DoD SBIR FY06.1 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Air Force - Navy - DTRA - CBD - NGA - SOCOM

---------- AF ----------

514 Phase I Selections from the 06.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
FIBERTEK, INC.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Dr. William Torruellas
AF 06-001      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:High Power Optical Amplifier
Abstract:One of the key components enabling inter-satellite optical communications is a high power amplifier operating within the optical C-band. This specification ensures that this amplifier is compatible with very highly reliable fiber based transponder components which have been developed for terrestrial and originally for trans-oceanic optical communications. In contrast to fiber optic communication where the typical channel power is below 1mW, ultra-long distance free space communications requires initial transmitted powers of the order of 1W. The power requirement for the next generation High-Power-Optical-Amplifier could be >1W with an operational lifetime of 14 years. This by itself is achievable with commercially available components. However, an additional more challenging requirement is survivability in space in the presence of natural and man-made radiation. The latter requires components and in particular Erbium and Erbium/Ytterbium doped fibers which are currently unavailable commercially. Fibertek and Nufern have decided to team up and propose to the Air-Force an effort identifying a path towards qualifying a High-Power Fiber Amplifier for space applications.

PHOTON-X, LLC
283 Great Valley Parkway
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 613-8793
Dr. Anthony F. Garito
AF 06-001      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:High Power Optical Amplifier
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop innovative highly reliable HPOA for free space laser communications based SATCOM operating over broad ranges of temperatures and of radiation environment. The Phase I effort is focused on investigating the feasibility of manufacturing of such a HPOA by means of simulating and designing the amplifier for the desired optical specs as well as modeling and designing optic/electronic components and packaging for the required reliability specs. Our proposed design is based on two stage rare earth doped fiber amplifier. The first stage is a pre-amplifier with a low noise figure (i.e. 3dB), while the second stage is a high power amplifier based on a doped double clad fiber that would provide high output power (i.e. >500mW) in saturation when pumped with multimode pumps. In order to meet bandwidth requirement of 1500nm and 1450nm in additon to 1550nm, the HPOA designs based on amplified spontaneous emission filtering in Er/Yb doped and based on Thulium double clad fiber will also be investigated for 1470-1520nm and 1450-1480nm, respectively. The proposed HPOAs consist of COTS components that have been widely used in telecommunications with proven reliability in terms of power handling and life time. In addition to Telecordia standards where the minimum operation temperature is 0C, pump lasers' temperature controller circuitry will be modified to accommodate an operation temperature down to -40C utilizing our patented ultralow power consumption circuitry designs as means to minimize required operation power and associated thermal management issue. The proposed aluminum/PolyRAD packaging will be modeled and designed utilizing the radiation modeling code, NOVICE, to meet the radiation shield specs, as well as utilizing thermal modeling tool, COSMOSM, to provide thermal management.. The projected dimensions and weight of the proposed HPOA are 15x12x4cm3 and 1.8lb, respectively.

SIGMA SPACE CORP.
4801 Forbes Boulevard
Lanham, MD 20706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 552-6300
Dr. Christopher T. Field
AF 06-001      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:High Power Optical Amplifier
Abstract:The goal of the proposed work it to develop a fiber based amplifier capable of delivering 500 mW average power for free space, high speed optical communication. The amplifier must be capable of withstanding large radiation doses such as will be found in space. To avoid the radiation sensitivity caused by dopants used to adjust the silica index of refraction, the project will use holey (photonic crystal) fibers, which adjust the index of refraction with voids of various sizes rather than by adding impurities.

SCIBERQUEST, INC.
Pacific Executive Plaza, 777 South Highway 101, Su
Solana Beach, CA 92075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 793-7063
Dr. Homa Karimabadi
AF 06-002      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Structured Multi-Resolution PIC Code for Electromagnetic Plasma Simulations
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) for increasing the global accuracy (i.e., spatial and temporal resolution) of electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) models of electronic devices and plasma configurations. The SAMR technique covers a complex geometry domain with a "parent" mesh of computational nodes superimposed with block-structured finer ("child") patches, which resolve small scale features. Each patch preserves regular gridding and, therefore, enables easy particle tracking and accurate computation in its interior due to the symmetry of finite-difference (FD) or finite-volume operators. To capture the exact model geometry and avoid numerical errors associated with standard stair-stepped boundary approximations, SAMR can be combined with cell cutting. This leads to second-order convergence characteristic of high-fidelity conformal FDTD models. This proposal offers two different strategies, including a novel "mixed resolution" technique, for mitigating numerical errors arising in SAMR EM-PIC simulations due to abrupt changes in the particle weighting scheme and the finite-difference approximation at coarse-fine mesh interfaces. The proposed numerical schemes promise to effectively mitigate wave reflection, spurious force and charge/current mismatch effects introduced by SAMR at fine patch boundaries.

TECH-X CORP.
5621 Arapahoe Ave, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 444-2582
Dr. Chet Nieter
AF 06-002      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:New Boundary Algorithms for Next-Generation Simulation and Design of High-Power Microwave Devices
Abstract:We propose to identify, prototype and test a conformal boundary algorithm for use in finite-difference electromagnetic particle-in-cell codes. The algorithm that is selected will be 2nd order accurate and have a minimum reduction in the Courant time step. The prototype will implemented in the plasma simulation framework VORPAL, building on existing conformal boundaries in the VORPAL code. We will run tests of the algorithm for a variety of cavity shapes in both 2D and 3D.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Marvin Niimura
AF 06-003      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Solid-State Mini-Marx Generator
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a compact, reliable, high-voltage Marx generator with high pulse repetition rate and low jitter, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Solid-State Mini-Marx (SSMM) generator based on recently matured high-power insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) as switching elements. The fully developed SSMM will produce 250 kV, 2.5 kA fast (to approximately 10 ns) pulses to a 100 Ohm load at a pulse repetition rate up to 2 kHz in a volume approximately 0.1 cubic m with a conventional low-voltage prime power supply (battery). In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed SSMM by designing, fabricating, and testing a scaled down SSMM prototype (100 kV, 1kA). In Phase II POC plans to fabricate and test a full-scale SSMM engineering prototype with performance parameters tailored to the Air Force specification.

SPARKTRONICS, INC.
23765 Madison Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 373-7370
Dr. Joseph Yampolsky
AF 06-003      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Traveling Wave Marx Generator
Abstract:Air Force systems require the development of improved high power microwave sources. These sources require efficient generation of high voltage pulses. These systems require charging a short pulse forming line that is switched to an impulse radiator producing a damped sine output at the desired frequency or a matched impulse output to produce an ultrawide band signal. Both approaches have a common requirement of efficiently charging a short pulse forming line to very high voltage. Marx Generators and resonant transformers have been used in this application but have been limited in flexibility of producing the desired pulse shapes and are typically large in size and weight. A traveling wave marx type generator has the potential to produce a more efficient charging system with shorter pulse length and reduced size and weight. When multiple switches are used in a traveling wave arrangement smaller lower inductance switches can be used resulting in a pulse output with faster risetime and hence higher charging efficiency. Using a Blumlein approach higher voltage and larger stored energy is possible with a reduced number of switches. We have demonstrated a traveling wave Blumlein arrangement and propose to extend its capability to meet the Air Force directed energy requirement.

DUSHAN MITROVICH
12912-B Kachina Pl NE
Albuquerque, NM 87112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 298-1701
Dr. Dushan Mitrovich
AF 06-004      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:Radio Frequency Effects on Electronics Algorithm
Abstract:This program will research the physics of electromagnetic interactions that Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) signals can induce on cables and printed circuit boards in complex electronic systems. It will find efficient algorithms for computing these interactions and simulating system behavior in time domain. The connecting backbones of multi-component systems are multi-component transmission lines (MTL). Most of the computational models for representing them are set in the frequency domain, and are approximate. A promising computational approach that is in time domain has already been formulated and partially developed. Based on a form of Green function, it is intrinsically three-dimensional and non-approximate. It will be further developed and evaluated for modeling MTLs and becoming one of the algorithmic tools in the planned simulation code. To make the complex system being simulated tractable, it must first be separated into individual components - computational modules - that interact with each other via distinct connections. The technique of splitting a system into modules according to its EM topology has been developed primarily in the frequency domain. This technique will be adapted for use in the time domain simulation code, whose development is the ultimate goal of the whole project.

ELECTROMAGNETICS & ELECTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3128 CR 400 E
Fisher, IL 61843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 897-1094
Mr. Matthew C. Miller
AF 06-004      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Time-Domain BLT Solver for Electromagnetic Coupling to Cables and Circuits
Abstract:We propose to develop time-domain electromagnetic coupling effects software based on the MTL formulation for analyzing UWB radio frequency (RF) signal effects on electronics located inside semi-enclosed cavities, such as personal computers, buildings, vehicles and aircraft. The time-domain MTL solver software will be able to investigate computationally intensive electromagnetic coupling effects on shielded cables including the effects of large apertures and re-radiation off the cables over the frequency range of 200MHz to 10GHz. Our approach will use a time-domain BLT based transmission-line solver to compute fields that propagate along multi-conductor transmission lines. We will use FFT-based algorithms to accelerate the computations on the transmission lines allowing for solution of problems involving large numbers of transmission lines. Additionally, we will provide an interface for advanced circuit solvers for analyzing interactions with complex circuitry connected to the transmission lines. Time-domain BLT formulations for handling cavities and apertures will also be developed and validated as part of this effort. A graphical user interface (GUI) will be designed specifically for the purpose of decomposing a complex electromagnetic network using the principles of electromagnetic topology and interfacing directly with the MTL coupling effects computational engine.

ACULIGHT CORP.
11805 North Creek Parkway S., Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Fabio Di Teodoro
AF 06-005      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:High-power transportable fs fiber laser
Abstract:We propose the development of a compact, portable, efficient, and rugged ultra-short pulse laser for high-peak-power generation based on innovative micro-structured fiber concepts. The source targets materials processing applications both in the military and industrial fields.

KAPTEYN-MURNANE LABORATORIES, INC.
1855 South 57th Court
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-9068
Dr. Sterling Backus
AF 06-005      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Development of Novel Technologies for Rugged and Transportable High Power Ultrashort Pulse Lasers
Abstract:Compact, high average power, laser systems based on Yb-doped crystalline materials will be developed for military and industrial applications. Novel approaches that combine the use of compact diffractive/dispersive optics, cryogenic cooling, and direct diode pumping, will be utilized. This research will be carried out by a group of world experts that have already developed the highest average power, commercially available, ultrafast laser system that is now being sold and installed all over the world. Thus, the team has an excellent track record for their ability to bring cutting-edge, high-power, laser technology to the market-place.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS CO., L. L. C.
PO Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 576-1639
Dr. Alan B. Cain
AF 06-006      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:A System for Enabling Use of Laser Systems in a Transonic Flow Environment
Abstract:A system that provides a large field of regard for propagation of a lethal beam from a transonic platform will be evaluated. The proposed design incorporates concepts to address the fact that shocks do develop in transonic flow, but with the proposed system the field of regard should be enhanced. A second feature is provided that allows a simple method of controlling optical aberrations imposed by the shear layer. The resulting optical-aberration will have a well defined and minimal requirement for robust adaptive-optic correction of a laser propagated through the controlled shear layer.

LEFT HAND DESIGN CORP.
7901 Oxford Road
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 652-2786
Mr. Lawrence M. Germann
AF 06-006      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Enhanced-Bandwidth Fine-Steering Mirror for Aero-Optics Development
Abstract:This study addresses two issues in high-energy laser aero-optical applications: 1) the jitter introduced by beam-path turbulence and aircraft motion and 2) the thermal stability of mirror-surface quality parameters. Associated problems include achieving high servo control bandwidth with the optical jitter-compensation elements, on the order of 5 kHz, and maintaining surface figure error of 1/10 wave PV @ 633 nm wavelength. The approach includes a high-bandwidth thermally stable fine-steering mirror (FSM) in conjunction with a high-bandwidth wave-front or tracking detector. The FO35-52-SC-RT2-SF3-HB FSM design concepts include using advanced materials to elevate structural bending mode frequencies to well above the servo bandwidth target. This allows increased servo bandwidth and minimizes CTE differences at key interfaces to maintain flatness over temperature. A unique combination of materials is used, including a silicon carbide mirror substrate. Fabrication and polishing steps are also modified to reduce the mirror deformation associated with final assembly.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 432-6560
Dr. Matthew Whiteley
AF 06-006      Awarded: 15APR06
Title:Adaptive Controls for Aero-Optics Compensation
Abstract:MZA has teamed with Prof. Steve Gibson of UCLA to propose the development of adaptive wavefront reconstruction and jitter control techniques for the robust, high-bandwidth compensation of aero-optical effects. Through his work with AFRL, HEL JTO, and AFOSR, Prof. Gibson is on the forefront of adaptive control applied to atmospheric turbulence compensation. High-fidelity wave-optics simulations have shown that adaptive control techniques can provide a factor of two increase in effective closed-loop bandwidth over the standard atmospheric turbulence control technique without having to increase sampling frequency of the wavefront sensor (WFS). The nature of the aero-optic disturbance leads us to believe that the aero-optic disturbance is an ideal candidate for adaptive compensation. In this proposal, we lay out a plan to tailor adaptive control techniques to the aero-optics problem and to design an effective demonstration of the resulting technology.

ER2S, INC.
17832 Villamoura Drive
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 673-5380
Dr. Kenneth D. Ware
AF 06-007      Awarded: 15APR06
Title:High Explosive Detection at Large Stand-off Distances of 50 m and Greater Using Impulse Neutron Scheme
Abstract:The ReSINE(TM) concept, for Remote Stand-off Impulse Neutron Examination, proposed by ER2S, Inc., is a unique application of three fairly mature technologies providing a compact mobile system for detecting 10 kg of hidden explosives at distances up to 100 m. First, it is based on the Short Pulse, High Intensity Neutron eXamination (SPHINXr) technology, which is a demonstrated new methodology for bulk explosive detection using a single high intensity neutron pulse and large area gamma detector. Second, it uses a low cost blast-resistant remote neutron source moving downstream to interrogate target areas. Third, it provides for a large area gamma detector sensor, out of harm's way on a mobile platform such as a HMMWV or covert panel truck, based on characteristic signature recognition analysis method, eliminating the problem of gamma pulse pile-up when attempting pulse counting under high activation rates. This IED detection application will be evaluated against a developed Laden Vehicle Taxonomy, the specifications defined using Monte Carlo code analysis for range and cluttered environments, and validated by experiments on existing SPHINXr Facility. Following the Phase I concept feasibility demonstration, a ReSINE(TM) prototype will be built and field-tested for the detection of 10 kg of explosives over 30 meters.

GALT LLC
5714 West 71st Pl
Arvada, CO 80003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 335-7688
Mr. Byron Wells
AF 06-007      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Increased Range Neutron Response High Explosives Detection
Abstract:The coupling of a pulsed neutron source and a depth-sensitive Compton camera based on fast inorganic scintillation crystals is proposed as a means for imaging high explosives and other materials at intermediate to long ranges. The use of scintillators allows one to deploy relatively large active detection areas, which are crucial if short measurement times are going to be achieved. The temporal response of the fast scintillation component of the BaF2 crystals that we intend to use during Phase I will not only allow precise depth-imaging, but they will also enable the position-sensing of the gamma-ray interaction location. The main focus of the Phase I research is optimizing the spatial resolution of a fast scintillation crystal bounded by two photomultiplier tubes using both: a) the variation in scintillation light intensity that reaches the ends of the crystal, and b) using the time-of-arrival differences between the measured light pulses. The results from both methods will be quantified and the optimal design will be tested using a diagnostic detector based on two-components. The angular resolution will be measured and modeled and the performance of the full-scale detector will thus be established, the fabrication of which will proceed during Phase II.

PHDS
813 Barnhart Street
Raymond, WA 98577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 245-9502
Dr. Ethan Hull
AF 06-007      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Position-sensitive identification and tracking system for neutron-induced detection and location of explosives at large distances POSITRACK
Abstract:We propose a method of detecting high explosives from large distances using neutron induced gamma-ray detection and imaging. The gamma rays will be detected and imaged using an advanced position-sensitive germanium detector system. The superb position and energy resolution of the detector system coupled with the physics of electron-positron pair production has the sensitivity to locate and identify high explosives at large distances.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5236
Dr. Chujen Lin
AF 06-008      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Agile TM-UWB Wireless Network for Command and Control Systems
Abstract:The innovation of this project is the development of an agile Time-Modulated Ultra-wideband (TM-UWB) wireless network for military's Command and Control Systems. The wireless network proposed herein will fully take advantage of TM-UWB's unique features to form an agile LPI, LPD, and anti-jamming Physical (PHY) Layer and Media Access Control (MAC) Layer that can automatically assign channels, adjust integration, header length, transmission power, receiver gain, etc. to adapt itself to different RF and physical environment and to meet different operational requirements. Besides the agile PHY and MAC layers, an intelligent ad hoc networking protocol will be used for routing. The proposed routing protocol is call MAR (Mobile Agent Routing), which is based on the mobile multi-agent paradigm developed by Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) over the last 15 years. MAR will allow every node in the system to function as a relay node. The message in the network will automatically search for a route to deliver from the source to the destination regardless changes in the network connectivity. The integration of these innovative TM-UWB PHY, MAC, and network layers will form an agile, LPI, LPD, and anti-jamming wireless network for military's Command and Control Systems.

NOVA ENGINEERING, INC.
5 Circle Freeway Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 642-3208
Dr. David C. Hartup
AF 06-008      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Transient Wave Based Command and Control Systems
Abstract:Carrier based signals have commonly been used for many command and control applications. While carrier based waveforms are simple to implement, they do not provide jamming resistance or LPI/LPD characteristics. This proposal describes a non-carrier based waveform that is applicable to a wide range of command and control applications. The waveform is highly adaptable, providing flexible bandwidth and data transmission rate. In addition, the technique is applicable to both short and long range applications. In addition, the technique can be used to hide a waveform beneath a dynamically changing noise floor. Proposed simulation, prototype development, and demonstration are described.

G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Terry J. Brennan
AF 06-009      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:A Technique for Estimating the Inner Scale and Strength of Turbulence along an Optical Propagation Path
Abstract:The Kolmogorov spectrum for the refractive index is often assumed for analysis and simulation of optical propagation through turbulence. It is recognized that the Hill spectrum, including inner scale, is a more realistic model of index variations. This model includes a turbulence enhancement in a spectral subrange prior to the inner scale roll-off. Knowledge of this enhancement and the subsequent roll-off is important for predicting the statistics of both phase and scintillation effects. A technique for estimating the inner scale, L0, is proposed which can be implemented as part of a simple sensor system. The proposed inner scale sensor is also capable of estimating the Fried coherence length, r0, and the Greenwood frequency.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5479
Dr. Mikhail Belen'kii
AF 06-009      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Turbulence Inner Scale Sensor
Abstract:Atmospheric turbulence degrades performance of imaging and laser propagation systems. To validate the theoretical predictions, simulation results are often compared to field data. For accurate comparison the power spectral density of the refractive index field along the propagation path including the inner scale of turbulence must be known. However, the inner scale is usually not measured in the experiment. We propose a novel optical inner scale sensor. The proposed sensor has a simple design, and it can operate using a cooperative source, or a star, along arbitrary atmospheric paths that includes the strong scintillation regime both during daytime and night time. In the Phase I program we will validate the sensor concept in simulation, carry out performance analysis and determine design requirements, develop an automated procedure for inner scale determination, perform preliminary field tests, and develop sensor design. In Phase II program we will build the sensor package, test it against independent sensors, and field demonstrate it for practical applications identified by the sponsor.

CU AEROSPACE
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 333-8274
Dr. David Carroll
AF 06-010      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser Diagnostics
Abstract:The primary objective of CU Aerospace's Phase I work will be to investigate and verify advanced non-invasive diagnostic concepts that innovate and improve the capability to measure important discharge produced states of atomic oxygen and ozone under operational Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (EOIL) conditions. Because NO2 is sometimes used in the EOIL system to scavenge O atoms, another byproduct species of interest to measure is NO. The diagnostic tools developed will significantly enhance the understanding of this emerging hybrid laser technology. The results of the Phase I research will lay the foundation for producing calibrated, reliable, and automated diagnostics in Phase II. Efforts in Phase I will focus on modifying the experimental actinometry technique (in use in our lab) for measuring O atoms, while our team partners at Caviton and Southwest Sciences will assist CU Aerospace to select candidate methods for best measuring NO and O3, as well as possible diagnostic techniques for measuring excited states of atomic oxygen. Use of the well-calibrated COIL facility at the University of Illinois will allow these advanced concepts to be economically implemented, compared directly against less sophisticated methods, and examined in detail.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7772
Dr. Manish Gupta
AF 06-010      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Cavity-Enhanced Diagnostic Instrumentation for EOIL Applications
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I research effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop an ultrasensitive diagnostic for EOIL applications. The instrument, which will be based on LGR's proprietary Off-Axis cavity-enhanced technology, will be capable of providing highly accurate, in situ quantification of oxygen (X, a, b), O atoms, ozone, and NO using a variety of near-infrared and visible absorption transitions. In Phase I, sensitive cavity-enhanced measurements will be combined with spectroscopic theory to evaluate the technical feasibility of exploiting quadrupole transitions for oxygen monitoring, visible transitions for O atom quantification, Off-Axis Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for ozone measurements, and near-infrared transitions for nitric oxide determinations. The prospect of employing near-UV, solid state diode lasers will also be investigated, with final Phase I work focusing on selecting an optimal measurement strategy and designing a Phase II prototype.

