---------- MDA ----------

177 Phase I Selections from the 05.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Matthew C Everhart
MDA 05-001      Selected for Award
Title:Fail-Safe Thermal Activation Components for Insensitive Munitions
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes the development of heat-activated pressure venting mechanisms actuated by shape memory polymers (SMP) as a means for meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements for ammunition containers. SMP composite materials provide the same strength as conventional composites at normal operating temperatures. However, at a threshold activation temperature, these novel materials soften to a controlled modulus of elasticity and thereby allow a predictable deformation under load. Upon cooling below the activation temperature, the material reverts to its original strength, but retains the new shape to which it deformed while soft. SMP-actuated pressure venting mechanisms coupled with conventional ammunition containers will provide failsafe venting during fast and slow cook-offs. Also, the development of these pressure venting mechanisms will offer the ability to produce non-electronic temperature monitoring systems.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Ana Racoveanu
MDA 05-001      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Insensitive Munitions Technology for Missile Defense
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and its team member, Aerojet, propose to evaluate Insensitive Munitions (IM) compliant propellants for large diameter SRMs by using a novel energetic mixed furazan plasticizer with low sensitivity, good energy and good density. It is recognized that "energy compartmentalization" is critical to reducing the response of energetic propellants to unplanned stimuli. This plasticizer is expected to be superior to current plasticizers (e.g. Butyl NENA) in that it does not contain a thermally unstable nitrato group and shock sensitive nitramine group, but does contain the favorable nitrofurazan group. The proposed nitrofurazan plasticizer will impart better propellant IM response through the reduction in propensity for fuel fire, shock or bullet/frag ignition. PSI will provide Aerojet with 25 grams of the nitrofurazan for testing by Small Scale Gap Test and Calorimetry. On a potential Phase II program, PSI will scale-up the synthesis and Aerojet will formulate the plasticizer in a propellant mixture and provide more thorough propellant characterization. PSI and Aerojet will show a path to the nitrofurazan commercial manufacture.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Bryan V. Bergeron
MDA 05-001      Selected for Award
Title:Insensitive Nanomaterial-Impregnated Solid Rocket Propellant
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop and test new solid rocket propellant formulations that incorporate innovative oxidizer/fuel nanocomposites in binders. The energy release rates of the highly exothermic nanocomposite reactions will be increased due to the intimate contact between the fuel and oxidizer particles at nanoscale dimensions. The particle size and size distribution will be measured and found to be homogeneous throughout the samples. These nanocomposites will be mixed with various binders and standard additives to increase propulsion performance. Reaction mixtures will be combusted in a nitrogen environment and the pressure and temperature responses will be measured. The materials will be tested for impact and friction sensitivity. In Phase II, new ingredients will be synthesized, characterized, incorporated within formulations, modeled, and combusted to meet or exceed current IM test criteria.

CAE-NET
1033 Third Avenue SW, Suite 210
Carmel, IN 46032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(317) 496-2884
Dr. Josh Nema
MDA 05-002      Selected for Award
Title:Developing New Insensitive Munitions Packaging Solutions for Missile Defense
Abstract:Dr. Nema, Principal Investigator for this proposal, is currently working on a smaller diameter project for DoD. We are working on Torpedoes, Missiles, and lunch tubes which have failed the DoD codes for fast cook off, slow cook off, 50 caliber high speed bullet penetration, and fragment impact. We have made considerable progress through use of Modeling and Simulation tools such as LS-DYNA, ANSYS Multi-Physics and the INERTIA Engineering System. INERTIA Multi-physics Engineering system has been developed by Dr. Nema during the last 18 years. He is also teaching modeling, simulation, and applied finite element analysis at Indiana University, Purdue University-Indianapolis(IUPUI). Our current applied research is focused on exactly the same IM compliance such as STANAG 4375, STANAG 4396, STANAG 4439, STANAG 4382, STANAG 4241, MIL-STD-2105, and MIL-STD-2105B. The objective of this program is to develop innovative insensitive munitions packaging concepts to protect solid rocket motors (SRM) greater then 12 inches in diameter or greater from unplanned stimuli such as heat, shock and bullet/fragment impact. Our current simulation models show that bullet and fragment temperatures are higher that propellant igniting temperature. We have also found out that due to current highly conductive material used in SRMs, inside temperature is higher that igniting temperature of propellant due to high rate of fast cook off radiation force and high conductive properties. SRMs react to fire flame fast cook off and oven slow cook off. Technical objective of this proposal is to continue our Anti-Ballistic anti radiation applied research for greater than six inch missiles, lunch tubes and gas generators. We are simulating a special polymer-ceramic- fabric composite structure as protective container for four missiles containers. Are initial results for six inch tubes are very good.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Aaron Small
MDA 05-002      Selected for Award
Title:Flame Retardant Ballistic Materials for Missile Defense
Abstract:Missile defense systems are now required to conform to the insensitive munitions requirements of MIL STD 2105C. Meeting such requirements in the ballistic missile defense system will require a layered approach involving modified shipping containers and canisters, improvements in solid rocket motor casings, and less sensitive solid rocket propellant. For mobile defense systems deployed in forward positions (such as PAC-3 and THAAD), it is particularly useful to address the container/canister since any improvements made to meet MIL STD 2105C will also prolong the field life of systems exposed to incoming fire. In the case of PAC-3, the canister is the shipping container. In the case of THAAD, it is field transported in a MRP. As such, weight is of key concern in both systems. Luna Innovations will examine lightweight, flame retardant ballistic laminates as well as potential design modifications to existing canisters that will mitigate thermal and ballistic threats.

MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Mr. Keith B. Olasin
MDA 05-002      Selected for Award
Title:Developing New Insensitive Munitions Packaging Solutions for Missile Defense
Abstract:Driven partly by a succession of catastrophic accidents, the U.S. armed services began insensitive munitions (IM) technology development some time ago. However, most of these efforts to date, including new packaging technologies, have focused on tactical applications such as bombs, small missiles, and tank ammunition, and have effectively left the large solid-fueled rocket IM state-of-the-art dangerously far behind. Mechanical Solutions, Inc.'s (MSI) proposed project will develop a system of complimentary mechanical designs that will bring IM technology to large solid rocket motor (SRM) packaging. Generally the most common IM threat to large SRMs is unplanned thermal energy input from sources such as external fires or from the friction of penetrating bullets and projectiles, which can cause the propellant to auto-ignite. MSI's IM packaging system will consist of simple, reliable, shape memory alloy activated vents located strategically to eliminate confinement, a layer of light weight syntactic foam to provide substantial impact energy absorption and thermal insulation, an outer ballistic layer for additional high velocity fragment impact protection, and an internal solid lubricant transfer system to reduce friction heat energy if projectile penetration of the SRM occurs. These individual threat-optimized IM technologies will function together to create a comprehensive IM packaging system.

V SYSTEM COMPOSITES/DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1015 E. Discovery Lane
Anaheim, CA 92801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 619-8560
Mr. Scott Holmes
MDA 05-002      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Composite Armor and Structure for Lightweight Shipping Containers and Launch Canisters for Ballistic Impact Protection of Interceptor Solid Rocket Motors ( PVSC05-055)
Abstract:Missile solid rocket motors (SRMs) are vulnerable to small arms fire and blast fragments that may penetrate the missile motor case during transportation and deployment, resulting in potential loss of the launcher, launcher crew and complement of missiles. The challenges is to provide a low cost and lightweight armor solution that will protect the shipping containers and missile launch canisters from small arms fire and blast fragment threats while meeting insensitive munitions (IM) criteria. The VSC Team proposes an innovative, low cost and producible integrated armor and composite structure packaging solution that mitigates IM threats for large diameter SRMs by improving ballistic protection. This innovative IM packaging solution uses V System Composites (VSC) HyPerSHIELD ballistic protection concept coupled with the HyPerVARTMr composite manufacturing process for building large, affordable unitized structures with aerospace level quality. In Phase I, feasibility of these IM packaging improvements will be developed and demonstrated for the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) missile system through design, analysis, and material characterization testing. The Phase II program will build on Phase I concepts with the design, fabrication and testing of prototype sub-scale articles that verify analysis predictions, and evaluate ballistic performance of the integrally armored composite structure against IM threats.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng C. Tan
MDA 05-002      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight shipping container for solid rocket motor with Insensitive Munitions
Abstract:It is desirable to manufacture shipping containers for large solid rocket motors (SRM) insensitive munitions (IM) up to 50-in in diameter. Shipping or packaging containers of SRM should have good thermal insulation, lightweight, ballistic resistant, high temperature, corrosion resistant, and damage resistant properties in addition to several IM requirements. Missiles are usually transported in a container and are fired from a separate device. Currently used shipping containers for MDA SRMs do not have sufficient combined ballistic resistant capability and IM characteristics. Each container weighs several thousand pounds and some of them do not have flame resistant properties. This makes the SRM and missiles very vulnerable in their container during shipping. In this SBIR project Wright Materials Research Co. will team up with Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control (LMMFC-D) to manufacture and evaluate lightweight hybrid composites for MDA's applications. The proposed technology will be most beneficial to MDA's systems including shipping containers for very large SRMs, Ground Based Interceptor (GBI) missile containers, Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3), Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missiles, and missile cases. In particular, we will develop and manufacture IM shipping containers for SRM up to 50-in in diameter. In addition to the desirable properties mentioned above the proposed shipping containers should be able to defeat level III ball and level IV AP threats. Our preliminary studies indicate that our foamed composites can defeat LPS and NIJ level IV rounds at close vicinity. The proposed hybrid composites should also have the ability to defeat high speed fragmentation impact that MDA systems encounter. If successfully developed, the proposed lightweight containers would have an immediate niche market in the shipping and transportation and insulation industries.

MILTEC CORP.
678 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-1407
Mr. Marvin Magill
MDA 05-003      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Insensitive Munitions Modeling and Simulations for Missile Defense
Abstract:The effective design of weapon systems is often dependent upon the proper explosives and propellant formulations being not only enhanced in performance but still being safe to handle and use. Understanding the phenomena, which determines the degree of sensitivity the particular propellant/explosive composition has to stressful events, is critical to understanding and predicting its behavior. Our approach will look at behavior correlations among empirical test data, infrared spectrometry data, hydrocode and statistical analysis to establish if there is a relationship in chemical bonding structure or makeup to the sensitivity of an explosive to impact. In industry the use of infrared spectroscopy is common; more specifically Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/FTIS) in this case, is of interest for analysis of binder HTPB. One potential approach to defining sensitivity is to define an algorithm to characterize insensitive munitions (IM). In this case the modified Jacobs-Roslund High Explosive Initiation (HEI) model equations will be applied. Background research of previous documentation of interest that can potentially be applied to IM analysis will be done. This data will be organized into a relational database. Correlation of data into baseline sets and review of test results which would be expected from performing FTIR samples for IM's will be conducted. Based on the empirical test results, code analysis, FTIR data, hydrocode, Cheetah simulations and sensitivity algorithm parameters of interest, a representative approach will be developed to achieve an algorithm which describes sensitivity on an IM to impact.

BODKIN DESIGN & ENGINEERING, LLC
P.O. Box 81386
Wellesley, MA 02481
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 795-1968
Mr. Andrew Bodkin
MDA 05-004      Selected for Award
Title:Hyperspectral/Multispectral imaging for transient events
Abstract:The development of a multiband, stand-off detector with both MWIR imaging, hyper-spectral imaging, and ultra-high-resolution, high-speed Fourier transform spectroscopy is proposed. In the Phase I work, a high-rate, multiband, spatial heterodyne spectrometer will be developed to analyze missile intercept products of combustion.

NOVASPECTRA, INC.
777 Silver Spur Road, Suite 112
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 408-3225
Dr. William S. Chan
MDA 05-004      Selected for Award
Title:100-KHz Hyper-spectral FPAs for Transient Events
Abstract:We propose to develop three ultra-fast focal plane arrays (FPAs) with 100 K frames per second and dynamically tunable over the 0.20-1.20 micron spectral range to obtain spatial as well as spectral images of a transient fireball evolved from an interceptor kill. These images are then used for assessing the nature of the kill. Each FPA consists of 256x256 fast PIN photodiodes each integrated with a micro interferometer tunable to pass wavebands at a microsecond speed to provide fast hyper-spectral images. The first FPA covers the 0.20 - 0.40 micron range; the second the 0.40 - 0.80 micron range, and the third 0.80 - 1.20 micron range. By partitioning the FPA into 8 segments, each containing A/D converters and interface circuits, massively-parallel readout at a data rate of 64 Gbps is achieved to sustain a FPA frame rate in excess of 100 KHz. The FPAs are fabricated entirely of silicon (Si) for robustness, reliability and producibility using commercial foundries for production at low cost. Depending on the kill assessment procedure, the post-FPA parallel processing can store up to 10 thousand frames for analysis. Phase I will analyze, model and design the FPA structures and layouts for 100 KHz speed, delineate the processes for fabrication and fabricate a simple structure to demonstrate its fabricability. Phase II will fabricate the FPAs based on the model established in Phase I and test it with supporting optics and electronics for 100 KHz frame rate. Phase III will prototype and test the 100 KHz FPAs.

SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
55 Middlesex street
Chelmsford, MA 01863
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 251-4554
Dr. John Noto
MDA 05-004      Selected for Award
Title:Quad channel hyperspectral imager for high speed atomic spectral characterization
Abstract:Proposed here is a novel approach to multi-spectral imaging that can be used for post-kill fireball analysis. This technology will allow for the rapid determination of the metallic content of a fireball. Using recently developed technology this system has a narrower bandwidth and greater continuum rejection of any competing system. In Phase I a brass-board prototype of the essential dispersing element will be constructed and in Phase II several imaging system will be developed. Each system will have a variable FOV and plate scale as well as sensitivity from 350 nm to 1000nm. The data cube produced by this hyperspectral imager is small enough to not be too taxing for most telemetry systems.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Marsha Fox
MDA 05-004      Selected for Award
Title:Hyperspectral/Multispectral imaging for transient events
Abstract:There is a long-standing need for the development of fast single-frame spectral imaging instrumentation, also known as a "snapshot" or "flash" spectral imager, to study fast transient phenomena where retrieval of 3-dimensional hyperspectral data cubes provides crucial information. Spectral Sciences, Inc. proposes to develop the Multiplexing Array Spectral Camera (MASC) a snapshot spectral imager which acquires multiplexed spatial and spectral data with high optical collection efficiency and with the speed limited only by the readout time of the detector circuitry. The concept proposed allows a wide range of design tradeoffs for specific applications, and uses relatively mature component technologies to reduce the development risk. The performance of the instrument, as modeled in this proposal, indicates that projected MDA requirements for advanced transient target sensing can be satisfied. The concept offers a foundation on which further advanced spectral imagers can be based, with unprecedented flexibility in spectral, spatial and temporal data acquisition. In Phase I we will build and test a feasibility demonstration prototype, and develop an engineering design for a Phase II system. In Phase II, we will construct a pre-production prototype instrument suitable for low-volume production.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Tasso Politopoulos
MDA 05-005      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, High Data Rate MEMS IMU for Exo-Atmospheric Seeker
Abstract:The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative approach to integrate the AGNC MEMS coremicro IMU and Sensor Electronics in a way that reduces weight, size and cost of the Integrated IMU/Sensor Electronics for exo-atmospheric seeker performance enhancement. This Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of realizing low cost, high data rate coremicro IMUs for exo-atmospheric Integrated IMU/Sensor Electronics. As such, the proposed evaluation of this premier technology can render AGNCs proposed low cost, high data rate coremicro IMU technology the best possible solution for pursuing the IMU technology component of MDAs exo-atmospheric Integrated IMU/Sensor Electronics topic. In Phase I, efforts are focused on assessing needs, identifying requirements and conducting analytical/experimental tests and demonstration for results using coremicro IMU to establish performance criteria and design specifications leading to subsequent prototype development in Phase II. Furthermore, the AGNC IMU testing and calibration system shall be utilized for design evaluation. Through efforts of the project, Integrated IMU/Sensor Electronics will be further enhanced in reliability, accuracy, size, weight, and data rate to fully meet the Integrated IMU/Sensor Electronics requirements.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. Honnavalli R Vydyanath
MDA 05-005      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Color LWIR/LWIR FPA Technology For Exo-Atmospheric Seeker Performance Enhancement
Abstract:Phase I effort focuses on demonstrating the feasibility of our approach to develop a technology to fabricate large format Multi-Color HgCdTe FPAs. In Phase II, we plan to validate the feasibility established in Phase I with demonstration and delivery of large format two-dimensional arrays hybridized to silicon Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROICs).

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-8963
Dr. Andrew Thies
MDA 05-005      Selected for Award
Title:Exo-Atmospheric Seeker Performance Enhancement
Abstract:An all-reflective zoom telescope for EKV is proposed to provide a larger field-of-view (FOV) that would shorten search time, enable resolution of objects at longer acquisition ranges, improve on-board discrimination performance, and improve resolution in end game, thereby enhancing aim-point selection. Efforts include the design of the optical surfaces meeting the EKV form factor prescription, optomechanical design of the telescope, electrical design of the actuation system, assessment of the telescope performance relative to system requirements, and development of fabrication and test plans.

BREAULT RESEARCH ORGANIZATION
6400 E. Grant Road, Suite 350
Tucson, AZ 85715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 721-0500
Dr. Gary Peterson
MDA 05-006      Selected for Award
Title:Requirements Definition and Preliminary Design for a Stray Light Test Station
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) seeks innovations that "ease the effort required to perform integration and testing." One specific MDA interest is "metrology technologies for the rejection of stray light." Controlling stray light in ballistic missile defense (BMD) sensors is essential to target detection, discrimination and acquisition. Defense sensors must contend with the sun, the moon, the earth limb, and countermeasures, at virtually any angle relative to the sensor boresight. If a sensor is blinded by the sun or lured away by a countermeasure the result is no different than a failed launch. Therefore, mission assurance depends on defining realistic stray light requirements, designing sensors to meet those requirements, and verifying (by test) sensor stray light performance. This proposal response addresses stray light testing. In Phase 1 work we plan to define requirements and complete the preliminary design for a stray light test station for missile defense sensors.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Mr. Barry Polakowski
MDA 05-006      Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturing and Assembly of Innovative Electro-Optical Components and Systems
Abstract:Fiber optic data links are inherently protected from radiation and can provide significant weight savings for space-based applications. The goal of this SBIR is to create a distributed fiber optic bus to connect modular electronics within a space vehicle which would also improve bandwidth without modifying the current electronics designs. The output of the Phase I shall be a system configuration document which will be used to create a functional prototype during the Phase II effort.

GALAXY COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS, INC.
9922 E. Montgomery #7
Spokane, WA 99206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 892-1114
Mr. Gordon Dallas
MDA 05-007      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Sensor Materials for Space
Abstract:GaSb substrates have advantages that make them attractive for implementation of very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) detectors with higher operating temperatures for stealth and space based applications. A significant processing issue for detector fabrication based upon InAs/GaSb and related strained layer superlattices (SLS) is the substrate transmissivity in the VLWIR range. In order to preclude substrate thinning for backside illuminated devices, a extremely low n-type substrate is desired. An opportunity exists to modify the Czochralski growth process to minimize the Ga antisite defect formation and significantly reduce the residual p-type carrier concentration. Using a modified melt stoichiometry, a faster liquid/solid interface rotation speed, and a slow cool ramp profile at the critical temperatures for vacancy formation/vacancy clustering, an extremely low doped n-GaSb boule may be fabricated. Hall Effect carrier concentration and FTIR transmissivity of substrates as a function of boule length will be examined. Deliverables for MBE SLS growth will be supplied to MDA and Raytheon. Phase II will incorporate a boule pull rate parameter and the establishment of a manufacturing process for larger diameter VLWIR suitable substrates. Commercialization of the GaSb substrate surface preparation process is regarded with high probability.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Aaron Moy
MDA 05-007      Selected for Award
Title:Improvement of Type II Superlattices by H-Plasma
Abstract:SVT Associates proposes an innovative atomic Hydrogen enhanced growth and surface preparation technique for high performance Type-II superlattice focal plane array fabrication. This material system is capable of infrared detection from 2 to > 30 micron, depending on layer composition and thickness. Photodetector arrays using this material are of great interest to the DoD for various applications including, in particular, optical detection and tracking of missiles. Hydrogen atomic flux has already been shown to improve other III-V growth, such as InAs. Applying the Hydrogen treatment to the superlattice should result in smoother substrate surfaces, higher material purity and more abrupt superlattice interfaces, all important factors that should significantly enhance device operation. We intend to characterize the positive effects of this Hydrogen process in superlattice structures in Phase I. In Phase II we will refine the Hydrogen process to realize Type-II superlattice discrete detectors and detector arrays.

CAPESYM, INC.
6 Huron Drive, Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 653-7100
Dr. Matthew Overholt
MDA 05-008      Selected for Award
Title:Low Defect LWIR Substrates by the Detached Growth Method
Abstract:This proposal is focused on the development of a novel method for the growth of low-dislocation-density, high-purity, and low-precipitate-concentration CdZnTe and CdSeTe crystals for use as substrates for MCT detectors. This work is motivated by the observation that II-VI compound semiconductors grown detached from the containment wall in space, as well as other materials grown on earth, have exhibited significantly lower dislocation density and higher purity. This program will seek to grow detached Cd(Zn,Se)Te crystals through the development of a feedback-controlled detached growth process, where the signals generated by a non-intrusive sensor are used to maintain a detachment gap of the order of 50-100 microns between the growing crystal and the ampoule.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Mr. Rasdip Singh
MDA 05-008      Selected for Award
Title:Lattice Matched Substrates for Mercury Cadmium Telluride growth by MBE
Abstract:Many advanced HgCdTe (MCT) infrared detector structures are grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique, which is especially sensitive to small imperfections, impurities, precipitates, and polishing damage on the substrate surface. In order to achieve very high crystalline quality MCT structures, the substrate surface must be of superior quality (MBE-quality). EPIR demonstrated the ability to create superior CZT surfaces using innovative non-contact and pressure dependent polishing methods and our proprietary chemical polishing solutions. Our polished CZT substrates were qualified by growing MCT epi-layers by MBE. These MBE epi-layers exhibited state-of-the-art X-ray FWHM values and low (10^5 cm-2) etch pit density. In the Phase I effort, we will substantially improve the quality of our CZT substrate surfaces using the new, fully automated, ultra-high-precision polishing system designed and fabricated by EPIR. The system is capable of batch polishing very large (up to 64 cm^2) area substrates. We propose innovative ideas to create a true "epi-ready" CZT surface and eliminate the need for end-user surface pretreatments prior to MBE growth. We will grow and characterize MCT by MBE to qualify our polished substrates and work with our industrial partners to commercialize "epi-ready" MBE-quality CZT substrates.

ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8100 Shaffer Parkway, Suite #130
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 792-5615
Dr. Tom Campbell
MDA 05-009      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Concepts for Next Generation Infrared Detector Arrays for Missile Defense
Abstract:ADA Technologies proposes to develop advanced quality semiconductor substrates to address the needs of the Missile Defense Agency for research and development of innovative ideas leading to the development of a new class of sensitive infrared Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) suitable for missile defense sensors and commercialization. Since GaSb substrates are prone to defect migration and elemental diffusion into the epitaxial layers, traditional GaSb wafers can reduce detectivity of type-II heterostructure layers InGaSb/InAs and thus impede fabrication of high quality FPAs. The proposed research will study a new class of substrate materials as a replacement for GaSb. New materials will be designed during bulk crystal growth to eliminate defect migration and contain elemental diffusion relative to epitaxial growth of the critical detection layers. In collaboration with an industrial world leader in IR detector device fabrication, the program will accelerate commercialization of the novel substrate material. By providing this new substrate material to the MDA, it will become feasible to detect, track, and discriminate future threats to our national security.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Mr. Chad Fulk
MDA 05-009      Selected for Award
Title:PbSnTe Thermoelectric Cooled Focal Plane Arrays on Novel Silicon Based Substrates
Abstract:The MDA's request to detect, track and discriminate long range targets requires infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) that have higher sensitivities, longer cutoff wavelengths (>14 m), larger formats (> 256 x 256), and higher operating temperatures than the current infrared technology. PbSnTe is an ideal material for the MDA's requirements. Its carrier mobilities and quantum efficiencies are comparable or even higher than HgCdTe in the mid (3-6 m) and far (6-14 m) infrared. In addition, it has been reported that PbSnTe heterojunction detectors have the ability to operate at room temperature. However, viable solutions still need to be found to alleviate the materials obdurate elastic problems. In Phase I, EPIR Technologies will epitaxially grow PbSnTe on silicon with a CdTe/ZnTe buffer layer. This buffer will partially alleviate the lattice mismatch and provide superior adherence to the substrate. The silicon substrate does not suffer from the instability of the typically used CaF2 and BaF2 buffers and will allow for easy integration into existing IRFPA technologies. EPIR Technologies will then demonstrate high temperature operation of single element detectors. In Phase II, EPIR Technologies will address thermal mismatch issues though compliant technologies.

ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
8130 Shaffer Pkwy
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5107
Dr. Brian Berland
MDA 05-009      Selected for Award
Title:Uncooled BLIP Detector for Next Generation Infrared (IR) Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs)
Abstract:The ITN team proposes to design and develop a revolutionary uncooled IR detector that is compatible with large format focal place arrays. By dramatically decreasing thermal conduction noise and Johnson noise, the proposed sensor enables BLIP sensitivity resulting in a 50 times increase in detector sensitivity over state-of-the-art technologies. Preliminary analysis projects a specific detectivity of 1.1E10 cm-Hz^0.5/W and NETD much less than 1 mK. The proposed BLIP detector will have a cutoff wavelength greater than 14 microns, a time constant of ~3msec, and require very little power (~40nanoWatts per pixel). In addition, the BLIP detector will be fabricated with standard thin-film technologies that provide high pixel uniformity, decreased cost, and inherent stability in high radiation environments.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
IT Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Naumov
MDA 05-009      Selected for Award
Title:Gamma Focal Plane Array
Abstract:Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new gamma focal plane array (gamma-FPA) that is highly sensitive in the mid- and long-wave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) regions, requires no cooling, and has high resolution and improved uniformity. Its operation is based on the exponential sensitivity of the rotational viscosity (gamma) of liquid crystal (LC) to temperature variation (MWIR/LWIR irradiation). The resonance absorption of MWIR/LWIR irradiation by LC molecules, and absorption of a wide range of wavelengths by carbon nanotube pixels raises LC temperatures. The resulting viscosity variation is precisely controlled by capacitance variation across each gamma-FPA pixel. The transient nematic effect and low LC bulk give the gamma-FPA millisecond speed. Because at readout, the LC molecules are rotated through the full available angular range, the gamma-FPA is polarization insensitive. The cost of the gamma-FPA will be kept low because it is based on well-developed LC display technology. In Phase I POC will demonstrate a laboratory prototype exhibiting multicolor detection in the MWIR/LWIR spectrum. In Phase II POC will design and fabricate a working prototype suitable for real environments--missile seekers or space-based satellites. In Phase III POC will improve performance and integrate the gamma-FPA into an MDA seeker.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara Boulevard, Suite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
MDA 05-009      Selected for Award
Title:Dramatic Improvement In The Quantum Efficiency Of Large-Format Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:We will demonstrate a dramatic 3x to 5x increase (over the state of the art) in the external quantum efficiency (QE) of longwave infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) fabricated from quantum well infrared photodetectors. We will develop AND DELIVER a 320x256 LWIR FPA with this improved performance in Phase 1 itself. In Phase 2, we will develop and deliver a sensor engine consisting of a 640x512 version of this FPA in an integrated dewar cooler assembly.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Dr. W. Kowbel
MDA 05-010      Selected for Award
Title:An Integrated SiC-SiC Composite Optical Seeker Assembly
Abstract:Currently used Al components for the optical seeker structure suffer from low specific modulus. As a result, re-design efforts with Al components, lack full realization of weight savings. The use of SiC-SiC composites for optical structures provides for significant weight savings, combined with improved structural performance. Combination of SiC-SiC structural components with SiC-SiC optical components, offers numerous design advantages (matched CTE). This proposal offer unique materials and optical fabrication approaches leading to a fully integrated SiC-SiC composite optical seeker assembly

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-8963
Dr. Andrew Thies
MDA 05-010      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Strapdown Integrated Seeker
Abstract:The cost, mass, and performance of the homing seeker in systems such as THAAD are primarily driven by the requirement for precision target detection, tracking, and imaging for aimpoint selection in the presence of shock and vibration from aerodynamic buffeting and propulsion system operation. These systems require precision gyros, very low friction gimbals, and fairly large torquer motors for stability and pointing; and usually stabilize the focal plane assembly. This proposal presents a lower cost, lower weight solution for Line-of-Sight (LOS) pointing and stabilization. It utilizes a breakthrough in piezoelectric devices known as PBP actuators. The PBP technology overcomes the disadvantages of earlier piezoelectric control devices. The PBP based Fast Stabilization Mirrors (FSM's) will provide a lighter, lower power, smaller part count, and lower cost solution to LOS tracking and stabilization.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 338-2865
Dr. William Goodman
MDA 05-010      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Strapdown Integrated Seeker
Abstract:MDA and Army SMDC are interested in image stabilization technologies for the THAAD strapdown IR seeker and other BMD interceptor systems. In Phase I Schafer shall obtain detailed requirements from BAE Systems for state-off-the-art field-of-regard (FOR) and field-of-view (FOV) mirror instruments. We shall use these requirements to create a conceptual design for a 2-axis, servo-controlled FOR mirror with a closed-loop bandwidth >100 Hz, an elevation (vertical) range of 0-45 degrees (arbitrary origin), an azimuth (horizontal) range of +/- 5 degrees, and <10 micro-radian resolution. We shall also perform a complete design for a 1-2 cm, servo-controlled 2-axis laser pointing mirror with a closed loop bandwidth of 10 kHz, +/- 5 degrees range in both axes, and <1 micro-radian precision. Together with our partner SEO Precision a demonstration instrument shall be produced which will capitalize on technologies employed in our FAST-SLMST fast steering mirror product line. Schafer's high stiffness, lightweight SLMST and SiC-SLMST will provide the enabling lightweight mirror technology for both stabilization instruments. SLMST and SiC-SLMST foam core mirror technologies are capable of providing low mass moment of inertia and a 1st fundamental frequency that exceeds that of a beryllium mirror of the same weight.

CU AEROSPACE
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 333-8274
Dr. David Carroll
MDA 05-011      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Iodine Injection, Mixing and Pressure Recovery
Abstract:The primary objective of CU Aerospace's Phase I work will be to investigate innovative iodine injection concepts for the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) that improve mixing at higher total pressures. The designs will be made to significantly improve the pressure recovery of COIL systems while retaining efficiency. The results of the Phase I research will lay the foundation for developing a highly advanced COIL iodine injection scheme for improved pressure recovery in Phase II. Our team partner the University of New Mexico will assist CU Aerospace to perform cold flow PLIF experiments to examine the mixing character of the flow of a candidate method for injecting iodine. Design computations to investigate optimal injection configurations for gain magnitude and distribution, and chemical efficiency, will also be performed. This research will lead directly to designs that will be fabricated and tested extensively with detailed diagnostics to evaluate each design's performance attributes in Phase II with a goal of 250 Torr pressure recovery within the COIL cavity while maintaining flow uniformity both in species mixture and density. Use of the well-calibrated and economical COIL facility at the University of Illinois will allow these advanced concepts to be implemented and examined in detail.

ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, INC.
131 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 761-2288
Mr. George D Modica
MDA 05-012      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Optical Turbulence Forecasts
Abstract:We propose a Phase I SBIR project to define a forecast system to predict lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric optical turbulence. The application will be designed to be implemented within the Airborne Laser Atmospheric Decision Aid (ADA). The application will utilize as input data from the Air Force Weather Agency's theater numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. During Phase I, several candidate optical turbulence parameterizations will be examined for inclusion into the ADA. An innovative feature of our proposed application will operate on the input NWP model data to simulate an ensemble spread from a single NWP model forecast, enabling generation of a probablistic optical turbulence product that is capable of revealing nearby (in state space) meteorological and optical turbulence "regimes." Each ensemble member is used as input to two or more diagnostic optical turbulence algorithms. The set of ensemble optical turbulence forecasts are converted into probability density functions, and provided to the ADA. The forecast system will be designed to be configurable, modular, and conform to accepted software engineering standards.

NORTHWEST RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
P.O. Box 3027
Bellevue, WA 98009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 415-9701
Dr. Joseph Werne
MDA 05-012      Selected for Award
Title:Optical Turbulence Forecasting for Directed Energy and Laser Communication Systems
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of advanced optical- turbulence forecasting tools to aid design, testing, and operations for applications involving laser propagation through the atmosphere. These include laser-weapons systems, free-space optical communication, and astronomical observations. Recent advances in atmospheric-dynamics research (measurement, simulation, and theory), in concert with a related MDA project, present a unique opportunity for optical-turbulence forecasting that is significantly better than what is currently available. By adapting this research, we can develop optical turbulence forecasts which simultaneously predict model expectation values and model uncertainty, allowing for the possibility of real-time evaluation of forecast skill without an ensemble procedure. The approach involves using Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling to combine NWP output with high- resolution measurement data and results from very high-resolution numerical simulations we have done of specific atmospheric processes. The methodology is well suited to the development of an improved Atmospheric Decision Aid (ADA) for the Airborne Laser (ABL), which we believe will be much more appropriate, accurate, and reliable than the existing ABL ADA. The approach is novel and has several significant advantages which we propose to explore during this Phase I effort.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Fabio Di Teodoro
MDA 05-013      Selected for Award
Title:Eyesafe Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Laser for Laser Ranging
Abstract:We propose a novel approach, based on emerging photonic crystal fiber technology, to generate high peak and average power in multi-kHz repetition-rate pulses at eye-safe wavelengths. The proposed optical source is configured to be packaged in a compact and rugged fashion, exhibit low power consumption in compliance with requirements of airborne applications, and produce an output of excellent beam quality. If successful, the work accomplished through the Phase II of this program will result in the delivery of an eye-safe laser transmitter ideally suited for a wide variety of military 3D imaging LADAR systems.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Dr. James Murray
MDA 05-013      Selected for Award
Title:Eyesafe Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Laser for Laser Ranging
Abstract:Within the past decade, ballistic missiles have emerged as major threats to American and friendly armed forces. As of early 1998, at least 30 nations were known to have more than 10,000 ballistic missiles in their arsenals and the threat is growing daily. Several of these countries are also known to be pursuing development or to have developed nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities for their missiles. To counter this threat the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has sponsored the development of the Airborne Laser (ABL), which is a system centered around a high-energy chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) carried aboard a modified Boeing 747-400F freighter. Airborne Laser (ABL) will locate and track missiles in the boost phase of their flight, then accurately point and fire the high-energy laser, destroying enemy missiles near their launch areas. This proposal addresses critical new technology for the ABL tracking function contained within the Active Ranging System (ARS). The currently deployed ARS utilizes a CO2 laser rangefinder to generate both a range and instantaneous radial velocity of the missile with respect to the airborne platform. Although the technology that is employed is mature and highly functional, the emission of the CO2 laser at 11.15 Ym is not eyesafe, and is therefore hazardous to humans. Eyesafe operation of the laser rangefinder is a goal for the Next Generation Active Ranging System (NGARS), which will utilize a transmitter that operates between 1.4 and 1.6 mm and newly developed InGaAs avalanche photo-diodes (APD) that are sensitive in this region. Not only is eyesafe operation important for ABL; it is becoming a standard requirement on new laser rangefinder and laser radar (ladar) systems. The primary goal of this SBIR program is to develop an eyesafe all-fiber high power laser transmitter for the NGARS that will meet or exceed the performance specifications for the NGARS. This effort will lead to affordable commercialized eyesafe laser rangefinder and imaging ladar systems.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Dr. Yelena Isyanova
MDA 05-013      Selected for Award
Title:Eyesafe Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Source for Laser Ranging
Abstract:Q-Peak, Inc. proposes to develop a ~2-ns pulse, high-power, 10-kHz repetition rate, 1504-nm source based on the combination of an efficient, high-power, diode-pumped Nd:YLF master oscillator - power amplifier (MOPA) system and a double-pumped, KTA crystal-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for laser ranging applications. The overall goal of the program is to design and build a short-pulse, single-frequency source with average power of 100 W. In the Phase I effort we propose to design and build a short-pulse diode-pumped, Q-switched, Nd:YLF oscillator and a double-pass amplifier based on our multipass slab design generating >15 W of average power at a 10 kHz pulse rate. The Phase I effort will also include analysis and preliminary design of the entire two-channel MOPA and the OPO converter to the eyesafe wavelength range. A prototype system suitable for application as an airborne Lidar Transmitter will be built and delivered to MDA at the end of the Phase II program.

NLIGHT PHOTONICS
5408 NE 88th Street, Bldg E
Vancouver, WA 98665
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 518-1081
Dr. Paul Crump
MDA 05-014      Selected for Award
Title:Highly Reliable, High Power Cryogenic Red Diode Lasers
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to eliminate the catastrophic optical damage that limits the peak operating power of cryogenically operated visible red (630-nm) laser diodes. The method to be applied is band gap disordering by Zn-diffusion. This will be the first time this technique has ever been applied to high power visible red laser diodes. It will also be the first application of band gap disordering in a system intended for cryogenic operation. nLight Photonics, through programs with Directed Energy Solutions, has pushed the absolute state of the art in red diode lasers operating at 665-nm (room temperature) and 630-nm (cryogenic temperatures). Peak powers of 90W and 50% electrical-to-optical efficiency have been achieved from a 1-cm wide bar of 1-mm cavity length. Individual emitters have achieved 6.3W peak power while operating at room temperature. Through these programs the limiting mechanism in achieving higher powers is no longer the thermal escape of carriers, but the catastrophic failure of the optical facets under the intense optical field power densities.

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Dr. Kurt J. Linden
MDA 05-014      Selected for Award
Title:Highly Reliable, High Power Cryogenic Red Diode Lasers
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research project is aimed at modeling and designing a cryogenic high power red diode laser array for use in optically pumping 100 kW level cryogenic lasers for missile defense and other applications. It is advantageous to operate lasers at cryogenic temperatures because in this environment they have greatly improved heat transfer characteristics, reduced laser thresholds, and increased device reliability. Phase I will develop a conceptual design for cryogenic 630 nm diode laser bars, consisting of individual emitters with output in excess of 0.5 W per emitter. The design will include the epitaxial layer structure, the individual emitter structure, the laser bar geometry, laser bar mounting onto laser headers, laser bar combining into multi-bar laser arrays, and heat spreader design. Mathematical models will be established, and design tradeoffs will be studied to predict device performance and performance limits. A plan for laser array performance measurement will be prepared, and preliminary experimental data will be obtained. Spire has extensive prior experience with high power diode laser array bar fabrication and multi-bar array manufacturing, and is currently manufacturing red LED and red laser products using in-house designed and MOCVD-grown epitaxial wafers in its state-of-the-art semiconductor manufacturing foundry.

ION OPTICS, INC.
411 Waverley Oaks Road, Suite 144
Waltham, MA 02452
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 788-8777
Dr. Irina Puscasu
MDA 05-015      Selected for Award
Title:Rugged cryogenic tuned heat rejection materials
Abstract:Ion Optics proposes to develop innovative 2D plasmonic-photonic crystal coatings for improved thermal rejection and stray light control for space tracking and surveillance systems. These coatings will survive rapid cycling to cryogenic temperatures. Photonic crystals are a new class of periodic structures with controllable electromagnetic radiation properties through changes in materials and geometry. Coupling modes in the photonic crystal to plasmons at the surface of a metallic array of holes further enhances the spectral control. By dramatically improving the ratio between visible absorptance and infrared emittance in lightweight, compact and switchable 2D metallo-dielectric photonic crystal device, it becomes possible to achieve better scatter supression and heat rejection. Phase 1 research will investigate optical properties for a variety of 2D metallo-dielectric photonic crystal structures on silicon and polymer substrates. These structures have potential for large conformal area fabrication by micromolding that would allow scaling design to any system shape and power output. Another future interest is for active control with tunable plasmonic-photonic crystals to match the desired wavelength range and the thermodynamic cycles of space-borne or airborne systems. Benefits to MDA also include reduced cost and simplified structural integration with increased safety and reliability.

RAPT INDUSTRIES
6252 Preston Ave.
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 295-3330
Mr. George Gardopee
MDA 05-015      Selected for Award
Title: Optics Technologies for Cryogenic Sensors
Abstract:Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a promising new material for optical substrates and structures for use in advanced cryogenic sensor systems. However conventional optical manufacturing technologies use abrasive-based grinding and polishing which leaves significant subsurface damage and residual stresses in the material. These residual stresses can lead to degradation of the optical performance of the system once it is deployed. We propose to demonstrate rapid damage-free shaping of lightweight aspheric SiC mirror substrates using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) processing. This novel technology allows for rapid and deterministic shaping of mirror surfaces while simultaneously removing the subsurface damage created during previous grinding steps.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 338-2865
Dr. William Goodman
MDA 05-015      Selected for Award
Title: Optics Technologies for Cryogenic Sensors
Abstract:MDA, Air Force, and Raytheon are interested in dimensionally stable, survivable optical coatings for operation in the visible and long wavelength infrared (8-12 microns), for temperatures as low as 35 K, for the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) Track Sensor Telescope. Schafer demonstrated a VIS/NIR dielectric coating at NASA MSFC that reversibly changed the figure of a SLMST mirror by only 0.5 nm RMS for cyclic testing between 300 and 25 Kelvin. A C/SiC mirror mount was part of the experiment. Under MDA Contract No. HQ0006-05-C-7149 performed for Army SMDC, Schafer designed, manufactured and flash x-ray tested a low emissivity, high-reflectance VIS/NIR/LWIR coating designed from individual elements in the periodic table. The testing was successfully performed in September 2005 for SLMST, SiC-SLMST and C/SiC mirrors. Under 2005 IRAD funding, Schafer produced an all C/SiC bolt-together sensor telescope for MDA and Raytheon. Thus, for this project, we propose to design and demonstrate a dimensionally stable (25-340 K) and survivable (space and x-ray) VIS/LWIR coating on C/SiC mirrors traceable to an all C/SiC STSS cryogenic telescope that is designed from the systems point-of-view. In Phase II Schafer would work with the government and Raytheon to fully space qualify the coating.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Amarendra K. Rai
MDA 05-015      Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional Nanocomposite Coatings for Mechanical Assemblies of Space Optics
Abstract:Space tracking and surveillance systems require mechanical assemblies that operate in varying and extreme atmosphere and temperature conditions. For proper functioning of these mechanical assemblies in space for many years, highly stable lubricating and wear resistant coatings are needed. To this end, in this Phase I program UES proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings with embedded solid lubricant phases in such applications. A systematic test methodology will be used to evaluate the developed coating. Based on the evaluation results the developed coatings will be validated and ranked. Highly ranked coatings will be further developed in Phase II.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V. Zagarola
MDA 05-016      Selected for Award
Title:A Cryogenic Heat Transport Loop for Space-Borne Gimbaled Instruments
Abstract:A high-performance cooling system for gimbal-mounted infrared sensors is a critical need for future space-based target acquisition and tracking systems. A candidate approach uses a high performance cryocooler remotely located on the spacecraft platform combined with a high conductance, cryogenic heat transport system to exchange heat from the sensors to the cryocooler. The heat transport system must have high conductance, produce minimal parasitic heat loads, and impose minimal torque on the gimbal, in addition to the typical space requirements of lightweight, compact and reliable. To meet these challenging requirements, we propose to develop a single-phase gaseous heat transport loop consisting of a miniature cryogenic circulator; ultra-flexible transfer lines; and compact heat exchangers. The circulator design has heritage in the unit developed by Creare for the Hubble Space Telescope, which has operated at 70 K for over 3.5 years with no change in performance. During Phase I, we will prove feasibility of the concept by (1) producing preliminary designs of candidate heat transport systems for the Space Tracking and Surveillance System, and (2) performing flexibility and life tests on the transfer lines at cryogenic temperatures. During Phase II, we will fabricate and test the heat transport system at cryogenic temperatures.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
110 Gibraltar Road, Suite 223
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-6580
Mr. Mark Montesano
MDA 05-016      Selected for Award
Title:High Performance Passive Flexible Heat Transport Material
Abstract:Next generation space infrared sensing technologies will require revolutionary improvements in thermal transport and storage technologies. Flexible cryogenic and ambient cooling is essential to meet emerging requirements for these advanced systems. Enabling technologies to accommodate the increasingly compact and higher density Air Force and Department of Defense infrared sensing payloads are required. k Technology Corporation proposes a general technology development that permits the design of a high performance passive flexible cryogenic and ambient heat transport material. The conductivity of the proposed material system will exceed 1000 W/mK at all temperatures between 5K and 300K. In addition, the proposed technology development will allow the material system to be tailored and optimized for any temperature in this range at greater conductivity values. This proposed effort will develop a material system that can be specifically designed to satisfy Air Force requirements.

PEREGRINE FALCON CORP.
1072 B Serpentine Lane
Pleasanton, CA 94566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 461-6806
Mr. Robert Hardesty
MDA 05-016      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Cryocooler Component and Integration Technologies
Abstract:Peregrine Falcon Corporation and Phase 2 partner Northrop Grumman will significantly improve the overall performance of pulse tube cryocoolers by enhancing the thermal conductivity of structures internal to the cryocooler. This enables much more efficient heat removal at the warm end. Peregrine's proprietary process for incorporating high thermal conductivity material within a defined thermal path will be used to increase the heat flow in critical areas, and thereby improve the cryocooler performance, without increasing the overall mass. In the specific structure chosen for this Phase I SBIR effort, Peregrine will reduce the temperature differential from the warm end of the cold end to the thermal rejection surfaces by well over 50% from the current design while significantly reducing weight. The major benefit from this improvement will be the significant reduction of input power required by the cryocooler to meet the required cooling load. The improvement offered by this SBIR effort will result in 17 Kilograms of weight savings at the system level.

