian Creek Drive
Lake Oswego, OR 97035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 620-9977
Dr. Laurence Keefe
AF 05-166      Awarded: 26MAY05
Title:Fuse Jerk Reduction and Optimum Deceleration from a Compliant Material System
Abstract:The potential for structural failures in fuse assemblies on hardened-target penetrators results from both the high decelerations experienced and their short duration. Fuse survivability would be enhanced by lowering the magnitude, and extending the duration, of the deceleration pulse transmitted from the weapon to the fuse. LRK Associates proposes to model and analyze the shock-smoothing performance of a compliant material system that naturally smooths rise- and fall-times to reduce jerk, and then provides a constant, optimum deceleration lower than the shock peak in between. This latter level can be set by a simple mechanical adjustment. The system is passive, requiring neither electrical power nor logic, and should be constructible from commercially available materials. The system scales well to different fuse masses, and can be used during both impact deceleration and launch acceleration. Initial analysis predicts this system allows less than 20% of the fuse displacement produced by a damped linear system subject to the same maximum acceleration.

KARAGOZIAN & CASE
2550 North Hollywood Way, Suite 500
Burbank, CA 91505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 240-1919
Mr. John Crawford
AF 05-167      Awarded: 04MAY05
Title:Development of HFPB Structural Response Models for Steel Column/Girder Construction
Abstract:Karagozian & Case and ACTA, Inc., are pleased to propose a nine-month Phase I SBIR project to demonstrate the feasibility of capturing the fidelity of high-fidelity physics based (HFPB) models in a fast-running format suitable for predicting the response of steel column/girder construction in steel frame buildings. It is anticipated that such models will be incorporated in certain modules of the Modular Effectiveness/Vulnerability Assessment (MEVA) code, developed for and currently used by the Air Force for assessing munitions effectiveness and target vulnerability. Current engineering models employ-resistance functions, regression analysis (e.g., in the form of P-I diagrams predicting member failure states) and other simplifying analytic approaches-in ways that are unnecessarily restrictive, thereby losing the fidelity inherent in HFPB models. For predicting the response of steel frame buildings, generalizations of these accepted techniques offer the means of overcoming restrictions that have limited both the fidelity and utility of conventional engineering/fast-running models. The new modeling techniques-incorporating higher fidelity physics, enhanced response/damage visualization, and improved stochastic modeling-would include the effects of steel column/girder connections on column/girder response, including the influence of column dead load, shear failure and buckling, all of which are missing from MEVA's current steel frame model.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 350
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 298-3166
Dr. David Coombs
AF 05-168      Selected for Award
Title:Novel 3D Shape Representations
Abstract:SET Associates proposes to identify and implement novel, real-time 3D shape representations for measured point-cloud data maximizing exploitation while minimizing computational complexity and bandwidth. The Interest in the use of 3D sensors for munitions autonomous agent applications is continually increasing. Common data sources include Laser Radar (LADAR), calibrated stereo cameras, and video utilizing structure from motion (SFM) algorithms. For each source, the sensor output is a range image combined with information on the sensor pointing direction and location at each frame. To emphasize the 3D structure and shape information, range images are normally transformed into a XYZ point cloud referenced to world or local coordinates. While point cloud representations are easily extracted from range imagery, they have various shortcomings for both supervised and autonomous target acquisition and recognition applications. Foremost, individual points in the data have no explicit connectivity with other points to help define surfaces and objects which are building blocks of human perception and Automatic Target Acquisition/Automatic Target Recognition (ATA/ATR) algorithms. This motivates a change in shape representation in most applications - either to facilitate human reasoning over the 3D data or enable robust autonomous information extraction. For a selection of specific applications, SET will investigate and develop representations optimally suited to munitions and autonomous agents such as micro air vehicles. In this context, SET's proposed candidate representations are compact, enabling transmission over low-bandwidth networks. Proposed representations are also computationally simple, enabling processing to be done on vehicle with limited available processing resources.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Mark R. Stevens
AF 05-169      Selected for Award
Title:Automatic Generation of Natural and Urban Scenes
Abstract:The development and evaluation of autonomous precision strike weaponry requires high fidelity image simulation. Data collections involving moving platforms are difficult to schedule and costly to perform. Furthermore, live data collections where the weapon is being guided by an autonomous target acquisition (ATA) system cannot be performed in dense urban environments. The only solution is to develop high fidelity image and navigation simulations of realistic operating environments. Our proposed system is called Automatic Generation of Natural and Urban Scenes (AGNUS). AGNUS takes as input a collection of user specified parameters describing the variability of the desired scene (such as building and population density, street sizes, etc.) and any available mapping information such as Digital Feature Analysis Data and Digital Terrain Elevation Data. AGNUS then generates a metadata representation describing the scene. This meta-information is converted into an attributed geometry model using SAIC's INSSITE tool and output in CHAMP/FLITES data format for image simulation. The seamless combination of these technologies allows IR image generation of complex scenes containing large-scale urban environments. This allows AFRL to evaluate candidate ATA algorithms as two datasets (one for training and one for testing) can be generated that have comparable statistics but are both topologically and geometrically different.

TERRASIM, INC.
One Gateway Center, Suite 2050, 420 Ft. Duquesne B
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 232-3646
Dr. Jefferey A. Shufelt
AF 05-169      Awarded: 04MAY05
Title:High Resolution Urban & Natural Background Scene Generation
Abstract:This project will modify TerraTools(R), our COTS simulation database generation software, to generate visual databases with attribution containing relevant thermal and spectral parameters for each object or polygon in the scene. The output visual database will then be fed into existing sensor simulation systems, using a TerraSim API, to support the construction of highly-detailed and accurate visual simulations of urban environments under infrared observation.

HYTEC, INC.
110 Eastgate Drive
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 661-3000
Dr. Vivek R. Dave
AF 05-170      Selected for Award
Title:Material Bonding For Lethal Air-to-Air Warheads
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a well characterized, production-friendly, bonding technique with predictable and measurable bond quality for joining zirconium to tantalum for use in lethal air-to-air warheads. Lethal warheads or kinetic energy penetrators for land-based and air-based use have been successfully implemented in military applications for almost two decades and are largely based on depleted uranium (DU). There is however controversy regarding the use of DU-based penetrators, and therefore other high density materials combinations such as tungsten and tantalum are actively being developed as substitutes. However, to enhance lethality it is desirable to combine high density with pyrophoricity, hence the desire to bond material combinations such as tantalum and zirconium. This present work proposes a novel approach to bond rods or other cylindrically-symmetric components of zirconium and tantalum based on the systematic use of inertia friction welding (IFRW), unique bond interlayer concepts, and a proven on-machine quality assurance strategy to ensure metallurgical bond integrity based on real-time manufacturing data. It is felt that is proposed approach, if successfully demonstrated, will result in a cost-effective, production friendly process that directly unambiguously characterizes bond quality and its dependence on weld parameters.

ULTRACLAD CORP.
155 River Street
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 470-1620
Dr. Joseph C. Runkle
AF 05-170      Selected for Award
Title:Material Bonding For Lethal Air-to-Air Warheads
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is the development of a tantalum to zirconium bonding technique suitable for air-to-air warheads and other munitions. The chosen approach is hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding. Because of related experience with HIP diffusion bonding of titanium to tantalum, and because of similarities in chemical behavior and phase diagrams, it is firmly believed that this is an eminentaly suitable approach. Full metallugical bonds have already been demonstrated between titanium and tantalum that exhibit high strength and ductility. The process can be economically scaled for production with exhisting equipment.

OBRIEN & ASSOC.
406 S. Lane St.
Blissfield, MI 49228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 486-3905
Dr. James M. O'Brien
AF 05-173      Awarded: 25MAY05
Title:Material Enhancement through Cryogenic ECAP
Abstract:Warhead liner performance is greatly affected by three liner material properties, namely, strength, ductility and circumferential symmetry. Extensive work done in the area of on-axis upset forging of round bar stock to form liner plates has demonstrated symmetry of texture which is necessary for uniform geometry during explosive formation. Additional development has focused on severe plastic deformation, using the technique of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of the starting bar stock, to condition the material prior to upset forging and to eliminate microstructure variations from multiple material vendors. Recent work in the rolling of copper plate at cryogenic temperatures, followed by a rapid anneal, has been found to create a duplex grain structure that produces high levels of strength and ductility simultaneously. The extension of the cryogenic temperature environment to ECAP processing, offers the possibility of warhead liners with an unprecedented combination of ductility and strength, which would provide enhancements in penetrator length and penetration depth respectively. In addition, the use of upset forging following cryogenic ECAP will generate the texture symmetry needed for uniform geometry during explosive forming. Such characteristics would offer the warhead designer the best possible material performance for a variety of applications.