PCHEMLABS
2401B Phoenix Ave NE
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 872-0037
Dr. Tony C. Smith
AF 06-010      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser Diagnostics
Abstract:The United States Air Force has a critical need for a spectroscopic diagnostic device to detect and record quantitative measurements for species found in an Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser (EOIL). As a solution to this problem, we propose using the sensitive spectroscopic detection method of Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (SRS). To our knowledge, the SRS technique has never been used as an Oxygen Iodine Laser diagnostics. SRS was discovered over 40 years ago. However, the method has received only a limited number of experimental applications due to the expense and complexity of the lasers required. Modern advances in laser systems have produced diode lasers that are tunable, single mode, very stable, and compact. Nd:YAG lasers have become compact, can be single mode, and can operate at high pulsed rates. These types of devices were not available until recently and we believe that they could be used to develop a compact sensitive Stimulated Raman diagnostics. In this proposal, we will perform SRS experiments and use computer models to simulate the data. These models will be used to determine the lower detection limit and prove feasibility of the technique. Optimum SRS parameters would be essential to the development of a Phase II prototype.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Dr. Robert R. Butts
AF 06-011      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Sparse Aperture Image Recovery from Auto and Cross Correlation Data
Abstract:MZA proposes to evaluate a recently published innovative concept that holds great promise for recovery of space object images from sparse telescope array pupil plane sensor data. The technique exploits both auto and cross correlations of data from two wave front sensors mounted on each telescope that measure the amplitude and phase of reflected laser illumination in each of two orthogonal polarizations. MZA is teamed with the inventors of the concept, Professors Dave Voelz of New Mexico State University and Tim Schulz of Michigan Tech University to evaluate its potential for this application. The evaluations will rely heavily on wave optics computer simulations that include the key features of such an imaging system. Simulated WFS data will be generated and input to the image recovery algorithm, and the estimated images will be compared to the objects used in the simulations to synthesize the data. Parameter studies will address the key technical issues for the approach and identify top level system parameters for a system scalable to the required 10 - 30 meter size. A preliminary experiment plan will be developed to support a possible Phase II to conduct laboratory demonstrations of the concept.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Ilya Agurok
AF 06-011      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Synthesized Aperture Multimodule Adaptive Telescope for Characterization of Resident Space Objects
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a new technique for the remote high-resolution imaging and tracking of resident space objects (RSO), Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a new Synthesized Aperture Multimodule Adaptive Telescope (SAPMAT). This telescope combines images from several relatively small and inexpensive modules. The lateral shear interferometers in each of these modules provide real-time wavefront testing, so atmospheric blurring is cleaned off the image by post-computing analysis. The telescope receiver operates in time delay integration mode to compensate all RSO movement without fast telescope steering. The SAPMAT offers significant improvements in the spatial resolution in the images of remote RSOs, while featuring a simple optomechanical design, low-cost manufacturing, simple alignment procedure, and the capability to sequentially enhance performance parameters by adding new modules to the already built telescope. In Phase I POC will build a scaled-down laboratory prototype, develop the image retrieval algorithm, and demonstrate prototype performance. In Phase II, a SAPMAT engineering prototype will be built and delivered to the Air Force for demonstration and testing.

POLARIS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
200 Westside Square, Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-0087
Dr. David Chenault
AF 06-011      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Synthetic/Sparse Aperture Imaging Techniques
Abstract:High resolution imaging of objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has long been a goal. With increased interest in Space Situation Awareness, new of Safety of Flight concerns, and an increase in commercial satellites the ability to image satellites has become even more important. The ability to form high resolution images of RSOs is limited mainly by atmospheric turbulence. In image correlography, the object is illuminated with two polarization states, and an estimate is made of the autocorrelation of the object's brightness function. If two beams of different polarization states are used for illumination, then estimates can be made of the autocorrelation functions of the individual beams and the cross-correlation function from both beams with the atmospheric affect canceled. Formation of an image, then, requires that the object function be recovered from estimates of its correlation functions. Polaris Sensor Technologies is proposing to develop a Pupil plane Imaging Correlography Sensor PICS) Array that is an array of Stokes vector detectors. Such an array is scalable to large aperture sizes. As part of the Phase I, we will design the PICS Array and examine optical, electronic, and mechanical issues associated with the large arrays.

INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC MACHINES
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 449-5504
Mr. Zack Mian
AF 06-015      Awarded: 30MAR06
Title:Wearable Computer for Enhanced Situation Awareness
Abstract:The use of multiple imaging sensors provides information to enhance situational awareness. Hardware for accessing, processing, and displaying the data streams to the user remains bulky, heavy, power-hungry, and expensive. The AFRL has developed a set of algorithms that enable the simultaneous processing of multiple video streams. AFRL has a strong interest in the development of a wearable, low-power computer system to implement these varied vision processing algorithms. International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the development of advanced imaging devices, will develop a Wearable Image Capture and Processing System. WICAPS will achieve the goals by introducing innovative hardware designs that concentrate on maximizing image processing throughput while minimizing power demand and physical size. The core component of WICAPS will consist of a custom designed vision processor system that will run the AFRL image enhancement, target detection and identification, and data fusion algorithms. The final design for WICAPS will include consideration of user input, display options, and human design issues regarding form factor. IEM's skilled team offers more than 200 person-years of combined experience in development of advanced imaging systems, including customized electronic control systems, multispectral imaging and data fusion, and specialized smart video processing tools.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Mr. Jonathan Graf
AF 06-015      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Wearable Computer for Enhanced Situational Awareness
Abstract:Luna Innovations, partnering with Virginia Tech's Configurable Computing Laboratory, shall develop a wearable computer system that leverages the advantages of a unique configurable architecture to dynamically balance requirements for performance, connectivity, power, weight, usability, and ergonomics. Focusing initially on image processing for target detection, target recognition, and situational awareness, Luna shall research a broad array of potential applications for wearable computing within the Air Force. Driven by these applications, the architecture in development will utilize a balance of COTS and custom components to maintain the flexibility to meet mission-specific performance, power, and weight requirements. The key to this flexibility is an architecture built around FPGA-based configurable computing, which permits the reconfiguration of system hardware at runtime. This reconfigurability will allow the architecture to be quickly modified to upgrade or downgrade system performance, features, and connectivity to meet mission-specific battery life, weight, and communications requirements. The Phase I program will consist of applications research, architectural development, and a proof-of-concept prototype for the reconfigurable architecture.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7780
Mr. Dan Bindbeutel
AF 06-015      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:Wearable Computer for Enhanced Situation Awareness
Abstract:With the use of imagery and advanced sensors proliferating on the battlefield, tools need to be provided which allow individual dismounted users to leverage them effectively and efficiently. To date, these sensor fusion and hyperspectral technologies have relied heavily on the computational power afforded by dedicated DSPs & FPGAs. Sensor fusion and 3D systems consisting of COTS and/or developmental components have proven extremely effective for the purpose of enhanced imaging, though they are usually restricted to mounted platforms where power, cooling and size are less of a concern than for the dismounted individual warfighter. Trident proposes to develop a man-wearable system which not only provides the computational strength to perform the tasks of real-time sensor fusion, image enhancement, target recognition, and tracking, but also provides an open upgradeable platform which is capable of conforming to new and diverse sensor technologies, along with the data network connectivity to allow efficient sharing of situational awareness information-the Wearable Adaptive Sensor Fusion Platform, or WASP.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
26 Castilian Drive, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
AF 06-016      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:Decision Support Technologies for Weapon System Logistics Investment Decisions
Abstract:The defense procurement budget has fallen significantly from its peak, and DoD and the military services are demanding more performance for less cost. Credible engineering and logistics analysis tools and methods are needed to assess realistic benefits of proposed investments. The Logistics Composite Model (LCOM) provides an important assessment capability to ensure operations and support data from all sources can be integrated and used to understand the system performance and affordability of various logistics support options. LCOM is a very large and detailed simulation model. The complexity associated with numerous data conversion programs, input files, preprocessor programs, simulation program, temporary or intermediate files, post-processor programs, and output files leads to lost productivity and potential mistakes due to poor data management and inaccurate or incomplete configuration control. This multi-phase research will develop a PC-based capability to provide a seamless operation, configuration control, and training for LCOM analysts. The capability would increase the productivity of analysts and their assessments that are essential to logistics activities focused on improving war-readiness of operational systems. This capability will improve planning for support of new systems and help to ensure systems remain affordable throughout their lifecycle.

ORION INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2201 Buena Vista Dr. SE, Suite 211
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 998-4000
Mr. Joe Barfoot
AF 06-016      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Decision Support Technologies for Weapon System Logistics Investment Decisions
Abstract:The proposed project offers a solution to an important problem faced by logistics planners in their endeavor to optimize defense spending. The problem is that the automation tools that are available to the logistics analyst are not integrated and therefore are cumbersome to run. For example, the Logistics Composite Model (LCOM), a primary tool used by planners, requires time consuming manual intervention to perform an analysis. It runs only in a batch mode, preventing analysts from interacting with a simulation. ORION will respond to this need by providing a modern, integrated logistics modeling environment allowing seamless LCOM executable, analysis of intermediate LCOM results, and integration with other products.. To develop a fully integrated LCOM, ORION will use our tested and validated software integration framework, Umbra, which we have co-developed with Sandia National Laboratories. Exploiting our previous experience in integrating other complex simulation models using Umbra, ORION will create a graphical user interface for operating a single executable created by the Umbra environment. This Umbra-LCOM integrated system will be demonstrated at the Air Force Research Laboratory using the F-16 data set. The demonstration will have supporting experimental data to show its preliminary validation.

APPLIED SCIENCE INNOVATIONS, INC.
1223 Peoples Ave
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 833-6897
Dr. Mikhail Gutin
AF 06-017      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Laser Eye Protection Field Evaluation Device
Abstract:Applied Science Innovations (ASI) proposes development of the Field Evaluation Device for Laser Eye Protection (FEDLEP) to measure the optical density (OD) of laser eye protection (LEP) devices in operational military units. Laser radiation creates significant hazards and threats of ocular injury. Several types of existing LEP provide protection, different in design and wavelengths covered. Wrong LEP may be erroneously selected. LEP may deteriorate over their lifetime. A pressing need to "field check" LEP exists, currently unsatisfied. The proposed FEDLEP will be a user friendly, self-contained, moderately priced device for testing LEP OD in operational flying squadrons. The small device will be secure to operate in non-secure shops, in either scanning mode or at a single wavelength over the 400 to 1400 nm range and measure the OD as a function of wavelength. Phase I will establish feasibility of the FEDLEP concept; Phase II will result in a first generation preproduction prototype system. The ability to measure spectral OD will enable field tests of LEP immediately prior to their use by the Air Force and other branches of the Armed Services. Other commercial applications of ODIS will be in testing eye protection gear in the industry and law enforcement.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography Division, 20600 Gram
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Tin M. Aye
AF 06-017      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Dual Optical Ultrawide Band Laser Eyeware Transmission Field Evaluation Device
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for a fully enclosed laser eye protection evaluation device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new high-resolution, high-dynamic-range, self-calibrated, compact, and security protective Dual Optical UltrawideBand Laser Eyeware Transmission (DOUBLET) densitometer. DOUBLET is based on efficient POC ultrawideband transmission holograms and a fully symmetrical, robust, simple, and reliable bulk-optics design with no moving parts, ensuring long-term stability, DOUBLET provides 1.5 nm resolution and 0-5 OD range. It incorporates two sets of independent multispectral channels (for 400-750 nm visible and 750 1400 nm IR ranges) with identical optical components and geometry. The proposed DOUBLET densitometer is sensitive to 0.1 OD, light-efficient, and lightweight. In Phase I POC will demonstrate DOUBLET feasibility with a proof-of-concept device in a laboratory by designing, modeling, and analyzing the performance of its components and main functions: 1000 nm wide optical density measurements, wavelength identification, and self-calibration. In Phase II POC plans to develop an integrated version of the DOUBLET prototype and fully exploit its superior capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Dr. Randy van Daalen Wetters
AF 06-017      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Laser Eye Protection Field Evaluation Device
Abstract:The Air Force 311th Human Systems Wing at Brooks City-Base, San Antonio, Texas, has a requirement to develop a Laser Eye Protection (LEP) Field Evaluation Device to "field check" protection levels of LEP devices such as goggles, visors, and spectacles. The team of Technology Service Corporation (TSC) and Newport Stratford is proposing an innovative and cost-effective solution to this requirement based on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. A COTS spectrophotometer will be utilized along with Si (Silicon) and InGaAs (Indium Gallium Arsenide) detectors to provide the required wavelength scan region. The spectrophotometer will utilize a tungsten-halogen broadband light source, a scanning monochromator, and a Merlin digital lock-in radiometry system for data acquisition. A PC-based controller with a removable hard drive will provide control via a graphical operator interface. The Field Evaluation Device and controller will be housed in a secured enclosure to preclude unauthorized access. Software encryption techniques will be utilized to safeguard classified data. In Phase I, TSC and Newport Stratford will investigate this approach and others, perform a technology feasibility assessment, and provide a demonstration at Brooks City-Base. Top-level designs and a technology development plan will then be prepared towards development of the Field Evaluation Device in Phase II.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Mr. Daniel Tingstrom
AF 06-018      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:MLIDS, a Machine Learning Intrusion Detection System
Abstract:High-fidelity simulation environments using Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) may be attacked by enemies wishing to subvert the simulation performance and results. To detect, mitigate, and inoculate against such attacks, ATC-NY, in collaboration with Architecture Technology Corporation and Cornell University Professor Thorsten Joachims, will develop the Machine Learning Intrusion Detection System (MLIDS). We will locate specific features in High Level Architecture (HLA) and Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) that prove to be significant when attacks occur, and build HLA and DIS profiles that separate these features' values into two categories: when attacks take place and when they do not take place. MLIDS will use Support Vector Machines (SVMs), a new learning system based on recent advances in statistical learning theory, to build profiles for HLA and DIS and detect malicious DMO network traffic in real-time. MLIDS will alert the network administrator to abnormal-and hence possibly malicious-traffic in real-time and provide guidance in dealing with attacks. To create MLIDS, the ATC-NY team will develop novel technologies for classifying network intrusions in HLA and DIS simulation environments.

BRUSHFIRE TECHNOLOGIES
1216 E. Kenosha, #186
Broken Arrow, OK 74012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(918) 645-3494
Mr. Teddy Wyatt
AF 06-018      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Network Threat Monitoring, Intrusion Detection and Alert System for Distributed Mission Operations (DMO)
Abstract:Brushfire Technologies proposes to adapt our secure local area network gateway to the unique requirements of the DMO network to detect, analyze and mitigate security threats in real time with no adverse affects on network performance. Security analysis based on real time packet inspection coupled with application awareness and heuristically derived network topology information provides unprecedented levels of security. The speicifics of the modifications required revolve around the unique protocols and data structures used in HLA/DIS compliant federates. Our completely flexible architecture is perfectly suited for this type of application. A prototype demonstration during this Phase I project will show that the packet processing and threat detection capabilities are in place to warrant moving on to phase II.

ALPHAMICRON, INC.
277 Martinel Dr.
Kent, OH 44240
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 676-0648
Dr. Jon Ruth
AF 06-019      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:VALiD Visor: Variable Attenuation Liquid Crystal Device on Double-Curved Flexible Plastic Substrates
Abstract:An electronically controlled Variable Transmittance Visor (VTV) will permit a pilot to use a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system at maximum effectiveness in all lighting conditions without having to add or remove fixed-tint visors. This project will investigate the material and process advancements necessary to adapt AlphaMicron's patented VALiDT guest-host liquid crystal technology and its patented thermoforming system to the fabrication of a large area, double-curved liquid crystal device employing flexible plastic substrates. A key issue will be the development of a transparent conductive material which is compatible with the significant deformations necessary to successfully thermoform a liquid crystal device to conform to the Air Force's HGU-55/P visor.

ASHWIN-USHAS CORP., INC.
206 Ticonderoga Blvd.
Freehold, NJ 07728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 462-1270
Dr. P. Chandrasekhar
AF 06-019      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Unique Thin-Film, Flexible Electrochromics for Helmet Visor Application
Abstract:In recently completed work, this firm has developed a novel, flexible thin-film electrochromics technology, based on unique Conducting Polymer electrochromic layers on very thin, transparent, conductive plastic (about 0.92 mil or 24 microns thick). This technology's features include: Large Visible-region dynamic range 12% - 70%, (Ratio 7, Delta > 50%); flexible, thin-film, plastic, hermetically-sealed construction (thickness 50 to 125 microns); impervious to bending/flexing (see data below); affixable with space-qualified pressure sensitive adhesive to any surface/ shape; variable area/shape ([1 cm X 1 cm] to [30 cm X 30 cm], cuttable with scissors; excellent "optical memory"; Very low power/voltage (+/- 3 VDC, 20 W/cm2, peak transient 1 mW/cm2 ); rapid switching time; Operate -20 to +70 C; cyclability 3 X 10^4 cycles; microprocessor-based (drive electronics); low cost; fail-to-clear with Controller. The present work will adapt this technology to the visors, by lowering switching time to < 1 s, applying anti-UV coating, demonstrating affixation on highly/multiply-curved polycarbonate surfaces, larger area coverage, and further reduction of power.

ECLIPSE ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 344-7300
Dr. Hulya Demiryont
AF 06-019      Awarded: 08JUN06
Title:Trimable Solid State Electrochromic Flight Visor
Abstract:Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMDs) prevent the pilot from raising or lowering a tinted visor when moving from a high to low light level condition. Eclipse Energy Systems, Inc., has developed and demonstrated an electrochromic all solid state variable transmittance visor that is: low power; rapidly transitioning; trimable; spectrally neutral; and clear failing. The device can be cut or trimmed with scissors and remains operational. Commercially available vacuum deposition chambers may be used to deposit the device on complex curved polycarbonate substrate. Eclipse devices have a transmission range of 18% to 50% at 550 nm with a transition time of 5 seconds, fails clear, and have cycled over 600,000 times. However, anticipating the need for faster and wider modulation range devices, Eclipse has also developed and a rapid switching large range device that modulates between 20% to 80% in less then 2 seconds with a millisecond response time (although a less mature technology than the 18% to 50% modulation range device). Rockwell Collins, a leading provider of HMDs for the Warfighter, has agreed to provide subcontractor services for operational, engineering, and manufacturing analysis (see attached letter). Eclipse/Partners plan to Fast Track the Phase II effort with non SBIR funds.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Jeffrey L. Boehme
AF 06-019      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Electroactive, High Optical Quality Helmet Visors Proposal
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a variable optical transmission helmet visor of high optical quality. The visor system is composed of a thin-film electroactive device that covers the entire visor surface. An external electronic controller allows the pilot to tune the light transmission between 85% and 20%. The device incorporates an electrochromic material that actively absorbs incident light rather than change its index of refraction like liquid crystal technology. PSI will synthesize and evaluate the electrochromic materials both electrochemically and optically in Phase I. These materials will be used to make planar electroactive devices. The Phase I results will demonstrate rapid, high contrast optical modulation of the device without distortions or coloration. Device demonstrations on doubly curved polycarbonate substrates will be performed in Phase II.

3F, LLC
5448 Apex Peakway #222
Apex, NC 27502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 341-4178
Dr. Larry Dickinson
AF 06-020      Awarded: 06APR06
Title:NANOFIBER NONWOVEN BASED AIRCREW PERSONNEL LOWERING DEVICE
Abstract:Nanofiber nonwoven spunbonded materials technology is adapted for use in a personnel lowering device. The resulting device will be simple, easy to use, and relatively low cost.

CREARE, INC.
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Patrick J. Magari
AF 06-020      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Advanced Aircrew Personnel Lowering Device
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a modern aircrew personnel lowering device (PLD) to help parachutists extricate themselves from trees. The existing PLD design is over three decades old and is large and cumbersome. A more compact and streamlined device is desired as a future replacement. Creare proposes to develop a new PLD that uses a small, high-strength cord, a friction device that operates independent of the cord, and a novel thermal management approach. Several PLD systems that utilize these basic design concepts are proposed for further study and development in Phase I. In Phase I, we will evaluate preliminary system designs using finite element models to evaluate structural integrity and thermal management. The most promising concepts will be evaluated by constructing and testing prototype hardware. In Phase II, we will develop a complete prototype system, provide evaluation units to the Air Force, and work with a manufacturing partner to develop a manufacturing prototype.

PROTOTYPE PRODUCTIONS, INC.
21641 Beaumeade Circle , Suite 311
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 858-0011
Dr. Paul Howard
AF 06-020      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Aircrew Personnel Lowering Device
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force has identified a need to improve the current Aircrew Personnel Lowering Device (PLD), which was developed during the Vietnam era. Since that time, there have been significant advances in materials that can reduce the PLD's size and weight. For Phase I, Prototype Productions, Inc. (PPI) proposes to use advanced engineering design software and a detailed engineering analysis to investigate the feasibility of developing an innovative PLD. PPI has met with U.S. Air Force life support personnel and examined the current PLD. PPI has also researched advanced materials and identified several that are appropriate for the next generation PLD. PPI has developed six preliminary design options. The requirements and performance criteria for a replacement PLD will be studied and a design-tradeoff analysis will be performed on the six preliminary design concepts. The key high risk area will be the development of an effective braking mechanism that will provide the required performance while dissipating significant amounts of heat. Upon determination of design feasibility, the successful Phase I efforts will transfer into the development and production of a Personnel Lowering Device that, at a minimum, reduces the size and weight of the present PLD by a factor of two.