IRIS TECHNOLOGY CORP.
PO Box 5838
Irvine, CA 92616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 975-8410
Mr. Edward J. O'Rourke
MDA 05-017      Selected for Award
Title:Novel, Nonlinear Control System for Cryogenic Coolers
Abstract:A novel, nonlinear electronic control system will be evaluated for use in the Stirling Cryocooler compressor drive circuit. This proven and low cost technology can be hardened for use in space and has the potential to improve overall efficiency while reducing conducted emissions into the source supply.

LGARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Mr. Anthony Long
MDA 05-018      Selected for Award
Title:Microsatellite-based Space Targets for Calibration and Test of Advanced Radar and STSS Technologies
Abstract:The use of micro-satellites to provide target complexes for BMD investigations can reduce program costs; targets would no longer need be launched every time a sensor test is desired However, the exoatmospheric flight of real threats lasts for only 20 minutes or so, while the orbiting targets may have been subjected to months of exoatmospheric flight. The design parameters for the two cases are clearly different. The targets placed in orbit for use over a year or so must be carefully designed to maintain realistic appearances typical of the much shorter-lived real threats.Studies are already under way to define methods of keeping the individual targets realistic, such as the use of simple torque rods for obtaining proper orientation, and using inflatables that then rigidize in orbit. A threat complex, however, consisting of both reentry vehicles (RVs) and balloon decoys, will tend to disperse over time due to the drag of the tenuous atmosphere, solar pressure, and ejection velocities. The purpose of the proposed study is to solve this problem so that not only can valid individual targets be provided, but also that the threat complex will retain appropriate viewing geometries and separation distances typical of a real threat.

MICROSAT SYSTEMS
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5153
Mr. Jeff Summers
MDA 05-018      Selected for Award
Title:Reconfigurable, Commercial-based Avionics for Responsive Microsatellite Targets
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency is seeking novel techniques to enable coherent, accurate, and sustained operation of ground-based phased array radars. MicroSat Systems, a small satellite developer is proposing a low cost Intelligent Power and Data Ring (IPDR) avionics architecture. IPDR for Responsive Microsatellite Target Systems takes advantage of initiatives to integrate high performance, low cost commercial electronics and processors into spacecraft avionics. This architecture provides a near-term solution to reconfigurable avionics while distributing power and data management functions on a single circuit. By integrating the MSI protocol converter technology with the ABET Technologies Digital Current System, MSI provides a network with standardized attachment nodes that carries data and power on the IPDR. This network can host a variety of data protocols and implements a SpaceWire core to support high speed data transfer around the ring and any user-programmable protocol from the ring out to peripheral devices. The standardization of the node design enables full modularity and growth from a minimum of three nodes reducing spacecraft integration to a few days. Since the system is implemented with a common set of standard nodes instead of custom cards in a card cage, the hardware costs are only 40-60% of centralized systems.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Prakash B. Joshi
MDA 05-018      Selected for Award
Title:Variable Size, Repeatedly Deployable, Ultra-lightweight Space Targets [7286-160]
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a Microsatellite-based Target System (MTS) that can form and deploy extremely lightweight, hollow, spherical targets with good radar and optical reflectivity. The system will be capable of deploying single or multiple spherical targets from small injectors (~ 1 cm diameter) located around the spacecraft. Each target can be deployed in such a way that its final size can be varied from tens of centimeters to a few meters diameter depending on the need. This ability to repeatedly form targets of different sizes is a distinguishing characteristic of our approach, making it a truly polymorphic target system capable of changing optical/radar signature of a microsatellite. In Phase I, we will experimentally investigate materials and fabrication methods for the target. We will measure optical and radar reflectivity and its dependence on physical characteristics of the target. In Phase II we will develop protoflight hardware for integration and launch on a space mission, followed by space validation testing in Phase III.

GH SYSTEMS, INC.
655 Discovery Drive, Suite 302
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-0050
Dr. Jonathan Fisher
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened Optical Filters for Focal Plan Assemblies
Abstract:Missile Defense surveillance and interceptor sensor operations typically use cryogenically cooled infrared sensors that operate while being exposed to natural space radiation and possibly to nuclear weapon radiation, both of which have the potential to degrade system performance. USASMDC's Hardened Infrared Optical Components (HIROC) program test results indicate that cryogenically cooled optical filters are susceptible to low levels of ionizing radiation dose, and thus pose a potential problem in an operational scenario. A solution to this problem requires the development of radiation hardened infrared optical filters. The GH Systems' team, including Surface Optics Corporation and ATK Mission Research, is proposing a multi-phase program to develop and commercialize radiation hardened IR filters. The proposed Phase I effort will investigate the radiation damage mechanisms, develop strategies to fabricate radiation hardened IR filters, develop an overall technology development and test plan, and perform limited radiation testing and material characterization. Our planned Phase II efforts will include the finalization of radiation hardened design approaches, fabrication of filters, and radiation testing to provide design verification. The GH Systems' team plans to use current commercial processes to develop this radiation hardened optical filter providing prompt availability to MDA.

INNOVATIVE BUSINESSS SOLUTIONS, INC.
301 Concourse Boulevard, Suite 120
Glen Allen, VA 23059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 812-5555
Mr. Greg Sjoquist
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements
Abstract:Target discrimination capabilities using advanced seekers and seeker image processing is one layer of providing for advanced threats such as multiple target clusters. Multiple Kill Vehicles addressing a cluster of potential targets is another significant layer in the overall BMDO arsenal. IBSi is collaborating with STI Electronics, Inc of Madison, AL. and MilliSensor Systems and Actuators, Inc. of West Newton, MA as critical team members in this proposed effort. The tasks defined herein lead to a significant improvement in advanced miniature kill vehicle seeker imaging system capability as well as vehicle Guidance, Navigation and Control. The MKV Kill Vehicle (KV) program, which is presently base-lining a MEMS IMU, is a good candidate for a very compact integrated avionics and signal processor with embedded MEMS based IMU. The short duration mission lends itself to an IMU that has relatively larger drift rates compared to FOG based solutions but at an extremely beneficial volume and mass reduction. The objective of the proposed effort is to develop a fully functional MEMS sensor suite utilizing an embedded digital control loop implemented in a high performance Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. The sensor readouts will interface to an IMU block internal to the same FPGA package.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturing Process for Semi-insulating 4" Diameter GaN Substrates
Abstract:Large area semi-insulating GaN has the potential to impact the commercialization of many technologies such as power transistors, high frequency microwave amplifiers, and high-speed, high-power switching components. One of the limiting factors in many of these applications is the lack of commercially available large diameter substrates. This program will develop 4" diameter semi-insulating GaN substrates produced using a large area crystal growth reactor designed by Kyma Technologies. Applications of these substrates include high power transistors, high frequency power amplifiers, and high-speed, high-power switching components. The availability of high quality, highly uniform, semi-insulating GaN substrates could significantly improve the efficiency, lifetime and reliability of microwave power HEMTs. The overall objective of this proposal is to develop a manufacturing process for growing high quality, low defect density semi insulating GaN wafers up to 4" in diameter. These crystals will be grown to a sufficient thickness to produce freestanding GaN substrates by slicing wafers from the 4" boule. Applications of these substrates include high power transistors, high frequency power amplifiers, and high-speed, high-power switching components.

MCCARTER MACHINE, INC.
1312 Underwood Rd, PO Box 520
Deer Park, TX 77536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 476-4716
Mr. Douglas R. McCarter
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements
Abstract:In the search for a suitable beryllium substitute material, the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has identified several candidates for use in Ground Based Missile Defense (GMD) and Low Cost Kill Vehicle (LCKV) programs. One of the candidates that the MDA selected for further study is Single Crystal Silicon (SCSi). Because SCSi is a brittle material, a critical component for success in the substitution process involves attachment issues. Brittle materials are not like ductile materials that allow threading and mechanical attachment. However, with frit bonding, attachment of brittle materials is possible through the use of metal inserts. Bonding joints, referred to as metallurgical joints, show promise in replacing mechanical joints. In the case of brittle materials, the metallurgical joint can be distributed over a significant area thereby minimizing local stress concentrations. Although, we have several proven innovative bonding processes for attachment, these processes need further improvement and qualification with emphasis on rapid, low-cost, high-quality manufacturing, attachment performance, and process repeatability in order to move the processes to the next Readiness Level. The objective of this proposal is to define and determine the feasibility of using frit bonding and/or solder when attaching hardware to brittle materials.

MICROWAVE BONDING INSTRUMENTS
2400 N. Lincoln Ave.
Altadena, CA 91001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 296-6480
Dr. Nasser Budraa
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturing for High Yield and Reliability of HgCdTe IR Detectors
Abstract:HgCdTe is without a doubt the most dominant material for infrared (IR) detection. Particularly at wavelengths of importance to the MDA program, the reliable operation of these detectors is paramount. MBI in this proposal, will apply its technology in material processing by microwaves to synthesize ohmic contacts on long-wavelength HgCdTe detectors. The formation of ohmic-contacts on HgCdTe and their long-term stability contributes a great deal to the responsivity, reliability, yield and hence to the cost of these delicate detectors. The mal-formation of ohmic-contacts on HgCdTe detectors is unique in that it can be a source of operational problems affecting the device performance due to optical, electrical, or thermo-mechanical origins. Addressing and solving this problem alone has a compounding beneficial effect on LW and VLW HgCdTe detectors from device detectivity (D), reliability, yield, and cost point of view. MBI offers a two-part approach to the formation of ohmic-contact on HgCdTe detectors, a) a novel processing method with many distinct advantages, and b) a set of new metallizations made possible by the processing technology. This project has wider implications in the HgCdTe-IR device manufacturing with prospects of replacing current long-duration annealing with a fast less costly process and equipment

MILLI SENSOR SYSTEMS & ACTUATORS
93 Border Street
West Newton, MA 02465
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(857) 229-1417
Dr. Donato (Dan) Cardarelli
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Single-Chip MEMS IMU for Integrated Avionics and Seeker Image Stabilization for the MKV
Abstract:MSSA is developing a single-chip MEMS IMU sensor that integrates all the necessary inertial instruments on the same vacuum-encapsulated chip, which permits the use of the IMU in die form. MSSA has specified a high data-rate version of this MEMS IMU to provide both short-term guidance and seeker image stabilization for MKV kill vehicles. MSSA will collaborate with Innovative Business Solutions, Inc. and with STI Electronics, Inc. to implement a system concept developed by Lockheed Martin that combines the IMU sensor, FPGA electronics, the SPAR-X Image Processor and a mission computer into a highly integrated package that couples high-density electronics with passive thermal management. This revolutionary approach will result in a low cost, high performance integrated avionics suite applicable to MKV and other MDA interceptor programs. MSSA proposes to develop an enhanced version of the MEMS IMU that implements a high data rate gyro concept. In Phase I, MSSA will design and fabricate a MEMS IMU chip to prove the high data rate concept using existing instrument designs. The single-chip IMU integrated with FPGA electronics using the STI packaging technology will be a highly versatile MEMS IMU product that can be configured to address many different military and commercial applications.

RESONANT MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
610 16th Street, Suite 511
Oakland, CA 94612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 634-2741
Dr. Shui-Lin Chao
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Precision Low Cost Assembly Technique for Manufacturing of Seeker Optics
Abstract:Precise alignment of optical components is currently obtained by an iterative process of wavefront measurement, demounting, shimming, and re-mounting. With the planned introduction of multi-FPA and cryogenic cooling, the alignment process is anticipated to become more difficult and costly. To address this challenge, our team is developing an automated process with nanometer range alignment accuracy. Our team's experience in the areas of micro-welding, solder bump processes, precision alignment techniques and laser micromachining will be a key enabler towards this goal.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Mr. Wesley H. Morris
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing Process Improvements (Bulk)
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (with LSI Logic and Jazz Semiconductor) proposes to demonstrate an innovative manufacturing process technology implementing our hardened-by-isolation (HBI) approach for near-term insertion into BMD discrete components. We will develop scaleable bulk test circuit elements using 130 nm technology enhanced by SEE and TID mitigation process modules supporting radiation-hardening and cryogenic performance of components fabricated in commercial foundries. Extensive modeling and simulation will demonstrate performance and radiation hardness in Phase I. Our team's expertise in commercial process integration, device development in leading-edge commercial technology, and radiation-hardening techniques using HBP technology is crucial to successful implementation of the radiation-hardened process modules. Silicon Space's HBI approach, combined with leading-edge silicon foundry manufacturing, provides fabrication processes enhancing capabilities, product quality and reliability, manufacturing yields and sub-systems and component performance while reducing unit costs, cycle time, and process variability. These innovations solve the pervasive design, fabrication, and sustainment manufacturing problems experienced by Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). This program will allow rapid transition of the results into systems and subsystems being developed for the BMDS. Leading-edge CMOS foundries producing these products will achieve the previously unattainable goal of deploying the latest electronics while minimizing risk of mission failure due to space radiation.

SOLDERING TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, INC.
102 Tribble Drive
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 705-5511
Mrs. Casey H. Cooper
MDA 05-019      Selected for Award
Title:Integrated Avionics Manufacturing Concept: Imbedded Component/Die Technology (IC/DT)
Abstract:The need for increased reliability coupled with reduced size and weight has demanded the evolution of manufacturing process technologies for printed circuit board assembly. Imbedded Component/Die Technology (IC/DT) will advance electronics packaging to the next level by transforming two-dimensional component placement into a three-dimensional (3-D) assembly with integrated thermal management. IC/DT enables the 3-D configuration of multiple systems thus achieving the cost/weight ratio advantage of using the smallest form and fit factor components available in a circuit card assembly. The objective of this research project is to develop a conceptual design using IC/DT to improve component performance, system capability, and product reliability of advanced interceptor seeker electronics. Removal of component-level packaging reduces assembly weight, electrical failure opportunities, electrical and thermal impedance, and valuable circuit card real estate. In Phase I, a manufacturing and assembly design methodology will be developed to integrate multiple advanced interceptor seeker electronics, such as the seeker IMU and image processor, into a high-density, miniaturized, light weight assembly. In collaboration with LMSSC, MSSA, and IBSi, a low-cost, highly-integrated, high-performance avionics package for the MKV kill vehicle shall be developed. This design methodology may be applied to a myriad of military interceptor products.

ARXAN RESEARCH, INC.
3000 Kent Avenue, Purdue Technology Center
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 775-1004
Mr. Eric D. Bryant
MDA 05-020      Selected for Award
Title:Non-Performance Degrading Software Protection for Real-Time Processes
Abstract:Tampering with or reverse engineering mission critical software is a very serious and real threat to modern weapons systems. Any protection which significantly degrades the performance of the weapons system is not practical. The proposed system will perform AT-related computations on a reconfigurable multicore processor to allow important security processes to execute without degrading the performance of the system. To achieve this goal, we will team with Rapport, Inc. to test the feasibility of using their Kilocore technology with our existing software AT product to protect real-time systems.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Colin Van Dyke
MDA 05-020      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Innovative Anti-Tamper Techniques
Abstract:Adversaries reverse engineer weapons systems to replicate a system's advanced capabilities or discover its weaknesses. Many of these critical systems are real-time systems. The restrictions of real-time have a significant impact on the implementation of anti-tamper technology. This work will build on our prototype for transforming source code and machine code to add state-of-the-art protection against reverse engineering. An optimizing planner will determine how to best apply the defensive transformations in order to maximize the degree of protection without violating the real-time constraints. We will also investigate transforms that are directed specifically toward protecting architectural features of real-time platforms.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8920
Mr. John Leon
MDA 05-020      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Innovative Anti-Tamper Techniques
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) proposes to develop a new innovative anti-tamper (AT) technique that demonstrates the capability to delay, make economically infeasible, the reverse engineering or compromise of critical U.S. BMDS weapon system technologies. This new technique is a "Memory Device Eraser Module" (MDEM). The MDEM provides an innovative AT scheme that protects the contents of information that use memory. The MDEM guards and erases the memory devices on demand in the event of tampering. The MDEM appears as any standard electronic component and is not dependent on system resources (power) to ensure its functionality. The ability to reverse engineer the MDEM is economically infeasible causing weeks (months) of analysis to replicate due to the non-standard packaging technique and inability to understand the physical operations of the MDEM due to an innovative technique. The architecture of the MDEM is "open" supporting integration into any weapon system platform without affecting the performance of their real-time processing requirements. A breadboard model is to be developed that demonstrates the MDEM's anti-tamper techniques and proof-of-concept by protecting an algorithm or key within the memory structure in Phase I. Results from the Phase I model will be used in designing the prototype in Phase II.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Mr. Barry Polakowski
MDA 05-020      Selected for Award
Title:Secure Software Platform for Real-Time Software Anti-Tamper
Abstract:Software reverse engineering has become a science of well-defined methods, tools, and philosophies. Known approaches - such as white-box, black-box, and gray-box attacks - and highly-intricate tools - such as debuggers, decompilers, and disassemblers - can be combined to reveal the secrets of software intellectual property and to steal once-secret code and data. Current approaches to software anti-tamper protection that utilize software mechanisms for security have proven largely ineffective when attacked by a well-funded enemy. The complexity of software anti-tamper approaches often lead to coding errors that have been exploited by disciplined attackers. In the case of real-time embedded software utilized by the Missile Defense Agency, the attacker could be a wealthy foreign government with a great deal of expertise, personnel, and resources. Luna Innovations will develop the Secure Software Platform (SSP) to protect real-time embedded software through robust hardware-accelerated software anti-tamper mechanisms. By leveraging the advantages of a hardware-assisted approach - better performance, better security, and reduced overall complexity - Luna expects to create a solution that significantly increases the required cost and time for a software reverse engineering effort. The SSP, which will play the central role in Luna's multi-layered approach to anti-tamper security, will enable robust security while maintaining easily characterized real-time performance.

MENTIS SCIENCES, INC.
150 Dow Street, Tower Two
Manchester, NH 03101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 624-9197
Dr. Tim Kostar
MDA 05-021      Selected for Award
Title:Rain Erosion Modeling for Hypersonic Thermal Protection System (TPS) and Structures
Abstract:Presently, no standard rain erosion reference (code, document(s), database, etc) exists for system designers and engineers to predict the material behavior of candidate materials for sub-sonic, sonic, and hypersonic mission profiles. Historically, individual companies have taken a shoot and look approach to this subject, and relied on past performance for flight predictions. Within the community, an attempt has been made to couple the material response to projected media, however, unfortunately, this information quickly becomes proprietary and hence, does not exist in the public media. This objective of this proposal is to develop coupled shock, impact, and material response model of a system during a rain event. Researchers will draw on historical data, recent sled test articles, and international publications made recently available to address the associated variables and develop the necessary numerical models. Sub-scale, and ultimately, sled tests will be conducted on several candidate materials and their performance will be compared / contrasted with the numerical model.

VANGUARD COMPOSITES GROUP/DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 587-4210
Mr. Matt Thompson
MDA 05-021      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Integral Heatshield and Substructure with Integral EMI/Ground Plane/Lightning Strike Protection and Conformal Antennae for High Performance THAAD KV Interceptor Airframes
Abstract:The program objective is to develop and demonstrate the cost effective and producible lightweight Integral Heatshield and Substructure (IH&S) with integral EMI shielding/ground plane/lightning strike protection (EMI/GP/LSP) and integral conformal antenna aeroshell technology for the THAAD KV interceptor program. Conventional approaches for interceptor aeroshells use a high temperature fiberglass/phenolic heatshield secondarily-bonded to a separately fabricated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite structure. The IH&S design concept was proven in the SMDC/MDA Composites and Advanced Materials '05 program to be a low cost, lightweight, and robust alternative. The enabling technology is the High Performance Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (HyPerVARTMT) process used to infuse a single high temperature resin (YLA RS-9e poly-cyanate). However, the integral approach has not yet had opportunity to demonstrate through fabrication integral EMI shielding, an integral ground plane, and lightning strike protection currently a part of the flight test hardware nor conformal antenna technology. This Phase I study will investigate alternative lightweight conductive materials and demonstrate the feasibility of the lightweight IH&S concept with EMI/GP/LSP and integral conformal antenna aeroshell technology for the THAAD KV interceptor program. A Phase II program would develop and demonstrate a full scale prototype for insertion into the THAAD flight test program.

BOUNDLESS CORP.
2500 Central Avenue, Suite L
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 415-9029
Dr. John Olson
MDA 05-022      Selected for Award
Title:Centrifugally Cast Cathodes for High-Power, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries
Abstract:Boundless' new proprietary process to manufacture high-density battery electrodes promises both high energy storage capacity and high power capability. The breakthrough technology combines novel high-porosity polymeric binders and a new centrifugal casting technique to yield dense, high-capacity cathodes while maintaining ion mobility. Common cathode densification methods using traditional binders reduce porosity and ionic flux even though voids constitute nearly 50% of an undensified cathode. The project is expected to demonstrate that Boundless' proprietary high-porosity polymer will maintain sufficient porosity to support the high levels of ionic mobility and fast charge/discharge. Preliminary tests showed increases in active material density of 33% and increases in electrolyte wet-out of 80%, indicating probable enhancement of ion mobility and rate capacity. Centrifugal casting of battery electrodes is an entirely new concept that is enabled by the development of the new high-porosity polymeric binder material. This novel material, entirely distinct from traditional systems like those from Bellcore and Sony, has >80% void content, sub-micron pore sizes and substantial mechanical strength. With centrifugal casting, electrode porosity, mechanical integrity and packing density (specific capacity) are simultaneously optimized. Electrode capacity (mAh/cc) is projected to increase 50 to 100%, corresponding to higher cell energy density (Wh/liter).

ERIGO TECHNOLOGIES LLC
28 Chosen Vale Lane
Enfield, NH 03748
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 632-4156
Dr. Nabil Elkouh
MDA 05-022      Selected for Award
Title:Optimized Thermal Battery Heat Regulation
Abstract:Thermal Batteries are reliable, high energy density power sources that have very long shelf lives. Optimal performance of these batteries depends on the insulation material and detailed design. There have been many studies that have investigated the use of a particular type or class of insulation. These investigations have been useful in demonstrating insulation concepts, but they have not provided battery designers tangible design tools. Additionally, complex thermal battery models have been developed to explore the multicomponent transport and electrochemical interactions that occur in thermal batteries. While very valuable for research, these models are too complex and computationally intensive to be of practical use to battery designers. On this project, we will develop a computational tool specifically to assist designers in optimizing insulation for thermal batteries. In Phase I, we will create the computational framework based on the appropriate set of transport equations and a prototype of the user interface. The tool will be flexible enough to allow the designers to explore the use of multiple insulation strategies. In Phase II, we will refine the package, optimize the insulation for a specific MDA battery design, and then verify the package by building and testing the optimized design.