IMAGINATION ENGINES, INC.
11970 Borman Dr., Suite 250
St. Louis, MO 63146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 317-2228
Mr. Dean Vieau
AF 05-174      Awarded: 19MAY05
Title:Creative Mobile Terrain Sensing Multi-Valued Behavior Robots
Abstract:In previous investigations, we have crafted neural architectures for complex, hexapod robots that may invent clever walking strategies based upon absolutely no prior learning. Similarly, we have also shown that the same neural networks may devise variations on these locomotive strategies to propel themselves along unfamiliar surfaces. In this SBIR, we propose using similar techniques to teach a hexapod robot, equipped with a more extensive sensor suite, to not only create its own crawling strategies for non-ideal surfaces such as grassy, sandy, wet, or snowy terrains, but to associate signatures from its sensor suite with these self-invented strategies. In operation, the robot will thereby enlist the appropriate crawling behaviors stored within corresponding neural engines. Having selected an appropriate crawling behavior, the neural algorithm will further refine itself as it continuously experiments and absorbs the most successful strategies through reinforcement learning. In the final stages of this SBIR, we will devise a series of test courses over a variety of surfaces and relief features to test our advanced, neural network based navigation algorithms.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Paul Dionne
AF 05-178      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Non-Dissipative LES Design Tool for Turbulent Combustion and Acoustics Analysis of Gas Turbine Combustors
Abstract:Combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a very promising approach for resolving acoustics in turbulent-reacting flows. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) has successfully developed and validated state-of-the-art Combustion LES software (CFD-ACE+) to analyze gas turbine acoustics, using unstructured grids with second-order temporal and spatial differencing. Still, unstructured LES has not yet matured to a practical design tool with an affordable turnaround time because very small time-steps and cell-sizes are needed to accurately resolve the small-scale acoustics physics. If the time-step or cell-size is increased in an attempt to reduce the run time, the code becomes too dissipative. Typical run times with CFD-ACE+ for accurate acoustic analysis are 40-50 days for 2M cells on 16 PCs. To make the code less dissipative, CFDRC proposes to develop a fourth-order accurate solver for unstructured grids. To our knowledge, a fourth-order solver has never been successfully developed for unstructured meshes. In Phase I, a fourth-order time-integration scheme and a fourth-order pressure interpolation will be implemented in CFD-ACE+. Significant reduction in run-time (~ 5-10 times) and numerical dissipation will be demonstrated. To further increase the accuracy and decrease run time, fourth-order spatial discretization and dynamic grid adaptation will be implemented in Phase II. At the end of Phase II, accurate combustion LES run times on 16 PCs will be 1-2 days. The software will be thoroughly validated and delivered to the Air Force.

METACOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 735-4882
Dr. Sampath Palaniswamy
AF 05-178      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Development of Acoustic Models for High-Performance Combustors
Abstract:Prediction of acoustic noise generation in actual gas turbine combustors is made difficult by the interaction of fuel jet/droplet breakup, turbulent mixing and combustion with large -scale flow oscillations. Current methodologies rely either on fast and easy-to- implement, albeit less accurate, empirical curve fits or on full-scale unsteady DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). While full scale simulations are capable of higher fidelity, their effectiveness is minimized by unduly long computational turnaround times and taxing requirements on computational resources. Metacomp Technologies proposes a new simulation methodology to predict acoustic noise generation in combustors with turnaround times short enough to be an effective design tool.

KARTA TECHNOLOGIES
5555 Northwest Parkway
San Antonio, TX 78249
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 582-3312
Dr. Madhavrao Govindaraju
AF 05-179      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Thermal Barrier Coating Life Determination
Abstract:Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely being used in gas-turbine engines to thermally protect metal components such as turbine blades from hot combustion gases. One of the primary concerns of using TBC as a protective coating is its long term durability. Premature failure of TBCs during service can expose the bare metal to dangerously hot gases leading to material failure. Failure to remove critical aircraft turbine engine components prior to failure can lead to catastrophic failures and premature removal is costly in terms of lowered part utilization. Therefore, it is critical to develop analytical models that could predict the remaining durable life of TBC coatings thereby significantly improving the reliability and utilization of engine components. In the proposed research, Karta Technologies, Inc. (Karta) proposes to develop an analytical approach that takes into consideration multiple NDI parameters in determining remaining durable life of TBC engine components. The proposed research involves design and development of a PC-compatible user-friendly software for estimating the remaining durable life for TBC coated turbine engine components. Karta proposed to use neural network analysis for calculating the remaining life of coatings. Results from this research program will enhance the reliability, durability, and overall performance of TBC coatings.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 260
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 259-7541
Dr. Jalees Ahmad
AF 05-179      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Thermal Barrier Coating Life Determination
Abstract:The goal is to develop and experimentally validate a marketable methodology for remaining life evaluation of thermal barrier coated (TBCed) turbine engine components using quantitative nondestructive inspection (NDI) data. The approach will require innovative research and development (R&D) effort in Phase I to correlate NDI data with failure modes and to develop, validate and implement relevant oxidation, damage and deformation prediction models. Subsequently, these models will be used in defining a systematic development approach that would be implemented in Phase II and beyond. Phase I will directly build upon extensive research already performed by RAI and other organizations under various DoD, DOE and NASA funded programs, and by turbine engine manufacturers. Phase I deliverable will be validated mechanism based (mechanistic) modeling methods to describe TBC deformation and damage behavior under general thermomechanical loads, and thermal and environmental conditions relevant to jet engines.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5269
Dr. Frank Zhang
AF 05-180      Awarded: 21MAR05
Title:Model-Based Reconfigurable Fault Tolerant Control of Jet Engines
Abstract:In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes a novel reconfigurable fault tolerant control (FTC) approach for advanced jet engines to realize the full potential of model-based engine control technology. The proposed FTC architecture will be achieved through the integration of the model-based engine control concept with a new nonlinear diagnostic scheme that is employed to detect, isolate, and accommodate any faults in the engine signals used for adaptation of the onboard engine model. Therefore, the onboard engine model provides a good representation of the component performance of the physical engine even in the presence of faulty signals for adaptation. The reconfigurable adaptive engine model enables real-time monitoring of engine component performance, sensor/actuator fault diagnosis and accommodation by using virtual measurements of measurable engine variables, and optimal direct thrust control for individual engine. The proposed nonlinear fault diagnosis scheme employs a new nonlinear approach to residual generation and a transferable belief model based diagnostic reasoning method, which has the capability of directly dealing with nonlinear systems/faults, unstructured modeling uncertainty, the occurrence of new or unanticipated faults. The proposed method will lead to fuel efficiency, improved safety and engine performance, and longer service life of future jet engines.

RIDGETOP GROUP, INC.
6595 North Oracle Road, Suite 153B
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
Mr. Terry Fruehling
AF 05-180      Awarded: 18MAR05
Title:Improved prognostic/diagnostic tools for fault-tolerant data buses
Abstract:Ridgetop believes the technological advances in Prognostics and Built-in Self Test (BIST) can play a pivotal role in enabling the host electronic control unit (ECU) and its subsystems to assess their own viability and make on-the-fly corrections as required, or a transfer to redundant units. For critical applications such as FADEC systems, these techniques could offer improvements in operational reliability and perform, The Objective of this SBIR is to develop efficient redundancy management architectures for electronic engine and aerospace controls. The approach explored in this proposal will be to exploit concurrent self-testing architectures (concurrent Built In Self Test - BIST) rather that than strict adherence to using multiple redundancies of either hardware building blocks or software modules. The concept vision realizes that technology now exists that can produce a Self Deterministic (SD) Electronic Control Unit (ECU) for the host application. A Self Deterministic ECU (SD-ECU) can accurately assess its own State Of Health (SOH), it does not need to have a voting process take place among multiple peer ECUs for this determination to take place This Proposal will focus on one aspect of making the SD-ECU a reality. The development of a scaleable, concurrent, Data Stream Monitor.

ARCOMAC SURFACE ENGINEERING, LLC
6575 Butler Creek Road
Missoula, MT 59808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 522-7620
Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky
AF 05-181      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Plasma Surface Engineering for Bearing Wear and Corrosion Prevention in Advanced Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:Current engine bearing lubrication technology begins to break down at the high rotation speeds, loads and temperatures required for advanced fighter engines. Furthermore, in combat operation bearings may have to operate for short periods with no lubrication, and also resist pervasive corrosive environments. In this program the bearing material will be modified to be "slippery", more durable, resist corrosion and hold lubricant evenly on the entire contact surface. This is possible because a breakthrough in surface engineering technology can precisely control deposition of coatings at the level of vaporized atoms. This innovative technology can deposit atomically bonded, multiple layered, nanocomposite coatings combined with engineered surface texturing in a single integrated tribo-system, so coated engine bearings will perform dependably under extreme operating conditions. There is an enormous opportunity for future applications to lubricate a wide range of military and civilian mechanical components that operate in severe environments.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
4415 Euclid Avenue, Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Dr. Greg Shaw
AF 05-181      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Improved Turbine Engine Bearing Materials And Processes
Abstract:The VAATE program and other advanced turbine engines require improved bearing materials for better resistance to fatigue, wear and corrosion. Orbital Research proposes a combination of two processing methods to ensure the optimum properties. Starting with a high strength stainless steel (Pyrowear 675) to ensure corrosion resistance, a novel heat treating method will be used that dramatically increases the surface hardness and compressive stresses relative to standard methods. The core properties are not diminished, and may be improved. The part is then coated with titanium nitride to provide enhanced wear resistance. The coating is applied using another novel method that dramatically improves adhesion so that it can withstand the high load, high speed conditions present in advanced turbine engines. In Phase I the improvement in material properties and performance characteristics will be demonstrated, and the process designed for a prototype turbine engine bearing. Properties to be measured include strength, toughness, hardness, wear resistance and fatigue resistance. In Phase II prototype bearings will be fabricated and tested. Initial testing will be completed on high speed, high load bearing test rigs. Subsequent testing will be performed in a turbine engine test stand.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Amarendra K. Rai
AF 05-181      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Development of Advanced Coatings and/or Surface Treatments for State-of-the-Art Bearing Materials
Abstract:Advanced gas turbine engine bearings will experience high DN (bearing speed in revolution per minutes times bearing bore in millimeter), increased load and high temperatures. State-of-the-art (SOA) materials such as Pyrowear 675, CSS-42L and silicon nitride are considered as potential bearing materials for advanced gas turbine engines. Surface modification of SOA materials is considered to enhance their relevant properties for such application. UES, Inc. proposes to develop surface modification technologies and coatings for the SOA materials. A systematic test methodology will be used to evaluate the relevant properties of the surface modified and coated SOA materials. Based on the evaluation results, the proposed surface modification technologies will be validated and ranked. Highly ranked technologies will be further developed in Phase II

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Matthew E. Thomas
AF 05-182      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Enhanced Ultra Compact Combustion Using Electrostatic Charging
Abstract:CFD Research has demonstrated improved atomization, mixing control and lower emissions using an electrostatic charged air-blast fuel injector retrofitable within the RR501-K U.S. Navy Shipboard gas turbine engine. Without altering current configurations electrostatic fuel injection and combustion charging could further reduce emissions, improve stability, enhance ignition and/or tailor thermal profiles in recent AFRL ultra compact combustor chamber designs. Specific milestones to be achieved during Phase I include: (a) Effective electrostatic charging of JP8 fuel using injector configurations and flow rates under consideration in current AFRL ultra-compact combustor configurations. (b) Ambient test and evaluation of charged and uncharged ultra-compact high swirl combustion in a circumferential cavity. Measurements of gaseous emissions, stability and ignition will be completed. (c) Numerical prediction of the secondary atomization and vaporization advantages electrostatic fuel injection and chamber charging has in selected ultra-compact and inter-turbine combustor configurations. During Phase II CFDRC will integrate electrostatic fuel injection and combustion chamber charging into a VAATE platform to demonstrate precision controlled combustion performance enhancements at full-scale conditions. General Electric, AADC, Pratt & Whitney and/or Honeywell will all be considered as Phase II rig test partners.