WIZBE INNOVATIONS
167 Kerns Hill Rd
Manchester, ME 04351
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 485-5690
Mr. Stan Farrell
AF 06-020      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Aircrew Personnel Lowering Device
Abstract:The Air Force has a need for an innovative solution to help parachutists that become trapped in trees or wires lower themselves to the ground safely and easily. The current personnel lowering device being used by the Air Force is bulky and inconvenient to use. Wizbe Innovations is proposing to develop an aircrew personnel lowering device expected to be simple to use, lightweight, and compact. Unlike the system currently being used or other conventional rappelling systems that requires the person being lowered to manually let the rope out, the proposed system will be automatically controlled to keep a constant rate even with different loads. In the Phase I, Wizbe Innovations plans to develop a working prototype capable of meeting the Air Forces requirements. In Phase II, the device will be tested by the Air Force and Wizbe Innovations will prepare a manufacturing process to make the devices.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Red Hill Avenue, Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8925
Dr. Jon Stern
AF 06-022      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Next Generation Architecture for Night Vision Imaging
Abstract:In this proposal ISC, working in conjunction with R3Logic proposes to develop a three-dimensional imaging and processing module that overcomes the limitation of I2 tubes for night vision systems. The proposed solution incorporates a sensor, high-performance image processing, a microdisplay and all the required support electronics. The inclusion of digital signal processing will enable enhancement of the night vision imagery beyond what can currently be achieved. The system must be incorporated into a very restricted form-factor. This is only enabled by using a three-dimensional packaging technology that allows the integration of multiple, heterogeneous integrated circuits in to a high-density stack that possesses all the benefits of a monolithic device. An architecture for the Digital Image Intensifier (DI2) system will be designed following trade studies to select the optimum components. Particular attention will be given to minimizing power consumption and to the thermal design of the 3D stack.

OASYS TECHNOLOGY, LLC.
25 Sundial Ave., Suite 404
Manchester, NH 03103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 232-8221
Mr. Brett Rosner
AF 06-022      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Next Generation Architecture for Night Vision Imaging
Abstract:This proposal is submitted to develop a new device architecture for enhancing vision under low illumination conditions and enabling out-of-band operation. The proposed effort includes establishing the optimal set of subcomponents and interfaces to realize the end system under constraints of size, power, and performance. The effort addresses the entire system including the optical front-end, SWIR sensor (1280x1024 as baseline), image processing engine with a robust processing set, high resolution display, and overall packaging for military compatible environments. Appropriate trade studies will be made to identify and mitigate risk of system implementation.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. David Schut
AF 06-022      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Next Generation Architecture for Night Vision Imaging
Abstract:In this effort, the architectures for a solid-state night vision goggle (NVG) will be developed and the key technology features of the head-mounted devices solid-state, imaging device demonstrated. The approach is based on 3-D stacked circuit technology. Leveraging our previous work in this area, we will demonstrate a low light level imaging transceiver that includes a back-thinned, CMOS imager bonded and interconnected to an intermediate processing circuit, and to an OLED; thereby forming a 3-D solid state night vision device. In Phase I, we will investigate and perform a tradeoff of the system technologies. We will then fuse a prototype imaging device to an OLED to form a stacked image transceiver. Although not expected to achieve the NVG-level performance, by combining multiple device layers with a high-density inter-layer interconnect, 3-D integration of the functions of the NVG will be shown to provide benefits, such as image fusion, not available with current tube-based technology. The technology demonstrated in Phase I will provide an excellent foundation for a Phase II program, where improvements to each of the key components will be made, the image processing functional circuits will be developed, and a prototype fabricated and demonstrated.

APPLIED NANOTECH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd., Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Dr. James P Novak
AF 06-023      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:A Solid-State Sensor to Identify and Quantify Contaminants in Cockpit Air
Abstract:Applied Nanotech, Inc. will design and develop a sensor package. This sensor package will be capable of sensing various hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, particulate debris and smoke contaminants in aircraft cockpit air. Our sensor is based on solid-state sensing elements attached to a single platform and will maximize sensitivity, selectivity and specificity. Production units will be low cost, lightweight and highly reliable.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5242
Dr. Roger Xu
AF 06-023      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:A High Performance, Low Cost, and Compact E-nose System for Pollutants Detection
Abstract:Detection and quantification of contaminants is of great significance for environmental monitor to both military and air space traveling. Although many existing sniffing devices may be used for pollutants detection, the size, cost, weight, and portability are primary concern in the development of a field deployable sniffing devices. Herein we propose to build high performance, low cost, compact, and reliable e-nose devices for contaminants detection and quantification. The system has three key features. First, we have identified an e-nose chip family, called "MEMS conductometric gas sensor", developed by Boston Microsystems. In addition to small size and low cost, the chip is very reliable, selectivity and sensitivity for specific contaminant components based on it's unique Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology on MOS microhotplate arrays. Second, we propose to use Support Vector Machines (SVM) to improve the accuracy of contaminants classification and nonlinear unmixing for accurate contaminant components concentration estimation in a mixture. SVM has several attractive advantages and better classification performance than most other classifiers. Most existing unmixing methods are linear in nature. However, our proposed unmixing is a nonlinear approach, which addresses the nonlinear relationship between e-nose responses and different contaminant compounds. Finally, we will use a PDA to collect the e-nose sensor reading and analyze the data. We believe that our proposed system can find many applications.

NSC TECHNOLOGY
200 Rano Blvd, 4A10
Vestal, NY 13850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 797-0728
Dr. Jin Luo
AF 06-023      Awarded: 02MAY06
Title:Development of Portable Sensor Array Systems for Monitoring Air Contaminants in Cockpit
Abstract:This Phase-I proposal addresses the need specified in AirForce SBIR 06.1 under the Topic Index of AF06-023 "Advanced Sensor to Identify and Quantify Contaminants in Cockpit Air". In view of the complexity of the air contaminants in aircraft cockpit, highly sensitive and selective sensor array technology is needed to achieve the effective detection and speciation. This proposed work focuses on the development of portable sensor array technology that couples with nanostructured sensing materials and pattern recognition engine which can simultaneously detect multiple targeted vapors. The phase I goal is to develop the feasibility of a portable, low-power driven, cost-effective sensor array prototype capable of detecting, identifying, and quantifying pollutants in cockpit air such as fuel vapor, carbon monoxide, and smoke. Our approach couples a new class of core-shell structured nanomaterials as array elements to chemiresistive devices in an integrated system. We will pursue the following specific objectives in the Phase I funding period: (1) design nanostructured sensing materials on chemiresistor devices; (2) testing the array nanomaterials in detecting the targeted contaminants with the desired sensitivity, selectivity, detecting limit and response speed; and (3) build a prototype integrated system with sensing arrays, pattern recognition and device miniaturization.

OWLSTONE
600 Lexington Avenue, 29th Floor
New York, NY 10022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 583-0098
Mr. Andrew Koehl
AF 06-023      Awarded: 04MAY06
Title:Advanced Sensor to Identify and Quantify Contaminants in Cockpit Air
Abstract:We propose an innovative microchip array detection technology for combined chemical and particulate detection in the context of air quality monitoring in aircraft cockpits. The proposed technology will be able to identify and quantify particulates according size and identify and quantify volatile chemical pollutant sources (e.g. fuel vapors, hydraulic fluids) according to their "smell fingerprint." Our approach is to integrate laser diode based light scattering particle detection arrays (LSPDA's), with Owlstone's breakthrough microchip chemical detection technology to provide a single, highly compact packaged unit with combined chemical and particle detection capability.

SYNKERA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
2021 Miller Dr., Suite B
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 494-8401
Ms. Debra Deininger
AF 06-023      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Advanced Sensor to Identify and Quantify Contaminants in Cockpit Air
Abstract:This Phase I project will focus on the development of a suite of sensors for detection of cockpit air pollutants including fuel vapor, hydraulic fluid, heat exchanger fluid, carbon monoxide, particle debris and smoke. The sensors will be based upon advances in nanotechnology and ceramic micromachining. The sensors will be based upon a combination of technologies including catalytic and chemiresistance measurements. Synkera's unique nanoporous, micromachined sensing platform offers advantages in cost, size, power consumption and overall sensor performance including reliability, sensitivity and selectivity. These sensors, together with commercial off the shelf components (COTS) where applicable, will be capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying all of the potential cockpit pollutants listed above. Detection of these pollutants in the cockpit may provide an early warning of system failures, and will also warn the pilot of pollutants before levels are reached that could lead to pilot incapacitation.

EFFECTIVE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS, INC.
nVision Networks Inc, 1014 Narciso Court
San Jose, CA 95129
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 480-7707
Mr. Ramakrishnan Srinivasan
AF 06-024      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:COAT: A Protocol for Control Oriented Adaptive Transport
Abstract:We shall investigate, design and demonstrate an adaptive protocol called COAT (Control Oriented Adaptive Transport). In contrast with static and linear protocols such as TCP, COAT will be designed to be control-oriented and situation specific. COAT will therefore be applicable to widely varying network and application conditions commonly encountered in DoD On-The-Move (OTM) networks. COAT assembles data plane and transmission control plane micro-protocols into a coherent stack, while preserving binary application compatibility with existing applications as well as offering a strategy for communication compatibility with legacy nodes. COAT incorporates network sensors which sense and characterize the network state in terms of key control variables, which are then used to control COAT data plane and transmission control plane micro-protocols. COAT architecture also allows the inclusion of application utility oriented sensing and control for mixed mode application class support. In Phase 1, we will demonstrate COAT benefits over TCP by using an emulation test bed of DoD airborne links commonly employed in a Joint Forces experiment. Our team incorporates a wide variety of skills including the networking technology expertise, entrepreneurial track record, standards development and DoD transition of emergent technology.

SAN DIEGO RESEARCH CENTER, INC.
6696 Mesa Ridge Road, Suite A
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 623-9424
Dr. Bo Ryu
AF 06-024      Awarded: 12APR06
Title:Robust and Efficient Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (RE-MANET) Protocols Standard
Abstract:SDRC proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel networking protocol standard for a broad spectrum of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) that changes the paradigm of the traditional "wire-based" wireless networking algorithms and protocols. The vision of Network-Center Operations strongly demands the needs for robust MANET technologies to support dynamic missions with prudent and effective resource use. Unlike most MANET solutions heavily relying on the wired network architecture (current TCP/IP paradigm) by emulating the wired connectivity, the proposed architecture, namely Robust and Efficient MANET (RE-MANET), is founded on the thorough understanding of the fundamental characteristics of distributed wireless networks, legacy architectural principles and algorithms that have been proven successful, and unique Air Force requirements. As a result, it provides the platform on which more robust, more efficient, and more effective protocols and algorithms can be readily developed that are inherently good for a wide range of distributed applications operating under highly dynamic wireless environment. SDRC will vigorously pursue the wide adoption of the proposed architecture and protocols by actively participating IETF MANET working group via frequent presentations and draft publications that will eventually lead to IETF RFCs.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Craig Haimson
AF 06-025      Awarded: 06APR06
Title:Pedagogical Agents for TPED Training
Abstract:We propose to develop the TPED Pedagogical Agent Coaching Technology (T-PACT) which will comprise a system of agent-based models and supporting technologies that enable the insertion of pedagogically-driven synthetic teammates within CrossCue, a simulation-based ISR training environment. The T-PACT system will consist of two primary agent-based components: the Adaptive Story Agent (ASA) and the Supervisory Instruction Agent (SIA). The ASA will help to bring about scenario events that create opportunities for exercising key individual- and team-level ISR-specific competencies while the SIA will assess the adequacy of student responses to these events and deliver individually-tailored instructional feedback. In addition, the ASA and SIA will be supported by the Integrated Scenario Model (ISM), which will manage agent-interpretable representations of CrossCue scenario materials, in addition to storing records of the events that occur within CrossCue scenarios and the actions that trainees generate in response to these events. Taken together, the ASA, SIA, and ISM will represent a powerful solution for using a synthetic teammate presence to deliver adaptive, effective training and assessment in a simulated ISR environment.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
AF 06-025      Awarded: 11APR06
Title:Exploiting Meta-Information to Train Sensor Operators (EMITS)
Abstract:A sensor operator performing tasking, processing, exploitation, and dissemination (TPED) during intelligence operations is often inadequately prepared to reason about the qualifiers of the information, or meta-information, resulting in poor situational awareness and decision-making. To address this inadequacy, we propose to design and demonstrate a system for Exploiting Meta-Information to Train Sensor Operators (EMITS). Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a work domain analysis in the context of a realistic scenario to understand how expert and novice operators reason differently about meta-information, develop training scenarios addressing difficulties faced by novice operators, develop a knowledge base of sources and types of information and meta-information, and provide insight into existing training and its shortcomings. Second, we will design and demonstrate an agent-based instruction system that integrates representations of key human and non-human entities in the TPED process, intelligent training techniques that incorporate meta-information concepts, and that include user interfaces for the trainee and for the design of training scenarios. Third, we will validate our overall approach to training and develop measures for trainee assessment in the proposed system. We will leverage our team's expertise in sensor fusion systems, meta-information concepts, and training system development to rapidly demonstrate EMITS.

BCL COMPUTERS
990 Linden Dr., Suite 203
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 249-4126
Mr. Hassan Alam
AF 06-026      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Linguist's Ambiguity Tutor and Rehearsal System (LATARS)
Abstract:BCL plans to research methods to develop Linguist's Ambiguity Tutor and Rehearsal System (LATARS) that trains US military personnel in a new language along with the subtleties of correct semantics of ambiguous, double meaning, and slang phrases. The overall approach will use COTS language specific NLP parsers, lexicons, semantic processing, thematic role assignment, semantic heuristics, single semantic representation and word sense disambiguation techniques to rapidly train systems for the subtleties mentioned above for multiple languages and environments. In its Phase I work, BCL will develop a prototype LATARS for the Arabic language. With the ongoing war against terrorism, understanding the subtleties of Arabic is a key requirement for U.S. military personnel deployed overseas. The prototype system will train on text from emails, chat rooms, voice transcriptions, memos and published documents that will be put in a document repository. At the end of the Phase I research BCL will evaluate the Arabic LATARS for disambiguation, and understanding of slang phrases. In Phase II BCL will work with the Air Force to develop a prototype LATARS for two additional languages. Possible languages of interest include those used by countries potentially working on WMD such as Farsi (Persian), Urdu/Hindi and Korean.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 06-027      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:Evolutionary Algorithm-based Counterspace Operations Training System
Abstract:The space segment forms a critical element of our global military dominance. With support for ISR, navigation, communications, and targeting for military operations, we have an ever-burgeoning reliance on our space systems. This reliance provides a potential opportunity to our adversaries to mitigate and attack our key space segment nodes. Additionally, the potential militarization of space by our adversaries only further exacerbates this vulnerability. To that end, the US Air Force is placing a heavy emphasis on maintaining space superiority by both refining doctrine and developing command and control and decision supports systems for protecting our space infrastructure. An associated emphasis must also be placed on the warfighter engaged in space operations, and specifically the associated training required by such counterspace operators. To address this opportunity in the Air Force counterspace military training domain, we propose to design and prototype an Evolutionary Algorithm-based Counterspace Operations Training System (EACOTS). EACOTS incorporates an evolutionary algorithm-based scenario generation and analysis component to stimulate appropriate training user responses and to achieve a real-time environment for enhanced OCS/DCS training. Additionally, the proposed system leverages our on-going work with AFRL/VS to develop counterspace decision support systems and with AFRL/HE to develop intuitive counterspace user interfaces.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North, P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3770
Mr. Daniel Bowdler
AF 06-027      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:Gaming and Training Environment for Counter Space Operations
Abstract:The Phase I effort will develop specifications for applying a gaming environment to the training, rehearsing, and exercising of Offensive and Defensive Counterspace (OCS/DCS) Operations. Our team will innovatively apply our state-of-the-art commercial gaming engine, coupled with advanced human engineering, human performance, and training system development expertise to craft a set of specifications that effectively meet the requirements of the OCS/DCS warfare area, while being economical to fully develop. The specifications will support the range (detect, identify, track, and disrupt) of OCS/DCS training, rehearsing, and exercise requirements, from individual to team-level support. We see three key supporting technical objectives: gaining an understanding of the OCS/DCS domain; determining the appropriate technologies that will support our envisioned approach; and developing the specifications. The final specifications will support our aggressive commercialization strategy. Due to the Team's intellectual skills and on-going related technologies, we intend to produce a game-based proof-of-concept application that will demonstrate the value and technical validity of our approach.

MAXENTRIC TECHNOLOGIES LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 272-8800
Mr. Houman Ghajari
AF 06-029      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:Untethered Datalinks for Use in Simulation Environments
Abstract:The 60 GHz frequency band possesses the potential for secure, low-power, and high-data rate communication links. Current implementations of V-band wireless links are severely impaired by challenges such as shadowing. MaXentric's 60 GHz ViFi system is an effective method that overcomes the major challenges of deploying reliable 60 GHz networks. ViFi's flexible architecture permits utilization of an ultra-wide bandwidth to achieve tens of gigabits in data throughput. ViFi incorporates advanced Integrated Circuit technology that allows a highly compact implementation that offers compatibility with individually-worn simulation training devices. Both the protocol and physical nature of the ViFi system permits individual security levels. A Phase II realization of ViFi will enable an untethered immersive training environment that promises to enhance the Air Force's preparedness for future conflicts.

RPA ELECTRONICS DESIGN, LLC
1285 Chenango Street
Binghamton, NY 13901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 771-0393
Mr. Richard Pray
AF 06-029      Awarded: 06APR06
Title:Untethered Datalinks for Use in Simulation Environments
Abstract:Accurate simulation of portable visual devices, such as binoculars, hand held sensors and displays, and helmet mounted displays have been greatly limited by the necessity for cabled solutions to support the bandwidth required to provide high resolution video. As such, tethers on such systems have created unrealistic constraints, not there in real world operation. Such constraints can lead to decreased training value. The combination of high definition television (HDTV) development, combined with computer data networking's ever increased demand for increased bandwidth provides for mechanisms to be leveraged to solve the tethered portable device issues in simulation. Selecting the proper technologies for simulation, adapting them for optimization of simulation effectiveness, and creating a flexible platform to support designs of both today and future enhancements is essential to solving the tethered problem. This proposal outlines the tasks required to analyze the available consumer technologies and leverage current SBIR developments to enhance their performance to meet the rigorous demands to be imposed by high fidelity training systems.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2449
Ms. Emily Wiese
AF 06-030      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:SPADE: Scenario-based Performance Assessment for Dynamic Environments
Abstract:There are numerous challenges associated with maintaining high-quality performance in complex operational environments. For Air Weapons Controllers (AWCs) maintaining high levels of proficiency is a critical and challenging task because of the complexity of the domain. AWCs are primarily responsible for enhancing the situational awareness of the fighter pilots with whom they are working. Opportunities for practicing skills for maintaining situational awareness are often limited by requirements for full crews of human teammates, qualified instructors, and access to full-up simulation platforms. Even in Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) training environments, the focus of training is often not on the AWC. The AWC primarily serves a supporting role to the pilots during DMO exercises. Thus, assessment and feedback of the AWC's performance is often a peripheral activity for the instructor. What formal methods of assessment do exist involve analyses of observed performance that do not provide immediate feedback to trainees. To meet these challenges we propose developing Scenario-based Performance Assessment for Dynamic Environments (SPADE), a vignette-based tool for assessing AWC performance before and after a DMO exercise. Based on MECSM products, SPADE will provide competency-based training and assessment opportunities to AWCs in order to supplement and maximize current DMO training.

MICRO ANALYSIS & DESIGN, INC.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 347-6117
Dr. Thomas Carolan
AF 06-030      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Knowledge Assessment System for Evaluating Performance in Dynamic Environments
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory has identified the need for an interactive knowledge assessment tools that provide realistic vignette examples to support performance assessment in Distributed Mission Operations (DMO). Assessments of improvements and gaps in Mission Essential Competencies (MEC) Knowledge and Skills are used to evaluate DMO training effectiveness and guide training decisions. Micro Analysis & Design, Inc. and Lumir Research Institute, Inc., have proposed to conduct innovative research and development to provide a software tool that supports and augments DMO training by providing psychometrically valid assessments of an individual's mission essential knowledge as a result of performance during DMO training. The proposed approach will leverage and extend current knowledge assessment methodologies and provide realistic vignettes with targeted mission element examples to evaluate the individual's application of specific MEC knowledge elements during situation assessment and decision making performance. A Phase I proof of concept demonstration will be developed for an Air Weapons Controller mission. The level of fidelity of the assessment environment will address a need for realistic continuation training for Air Weapons Controllers. Proposed enhancements include functionality to support: distributed assessment via Internet/SIPRNET, authoring of assessment vignettes/items, feedback for mission element rehearsal, and adaptive sequencing for diagnostic assessment.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 457-4245
Mr. Larry Solecki
AF 06-031      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Agent-based Reduction of Information Density (ARID)
Abstract:Information overload and cluttered user interfaces cause decreased situational awareness and lowered performance of the human operators. Irrelevant data increases searching times for tasks requiring the identification of threats, causing delayed decisions. Cognitive burden on the user increases as displays become more cluttered, which results in increased operator stress leading to poorer decisions. 21st Century Systems, Incorporated (21CSI) is pleased to propose to research and develop an intelligent agent-based system for the automatic de-cluttering of representational UAV command and control interfaces. 21CSI's Agent-based Reduction of Information Density (ARID) concept encompasses the development of an ontological representation of the problem domain and user interface elements, design of a set of intelligent agents, and the development of a proof-of-concept implementation to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. Intelligent agents can reduce the cognitive load imposed upon an operator by de-emphasizing those aspects of a display that can be inferred as less-important to the mission goals. Similarly, an intelligent agent can draw the operator's attention to high-priority events or situations. ARID agents will be based upon ontological reasoning and feedback learning mechanisms to deliver a significant improvement over the simplistic rules-based systems that represent the current state of the art.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
AF 06-031      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Designing and Enhancing Declutter Algorithms for UAV Systems (DAEDALUS)
Abstract:Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have demonstrated their extraordinary potential to support combat missions, resulting in their continually expanding role in high-risk tactical missions. The move toward multiple, increasingly autonomous UAVs simultaneously supervised by a single operator, combined with the paradigms of Network-Centric Warfare, creates an abundance of information that must be communicated to an operator via displays with limited information bandwidth. The disparity between the available information and current display capabilities results in cluttered displays that limit the operator's ability to perceive and understand the presented information, hindering their situational awareness and decision-making. To address this problem, we propose to design and demonstrate a toolkit for Designing And Enhancing Declutter ALgorithms for UAV Systems (DAEDALUS). Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a requirements analysis on a specific scenario to identify situations where cluttered displays obscure important information and understand how qualifiers of information (meta-information such as uncertainty, recency) are used by operators to reason about and selectively attend to information. Second, we will design and demonstrate a toolkit for rapidly prototyping declutter algorithms and associated display methods that exploit meta-information. Third, we will conduct initial evaluations to systematically determine the effectiveness of the enhanced declutter techniques.