ISAC, INC.
201 East Side Square
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 348-1724
Mr. Andrew B. Smith
MDA 05-023      Selected for Award
Title:HawkNest: Computer Forensic Listening Posts for Rapid BMDS Network Forensics
Abstract:Information Security and Assurance Corporation (ISAC, Inc.) proposes to develop an innovative HawkNest Computer Forensic Listening Post technology for the BMDS. The purpose of a Forensic Listening Post is to capture and store network forensic data at strategic points in the weapon system network for improved real-time and post mortem forensic analysis. The Listening Post will provide advanced analysis and forensic data synopsis for rapid forensic investigations. HawkNest features include: intelligent network capture and logging to minimize forensic data storage, innovative network forensic synopsis, and high assurance forensic data storage necessary for liturgical investigation. Network forensics is a wide open research field critically important to MDA because: 1. Host based forensic analysis requires the host to be taken off line for data collection. This will have an adverse operational readiness impact on the BMDS. 2. Host-based forensic analysis takes too much time. Forensics analysts have to travel from site to site to collect data. In a large, geographically disbursed network like the BMDS, days and weeks may pass before useful results are available. During a missile crisis, BMDS operators may only have a seconds or minutes to remedy the attack. In Phase I, ISAC will demonstrate feasiblity of a Forensic Listening Post with a proof-of-principle prototype.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway, Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Dean Mumme
MDA 05-023      Selected for Award
Title:Anomaly Detection Techniques to Detect Malicious Intruders
Abstract:MDA is searching for innovative virtual software solutions that provide measures of cyber security to take offensive and defensive measures in protecting and defending information, computers, and networks from disruption, denial of service, degradation, or destruction. Among the applications and technologies that MDA is seeking are those that can detect malicious intruders. This difficult to address threat must be handled by techniques that facilitate early and accurate detection and characterization of such threats by determining the differences between normal and abnormal user behavior. For this effort, we propose to implement technologies and services that utilize neural-networking concepts to detect anomalies within enterprise networks that stem from malicious insider threats. A further objective of this effort will be to ensure that our solution works with existing Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Government-Off-The-Shelf tools used to manage and analyze information management environments. This Phase I effort will develop a neural network technology for the detection of anomalies associated with malicious insider threats and demonstrate its use in a testbed environment. The Neural Network's Phase I development will consider both various encoding schemes and neural network architectures to train the network under "normal" conditions and detect emulated threats when hosted in our testbed environment

RETHER NETWORKS, INC.
99 Mark Tree Road, suite 301
Centereach, NY 11720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 467-4381
Dr. Lap-chung Lam
MDA 05-023      Selected for Award
Title:Program Semantics-Aware Intrusion Detection and Prevention
Abstract:One of the most dangerous cybersecurity threats is ``control hijacking'' attacks, which hijack the control of a victim application, and execute damaging system calls by assuming the identity of the victim process's effective user. These types of attacks are highly hazardous because commercial applications with such vulnerabilities appear to be wide spread, as shown in the rampancy of recent worms such as the SQL Slammer. System call monitoring has been touted as an effective solution to ``control hijacking'' attacks because it could prevent remote attackers from inflicting damage upon a victim system even if they can successfully compromise applications running on the system. However, the Achilles' heel of the system call monitoring approach is how to construct accurate security policy that could minimize false positives and negatives. Although various approaches have been tried to solve this problem, none of them is satisfactory. This project proposes a Program semantics-Aware Intrusion Detection system called PAID, which derives a security policy from an application's source code, and checks the application's system calls against the resulting policy at run time. Not only can PAID derive these policies completely automatically, but also the resulting security policy is tailored to individual applications and thus is highly accurate. Host-based intrusion detection based on system call monitoring is a well-known technique to provide the last line of defense against remote attacks. However, existing commercial or research host-based intrusion detection systems are plagued with the lack of a systematic approach to derive an accurate security policy for a given system. As a consequence, the security policy actually deployed in real systems tend to err on the conservative side and eventually generate too many false positives to render the system ineffective. The proposed PAID system effectively solves this problem by developing a tool that can automatically derive accurate security policies corresponding to the system call patterns of individual applications, thus reducing both false positives and negatives to the minimum. PAID therefore represents a giant step in closing the gap between current host-based intrusion detection systems and the actual needs of real-world IT systems.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Mr. Andrew Potter
MDA 05-023      Selected for Award
Title:COMBO
Abstract:Current solutions for computer network security focus narrowly on the computer network for detection and management of security problems. But computer networks do not exist in a vacuum. They exist within a physical environment, and threats arise, not as a result of virtual digital entities-they are caused by real people. The boundary between cyber-defense technology and physical surveillance technology is a harmful limitation on the ability of organizations to protect their information resources. In response to the need for integrated cyber and physical security, the Sentar team proposes to develop an enterprise security management console called COMBO. COMBO will include development of a Common Event Ontology for cross-domain knowledge representation and definition of a generic interface for information exchange between Sentar's Work-Centered Interface for Computer Network Defense (WCI-CND) and physical security systems, such as SYColeman's intelligent surveillance solution, Praetorian. Data streams obtained from video, proximity, motion, and biometric devices will be correlated with cyber-attack information to pinpoint and document the locations and personal identities associated with attacks and other suspicious activities. By bringing together Sentar's advanced technologies for computer network defense with SYColeman's intelligent surveillance solutions, COMBO will provide a full range of integrated capabilities for security situation awareness.

INTEGRATED MICRO SENSORS, INC.
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston, TX 77096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 748-7926
Dr. David Starikov
MDA 05-024      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-Strong High-Temperature Bonding of Titanium to Ceramic Materials
Abstract:The objective of this project is development of novel ultra strong high-temperature bonding of titanium (Ti) to ceramic materials, through application of advanced nano- and micro scale Micro-Column Array (MCA) structures fabricated by laser ablation. The proposed manufacturing process will be extended from our recent innovations on the enhancement of bond strength using surface modification of adherent surfaces and modification of adhesive by the introduction of reinforcing components. The combination of these unique features will result in a revolutionary improvement of the bonds between titanium and ceramic materials. In addition to these features the bonding process is relatively inexpensive, environmentally safe, and universal. There are several advantages of the MCA-structured surfaces in contributing to the strength and stability of the brazed joints. Our preliminary results on adhesive bonding indicate that the bond strength increased more than 4 times is dependent on the bonding medium and hence can be extended to bonding of dissimilar materials using brazing alloys. Use of brazing alloys is expected to completely wet Ti side. We also plan to improve the wettability of the brazing alloy with ceramic surface by coating intermediate layers.

M CUBED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
921 Main St
Monroe, CT 06468
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 454-8600
Dr. Prashant G. Karandikar
MDA 05-024      Selected for Award
Title:High toughness SiC and B4C
Abstract:Reaction bonded (RB) SiC and B4C offer high specific stiffness (modulus/density) comparable to beryllium (Be) and higher thermal stability (thermal conductivity/CTE) than Be. However, these materials have low fracture toughness (4 MPa m1/2 compared to 8-10 for Be) and hence have not been considered viable Be-replacement materials for the MDA systems such as the EKV, ABL, etc. M Cubed has demonstrated innovative approach to increase the fracture toughness of RB SiC by 50% to 6 MPa m1/2. In this Phase I, M Cubed will use this innovative approach to further increase the toughness of SiC and B4C through microstructural tailoring to make them competitive with beryllium. In addition, a current production component on the exo-atmospheric kill vehicle (EKV) platform will be fabricated as a demonstration component in the Phase I. In the follow-on Phase II program, the manufacturing technology will be further refined and scaled up. Multiple replicas of the EKV component will be fabricated and characterized to fully develop this component.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, LLC
9340 Hazard Way, Suite A3
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Ms. Christine Benzie
MDA 05-024      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Airframe Components for Missile Defense
Abstract:Next generation interceptor missiles are being designed to intercept incoming ballistic missiles during the boost portion of flight while the booster plume enhances target acquisition and tracking. Controlling the maneuverability of the payload during this critical segment of flight is the attitude control system (ACS) located at the aft end of the third stage shroud. The aft bulkhead of the third stage is positioned to not only provide a lateral connection between the third stage rocket motor and the third stage shroud, but also to be the primary platform for the ACS during third stage operation. The aft bulkhead is a critical component in the interceptor system because it provides the required strength and stiffness to the third stage during tactical operations. As demonstrated in previous manufacturing technology programs, a composite aft bulkhead can successfully provide weight reduction and increased performance compared to a metallic design. The Phase I program will focus on the validation of the joints between the aft bulkhead and the third stage shroud. Furthermore, innovative thermal protection materials for the bulkhead will be utilized to limit the aft bulkhead to characterized operating temperatures.

SMARTWEAR, LLC
1802 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite E
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 396-1339
Dr. Michael Pottenger
MDA 05-024      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile System Advanced Materials and Structures
Abstract:The proposed innovation focuses on advanced material structures based on the development of piezoelectric (PZ) polymer materials in textile form. PZ materials are of extreme interest in future Kill Vehicles. The structural responses created by the firing of the Divert Actuation System create stress requirements on the dynamic Line Of Sight Performance of the Sensor. This, in turn, requires that the sensor structure be extremely stiff, often driving the design away from low-cost alternatives. The possibility of using active damping as presented by PZ materials could enable a wide range of design configurations and low cost seeker materials for future Kill Vehicle designs. A second benefit of PZ materials would be utilizing the spun PZ materials in structures where the ability to determine a structural integrity "health check" could be a critical data point to ensure the required levels of Mission Assurance. Phase I will investigate PZ fiber and/or fabric elements in Kill Vehicle structures. Potential MDA applications enabled by the proposed innovation include vibration damping, structural integrity monitoring and energy harvesting.

SYSTIMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Mr. Aaron Freiheit
MDA 05-024      Selected for Award
Title:Low Shock Stage Separation System For The KEI
Abstract:Systima Technologies, Inc. (Systima), in conjunction with San Diego Composites, LLC (SDC), is proposing to develop a comprehensive low shock stage separation system for the KEI. Systima is proposing to evaluate, design and develop low shock stage separation technology, while SDC will evaluate, design and develop lightweight and rigid composite interstage structures. The Systima and SDC team have the capabilities and experience to successfully develop a comprehensive and tightly integrated low shock separation system that will be ready for insertion into the KEI program. Typical (e.g. explosives-based) stage separation systems generate tremendously high shock loads. This shock energy is readily transmitted through the structure of the missile interceptor and into the kill vehicle, where sensitive components can be damaged due to the high shock loads. The development of low shock separation system technologies will permit the incorporation of electronic and optical components with greater sensitivity than is currently possible with existing stage separation systems. In addition, due to its mission requirements, the KEI program is looking to reduce the weight of KEI components and systems. Systima and SDC propose to incorporate composite materials into the design of the interstage structure to lower its weight while maintaining high stiffness.

WILSON COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGIES
1004 River Rock Drive, Suite 240
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 989-4812
Mr. Brian Wilson
MDA 05-024      Selected for Award
Title:Filament Wound Resin Transfer Molded Composite Pressure Vessel
Abstract:Advanced fiberous composites offer potential weight savings compared to metallic materials for application to aerospace vehicle pressure vessels. Current manufacturing processes such as wet resin or preimpregnated tow winding have significant limitations that inhibit material selection and design flexibility and subsequent weight and cost savings. The proposed program will investigate the feasibility of combining two proven low cost processes, filament winding and resin transfer molding (RTM), to fabricate very high quality, low weight composite pressure vessels. Specific improvements obtained by combining these two processes would include enhanced design flexibility by permitting the utilization of specialty woven or braided performs and the use of toughened resin systems. Part quality would also be greatly improved because RTM parts typically have very low void contents and superior fiber/resin distribution homogeneity.

ISAC, INC.
201 East Side Square
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 348-1724
Mr. Patrick Gorman
MDA 05-025      Selected for Award
Title:IPv4 to IPv6 Transition Appliance (IPTA) for Improved Security and Survivability
Abstract:In this SBIR, ISAC, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative IPv4 to IPv6 Transition Appliance (IPTA) that allows IPv4 systems (including legacy systems) to transparently utilize the security features of the IPv6 core network infrastructure (including encryption and authentication). The IPTA will help facilitate the mandated DoD migration to IPv6 by reducing the complexity, cost, and time associated with IPv6 transition. The IPTA will be a plug-and-play appliance requiring no modification to legacy IPv4 systems. It will require minimal, if any, administrator training, setup, configuration, and maintenance. At the same time the IPTA will provide IPv4 systems access to IPv6 features such as Quality of Service (QoS), encryption, and authentication (IPSec). The IPTA will further provide IPv4 systems with increased security by providing an administrator with optional firewall and whitelist/blacklist capabilities. The IPTA will be designed to resist cyber attacks directed against it and the network. In Phase I, ISAC will perform an IPTA placement study and legacy system compatibility and mobility requirements analysis. At the end of Phase I ISAC present a proof-of-principle prototype demonstration.

REIFER CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 4046
Torrance, CA 90510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4493
Mr. Donald J. Reifer
MDA 05-025      Selected for Award
Title:Secure Computing Infrastructure Technologies
Abstract:The proposed SBIR Phase I effort will produce a model to be used to accurately estimate the cost of securing the network infrastructure throughout the weapons system life cycle. The model will use the Work Breakdown Structure as its underlying basis to identify the costs involved. When appropriate, models like COCOMO will be used to predict costs for work packages. The model will be developed using the proven USC seven-step model building process. It will rely on experts to provide the initial calibration. Consensus will be built using Delphi techniques. An Excel prototype of the model will be built during Phase I using calibration data collected for that purpose. This Phase I effort will verify our design concept via a demonstration. Model accuracy will be computed and shown to provide confidence in the model's estimating abilities. Our Phase II effort will demonstrate the concept more fully to potential users who are interested in using the model to estimate the costs of infrastructure security on their systems.

REIFER CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 4046
Torrance, CA 90510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-4493
Mr. Donald J. Reifer
MDA 05-025      Selected for Award
Title:Secure Computing Infrastructure Technologies
Abstract:The proposed SBIR Phase I effort will produce a toolkit that will automatically locate and remove dead code, unwanted behaviors, suspicious or unnecessary code from COTS software executables. The toolkit will be built using COTS packages from an exploiter point-of-view. Using a disassembler, we will identify symbol table, functional flow and call-call tree information. We will mine this information to identify candidate unneeded, unused and dead code. We will then use pattern-matching techniques and templates to locate other suspicious code. Once the information is synthesized, we will use our toolkit to remove unnecessary and potentially malicious code from COTS packages according to user-directed scenarios. This Phase I effort will verify our design concept via a demonstration. Our Phase II effort will demonstrate the concept more fully to potential users who are interested in scaling the concept to systems with large amounts of COTS in them.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Dr. Leigh Davis
MDA 05-025      Selected for Award
Title:The Digital Microscope (DM)
Abstract:To address the critical issue of software defects and vulnerabilities in code, be it C, C++, Java or Visual Basic, Sentar proposes the Digital Microscope (DM). The DM simulates a native running environment in which a binary code can be encapsulated, analyzed, and tested for malefactor influence, as well as poor coding practices. The design of the DM will allow, for example, the testing of code through injection of timing mismatches, embedded codes, and buffer overflow attempts into the binary, all in a quarantined environment. It will also promote plug-and-play extensibility through the use of a multi-agent infrastructure for future enhancements such as security wrapper insertion, proof generation, and attack modeling and simulation. The resulting technology will substantially contribute to software vulnerability discovery and remediation by providing a comprehensive tool for validation of code safety prior to deployment.

GH SYSTEMS, INC.
655 Discovery Drive, Suite 302
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 510-8443
Mr. Mike Tostanoski
MDA 05-026      Selected for Award
Title:Two-Color Radiation Hardened Gamma-Ray Noise Suppressing FPA Design Program
Abstract:Radiation Hardened multi-color infrared (IR) focal planes are required for the US Navy Aegis Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) interceptor system. The key to meeting the system requirements for the SM-3 and other missile interceptor systems is the development of multi-color radiation hardened two-color long wave (LW) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with very high pixel operability. One of the shortfalls in current two-color IR FPA technology is the relative immaturity, in terms of transient gamma-ray/beta flux suppression capability, of the readout integrated circuits (ROICs) used. Several FPA manufacturers have demonstrated transient gamma-ray (or gamma) noise reduction in single color ROICs, but none of these FPA sources have addressed gamma noise suppression in multi-color ROICs. Innovative approaches are required to extend existing single-color mitigation techniques and develop new radiation noise mitigation technologies for two-color FPAs. The objective of this proposed Phase I effort is to design a radiation hardened ROIC which will be used in the development and production of an SM-3 two-color IR FPA. The proposed IR FPA will be hardened to radiation induced transient noise, have a high frame rate, simultaneously readout in two colors, and have an SM-3 compatible mechanical and electrical footprint.

DIGIBEAM
30251 Golden Lantern, Suite E522
Laguna Niguel, CA 92677
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 422-6625
Mr. Michael Zani
MDA 05-027      Selected for Award
Title:Resistless Fabrication and Radiation Characterization for Microelectronics with less than 65 nanometer Features
Abstract:NexGenSemi Holding Corp "DBA" DIGIBEAM will outline a feasibility study to perform medium to high-speed throughput semiconductor manufacturing with Digital Beam Processing (DBP). DBP is a modified resistless, maskless manufacturing technique (compliant to Executive Order 13329) that can be performed within a single cluster tool. Our plan is to introduce a disruptive technology that will allow a paradigm shift in manufacturing of integrated micro and nano electronics. This technology will eliminate the necessity for costly manufacturing facilities and significantly change the metrics in start-up costs for the industry. The founders of DIGIBEAM are the first and only to perform resistless, maskless patterned processing on the entire wafer level. Our complementary experience in the manufacturer of high-end semiconductor equipment makes us uniquely qualified to perform a feasibility study to deliver the technology from exploratory development to commercialization. The result of this Phase I effort will be a feasibility study and test plan for critial subsystems to meet all requirements as outlined in the SBIR topic.

COVEGA, INC.
10335 Guilford Road
Jessup, MD 20794
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 456-7102
Dr. Peter Heim
MDA 05-028      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened SLD and IOC Components for Fiber Optic Gyros
Abstract:The intent of this project is to improve the radiation hardness of the optical light source and the LiNbO3 integrated optical chip (IOC) to meet the fiber optic gyro (FOG) system objectives for scale factor error (long-term): < 10 ppm and bias drift stability: < 0.001 deg/hr under a total dose: > 300 kRads (Si). This will be accomplished by developing superluminescent LED (SLD) broadband sources with ultra-high temperature stability and IOC chips with increased radiation resistance through use of doped waveguides and proprietary buffer layer coatings.

INTERNATIONAL PHOTONICS CONSULTANTS, INC.
30 Tierra Monte NE
Albuquerque,, NM 87122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 797-4799
Mr. Edward W Taylor
MDA 05-028      Selected for Award
Title:Space Radiation Hardened PM Fiber
Abstract:The research and development proposed herein addresses a critical deficiency existing in the space radiation survivability of high precision interferometric fber optic gyros (IFOGs), specifically the non-availability of a small diameter (80 micron), radiation hardened, polarization maintaining, optical fiber suitable for application to meet or exceed the IFOG performance goals of the space tracking and surveillance system (STSS) program. The International Photonics Consultants (IPC) Corporation and the Nufern Corporation, intend to demonstrate a novel approach for rapidly developing an economical 1550 nm, 80 micron diameter, radiation hardened, polarization maintaining (PM), single mode (SM), pure-silica core (PSC) optical fiber for integration and application to next generation precision rate gyros. The PM fiber will be demonstrated to perform in space radiation environments identified for the space tracking and surveillance system (STSS).

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 507-0542
Dr. Dave Mavis
MDA 05-029      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened By Design Structure ASICs for Reliable Digital Components
Abstract:Recent advances in radiation hardening by design (RHBD) techniques for deep sub-micron semiconductor technologies enable fabrication of rad hard microcircuits through commercial foundries. By applying these techniques to an emerging single-mask, via-programmable structured ASIC architecture, we propose to design and develop a family of rad hard base arrays suitable for single configuration reticle, multi-project wafer lots through the 130 nm CMOS technology at the IBM Trusted Foundry facility. Our RHBD layout techniques have demonstrated strategic levels of hardness to total ionizing dose, single event latchup, and prompt dose. Our RHBD circuit techniques have demonstrated strategic levels of hardness to single event upset and single event transient. Our via programmable gate array (VPGA) structured ASIC approach has demonstrated advantages over conventional standard cell based ASIC for reducing non-recurring engineering costs, shortening design cycles, shortening development schedules, and significantly reducing component costs.

SCHAFER CORP.
321 Billerica Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 338-2863
Mr. Jeff Walters
MDA 05-029      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Electronic Components
Abstract:Schafer Corporation shall program the Virtual design into an FPGA and incorporate the Virtual FPGA into a system with a microprocessor, the three duplicated FPGA's, and other components. A very simplified description of the Virtual FPGA is a top level triple voter. The function of the microprocessor is to add versatility and decision making capability processes. The microprocessor would add the functionality of being able to reset the count type, instruction sets, time between clearing the error counters, and system restarts or power on resets of the Virtual FPGA. The microprocessor in the system architecture prompts the Virtual for error count data of the three FPGA's within the system and makes decisions based on the error count data.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Mr. Wesley H. Morris
MDA 05-029      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Electronic Components (Sierra)
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (with Harris and LSI Logic) proposes to demonstrate innovative RH enhancement of an ASIC component, using improved RH manufacturing technologies, capable of reliable operation in the BMDS for its projected mission life. Specifically, we will develop a scaleable Sierra II Cryptographic Processor using 180 nm technology enhanced by SEE and TID mitigation process modules supporting radiation-hardening of components fabricated in commercial silicon foundries. Extensive modeling and simulation will demonstrate performance and radiation hardness in Phase I. Our team's expertise in commercial process integration, device development in leading-edge commercial technology, and radiation-hardening techniques using HBP technology is crucial to successful implementation of the radiation-hardened process modules. Silicon Space's HBI approach, combined with leading-edge silicon foundry manufacturing, creates a practical means to develop digital and analog electronic components capable of reliable operation in BMDS space and interceptor environments. The goal is achieving near-current-commercial product performance capable of surviving SEE and TID. This program will allow rapid transition of the results into systems and subsystems being developed for the BMDS. Leading-edge CMOS foundries producing these products will achieve the previously unattainable goal of deploying the latest electronics while minimizing risk of mission failure due to space radiation.