BLADE DIAGNOSTICS CORP.
6688 Kinsman Road
Pittsburgh, PA 15217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 901-3467
Dr. Drew Feiner
AF 05-183      Awarded: 22MAR05
Title:Field Mistuning Inspection Tool
Abstract:Blade Diagnostics Corporation proposes to study the feasibility of developing a field mistuning tool and an associated approach for managing the mistuning problem in integrally bladed rotors (IBRs). The field inspection tool will determine the frequencies of individual blades in IBRs using the methods developed at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The tool will be a faster, automated version of the machine now used for this purpose at CMU and will consist of computer controlled vibrometers, software, and an internet connection to a data/knowledge base. The measurement machine will use CMU developed software to project how the IBR will vibrate when in the engine and will tell the operator that the IBR is acceptable or needs refurbishing. The machine would be used when the part is first manufactured and at regular inspection intervals. The resulting data will characterize how mistuning changes with usage and can be used with probabilistic methods for prognostics to help manage the fleet and reduce the likelihood of HCF failures.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 384-7840
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
AF 05-184      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Passive thermal Management for High-Temperature Aircraft Actuation Systems
Abstract:The proposed program will develop an integrated passive thermal management (TM) system to support the "power-by-wire" technology originated with the Air Force Research Laboratory. The TM system can operate in a wide range of environmental temperature (from -55 to 200 C) and under a variable gravity situation (up to 9g). A cold plate impregnated with a phase change material (PCM) in channels will absorb heat during periods of peak power and high-g. A porous heat pipe (PHP) will be developed to spread heat from a heat flux of 3 W/cm^2 at the cold plate to less than 1 W/cm^2 at the aircraft skin. Microcapsulated PCM particles can function as a wick as well as provide additional thermal energy storage capability. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed concept will be demonstrated by measuring the apparent thermal conductivity and heat flux limit of the porous heat pipe over a wide range of temperature. A complete thermal management system for an electronic unit of the aircraft actuation system will then be designed in the Phase I effort.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-3435
Mr. Christopher Duston
AF 05-184      Awarded: 17MAR05
Title:Passive Thermal Management System for High-Temperature Military Aircraft Actuation System
Abstract:Development of high-temperature, high-efficiency, and high-density power electronic component technologies as part of the more electric aircraft (MEA) effort offers opportunities for passive, compact, and lightweight thermal management systems for aircraft actuation systems. The next-generation power electronics will operate at a cold plate temperature of 200 C making it possible to reject its heat through the structure to the ambient environment without active cooling. The thermal load averages 3 W/cm2 with peaks up to 30 W/cm2. Technology Assessment and Transfer, in association with Technology Applications, Inc. proposes to evaluate an advanced primary heat sink of phase change material filled carbon foam and to assess several heat rejection approaches, including heat pipes. At the conclusion of this program, TA&T and TAI will be prepared to design, construct and test a bench scale prototype thermal management system.

ONBOARD SOFTWARE, INC.
12621 Silicon Drive Ste 113
San Antonio, TX 78249
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 477-5302
Dr. Bruce Mather
AF 05-185      Awarded: 21MAR05
Title:Integration of Engine Failure and Trending Data to Support Reliability Centered Maintenance
Abstract:The Air Force maintains several disparate databases to support maintainability and sustainability of aircraft and aircraft engines, e.g., CETADS, CEMS, REMIS, JOAP, and IETMS. These databases, however, have been implemented in a stove piped configuration where they don't share, exchange, or integrate data with any sort of automation. It is not uncommon to manually export, email, and either import or manually reenter the data into a complementary database. This can be time consuming and error prone. Additionally, it is too cumbersome to develop Reliability Centered Maintenance tools, algorithms, and reports with this architecture and process. We are proposing the development of a methodology to integrate this disparate data as a means of producing a data warehouse which can support RCM tool development. The level of transparency of this data integration will depend upon the DMBS used, their connectivity, security, and even integrity of the data. All aspects of the listed systems will be review and considered prior to developing the integration methodology. The resulting processes and tools developed have wide application in commercial areas such as medical records and industrial maintenance, as well as other DoD organizations who suffer from, "too many databases which don't talk to each other.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
8777 E.Via de Ventura, Suite 120
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 752-7909
Dr. Link Jaw
AF 05-185      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Integration of Engine Failure and Trending Data to Support Reliability Centered Maintenance
Abstract:The firm proposes to conduct research on integration of engine failure and trending data to support Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). The proposed research seeks to develop a knowledge-based software environment to host a range of analytical tools to facilitate RCM for the Air Force's engine fleet. The scope of the research in Phase I includes: system design, requirement development, conceptual design, proof-of-concept demonstration, feasibility assessment and preparation of Phase II work plan. The goal of the Phase I project is to prove the feasibility of the proposed integration concept and tools.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Gordon Scott Valentine
AF 05-186      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Engine Maintenance Cost Modeler
Abstract:Impact Technologies, LLC will lead an effort that will be supported by Standard Aero, San Antonio, Texas to formulate a methodology that will extend the current maintenance cost modeling tool to account for differing time since overhauls (TSO) and differing reliabilities of engine modules. Starting with a developed and proven model supplied by Standard Aero called "TF39 Maintenance Cost per flying Hour Model" (MCPFH), the proposed effort will provide improved cost estimation techniques that will more accurately predict the Operation & Support (O&S) costs due to maintenance actions on the turbine engines. New innovations will be introduced into the cost model that enable its integration with current RCM tools available to the Air Force, efficiently utilizing populated datasets. Additionally, analysis techniques will be embedded within the cost model so that financial costs would be appropriately allocated in an environment where engine module exhibit failures with stochastic tendencies.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Mr. Michael Painter
AF 05-186      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Reliability Centered Maintenance Costing (RCMC)
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and successfully deploy a genetic algorithm-based, Reliability Centered Maintenance Costing (RCMC) tool and supporting application methodology to help users maximize propulsion system availability while simultaneously minimizing life cycle cost. Unlike on-condition maintenance (OCM), which involves repairs or replacements driven by policy (e.g., periodic maintenance schedules) and/or failure to meet specified form, fit, or function specification limits, the RCMC methodology considers the overall effects of possible maintenance actions _ or the risk of not performing those maintenance actions _ on aggregate level metrics like engine availability, performance, and life cycle cost. This effort expands the RCM concept to treat aircraft engines as part of a propulsion system that is either now, or at some point will be, part of an individual aircraft system. Using the products of this effort, users in the depot and field maintenance units will have visibility and decision support enabling them to develop effective engine maintenance plans and schedules in a user-friendly, multi-criteria optimization environment.

WEDEVEN ASSOC., INC.
5072 West Chester Pike
Edgmont, PA 19028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 356-7161
Dr. Lavern D. Wedeven
AF 05-187      Awarded: 22MAR05
Title:Gear Material and Lubrication for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:The design of a gear simulation test rig is proposed to evaluate gear surface durability. The design focuses on surface initiate fatigue failure modes to allow evaluation of advanced corrosion resistant gear steels, surface technologies and advanced oils. Company assets of mature tribology test machine software (WinWAM) and custom made electronics are incorporated into the new machine design. In parallel with machine design, tribology performance mapping of advance gear steels are to be tested for wear, scuffing and surface fatigue performance. These tests are conducted with existing test machines (WAM4 and WAMhs). The results of these tests support new test rig design. They also support current R&D gear material development efforts. Results of performance mapping and surface fatigue testing are to be analyzed with respect to five key tribology parameters that control lubrication and failure modes. The performance boundaries and their specific parameters will be identified to develop an empirical modeling approach.

SENTIENT CORP.
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls, ID 83401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 522-8650
Mr. Sean Marble
AF 05-188      Awarded: 18MAR05
Title:Methodology for the Real-Time Management of Aero Gas Turbine Engine Usage Data
Abstract:Modern turbine engine lifing approaches compute damage accumulation in real time based on actual usage, substantially increasing the useable life over a-priori cycle or hour limits based on assumed worst-case operating conditions. However, these new algorithms are complex, consume substantial computing resources, and generate enormous amounts of data that must be archived to allow data mining and/or recalculation of damage post-mission. Sentient Corporation will develop intelligent real time data reduction algorithms that preserve the only those features of the usage data that are required for accurate damage accumulation according to the physics of failure. An off-board design time tool will automatically analyze the damage accumulation models to determine the specific data and data rates required by each. This information will be used by on-board logic to optimally sample data in real time. A modular implementation will allow the system to adapt as models are updated. In Phase I, a simplified demonstration system will be assembled in Matlab with at least one model representative of each major damage accumulation mode. The output of this system in response to recorded mission data will be compared to the system without the new data reduction algorithms to quantify the gains made and show that damage accuracy is not adversely affected.