KUTTA CONSULTING, INC.
2525 W. Greenway Road, Suite 332
Phoenix, AZ 85023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 896-1976
Dr. Stephen McCauley
AF 06-031      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Intelligent Information Decluttering for UAV Displays
Abstract:Kutta uses a proven methodology and input from an impressive list of partners including the Cognitive Engineering Research Institute (CERI) and the NGA to define the functions and determine the specifications for the development of network-centric intelligent decluttering algorithms. The company utilizes the iterative Rational Unified Process (RUP) to identify, rationalize, and detail the requirements for such algorithms. In the first stage of this process, Kutta identifies and prioritizes various relevant algorithmic qualities. In the second stage, Kutta determines which algorithmic qualities are suitable for inclusion in the project by utilizing a risk/benefit analysis. In the third stage, Kutta develops detailed software requirements for the project. At the end of Phase 1, Kutta delivers a prototype system that includes innovative declutter algorithms integrated with Kutta's current UAV controller. The combination of human factors experts, UAV control experience, and aviation knowledge, results in algorithms that are user-friendly, applicable to current UAV control stations, and aware of UAV flight planning subtleties.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Pl., Bld
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Paul Shnitser
AF 06-033      Awarded: 01MAY06
Title:Anthropomorphic Multi-Sensory Dummy
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an anthropomorphic dummy for testing non-lethal weapons, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Anthropomorphic Multi-Sensory Dummy (AMSED) system. This proposed system is based on sensors and their adaptation and interaction mechanisms to fully simulate human reactions to the multiple stimuli associated with non-lethal weapon impact. The AMSED collect quantitative data from visual, audio, radiation, pressure, and other sensors for the longer period of time typical of the effects of non-lethal weapons than conventional crash dummies do, and will sustain severe weapon impacts. The AMSED will have an open modular architecture, making it easy to add new sensors and new interactions among sensors. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the multi-level system by designing and fabricating an AMSED prototype with visual, audio, and pressure sensors. In Phase II we plan to introduce additional sensors and increase the variety of adaptation and sensor interaction mechanisms, which can affect weapon impact.

RDI SYSTEMS, INC.
DNOVUS RDI, 1355 Central Pkwy S, Suite 100
San Antonio, TX 78232
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 870-8072
Dr. Thomas Bevan
AF 06-033      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Instrumented Anthropomorphic Prototype for Non-Lethal Weapons Effects
Abstract:DOD personnel are increasingly involved in situation in which they must control riots and civil disturbances and must capture, rather than kill, individuals to obtain intelligence and to convince civil communities of US friendly intent. Non-lethal weapons (NLW) might assist DOD to maintain force protection for its soldiers and marines which might. Both human and animal testing are inadequate to insure that NLW meet military requirements. dNovus, teamed with M5 Industries proposes to develop the PHYSIOSIM anthropomorphic test system for NLW testing building on their combined expertise and experience in biopsychology, systems engineering and rapid prototyping of anthropometric models for experimentation and the entertainment industry. The PHYSIOSIM system includes a molded anthropomorphic dummy as well as a computer system for data collection and modeling. In Phase I of this development we propose to analyze and characterize NLW physical outputs, sensory and physiological effects of these outputs on human sensory and physiology, develop system requirements, conduct technology surveys for materials and sensors, develop computer instrumentation and modeling requirements and design a prototype to be built in Phase II. We believe that the PHYSIOSIM system will meet DOD needs but also provide the basis for advanced anthropomorphic systems for commercial use.

CREARE, INC.
16 Great Hollow Road
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Mr. David B. Kynor
AF 06-034      Awarded: 25APR06
Title:Automated Dielectric Model Generation
Abstract:Dosimetry studies require detailed knowledge of tissue dielectric properties. Previous studies have relied on slice-by-slice segmentation of organs from magnetic resonance images; a time-consuming process that limits application of the method to a wider variety of anatomic data sets. We propose to overcome this problem using a novel method of determining dielectric properties on a voxel-by-voxel basis. This approach, when combined with traditional segmentation methods applied to a small subset of organs, will provide fully automated, extremely rapid computation and assignment of tissue characteristics for large anatomic data volumes. In Phase I, we will implement and test a prototype version of our dielectric parameter computation algorithms, as well as initiate development of a data visualization environment that is capable of displaying and editing anatomic data, dielectric properties, and the results of thermal analyses. The Creare team assembled for this project has expertise in thermal dosimetry, image segmentation, data visualization, and software development.

KITWARE
28 Corporate Drive, Suite 204
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Dr. William J Schroeder
AF 06-034      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Generating Labeled Voxelizations for Numerical Simulation
Abstract:Recent advances in imaging systems such as MRI, CT, and PET enable rapid acquisition of biological data. These data are suitable for a variety of simulation techniques, including characterizing the response of biological systems to directed energy. However, these simulations are hampered by the challenge of converting the data into voxelized models. The data requires segmentation to demarcate various biological structures into valid, labeled regions where each voxel is associated with a particular biological feature. In the proposed work we investigate various data forms and segmentation techniques to perform this voxelization, with the goal of creating a software application for automatic and/or semiautomatic voxel labeling. We expect to develop these tools in an open source framework with the ultimate goal of commercializing these techniques by embedding them in Kitware's VolView volume visualization system.

THERMOANALYTICS, INC.
23440 Airpark Blvd, P.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9560
Dr. Allen R. Curran
AF 06-034      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Software to Generate and Edit 3D Anatomical Models
Abstract:Voxelized anatomical models are widely used to simulate exposures of biological systems to radio frequency (RF) and other forms of directed energy. A voxelized model is made up of volume elements that completely describe the internal anatomical structures. Developing a model is a labor-intensive process of converting two-dimensional MRI or CT data into a three-dimensional voxelized description. This involves "segmenting" or identifying the tissue type or organ for each pixel in a two-dimensional data slice. Maintaining continuity in the third dimension can be challenging. The goal of this project is to create an editing toolkit capable of converting medical imaging data into a voxelized model suitable for exposure simulation studies of humans or laboratory animals.

BAY MATERIALS, LLC
3700 Haven Court
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 566-0800
Mr. Ray Stewart
AF 06-035      Awarded: 01MAY06
Title:Development of a Deployable Biomarker-Based Health Biomonitor (DBHM)
Abstract:Bay Materials, LLC has developed an innovative generally applicable detection method for the rapid and sensitive detection of biological and/or chemical agents: based on the principle of a micro-electromechanical sensor (MEMS) which responds to proprietary molecular signal-amplifying polymers patented by Bay Materials. A PDA based handheld version of the device has been created for functional testing that can conveniently be programmed to accommodate interchangeable, multi-channel sensors for specific analytes of interest such as biomarkers for osmolality, sodium, potassium, proteins and DNA. The proposed system offers an improved level of biochemical molecule detection with accompanying advantages of: small size; comparatively simple detection electronics; rapid response time (minutes); high selectivity; and sufficient sensitivity for obtaining quantifiable measurements in response to PPM level analyte concentrations.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-7130
Dr. Srivatsa Venkatasubbarao
AF 06-035      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:A Field-Usable Portable Multiplexed Device for Biomarker Detection in Body Fluids
Abstract:This proposal describes the development of a portable, handheld, battery-operable optical reader to simultaneously identify multiple DNA and protein biomarkers in biological fluids for field use. The proposed device will not require fluorescent or chemiluminescent or other labels. Instead, the proposed optical method will produce a new imaging ellipsometer to offer the high sensitivity and multiplex capability of a laboratory grade instrument in a portable, field-deployable device. The sensing chip consists of immobilized biomolecules (DNA, antibodies or other recognition elements) and is connected to the sample application region by microfluidics channels that transport the biomarker containing samples to the sensing area. In Phase I of this project we will construct the device and fabricate sensing chips for biomarker testing. A software program will be written to read the results from the measurements on the device. Methods to stabilize DNA and proteins on the sensor chips for extended field use will also be explored. The sensing chips will be tested and results will be validated to current standards. The results can be extended in Phase II and beyond for biomarkers of specific interest.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Richard A. McAloney
AF 06-035      Awarded: 03MAY06
Title:A Field Deployable Biomarker Sensing Technology
Abstract:The monitoring of biomarkers is a viable way to determine the health of an individual, the presence of disease, and the possible exposure to toxic chemicals such as biological warfare agents. A deployable biomarker panel sensor that is reagentless and could be deployed for weeks would allow field medics to save soldiers lives through rapid diagnosis, prevention, and improved triage all directly in the battlefield. No current biomarker sensing technology is rugged enough to be field-deployable where the potential to save lives is significantly enhanced. Diffraction-based sensing has the potential to be made rugged because of the simplicity of the technique. The technology utilizes optical diffraction to quantifiably detect the binding of a target biomarker with an immobilized probe molecule. Lynntech Inc. is developing the necessary hardware for a miniaturized version of a diffraction-based sensor. Phase I research will also include a stabilized antibody platform and a multi-use cartridge. The proposed deployable biomarker panel sensor could be deployed for weeks with a minimal of supplies. The technology can incorporate any type of recognition element (antibodies employed in Phase I research). Phase II will deliver a field-deployable prototype device for reagentless sensing of an array of biomarkers using a reusable cartridge.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mr. Naibing Ma
AF 06-035      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:Field Portable Biomonitor
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for a fieldable health monitor for nonmedical personnel to assay biomarkers and estimate warfighter health, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new self-contained Field Portable Biomonitor (FPB). The FPB is based on the integration of microfluidic sample delivery with an array of miniature optical sensors and a reference channel to compensate for environmental effects. The device will allow warfighters to rapidly (in real time) detect multiple biomarkers in body fluids such as blood, urine, and saliva using a very small sample volume. The device is scalable to screen in parallel for hundreds of biomarkers of different types (i.e., DNA, RNA, proteins etc.) and will operate in harsh environmental conditions. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the FPB by fabricating a prototype to detect two different biomarkers. In Phase II POC plans to develop a FPB prototype with multianalyte detection capability and to demonstrate simultaneous quantitation of several biomarkers. In Phase II POC will also demonstrate statistical analysis of biomarker detection despite various temperatures and humidity levels.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Pl., Bld
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mr. Naibing Ma
AF 06-036      Awarded: 02MAY06
Title:Remote Vital Signs Detector
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for a microwave/laser-based technology to measure heartbeat, respiration, and galvanic skin response (GSR) in moving and uncooperative subjects, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Remote Vital Signs Detector (RVSD). This proposed device uses microwave technology to detect Doppler shifts induced by human's heartbeat and respiration and movement. The RVSD will consist of an automatic clutter-canceller (ACC) subsystem to eliminate clutter signals reflected from static targets, an automatic power control (APC) subsystem to improve signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, and a digital signal processor (DSP) unit for signal processing. The device will detect heartbeat rate, respiration rate, and speed of the remote subject to help identify potential threats. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of detecting remote personnel at 20 meters by building a bench prototype. In Phase II POC will build a deployable prototype and test it on personnel beyond 35 m.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Andrew O. Wright
AF 06-036      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Remote Personnel Assessment
Abstract:Individuals posing safety and security threats, or those intent on subterfuge and deception during interrogation, often exhibit abnormal values of key vital signs: heartbeat rate, respiration rate, and galvanic skin response (GSR). Technology is needed to cost-effectively measure these parameters while a subject is moving or non-cooperative, preferably without contacting the subject and without the subject's knowledge. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes the development of an integrated standoff sensor that measures the three vital signs from up to 35 meters away by adapting its existing battery-powered near infrared (NIR) platform technology. Respiration is to be measured by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) of exhaled CO2, GSR is to be measured by Diffuse Reflectance Absorbance Spectroscopy (DRAS) of skin surface moisture (sweat) associated with galvanic response, and heart rate is to be measured by Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV). The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of each measurement and provide a configuration for the integrated sensor that will conduct the three measurements.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Dr. James Hauck
AF 06-036      Awarded: 02MAY06
Title:Remote Personnel Assessment
Abstract:We have developed an approach for measuring critical parameters of subjects in a crowded or cluttered environment that will lead to a high probability of detection and a low probability of false alarms that they are anomalous, and may be a threat. Our approach is based on a LADAR that can measure minute vibrations. The LADAR is eye-safe, and has a range (100s of meters) much greater than that needed for this particular application (35 m). Our design is based on proven components and techniques, but has not been implemented for the very slow motions of respiration and heartbeat. We will determine if these motions can be detected with the desired sensitivity, and then, based on those measurements develop, a more compact/light-weight, low cost LADAR for this applications.

SPERIENT, INC.
1813 Rutan Drive
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 548-5555
Mr. E. Tom Rosenbury
AF 06-036      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:Remote Personnel Assessment
Abstract:Urban warfare reduces engagement ranges to a few meters or less. Adversaries may approach U.S, Warfighters face-to-face under the disguise of civilian clothing or may lurk on the other side of a wall. All that stands in the way of disaster is the soldier's ability to read the adversaries intentions, a difficult task in the best of circumstances. Radar/Lidar technology may assist the soldier in making better decisions by identifying target threats and characterizing their physiological state. Sperient develops handheld radars that measure heart and breathing rates by measuring tiny movements of the chest and torso. The radar emits a small pulse (much smaller than the signal of a cell phone) that bounces off the chest of the person under test. As the person under test breathes and his heart beats, the radar measures the motion as changing return signals. Challenges include penetration of clothing, walls/doors/windows and the fact that the cross-section of the target is so small. Heart and Breathing radar(s) developed by Sperient engineers were utilized at the World Trade Center to search for victims after the 9/11 attack and were tested at Texas A&M's "Disaster City," so Sperient's advanced technology is well proven in an R&D sense. However, the technology was never carried-through to operational capability. In a separate effort, the microwave front-end of the radar was replaced to demonstrate Lidar capability. The Lidar was not used to measure heart and breathing rates, but presumably would be well suited when penetration is not an issue.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Arthur Keen
AF 06-037      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Metrics for Influence Operation Measurement (MIME)
Abstract:The USAF is looking for a reliable, statistically quantifiable technique to predict the results of influence operations in such areas as PSYOPS, military deception, counterintelligence, public affairs, OPSEC, and etc. In response to this solicitation, 21st Century Technologies (21CT) proposes Metrics for Influence Operations Measurement (MIME), a project which will demonstrate techniques to: measure and predict market penetration, segment a target audience, detect and predict message propagation and impact, classify and predict epidemic profiles, and to detect and predict counter influence operations. Once we have demonstrated the feasibility of these techniques in MIME, we can begin integrating the technologies into an environment that automates the collections to measure the effectiveness of influence operations, responsiveness of the target to stimulus, and predicts success of planned operations. We will also explore methods of countering enemy influence operations.

STOCHASTECH CORP.
Tempest Technologies, 8939 South Sepulveda Blvd, S
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 216-1677
Dr. Yun Wang
AF 06-037      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Quantitative Assessment of Influence Operations
Abstract:The complex nature of warfare today requires a much greater emphasis on influence operations and other non-traditional means of forwarding our objectives. The war on terrorism is not a traditional war in which pitched armies conduct frontal assaults or massive airstrikes precede ground invasions. The success of the global war on terror depends intimately on various types of covert and non-covert "marketing" activities in which we "sell" our goals to important players in target populations. A major challenge is in understanding just how much impact these influence operations have. We propose the development of cutting-edge mathematical and statistical algorithms for quantifying the effects of influence operations.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., NW 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Andrzej Przekewas
AF 06-038      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:An Integrated Modeling Framework for Predictive Airman Performance
Abstract:The overall objective of the proposed project is to develop an integrated bioinformatics software framework for intelligent analysis of biomedical databases, generation of geometrical models for simulations from medical images, and modeling of human biomechanical and physiological performance. In phase I we will analyze the existing data sources and their contents for analysis of human body performance/injury and for generation of human body models. We will develop software interfaces to selected databases within the JCoBi human body modeling framework, correlate the data to existing CFDRC 3D human body models, and demonstrate extraction of medically relevant information. We will also formulate the framework for a novel "top-down" multiscale modeling of the human body that integrates systemic, organ, tissue, cellular and biochemical pathways. It will be demonstrated by simulating human body responses to typical airman physical stressors such as high-g acceleration, long term biomechanical loading on circulation, and body autoregulation responses to hypoxia. In phase I we will also design software framework for automated processing of multimodal images of human head/brain images and generation of 3D geometries and computational grids for modeling of brain diagnostics, injury, and treatment. The multiscale modeling of human body performance software will be integrated in phase II, tested, validated, and demonstrated on studies of airman responses and tolerances to stresses encountered during military missions.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5214
Dr. Kaizhi Tang
AF 06-038      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Distributed High-Dimensional Mining Tool for Bioscience Data Analysis
Abstract:We propose an innovative data mining tool to systematically analyze huge amounts of experiment and sensor data in bioscience. Our proposed tool, named ABMiner (where AB for Air-Borne) is the synergy of attribute-oriented induction, a classification ensemble, and distributed computation. Our proposed tool has three unique contributions. First, we use attribute-oriented induction for pre-clustering to overcome the difficulty of curse of dimensionality when mining a huge amount of high-dimensional data. Second, the classification ensemble combines a set of independent classifiers in some reasonable manner such that the accuracy of the ensemble is better than any single classification algorithm. In this proposal, we extend and enhance the base classifiers of the ensemble in two dimensions, namely types of algorithms and variations of data sets, to enrich the base classifiers and guarantee the accuracy of the classification model. Finally, we derive the architecture of distributed computation from the idea of two dimensions of classification ensemble for improving computational efficiency through parallel computation. In the architecture, different classification algorithms can run in different machines (nodes), and the same classification algorithm with different training data sets and guidance parameters can also run in different nodes.

LOGOBOTS LLC
30W084 Capistrano Court, #201
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 527-0425
Dr. VC Ramesh
AF 06-038      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Knowledge Management Tool Set for Bioscience Data Sets
Abstract:The AFRL/HEPA Biodynamics Databank is one example of a large bioscience data set that contains research and experimental data/studies collected over several decades. In addition to structured data (rows/columns with numbers/text), these databases contain unstructured multi-media information in the form of images/charts/photos, plain text and videos. The information contained in these databases is used to answer research questions posed by a broad spectrum of users ranging from industry to academia. One difficulty is that, at present, there is a paucity of tools that can support decisions based on these databases. This information needs to be converted to easily accessible knowledge. Another difficulty is that there are many such databases which are currently not integrated. Information integration will enable potent analytics and knowledge discovery. Finally, there is a need for knowledge transfer from experts to novice users which can be enabled through the use of a comprehensive knowledge management tool set. We will provide such a knowledge management tool kit that will serve as the "LexisNexis" of the biosciences world - a unified query tool that integrates information across many different data sources. It will also provide rich analytics, knowledge discovery / data mining, knowledge management, and knowledge visualization.