TELAZTEC LLC
15 A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 229-9904
Douglas Hobbs
MDA 05-030      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation-Hard, High Performance AR Treatment For Star Tracker Optics and Sensors
Abstract:Conventional multi-layer thin film anti-reflection (AR) coatings are complex and exhibit short lifetimes when operating in space due to damage caused by thermal variations and radiation exposure. As a result there is an urgent need for a more durable AR treatment to suppress reflections of visible to near infrared light from the optics and imaging sensors contained in the Star Tracker instruments planned for the STSS program. An innovative type of high performance AR treatment for Star Tracker cameras is proposed that promises superior stray light suppression and increased lifetime in high radiation environments. Based on surface relief microstructures fabricated directly into the sensor window and imaging optic materials, the AR treatment completely eliminates the limitations due to stress, thermal mismatch, adhesion, radiation damage, complexity, narrow-band performance, polarization splitting, and cost associated with conventional multi-layer thin-film AR coatings. The proposed Phase I project will adapt the designs and methods developed in another ongoing MDA SBIR, a program that has demonstrated a radiation-resistant micro-structured AR treatment for HgCdTe infrared FPAs, to demonstrate an improved AR treatment for silicon-based FPAs operating on visible to NIR light. In addition, Star Tracker sensor manufacturers will be engaged and plans will be developed for integrating the improved AR treatment fabrication process into the chip manufacturing process in a Phase II effort.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. George Soli
MDA 05-030      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard, High Precision, Agile Star Tracker
Abstract:In this program, Voxtel will demonstrate SOI-CMOS imagers for high-performance star tracking applications. Fabricating CMOS imagers on SOI wafers, allows the device and detector layers to be separated with an insulating layer, so each can be individually optimized and operated with separate ground returns. High QE and high MTF come from backside illumination and depleting the entire volume of detector through substrate bias and high resistivity silicon. SOI-CMOS circuits offer immunization from radiation and SOI-CMOS reduces parasitic capacitances, which eliminates substrate bounce, and transient coupling problems. SOI's planar structure also makes it easier to passivate surfaces for low dark-current. This advantage, in turn, makes the device more resistant to ionizing radiation. SOI also allows ADCs and other functions to be easily integrated on chip without degrading imaging performance. The resulting imagers have higher operating speeds, lower readout noise, and lower fixed-pattern-noise. In Phase I, we will fabricate, characterize, and radiation test prototype SOI CMOS imagers, and we will demonstrate how high frame rate, variable integration time, dynamic windowing enables tracking during high-rate slewing. In Phase II, we will fabricate a fully-functional 2Kx2K, 12-micron pixel SOI-CMOS star-tracking imagers, and we will perform extensive radiation and reliability testing.

ADVANCED POWDER SOLUTIONS
10010 Cucklebur
Houston, TX 77095
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 373-1729
Mr. Dean Baker
MDA 05-031      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Materials for Radiation Hardening
Abstract:Understanding that saving weight without sacrificing performance on a vehicle is important, the objective of this program is to demonstrate Advanced lightweight materials (1.4-2.2 gm/cm3) materials that can have Radiation Hardened capability. These applications will have specific requirements of high thermal conductivity, low thermal conductivity, radiation resistance, Modulus, tensile strength, ductility, and machinability, to name a few. This Phase I program is designed to achieve this success without sacrificing performance and reducing overall costs for potential MDA components. Specific data for the various compositions of each engineered system will be generated and compared to MDA requirements under the Phase I. Both coupon level and Radiation testing and characterization will occur in Phase I. APS has assembled an expert team in the materials and characterization fields and has been provided overwhelming support to achieve a successful Phase I. The Phase II program will further define replacement parts and additional requirements for these unique materials.

HY-TECH RESEARCH CORP.
104 Centre Ct.
Radford, VA 24141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 639-4019
Dr. Edward J. Yadlowsky
MDA 05-031      Selected for Award
Title:Light Weight Radiation Hardened Enclosures for Electronic Components on board Missiles and Spacecraft
Abstract:Nuclear radiation that penetrates the skin of an exothermic kill vehicle can damage sensitive electronic components on board. Radiation shields to protect these components must absorb the radiation (x-rays, neutrons, or gamma rays), absorb any cascade by-products, such as photoelectrons, and mitigate the effects of stress waves (shocks) generated by the absorption process. HY-Tech is proposing a multi-layer shield consisting of a high Z outer layer to absorb high energy x-rays (100-300 keV) and a porous B4C middle layer, which provides rigidity to the structure and moderates the neutron flux. The porous B4C layer absorbs photoelectrons emitted by the x-ray absorption in the outer layer and acts as an acoustic miss-match to mitigate shock wave propagation to the internal components. The Phase I effort will fabricate B4C samples with a high Z absorbing layer on one side. The transmission of 100-300 keV x-rays through this two-layered shield will be measured on a x-ray simulor. The neutron shielding and shock isolation properties will be calculated using analytical and numerical techniques.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. Colby A. Foss, Jr.
MDA 05-031      Selected for Award
Title:Chemical Vapor Composites Silicon Carbide for Radiation Hard Optics
Abstract:A program to develop chemical vapor composite silicon carbide (CVC SiC) mirrors with reflective coatings capable of maintaining high optical performance after exposure to high flux x-ray radiation is proposed. For the Phase I effort, Trex Enterprises' Advanced Materials Group will work with Raytheon Missile Systems to identify low atomic number (low Z) materials whose properties a) are suitable for high reflectance dielectric stack structures, and b) engender low emissivity such that background infrared radiation is minimized. Once suitable candidate materials are identified, Trex will fabricate during Phase I a limited number of test mirrors composed CVC SiC substrates with low Z dielectric stack coatings. These mirrors will be evaluated for optical performance and dielectric stack structural integrity. The proposed Phase I effort is prologue to a Phase II program which, if selected, would entail the fabrication of additional test mirrors for evaluation at a high intensity x-ray facility. While the primary focus of the proposed work is the development of low Z dielectric stacks for CVC SiC mirrors, the findings should be beneficial to radiation hard mirror technologies based on other forms of silicon carbide, and mirror materials in general.

CRYSTAL RESEARCH, INC.
48501 Warm Springs Blvd., Suite 103
Fremont, CA 94539
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 445-0833
Dr. Suning Tang
MDA 05-032      Selected for Award
Title:A remote active T/R module using electro-optic true-time-delay line for X-band radars
Abstract:X-band Radar (XBR) is the primary fire control sensor, providing surveillance, acquisition, tracking, discrimination, fire control support and kill assessment for NMD systems. Crystal Research, Inc. (CRI) proposes a remote active T/R module using electro-optic true-time-delay line for X-band radars. Unlike any existing approaches, the unique feature of the proposed device is that a large number of different time-delayed signals can be generated simultaneously at a single output end based on innovative electro-optic Bragg gratings in a single-mode optical fiber. Another unique feature of proposed devices is the low signal propagation loss per unit length. This property makes the proposed device idea for remoting the transmitter/receiver (T/R) module in an XBR, which could have an antenna area of 123 square meters. The proposed device is particularly well-suited for remoting active arrays because it allows placement of each T/R module's receiver and exciter in any location of interest, where constrains of the size and weight can be significantly relaxed. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the advantages and feasibility of the proposed concept by designing and fabricating a remote active (T/R) module using electro-optic true-time-delay line for X-band radars.

GOMEZ RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
4801 University Square, Suite 33
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-0154
Mr. Anthony Kikel
MDA 05-032      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Advanced Radar Technologies for Missile Defense
Abstract:The Fractal Noise Filter (FNF) has been demonstrated to filter Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM) waveforms from noise thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Further research is required to fully understand and develop the FNF device. This device is low cost, completely passive and self-contained. Its underlying principles of operation are based on electromagnetic near field interactions. This proposed research will investigate and construct a near field mapping approach that is consistent with fractal antenna near field patterns. Conventional near field measurement techniques are not capable of field mapping fractal antennas. Unconventional near field mapping and measurements will be researched to provide the critical data for a fractal noise filter design methodology. This effort will provide a mechanism for research and understanding of fractal structures and provide insight into how to design and optimize these structures for particular applications. This research is expected to be the basis for a new category of inexpensive, self-contained, compact SNR enhancement technology.

TLC PRECISION WAFER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1411 West River Road North
Minneapolis, MN 55411
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 341-2795
Dr. Timothy T Childs
MDA 05-032      Selected for Award
Title:Reconfigurable RF/Digital/Photonic Mix-Mode T/R MMICs Series (X-Band to W-Band)
Abstract:During Phase I, an X-Band to W-Band reconfigurable mix-mode digital/photonic/RF transceiver MMIC will be delivered that demonstrates >8 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. The high speed digital circuits will demonstrate digital control and DSP capability on-chip with high sensitivity (low phase noise, low nose figure) MMW T/R section and ultra fast switching, 1.5m PIN diode on lattice-engineered, high power InP wafers. This will establish the basis for the low cost, production compatible, high power, multi-channel phase shifter antenna integrated mix-mode transceiver MMIC to be developed and demonstrated in Phase II. This technology will enable plug-and-play multiple waveform generation and processing capabilities for diverse RF applications.

GROUP4 LABS, LLC
1600 Adams Drive, Suite 112
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 887-6682
Dr. Felix Ejeckam
MDA 05-033      Selected for Award
Title:Technologies for Low Power Density Phased Array Radars
Abstract:This Phase-I SBIR Army Proposal proposes the use of a new class of diamond-seeded solid-state material system for the manufacture of virtually all heat-generating solid-state electronics in X-band and Ballistic Missile Defense radar components and systems. In this proposal wherein much preliminary (DARPA-funded) work has already been demonstrated by the authors, all or most of the basic semiconductor devices in an electronic RF unit (e.g. GaN HEMTs, Power Amplifiers, etc.) are replaced with Semiconductor-on-Diamond based devices to enable nearly total and immediate heat extraction from the device's active region. Gallium Nitride-on-Diamond will be implemented here. Polycrystalline free standing CVD diamond - nature's most efficient thermal conductor - enables nearly perfect heat extraction from a "hot" device, owing to the extreme thermal conductivity of diamond (GaAs, Si, and SiC are 35W/m/K, 150W/m/K and 390W/m/K respectively; diamond ranges from 1200-2000 W/m/K depending on quality). In the proposed scheme, the device's active epitaxial layers are removed from their original host substrate and transferred on to a specially treated low-cost CVD diamond substrate using a proprietary low-cost manufacturable scheme. The semiconductor-on-diamond technology proposed here may be applied to Si, GaAs, GaN, SiC, SiGe, etc. at up to 8" in wafer diameter.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Thomas E. Linnenbrink
MDA 05-033      Selected for Award
Title:Wafer-Scale Antenna (WSA) Tile for Low-Power-Density, Phased-Array Radars (9707)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop a WSA tile with which to build very large antennas for GMD, BMDS and SBX radars. A 10-GHz, WSA tile with integrated beam forming offers dramatically lower size, weight, power and cost relative to conventional phased-array antennas. The 127-element, 10-GHz O 10% tile contains all of the transmit, receive, and beam forming functions on a single, 8" (200 mm) silicon wafer. The tile includes distribution (or corporate feed) networks to connect each of the 127 element sites to a single input and single output The WSA tile will enable large radar systems with impressive performance. The rectangular (~ 2:1 aspect ratio), 9 m2 GMD/BMDS antenna uses 365 WSA tiles to produce 11.6 kW at 25% duty cycle and receive signals with more than 107 dB sensitivity. For the 300 m2, circular SBX antenna, 12,147 WSA tiles will produce 385 kW at 25% duty cycle and receive signals with nearly 153-dB sensitivity. All three antennas offer full fields of view > O 70,a. The Phase I effort will focus on developing low-cost, low SWaP circuitry suitable for large, low-power-density radars. Fully functional antenna sites will be demonstrated in Phase II leading to full WSA tile development in Phase III.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
201 Circle Drive North, Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Dr. Nick M. Sbrockey
MDA 05-033      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost Phased Array Radars
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I effort, Structured Materials Industries, Inc., www.structuredmaterials.com (SMI), in collaboration with two primary radar system suppliers, will develop affordable, low-power density phased array radars. Our proposed technical approach will combine two emerging (yet well proven) technologies; a tunable radar reflector array or "reflectarray" design, and tunable impedance devices based on tunable dielectric constant thin films. Together, these innovations will significantly reduce the cost and footprint of phased array radars without sacrificing performance. In Phase I, we will fabricate tunable impedance test structures on low cost substrates, based on barium strontium titanate thin films. We will also demonstrate the manufacturing processes to integrate the materials and device structures into a reflectarray design. In Phase II, we will build and demonstrate actual prototypes of low-cost phased array radar systems. In Phase III, we will commercialize the technology for both military and commercial applications.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport Street, Quonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Dr. William H. Weedon
MDA 05-034      Selected for Award
Title:Wideband Digital Beamforming Processor for Multi-Beam Phased Array
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to develop a digital beamforming (DBF) processor capable of generating multiple simultaneous receive beams with a wide (>500 MHz) instantaneous bandwidth (IBW). This would offer a significant improvement over a similar DBF processor with 15 MHz IBW that Applied Radar, Inc. previously developed for AFRL. The wide bandwidth is necessary for a number of high-resolution SAR and GMTI radar applications of interest to MDA. The wideband digital beamforming offers a great deal of flexibility of the radar system, including multiple receive beams, adaptive null and beam steering, and improved performance through dynamic calibration. The DBF processor will be implemented using the latest FPGA technology, which allows for rapid hardware development, with processing implemented in firmware. A plug-and-play architecture allows different analog front-end modules representing different frequency bands to be utilized with a common DBF processor. When combined with the wideband digital T/R modules employing 2 GSPS A/D technology that Applied Radar is currently developing under separate related efforts, this DBF processor offers a significant advancement in radar capability over existing systems.

CAPESYM, INC.
6 Huron Drive, Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 653-7100
Dr. Shariar Motakef
MDA 05-034      Selected for Award
Title:Low Thermal Resistance High Power RF Devices
Abstract:The goal of this program is to improve the thermal performance of RF power devices, by reducing their internal thermal resistance. This work will benefit both High Voltage GaAs (HV-GaAs) as well as GaN and SiC RF devices.

COLORADO ENGINEERING, INC.
3272 Silver Pine Trail
Colorado Springs, CO 80920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 388-8582
Mr. Lawrence Scally
MDA 05-034      Selected for Award
Title:Radar Advanced Receiver/Excitor (RARE)
Abstract:Colorado Engineering, Inc (CEI) is a woman owned business with a wealth of engineering expertise in the development of ASICs, boards, software and systems for DOD radar sensor systems. In recent years a lot of signal processing applications have been implemented with a homogeneous general purpose processor environment. The driving forces for utilizing these technologies in radar signal processing architectures have been programmability and I/O flexibility. These systems lack the processing speed and latency generated by hardware specific systems that utilize FPGAs and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). These technologies execute signal processing functions on data in pipelined fashion analogous to an analog receiver. This yields the lowest latency system, which is a critical requirement in real-time radars. In most cases, this is by far is the best implementation for performance, cost, power and size. While historic FPGAs systems have programmability, they haven't had flexible I/O. The Radar Advanced Receiver/ Exciter architecture designed in this proposal satisfies the need for programmability, I/O configuration, power, and size, while maintaining the highest performance and the lowest latency.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5228
Dr. Alexander Davydov
MDA 05-034      Selected for Award
Title:High-Frequency MIMO Tracking Radar Transceiver for Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:We propose a high-frequency (HF) band multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) radar with distributed transmitter and receivers. The system will support both Line-of-Sight (LOS) and Over-the-Horizon (OTH) modes. The core of the transceiver is a simple correlation receiver which processes multiple waveforms and generates unified target reports. The transceiver will be implemented on a compact software-defined radio platform developed based on existing HF radar digital transceiver products. The transmitter/receivers communicate and synchronize with each other through GPS and ultra-wideband impulse transceivers.

OPTEOS, INC.
1340 Eisenhower place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-6600
Dr. Kyoung Yang
MDA 05-034      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Radar System Concepts and Architectures
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project is the development of a fiber-coupled diagnostic system for the comprehensive Tx/Rx-mode calibration and performance-monitoring of large-scale phased antenna arrays. In the proposed calibration system, innovative electro-optic (EO) field sensors will monitor near-field amplitude and phase emanating from the array under observation during Tx-mode calibration, while compact, optically-activated RF emitters will provide reference incident fields to the array for the receive-mode calibration. Both EO sensor and RF emitter will be completely fiber-coupled and do not require any electrical connection. The pure optical signal from the EO sensors/RF emitters will be immune from electromagnetic interference, and the EO sensors/RF emitters can be very flexibly arranged and safely positioned within close proximity to the aperture of the antenna elements. The exceptional flexibility of the optical fiber, onto whose ends the very small EO sensors/RF emitters are attached, makes the proposed calibration approach a viable solution for the characterization of collapsible/deployable arrays, as well as other conventional arrays. The fiber-coupled array calibration system will open a new paradigm of array operation and maintenance, from accurate on-site calibration and real-time detection of malfunctioning cells, to the evaluation of the overall array operating condition.

AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92078
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 752-4359
Dr. Alan Grieve
MDA 05-035      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Active Array Radar Sensor
Abstract:Aguila Technologies, together with Sensis Corporation, proposes innovative and practical solutions for the assembly and thermal management of active phased array Transmit/Receive modules employing high power density wide bandgap electronic devices. Our approach involves mounting the wide bandgap die using advanced thermal bonding materials onto thermally-enhanced metal matrix composite packages to thereby efficiently extract heat from the devices, spread the heat by a combination of unique materials, and dissipate the heat to the system's cooling media via novel structures. Our approach builds upon already demonstrated materials, structures, and processes to provide packaging designs which are manufacturable and cost effective. The applications extend far beyond wide bandgap RF and power conversion electronics, to optoelectronics, high power processors, etc. It is fully compatible with system level design and implementation issues. In summary, our offering is an enabler for inserting new electronic device technologies into next-generation DoD and commercial systems.

CAPESYM, INC.
6 Huron Drive, Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 653-7100
Dr. Shariar Motakef
MDA 05-035      Selected for Award
Title:High Purity SiC Crystals by the HTCVD Process
Abstract:This program focuses on growth of uncompensated semi-insulating SiC crystals by using high purity precursor gases in a novel High Temperature CVD reactor. The crystal growth process is tailored to minimize release of impurities into the growth chamber and incorporation of these impurities into the growing crystal.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
MDA 05-035      Selected for Award
Title:High Electrical Efficiency GaN FETs for Innovative Radar/RF Sensors
Abstract:Improving efficiency and reliability of GaN-based FETs is paramount in enabling system insertion, both of which are limited by thermal effects and self heating in the devices. One factor limiting high voltage and high efficiency operation of GaN HEMTs is leakage current between the gate and drain at high drain bias. Pure screw dislocations arising from the lattice mismatch at the SiC substrate and thread through the GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers have been identified as a path for reverse-bias leakage currents in GaN. The availability of a low dislocation density GaN substrate would address these issues by reducing the dislocation density to 105 cm-2 or lower. The proposed Phase I SBIR effort will work to identify key factors in improving the efficiency, of GaN-based FET devices for application in radar systems. This program will investigate the impact of defects in and thermal conductivity of device structures on SiC and bulk GaN substrates. Thermal models of GaN-based FETs on GaN substrates with comparisons to SiC substrate-based devices will be used along with thermal imaging measurements of FET structures to identify critical factors in improving the efficiency and reliability of GaN-based FETs for radar and RF sensors.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, LLC (DBA MMCC, LLC)
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
MDA 05-035      Selected for Award
Title:Advance Thermal Management of Large Multiband Phased Arrays
Abstract:The main issue preventing widespread use of x-band antennae systems throughout various military platforms is cost. Cheaper assembly processes, such as automated pick and place, are needed to produce antennas using wideband gap semiconductor materials such as GaN and SiC. Higher power and frequency pose challenges to the thermal design of the array. Advanced heat sinks are needed which are lightweight, CTE matched to GaN/SiC, highly thermally conductive, available in large sizes (22" x 22" x 1") in production quantities, and producible at low cost. Currently, the heat sink material with these collective attributes is aluminum graphite composites. Al/Gr heat sinks could be a technology enabler when it comes to manufacturability and producibility for future phased arrays. Though Al/Gr has merit for this application, several technical issues must be addressed to determine final applicability for use in large multi band phased arrays: corrosion resistance, soldering adaptability, and mechanical strength. Raytheon is currently developing large multi band phased arrays with emphasis on Al/Gr composite base plates. The basis of this program is to help MMCC develop Al/Gr technology to support Raytheon's multi band phased array. The emphasis of Phase I will entail corrosion prevention, structural suitability, and solder joint integrity.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Dr. Kevin Le
MDA 05-036      Selected for Award
Title:Reliable, Lightweight, Low Cost, and Volume Efficient Electrical Circuitry Development that Facilitates Integration and Checkout for the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS)
Abstract:To facilitate faster assembly and improve the reliability of STSS satellites, Williams-Pyro, Inc. (WPI) proposes to develop a Multifunctional Flex cable, "MultiFlex." MultiFlex reconfigures cabling to improve the way cables are used in aerospace systems. MultiFlex consists of integrated micro-interconnects shielded by simple, low-cost, multi-layer EMI shielding for high data rate (e.g., USB 2.0). MultiFlex will be integrated with VLSI electronics to allow low-bandwidth communications on existing power distribution networks, which reduces satellite cabling and minimizes satellite volume and mass. More importantly, MultiFlex will have a built-in test feature with health indicators (LEDs), which significantly reduces touch labor and time for cable check out during satellite integration. MultiFlex offers the following distinct advantages over existing cabling configurations: (1) Highly integrated, flexible, low volume and mass; (2) Low cost, reliable, easy to fabricate and install; (3) Built-in test capability with health indicators; and (4) Integrated power line communication (PLC) technology.

BSEI
1453 Beulah Road
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 759-4518
Dr. Terence W. Barrett
MDA 05-037      Selected for Award
Title:Broad Multi-Frequency Discrimination
Abstract:The ojective of this proposal is to develop a multi-frequency and multi-band RF sensor based on the MAP concept and capable of improving the performance affordability for discrimination of ballistic missile threats in complex countermeasure environments. The MAP radar/sensor enhances the detection, identification and location of targets using a priori knowledge of those targets, specifically the target's impulse response, h. The MAP transmitted pulse is the time reversal of the impulse response, h*, or complex conjugate of h, which convolves with the target. MAP differs radically from UWB and Chirp radars in that (1) an arbitrary carrier is used; (2) the TX signal envelope is modulated and bandlimited to the target's frequency response; (3) the duration of the TX signal can be as long as required. A major capability of MAP is the selective enhancement of designated target resonances, or minor resonances, in the presence of both clutter and jamming. At short range, MAP provies up to 24 dB S/N target echo enhancement. The exceeds the performance of chirp (FM) and UWB systems. The present proposal is specifically to design and simulate a MAP RF sensor establishing the effectiveness of target identification in the presence of countermeasures and clutter.

POLARIS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
200 Westside Square, Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-0087
Dr. Art Lompado
MDA 05-037      Selected for Award
Title:Broad Multi-Frequency Discrimination
Abstract:Intuition and some limited data sets suggest that polarization has strong potential to provide additional information in difficult detection scenarios in a variety of hypervelocity interceptor applications. The targeting of a boost phase missile requires a sensor that can both acquire the target and perform plume / hardbody discrimination. For midcourse scenarios, debris and decoy clouds, low thermal contrast, and target orientation determination ought to be measured by an active or passive imaging polarimeter. In re-entry phase, an imaging polarization sensor should provide aimpoint selection and orientation determination in the presence of a wake. Limited data exists to support these statements, however, and an instrument is needed for confirmation. Prior to instrumentation development, modeling needs to be done optimize instrumentation development and assess the feasibility for imaging polarimetry to impact missile defense applications. Polaris Sensor Technologies will perform an exploratory assessment of imaging polarimetry including modeling of the polarization signatures in BMD scenarios and establish constraints on instruments for further phenomenology studies as well as THAAD specific implementations.