VEXTEC CORP.
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Mr. Richard Holmes
AF 05-188      Awarded: 18MAR05
Title:Real-Time Management of Turbine Engine Usage Data
Abstract:This SBIR program will develop a novel software methodology for the management of gas turbine usage data in real time for accurate prediction of engine life. The approach will be flexible enough to allow for re-assessment of life consumption when subsequent knowledge provides a revised understanding of the way the damage is accrued. Phase I effort will investigate at least two potential data compression methods. The first approach, similar to many conventional computer compression routines, would be based on a pattern matching look-up table. The second approach will be based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). A key Phase I task will be to identify an approach for signal processing or data compression without any negative effects on life prediction. Although data compression experts can be found throughout industry, the VEXTEC Team are renowned turbine engine lifing and fatigue experts.The Phase I effort will evaluate optimal data processing techniques that will need to be incorporated into engine health management as well as engine prognosis systems. The Phase II effort will further develop these techniques and demonstrate how data flows from the raw signal to a processed and compressed format.

GHIOCEL PREDICTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6 South Main Street, 2nd Floor
Pittsford, NY 14634
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 641-0379
Dr. Dan M. Ghiocel
AF 05-189      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Bayesian Engine Reliability Development Tool
Abstract:GP Technologies, in response to the critical need produced by the new ENSIP requirements for engine probabilistic design, with the support of Pratt $Whitney, GE Aircraft Engines and STI Technologies, proposes the development of a prototype software that will be the basis of A Graphically-Assisted Probabilistic Design System (GAPDS) for aircraft engines. This prototype software will incorporate state-of-the-art stochastic modeling and simulation tools integrated with accurate physics-based engineering tools. The proposed prototype software will also incorporate refined Bayesian techniques that are capable of updating the stochastic models based on the available statistical databases and knowledge-based information. A particular emphasis of the Phase I development will be on integrating information from different sources, such as experimental tests, computational analyses and expert opinions. To achieve the user-friendliness goal, the prototype software will be based on easy-to-use "graphically assisted" modeling tools that will be developed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The Phase I project will demonstrate the application of the proposed prototype software to the probabilistic HCF blade design problem. Two case studies will be considered: (i) a research blisk and (ii) a real designed blade. Blisk mistuning effects will be included.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Boulevard
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Gregory J. Kacprzynski
AF 05-189      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:A Bayesian-Based Graphical Modeling Tool for Probabilistic Reliability Analysis
Abstract:Impact Technologies proposes to develop a Matlab/SimulinkT based Probabilistic Modeling and Analysis Toolbox (P-MAT) application that provides an intuitive and information-rich modeling environment for probabilistic reliability analysis with a powerful toolset consisting of Bayesian Update, Monte Carlo, 3rd party software integration and other modules. At the conclusion of Phase I, the USAF will be provided with prototype software that fully supports traditional probabilistic reliability analysis as well as uncertainty management via a multi-loop, iterative approach to Bayesian Updating in the presence of various forms of test data or other evidence types. While SimulinkT will act as the primary modeling and simulation environment for most analysis functions, file I/O, plotting, etc., P-MAT will also have the capability to translate some model elements into efficient routines for computationally intensive processes or for integration with 3rd party open source applications as well as perform high level project management in a front-end interface. The experienced Impact development team will work directly with the USAF TPOC to validate that P-MAT meets the USAF functional requirements and verify that it is robust and accurate by exercising it on a simple turbine blade design problem or a specific USAF case study.

VEXTEC CORP.
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Dr. Animesh Dey
AF 05-189      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Turbine Engine Reliability Analysis Tool
Abstract:Broad-spectrum analysis engineering packages have shared a potentially crippling handicap: the inability to easily couple the results from multiple analyses under a user friendly graphical interface. This deficiency is significant because individual physical phenomena are often interdependent. The mechanical failure of a part or assembly is often a function of a variety of loading conditions, material formulations or forces acting on it. Coupling multiple analyses is considered difficult in practice. This Phase I will establish feasibility for the development of a future engineering analysis tool by developing graphically based software that is capable of being used for currently needed Air Force analysis. The Phase I product will allow for integration with MATLAB, Finite Element Analysis and developed engineering algorithms. Also the software shall have limited Bayesian analysis capabilities which could be expanded during Phase II. The graphically assisted tool will provide a "drag-and-drop" approach to building a logic diagram that defines model parameters and their interaction with physical models. VEXTEC will demonstrate that the developed software can be used to predict the fatigue reliability of a gas turbine blade due to HCF, while accounting for variability in the material properties, geometry and blade loading.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5229
Dr. Eric van Doorn
AF 05-190      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Diligent data-power harness for high temperature wiring in engine bays
Abstract:In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) outlines a novel ingenuous method for wiring engine bays. The proposed wiring will function in engine bays with the following advantages:  Withstands temperatures greater than 1500 F  Flexible harness capable of delivering both power, and data.  Non-intrusive auto switching of data and power for integrity of the wiring system  Withstands engines vibrations, heat and gas abrasiveness for a long life We propose an innovative scheme involving layering of ceramics, ceramic matrix composites, metal matrix composites and fiber optics assembly with innovative ceramic fiber sheaths, based on four key innovations: 1) Selection of ceramic fabrics sheath material for insulation of adjacent wires by means of high temperature ceramic insulators. 2) A novel harness design to assemble the packaging of the data and power wires in a harness 3) Integrated Diagnostics and Prognostics by means of an aircraft wire fault detection system with demonstrated sensitivity to aging insulation. 4. Robust harness architecture: when one of the wires fails the fault detection system senses the integrity of the system and switches to a redundant wire in the harness.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Amarendra K. Rai
AF 05-190      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Development of High-Temperature Wiring for Engine Bays
Abstract:Condition monitoring of the components of the gas turbine engine is essential. Gas turbine engines are being designed to run at sustained high temperature conditions. The limiting factor to the implementation of the control and diagnostic capabilities for health (condition) monitoring are not the devices themselves, but the temperature capability of the associated wiring. UES, Inc., in collaboration with Astro Industries, proposes to select, design and fabricate high-temperature wiring capable of sustaining the high-temperature engine environment. The suitability of the selected wire components and the complete wire in the high-temperature engine environment will be demonstrated and ranked. The highly ranked high-temperature wires will be further developed in Phase II. Also in Phase II, the developed wiring system will be integrated with the developing sensor and their suitability in the high-temperature environment will be evaluated.

ELECTRO ENERGY, MOBILE PRODUCTS, INC.
3820 S Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs, CO 80911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 392-4266
Dr. David Pickett
AF 05-191      Awarded: 18MAR05
Title:Lithium Batteries for Strategic Missile Flight Testing
Abstract:i. Many of today's modern strategic weapons rely on antiquated battery systems, many of which are more than 40 years old. Today's lithium battery technology could make a significant positive contribution to improving this situation. However, simply trying to use commercial cells and batteries for these applications will not be successful. ii. The cell chemistries used today for strategic weapons are difficult to work with, deplete valuable rare metals, and environmentally dangerous. Lithium cell chemistry on the other hand, uses robust manufacturing techniques, inexpensive materials, and is environmentally friendly. iii. This proposal identifies strategies to incorporate bipolar wafer cell technology into battery chemistries applicable to the strategic weapons platforms. Bipolar wafer cell technology will provide the packaging expertise to make lithium battery technology successful in strategic weapons applications. iv. The advantage of the bipolar lithium ion technology is the high specific energy and the capability of the design to be either rigid or conformable. v. The proposal outlines steps for research, development, testing and evaluation of primary and rechargeable lithium batteries during the initial phase. Because there are provisions for demonstration during the initial phase, the potential risk of unacceptable results during a second phase are mitigated.

LITHIUM TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5115 Campus Drive
Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 940-6090
Mr. Ron Turi
AF 05-191      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Lithium Batteries for Strategic Missile Flight Testing
Abstract:Lithium Technology Corporation has developed lithium ion batteries to replace silver-zinc in launch vehicle applications. These batteries utilize LTC's high-rate battery technology that also targets HEV applications for other military and commercial use. These batteries benefit from innovative cell design as well as innovative manufacturing processes for high-rate lithium ion batteries, comprising novel methods of current collector tab formation and cell sealing operations. These processes enabled LTC to sample HEV battery modules to USABC and EUCar and cells to aerospace companies and NASA. This program may utilize electrodes made with an extrusion/lamination process - exclusively available to LTC through its subsidiary in Germany. These electrodes significantly reduce cost since the production equipment enables minimal use of excipient materials and requires lower capital investment. Lockheed Martin and other customers have ordered production lots to evaluate product reliability and high-rate performance. LTC proposes to adapt its HEV 36V/7Ah battery module, composed of 7Ah Double-D cells [DD7, 320g] to the required 34V-25V for the first application [<5kg, capable of 210A peak]. For the second application, LTC proposes to substitute its high-rate 3Ah D cells [180g] for the DD7 cells [<2kg, capable of 30A peak]. LTC will provide BMS electronics, interconnects and prototype battery housing.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Sohrab Hossain
AF 05-191      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Lithium Batteries for Strategic Missile Flight Testing
Abstract:The propulsion directorate of the Air Force has recognized the need for a safe, dependable, and relatively inexpensive lithium battery for strategic missile flight testing. The Phase I SBIR project addresses to investigate the feasibility of defining the design and dimension of such lithium batteries A novel electrochemical couple is proposed for the development of a high specific energy lithium-ion battery system for strategic flight testing applications. The proposed low cost anode, which delivers 50% higher practical capacity than the state-of-the-art carbon anodes, will be used to address the safety issues. In Phase I, several lithium-ion cells of capacity 2 Ah and 4 Ah, which are required for two types of flight testing, will be designed and developed and their performance will be evaluated to demonstrate the proof-of-concept. In Phase II, prototype batteries will be produced.

ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 528-9806
Mr. James R. Markham
AF 05-192      Awarded: 28MAR05
Title:Propulsion System Performance and Health Monitor
Abstract:The innovation proposed is a flight-worthy optical sensor that will monitor propulsion system performance and health characteristics, including identifying the onset of combustion instability, in air-breathing engines such as turbojets and ramjets. It is an innovation for three reasons: 1) the sensing is performed in the hot exhaust flow at the back of the engine instead of at the flame-front in the combustor, so no undesired penetrations into the high-pressure, high-temperature combustor are required; 2) in addition to detecting incipient combustion instability the sensor will provide a means to monitor and diagnose the operational health of the engine; and 3) key components of the sensor include a novel optic and passive measurement method. The innovation is directly relevant and important to meeting the technology need described in the topic since it will be measuring new parameters in real-time that will provide propulsion system performance characteristics and contribute to safely expanding the flight envelope of aerospace vehicles. The technology will be attractive to the military aerospace industry since it will provide low-risk technology transfer, advanced aircraft superiority, lower maintenance costs, increased performance, and increased affordability.

COFFINBERRY & ASSOC.
8238 Lake Ridge Drive
West Chester, OH 45069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 777-7369
Mr. George A. Coffinberry
AF 05-192      Awarded: 30MAR05
Title:Aeropropulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:Electrical/electronic equipment need relatively low temperature for reliability in addition to adequate fuel heat sink for waste heat dissipation. Inefficient engine fuel pumps steal precious heat sink from these critical systems, reducing their reliability and mission capability. Aircraft engine fuel pump heat load is becoming more and more a serious problem on current military aircraft. Fuel recirculation from the engine to aircraft tanks is used as a means for reducing the localized fuel pump temperature rise in the engine. However, recirculation causes increase in tank fuel temperature and a reduction of heat sink for aircraft systems. Using Modelogics Model Engineer as a computational platform, the program will provide the computational tools needed to dramatically reduce pump power (eliminating tank recirculation) while maintaining good stability, reliability and other figures of merit. Lockheed Martin and Modelogics are currently working together to develop a vehicle-level model of the F-35 aircraft. Lockheed Martin and Modelogics have agreed to provide support to this SBIR by providing these F-35 models. Modelogics will work with Coffinberry & Associates to perform mission simulations and trade studies of various pump types and pump configurations.

DESIGN, IMAGING, & CONTROL, INC.
1421 Apple Brook La.
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 885-4134
Mr. Ali Mazdeh
AF 05-192      Awarded: 30MAR05
Title:Aeropropulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:We propose the development of passive radiators to be used for adding low-frequency (<1000 Hz) acoustic damping, to mitigate combustion instability in augmentors. These radiators can be viewed as tuned absorbers and will be tuned to the resonant frequency(ies) of the sympathetic mode(s). Once tuned, they will provide an effective fluid loading at their tuned frequency, i.e., the resonant frequency of a sympathetic mode. The number and locations of these radiators are design variables and will be determined so that the radiators couple well with the target mode(s) of the augmentor and thus absorb its(their) energy. We also propose to develop a software tool that assists the designers in the synthesis and analysis of stability mitigation solutions for augmentors. This design tool will be developed in Matlab/Simlink environment and will be based on two sub-systems of acoustics and combustion dynamics feeding back into each other. The modal data used in constructing the acoustic dynamics of the combustion system will be generated in ANSYS finite element analysis environment and then exported to Matlab.

ELECTRODYNAMICS ASSOC., INC.
409 Eastbridge Drive
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 977-1825
Mr. Jay Vaidya
AF 05-192      Awarded: 21MAR05
Title:Integration of High Speed, Compact, Efficient Generator for DEW Applications
Abstract:Compact source of electric power is needed on unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAV) for directed energy weapon (DEW) systems. Electrodynamics proposes integration of high speed induction generator electromagnetics and controls hardware rated at 200 kW, 62000 RPM into a viable system for these applications. The generator produces controlled AC power at a frequency of about 2.1 kHz., which will be stepped up to 30000 plus volts using a high frequency transformer-rectifier-filter unit. The technology integration will be in thermal and mechanical areas. Also the electrical interface issues relating to delivery of high voltage DC power to the HPM weapons are addressed. Innovative approaches proposed are: use of low friction, oil-free air foil bearings for the generator, effective cooling techniques using air or fuel to remove heat, generator packaging in lightweight housing, use of Metglass for stator core to lower iron losses and help thermal management, compact transformer-rectifier-filter design for high voltage output, control of HVDC bus from low potential generator control loop, engine start function, and other protective functions. A team of experts is assembled to carry out the R&D activity. Phase I program will result in hardware designs and drawings for Phase II fabrication and test demonstration.

FMW COMPOSITE SYSTEMS, INC.
1200 W. Benedum Industrial Drive
Bridgeport, WV 26330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 842-1864
Mr. Rob Grabow
AF 05-192      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Advanced Thermal Management System for Military Applications of the Scramjet Cycle
Abstract:The recent successful flight tests of a scramjet have moved to the cycle closer to military application. One key barrier to military utilization of the scrajet is high weights in the engine. The current engine uses an inconel actively cooled wall on the engine. Recent developments in Titanium Matrix Components (TMC) offer a breakthrough potential of cutting the weight of the engine in half. FMW and Pratt Whitney propose to demonstrate an advanced thermal management system with application to a scramjet side wall. A small section will be fabricated with representative flow passage.

INNOVATIVE POWER SOLUTIONS, LLC
22 Meridian Road, Suite 7
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 544-1075
Mr. Lev Sorkin
AF 05-192      Awarded: 01APR05
Title:Aeropropulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:High power pulsed load applications impose a great challenge to the existing power sources in military applications. Such applications include radars, Directed-Energy Weapons (DEW), and Electronic Countermeasure systems. DEW systems are being developed for both ground and airborne applications. Typically, they consist of microwave or laser powered guns. Both the microwave application and the diode based laser applications require significant amount of power. This power ranges from hundreds of kilowatts for microwave applications to Megawatts for laser applications. The laser application requires that the full power be available for short duration, with short pauses in between. High power radars require between 100kW and 300kW of pulsed power. The load frequency varies between 300Hz and 2kHz and duty cycle has a range of 10% to 50%. The decoupling of pulsed power loads from the prime power poses significant challenges, and needs to be explored. Innovative solutions need to be explored to improve the AC bus power quality while providing high-speed performance, coupled with high packing densities consistent with airborne applications, in a cost-effective manner. Innovative Power Solutions, LLC (IPS) is proposing to explore the interaction between these systems and provide an optimal solution for controlling this class of Megawatt generators.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-5179
Mr. William Lanter
AF 05-192      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Aeropropulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:High energy density capacitors are vital for the mission of the Air Force in many areas. They will improve the development of advanced directed-energy weapons such as airborne lasers and high-pulse microwaves, where an increase in specific energy density will enable an increase in power, reducing the amount of time-on-target needed for destruction or increasing the range and reducing vulnerability of the systems. In this Phase I program, select carbon nitride (CNx) growth parameters, using well-controlled ion-beam assisted ion-beam sputter plasma deposition will be investigated for use as a capacitor dielectric. Flat-plate capacitors will be constructed. Surface, thermal, compositional, and electrical characteristics of the resulting thin films will be studied. During the subsequent Phase II program, the CNx film growth and dielectric properties will be optimized using the resulting CNx electrical characteristics. Additionally in Phase II, the most suitable method for scaling the size of the capacitors will be determined. Among the criteria considered for size scaling of the dielectric will be 1) determining the largest growth area with minimal defects; 2) suitability of rolling the film without introducing fractures, and 3) constructing stackable capacitors.

ODYSSIAN TECHNOLOGY, L.L.C.
3740 Edison Lakes Parkway
Mishawaka, IN 46545
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(574) 257-7555
Mr. Barton Bennett
AF 05-192      Awarded: 01APR05
Title:Structurally Integrated Hybrid Battery for Improved Performance of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAV)
Abstract:Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been demonstrated to be highly effective in conducting a wide array of military mission. Due to relatively recent advances in rechargeable Li-Polymer battery and brushless electric motor technology, a greater number of small UAVs are electric powered. Though the use of quiet, low vibration, fast deployed electric propulsion systems have many advantages over their gas-powered counterparts, there is a need for the improved stamina of these systems to meet challenging long endurance mission requirements. To increase the flight time of small electric UAVs, Odyssian Technology proposes to develop and demonstrate multifunctional structure having a structurally integrated hybrid battery system. Structural battery concepts are proposed that structurally integrate the battery system into the airframe of a phase I flight demonstrator. Phase I battery-structure designs will be developed having structurally integrated commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) battery cells. In addition, phase I will include the design of a structurally integrated hybrid battery system for demonstration in phase II. Odyssian Technology proposes to develop in phase II highly integrated and optimized battery-structure designs using custom battery components. The benefits of this advanced aeropropulsion design include longer flight time, increased payload capacity, and enhanced thermal performance of the battery elements.

P.C. KRAUSE & ASSOC., INC.
3016 Covington Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Dr. Charles E. Lucas
AF 05-192      Awarded: 01APR05
Title:Integrated Simulation/Design/Analysis Infrastructure for SiC-based High-Temperature Power Conversion
Abstract:In order to realize the full potential of Silicon Carbide and to facilitate its deployment in high-temperature power electronics applications, it is important to establish an integrated simulation, design, and analysis infrastructure to address the special considerations and numerous technical challenges that must be overcome and to support design at the device, subsystem, and system levels. The primary objective of this Phase I research is to demonstrate the viability of such an infrastructure. This will be accomplished in the Phase I by developing detailed two-dimensional electrical models of a PiN and SiC Schottky Barrier diode, which will be used as test beds for the Phase I research. Therein, the detailed electrical performance will be established directly from the physical parameters (geometry, doping profiles, and material properties). Concurrently, the feasibility of coupling detailed thermal and electrical models will be investigated and, because of the anticipated computational complexity of the coupled electro-thermo-dynamic equations, their partitioning for solution on a distributed computer network will be explored. Finally, due to the similarities of the underlying systems of equations, the application of this infrastructure to other branches of science and engineering, such as plasma physics, fluid dynamics, and combustion will also be investigated.