NATURAL SELECTION, INC.
3333 N. Torrey Pines Ct., Suite 200
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 455-6449
Dr. Gary B. Fogel
AF 06-038      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Innovative Tools for Information to Decisions in Biosciences
Abstract:The Air Force has a need for intelligent tools that can be used to convert information from biodynamics databases into knowledge and decisions. Current methods of feature extraction and hypothesis testing require significant amounts of human interpretation. The innovative techniques offered in this proposal utilize feature-independent and automated methods to facilitate scientific advancement. The resulting intelligent hypothesis testing tool can increase the rate and exploration of data mining, analysis, and feature extraction for data fusion. The proposed Phase I research and development seeks to construct algorithms that optimize hypotheses through feature extraction. Evolutionary computing is used to find optimal representations relating database features to predictions of outcome. The algorithms will be designed for use with Air Force biodynamics databases. The Phase I research and development sets the stage for continued Phase II research and development and transition for field use. The technology's applications go beyond Air Force database analysis to all branches of the military, and also commercial and academic database analysis particularly in bioinformatics. The prospect for commercialization for the resulting technology in the bioinformatics sector is high in light of the fact that database mining is a common facet of gene expression analysis and drug discovery.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Patrick Cottler
AF 06-039      Awarded: 30MAR06
Title:Highly Efficient Desalinator for Individual Aircrew Member Survival
Abstract:Air Force aircraft are outfitted with emergency and survival equipment designed for the constant threat of an accident. This equipment protects the aircrew member from the initial insult and assists survival in austere environments before rescue crews can arrive. Pilots undergo rigorous training to learn how to survive an ejection over sea. A key to survival is the ability to stay hydrated in the presence of salinated water. Current desalination systems are not used individually and have small water to effort ratio. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a one-man desalination system to deliver water for aircrew survival. Luna's system will greatly minimize the energy needed making individual use possible. For the Phase I program, Luna will demonstrate feasibility by achieving the necessary flow rate of desalinated water with a prototype system. During the Phase II of the program, a prototype for an individual and portable device will be designed and fabricated that will allow aircrew members to dispense an adequate supply of desalinated water with minimal effort. Luna has assembled the highly qualified, multidisciplinary team required for a successful program and has a history of bringing novel research from the laboratory to commercial markets.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Brian Hennings
AF 06-039      Awarded: 30MAR06
Title:A Novel, Hybrid Desalination System for One-Man Survival Kit
Abstract:There exists a dire need for a reliable, lightweight, easy-to-use device capable of producing potable water for an individual from a saline water source (Seawater or brackish). The device should be as lightweight as possible (on the order of 1 pound) and capable of providing 40 ml/min of drinkable water. The proposed device should be easy to use and require as little energy as possible from the operator. In order to alleviate this problem, Lynntech will design, develop, and fabricate a light-weight, man-portable, hybrid desalination system that takes advantage of the synergy created between electro-dialysis and reverse osmosis. The system will operate on both man-power and battery-power. This system will have water recovery rates as high as 90%.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P Scaringe
AF 06-039      Awarded: 29MAR06
Title:Demonstration of a Compact Miniature Desalinator for a One-Man Survival Kit
Abstract:A lightweight portable water purification device has been long sought by the US military for use in survival kits. Mainstream has been working hard at developing such a lightweight purification device since 1989, and has finally developed the configuration for a small portable device that will meet or exceed all the performance requirements of this AF solicitation. This device, which uses a patent-pending configuration is discussed in this proposal. At 12 ounces dry-weight, this device can easily produce more than two gallons of purified water per day with drastic reductions in the necessary exertion. The proposed membrane configuration includes an integrated disinfection capacity. Phase I includes the fabrication and demonstration testing of this lightweight water purification device, which includes the capability to produce 2 gallons of safe potable water from sea water in about 2 hours. Mainstream has been developing this technology for many years and the tremendous commercial potential for this technology is well established. Phase I will allow a full demonstration of the concept's feasibility, and provide performance comparisons to alternative approaches. The Phase II effort will address DoD field testing, and prototype refinements for an actual AF survival kit application.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Pl., Bld
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Michael Reznikov
AF 06-039      Awarded: 29MAR06
Title:Swing Electrostatic Desalinator
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for a compact, lightweight, reliable, and rugged desalinator, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Swing Electrostatic Desalinator (SED) that produces about 4.8 gallons of drinking water per day at a sea salt rejection of about 98.8%, exceeding the Air Force requirement. The size of packaged device is about 30 cubic inches, and the weight 0.7 lb., less than a third those of the existing desalinator. The Swing Electrostatic Desalinator separates salt from water by alternating the polarization of isolated electrodes. The cumulative effects of its innovations in design, technology, and materials dramatically enhance the device's performance, and includes recovery of some of the power consumed, and release of it during desalination of the next portion of sea water. The proposed device has a uniquely high rate of desalination per its own mass, is absolutely maintenance free and environmentally friendly, and is high manufacturable and rugged. In Phase I POC will design, build, and demonstrate a proof-of-concept prototype SED. In Phase II we will develop and build a prototype SED device, and demonstrate its performance to USAF personnel.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2449
Ms. Emily Wiese
AF 06-040      Awarded: 06APR06
Title:Distributed Methods for Assessing the Readiness of Coalition Workgroups, and Teams
Abstract:Although distributed, simulation-based training exercises provide an opportunity for realistic team practice, they often fail to provide the relevant and timely feedback necessary for effective training to take place. In this project the Aptima team will combine its expertise in competency-based measures, team performance measurement, integrating data from multiple collection methods, and after-action reviews, along with its experience in Air Force Operations, to develop and evaluate a Multi-method Distributed-team Performance-assessment and AAR Tool (MD-PAT) that gathers meaningful performance data from observers and participants at distributed locations, analyzes it in real time, and delivers it in such a way as to provide relevant feedback to participants and facilitate speedy simulation adjustment for more targeted training. The tool will include components that provide a broad range of validated assessment measures for observers, trainees, and the computer simulation involved in the exercise. It will provide the capability to collect measures from these three sources in real time, coordinate collection, storage, and analysis of the ratings, and display the assessment results in an after-action review or other post-exercise evaluation.

SPEC OPS
325 Hill Carter Parkway, Suite A
Ashland, VA 23005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 201-6600
Mr. Jeff Yates
AF 06-040      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Distributed Methods for Assessing the Readiness of Coalition Workgroups, and Teams
Abstract:The technical challenge of this SBIR is to research and develop a capability which will maximize knowledge derivation from individual and individual to team training opportunities by providing real time feedback to the training audience. We put forth the technical solution for application to this complex situation as "Knowledge Discovery from separate heterogeneous data and information sources." Strategic to operational to tactical military operations requires not only the networking of data but the communication of information for knowledge derivation to maximize the learning experience. Operational readiness can be subjectively and objectively measured through the use of automated measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. Automation of these measures is now needed to support the vast amount of information available with the use of network centric operations. Distributed Knowledge Networks (DKNs) provides the key enabling technology for translating recent advances in automated data acquisition, digital storage, computers and communications into fundamental advances that support data analysis and knowledge derivation in complex systems. The DKN technology will provide the computer science to provide an extensible architecture for the accomplishment of training in the new network centric process to train as we fight.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Jeffrey M. Beaubien
AF 06-043      Awarded: 06APR06
Title:Intervention Methods and Performance Assessment for Crew Training (IMPACT)
Abstract:The envisioned product of this SBIR is a Crew Resource Management (CRM) training program to enhance the time sensitive targeting (TST) skills of the Dynamic Targeting Cell (DTC) within the Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC). We call this product IMPACT: Intervention Methods and Performance Assessment for Crew Training. The DTC is characterized by unpredictable injections of high-priority tasks with severe time constraints. DTC personnel must coordinate their responses to these tasks in a dynamic, teams-of-teams environment to ensure overall mission success. IMPACT training will improve this coordination. During Phase I, Aptima will analyze existing CRM approaches and methods from analogous domains, and will map relevant CRM concepts to critical DTC knowledge and skills. Next, Aptima will develop a comprehensive CRM training structure and a proof-of-concept training module, along with plans for evaluating its effectiveness. During Phase II, Aptima will fully develop the comprehensive IMPACT training program. The end result will be a CRM training curriculum that is specifically designed to help DTC personnel successfully cope with the time-sensitive threats of today.as well as those of tomorrow.

DIVERSIFIED TECHNICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
909 Electric Ave, Suite 206
Seal Beach, CA 90740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 493-0158
Mr. Mike Beckage
AF 06-044      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Immunity from Threat Based on Measured Injury Causation
Abstract:Head injuries and trauma are sustained by military, police and sports individuals where the shock or energy experienced by the victim cannot easily be quantified. The lack of sufficient data describing the peak or time history of the event prevents development of better protective devices and strategies to prevent injury. It is thus desirable to embed a recording device into the common everyday helmet worn by individuals where the magnitude and direction of a significant injury experience could be quantified and easily and quickly retrieved by medical and research professionals. Commercial-off-the-shelf data recorders are not suitable for this purpose because of cost, size, power, and maintenance issues; therefore an entirely new design is required to achieve the objectives. Diversified Technical Systems, Inc., proposes to develop a small, inexpensive, self-powered Impact Event Recorder (IER) that can be easily and cheaply added to head protective equipment for everyday use. The proposed IER would be maintenance free for at least two years and be capable of storing 200 millisecond time history arrays from over 80 impacts that exceed a predetermined threshold. This data would be immediately available to medical and research personnel in the field or lab for injury assessment and detailed study.

EVIGIA SYSTEMS, INC.
333 Parkland Plaza Dr. Ste. 500
Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 302-1140
Dr. Navid Yazdi
AF 06-044      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:No-Power Acceleration Event Microsensor Array
Abstract:The proposed project is to develop a new class of small sensors for routine wear by military, police & security personnel that record the magnitude & duration of exposure to impact, blast waves, and bullets. These sensors are based on Evigia Systems proprietary CMOS-MEMS technology, and an innovative approach to enable measuring and recording the blast energy, and the impact acceleration amplitude without any need for a battery or any other power supply. This approach enables meeting the small form factor and price-points that are required in the aforementioned applications.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Keehoon Kim
AF 06-044      Awarded: 05APR06
Title:Self-Powered Miniature Acceleration Sensor
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for wearable sensors for blast/impact effects quantification, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new self-powered miniature acceleration sensor (SMAS). The proposed SMAS wearable system is based on multiaxis inertial integrated acceleration sensing and powerless blast/impact autodetection that enables effective captures of blast/impact energy. POC's SMAS meets the size and power requirements requested by the Air Force for blast/impact head acceleration measurement because its unique power management prolongs operation life, and combined with power harvesting and simple system architecture, requires no maintenance or care in a just-wear-and-forget-it way. POC's extensive experience in wireless electromyographic and inertial tracking systems to monitor the head and torso shocks to soldiers will allow us to successfully develop SMAS technology. In Phase I POC will design a preliminary laboratory prototype, and demonstrate functional key SMAS components in a testbed, showing that a SMAS system can accurately record the state of impact/blast. In Phase II POC plans to develop a fully functional packaged SMAS system and test it for real-world implementation.

SIMBEX
10 Water Street, Suite 410
Lebanon, NH 03766
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 448-2367
Dr. Richard M. Greenwald
AF 06-044      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Ultra-Low Power Head Impact Monitor for Field Applications in Combat Environments
Abstract:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from direct impact or indirectly from blast waves represents a significant threat to personnel in combat. There is a significant lack of knowledge linking the actual biomechanics of impact with the injuries sustained in the field. Simbex proposes to apply its knowledge of real-time miniature head acceleration and physiological monitoring gained from developing its Head Impact Telemetry System (commercially available football helmets) to develop nano-power Head Impact Technology (n-HIT), a dynamic in-helmet measurement system for routine wear by soldiers. Key features of n-HIT are: Ultra-low power (nano-amps) with dynamic energy harvesting, measurement of blast wave energy to helmet and to head, and measurement of linear and rotational head acceleration. The n-HIT system developed in this project will allow us to quantify the relationship among biomechanical measures including linear acceleration, rotational acceleration and blast energy, and the severity of TBI sustained in order to optimize soldier protection through improved protective equipment or tactics. The n-HIT system can obtain the required measurements without affecting the soldiers' performance, requiring additional equipment or adding significant weight to existing equipment. The proposed ultra-low power self-sustaining system will provide power for a minimum of five years without reconditioning or retrofit.

LAVENDER INDUSTRIES, INC.
22647 Ventura Blvd. #1020
Woodland Hills, CA 91364
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 464-5049
Ms. Susan McCall
AF 06-045      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Networked Electronic Warfare Training System (NEWTS)
Abstract:Several efforts are currently underway to enhance the electronic warfare (EW) training on Air Force aircraft using on-board, "rangeless" EW training. On-board EW training provides closed-loop simulations of air-defense environments for realistic in-flight combat training of aircrews. The training capability can be an integral part of the aircraft operational flight program (OFP) or can be an external simulator carried onto the aircraft. An on-board system allows training to be accomplished any time the crew is in the air, providing a low-cost training alternative. Although these embedded EW training solutions have been demonstrated to provide an accurate training experience, there are logistics problems that limit widespread use. Standalone computer-based trainers require additional equipment to be carried onto the aircraft unless the training threat simulations are embedded into a component the aircraft OFP. Designing additional training modes into the OFP requires the expense of flight software changes and an associated flight test program. To support a low-cost EW training system that meets current and future requirements, there is a need to investigate a ground based threat simulation tool that can stimulate the aircraft EW subsystems and monitor aircraft and operator responses over existing aircraft data links. An off-board training system should result in minimum changes to the aircraft OFP, will not require any installation on the aircraft, and could provide a centralized threat simulation for multiple aircraft in future training exercises. Lavender Industries proposes to investigate a low-cost EW training system consisting of a commercial PC-based application that is coupled to an existing military ground radio unit. The EW training system will support the closed loop threat simulation by applying threat indications at the appropriate aircraft time or position over the data link, and by monitoring aircraft navigation data and countermeasure events to accurately simulate threat response. For Phase I, Lavender will initially address the problem using the capabilities and subsystems currently present on Block 30/35 class F-16C fighter aircraft, then generalize a solution for multiple platforms. The result will allow system demonstration as part of a Phase II effort.

RESEARCH ASSOC. OF SYRACUSE
6780 Northern Blvd, Ste 100
East Syracuse, NY 13057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 463-2266
Mr. Stan Hall
AF 06-045      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Networked Electronic Warfare Training System (NEWTS)
Abstract:Training aircrew to fly modern combat aircraft is a tremendous challenge. To train properly, US and Allied aircrew need to be confronted with numerous simulated surface and air threats simultaneously. Training scenarios of this density and variety give aircrew the ability to recognize and react for survival with appropriate maneuvers, expendable countermeasures, and electronic jamming. Additionally, realistic training is required regularly because threat reaction skills are perishable. Unfortunately, threat training opportunities are minimal. Research Associates of Syracuse (RAS) proposes a multi-phased application of the Air Force Research Lab's Next Generation Threat System (NGTS) to increase US and Allied combat aircraft threat training capabilities. The resulting Networked Electronic Warfare Training System (NEWTS) can be delivered to combat units with minimal or no access to electronic combat ranges and fill a tremendous void in existing training. NEWTS can also be integrated with any number of actual threat emitters at existing electronic combat ranges to create a robust realistic Integrated Air Defense System. Since NEWTS operates on existing data link channels, it can be deployed at any location where aircraft maneuvering is authorized. NEWTS will receive, as well as transmit, data link information from participating combat aircraft to assess threat reactions.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-3295
Mr. Anthony Stirtzinger
AF 06-047      Awarded: 11APR06
Title:Semantic Interoperability of C2 Tools and Technologies
Abstract:Securboration, teaming with DMM Ventures, is pleased to propose C2 Ontology-based Semantic Interoperability Framework (C2OSIF). Securboration's technical approach to C2OSIF is focused on leveraging our extensive semantic web expertise along with our COI research and applying it to the practical implementation of C2 application interoperability to meet the information goals set forth in NCDS. NCDS goals include making data visible, accessible, understandable, trusted, and interoperable. C2OSIF supports these goals by innovatively applying semantic web technology and COI concepts to account for both data interoperability and application interoperability. C2OSIF will accomplish semantic interoperability by providing the ability for creating C2 COIs as the mechanism to support users across the Enterprise. C2OSIF leverages the concept of COIs for focusing context and couples this with proven semantic integration techniques to integrate data and application information within the COI. Semantic definitions and descriptions are organized into groups of COIs to create requirements reflecting the needs of the COI members (e.g. Strategy, Planning, Assessment, Operations, etc.). These semantic requirements describe things such as types of data they are interested in, the frequency of the data needed, format of the data (viewing and processing), and constraints or conditions under which the data or processing is needed.

UPSTATE APPLIED RESEARCH
8141 Toscano Dr.
Clay, NY 13041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 254-8497
Mr. Michael C. Scully
AF 06-047      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Enhanced Decision Support Through Information Exchange
Abstract:Upstate Applied Research proposes a technology which enables an accurate, meaningful and semantically correct sharing of information among existing command and control systems. A two-part information discovery technique, encompassing pre-execution analysis and in-progress refinement, is used to identify and mark up semantically meaningful information which will be shared among automated AOC systems and human decision-makers. In addition, an accurate, efficient data exchange mechanism is used to provide the information transport. This implementation of C2 information exchange provides both an immediate and a long-term benefit. In the near term, a timely exchange of critical C2 data provides the commander with high-quality decision information in real time. In the longer term, the tools and techniques proposed here have the potential to provide an unprecedented degree of machine interoperability without the need for major systems re-engineering.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Darrin Taylor
AF 06-048      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:ISR -Stream: Streaming ISR Plans
Abstract:The goal of this project is to provide Air Operations Managers with the ability to build and dynamically adjust an Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) plan. The output ISR tasking plan must meet the collection requirements necessary to develop the intelligence preparation of the battlefield and gather effects-based objective indicator data. The proposed system, ISR-Stream, will integrate with ATO-Stream to expand the ATO constraint graph into supporting the planning of ISR assets. ISR-Stream utilizes Genetic Algorithms to determine the optimal ISR asset layouts, collection resources, and alternative collection paths. Genetic Algorithms can quickly consider a large amount of trade-offs and constraints, and generate a viable plan. The system will also work to dynamically coordinate the ISR collection plans with other attack plans (ground, air, cyber, etc.)

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 06-048      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Integrated ISR Plan Analysis and Rehearsal System (I2PARS) for Effects Based Assessment
Abstract:To support effects based operations (EBO) for air campaigns, military decision makers at Air Operations Centers (AOCs) must be afforded decision superiority over their adversaries. A key element to attaining decision superiority is the effective and timely use of ISR assets. The capabilities of ISR platforms such as the E-8C, the E-3, Global Hawk, Predator, combined with space-based assets portend a huge increase in the effectiveness of ISR to achieve decision superiority. However, a key impediment remains the effective C2 of ISR assets and the associated lack of automated decision support systems. To fully realize the benefits of ISR platforms and their capabilities and to support the overall construct of effects based operations, decision support systems are needed to assist ISR planning staff in optimal planning and mission rehearsal of their associated ISR assets to support effects assessment. Here, we propose an Integrated ISR Plan Analysis and Rehearsal System (I2PARS) for effects assessment. The system combines evolutionary algorithms for ISR plan optimization, with the spatial analysis and visualization and animation capabilities afforded by Geographic Information Systems (GIS). We see considerable potential for this approach to address key decision support functionality required for the AOC ISR battlestaff.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark Street, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5106
Mr. Micheal Colony
AF 06-049      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Real-time Effects-Based Assessment (REBA) System
Abstract:The US military is rapidly embracing the concept of Effects-Based Operations (EBO), beginning a transformation from current strategies based on attrition and annihilation of opponents through brute military force, to a methodology that employs any and all elements of national power (Diplomatic, Information, Military and Economic (DIME)) against enemy systems to achieve specific desired effects. As the US Air Force transforms to an effects-based form of operation, they require the ability to assess actions in light of their progress towards achieving the effects specified in the EBO plan. The DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation team proposes a novel solution that deploys our unique real-time Bayesian network software within a proven intelligent agent architecture to provide an automated Real-time Effects-Based Assessment (REBA) system. This effort will leverage an intelligent agent capability developed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and innovative Bayesian network techniques developed for the Missile Defense Agency to correlate and match observed actions and effects to success indicators in the EBO plan. Our approach will effectively accelerate the Joint Air Tasking Order (JATO) cycle by providing continuous assessment of actions with respect to their overall progress towards achieving desired effects.

DMM VENTURES, INC.
107 Elise Place
Yorktown, VA 23693
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 508-8735
Dr. Maris McCrabb
AF 06-049      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Real-Time Effects Assessment Management System
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to outline a proof of principle for an EBA Management System. The EMS magic comes from constructing the EBA process and supporting technologies as a multi-stage production process, using an Input-Output model where primary and intermediate inputs (the latter themselves the product of some process, internal or external) combine to form intermediate and final products.