CAPRARO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
311 Turner Street Suite 410
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 733-0854
Dr. Gerard T. Capraro
MDA 05-038      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Radar Data Fusion
Abstract:Accurately acquiring, tracking, discriminating and engaging a missile/warhead amongst closely spaced decoys immersed in clutter is a challenge for one or more radar systems. The objective of this proposal is to optimally design multi-sensor data collection, processing and fusion strategies when multiple radars and/or other sensors are employed to form a single integrated picture of the battlespace. Although the ambiguity function has long been recognized as an invaluable tool for assessing the performance of monostatic radars, it is only recently that extension of the ambiguity function concept to multistatic radars has been considered. The first extension was made to bistatic radars where it was shown that geometry can play a crucial role in the shape of the bistatic ambiguity function when plotted as a function of target range and velocity. More recently, extensions have been proposed for the general case of M receivers and N transmitters. It is proposed herein to fuse multiple receivers by employing the multistatic ambiguity function which enables evaluation of such important performance metrics as detection and false alarm probabilities, target resolution capabilities, target parameter estimation accuracies and clutter rejection.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Dr. Paul D. Mountcastle
MDA 05-038      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Radar Data Fusion
Abstract:TSC will demonstrate multi-sensor three-dimensional Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging using both coherent and non-coherent wideband radar networks. TSC will extend its innovative algorithm called Space-Time Radar Imaging that images scatterers attached to a rigid body by modeling rotations with Euler's equations of motion and produces a precise estimate of the complete target motion state. TSC's technique for 3D radar imaging can potentially benefit from multisensor operation by exploiting the greater angular diversity afforded by geographically separated radars, to form an enhanced synthetic aperture as compared to a single radar. This greater angular diversity can produce three-dimensional images and unambiguously determine target motion over the widest possible set of missile engagement conditions. The extension of TSC's algorithm to multiple sensors also affords a significant opportunity for improved discrimination by combining signatures from diverse look geometries and bands. TSC will demonstrate 3D radar imaging for a coherent distributed network of next-generation forward-based X-band radars and a non-coherent network of sea-based radars with sufficient communication bandwidth to exchange the target motion state. TSC will also demonstrate super-resolution 3D radar imaging by fusing data from two radars operating at different frequency bands to create a synthetic ultra-wideband radar, via sparse band processing.

DNOVUS RDI
168 Peachtree Circle NE
Atlanta, GA 30309
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 733-0469
Dr. Thomas Bevan
MDA 05-039      Selected for Award
Title:Influence of Discrimination Capability on Sensor Task Planning
Abstract:The US Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is presented with many challenges in integration of diverse set of sensors previously developed by US agencies as well as new sensors into an effective, layered sensor network for missile defense. The Quality Equation Sensor and Element Tasking System (QUESETS) concept will help the MDA deal with the challenge of tasking this sensor network. QUESETS is derived from mature methodologies that has been used to task US military intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) sensors. QUESETS involves construction of a discrimination information scale (object recognition scale), development of quality equations for each sensor and sensor mode (e.g. narrow and wideband). These quality equations will predict information discrimination capability for each sensor and provide look-ahead estimates that predict discrimination performance to support the human operator in optimizing the tasking of BMD sensors. A QUESETS quality equation relates sensor discrimination capability on an information discrimination scale to engineering collection (e.g. geometry) and quality parameters (e.g. resolution, impulse response, signal-to-noise, signal-to-background). This approach requires much less computation than high fidelity simulation and optimization and can meet the timelines for BMD planning and engagement operations. The QUESETS approach has ready commercial applications for assessing digital information transmission losses.

MAGNACOM, INC.
615 Discovery Drive, Suite B
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 895-2901
Mr. Timothy Carbonneau
MDA 05-039      Selected for Award
Title:Discrimination Planning Technique Development, Assessment, and Proof Of Principle Demonstration
Abstract:The purpose of this task is to demonstrate proof of principle software capable of selecting a sensor from a suite of sensor realizations that is best suited to provide critical discrimination information for a single pre-defined threat engagement. A sensor realization may be a specific sensor site for operational area planning or a specific sensor type for C2BMC inline discrimination sensor selection. Threat signature information, threat trajectory information, and discrimination timeline data are all inputs to the optimization process. The offline and inline planning software samples the signature data as presented to each sensor and sensor site by the threat object and collects both medium band and/or wideband feature measurements. A separation analysis will then performed on the computed (and stored) feature measurements to estimate what sensors or sensor sites provide promising discrimination performance for the proposed discrimination timeline. The available sensors or sensor sites will then be ranked according to their efficacy for discrimination support using several specifically defined measures of effectiveness (MOEs) that operate on the feature separation analysis results. The suitability of the MOEs will also be addressed relative to execution speed and their ability to predict actual classifier behavior.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 05-040      Selected for Award
Title:Discrimination Damage Assessment
Abstract:MARK Resources proposes to develop radar signal processing algorithms that provide capabilities for reliably assessing damage to targets in debris clouds and for determining its consequences on downrange discrimination. The damage assessment algorithms will employ a new radar resolution theory to find a damaged target in a debris cloud and extract its motion and detailed physical description (size and shape), including the nature of the damage (e.g., a torn-off segment, with the size and characteristics of the resultant cavity). The algorithms will apply both to an uprange radar assessing the result of an engagement and to a downrange radar identifying still viable targets. Algorithms will also be developed that, based on the detailed measurements of uprange damage, will determine any corruption of discriminants utilized downrange. Dependence of algorithm performance on radar bandwidth, wavelength, and PRF will be characterized. Lockheed Martin has joined us in this project, to help transition the damage assessment capability into the BMDS.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Peter Nebolsine
MDA 05-040      Selected for Award
Title:Algorithms for Discriminator Damage Assessment
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and its subcontractor Corvid Technologies propose an innovative physics based approach to define and develop radar and EO/IR algorithms to assess damage to targets in post-intercept debris clouds and extract targets following non-lethal intercepts. Approaches to optimize data collection for integrated utilization of radars and optical sensors for missile defense are provided. The basis of the approach is to integrate predictive physics based modeling of RF & EO signature predictions to drive adaptive RF and EO sensor tasking, data collection and signature analyses. Thus, PSI will define and develop integrated approaches for adaptive tasking of RF and EO sensors. Emphasis will be placed on tasking RF and EO sensors for cases that optimize signal strength and post-impact scenarios with resulting debris that potentially generate tens of additional tracks and also significant amounts of untracked debris that alter the background levels of RF and EO sensors. Corvid Technologies will perform up to six high fidelity hydrocode damage/debris calculations. These calculations and analyzed data from Aegis BMD flight missions will be used to extract re-engageable targets. A learning machine approach will be explored to perform the automated adaptive tasking in Phase II.

SCITEC, INC.
100 Wall Street
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 921-3892
Mr. James Lisowski
MDA 05-040      Selected for Award
Title:Discrimination Damage Assessment
Abstract:As the BMDS evolves over the next decade, the community will be exposed to a substantially greater amount of data from successful intercepts in all phases of the tiered defense, including boost, mid-course and terminal. In order to perform the necessary battle management, command and control functions a net of sensors using both active RF sensors supporting the fire control, guidance and navigation functions, and some combination of airborne, space-based, or interceptor based EO/IR systems will be required. SciTec seeks to develop and demonstrate automated processing algorithms to exploit data from EO/IR systems to provide robust features and a scheme for fusion with RF to provide hit detection and kill assessment within the C2BMC system. Our approach to incorporating physics based features into a statistically meaningful scoring of the observation data enables algorithm developments in the presence of a currently sparse but expanding database. Use of our demonstrated "frequentist" approach to algorithm development, with roots in automated target recognition that degrades gracefully in the presence of missing or degraded sensor data, will allow for a natural integration of future sensor systems, including multiple EO/IR signatures, RF data, and engagement information.

AERO OPTICS, INC.
655 Deep Valley Drive, Suite 335
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 541-1933
Dr. Blaine E. Pearce
MDA 05-041      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Feature Extraction Algorithm (AFEA)
Abstract:Defense against modern ballistic missiles requires discrimination between lethal and nonlethal objects within a large number of nearly identical threats. This MDA SBIR Topic "Advanced Feature Extraction Algorithm" (AFEA) has the objective of developing and demonstrating an algorithm that can contribute to this important function. It relies on matching multi-parameter simulations of the threat objects with measurements to infer the threat object geometry, motion, and thermal parameters. It relies on time resolved observations from passive and laser radar sensors. Phase I relies on a prior Aero Optics Phase I SBIR "Ladar Algorithms for Lethal Objects" (LALO) in which an inversion algorithm to extract object parameters was demonstrated. This earlier concept is augmented to account for multiple sensor platforms, improved convergence, shortened observation times and sensor noise. The algorithm is to be implemented in GPU software and hardware to speed computation and demonstrate applications to on-board, real-time processing. Phase I is a demonstration of the AFEA algorithm. Phase II will include further demonstrations, resolution of technical difficulties, and testing of the algorithm performance against large numbers and wide varieties of objects and engagements and selected flight test measurements.

EUTECUS, INC.
1936 University Avenue Suite 360
Berkeley, CA 94704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 540-9603
Dr. Csaba Rekeczky
MDA 05-041      Selected for Award
Title:MULTI-MODAL SPACE-TIME SIGNATURE ANALYSIS AND TRACKING SYSTEM
Abstract:We propose to develop novel space-time signature extraction algorithms and an associated reconfigurable multi-modal computational platform. In Phase I we will integrate a high-performance standalone vision system (Bi-i, EUTECUS) and a multi-spectral fusion system (Fu-P, IMAGIZE) built from state-of-the-art commercial and military components. This system will have a multi-spectral multi-target tracking and discrimination (MS-MTTD) capability handling multiple sensory inputs. Since the first Bi-i and Fu-P prototypes are already available there is a chance for rapid MS-MTTD prototyping by directly interfacing the two systems and synchronizing the associated software layers and algorithmic modules. It is expected that this prototype MS-MTTD system will enable enhanced warhead/decoy tracking and discrimination under difficult imaging conditions. The system will be able to perform low latency real-time analysis of large number of simultaneous potential targets based on static as well as kinematic and multi-spectral chromatic and thermal properties. This system will serve as the basis for subsequent Phase II development of a compact, ultra high-speed MS-MTTD platform which will enable the integration into various kill vehicles.

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Mr. David Mansur
MDA 05-042      Selected for Award
Title:High-Resolution, Laser-Heated High-Temperature Target Simulator
Abstract:We describe a versatile 512 x 512 pixel high-temperature target simulator based on the use of radiation from laser diodes to heat small (~100 micron) graphite chip target elements. By using laser diodes in this manner we can avoid the need to make electrical contact with the target chips, thereby minimizing thermal conduction paths from each chip; by enclosing the target chips in a small vacuum enclosure (~5 cm in diameter) we eliminate convective heat losses and minimize the possibility of oxidization of the target chips. We further propose the use of optical fibers to link the laser diodes to the target chips; in this way we can separate the laser diode arrays from the high-temperature target array, greatly simplifying operation of the target simulator in a 20K environment. Initial modeling suggests that at high temperatures the target elements can achieve thermal time constants on the order of 1 msec. Radiation by the target chips should very closely approximate blackbody radiation for wavelengths in the visible out to beyond 12 microns.

RESONANT MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
610 16th Street, Suite 511
Oakland, CA 94612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 634-2741
Dr. Shui-Lin Chao
MDA 05-042      Selected for Award
Title:Micromirror Arrays for Scene Generation
Abstract:Our team is proposing an analog micromirror array for projector applications. Fabrication of the array does not follow the traditional monolithic integration paradigm. Instead, the process is separated into simplified modules. By streamlining the fabrication of the critical components, each part can be optimized without process interactions. As a result, state-of-the-art performance can be demonstrated with a simple tool set and minimal investment.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Jon Geske
MDA 05-043      Selected for Award
Title:Projector of True Spectrum Dynamic IR Scenes (PTS-DIRS)
Abstract:Aerius Photonics has partnered with Raytheon Missile Systems to jointly develop a true-spectral (or hyper-spectral) projector system concept that will achieve, for the first time, the ability to project both apparent temperature and apparent emissivity over a broad temperature range and for a large format projector. The projector will project complex and dynamic targets with pixel level control of the object apparent temperature and emissivity. The projector will simultaneously be able to project the true-spectrum of high apparent temperature targets such as rocket plumes and other complex hyper-spectral target and hot-gas emission phenomena. Such a projector is based on a new approach and concept in advanced scene projector technology enabled by new advancements in steerable Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technologies. In its ultimate format, the scalable technology will be able to achieve 512x512 and 1024x1024 projection formats with <1ms pixel response times, 3000K+ apparent temperature projection, and true-spectral and emissivity control for the development and test of sophisticated multi-band and hyper-spectral sensors.

PROPULSION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
848 Town Center Drive
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(267) 276-0181
Ms. Margaret W. Taylor
MDA 05-044      Selected for Award
Title:Plume Simulation Using Advanced Image Processing Techniques
Abstract:Missile exhaust plume radiant emission is a key observable for any missile defense system using optical sensors. Plume-to-hardbody handover and aimpoint selection algorithms are significantly influenced by the temporal and spatial variations of the highly visible exhaust plume signature. Current flowfield and signature tools cannot properly capture many signature trends observed by missile defense sensors. The objective of this effort is to develop data driven techniques to simulate plume observables more accurately, with emphasis on "real world" plume effects. This program seeks to develop innovative image processing tools, which couple together models and measurements using neural networks. The modeling of real world phenomena will be done using advanced CFD codes. Model corrections, obtained from comparisons with data will be applied via the application of image morphing techniques. In Phase I we will demonstrate that limited CFD calculations of highly complex real world plume phenomena can be leveraged via data corrections to other conditions. The tools and procedures developed under Phase I will be applied more generally to systems and phenomena of high priority to MDA.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Lawrence Bernstein
MDA 05-044      Selected for Award
Title:A Novel Method for Fast Rendering of Missile Plume Imagery
Abstract:Missile exhaust plume emission is the key observable for many of our missile defense sensor systems. High-fidelity plume signature models play a key role in the analysis and simulation of threat missile systems but they are too slow for applications requiring near real-time plume image generation. In order to address this and other limitations, Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes a novel data-driven algorithm suite for fast and accurate rendering of real-world plume imagery. The approach, dubbed FRAMES (Fast Rendering Algorithm for Missile Emission Scenes), involves tying model calculations spanning the scenario space of interest to more sparsely sampled field data (i.e., fewer trajectory points, spectral bands, viewing aspects, pixel size,.) and enables fast frame rate plume imagery (~100Hz) to be generated on a single PC over a very broad range of missile and sensor operational conditions. In Phase I, FRAMES will be demonstrated for a representative missile system in the enhancement region ( altitudes above 100 km). In Phase II, the approach will be extended to include more complex real-world effects and several missile systems of interest will be considered.

AERO OPTICS, INC.
655 Deep Valley Drive, Suite 335
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 541-1933
Dr. G. Newton Freeman
MDA 05-045      Selected for Award
Title:Plume Rarefied Interference/Signature Model (PRISM)
Abstract:Low-thrust rocket engines (bus, vernier, divert, attitude control) operating at high altitudes can generate extended plume signatures with potential impact on forward-based missile-defense interceptor-seeker system performance. The signatures can include phenomena and features not exhibited for higher thrusts at lower altitudes. Advanced models and codes are required to account for all relevant chemical/physical phenomena from propellant combustion through engine performance to plume signature. To that end, relevant phenomena are identified and grouped by category (engine/core flow chemistry, plume/atmosphere molecular interaction, core/interaction spectral radiation) and evaluated against existing models and codes. Applicable tools and current deficiencies are identified and described. Methods are outlined to fill all apparent gaps and remedy all known deficiencies as the basis for a complete physical model incorporated in seamless simulation software supported by documented validation demonstrations.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. David B. Oakes
MDA 05-045      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Plume Signature Methodology for Low Thrust Propulsion Systems
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a unique experimental facility and methodology for developing accurate, validated plume codes for low thrust propulsion systems operating at high altitudes. The facility will include small-scale thrusters and a hypervelocity oxygen atom source (6 to 12 km/s) for simulating the plume conditions observed at high altitude. With this capability we will be able to systematically measure the contribution of reactions of each of the plume constituents of a specified thruster system to the plume radiance. The data from these measurements will be included in a state of the art Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DMSC) code to develop a plume signature code for the thruster system. Plume signature predictions will then be compared to measurements obtained from the simulation facility to validate the code. In Phase I we will demonstrate our approach to developing a validated code by measuring the velocity dependent cross section for the reaction of hyperthermal oxygen atoms with one component of a thruster exhaust. The data will be input to the plume code, SOCRATES, and the plume radiance from the candidate reaction will be calculated under several observation scenarios.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Matthew Braunstein
MDA 05-045      Selected for Award
Title:Applying Novel Computational Chemistry Methods to Plume Signature Modeling of Low Thrust Propulsion Systems
Abstract:Understanding and modeling low thrust systems requires a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics and chemistry, which is not well known. Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) proposes to develop and apply novel computational chemistry methods to quantify the key chemical processes giving rise to the plume signatures of low thrust systems. These processes will be integrated into the current suite of state-of-the-art propulsion system/plume modeling codes, including the Air Force Research Laboratory radiation and flow code, SOCRATES-P co-developed at SSI, enabling accurate end-to-end (combustion chamber to far field plume) simulation of low thrust plume signatures. In Phase I, we will develop and demonstrate two innovative techniques that will form the core of a new computational chemistry toolkit called DIVERT (Direct-dynamics Information for Very Energetic Reaction Trajectories) targeting low thrust chemistry. We will demonstrate the proof-of-concept through application of the method to key chemical mechanisms, integrate the results into SOCRATES-P, and validate them against field and laboratory data. In Phase II, experiments will be performed characterizing engine exhaust, the new modeling methods will be applied to all critical chemical reactions, and a wide-range of validation studies will be performed.

AERO OPTICS, INC.
655 Deep Valley Drive, Suite 335
Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 541-1933
Dr. G. Newton Freeman
MDA 05-046      Selected for Award
Title:Simulated Transient Evolutionary Plume Signature (STEPS)
Abstract:Nonsteady plume signatures can result from transient engine operating conditions (e.g., start-up, shut-down) or evolutionary vehicle flight conditions (acceleration, ascent). Current standard codes assume constant engine/flight conditions as for a steady engine burn in a ground static test. An advanced simulation capability is proposed to provide time-continuous multi-scale nonsteady plume signatures for transient/evolutionary engine/flight conditions throughout and beyond the boost phase. The simulation incorporates rigorous first-principles physical models and efficient stable numerical methods adopted from an existing steady-state simulation tool. The proposed innovative extension to nonsteady conditions is designed to provide reliable robust fully-automated on-line computations to support real-time dynamic engagement simulations.

SCITEC, INC.
100 Wall Street
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 921-3892
Mr. James Lisowski
MDA 05-046      Selected for Award
Title:Missile Plume Signature Evolution
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to develop and deliver a real-time physics-based simulation capability for predicting threat plume signatures from launch to burnout. SciTec's approach is to address the dominant phenomenology in each altitude regime (e.g. data derived mixing of free stream air to enable complete combustion in the fully afterburning regime) and develop fast plume signature models. In Phase I of the effort, SciTec documents the current implementation of in-house plume signature models and identifies shortfalls, particularly in the areas of multi-phase and multi-nozzle flow. Concepts would be developed and prototyped for evolving the plume models to more accurately predict the intensity behavior in the most important regimes next, based on assessment of MDA requirements. Limited software development would occur in Phase I to design a unified functional flow between the low-altitude and high-altitude plume codes to permit launch-to-burnout simulations. In Phase II, SciTec would pursue strategies for improving the models based on the identified approaches by leveraging existing and emerging data on well-truthed and threat ballistic missiles. In Phase III, SciTec would incorporate these tools into future modeling and simulation architectures, such as BEST or end-to-end simulation tools at AFRL/MN or MSIC.

STELLAR SCIENCE LTD.CO
401 Serenity Ct SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 296-7703
Dr. Irene A. Budianto
MDA 05-047      Selected for Award
Title:Object Recreation from Facet Representation to IGES and Primitive Representations
Abstract:Computer-aided design (CAD) modelers and signature simulation experts often must use multiple formats and types of geometric models representing the same object in order to support different applications. In the signature analysis domain, radar simulation generally requires faceted models, whereas accurate optical signature simulation requires smooth primitive-based models. Often the two models must be manually regenerated using different formats and tools, introducing possible manual errors or inconsistent results, because there is no way to convert automatically from faceted to primitive-based models. Stellar Science proposes to develop novel algorithms and software to autonomously convert from faceted models to primitive-based shape representations. For Phase I, we propose a method based on generating a multi-facet co-surface constraint matrix to test whether any collection of three or more facets can lie on the same quadratic surface. This quickly computed linear constraint enables the use of a straightforward hypothesize-and-test approach for grouping candidate facets into quadratic surfaces. Further processing groups planar surfaces into end-caps and boxes, computes the finite bounds and truncation planes of surfaces such as cylinders and cones, and generates IGES files containing the computed geometric primitives. Subcontractor SAIC will perform validation, ensure compliance with MDA models, and enable future BEST software integration.

IST-ROLLA
11560 Forest Lakes Drive
Rolla, MO 65401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 429-6931
Mr. Michael Dancer
MDA 05-048      Selected for Award
Title:IGC and Estimation With Theta-D and Higher Order Sliding Mode Techniques
Abstract:A recently developed nonlinear controller called theta-D and the Higher Order Sliding Mode (HOSM) control are the centerpiece around which an Integrated Guidance and Control (IGC) scheme and a nonlinear filter technique are built to enhance the lethality of hit-to-kill interceptors and offer a means to increase the maneuver ratio advantage. This proposal includes the development of a 6DOF based IGC scheme that combines the guidance and control objectives into a single framework. Nonlinear filters utilizing theta-D and HOSM are proposed in order to improve the accuracy of the target maneuver estimates. Furthermore, a novel filter based on cost function formulation and a guidance law designed to enhance system observability are to be incorporated into the IGC architecture, and various spiraling and weaving target scenarios will be used to evaluate the proposed algorithms. The outcome of this research is expected to produce sound IGC designs, based on two theoretically rigorous techniques, that substantially decrease miss distance in hit-to-kill interceptors.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
631 Discovery Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 922-0802
Mr. Derek Strembicke
MDA 05-049      Selected for Award
Title:Real-time Ladar Scene Rendering and Projection Component Technologies
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR proposal is to show the feasibility of integrating the key optical and electronic components of a multichannel laser modulator into a single multichip module (MCM). The module concept developed under this effort will consist of at least eight parallel channels capable of independently producing an analog amplitude modulated optical waveform. Integration will include data interface, high resolution timing control, waveform memory/buffer, digital-to-analog (DAC) converters, bias controllers, optical modulators, optical source input, and parallel optical output interface. This module will form the baseline for a both a massively parallel optical projector capable of stimulating flash-based LADAR sensors and a pluggable analog optical modulator for commercial communication applications.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-3628
Mr. Tom Florence
MDA 05-049      Selected for Award
Title:Real-time Ladar Scene Rendering and Projection Component Technologies
Abstract:Real-time generation of waveforms to support Laser Radar Scene Generation require the implementation of high bandwidth, low-latency computational capabilities. Life cycle cost constraints dictate the use of commercial components and systems to achieve this objective. Parallel graphics engines based on commercial graphics processor units and flexible post processor stages can meet the performance requirements while avoiding the cost of custom architectures using novel computational approaches

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 644-3400
Dr. Eric C. Butts
MDA 05-050      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-sensor tracking techniques
Abstract:We propose to develop algorithms and software to fuse data from multiple sensor systems that are tracking ballistic missile threat(s) in order to provide a tactical picture of higher quality than that capable from any single sensor. We will build upon our previously developed Data Fusion Correlation Algorithm (DFCA). The DFCA is a multi-source track-to-track, multi-hypothesis data fusion system developed for missile defense applications. It uses computationally robust, efficient, and theoretically rigorous algorithms and accepts a wide variety of kinematic sensor input forms including raw contact data (statistically independent) as well as reports of track state (correlated in time). All are treated within a consistent Bayesian framework. Also, the DFCA contains algorithms to estimate covariance data from knowledge of sensor characteristics, tracking geometry, and data when absent. The primary focus of this effort is to develop algorithms to estimate spatial and temporal sensor biases, to mitigate the impact of these biases upon the data fusion picture, and to quantify the improvement upon the fused tactical picture.