PYRODYNE, INC.
11280 Panorama Drive
New Market, MD 21774
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-5126
Dr. Lance Jacobsen
AF 05-192      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:Vehicle Integrated Inward Turning Air Breathing Engines
Abstract:The overall objective of this proposal is to develop a tool that integrates and optimizes the design of internal scramjet engine flowlines with external aerodynamic designs of hypersonic vehicles. The design of non-optimal, manual iteration engine-integrated inward turning scramjets with waverider vehicle shapes has already proven to be a powerful design technique. This SBIR proposal will initiate a program to further develop the flow surfaces so that a systems level optimization may be performed on the engine and vehicle flow surfaces together with the utilization of a commercial optimizer package.

SPACEWORKS ENGINEERING, INC.
1200 Ashwood Parkway, Suite 506
Atlanta, GA 30338
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 379-8007
Dr. John E. Bradford
AF 05-192      Awarded: 30MAR05
Title:Innovative Aeropropulsion Technology for Future Military Assets
Abstract:This proposal seeks to develop a system for quickly assessing the abort scenarios for a wide variety transportation concepts including space-access launchers, high-speed cruisers, sub-orbital systems, and strike vehicles with single and multistage elements utilizing air-breathing (turbine, RBCC, combined-cycle, etc.) and rocket propulsion systems. Through an exhaustive assessment of the possible failure modes, mitigation options, and flight scenarios possible along the nominal flight path, this system, called the Abort Simulation Modeler, will be able to identify sensitive areas during the mission when intact abort options are lowest or non-existent for a proposed or existing launch asset. SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) believes demand exists for this type of system. The customer base is envisioned to range from government officials wanting to assess new design concepts (e.g. DoD, NASA, FAA) to the small launch vehicle/responsive space access community wishing to determine how well their systems can meet government certification requirements.

SPIRITECH ADVANCED PRODUCTS, INC.
880 Jupiter Park Drive, Suite 8
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Mr. Jose Gutierrez
AF 05-192      Awarded: 30MAR05
Title:CMC Combustor Liner
Abstract:Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC's) offer substantial weight reductions over metallic components, increasing vehicle range and/or payload, as well as reducing cooling flow requirements, thereby increasing overall engine performance and enabling high supersonic flight. Many CMC's exhibit higher mechanical strength characteristics than metals at temperatures exceeding 1600F. However, CMC's are not homogenous materials, and therefore, their strength is design and part specific. Because of the inter-dependence between design and strength, it is proposed that CMC development be coordinated between the material developer, the designer, and the manufacturer of CMC components. This Phase I program incorporates a team approach, including propulsion system designers and material developers, to develop an innovative CMC combustor liner. This program focuses on developing the design methodology, preliminary design definition, and feasibility demonstration. In the Phase II program, the CMC combustor liner will be tested to validate the design analysis approach, address shortfalls in the material characteristics database, and address (and reduce) high-risk areas due to shortage of data and modeling techniques.

SPIRITECH ADVANCED PRODUCTS, INC.
880 Jupiter Park Drive, Suite 8
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Mr. Eric Gamble
AF 05-192      Awarded: 22MAR05
Title:Scramjet/Ramjet Heat Exchanger Analysis Tool
Abstract:A ramjet/scramjet heat exchanger design and optimization tool is proposed for rapid analyses of complex thermal cooling systems. In the emerging field of high-speed aerospace, it is necessary that rapid modeling of complex thermal systems be accomplished to enable the trade studies required to optimize the design for weight, cost, and performance. To meet this need, SPIRITECH proposes the development of a ramjet/scramjet heat exchanger design and optimization tool that performs a thermal analysis of the heat exchanger, assesses its structural strength, and optimizes the heat exchanger design to minimize the cooling flow requirement and the heat exchanger weight. Options for the coolant fuel, including various jet fuels and endothermic additives, will be made available so that various fuels may be evaluated. In addition, options for various material properties will also be included. The Phase I effort will focus on developing the thermal and structural models as well as the optimization routine, resulting in a working code. This code will be packaged with a user-friendly interface to simplify its use for large trade studies. The Phase II effort will provide test data for code verification and will incorporate enhancements to improve accuracy and reduce run time.

SPORIAN MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Mr. Wenge Zhang
AF 05-192      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:High Temperature MEMS Sensor Suite for Aero-propulsion and Power Technologies
Abstract:To improve the working performance, increase efficiency, reduce pollution, reduce cost, and monitor the engine health status of gas turbine engines and advanced propulsion systems, miniaturized, robust sensors would be highly advantageous for measuring and monitoring physical parameters, such as pressure, temperature, flow. The end objective of this proposed work is to develop, single, high temperature (1300 C), MEMS, silicon carbide nitride (SiCN)-based temperature, pressure, and flow sensor suite suitable for a wide range a uses in gas turbine engines and advanced propulsion system applications. Our technical approach is to use SiCN, a new class of high temperature ceramic materials, which possess excellent mechanical and electric properties at high temperatures. In addition, the various processing technologies, such as photolithography, DRIE etching, injection molding, embossing, and precise machining can be utilized for the fabrication of the SiCN MEMS devices. Work tasks will include the evaluations of: material electrical properties, existing and new sensor designs, process techniques and suitability, and analytical and numerical modeling for design verification. Technical challenges lie in that the sensors have to survive extremely harsh working conditions, including high temperatures (as high as 3000F), elevated pressures, pressure oscillations, corrosive environments, surface coating or fouling, and high particulate loading.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2350
Dr. David T. Wickham
AF 05-192      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Additives to Improve Methane Combustion
Abstract:Liquefied methane is a promising fuel for space launch vehicles because it has a high specific impulse, excellent cooling capacity, and is very resistant to coking and soot formation. Unfortunately, it is also a very stable molecule and therefore ignition delay times can exceed combustor residence times. Shock tube measurements show that methane must be about 200 K hotter than n dodecane (a representative jet fuel compound) to achieve similar ignition delay times. Therefore, in order to utilize methane effectively, combustors must be larger, increasing the drag and weight of the vehicle. However, additives may significantly reduce methane ignition delay times. Additives can be designed to reduce ignition delay by lowering the activation energy of the combustion process after being injected directly into the combustion chamber. Alternatively, other additives such as hydrogen and acetylene, which can be produced from methane cracking reactions, ignite at lower temperatures and reduce ignition delay times when they are mixed with methane. In this phase I Project TDA Research, Inc. will synthesize and test several additives that function either by reducing ignition delay times when injected directly into a combustor or increase the rate of methane cracking when mixed with the fuel upstream of the combustor.

TECHNICAL DIRECTIONS, INC.
1210 Oakbrook Drive
Ortonville, MI 48462
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 625-2990
Mr. Vern E. Brooks
AF 05-192      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Aeropropulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:Small low-cost propulsion systems are required for a variety of new unmanned air vehicle applications. Turbojet engine-generator systems are considered desirable for these small aircraft applications where compact size and low-cost are critical parameters. Technical Directions Inc. has developed a family of very low-cost turbojet engines for these aircraft applications using automotive turbocharger rotating components that satisfy many of the requirements in these applications. Future aircraft are being considered with increased mission complexity and additional range requirements. With frame sizes already established in many of the small aircraft applications, finding space for additional fuel to satisfy the mission requirements becomes almost an impossible assignment. This program will create the technology for a performance upgrade to existing low-cost engines to permit a 10-20% range extension. New design methods will be explored for the aerodynamic engine components that would provide operating efficiency gains of 5-15%. In these small turbojet engines, good component efficiencies are more difficult to achieve due to the effects of additional leakage and manufacturing tolerances making the performance improvements even more challenging. Accomplishing the program objectives herein will provide the desired additional range and mission capability without the need for additional fuel.

TK ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
55 Merchant Street, Suite 220
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 552-5013
Mr. Tom Donohue
AF 05-192      Awarded: 24MAR05
Title:Supersonic UAV Propulsion
Abstract:Supersonic UAV Propulsion will focus on a conceptual desgin of a Supersonic UAV unique propulsion system utilzing a common versatile core.

ZOLO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4946 N. 63rd Street
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 604-5804
Dr. Andrew D. Sappey
AF 05-192      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Aeropropulsion and Power Technology
Abstract:Zolo Technologies and our partner, Stanford University, propose to develop diagnostic techniques based upon multiplexed, tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS) for gas turbines in aeropropulsion and power generation applications. Multiplexed TDLAS is a powerful diagnostic technique that has proven useful for measuring temperature and species concentration in SCRAMJET and pulsed detonation aeropropulsion systems with limited spatial resolution. However, application to gas turbine engines presents unique challenges because of high pressures and limited optical access. During the proposed project, we intend to address these issues allowing multiplexed TDLAS to improve efficiency and reduce emissions from operation of gas turbine engines.