JANYA, INC.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-0401
Dr. Cassandre Creswell
AF 06-050      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Adapting Information Extraction Technology to Computer-Mediated, Dynamic Text Data
Abstract:Applications for synchronous computer-mediated communication, i.e. chat, like instant messaging and chatroom channels, are playing an ever-increasing role in military operations. Information extraction (IE) from chat could provide great value to dynamic targeting and other processes that depend on battlespace awareness. However, no previous work exists on performing IE on chat data, and only limited research has been done on the linguistic differences between chat, spoken dialog, and written text. Chat likely poses several challenges for standard IE methods developed for heavily-edited written text, including: (i) usage of punctuation, orthography, spelling, and grammar that differs from the written standard; (ii) high frequency of context-dependent and anaphoric linguistic forms; (iii) complex discourse structures. In Phase 1 of this project we will perform a systematic corpus study of task-oriented chat in order to (1) determine which properties of chat will be the most significant barriers to high accuracy IE; (2) assess which areas and techniques are likely to have the lowest cost-benefit ratio in developing a chat-based IE engine; and (3) develop initial design requirements for such an engine. This work will provide a solid foundation for the implementation of a prototype IE system capable of processing chat data in Phase 2.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Dr. Tamitha Carpenter
AF 06-050      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Extracting Time Critical Information from Dynamic Text
Abstract:We propose a novel approach to extracting domain-specific, time-critical information from the text of online chat. Tradition Information Extraction (IE) approaches are unsuitable for analyzing chat streams for many reasons: the text is "dirty" (containing typos, misspellings, sporadic use of case, etc.), messages are often fragmented and refer implicitly to previous messages and shared knowledge, messages from multiple topics are interleaved, etc. Our Chat-IE system will use a collection of techniques to process a chat stream that is being used in support of an ongoing activity. Exploiting the context of the ongoing activity will be crucial to extraction effectiveness, as will teasing out the individual dialogues that structure the chat stream. The IE process must also be modified in order to support extraction from those dialogues. In addition, the results of the entire process must be analyzed to determine its accuracy, criticality, completeness, and veracity. Our Phase I prototype will provide a solid foundation for the complete implementation of Chat-IE in Phase II and its commercialization.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
AF 06-051      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Preemptive Actions with Dynamic Anticipatory Targeting
Abstract:We propose a system for real-time target identification and intent prediction of time critical targets (TCTs) from limited tracking data. Given the urgency of destroying or disabling an emerging target (e.g. a missile with a biological warhead), we focus on enabling preemptive action through predictive situation assessment. We assume a high degree of uncertainty about the quality and availability of track information needed for target identification. As new tracks emerge, the system initiates track identification via (a) navigation through a Decision Tree, accelerated by Branch Prediction algorithms, in search of valid and useful identity attributes, (b) preemptive, look-ahead invocation of networked Collection Agents to acquire additional critical information, and (c) probabilistic assessment of target identity and intent via a bank of doctrine based Bayesian Networks (BNs). The BNs assess various track attributes to progressively improve overall knowledge of target identification and intent. As the situation evolves, a Central Control Unit adaptively adjusts critical threshold levels controlling information collection to optimize the computational load, and quickly produces actionable decisions. Our overall objective is to produce a quick and agile system, which strives to increase the certainty of identification and intent of a TCT, from an emerging track with limited information.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Peter A. Blemel
AF 06-051      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:Context-Based Predictive Track Type Prediction Algorithms
Abstract:MSI proposes a new approach to develop an algorithm that uses context frames and Bayesian inference to anticipate and predict track types of emerging, potential dynamic targets. Adaptive Identification (AID) will use probabilistic approximation to filter and process information that is arriving from multiple sensors and integrate sensor information according to situation specific track models. The models will generate accurate Positive Identification (PID) assessments based on the information they receive. Using context frame interpretations for PID has the potential to eliminate or greatly reduce delays in the Air Operations Center (AOC) associated with the current PID process because it will parallelize the way PID determines the intent and target type of an emerging target allowing more time for identifying and prosecuting time sensitive targets. In use, the algorithm we describe will simultaneously gather intelligence on the track report of a potential target, analyzing the intelligence from the multiple sensors, and determine if the target is a valid target. Probabilistic approximation methods operate in linear time and will potentially reduce PID to a handful of minutes. This will make more time available for planning and more strike options, resulting in more Time Sensitive Target opportunities taken.

EXPAND, INC.
5728 Major Boulevard, Suite 232
Orlando, FL 32819
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 351-1553
Dr. John Woodring
AF 06-052      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Semantically Correct Interoperability of Executable Architectures
Abstract:Current data models and standards are insufficient to provide semantically and syntactically correct interoperability among executable architectures developed in different tools. They fall short due to a lack of common data elements required to express executable-architecture concepts using different implementation techniques and a lack of a means to guarantee conformance to mandatory and optional elements that guarantee predictable interoperability. Expand proposes to address these shortcomings by developing a common data model for executable architectures containing data elements designed to resolve commonality in the following areas: . How execution timing is expressed . How execution conditions (firing controls) are expressed . How functional inputs and outputs are expressed . How functional relationships between inputs and outputs are expressed In addition to the common data model for executable architecture, Expand proposes to develop a conformance matrix to define levels at which the various executable-architecture tools support the executable common data model. This conformance matrix allows for meaningful partial support for the common data model and addresses cases for which direct interoperability is not possible between executable architectures due to fundamental differences. Support to equal levels as defined by the proposed conformance matrix by disparate tools will guarantee semantic and syntactic interoperability.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Ronald Fernandes
AF 06-052      Awarded: 03MAY06
Title:Framework for Interoperability of Executable Architectures
Abstract:KBSI proposes to design, develop, and deploy a language, a suite of tools and a methodology to facilitate the syntactic and semantic interoperability of DoDAF models and artifacts among diverse vendor-specific tools and applications. Though syntactic interoperability may today be achieved through CADM, there is no guarantee that the CADM models are verifiable, validated, or at an executable capability. Currently, semantic interoperability requires manual effort - this is not only cost ineffective and tedious but is also prone to errors. We propose to mitigate these issues by developing the Executable Architecture Markup Language (EAML), a neutral language for executable architectures that can support model execution and experimentation. We will also develop a proof-of-concept Intelligent Toolkit for Interoperable Architectures (ITIA) that uses EAML natively to support model execution for verification, validation, and quantitative analysis using a combination of Colored Petri Nets, Object Constraint Language, rule-based and automated reasoning techniques. Model translation will itself be powered by an innovative ontology-driven translator code generator approach to ensure semantic interoperability. Finally, we will elaborately document the methodological changes required by model developers, strategic military analysts and systems analysts to develop, modify, validate, and publish DoDAF-based architectures that are verifiable and validated and hence reusable.

DNOVUS RDI
1401 Peachtree St. NE, Suite 500
Atlanta, GA 30309
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 870-8072
Dr. Thomas Bevan
AF 06-053      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Knowledge-based Technologies to Support Predictive Mission Awareness
Abstract:At a recent DIA briefing to industry, intelligence community representatives reiterated the urgent need for improving the TPED process to meet the operational need to obtain persistent intelligence about on the battlefield. TPED is the process of sensor tasking, sensor processing, sensor exploitation and report dissemination. The requirement to improve the ISR TPED process has been articulated by both military and civilian intelligence agencies for many years. dNovus and the Georgia Tech Research Institute have analyzed the need for advanced technology to improve the TPED process and make it truly interactive and dynamic. We propose to develop an onboard knowledge-based aid for retasking and exploitation support (KARES) that will use intelligent agents to acquire information which knowledge management functions (case-base reasoning, model-based reasoning, rule-based reasoning) can use to develop retasking requirements for autonomous ISR platforms and to provide exploitation support information to image and signals analysts. Given the expertise of dNovus in research, development and operations of ISR systems and the expertise of the Georgia Tech Research Institute with regard to intelligent agents and knowledge management technologies, we believe that this is the right team to develop the onboard KARES system.

ON TARGET TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
107 Elise Place
Yorktown, VA 23693
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 543-4216
Dr. Brian Drabble
AF 06-053      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Knowledge-based Technologies to Support Predictive Mission Awareness
Abstract:This effort brings together the proven ontology-based information management capabilities of On Target Technologies, a small veteran-owned company, with the proven large-scale information management capabilities of Ball Aerospace. Integration and fusion of information resources continues to be a high priority in both the military and businesses organizations today.

STILMAN ADVANCED STRATEGIES
1623 Blake Street, #200
Denver, CO 80202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 809-0205
Dr. Vlad Yakhnis
AF 06-053      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:LG Techniques for Knowledge-based Technologies to Support Predictive Mission Awareness
Abstract:Linguistic Geometry (LG) is a new type of game theory changing the paradigms of battle management and mission planning. LG-based tools automatically generate winning strategies, tactics, and courses of action (COA) and permit the warfighter to take advantage thereof for mission planning and execution. LG looks far into the future - it is "predictive". Within Phase I of this project we intend to investigate and develop architectural concepts and communication protocols for implementation of real time knowledge-based technologies for autonomous ISR data collection and predictive awareness. We will develop operational specifications of the LG-based software tool, LG-ORACLE geared toward autonomous ISR data collection and predictive awareness and using the architecture and communication protocols referenced in Task 1 above. The specs will include: (a) High level architecture of LG-ORACLE; (b) Scenarios executable with LG-ORACLE with automatic generation of tactics and strategies; (c) Specs for Human Interface with LG-ORACLE; (d) Specs for interface between LG-ORACLE and such synthetic environments as One-SAF; (e) Specs for intelligent agents to retrieve data, and automatically assess and predict threats in a timely manner.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
AF 06-054      Awarded: 28APR06
Title:Facilitated Argumentation through Automatic Acquisition and Synthesis of Time-critical information (FAAAST)
Abstract:As ever more data becomes available via faster, more reliable networks and advanced sensor platforms, there is an ever more persistent need for technology that will automatically find, synthesize, and contextualize data so that it may be used to support decision making. This need is especially pressing in time-critical targeting (TCT) operations. In this proposal, we present a plan to develop a platform for Facilitated Argumentation via Autonomous Acquisition and Synthesis of Time-critical information (FAAAST). The proposed FAAAST platform leverages our in-house structured argumentation engine, an ontology for time-critical information, and our in-house multi-agent query system. Decision templates in the form of argumentation networks will be developed for a range of decisions in time-critical contexts. Upon instantiation, a network will immediately cause multiple query agents to be spawned, leveraging the installed ontology, to gather information from various of information sources. As information is retrieved, the argumentation network updates the best decision option and confidence. The decision maker can interact with the network to modify its structure and weights, and drill into information sources to request more data. FAAAST's capacity for continuous, incremental improvements in decision quality make is highly suitable as a decision support tool in the TCT domain.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
2661 Commons Blvd., STE 242
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Dr. James McCracken
AF 06-054      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Argumentation-based Approaches to Enhance Dynamic Time Critical Decision-Making
Abstract:Our approach utilizes TDKC intelligent systems technology, distributed collaborative environment technolgy,TDKC graphical user interface technology along with with warfighter input to the requirements process to develop a usable tool based on open-source, industry standard technology.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2408
Dr. Cullen Jackson
AF 06-055      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:Uncertainty Visualization for Modeling and Simulation of Complex Systems
Abstract:Modern military simulations employ a variety of models to realistically represent warfighting capabilities and the environment in which these capabilities operate. These models and the simulations that use them attempt to capture the aspects of weapons systems that support training, mission rehearsal, decision support, acquisition, deployment, and tactics/strategy development. However, these models rarely represent the uncertainty inherent in real-world domains, and simulations rarely visualize uncertainty in decision-makers' battlespace displays. This proposal outlines a research program to identify and remedy deficiencies in the portrayal of uncertainty in military decision support systems and accompanying models and simulations. The proposed research program will include an investigation of visualization techniques, formulation of a comprehensive theory of uncertainty, and design of a testbed for empirically assessing methods for handling uncertainty within a simulation system.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
AF 06-055      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Meta-Information Representations In Advanced Modeling and Simulation (MIRIAM)
Abstract:Modern military operations increasingly require commanders to reason about large amounts of complex information - a task made more challenging due to meta-information (i.e., characteristics of information) such as uncertainty, staleness, etc. that adds to the decision-making burden. Knowledge regarding this meta-information and methods for effectively portraying it have the potential to not only relieve the decision-maker's workload, but also to encourage more battlespace-aware decisions. Therefore, we propose to design and demonstrate a system to develop Meta-Information Representations for use In Advanced Modeling and Simulation (MIRIAM). Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a work domain analysis on a specific scenario to develop a structured categorization of sources and types of information and meta-information, to define which types are required by the commander, and to identify DoD modeling and simulation systems that require meta-information representation. Second, we will design and demonstrate a toolkit to augment incoming data with meta-information and to support rapid prototyping of novel visualization techniques. Third, we will design a methodology to assess the effectiveness of these techniques. We will leverage our team's expertise in the development of complex display systems to rapidly design and use the proposed toolkit to develop novel meta-information visualization techniques.

INNEGRITY LLC
2131 Woodruff Rd, Suite 2100, #162
Greenville, SC 29607
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(864) 908-4763
Dr. Brian Morin
AF 06-056      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Tri Band Radome Design for Airborne Antennas
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project will be to test the feasibility of using composite materials with a unique combination of low dielectric constant and loss, high bending modulus, and high tensile strength for use in tri band radomes for airborne antennas.

RADANT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
255 Hudson Road
Stow, MA 01775
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-3866
Dr. Fred Ziolkowski
AF 06-056      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Tri Band Radome Design for Airborne Antennas
Abstract:The fabrication and measurement of a sample flat panel is proposed to evaluate a novel design for a tri-band, airborne radome that requires high angle transmission because of its aerodynamic shape. This design implements matching in order to improve the multi-band, wide angle transmission. Although the concept of matching is well-developed as microwave technique, its application to radomes has been prevented by a lack of a practical, efficient fabrication method for doubly curved shapes. Radant Technologies, Inc. has developed a novel, but practical method for implementing multi-band, wide angle designs for doubly curved, laminate radomes. A construction sample panel of the multi-band, wide angle design for the tri-band, airborne radome will be fabricated and measured for Ku-, K-, and Ka-band transmission for incidence angles from 0 to 60. These will be used to establish a measurement-based model for electrical performance calculations for the FAB-T radome shape and system antenna. These calculations will be obtained by a Ray Trace method that includes losses due to the material loss tangent, interface reflections, polarization mismatch, and phase distortion. Beam pointing error, side lobe degradation and other radiation pattern distortions will also be evaluated

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2486
Dr. Paul Allopenna
AF 06-059      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:MetaCORE: Metadata automated Categorization and Optimized Relevance Exploration
Abstract:To support net-centric warfare, the Air Force must automate the generation and maintenance of metadata about both new and legacy information products. Metadata will enable Warfighters to retrieve necessary information quickly enough for accelerated ops tempos from among the rapidly increasing number of accessible information products. The metadata must include standard, domain-defined, user-generated, and automatically-generated attributes. We will build the *Metadata automated Categorization and Optimized Relevance Exploration* (*MetaCORE*) application based on the powerful analysis and indexing methodology of /Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing/ (pLSI). pLSI both extracts indices from collections of documents and associates specific indices with individual documents. These indices are both explicit - i.e., contained in the document - and latent - i.e., /not/ contained in the document but associated with it because of its similarity to other documents. /pLSI can provide an innovative, effective, and efficient solution to the metadata problem by addressing its central challenges/. It is designed to determine indices in document collections and to associate appropriate indices with particular documents, thus providing automatically-generated attributes. We will also develop a simple tool by which users can prepare user-specified or domain-defined attributes. /pLSI can then use the same underlying technology to associate those additional kinds of metadata with individual documents/.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
2661 Commons Blvd., STE 242
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Mr. John Friskie
AF 06-059      Awarded: 12APR06
Title:Automated Metadata Generation, Indexing and Cataloguing
Abstract:Our combined expertise will support MARC's central concept of providing a community-of-interest-based means to automatically extract metadata from documents produced by legacy systems. This capability will allow different military knowledge workers to leverage the information objects in each other's command and control systems without the need for significant system reengineering or manual markup of legacy information products. Providing automated metadata extraction furthers net-centric operations by exposing systems' information content to other legitimate users. As operations move to Task/Post/Process/Use (TPUU), these legitimate users need to be able to access needed information as situations and their work streams change. The MARC team has the expertise and resources to realize the program's concepts. We offer system design and development capabilities that maximize the usefulness of systems to their human users. Additionally, we have extensive experience with metadata engineering, modeling and simulation, and intelligence and imagery analysis.

LANGUAGE COMPUTER CORP.
1701 North Collins Blvd., Suite 2000
Richardson, TX 75080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 231-0052
Mr. John Lehmann
AF 06-060      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Concept-Based Event Extraction Utilizing Rich Semantics (CONVERSE)
Abstract:This effort involves a novel approach to event extraction that relies on rich semantic knowledge. Semantic information ranging from semantic word senses, semantic frames that describe conventional situations, predicate-argument structures and named entity classes are used to produce conceptual representations of events and to identify all essential information. In addition, in this effort we propose to enhance the semantic information with discourse-level information for capturing event-related knowledge which spans across multiple sentences. The concept-based event-extraction methodology proposed herein will enable information analysts to effectively monitor and analyze event-relevant information from textual data sources.

LINGUASTAT
784 Edgemar Ave
Pacifica, CA 94044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 324-8898
Mr. Mark Butler
AF 06-060      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Enabling Concept-Based Event Extraction
Abstract:Current state-of-the-art systems for event extraction lack the ability to yield high accuracy, concept-based results. We propose to design and build an enabling technology for concept-based event extraction that includes 1) a knowledge-based approach for disambiguation, normalization, and consolidation of event information, 2) use of automatically identified linguistic structures to collect as much relevant event information as possible even across sentence boundaries, 3) use of a linguistic database approach to support future applications to aid analysts, and 4) development of a prototype to demonstrate effectiveness of the overall approach. Phase I deliverables will include the assessment of the feasibility of our approach and design of a software prototype for high accuracy concept-based event extraction.

DRAGON RESEARCH & ENGINEERING, INC.
4477 Camrose Avenue
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 535-1080
Ms. Sheila Zuehlke
AF 06-061      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Multi-INT Ontology Mediation Services
Abstract:In recent decades, the challenge of modern warfare has shifted from gathering as much information as possible to filtering and synthesizing the large quantity collected for human interpretation and action. Before a comprehensive view of any situation can be presented, all relevant data must be interpretable and accessible in a uniform manner. Tools exist enabling integration of enterprise systems; however, this activity is nearly always time-consuming and manpower-intensive. We propose an ontology mediation service that provides a lighter weight, lower cost, and more flexible alternative to full-scale system integration. The service will serve as a functional platform for more advanced research and convert between present-day data models using predictive analysis and automation. The solution will also be aggressively positioned for the future of data representation by using conceptual and semantic algorithms to construct a rich, machine-readable ontological representation of a given domain. We believe the need is best satisfied by a system that: 1) contains its own comprehensive foundation ontology, 2) can ingest example ontologies, 3) expands its internal ontology and improves its automated mapping ability, 4) translates and outputs to any format that can be read in, and 6) uses web services and integrates seamlessly with a Service-Oriented Architecture.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Gary Sikora
AF 06-061      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Multi-INT Ontology Mediation Services
Abstract:The problem in sharing sensor information is that each platform has a specialized language which has evolved over many years that may be significantly different across platforms. Interface definitions may be as simple as defined structures, perhaps added metadata, or evolved to include a formal ontology. Regardless of the classification scheme used, much work is required to compare and map these disparate interface definitions. Automation tools are desperately needed to ease and expedite this process. Progeny offers a common solution not only to streamline the information discovery process, but to use the same common reference model to provide automated information translation seamlessly enabling sensor-to-sensor communication across disparate sensor ontologies. Several automated tools are proposed based on extending existing capabilities from related work developments and the emerging ISO/IEC Extended Metadata Registry standard.

GALOIS CONNECTIONS, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way, Suite 290
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 626-6616
Dr. John Launchbury
AF 06-062      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Reprogrammable High Assurance Internet Protocol Encryptor
Abstract:Field Programmable Gate Arrays are widely recognized as an attractive technology for satisfying the needs of U.S. Government Crypto Modernization programs. However, FPGA technology creates some interesting challenges in terms of reliability and assurance of crypto implementations. In the late 1990s, the National Security Agency recognized the need to significantly improve the state-of-the-art for high assurance crypto implementations, and funded Galois Connections to research and propose compiler and formal method techniques in developing a solution. The result is the Cryptol specification language and tools intended for producing High Assurance cryptographic modules. The NSA subsequently funded Galois to develop a compiler to directly translate high-level Cryptol specifications into highly-efficient FGPA cores in an assured manner. Topic AF06-062 seeks to develop and demonstrate a programmable encryption device capable of meeting HAIPE requirements for use in future satellite communications applications. Galois proposes to address the demanding requirements of such an application by focusing on delivering the right tools for producing High Assurance cryptographic modules targeted to state of the art cryptographic hardware. For the hardware platform, Galois proposes to work in partnership with Rockwell Collins to target their next generation cryptographic platform, the Gigabit Encryptor, which is currently under development at Rockwell Collins.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street, Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
AF 06-062      Awarded: 12APR06
Title:Radiation Hardened, Reprogrammable Internet Protocol Encryptor
Abstract:Our architecture builds on the basic tenets of high assurance cryptographic design, and provides a reprogrammable, modular architecture that: 1) Ensures integrity and confidentiality of information 2) Provides authentication and non-repudiation services. 3) Both physically and logically separates the security and non-security functions to support NSA evaluation and certification. 4) Identifies and allocates the security functions that must be implemented using high assurance design techniques. 5) Object oriented approach to security and cryptographic functions and implementation, and 6) is radiation hardened. The Radiation Hard Reprogrammable Internet Protocol Encryptor (RH-IPE) is based on the PSIAM-II Cryptographic Module and is designed using available commercial Field Programmable Gate Arrays, with the goal of maximizing re-programmability by allowing for the architecture to be updated using newer VHDL code. The design is minimizes re-certification activities as long as the security design rules and techniques used in the PSIAM-II design and embedment are strictly adhered to; plus provides a direct path for radiation hardening. The RH-IPE is based on a highly redundant architecture, where all critical functions are performed in parallel using similar logic that operate independently, with all critical decisions compared by redundant check functions to assure 100% consistency of results.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. John Thele
AF 06-063      Awarded: 16APR06
Title:WISE-TMODS: Wargame Intelligent Strategy Engine
Abstract:Adversaries of the United States are increasingly using non-traditional tactics and strategies to create a highly unpredictable and dangerous environment for military operations. To prepare for future adversary actions, the military leadership is employing synthetic battlespace environments for military training and mission rehearsal. The goal of this project is to develop the capability to generate realistic asymmetric adversary tactics for wargame simulations. The proposed system, WISE-TMODS, will utilize techniques from game theory and social network analysis to model asymmetric threats and produce credible adversary behavior. It will also provide strategy analysis tools to allow an understanding of how actions taken by players within the wargame affect the asymmetric tactics being employed.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 244-3946
Mr. Lynn Lehman
AF 06-063      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Asymmetric Adversary Tactics and Strategy Generation
Abstract:The Synthetic Adversary Tactics and Strategy (SATSS) service will provide a dynamic and realistic adversary for use in synthetic environments focusing on generation of tactics and strategies for real-world asymmetric adversaries to support the current and future needs of the modeling and simulation community. SATSS will employ a unique and innovative System of System Models (SoSM) to represent all of the complex elements required to effectively model asymmetric adversaries. The Phase I SATSS effort will focus on model elements that contribute strategy and tactics elements of the adversary, the adversary's perceptions of the Blue force and the elements that control model interactions and relationships.