DELTA EPSILON TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1571 Sunstone Drive
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 314-8015
Mr. Michael C. Kleder
MDA 05-050      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-sensor tracking techniques
Abstract:An innovative, robust, real-time algorithm for multi-sensor tracking is proposed that mitigates sensor residual bias, mitigates inaccurate sensor track reporting, mitigates new or unobserved target capabilities, and improves correlation performance across all threat classes and environments. The innovation is founded in well-established trajectory physics and represents a disruptive improvement in the state-of-the-art of tracking technology.

RDAS, INC.
11003 E.Bradford Circle
Cerritos, CA 90703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 379-4802
Mr. Augustus Hammond Green, jr.
MDA 05-050      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-sensor tracking techniques
Abstract:The proposed effort represents an extensive expansion of a predictive tracking technique that accurately tracks and predicts target movement for ground mobile targets and has been successfully demonstrated. The current set of algorithms for predictive tracking is confined to two-dimensional space and a network of sensors; the expansion is to three dimensions for sensor networks. In addition, the effort proposes a method that addresses both temporal and spatial registration as well as applying successfully completed results from other efforts where data is in one format for any given sensor to a common format that can be used by any other sensor to allow received information to be translated into its format or for use by any sensor or a command center within the network. This capability allows information to be communicated to any node in a sensor network. The completion of the effort will show how latency issues are overcome.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1245 Lyons Road, Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 286-5431
Mr. David Barton
MDA 05-051      Selected for Award
Title:Software Formalisms
Abstract:Modern software development processes increasingly depend on complete specifications, the ability to execute the specifications expressed in a lightweight formalism, and the ability to verify properties expressed in that formalism. EDAptive Computing, Inc. (ECI) team has designed the Model Checking and Execution of Specifications using Lightweight Formalisms (ModSpec) program to deliver this combination. Our existing innovative technology building blocks will be augmented with model checking, computerized assistants, and multi-domain component libraries developed in Rosetta, a non-proprietary lightweight formal language. Specifically meeting the topic requirements this combination forms an end-to-end capability to enter or capture a technology-independent specification, evaluate it for completeness, check it for correctness, and report the results in an intuitive form. We will leverage our extensive experience with graphical systems entry, formal languages, formal methods in general, and model checking in particular. We will demonstrate the feasibility of ModSpec by extending an experimental foundation first produced under a related MDA project, or a suitable mutually agreed alternative. The Phase I result will clearly show that this powerful mix of innovative tools and mature methods will result in faster, more accurate, and more error-free software development, integration, reuse, and deployment.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Dr. Marc Abrams
MDA 05-052      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Software Analysis and Visualization
Abstract:Harmonia, Inc. is pleased to offer this proposal to develop the Software Analysis through Visual Extraction (SAVE) tool, a visual programming and architecture tool that works in conjunction with Harmonia's Legacy Analysis Workbench (LAW). SAVE is specifically targeted at modeling, visualizing, and extracting reusable code segments, design artifacts, and architectural components from complex, mixed-language software. SAVE is designed to help system engineers re-architect legacy systems by extracting design artifacts required for modern architectures such as the DoD (or C4ISR) Architecture Framework. Legacy software is modeled in a platform-independent XML syntax, allowing us to design analysis and visualization tools for the XML modeling language and apply them to multiple implementation languages. Our model is constructed by translating existing software in mixed legacy languages into the XML modeling language. We also identify metrics for evaluation. During this Phase I, SAVE components are chosen to fit the needs of the Missile Defense Agency, where prototype code from various sources must be reused to create new software entities, for example Mission Profiles in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Radar System, or software must be integrated into legacy platforms, such as the AEGIS system.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. Matthew Stillerman
MDA 05-053      Selected for Award
Title:Chipotle: A Peer-to-Peer System for Highly Distributed and Fault Tolerant XML Data Management
Abstract:ATC-NY, in collaboration with Cornell University and Architecture Technology Corporation, will design and build Chipotle, a distributed XML database targeting the needs of the MDA, other DoD operations, and commercial applications. The Chipotle system will be highly resistant to failures, require no centralized control (and thus present no central point of attack), and be highly robust in the face of component and network failure. Scalability and fault tolerance are provided by structuring the database system as a peer-to-peer (P2P) system. Building on previous work at ATC-NY and Cornell, Chipotle improves on existing P2P systems by supporting rich database queries, including XML XPath expressions, and by providing the security needed to enforce access policies and prevent the disclosure of information should a node be compromised. In addition, it will provide load balancing capabilities to handle varying query loads as well as heterogeneous nodes and networks.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. T. J. Goan
MDA 05-053      Selected for Award
Title:Efficient Search over Heterogeneous XML Databases in Unstructured Peer-To-Peer Networks
Abstract:We propose a new peer-to-peer system, Emerge, that will support expressive, structured queries over peers sharing XML data in heterogeneous formats. Our system utilizes a novel combination of features to combat the query routing and semantic interoperability problems that plague existing systems. Emerge dynamically builds a set of shortcuts that leverage the content and interest locality exhibited by search requests to gradually improve query routing performance over time. These shortcuts are designed to be modular, which allows them to be easily combined with other optimization approaches and remain functional independent of the query language used. To combat the inevitable information loss that occurs as data is passed between peers with heterogeneous schemas, our system utilizes information that can be observed passively, such as query cycles and returned results, to identify and refine faulty schema mappings. Phase I research and development of a proof-of-concept limited prototype will demonstrate the feasibility and utility of Emerge's query routing optimizations and bottom-up schema refinement and will lay the groundwork for its Phase II implementation and eventual commercialization.

UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORP.
11150 W Olympic Blvd., Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Mr. Mark Davis
MDA 05-053      Selected for Award
Title:FabriX: An Efficient, Scalable and Secure Peer-to-Peer XML Database
Abstract:Modern database technologies are ill-suited to handle internet-scale (or larger) data management needs. For DoD, NASA, DoE and other government agencies, this presents a data management crisis since their mission-critical data repositories are growing at exponential rates and are already distributed in disconnected silos. UtopiaCompression Corp. proposes a novel peer-to-peer XML database architecture that builds on recent P2P research efforts combined with grid computing technologies to provide a scalable, fault-tolerant and secure storage and retrieval infrastructure for government and commercial applications. FabriX, the fabric for XML computing, uses efficient routing protocols to locate data items in a fabric of commodity computing resources, and uses novel, compact data structures to resolve XML-specific query operations without the need for full analysis of stored XML documents. FabriX also uses end-to-end security models built on top of web service security technologies to provide both scalable fully-distributed security as well as hardened, policy-based security with centralized management for medium-scale database models.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
MDA 05-054      Selected for Award
Title:ActionVisualsT: Ontology-enabled, Multi-domain Agile Visualization of System-of-Systems Data
Abstract:The DoD Net-Centric Data strategy calls for making multi-domain data accessible to and visible for potential users. To this end, new and legacy DoD systems are being integrated into federated system-of-systems to increase the user's reach into distributed, multi-domain data sources. To promote shared understanding of data and to ensure effective use of the integrated data in unanticipated ways, DoD is investing in the integration of domain ontologies into multi-domain ontologies with a view to maximizing coverage of data from multiple domains in response to user queries. Specifically, the Air Force 45th Space Wing has an immediate need for rapid, flexible, and on-demand visualization of federated data from multiple domains in actionable form for timely and informed decision making during space launch and range support operations. Phase I of this effort is concerned with developing the requirements, general usage scenario, and candidate architectures for an agile, ontology-enabled system-of-systems data visualization capability that would be customizable to a variety of DoD, military, and commercial applications. The resultant system design is expected to provide effective solutions for data navigation, latency handling/compensation, visualization sharing, and data security.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Perakath Benjamin
MDA 05-054      Selected for Award
Title:Hybrid Framework for Information Visualization Enablers (HI-FIVE)
Abstract:This project will research, design, and demonstrate a Hybrid Framework for Information Visualization Enablers (HI-FIVE). We propose a novel, model-based "no-programming required" approach that leverages the proven IDEF family of methods, on web-services, and a proven data display format called Data Display Markup Language (DDML). HI-FIVE provides an extendible framework for rapidly developing, configuring, and managing displays that enable rapid and actionable understanding of "system of systems" data. HI-FIVE will provide critical enabling technology for enabling "rapid and flexible data visualization of federated data from multiple domains leveraging a unifying ontology of the relevant concepts from the different domains." Our solution will drastically mitigate the difficulties associated with achieving "system of systems situational awareness" arising from different problems, including the following (i) combinations of structured and unstructured data, (ii) diverse data formats, (iii) varying amounts of useful information in the data, and (iv) diverse visualization paradigms. The Phase I effort will (i) establish HI-FIVE requirements, (ii) formulate user-customizable data display methods, (iii) design the HI-FIVE architecture, and (iv) configure and demonstrate a prototype HI-FIVE system. The Phase II project will harden the software and demonstrate its benefits on a military application leading to rapid technology transition and commercialization.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1245 Lyons Road, Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 286-5431
Mr. David Barton
MDA 05-056      Selected for Award
Title:Test-Ready Model for Flexible System-of-Systems
Abstract:Producing dependable, flexible system-of-systems that exhibit predictable behavior and fault tolerance during runtime is a daunting task. Although formal methods hold a lot of promise, there are several issues that have prevented its use in the mainstream. Specifically, use of formal methods requires very skilled and experienced users, some formal methods do not scale well as the system size grows, and manual translation is required to convert from formal specification models to software models for further implementation. EDAptive Computing team proposes an innovative, practical solution to address these problems. Our existing innovative technology building blocks will be augmented with intuitive specification capture techniques, computerized assistants for use of formal methods, and automatic translation to software models. Specifically meeting the topic requirements this combination forms an end-to-end capability to enter or capture a technology-independent specification, evaluate it for completeness, check it for correctness, generate error handling specifications and translate into software model for further implementation. We will leverage our extensive experience with graphical entry, formal languages, and formal methods. The Phase I results will clearly show that this powerful mix of innovative tools and mature methods will result in faster, more accurate, and more error-free software development, integration, reuse, and deployment.

TIME ROVER
11425 Charsan Ln.
Cupertino, CA 95014
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 507-2684
Dr. Doron Drusinsky
MDA 05-056      Selected for Award
Title:Trust-worthy Coordinated Attack and Byzantine Agreement: Tools, Protocols, and Assertions
Abstract:Trust-worthy distributed systems, such as the MDA Battle Manager (BM) System of Systems (SoS), require trusted coordination in the absence of ideal communication, i.e., when immediate and guaranteed broadcasting is not available. A fundamental issue for trust worthy distributed SoS is therefore attaining trustworthy agreement under real-life circumstances, when ideal communication does not exist. By agreement it is meant any agreement the BM might need to reach, such as agreement to particular weapon system to launch a kill. Two fundamental problems are: (i) Coordinated Attack (CA) -- when communication is unreliable and non-instantaneous how can a distributed team of generals decide on an attack, and (ii) Byzantine Agreement (BA) -- how can does this change if some generals are traitors (i.e., "faulty"). This proposal proposes working protocols and support tools for trust worthy CA and BA. Specifically, we suggest Phase I investigation and Phase II construction of: 1. Protocols using communicating UML statecharts augmented with recovery assertions. 2. Construction of a stochastic analysis simulator for the protocols of #1. The simulator will use item #3 below. 3. The extension of the StateRover white box test generator to generate a sample space for the stochastic analysis of protocols of item #1.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark Street, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5088
Jessica Bradley
MDA 05-057      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Data Fusion
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency's (MDA) Project Hercules has been charged with developing advanced algorithms for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Under the Decision Architecture task, a Battle Manager (the DABM) has been developed to model the end-to-end BMDS. This simulation testbed models the network-centric system-of-systems that make up the BMDS including sensors, weapons systems, and the C2BMC. Under this SBIR the DAC Team proposes two niche capabilities that are not currently addressed in the BMDS. We propose a novel combination of Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence and Bayesian Networks to perform advanced data fusion during an engagement. Additionally we propose an innovative Stochastic Programming technique to enhance Weapon Engagement Planning. These technologies, combined with DAC's experience in missile defense will result in algorithms suitable for prototyping in Phase I and Phase II; and integration and deployment in Phase III of this SBIR.

TECHFINITY, INC.
4505 Las Virgenes Road, Suite 117
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 878-9341
Mr. Jarrell D. Collier
MDA 05-057      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced, Robust Techniques in Missile Defense Resource Management Using Utility, Entropy, and Value of Information
Abstract:Utility and entropy are combined in a new definition of value of information that is used to achieve more robust, effective and more highly coordinated weapon and sensor resource management for missile defense. There are two related aspects. First, the calculation of probability of kill in battlespace analysis can be improved by accounting appropriately for the future changes in track accuracy. Entropy is a suitable metric for track accuracy. The resulting improved probability of kill values will enable the engagement planner to plan engagements with greater expected utility. The term utility is used here in the sense of the objective of engagement planning, and of the missile defense system as a whole such as probability of integrated system effectiveness. Second, once track entropy calculations are in place, it becomes feasible to feed data back to the sensor manager that enables it to calculate the rate of change of utility with respect to track entropy. With that information, the sensor manager can allocate sensor resources in a way that supports maximizing expected utility. Thus, the sensor resource manager and the weapon resource manager will be working together toward an explicit common goal such as probability of integrated system effectiveness.

THE CORE GROUP, INC.
PO Box 17068
Boulder, CO 80308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 258-9256
Mr. Kevin F. Probst
MDA 05-057      Selected for Award
Title:Midcourse Target Identification (MCTID) Algorithm for Midcourse Threats Using Bayesian-Topological Feature Fusion and Classification
Abstract:The Midcourse Target Identification (MCTID) Algorithm for Midcourse Threats Using Bayesian-Topological Feature Fusion and Classification program will extend the previously developed Enhanced Target Identification (ETID) algorithm developed under a previous MDA program to the midcourse threat regime. ETID was built to identify boost phase threats by performing both topological threat classification and Bayesian probabilistic threat classification, and then fusing the two classification results. The ETID achieved a predicted 95% classification accuracy for a broad range of possible strategic and theater threat boosters. The MCTID will employ the same dual mode classification and target ID approach, but apply it to midcourse threat and decoy types. The goal of the MCTID is a 99% accuracy of correct classification. The proposed program will develop the algorithm, test it against real and simulated data, and report the results. The algorithm development will utilize dedicated software coding, as well as generalized COTS software packages for building the topological and Bayesian classifiers.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
MDA 05-058      Selected for Award
Title:Meta-Information Visualization and Processing for C2
Abstract:Command and control in ballistic missile defense is characterized by large amounts of complex information that must be rapidly processed by the decision-maker. Part of this complexity is due to meta-information, or, characteristics of information such as uncertainty, staleness, etc. that add to the decision-making burden. Knowledge regarding this meta-information, and methods for effectively processing and portraying it, have the potential of not only relieving the decision-maker's workload, but also encouraging more battlespace-aware decisions. To address these needs, we propose to design and prototype a system for Meta-Information Visualization and Processing (MVP). Four core components characterize our approach. First, we will develop an ontology that explicitly incorporates meta-data and meta-information types in C2 data management tasks. Second, we will design and develop methods for calculating and extracting meta-information from incoming data and representing it in structure reflecting the ontology. Third, we will design visualization methods that incorporate meta-information. Fourth, we will demonstrate a software prototype implementing computational approaches and visualization methods for providing the commander with critical meta-information. We will leverage our team's expertise in data management and visualization design to rapidly develop the MVP system, interface it with representative data sets, and evaluate its potential to support DoD applications.

DATAMAT SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
1600 International Drive, Suite 110
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 917-0880
Dr. Jerzy Bala
MDA 05-058      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Interactive C2 Knowledge Mining and Visualization System
Abstract:Amongst the most challenging technological tasks confronting the U.S. missile-defense program is the development of an integrated, high-performing and high-usability Command & Control Information System. The main goal of a C2 information system is to provide military operators tools that enable them to quickly and accurately filter and decipher massive amounts of battlespace data. Therefore, it is crucial that the C2 information system provide automatic mining operations and highly usable graphic interfaces to present actionable information to its military operators. This effort will propose the development of state-of-art techniques utilizing knowledge representation, advanced data mining and visualization technology for maximizing the utilization of heterogeneous data collected from distributed BMDS sensors. This project will design and integrate a general ontology for knowledge representation of objects, events and activities; an efficient and real-time interpretation technique; a novel data mining approach specially tailored for the knowledge base; and an interactive visualization for C2 operational decision makers.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Mr. Tod Hagan
MDA 05-058      Selected for Award
Title:CloudWall: BMDS Ontology for Information Management
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is charged with developing a Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) to defend against missile attack on the United States or its allies. Performing this mission will require integration of a wide variety of different data sources to facilitate rapid and intuitive threat identification and response. The CloudWall toolset is envisioned to provide a scalable and extensible method of semantically integrating this data to accelerate the speed of decisions. The CloudWall approach is based on semantic integration through a runtime ontology that will empower sophisticated analysis and visualization tools both in real-time and for post event analysis.

IC TECH, INC.
4295 Okemos Road, Suite 100
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 349-9000
Dr. Gail Erten
MDA 05-059      Selected for Award
Title:Global Visibility Command and Control Logistics Technology for BMDS System
Abstract:Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) maintenance costs are high, making up as much as 60-70% of the total system life-cycle cost. Moreover, inefficient maintenance policies and procedures can have adverse national security ramifications. We propose a Global visibility and Central Command approach to meet the maintenance and inventory management challenges. The proposed system consists of three components, which are (i) a fuzzy logic based parts subassemblies and assemblies inventory and maintenance management engine, (ii) a web-based collaborative central maintenance command application, and (iii) an RFID data collection and maintenance tracking infrastructure. The combination of these three elements addresses sustainment in the four areas of supportability, deployability, affordability, and suitability while maintaining a manageable footprint. Phase I work will first select a BMDS subsystem or equivalent to conduct the feasibility study on. Then, a fuzzy logic based engine will be designed and simulated under multiple failure and logistic scenarios. The mean time between critical failures (MTBCF) will be evaluated for multiple approaches. The result will be a quantitave measurement of how well the proposed fuzzy inference approach performs. Also during Phase I, RFID software and hardware elements will be investigated. Lastly, means of feeding most recent data to improve the fuzzy logic engine will be explored for better performance overall. Phase I work will conclude with a final report and Phase II recommendations.

LOGOBOTS LLC
30W084 Capistrano Court, #201
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 527-0425
Dr. VC Ramesh
MDA 05-059      Selected for Award
Title:Logistics Technology for C2BMC
Abstract:C2BMC is an important component of BMDS. The logistics support tail sustainment challenges in C2BMC are related to the unusual spiral development process employed by C2BMC. Formal metrics such as MTTR and MLDT have not been defined. Nor have spare parts analysis, training needs analysis or documentation support issues been formalized. There is enormous scope for both process re-engineering and technical innovations (such as RFID) in the logistics support tail. This project will explore such innovations and quantify the ROI.

ANALATOM, INC.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 4
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 734-9392
Mr. Ben Caldwell
MDA 05-060      Selected for Award
Title:Maintenance/ Monitoring Support Information Tools
Abstract:In this project, we propose to make a handheld tool that supports the maintenance engineer in evaluating the health of equipment or evaluating the scenarios available form sensor data. The unit will be based on a monitoring node with an additional GUI (Graphical User Interface) and firmware to make interaction simple and instantaneous. The proposed units uniqueness is in that it uses on-board processing to analyze data and immediately present the user with graphs, recommendations and access to data on similar scenarios and the outcome. Additionally, the system will allow the user to log their efforts and notes and transfer all this data to a central repository for further analytical analysis. The majority of enabling technology used in the unit comes as a spin-off from the advanced rate of development in the mobile phone industry. Low power and cost microprocessors and microcontrollers will be used to analyze data, run the GUI and communicate with sensors and systems. The coding to interface all the components and database will be also play a major roll in the project. Algorithms to efficiently process and present the data on the hand held unit as well as communicate with a central PC will be developed.

INSTRUMENTAL SCIENCES, INC.
P.O. Box 4711
Huntsville, AL 35815
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 881-9980
Mr. Jeffrey S. Yalowitz
MDA 05-060      Selected for Award
Title:Maintenance/ Monitoring Support Information Tools
Abstract:Military communications and weapons systems depend on the health of their components to perform reliably over extended periods of time. Maintenance is an important aspect of reliability, assuring that the equipment is on line and operational when it is needed. Military-developed and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment now co-exist in complex military systems. The trend toward electronic/networked maintenance documentation presents an opportunity to improve maintainer effectiveness, but new tools must be developed to manage interactions between the information sources and maintainers. Instrumental Sciences, Inc. (ISI) proposes an Automated Multimedia Maintenance Support Tool (AMMST) based on the artificial intelligence field of cooperative multi-agent distributed work environments. Our approach combines the multi-agent architecture with statistical analysis and maintenance decision-making technology that ISI has developed for Predictive Fault Detection applications to produce a distributed information management tool set that gathers relevant information from diverse sources upon user request or maintenance scenario identification, combines and filters the information, then formats it for multimedia interactive presentation to the user. The primary objectives of the Phase I research are to (1) determine the feasibility of the AMMST concept and (2) characterize the potential of the tool to reduce downtime, and thus to improve system availability.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
26 Castilian Drive, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
MDA 05-061      Selected for Award
Title:Structured Approach for Business Case Planning of Missile Defense Systems
Abstract:Current pressures on the Department of Defense (DoD) budget are forcing managers to provide strong business justification for their programs or face serious budget reductions if not cancellations. Programs must prove their value, particularly to the operational elements, both in technical and economic terms. Programs must show that they are cost effective, can be developed, produced, and fielded on schedule, without an excessive amount of program risk, while providing the desired level of performance. In other words, a Business Case must justify that an initiative is an affordable solution that meets cost, schedule, and technical objectives before it is funded. This SBIR addresses this dilemma by investigating MDA policies, procedures, and program documentation, and formulating a methodology to put in place a Robust Business Case Analysis (BCA) process. The approach modifies or enhances the tools in the existing MDA "Investment Analysis" Toolset to build a Robust BCA generation capability. Phase I of this SBIR will demonstrate the feasibility of the "BCA Capability/Data Library" approach and prototype elements of the robust BCA capability's methodology. The Phase II program will fully develop a prototype tool and data library and validate its operation and accuracy.