FLORIDA TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
140 Intracoastal Pointe; Suite 301
Jupiter, FL 33477
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 746-3317
Dr. Susan Cunnigham
AF 05-193      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Performance-Based Inspection Techniques for Turbine Engine Blades and Rotors
Abstract:HCF is one of the leading causes of engine failure in aircraft. Preventing HCF failures requires accurate determination and avoidance of resonant frequencies in design. Designers use a combination of finite element structural analysis and modal frequency testing to identify the natural frequencies at which components resonate. However, these analyses are typically performed on nominal geometries. While each of the blades in a blade row is designed to the same nominal dimensions with close tolerances, the actual dimensions (and therefore resonant frequencies) of manufactured parts will vary a small amount from blade to blade. Methods for acquiring digital 3D dimensional data of manufactured parts are now available but the process to characterize stress from 3D scans is complex and time-consuming. Each blade requires it own mesh for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to predict aerodynamic loading, and finite element analysis (FEA) to calculate the blade frequency and stress. The goal herein is to develop methods for streamlining the process for calculating blade vibratory stress for measured airfoils. We propose to develop the techniques to efficiently manipulate the geometry and finite element meshes in order to permit multiple blade stress calculations in much less time than it takes today.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Karl Meredith
AF 05-194      Awarded: 18MAR05
Title:A New Method for Automation and Optimization of the Curve Fit Kinetics Generating Process
Abstract:Hydrocarbon combustion chemical kinetics are extremely complex, with detailed reaction mechanisms typically consist of thousands of reaction steps and hundreds of species. However, most reacting flow CFD simulations can only afford reduced global mechanisms with standard Arrhenius rates. Unfortunately, global mechanisms are typically only valid over limited operating ranges and cannot account for the combustion phenomenon of specific interest (e.g. NOx, CO, heat release, auto-ignition, etc.) In addition, global mechanism development is tedious and the developer often has trouble locating appropriate experimental data for the conditions of interest. In this SBIR, CFD Research Corporation proposes to develop an automated method for generating quasi-global reaction mechanisms along with their associated Arrhenius rate parameters. The current curve-fit-kinetics-generator employed by the Air Force will be incorporated into this framework and coupled with the automation and optimization algorithms. In Phase I, automatic generation of quasi-global mechanism steps and the respective species will be done via the computational singular perturbation (CSP) method. The rate parameters of the global mechanisms will be optimized to match laminar flame speed, blow out limits, and/or ignition delay as calculated from detailed kinetic models. In Phase II, the capability will be developed into a stand-alone package. The resulting model will be a community open source code that-given the desired number of steps, parameters of interest, and operating conditions-will automatically generate the optimum quasi-global mechanism and accompanying rate parameters.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Dr. Sanford M. Dash
AF 05-194      Awarded: 28MAR05
Title:Improved Modeling Tools for High Speed Reacting Flows
Abstract:Recent work in high speed reacting flows has identified three areas in which model improvements are needed. (1) Multi-element grid adaptation for fuel injection problems - h-refinement (cell splitting) procedures being utilized in our grid adaptation tool, CRISPr, produce large meshes after several levels of refinement. Point redistribution (r-refinement) techniques based on moving mesh concepts can improve efficiency and will be implemented. (2) Scalar fluctuation modeling for high speed flows - a generalized framework is operational which predicts local values of Prt and Sct and works with our compressibility-corrected k model. Application to basic jet/shear layer flows has indicated good overall performance, but application to fuel injection flow problems has indicated that further turbulence modeling upgrades are required, which will be addressed in this program. (3) Chemical kinetic efficiency enhancement - using point implicit methodology with an iterative chemical kinetic solver leads to load unbalances since more work is done in regions with stiff chemistry. A new "work per node" load balancing technique, has permitted us to analyze hydro-carbon chemical systems with a large number of species and reactions with much greater efficiency. We will incorporate this procedure into our multi-element unstructured code, and make it operate with grid adaptation techniques.

PYRODYNE, INC.
15020 Rolling Hills Drive
Glenwood, MD 21738
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 337-6623
Mr. Robert Kielb
AF 05-194      Awarded: 29MAR05
Title:Improved Modeling Tools for High Speed Reacting Flows
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a framework for efficient integration of detailed numerical analysis into the design-optimization process. This will be accomplished primarily by developing an objected-oriented architecture specifically designed to book-keep and manipulate surfaces. This work wil build on the developing standards from organizatipons such as the Common Comoponent Architecture Forum (CCA-Forum). The work will integrate Gridpro (a grid generator), VULCAN (CFD code and suite of post-processing tools) and DAKOTA (optimizer toolkit and more) into a single design tool. The tool will then be applied by Pyrodyne to a range of hypersonic applications ranging from combustor design to combined cycle optimization to engine/air fram integration. The underlying architecture will be generic enough to integrate different numercial analysis codes, grid generators, and/or optimizers. Therefore, the tool will be applicable to industries outside the aerospace umbrella, such as automotive industry (reducing vehicle drag). Phase II funding will allow the tool to be developed to a point where it can be marketed not only to the aerospace industry, but to other industries that could benefit from it.

SIMMETRIX, INC.
10 Halfmoon Executive Park Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 348-1639
Mr. Robert O'Bara
AF 05-194      Awarded: 25MAR05
Title:Generation and Adaptive Control of Grids for High-Speed Reacting Flows
Abstract:This project will develop and demonstrate a new generation of technologies for the creation and adaptive control of grids used in the simulation of high-speed reacting flows. The technologies to be developed will take advantage of the existing and developing Simmetrix simulation automation technologies including generalized model definitions, automatic and adaptive mesh generators, and generalized technologies to deal with tensor fields. Key technical innovations to be carried out in this project will include: Fully automatic mesh generation components that emphasize the creation of mixed topology, anisotropic grids that are easily aligned with the desired flow features. Mesh adaptation procedures that respect fully anisotropic mesh metric fields over the flow domain that are also capable of adaptively identifying and resolving, through the use of properly aligned mixed meshes, flow features anywhere in the domain. A general set of tools to deal with the interactions of meshes and solution fields that can account for key constraints as needed to support integrated vehicle simulations. These innovations will be demonstrated on various multi-speed complex flow problems of direct interest to the Air Force.

JOSEPH HEPP ENGINEERING
22323 Lanark Street
Canoga Park, CA 91304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 340-2720
Mr. Joseph H. Hepp
AF 05-195      Awarded: 18MAR05
Title:REGENERATIVE/FILM/TRANSPIRATION COOLED STRUCTURAL PANEL
Abstract:A hypersonic engine application may require a sophisticated system to maintain the hot wall structure of the combustion chamber within structural temperature limits. Ablative insulation protects the structure for single mission requirements, but regenerative cooling is required for reusability or severe flight envelopes. At the upper limits of the hypersonic engine operating envelope, transpiration film cooling may be required, possibly in indeterminate localized regions due to combustion variations or operating requirements. A hybrid hot wall cooling panel is proposed which incorporates a regenerative cooling design that will automatically add localized film cooling when the hot wall reaches a critical temperature where regenerative cooling is insufficient to maintain structural integrity. Film cooling is injected along the surface at local hot spots or throughout the panel for general high temperature operation to augment the regenerative cooling. The film coolant is injected at multiple discrete locations along the boundary layer to minimize local flow disturbances and to prolong the effectiveness of the film isolation if the hot combustion cages from the cooled wall for the longest distance; thus minimizing the amount of added coolant flow required to maintain acceptable operating wall temperatures.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. Brian E. Williams
AF 05-195      Awarded: 31MAR05
Title:Transpiration-Cooled Hydrocarbon-Fueled Scramjet Engine
Abstract:The Air Force is seeking advanced cooling concepts for scramjet engines for use in hypersonic cruise missiles, Mach 8-10 strike/reconnaissance aircraft, and affordable, on-demand access to space. In current work for the Air Force, Ultramet and Boeing/Rocketdyne are demonstrating the performance and manufacturing feasibility of a transpiration-cooled oxygen/hydrogen rocket engine for boost applications, based on the use of Ultramet's open-cell foam materials. The design is much less complex and offers lower weight than conventional regeneratively cooled engines. The high propellant density and high thrust-to-weight ratio associated with hydrocarbon propellants make them very attractive; however hydrocarbon propellants can cause coolant channel coking. Although pressure, flow rate, and coolant wall permeability requirements are quite different for hydrocarbon-fueled engines compared to oxygen/hydrogen engines, the potential exists to develop an innovative material and design approach for practical use of high-efficiency hydrocarbon propellants without coking issues. In this project, Ultramet will team with Pratt and Whitney to demonstrate the feasibility of a transpiration-cooled, hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet engine based on the use of advanced structural foam materials. This project will take advantage of the substantial scramjet development work performed at Pratt & Whitney and previous rocket engine materials development performed at Ultramet.

OPTISWITCH TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6355 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 452-8787
Dr. David Giorgi
AF 05-196      Awarded: 26MAY05
Title:Device Technologies for Photonic Electrical Power Systems
Abstract:Optiswitch Technology Corporation (OTC) proposes to investigate and demonstrate a cost effective approach for optically controlled Fly-By-Light (FBL) power switches for severe environments. Silicon carbide (SiC) devices are expected to show superior performance over Silicon and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) devices for FBL applications which fall in the 600-1000Volt, 10-100Amp range due to superior electrical and thermal properties. Direct optical activation requires UV light for exciting electrons from the valence to conduction band in 4H-SiC (3.26eV bandgap). High power UV light is currently expensive to generate and difficult to transport. OTC is proposing the use of light activated high temperature Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) or GaAs switches to both turn-on and turn-off a SiC thyristor, GTO, BJT, MOSFET, or VJFET. Since both Silicon and GaAs have a lower bandgap than SiC, the forward voltage drop is less, making devices based on these materials very effective for shorting one or both of the emitting junctions to turn off the SiC GTO or as simple control gates for other SiC devices. With the lower bandgap, low cost laser diodes and delivery optics are available.. Commercially available SOI and GaAs devices operate at up to 300degC. OTC will be designing switches that can extend this range from 350degC to 400degC all activated by a low cost laser diode.

PETTIT APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
34 Cessna Court
Gaithersburg, MD 20879
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 926-3549
Dr. John W. Pettit
AF 05-196      Awarded: 17MAR05
Title:Optically Controlled Switch Based On Wide Bandgap Semiconductors and Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:An optically controlled electric power switch will be designed, built and tested that is compatible with "Fly-by-Light" fiber optic networks. This switch will operate in the 600 to 1200 volt, 100 Amp power range, be controllable with the low light levels received in a fiber optic WDM channel with VCSEL light source, operate at high temperatures and withstand extremely high levels of EMI. The optical wavelength range will be from approximately 800 to 1800 nanometers. Wide bandgap semiconductors used in conjunction with carbon nanotubes form the basis for this design.