COLORADO ENGINEERING, INC.
3272 Silver Pine Trail
Colorado Springs, CO 80920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 388-8582
Mr. Larry Scally
AF 06-064      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Distributed Information and Signal Processing (DISP)
Abstract:Colorado Engineering, Inc., a small woman owned business is going to develop a distributed processing architecture for an extensible, distributed application that can be utilized to detect information of interest in all types of data. The key distinguishing characteristics of the architecture will be distribution of the detection tasks to a set of subscribed PCs and/or FPGAs on a network (including the Internet or a Local Area Network) and the use of a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) to facilitate inclusion of new and improved algorithms. This proposal will demonstrate and evaluate the feasibility of the proposed architecture through development of a prototype implementation of the architecture. Feasibility analysis will focus on the effectiveness of the proposed architecture, the ease with which new and improved algorithms can be included in the activities, and support for the required user configuration options. Proposed Phase I objectives include: high-level and detailed design of architecture components, prototype application development, feasibility analysis, and Phase II plan development. The proposed architecture will support effective distributed activities using easily-extended algorithms.

NEVA RIDGE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-9966
Mr. Richard Carande
AF 06-064      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Automated Signal Processing for Information Exploitation
Abstract:Neva Ridge Technologies introduces an innovative concept for drastically improving the interpretability of coherent change detection (CCD) images acquired from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors, and greatly increasing the potential for automated information extraction. The concept exploits a new CCD data collection paradigm that can easily and cost-effectively be accommodated using existing technology. Using this approach, decorrelation "noise" can be easily distinguished from decorrelation "signals" of interest. This new CCD technique offers for the first time, the potential to drastically improve CCD analysis through both the simplification of analyst activities and the development of automated algorithms. In the proposed phase 1 effort we will demonstrate this concept using existing data, and explore the sensitivity and robustness of the technique as a function of frequency and resolution.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. B. Ravichandran
AF 06-064      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Evolutionary Algorithms for Sensor Fusion and ATR
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop a method(s) for detecting, segmenting, and identifying man made objects from background terrain from sensor fused data using Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs). Phase I will develop proof-of-concept implementation and demonstrate the capability to accomplish detection, segmentation , and discrimination or identification with the purpose of providing high probability of detection and accurate identification, with relatively low false detection and misidentification rates. Phase II will develop and demonstrate an EA based automatic sensor fusion algorithm for FLIR, TV and Ladar sensors to detect and identify tactical targets. The performance of the fused algorithm will be compared to performance of algorithms operating on a single sensor and will also evaluate the computational requirements of algorithm and developmental system and demonstrate the algorithm and prototype system in an operationally representative environment.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark Street, Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5087
Dr. David Lee
AF 06-065      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Acquiring Probabilistic Knowledge for Information Fusion
Abstract:Acquiring probabilistic knowledge for the development of fusion models can prove to be a difficult task. In many applications, the lack of availability of historical data forces the modelers to rely extensively on Expert Judgment techniques which traditionally requires a large amount of manpower and is exceedingly time-consuming. The DAC team proposes a novel approach to the knowledge elicitation process which will address these limitations through the development of an automated prototype system for the collection and analysis of probabilistic knowledge from Subject Matter Experts. Using traditional survey and estimation techniques in combination with non-parametric statistical tests, we aim to provide modelers with a computerized system for the development of Bayesian Inference Models to perform high-level information fusion. This method will build on DAC's extensive expertise in Bayesian network design and integration with automated systems. The results of this effort will be an intuitive, robust prototype for knowledge elicitation which will pave the way for an online deployable tool to be implemented under future research.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 244-3946
Mr. Lynn Lehman
AF 06-065      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Acquiring Probabilistic Knowledge for Information Fusion
Abstract:Military decision makers are faced with vast arrays of complex interrelated data from numerous sources leading to information overload for military planners and analysts. Probabilistic information strategies have shown significant promise towards improving the current state of information fusion. However, the ability and time required for SMEs to provide realistic probability estimates has prevented wider acceptance of the approach. To address this problem Securboration, in collaboration with working with BEA systems and Dartmouth College, propose the Expert Analyst Support Environment (EASE). EASE will guide SMEs through a process to quickly develop the probability knowledge required to support an array of fusion based systems directed towards improving /Situation Awareness. The Securboration team's innovation is focuses on the use of ontlogies/ generalized knowledge components to provide a robust representation of a specific domain space shielding SMEs from system and methodology issues while permitting domain focus.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Perakath Benjamin
AF 06-066      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Adaptive Toolkit for Pattern Discovery (ATPD)
Abstract:We propose to research, design, and demonstrate an Adaptive Toolkit for Pattern Discovery (ATPD). We propose a hybrid approach that combines emerging machine learning techniques with advanced rule based methods to (i) automate the discovery of complex system-of-systems data utilization patterns and (ii) apply the learned usage patterns to dynamically update the reference ontology models being used for enterprise integration applications. The proposed ATPD capability will be used to (a) monitor information use across systems, (b) discover usage patterns, (c) analyze patterns for potential new (and useful) concepts and relations, and (d) offer intelligent assistance to ontology modelers about the integration of newly learned ontology concepts into the evolving reference ontology models. The Phase I effort will (i) establish ATPD requirements, (ii) design the ATPD architecture, and (iii) build and demonstrate a prototype ATPD. The ATPD methods and tools will be incrementally evaluated with test data and application scenarios at the 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The Phase II effort will harden the ATPD technology and build a focused and field-able ATPD application at 45th Space Wing, CCAFS.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Mr. Mark Wallace
AF 06-066      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Community Ontology Refinement with Adaptive Learning (CORAL)
Abstract:Timely, accurate and actionable information is crucial to Air Force operations. Enterprise-wide federation of information based on a unifying ontology, such as the Knowledge Management Framework (KMF) at the 45th Space Wing of the AF Space Command (45 SW), yields significant benefits. These benefits are derived from the completeness and suitability of the ontology. Modus Operandi's proposed CORAL innovation leverages usage patterns to refine and adapt an ontology so that it evolves organically to better meet the needs of its community. With CORAL, the KMF will continue to improve with use, making it easier and faster for users to find the information they need. Modus Operandi will extend their commercial Wave Platformr for semantic enterprise integration, currently in use at 45 SW as their KMF, with tools to evolve the ontology based on usage patterns.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Curt Wu
AF 06-067      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Debugging Environment for Complex Cognitive Architectures (DECCA)
Abstract:Increasingly, scientists are proposing that a prerequisite for human-level intelligence be a more human-like approach to the underlying hardware platform. These future systems will enable a new generation of cognitive architectures. Such complex cognitive systems will require new tools to support their unique development requirements-especially for testing and debugging. The difficulties anticipated in testing and debugging complex cognitive systems stem from the intrinsic properties of distributed systems that are potentially parallel and adaptive. The solution is a debugging environment that supports a broad range of cognitive architectures, including those that are highly parallel and evolutionary. Specifically, the solution must: . Enable specification of expected behaviors to define the success of tests . Provide the ability to set complex query-based breakpoints . Enable fine control of multiple program flows within the system . Provide test coverage for non-deterministic systems . Support continued learning through redefinition of expected behaviors . Provide greater insight into hidden underlying processes through such techniques as sensitivity analysis and differential debugging Our proposed Debugging Environment for Complex Cognitive Architectures (DECCA) leverages our practical experience in debugging existing cognitive systems and extends our technologies to address the needs of future cognitive architectures.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Paul Anderson
AF 06-067      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Cognitive Techniques for Analysis of Complex Software Systems
Abstract:The problem of finding flaws in large complex software systems is acute and getting worse because many systems are employing new cognitive techniques to increase their capabilities. Such techniques are typically highly dynamic and concurrent, which increases the complexity of the system and makes it correspondingly harder to debug. Traditional approaches fail because they are incapable of handling such levels of complexity. Often the cause of many complex flaws can be traced to errors in how the components of the system communicate and interact. Recently new methods have emerged that use sophisticated data mining and machine-learning techniques to automatically locate the source of flaws. These work by learning the rules for legal interactions between components by observing the behavior of the system during normal operations. These rules can then be automatically checked either statically or dynamically. We propose to create a prototype of a system that uses these techniques. It will learn temporal properties from traces, and feed the resulting rules to a static checker. The checker will report if any part of a component may violate these rules. This is feasible in Phase I because we are able to leverage a great deal of existing technology and expertise.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. Peter Mattson
AF 06-067      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Run-time Verification, Validation, and Debugging of Cognitive Systems
Abstract:We propose to design a system for run-time verification and validation (V&V), and debugging, of cognitive systems. Cognitive systems have unique characteristics that make them challenging to verify, validate, and debug: they make intelligent decisions based on complex and often incomplete data, they learn from experience, and their functionality is encoded in data. These characteristics require run-time verification and validation. We will develop a prototype tool for run-time verification and validation of a cognitive system using a best-of-breed combination of existing techniques and new innovations for specifying and checking intended behavior. In the event that run-time V&V detects a violation, the characteristics of cognitive systems also require innovative debugging tools. Since a cognitive system makes intelligent decisions based on learned knowledge, it will be extremely difficult to reproduce the circumstances that lead to a fault. This will require first-fault debugging in which a running system records sufficient information to enable back-tracking a fault to the cause. Because functionality is encoded as data, the debugger will extract a data-driven trace showing the data interactions that lead up to a fault.

3 SIGMA RESEARCH, INC.
503 S. River Oaks Dr.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 674-9267
Mr. Michael Winburn
AF 06-068      Awarded: 16APR06
Title:Cyber Operations
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR investigates and develops a system of software cyber-craft that monitor and defend large enterprise networks. This network of cyber-craft agents interoperates to collectively form a smart cyber sensor grid. Our approach incorporates three unique concepts: 1. Real-time dynamic environment where cyber-craft with new capabilities can be created and easily deployed; 2. A cyber-craft environment that can be dynamically configured/reconfigured in real-time; 3. Cyber-craft organized in to "cells" to enhance survivability and increase resiliency to attack. This approach provides maximum flexibility. Cyber-craft with new capabilities can be developed to meet new challenges and can easily be dynamically deployed into the environment in real-time. The network of cyber-craft is organized in cells to enhance its survivability. By organizing the cyber-craft as clusters of cells, we can take advantage of known organizational structures that have been shown to be resilient to compromise.

ASSURED INFORMATION SECURITY, INC.
245 Hill Road
Rome, NY 13441
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 330-7655
Mr. Patrick Burke
AF 06-068      Awarded: 11APR06
Title:CyberCraft Defensive Suite
Abstract:The Cyber Craft concept, as defined herein with respect to only defensive capabilities, will be developed specifically to support distributed operations via a Network Centric paradigm. The Cyber Craft Defense Suite (CCDS) will be a scalable capability, defined by a fully integrated host of software agents. The agents (representing a variety of cyber craft attributes) will be developed to operate in an autonomous nature, launched from multiple, distributed network platforms. The agents will be developed in accordance with state-of-the-art stealth and covert concerns (where allowable), absolutely minimizing footprint and demand for system resources, and will have little to no discernable signature. For this study, the Cyber Craft Defensive Suite will be developed to specifically address network security management, intrusion detection, malware detection, malicious code eradication, and basic forensic capabilities.

SOLIDCORE SYSTEMS, INC.
3408 Hillview Ave, Suite 180
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 203-8020
John Sebes
AF 06-068      Awarded: 12APR06
Title:Cyber Operations
Abstract:The Solidcore team envisions a cyber operations solution employing "Cyber-Craft" for full spectrum computer network defense. Our system will include a harbor (a host), and a dock (a control environment for cyber-craft execution) and cyber craft themselves (ordinary programs that can get launched to hosts and run there). Building on COTS and DHS funded R&D technology we will be able to deliver the Cyber-Craft System as a fully supported commercial platform.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5269
Dr. Babak Azimi-Sadjadi
AF 06-069      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Adaptive Free Space Optical and Radio Frequency Network Centric Cooperative Communications
Abstract:The proposed research aims towards adaptively using a wide variety of distributed cooperation techniques in wireless multi-hop networks. These techniques are intended to improve overall system throughput, reduce the cost of node elements, and extend the units' service lives. We will employ tools from the areas of Free Space Optics, signal processing, transmit and receiver diversity, error correction and detection (FEC), cluster-based forwarding and routing. This work proposes to extract diversity gain out of the redundancy inherently present in all broadcast network transmission, such as wireless sensor networks, and direct those gains for chosen receiver nodes. The redundancy in such systems is present since the signal carried over such a channel is received (if not necessarily detected) by all nodes within transmission radius. Thus, in this distributed cooperative paradigm, packets are not relayed from one network node to the next, but from one cluster of nodes to the next cluster of nodes, until it reaches its destination. Cooperative transmission provides a new opportunity for system designer to use a wide range of technologies such as free space optics and short range radio transmission (such as blue tooth) to enhance the network performance that otherwise would be useless for long radio range transmission.

NUCRYPT LLC
1801 Maple Avenue, Rm 6322
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 491-5713
Dr. Gregory S. Kanter
AF 06-069      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Advanced Radio Frequency and Optical Connectivity to support Network-Centric Operations
Abstract:NuCrypt is developing the technology for physical-layer optical encryption that exploits the intrinsic, irreducible noise of light. Our method, called AlphaEta, has fundamental and practical security benefits and the technology performs similarly as standard optical communications equipment. We have demonstrated AlphaEta in installed fiber-optic networks and have also built encrypted free-space optical links. While AlphaEta is inherently robust with standard optical equipment, such as fiber amplifiers, all-optical add-drop filters, and dispersion compensating fiber, it is currently applicable to `all-optical' networks. Many military networks require interoperability with packet-oriented mesh-type networks which may combine various RF and optical technologies. We propose to extend AlphaEta physical encryption so that it can be integrated into such heterogeneous systems as a high-security feature. In Phase I, we will investigate how to build a protocol-agnostic system with automatic key management that can send data via traditional or AlphaEta style encryption. In particular, this will require a means of digitizing (regenerating) the optical AlphaEta signal and of having the capability to interface that signal with RF transmitters.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Darrin Taylor
AF 06-070      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:IO-STREAM: Integration of Information Warfare (IW) and Strike Generation
Abstract:The aim of this project is to research and develop Information Operations Stream (IO-Stream) a technology that will enable force synchronization to achieve a desired effect in high tempo, dynamic environments. IO-Stream is an extension of our existing, demonstrated air tasking order (ATO) technologies to include Information Warfare (IW) computer and psychological assets and targets in an Effects Based Plan (EBP). A primary objective of this project will include research into the parallels between kinetic and non-kinetic attacks. The Phase I effort will focus on cyber operations, while future work could explore the effects of other non-kinetic attack methods such as PSYOPS. Another important objective will require the incorporation of a computer network topology graph into our Effects Based Plan, and expansion of the existing model to support the planning of IO assets. IO-Stream utilizes the same mechanisms in ATO-Stream to determine the optimal coordinated attack methods, and generate a viable plan for a synchronized attack.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court, Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Scott D. Wood
AF 06-070      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:SYNC: System for Networked Collaboration
Abstract:Although emerging technologies are enabling unsurpassed connectivity between battlefield units, coordinating and synchronizing efforts is still one of the most challenging aspects of warfare. This challenge is amplified by the different procedures, customs, and terminology used by each of the different services, and by the need to coordinate multiple types of unmanned battlefield entities. Technology that capitalizes on the increased connectivity and provides individual decision-makers with both shared situation awareness and cognitive decision aids would facilitate both planned synchronization and self-synchronization of forces. Soar Technology proposes to develop cooperative multi-agent teams that leverage an understanding of planning and execution requirements to (1) execute routine actions, (2) inform the user when new critical information is available, and (3) monitor ongoing plans to ensure that they are proceeding according to the commander's intent. In particular, these agents will facilitate the effective synchronization of manned and unmanned ground and aerial forces.

INSITU GROUP, INC.
118 East Columbia River Way
Bingen, WA 98605
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 493-8600
Dr. Stephen B. Heppe
AF 06-071      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:TACTICAL INFORMATION INTEROPERABILITY & MANAGEMENT (TIIM)
Abstract:We propose a "bottoms-up" solution to Tactical Information Interoperability Management (TIIM) comprising a hybrid of emerging systems from the commercial domain plus a TIIM layer for management and routing. The emerging systems are tailored to small, disadvantaged users and hold the promise for easy adaptation to swarms of robotic assets. One is 802.11 and its ad hoc networking derivatives, such as SECNET11 and the evolving networks for vehicle safety communications. The other is a combination of COTS TDMA radios, such as the Freewave radios already used by ScanEagle and other small UAS, plus distributed TDMA resource allocation designed to provide high efficiency at the MAC layer. A candidate for the distributed resource allocation package is already available as a pair of international standards for aviation and maritime users. The TIIM will tie these technologies together in a single network, provide for aircraft trajectory adjustment needed to satisfy advanced applications such as data bridge and airlift, and provide for performance monitoring. Our objective is to: a) create a testbed for this hybrid networking architecture; and b) offer a militarily-useful capability that could be deployed at the end of a Phase II effort.

ISX CORP.
760 Paseo Camarillo, Ste. 401
Camarillo, CA 93010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 581-2019
Mr. David Van Brackle
AF 06-071      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:AirNet: An Information Management System Leveraging Unmanned Airborne Network Nodes
Abstract:AirNet envisions a "network in the sky" of airborne network nodes on UAVs. AirNet has four layers: an Information Access layer, which allows clients to ask for information, publish information, and specify information needs. Clients can also specify parameters of identity, role and workflow, so that lower levels can intelligently manage their information; an Information Cache Management layer, which controls the information local to the user. It forms a virtual information space from the information available at other nodes. It utilizes the user's needs, and other information, to intelligently (perhaps predictively) collect the information the user needs or is likely to need based on user mission/role/context. It also pushes information produced by the node out to other nodes as needed; a Networking layer, which manages the network along which the information flows, in a peer-to-peer fashion; a Network Node Management layer, which dynamically and proactively manipulates the actual network nodes to maximally satisfy data and quality-of-service needs. It can organize the nodes into an information cloud covering an area, a bridge between two distant nodes which have a need for a high level of connectivity, or dispatch a courier to a remote node as an information airlift.

APPLIED MINDS
1209 Grand Central Ave
Glendale, CA 91201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 545-1401
Dr. Danny Hillis
AF 06-072      Awarded: 05JUN06
Title:New Technologies in Collaboration and Team Building
Abstract:Applied Minds, Inc. (AMI) seeks to investigate the application of a variety of techniques to enhance its current portfolio of technologies, based on previous research carried out at AMI and on work done for a variety of client organizations including the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). AMI's technologies in this area provide a number of features - linking people, projects, documents, and concepts together, enhancing collaboration within teams, providing tools for collaborative decision-making, and providing compelling user interfaces. This SBIR opportunity will allow AMI to enhance its existing technologies by incorporating textual analysis, trust and reputation systems, social network analysis, metadata and ontology tools, and advanced visualization techniques into our advanced information technology framework that is currently under development. We expect that this Phase I effort in conjunction with AMI's existing technologies will lead to a successful Phase II development project and a prototype solution for building ad-hoc teams of experts.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2417
Dr. Kara L. Orvis
AF 06-072      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:TeamBuilder: Assembling Ad Hoc Virtual Teams to Respond to Emergent Demands
Abstract:The environment in which the US military must operate has grown increasingly complex. Successful command hinges on the ability to quickly assemble and assign capable teams to cope with emergent demands, often across barriers of time and space. Thus it is imperative that a commander be able to quickly identify personnel that have the required capabilities and expertise to carry out the necessary tasks in both a face-to-face and a virtual team environment. Locating and accessing critically needed knowledge and expertise is often a significant challenge for military commanders. We propose to develop the TeamBuilder software package to enable military commanders to rapidly identify and assemble ad hoc teams, whose members have the expertise to execute specified types of missions, and are likely to work together well as a team. The commander will specify what needs to be done, when and where, and TeamBuilder will recommend who should be assigned to the mission and summarize why they are qualified for the job. The Aptima team will apply its knowledge of teamwork theory, experience making meaning of data through languages, skill integrating disparate data including communications data, and know-how on processing data to optimize teams using both optimization and social networks.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
AF 06-072      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:A Tool for Recommending Teams of Experts
Abstract:Commanders of all branches of the US military are often confronted with a varying array of situations for which they need expert assistance outside of their immediate staff. In the era of network-centric operations, connectivity and bandwidth are increasingly available to the commander so that groups of outside experts can be reached for consultation when a specific situation arises. When putting together such a team of experts, there are at least two important factors for commanders (or other team builders) to consider. First, they need to make sure that the team members are highly competent in the areas needed for their role on the team. Second, the team must work well together. This is a combination of having team members that are familiar with and comfortable with each other and having members of the team that work well in a team environment. We propose to design and explore the feasibility of T-REX (Tool for Recommending teams of EXperts), a team-recommendation system capable of learning user profiles and social connections in order to recommend effective teams of distributed experts.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Ms. Karen A. Harper
AF 06-073      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Integrated Collaboration Environment for Sense-making (ICES)
Abstract:Intelligence analysis is a cognitively intensive process that requires analysts to implement various strategies to mine and filter immense data sets, identify higher-level knowledge based on collected evidence, understand the implications of that accumulating knowledge, and defend selected explanations against all others - collectively referred to as the sense-making loop. While many computational tools have been developed to support data analysis in the intelligence domain, these tools tend to address only parts of the sense-making loop, and generally do not support interoperability within a full suite of analysis tools. The result is a range of "stovepipe" systems that do not support the analyst in fluidly managing the analysis process. Furthermore, such stovepipe systems do not support collaborative analysis through sharing of intelligence artifacts across team members. We propose to address these problems through the design of an Integrated Collaboration Environment for Sense-making (ICES), composed of: 1) a Visual Analytics Module providing each analyst with a suite of interactive tools targeted to specific tasks within the sense-making loop; and 2) the Collaboration Workspace Module enabling the sharing of information between ICES users in a fully integrated shared workspace supporting the execution of the collaborative sense-making loop among distributed intelligence analysts.

CYCORP, INC.
3721 Executive Center Drive, Suite 100
Austin, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-4001
Mr. Nick Siegel
AF 06-073      Awarded: 11APR06
Title:Collaborative Sense Making
Abstract:Analytical tasks at the all-source level, and above, generally require access to intelligence distributed among a variety of forms: structured databases with differing schemas, electronic maps with various metadata schemes, and textual reports in multiple languages. Knowledge bases that employ highly expressive formal languages, such as extensions of first order logic, offer a solution to the challenge of combining information from the current daunting variety of data forms. Such knowledge bases can, in principle, represent the content of all structured sources within a single structure. Such a structure can in turn be accessed by interfaces that allow information to be formed in a way that is natural to analysts - rather than in the various idiosyncratic forms of multiple structured sources. Moreover, the expressive power of such knowledge bases makes it possible for them to integrate existing structured sources as a virtual part of their content, by translating data in those sources. A complete Virtual Knowledge Base (VKB) of data for intelligence analysis would address the need for data to exist in a form that is intelligible to analysts, while circumventing the impracticality of constructing a single knowledge base in which all intelligence data actually resides.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway, Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Robert McGraw
AF 06-076      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:An Adversary Prediction Environment (APE) for Complex Dynamic Environments
Abstract:There is a key need fin this area for anticipatory tools and techniques to assist command staff in Intelligently Preparing the Battlespace by predicting and assessing adversary and neutral courses-of-action in a manner that enable the rapid diffusion of undesirable military or socio-political situations. We propose an Adversary Prediction Environment (APE) that will provide this capability by leveraging soft computing techniques and grid computing resources to provide an environment that allows for rapid exploration and analysis of enemy COAs for a given set of scenarios. The APE will accomplish this by utilizing prediction capabilities present in our DSAP (Dynamic Situation Awareness and Predictive (DSAP) environment to apply operationally focused simulation through Joint SemiAutomated Forces (JSAF) to evaluate plan effectiveness. The Phase I effort will work to identify prospective scenarios and define a library of basic adversary and neutral force plans, actions, and adversary objectives that can be used to model adversary behavior for the identified scenario. The Phase I will then identify optimization, extrapolation, simulated annealing, and other techniques and heuristics that can be used to "tweak" adversary plans to maximize their effect at achieving both their primary objectives and key 2nd and higher order effects resulting from their actions.

SYNERGIA LLC
2400 Broadway, Suite 203
Redwood City, CA 94063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 569-4999
Dr. Michael Fehling
AF 06-076      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Anticipatory Capabilities for Complex, Dynamic Environments
Abstract:Our objective is to create the technology foundation to anticipate and thwart adversary planning and action, by creating valid models of adversary capacities and tendencies, and delivering these models in the form of (adversary) planning operators. We will emphasize rapid development of plausible, high-impact adversary plans (as a function of the current situation), and also the adversary's potential to adapt those plans so that they specifically exploit identifiable weaknesses in friendly habits and doctrine. Phase I research will fully specify an anticipatory and counter-planning technology, to be implemented in Phase II, for this purpose. In essence, valid models of adversary practices will be automatically simulated, and simulation results will be automatically converted to planning operators (nominally, STRIPS-like). During Phase I we will also develop a proof-of-concept demonstration of the methodology and technology. Finally, we will design a validation experiment, to be conducted during Phase II, to demonstrate the technology and its value in for counter-planning.

CYCORP, INC.
3721 Executive Center Drive, Suite 100
Austin, TX 78731
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 514-2966
Dr. Larry Lefkowitz
AF 06-077      Awarded: 12APR06
Title:Semantic Knowledge-based Decision Support
Abstract:In any complex environment - such as managing a battlespace, launching a satellite, or operating a global enterprise - critical decisions depend on a broad range of information sources, decision-making guidelines, and an array of operational and environmental factors. These challenges highlight the need for decision support systems whose decisions are based on both structured and unstructured information sources, and that can explain their decisions in a manner that garners trust from those relying on its conclusions. The Cyc knowledge-based environment supports many of the capabilities needed for such a system. Its Semantic Knowledge Source Integration functionality permits smooth integration with structured information sources, while its inference engine and NL generation capabilities provide textual justifications for its actions. Unstructured data (such as text documents, imagery, videos, etc.) can be mapped to the Cyc ontology to model their content as well as to identify key metadata (such as the source, creation date, scope, etc.), enabling material from unstructured sources to be seamlessly included in the decision process. We propose to design a decision support architecture around these existing capabilities that would gracefully incorporate a wide variety of information sources and offer greater transparency into its decision making process.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Mr. Mark Wallace
AF 06-077      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:DEEP: Decision Explanation Engine Platform
Abstract:Commanders are required to make mission-critical decisions based on large amounts of distributed information that is not integrated in any meaningful way and typically represented in many incompatible formats. Support staff must read many potentially relevant documents and analyze data from many sources to extract the information needed to create a complex situation report that assesses operational capability in order to make critical mission go/no-go decisions. Capturing the history of such decisions, tracing them from triggering event to final resolution, and explaining the sequence of events to others at a later time are not trivial tasks. Modus Operandi proposes a Decision Explanation Engine capable of interpreting and tagging instance data in an ontology graph as a "decision history" and explaining it to end users. This provides users with better, more natural understanding of the sequences of events leading to or from a decision.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-3533
Mr. Neelakantan G. Kartha
AF 06-077      Awarded: 10APR06
Title:Guide: An Adaptive System for Automating Decision Support
Abstract:Systems for supporting mission-critical decision making are crucial in helping the human decision maker deal with information overload, to decrease the time for decision making, and to increase the reliability and robustness of the decision making process. We propose an innovative system called GUIDE for helping support the human decision making process. GUIDE combines the technologies of knowledge representation and text processing in a novel way to address the problems of information fusion from structured and unstructured sources, representation of decision analysis, and automation of decision support. In addition, it provides visibility into the steps of the decision making process as well as the information that formed the basis of the decision, and takes into account feedback received from the human decision maker. Careful consideration has been given in GUIDE to issues critical to user adoption, namely its usability and its maintenance over time. Phase I prototype development will provide a solid foundation for complete implementation in Phase II.

SHEET DYNAMICS, LIMITED
1775 Mentor Avenue, Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Dr. Thomas D. Sharp
AF 06-079      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Data Fusion of Eddy Current, Ultrasonic, and Radiographic Data
Abstract:AbstractNondestructive Evaluation and Inspection (NDE/I) methods, procedures, and enabling technologies generally provide means to nondestructively scan, image, sense, or otherwise evaluate characteristics of, or detect minute flaws/defects in, materials and/or component parts. These capabilities have become essential to help assure structural and functional integrity, safety, and cost effective sustainment of Air Force systems, during both initial manufacture and operational service. As the average age of planes in a fleet rises, sometimes to beyond the design life, the importance of using NDE/I to detect structural damage before it advances to structural failure is increasing. The long term vision of this proposal is the development of a scalable, extensible suite of software tools to capture, review and archive depot level NDI data. Furthermore, this suite should leverage non-proprietary standard data formats for information storage and transmittal to insure that the Air Force is not locked into a proprietary solution

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. David Forsyth
AF 06-079      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Data Fusion of Eddy Current, Ultrasonic, and Radiographic Data
Abstract:The availability of large area robotic scanners for nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques such as ultrasound (UT) or eddy current (ET) and intrinsically area-based techniques such as digital radiography (DR) or thermography have changed the inspection process in the depot and field. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. (TRI/Austin), in collaboration with Computational Tools Inc., Victor Technologies LLC. (VTL), and The Boeing Company, propose to develop a software tool and associated database structure to perform application-optimized data fusion and mining for NDI data. The TRI team will 1) develop the capability to perform automated defect detection and classification using individual and multiple (i.e. before and after repair, depot cycle interval) automated UT or DR inspections of the B-1B horizontal stabilizer, using existing data to be supplied by the AF, 2) develop the requirements for databases to enable the implementation of these data analysis/fusion algorithms along with data mining in the high throughput environment of the AF depot, 3) document how the basic analysis/fusion capability developed in the first goal can be extended to additional applications of interest to the USAF, such as general corrosion-induced material thinning in multilayered aircraft structures.

RADIANT AVIATION SERVICES, INC.
P.O.Box 717
Getzville,, NY 14068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 662-0022
Mr. Timothy Seel
AF 06-080      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Nonfluid Transportable Aircraft Deicing System
Abstract:Radiant Aviation Services have been providing airports with an economical, operationally efficient and environmental (non-fluid) system for deicing large aircraft since 1998. They have already perfected the science to employ a two stage infrared area-deicing system, which is FAA approved. Leveraging this technical expertise we are proposing an electrical infrared system, which will consist of ground mounted modules that will deploy an array of emitters. The modules will be modified mobility bins that can be easily transported by Air Force cargo aircraft. The electrically powered emitters will produce the same-patented effect that our commercial systems in Newark, Oslo and soon at JFK already achieve. This system will fit contingency operational needs. Using an electrically powered system will allow it to be quickly installed and able to use existing bare base electrical generators. The ground-based emitters will have their infrared energy reflected off lightweight reflectors that can be easily attached to the ceiling of any contingency flow through hangar. This fully integrated system can be sized to deice helicopters up to large mobility aircraft. As per the solicitation, deicing fluid will only be used for holdover purposes. We already have operational procedures for holdover glycol use at Newark and achieved at least a 90% reduction in glycol use compared to conventional methods. Our technical expertise and operational understanding of this capability will ensure outstanding results in Phase I and II with rapid transition to Phase III and use by military or commercial interests.

ADHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 346-1685
Dr. Jan-Michael Gosau
AF 06-081      Awarded: 02JAN06
Title:Closed Loop Composite Recycling Process
Abstract:The recycling of composites on a large scale is an unsolved problem. Currently, the material is either ground up into near-worthless fillers, incinerated, or digested using environmentally questionable technology. Adherent Technologies, Inc. has developed a number of technologies to reclaim valuable carbon fiber and other raw materials from these composites in a potentially economically feasible manner. Since unsorted composite waste contains thermoplastic and thermoset polymer matrices, as well as contaminants like metals, paints and sealants, it is necessary to develop a unified approach that can treat all the materials at once without the need for extensive, and expensive, presorting. To achieve this, the composite waste will be treated in a three-step process, including a thermal pretreatment and two wet chemical processes. The Phase I program includes an investigation of all three processes on a laboratory scale as well as a final demonstration on pilot-scale equipment.

FIREBIRD ADVANCED MATERIALS, INC.
6304-D Westgate Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 272-1279
Dr. Charles L. Segal
AF 06-081      Awarded: 02JAN06
Title:Recycling Composite Scrap and Waste Materials
Abstract:Recycling of composites manufacturing scrap and end-of-life waste is expected to become more important as the use of composite materials expands into different applications. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) wastes especially are a potentially valuable source of recycled carbon fibers if an economic and environmentally friendly technology for recycling these fibers can be developed. The Phase 1 project will examine the feasibility of a CFRP carbon fiber recycling process and methods for improving the properties of the recycled carbon fibers to create new value-added products. The results of Phase 1 will be used to assist with the construction of a small-scale pilot process in Phase 2.

ADVANCED CERAMICS RESEARCH, INC.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 434-6392
Dr. Ranji Vaidyanathan
AF 06-082      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Lightweight graphitic foam heat exchangers for fighter aircraft avionics
Abstract:In this phase I SBIR program, a team led by Advanced Ceramics Research Inc. (ACR) proposes an affordable manufacturing technique for high through-thickness thermal conductivity heat sinks for fighter avionics applications. ACR will use its AquapourT tooling materials as a support for the fabrication of the heat sinks. In the phase I program, ACR will fabricate sub-scale components, evaluate the thermal and mechanical properties and provide high thermal conductivity heat sinks that could be integrated into existing as well as future fighter avionics modules. In the phase II program, the ACR led team will scale up the manufacturing process for fabricating full-scale high thermal conductivity heat sink components. Prototype components will be fabricated for testing under realistic conditions.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Tom Carroll
AF 06-082      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Low Cost Production of Mesophase Pitch Matrix Graphite Heat Sinks(1000-867)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. (Triton) proposes to demonstrate cost effective fabrication of lightweight thermally conductive composite heat sinks for fighter avionics intended for installation in liquid cooled modular racks. Commencing with pitch graphite fiber / pitch precursor matrix carbon-carbon, composite variants will be investigated that improve the through thickness conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) when compared to current graphite based heat sink materials. During Phase I, Triton will implement the use of a high volume composite production process to significantly reduce the cost of these specialized materials. This process will produce the raw composite form from which the heat sinks will be fabricated. Additional high temperature processing steps will be used to enhance the thermal and mechanical properties. A single step densification process with an alternate matrix material will not only control cost but also improve heat sink compatibility with surrounding components. Finally, an extension of a well-developed textile processes used in the apparel industry will be used to enhance through-thickness thermal conductivity. In a Phase II award, Triton envisions the optimization of the manufacturing process with 2D/3D materials, refining thermal expansion matching, demonstrating low thermal joint resistance, assessing salt fog atmospheric exposure and test of a breadboard component.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Robert F. Kovar
AF 06-083      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:Enhanced Performance Coolant for Military Radar Cooling Systems
Abstract:Advanced weapons systems such as the B2 Stealth Bomber and the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) rely upon high power density radar systems, and specifically their high power transmitters, which generate high amounts of heat. Heat dissipation from these systems is necessary to prevent equipment damage and erratic current operation. Coolanol 25R is currently used in many military radar cooling systems. While it meets current specifications for many weapons systems, its cost (~$500/gal) and hydrolytic instability have led to interests in replacing it with cheaper, better performing materials such as polyalphaolefin (PAO). Although PAO meets current requirements, advanced weapons systems will require coolants exhibiting higher heat capacity and thermal conductivity, as well as improved thermal and hydrolytic stability. In this Phase I SBIR program, Infoscitex proposes the development of an enhanced performance coolant for military radar cooling systems that will meet future performance requirements and be of reasonable cost. The Phase I program will involve the use of computational molecular modeling techniques to identify candidate compounds, and laboratory evaluation of the best candidates.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Richard S. Sapienza
AF 06-083      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:Coolanol 25R Replacement for Military Aircraft Radar Cooling Systems
Abstract:Silicate-ester-based fluids have found extensive use as dielectric coolants in military applications, such as aircraft radar. However, the ease of hydrolysis of these fluids results in the formation of an alcohol and, in the more advanced stages, a gelatinous precipitate that caused component malfunctions. While a PAO coolant meets current requirements, advanced systems require improved performance in heat flux removal rate, heat capacity, thermal and hydrolytic stability, and low wear in pumps while still allowing the systems to operate without major modifications. To meet these requirements, METSS will focus on combining hydrolytically stable synthetic basestocks and additives to produce a new class of dielectric fluids with superior performance properties; including low temperature viscosity which could impact system operation when subjected to the currently specified - 65F cold-start environment. The proposed program will also address additional issues related to material compatibility issues, personnel safety, environmental impact and use costs. This approach will utilize existing commercial technology, solicit commercial support and provide an effective plan to supply the product to the AF if fully successful.

APPLIED OPTIMIZATION, INC.
8801 Windbluff Point
Centerville, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-5100
Dr. Anil Chaudhary
AF 06-084      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Machining Preforms [ FSWAMP ]
Abstract:Applied Optimization, Inc., in working with EWI, Inc. and Boeing Phantom Works, proposes to demonstrate feasibility of using friction stir welding [FSW] for the manufacturing of large Al 7050-T7451 preforms in four steps as follows. In the first step, representative preform will be generated from the finish shape of a large load-bearing airframe component of current interest to the USAF. The preform geometry will be such that it can be built up from extruded cross-sections and individual forgings. In the second step, the FSW joints configurations will be determined. These configurations will be self-interlocking in case of joints that are subjected to severe in-service loading. These joints will be determined by performing a stress analysis on the airframe component. A preform assembly sequence comprising the fixtures and its presentation to the FSW tool will be developed in CAD software. In the third step, representative FSW joints will be fabricated on sub-element coupons. The coupons will be heat treated and tested under static and fatigue loading in order to develop a Procedure Certification Document [PCD] and to characterize the FSW joint efficiency. In the fourth step, the material properties from the PCD will be used to perform a stress analysis of the airframe component to check its service performance, and to know if the FSW joint efficiency necessitates any local redesign of the component. This data will be utilized to estimate the cost viability of FSW versus direct machining for block hog-out.

REMMELE ENGINEERING, INC.
10 Old Highway 8 SW
New Brighton, MN 55112
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 263-5236
Mr. Terrance L Morri
AF 06-084      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Machining Preforms
Abstract:The process of procuring large sections of aluminum plate or forgings for machined aircraft structures is often cost prohibitive and lead times are long. One way to minimize this problem is to construct a preform out of several smaller sections that is similar in size and shape to the end product. The challenges that arise from this method of creating aircraft parts from preforms include: joining the sections to create the preform, maintaining adequate material properties, and machining a part with close-tolerance features from a preform with multiple joints. Friction Stir Welding is a cost effective joining technique that can provide sufficient material properties for aircraft structural components. Remmele Engineering, Inc. (Remmele) will team with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (Lockheed) to develop and demonstrate a method by which preforms can be constructed, thereby reducing the overall size (width, length, and thickness) of the raw material stock needed. The machining time as well as the lead time and cost of the stock plate or forging can be reduced significantly by constructing preforms.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. John Player
AF 06-085      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Novel Integral Nanofiber Coatings for High Modulus Compression Molded Electronics Enclosures
Abstract:The current Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) primes including Northrop Grumman and Lockheed are now pursuing weight reduction through the redesign and manufacture of electronics enclosures. To date many approaches have been taken for the redesign of these enclosures including using processes such as hand lay up, compression molded chopped fiber prepreg and VARTM, all with carbon nanofiber reinforcements. In this Phase I program, Infoscitex Corporation (IST) proposes to enhance the traditional attenuation based EMI shielding mechanisms using reflection shielding by applying novel architecture nanofiber surface layers to these enclosure designs. This combination of approaches will enable greater EMI shielding and achieve up to 60dB in shielding over the 1-20 GHz frequency band. IST's synergistic attenuation and reflection EMI shielding solution will be implemented in one cost effective composite manufacturing process and save our team partner, Northrop Grumman, and the JSF program over 50% on weight for each of these enclosures. The Phase I will establish the materials, the manufacturing methods, the enclosure design and culminate with the fabrication of a demonstration enclosure. The Phase II program will develop a series of enclosure designs and initiate the qualification process for production implementation with our commercialization team partners.

NANOTECHLABS, INC.
4830 Bent Ridge Ln.
Clemmons, NC 27012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 849-7474
Dr. Richard Czerw
AF 06-085      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Lightweight Electronic Enclosures Incorporating Nanotubes
Abstract:In this Phase I project, we will incorporate carbon nanotubes into a molded carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminate for EMI shielding of electronic enclosures. The nanotubes will be incorporated into the epoxy matrix and also as a coating on the laminate surface. In addition to enhanced conductivity, we expect increased thermal and mechanical performance as compared to conventional metal enclosures.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, LLC
9340 Hazard Way, Suite A3
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 751-0450
Mr. Duane Krumweide
AF 06-085      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Nanocomposites for Lightweight Electronic Enclosures
Abstract:Carbon nano-materials, in the vapor-grown fiber and platelet forms have shown great promise in providing EMI shielding when used with traditional polymer composites. However, attempts to blend these nano-constituents into matrix materials with low-loading levels have not been successful in increasing the inherent shielding level of the composite. San Diego Composites is proposing a method to concentrate the levels of conductive nano-materials at the surface of a compression molded enclosure or cover to provide EMI shielding at the level required for JSF and other aerospace applications. San Diego Composites is also proposing to blend graphite nano-platelets into standard molding compound to enhance mechanical properties. By providing integral EMI shielding, light weight, low recurring cost and good mechanical performance, compression molded hybrid nanocomposites are ideally suited to meet cost and technical performance on JSF.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James Withers
AF 06-086      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Low Cost Net Shape Forming of Ceramic Matrix Composites Utilizing Precermic Polymer Processing
Abstract:