MICROCOSM, INC.
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Mr. Paul Graven
MDA 05-061      Selected for Award
Title:Comprehensive Business Case Analysis and Development System
Abstract:Microcosm, along with partners San Francisco Consulting Group, Booz|Allen|Hamilton, and Syncopation Software, propose to architect and develop processes and tools that will enable MDA to generate consistent, high-quality business case analyses to evaluate and manage its project portfolio. These tools and processes will provide a disciplined and structured approach for evaluation of new opportunities, as well as visibility into the status and potential value of existing programs. The model development processes will drive engagement with stakeholders on priorities and assumptions, enabling development of credible outputs focused on the specific needs of each audience. The team has extensive expertise in Return-on-Investment (ROI), cost modeling, and ROI analysis tool development and training. By combining experience with government tools and business case development processes with innovative approaches to ROI modeling and tools developed for commercial applications, we will create a project and portfolio analysis capability providing improved performance, accelerated delivery, and significant cost savings for emerging missile defense capabilities. During Phase I, the team will develop requirements and a preliminary tool and process architecture for MDA business case development. In addition, the team will prototype key elements of the analytical and process support tools, including user interfaces.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Mr. Kent Krumvieda
MDA 05-062      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced, Low Cost, Integrated Avionics
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and Honeywell Aerospace Electronic Systems propose the development of a prototype, tightly coupled GPS/INS navigation/control system that is resistant to structured interference and jamming. This next-generation navigation system shall be employed in THAAD interceptor-seekers and other high-dynamic precision-guided munitions and platforms. By coupling a existing and future inertial navigation systems (INS) with a more robust GPS receiver, the performance per unit price shall be greatly improved.

INNOVATIVE BUSINESSS SOLUTIONS, INC.
301 Concourse Boulevard, Suite 120
Glen Allen, VA 23059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 812-5555
Mr. Steve Belvin
MDA 05-062      Selected for Award
Title:Evolution of the Systolic Processing Array -eXtensible (SPAR-X) Architecture for Advanced, Low Cost, Integrated Avionics
Abstract:In order to meet evolving advanced threats, missile defense systems must increase their target discrimination capabilities by using advanced seekers and seeker image processing. The objective of the proposed effort is to provide the advanced SPAR-X signal processing work already underway at Lockheed Martin - Sunnyvale to the THAAD next generation avionics development. In addition to THAAD, the MKV program is including an older form of the SPAR-X on the Kill Vehicle Mission Processor. The developed system would also be directly applicable to the MKV Carrier Vehicle and other MDA/GMD missile defense systems with advanced strap down seekers. The goal of the proposed effort is to build on the work that has a great deal of functionality but is targeted at a generation of FPGAs that is much less capable than today's offerings. The end result of the proposed effort is a baseline design concept that ports the Xilinx Virtex-2 based SPAR-X to a Xilinx Virtex-4 with an approach for a single chip solution. This would allow a more producible next generation THAAD, MKV Kill Vehicle Mission Processor and provide for future growth in using the SPAR-X system on MKV Carrier Vehicle and other strap down seeker signal processing systems.

WELKIN SCIENCES, LLC
102 S. Tejon Suite 200
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 520-5115
Mr. Blair Sawyer
MDA 05-063      Selected for Award
Title:HWIL Channel Simulator for Communication System Testing
Abstract:Welkin Sciences (WS) proposes to develop the Configurable Link Test Set II (CoLTS II), an affordable hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) channel simulator design specifically for MDA test programs. Like the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's test sets, CoLTS II can distort real RF signals using the same disturbed propagation channel models found in COMLNK (a widely used software package for evaluating and testing modem designs hardened for HANE-disturbed channels). CoLTS II can also offset RF signals in delay and frequency to accurately emulate satellite and missile dynamics. The CoLTS II architecture will offer support for multiple channels (up to 40 in a single chassis) allowing for the testing of diversity receivers and Mulitiple In/Multiple Out(MIMO)communication system architectures.

AVENDA SYSTEMS
580 VALLEY WAY
MILPITAS, CA 95035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 262-2615
Mr. Santhosh Cheeniyil
MDA 05-064      Selected for Award
Title:Secure Inter-Domain Collaboration (SIDCO)
Abstract:There are solutions available today to secure intra-domain VoIP traffic. This same type of security capability is needed to support cross-domain voice collaboration applications. Avenda Systems proposes a secure inter-domain collaboration enabling solution called SIDCO (Secure Inter-Domain Collaboration). SIDCO system will provide the architectural foundations to support all intra- and inter-domain secure collaboration requirements. SIDCO system will make use of standards as put forth by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and International Telecommunication Union - Telecom (ITU-T) Internet telephony standard bodies. Adhering to these standards also ensures that the proposed solution is interoperable with the large assortment of existing VoIP applications. Avenda Systems has the expertise to develop a practical and highly effective secure inter-domain collaboration system. Organizations, both military and civilian enterprises, can use this system to enable and secure their inter-domain collaboration. The technologies employed in this product are practical and innovative and have not been implemented in commercially available comparable products. Prototype development in Phase I will provide the knowledge and foundation for building a complete product in Phase II, and a commercially viable product in Phase III.

INFINITE GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURES, LLC
480 E. Roosevelt Rd. Ste. 205
West Chicago, IL 60185
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 562-2427
Mr. David R. Beering
MDA 05-065      Selected for Award
Title:Missile Communication Alternatives and Trades
Abstract:End-to-end communications systems are often so complex that system designers have difficulty keeping track of the constraints, trades, interface requirements, and interdependencies among components. The Communications System Taxonomy (CommTax) and Toolkit proposed herein represents further refinement of an innovative tool that Infinite Global Infrastructures has recently developed internally to assist their own customers and stakeholders. The taxonomy (model) features three distinct views of the information system; providing physical views, logical views, and views of interdependencies among components, interfaces, and protocols. The CommTax Toolkit would be ideal for future MDA Communication designs, or to evaluate existing designs for upgrades or changes. The taxonomy conforms to the universally recognized Seven-Layer ISO model of describing networked information systems. This simple and visual design aid can improve the quality of future MDA communications system designs and shorten the design/evaluation timeline. Once the Phase I CommTax has been defined in terms of operational MDA systems, IGI proposes to refine the design in Phase II, focusing on two capabilities - first, the automation of system functionality yielding a graphical tool to support the analysis of complex tradeoffs associated with MDA systems, and next to implement the taxonomy in a physical testbed featuring operational RF and network components.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 642-3157
Mr. Mark Geoghegan
MDA 05-065      Selected for Award
Title:Missile Communication Alternatives and Trades
Abstract:Nova and Harris propose to design a communication subsystem for the Carrier Vehicle (CV) of the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) system. The design addresses both the short range (~50 km) exoatmospheric links to the miniature Kill Vehicles (KVs) as well as the long range (>1000 km) links to the ground based IFICS Data Terminals (IDTs). The Phase I work plan begins with gathering requirements for the CV communication subsystem, and then embarking on the top level design process. An integrated network management strategy will be analyzed and modeled to coordinate transmissions between the two communication networks. The top level design will be distilled into derived requirements for a prototype system to be built and demonstrated in Phase II.

AMPAC IN-SPACE PROPULSION
6686 Walmore Road
Niagara Falls, NY 14304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 731-6335
Mr. Edward Gribben
MDA 05-066      Selected for Award
Title:Manufacturing Processes for Propulsion Technology
Abstract:Divert and attitude control systems (DACS) for Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) and Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) applications have severe constraints with regard to system mass and handling safety. These systems typically employ heavy gas bottles and regulators for pressurization at the high pressures required and to meet safety margins for handling by personnel. AMPAC-ISP proposes to develop a concept design for a DACS pressurization system using a high response, controllable solid fuel gas generator to reduce overall system weight and cost, and mitigate personnel safety concerns. The system is planned to be launched unpressurized, eliminating personnel handling concerns and reducing tank structural requirements (weight), and would be charged immediately prior to separation. Solid fuel gas generators have been studied for attitude control of high velocity projectiles and can be tailored to be fast response (on the order of milliseconds) and provide repeatable impulse. Careful control of the fuel charge and additives results in a predictable quantity of gas produced from the reaction.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Dr. Edward J. A. Pope
MDA 05-066      Selected for Award
Title:Weaveable HfC Structural Fiber Development and Scale-Up
Abstract:In this MDA Phase I SBIR program, MATECH/GSM proposes to further develop and scale-up HfC structural ceramic fiber to a level suitable for low rate initial production (LRIP) of HfC ceramic fiber tow during the Phase II program for weaving and structural CMC fabrication. The resulting UHT CMCs for such missile defense applications as zero-erosion solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzles and exit cones, hypersonic leading edge materials, and ballistic nose-tips. In this Phase I program, we have brought in key propulsion contractors Aerojet and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-6130
Mr. Kent Buesking
MDA 05-066      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Low Cost Needled C/SiC for TDACS Applications
Abstract:This proposal is submitted under topic MD05-066 and addresses the development of low cost, needled C/SiC for throttleable divert and altitude control systems (TDACS). The TDACS is being developed to guide the kinetic weapon of the Navy's Standard Missile-3 to the target. The throttleable solid rocket motor technology embodied in the TDACS increases the range, standoff distance, and engagement area of SM-3. A TDACS motor, which has been successfully ground tested by Aerojet, employed nee-dled C/SiC composites from General Electric Power Systems (GEPS) for some of the hot struc-tural components. While the GEPS components performed well structurally the material is time consuming and expensive to produce for two reasons. First the needled carbon fiber preforms are purchased from France, and second GEPS uses a dedicated furnace run to fabricate the com-posites. Furthermore, because the French-supplied needled preform is not optimized for the TDACS application, the performance and reliability of the needled C/SiC components can be improved if the material is designed based upon the requirements of the TDACS motor. This Phase I proposal seeks to 1) provide an alternate, inexpensive domestic source for needled C/SiC, and 2) design the composite so it exhibits properties that optimize its perform-ance in the TDACS application. The material will employ needled carbon fiber preforms manu-factured by Textile Engineering and Manufacturing (TEAM) in Slatersville, RI. The composites will be densified by Goodrich-Supertemp in Santa Fe Springs, CA leveraging their CMC produc-tion furnaces. The material design will be developed by Materials Research & Design (MR&D) using a combination of micromechanical and thermostructural models to audition needled C/SiC composites. The goal of the Phase I effort is to develop an improved, inexpensive, domestic source of needled C/SiC composites for TDACS applications. The program will be undertaken by a work-ing group of MR&D, TEAM, Goodrich, and Southern Research Institute (SoRI). MR&D will design and analyze the structures, TEAM will fabricate needled carbon fiber preforms, Goodrich will densify the C/SiC composites, and SoRI will measure the critical properties. The feasibility of the Phase I effort will be demonstrated by comparing the measured properties to the design goals.

FRONTIER ENGINEERING
5925 Indian Pointe Drive
Simi Valley, CA 93063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 577-8771
Mr. Jim McKinnon
MDA 05-067      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, High Performance Liquid Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS)
Abstract:This proposal provides an innovative solution to eliminate the high pressure, cold gas pressure vessel used on typical liquid DACS systems by using gas generated by burning off some of the fuel in the main fuel tank as a mono-propellant. The DACS fuel would be a hydrazine blend such as M-75 to obtain good catalytic performance.

MONTCORP.
1445 Lakeview Lane
Whitefish, MT 59937
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 862-9777
Mr. Blaine Wright
MDA 05-067      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, High Performance Liquid Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS)
Abstract:The most significant hardware costs on a missile interceptor propulsion system are associated with the thrusters, for which there are typically four divert thrusters and four, six, or eight attitude control thrusters per interceptor. Reducing the cost of the valve/injector for the bipropellant thrusters will result in a significant reduction of the interceptor propulsion system. Current high-performance divert and attitude control thrusters have integrated valve/injectors, which currently have long lead-times and high cost because of the serial manufacturing steps inherent with the valve and injector sharing a common body. Cost reduction of the valve/injector can be accomplished through design without sacrificing thruster performance. While maintaining the benefits of the integrated valve/injector, a study is proposed to design, build, and test hardware where the valve body and injector face are fabricated in parallel. The integration of the injector to the valve will occur after the valve and injector bodies have completed their individual fabrication steps, including drilling the injector orifices. In addition to the cost savings afforded by the parallel manufacturing steps, this design will allow laser-drilling of the injector orifices, which will reduce injector drilling times significantly.

SYSTIMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Mr. Randy Hoskins
MDA 05-067      Selected for Award
Title:Self-Pressurizing, Self-Regulating Liquid Divert and Attitude Control System Propellant Supply System
Abstract:Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne supports the proposed program as a promising technology for a future upgrade to the THAAD DACS and other future DACS program applications. Systima Technologies is proposing an innovative Self-Pressurizing, Self-Regulating LDACS propellant supply system that eliminates the need for high-pressure propellant tanks and for tank pressurization systems. Because the concept does not require high-pressure propellant tanks, the propellant tank's pressure capability (wall thickness) can be minimized, resulting in a weight savings. Additionally because the tanks are not pressurized, the tanks can be shaped to the available space, dramatically increasing the packaging efficiency of the propellant tanks. Since a tank pressurization system is not required, neither are sophisticated tank pressurization system components, high-pressure pressurization tanks, or warm gas pressurization components required. These provide additional, weight, space and cost savings. Further, the elimination of the pressurized tanks eliminates the myriad of safety concerns with long-term storage of pressurized liquid propellants. The Self-Pressurizing, Self-Regulating LDACS Propellant Supply System concept employs gas fed back from the thruster to pressurize the propellants via simple differential-area piston pumps. The piston pumps are located downstream of the tanks and therefore eliminate the high-pressure propellant tanks and tank pressurization systems.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Ernie Havens
MDA 05-068      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Manufacturing of Hafnium Carbide Insulation Materials
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes to integrate MATECH's Hafnium Carbide (HfC) insulation system into CRG's innovative rotomolding manufacturing process in order to fabricate solid rocket motors with increased performance and improved manufacturability. CRG developed an innovative manufacturing process involving rotational molding, rotomolding, in a research program funded by the MDA for solid rocket motors. The benefit of this rotomolding technology is the ability to eliminate the mandrel from the manufacturing process of solid rocket motors by fabricating a mandrel in the rotomold that is structural enough for filament winding and can be used as an insulation material. MATECH Global Strategic Materials developed and demonstrated an innovative approach to high temperature zero erosion ablative combustion liner composite systems that exhibit zero erosion at 2400 C (4,352 F) and above in a research effort funded by the MDA. CRG is partnering with MATECH and plans to incorporate the HfC insulation system in the rotomolding system. The integration of the HfC material into CRG's rotomolding process offers the MDA an improved manufacturing process for a higher performing insulation material for solid rocket motors.

EXOTHERMICS, INC.
60 Route 101A
Amherst, NH 03031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 732-0077
Mr. Stephen DiPietro
MDA 05-068      Selected for Award
Title:Highly Affordable Net- and Near-Net Forming of Fully Dense TaC for Boost Nozzle Applications
Abstract:Future aluminized propellant boost missile systems for DoD and MDA applications will create extremely severe conditions (temperature, pressure and particle impingement) in the nozzle region that will prevent conventional nozzle materials and designs to achieve the performance levels and costs that are being targeted for next-generation solid rocket motor (SRM) boost systems. The demonstration of zero or near-zero erosion in the throat area is a much sought after goal for SRM propulsion systems, since it offers direct payoff potential in the way of increased motor performance, reduced nozzle weight and lowered cost relative to current-generation of high performance rocket motors. For this Phase 1 SBIR effort, the materials system we propose for examination are based on high strength, net-formed, tantalum carbide (TaxC1-x) compositions and variants thereof; these ultrahigh temperature compounds will be fabricated by novel isostatic densification methods we have developed over the past few years. Due its extremely high melting point and predicted stability against aluminized propellant exposure, we anticipate that such TaC-based compositions will be able to withstand 3000 - 3500C propellant flame temperatures. The principal markets that would benefit from the availability of such ultrahigh temperature materials are in the MDA and DoD boost nozzle realm.

TOUCHSTONE RESEARCH LABORATORY, LTD.
The Millennium Centre, R.R. 1, Box 100B
Triadelphia, WV 26059
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 547-5800
Mr. Brian L. Gordon
MDA 05-068      Selected for Award
Title:Metal Matrix Composite Axial Propulsion Missile Components
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of utilizing metal matrix composite (MMC) filament winding for manufacturing missile components for BMD systems. Through this effort Touchstone will demonstrate an innovative manufacturing process for advanced MMC materials that will enhance the performance of axial propulsion booster components for missile defense interceptors. Motor case analogs will be produced and evaluated by way of hydrostatic pressure testing. A trade study will also be performed to quantify the benefits of using MMC materials for applications that meet current and future MDA needs. This technology will provide a low-cost means of inserting MMC materials into BMD systems for improved performance.

DIGITAL SOLID STATE PROPULSION LLC
6150 Sunrise Meadows Loop
Reno, NV 89509
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 813-2121
Dr. Wayne Sawka
MDA 05-069      Selected for Award
Title:Solid-State Electrically Controllable Rocket Motors For Safe Attitude Control Systems
Abstract:The invention of Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellants (ECESP) over the last five years opens the door for completely new ways of controlling solid rocket motors. When the propellant is fitted with electrodes and a current of the required voltage is applied, the propellant ignites and continues to burn until the voltage is removed. Throttle control and multiple restarts have been demonstrated with complete extinguishment with end burning grains. Recently we have demonstrated small "no moving parts" solid propellant core and ending motors. Many of the problems associated with solid propulsion may be overcome as ECESP technology continues to emerge and develop. Not only are ECESPs controllable they would be extremely safe for shipboard use. We propose a proof of concept scale up of our solid-state microthrusters to demonstrate a re-starting, 20x throttling motor with ~10 pounds-force of thrust. Heat feed back data from grains and elevated pressure (to 500 psi) electrical strand tests with determine whether scale up beyond ACS thrusters to high burn rate, booster propulsion is feasible.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 229-2734
Mr. Dan Gramer
MDA 05-069      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motor
Abstract:ORBITEC proposes to develop MAELSTROM, an advanced hybrid rocket motor, to meet the demands of highly flexible boost propulsion for Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense applications. Key MAELSTROM features include: versatile energy management, high propulsive performance, inherent safety of a hybrid, non-toxic and insensitive propellants, and a long-term storable system. MAELSTROM combines four ORBITEC innovations: (1) an aluminized patented vortex-injected hybrid motor, (2) a dual-mode oxidizer injection system, (3) a patented MIRRAS surface regression sensor, and (4) an intelligent closed-loop oxidizer control system. The vortex injector generates a coaxial, bi-directional flow field that drives extremely high solid-fuel regression rates, allowing for short, compact fuel grain design. The high surface heat fluxes and serpentine flow path enables efficient combustion of high-energy metals. A second, conventional oxidizer injector located at the head-end of the grain provides both mixture ratio control and deep throttling capability. MIRRAS regression rate sensors provide feedback to the closed-loop oxidizer controller to achieve precise mission management. The proposed Phase I activities include modeling, design, a comprehensive hot fire test program, and detailed data reduction, with a focus on demonstrating a high-performance and versatile propulsion technology. Phase II will validate a full-scale prototype MAELSTROM motor for delivery to MDA.

VALLEY TECH SYSTEMS
424 W. Fourth St
Cloverdale, CA 95425
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 696-5354
Mr. Russell Carlson
MDA 05-069      Selected for Award
Title:Highly Controllable Solid Propellant and Rocket Motor Propulsion Technology
Abstract:Over the last 15 years controllable solid propulsion development has aggressively pursued and demonstrated technologies that effectively emulate liquid propulsion performance. Future development is required that focuses on systems with longer operation time, higher thrust, faster thruster response times and greater impulse management. A key enabling technology to achieving these attributes is the development of a robust and repeatable ignition/re-ignition system. This technology enables a controllable solid propulsion system to manage packaged impulse, through reliable extinguishments and re-ignitions, delivering increased impulse flexibility. During our Phase 1 effort, advanced extinguishable solid DACS and booster system architectures are identified and traded using multiple advanced ignition/re-ignition candidate technologies. The result is an ignition/re-ignition system conceptual design that increases controllable solid propulsion performance and mission flexibility

COMBUSTION PROPULSION & BALLISTIC TECHNOLOGY CORP.
1217 Smithfield Street
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-6989
Dr. Kenneth K. Kuo
MDA 05-070      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Divert and Attitude Control (DACS) system for the Multiple (Miniature) Kill Vehicles (MKV)
Abstract:One possible method to intercept intercontinental ballistic missiles which deploy countermeasures is to use a "shotgun" approach, in which numerous small, cheap kill vehicles are deployed simultaneously in the hopes of scoring multiple hits. In order to be effective, such vehicles must be compact, inexpensive, reliable, and responsive. Miniaturizing a propulsion system is difficult because energetic materials may respond unpredictably at small scales in an intense combustion environment. We propose an innovative compact propulsion system, which will circumvent these concerns by using a liquid oxidizer as a coolant to prevent thermal effects from propagating through a pulse-operation-type motor. This system will utilize several self-contained gelled propellant charges. The oxidizing coolant will be injected into the motor from a bank of pre-pressurized tanks, maximizing the simplicity and manufacturability of the system; no pumps will be needed, and each propellant charge is modular and isolated from the others. The complete design will incorporate high energy density, high thrust, quick time response, high reliability, and relatively low expense. The probability of success for this project is high, since many energetic propellants have been developed by CPBT Corporation in previous SBIR studies. Commercialization of the new propulsion system has been planned for various applications.

SYSTIMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1832 180th St. SE
Bothell, WA 98012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 487-4020
Mr. Aaron Freiheit
MDA 05-070      Selected for Award
Title:MKV Restraint And Dispense System Technology Demonstration
Abstract:A critical aspect of the MKV system concept is the restraint and dispense of the individual KVs from the carrier/launch vehicle. The individual KVs need to survive launch and fly out towards incoming targets while the KVs are attached to the Carrier Vehicle (CV). As the CV approaches an incoming group of targets (re-entry vehicles and countermeasures), the KVs must be dispensed on controlled velocity vectors without inducing significant pitch, roll and yaw motions into the KVs. Even if the individual KVs can correct for motion errors induced during dispense, correcting these induced motions reduces the divert/control capability of the KVs. Systima is proposing to demonstrate the MKV Restraint and Dispense System Technology in a flight test. A flight test will confirm that there are no issues or difficulties when the technology is applied in the actual operating environment. This test will verify that the performance matches that experienced during previous ground tests and it provides additional confidence that the system is ready for integration with the CV and KV flight test hardware.