VEGA WAVE SYSTEMS, INC.
1275 West Roosevelt Road, Suite 112
West Chicago, IL 60185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 562-9433
Dr. Alan R. Sugg
AF 05-196      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Optically Triggered Power Transistor for Photonic Electrical Power Systems
Abstract:Under this program Vega Wave Systems, Inc. will design, fabricate and characterize a gallium- arsenide-based optically-triggered power transistor, which has high potential of achieving high-frequency switching capability, without sacrificing switching efficiency or other critical parameters like on-resistance and breakdown voltage. Power-electronic systems comprising optically-triggered devices have the potential for significantly higher switching frequencies and power densities. The proposed device is switched through the photogeneration-recombination of carriers, without requiring any gate-oxide structure like conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. The optically-triggered power transistor provides several key advantages including increased reliability due to isolation of the switch control signals from the power devices, reduced vulnerability of the resulting power system to electromagnetic interference, higher switching speed at high power, enhanced power-added efficiency, and increased breakdown voltage. In Phase II of the program, a second-generation device will be designed to improve device performance with regard to higher switching speed, optical gain and breakdown voltage. In addition, the device will be packaged with an optical window or fiber-coupled package for testing in Air Force fly-by-light systems.

ADAPTIVE MATERIALS, INC.
4403 Concourse Drive Suite C
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 302-7632
Mr. Timothy Labreche
AF 05-197      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Intelligent Hybrid Power Management Device
Abstract:Our goal is to deliver a integrated hybrid power management device to the special operations soldier to minimize the burden of carrying unnecessary weight due to various batteries. Our proposed device includes a programmable voltage output, simple user interface, and a modular design that allows the system to be tailored to specific mission profiles. The system will include an LCD text display that will provide information in real time to allow for mission vital decisions to be made immediately. The power manager will be extremely rugged in design as part of a continued commitment by AMI to produce equipment suitable for military use. It is our belief that the proposed power manager / harvester system is a technology that goes hand in hand with our ultimate goal of delivering a power system with unparalleled energy density. It is our ultimate hope that such a device makes our Solid Oxide Fuel Cell system the obvious choice for almost any military operation.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 447-0555
Mr. John Mead
AF 05-197      Awarded: 01APR05
Title:Power Manager for Special Operations Portable Power Applications
Abstract:The Air Force is looking for an integrated power management system that can harvest/manage energy from several different energy sources, provide power to the myriad of devices that the soldier must carry, each with varying voltage and current requirements, and provide information back to the soldier with regard to the usage rate, estimate time of operation at current level, warnings and course of action alarms. Schafer proposes an integrated power management system (IPMS) utilizing state-of-the-art micro-power electronic technologies and innovative control strategies. All of the power electronic subsystems are internally connected to a common bus and the entire IPMS is contained in a field-portable belt-mounted package. This design process will provide insight into technical trade-off-issues between performance and weight. Additionally, power management communications alternatives are addressed with candidate technologies identified and preliminary designs developed.

SPACE HARDWARE OPTIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-9591
Mr. Mark Ainsworth
AF 05-197      Awarded: 17MAR05
Title:Power Manager for Special Operations Portable Power Applications
Abstract:Today's special operations soldier must pack over 75 pounds of gear through a wide range of environmental extremes. Those 75 pounds consist of mission essential electronic devices with 25 of those pounds consigned to onetime use batteries. For issues of stealth, stamina, and sustainment, it is crucial we reduce the load on our special ops forces while enhancing their performance with state of the art mission critical systems. The SHOT Hybrid Power Manager System (HPM) is the ideal solution for this problem. The SHOT HPM System is a high efficiency, light weight, rugged hybrid power manager that can harvest energy from many different input sources while supplying multiple outputs for host equipment usage. It incorporates load sharing technology ideal for preserving battery life when operating pulse power load hardware. Additionally, it will provide the user real-time, current and collected system data and other information as necessary to optimize energy use, performance and conservation. Our design approach illustrates an HPM system that can be operated autonomously or manually depending on the needs of the user.

APPLIED PLASMA TECHNOLOGIES
7231 Woodley Place
Falls Church, VA 22046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-9569
Dr. Igor Matveev
AF 05-198      Awarded: 21MAR05
Title:Multi-Channel Plasma Switches
Abstract:Plasma switches are able to operate at a much higher energy density than traditional switched capacitor banks as well as handle much higher currents, and are particularly well suited for pulsed power applications. A present limitation on the implementation of open plasma switches into related technologies is the relatively short lifespan and low operational frequency at which these devices must operate. To overcome this limitation we are going to use our experience in development of plasma switches that are able to form short (rise time 5-100 ns) high voltage (15-100 kV) pulses with current up to several kilo amperes and with a repetition frequency up to several kilo hertz, and to develop a method for splitting high impulse current into many channels with spark gaps. Each spark gap will have separate storage capacitance and charging circuit with controlled and adjustable charging current. Output cathodes of all spark gaps will be connected with the same load and all channel currents will be summarized by synchronizing of the spark gaps ignition. If successful, we will develop an advanced plasma switch consisted of multiple spark gaps that will be suitable for high currents and fast rise time capabilities.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-4980
Dr. Peter Bletzinger
AF 05-198      Awarded: 23MAR05
Title:Plasma Switches for High-Repetition, High-Power Applications
Abstract:There is a continuous requirement for high power, high rep-rate, long life switches in Air Force applications. Two application examples are high power microwave (HPM) and atmospheric pressure air plasma generation for self protection. Both require rep rates in the order of Y 1 kHz at voltages of hundred to several hundred kV and currents into the multi kA range. Present technology uses capacitive energy storage and variations of the triggered spark gap for switching, even though they have limited rep rate capability and their lifetime is limited to the order of 105 -106 shots. These requirements exceed the capabilities of even large hydrogen thyratrons, which also require large amounts of DC auxiliary power. For several years, an alternative switch has been developed and become commercially available for lower power requirements. The pseudospark switch reduces electrode wear due to its super-emission operating mode, has demonstrated rep rates in the high kHz range and in some versions hold-off voltages in the 100 kV range. Its operating life time far exceeds that of comparable spark gap switches and it requires very little or no DC auxiliary power. Very recently miniature versions of this switch with almost the same performance as standard versions have been developed at USC. While this technology is still being actively developed in several countries, to meet Air Force needs the research will have to be focused on meeting the operating voltage, rep rate and lifetime requirements simultaneously. It is proposed to identify the areas where research is still necessary to increase hold-off voltage, rep-rate and peak current, select design parameters based on current knowledge, address specific areas and provide the improved designs. Since USC is actively involved in pseudospark research, some pilot experiments will also be conducted during phase I to validate novel design concepts.

ELECTRODYNAMIC APPLICATIONS, INC.
P.O. Box 131460
Ann Arbor, MI 48113
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 786-1434
Dr. Tim Smith
AF 05-200      Awarded: 13MAY05
Title:DeflectorShield: magnetic shielding for laser communications
Abstract:In order to simultaneously characterize and mitigate spacecraft laser communication (lasercom) system performance degradation by electric propulsion (EP) plumes, we propose to develop a magnetic deflector to protect the reflective telescopes typical of lasercom systems from erosion by charge-exchange (CEX) ions. Since beam intensity losses due to absorption and Rayleigh scattering are negligible for the typical EP plume densities, sputtering is the dominant degradation mechanism for on-orbit lasercom. The DeflectorShield uses permanent magnets to set up a magnetic field perpendicular to the optical axis, deflecting CEX ions into the telescope tube before they strike the primary mirror. We will use the magnetostatic code MagNet 6.0? to design a proof-of-concept magnetic deflector, sized to fit a commercially-available reflective telescope. Phase-I will also be used to develop a build, test and evaluation plan for Phase-II. Experiments in Phase-II will compare the optical performance degradation of two telescopes (one protected, one unprotected) at opposite locations in the wings of a Hall thruster plume, permitting the separation of erosion and re-deposition effects. These experiments will permit iterative validation and improvement of the baseline design.

ADVATECH PACIFIC, INC.
2015 Park Avenue, Suite 8
Redlands, CA 92373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 266-1700
Mr. Richard Hora
AF 05-201      Selected for Award
Title:SPACE PROPULSION MODELING AND SIMULATION
Abstract:There is a requirement for improving specific impulse and mass fraction in propulsion systems, while providing precision and predictability in thrust to enhance accuracy. These systems must be dependable and cost-effective at a high level of operational readiness. This contributes significantly to performance of systems such as Land Based Strategic Deterrent, Prompt Global Strike and Responsive Launch to Space and Responsive Satellites. Advatech Pacific (API) proposes to provide modeling and simulation of critical system elements (utilizing legitimate mathematical, aeronautical, astronautical, operational, and chemical principles, ultimately to encompass life cycle cost) in electric, chemical, and high-energy density propulsion, which will be used with laboratory research to advance the state of the art. API, working with AFRL, will create an architecture of software systems and integrate these to provide comprehensive simulation and modeling tools. Electric propulsion models (Coliseum, HPHall, Colloid) have state of the art physics, but have a basic architecture, which provides limited functionality. API is suited to the task of re-architecting and parallelizing these models. API will also support chemical propulsion technology including CFD modeling of several key experimental systems. Finally, API will develop plasma physics and high-energy propulsion tool concepts in support of a joint PRSA/PRSS effort at AFRL.

AMERICAN PACIFIC CORP.
10622 West 6400 North
Cedar City, UT 84721
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 865-5017
Dr. Kent Richman
AF 05-201      Awarded: 27MAY05
Title:Investigation of Ignition Delay: Novel beta-Substituted Ethylazide Derivatives as Potential New Liquid Propellant Fuels
Abstract:Few replacements for hydrazine-based propellants have been developed over the year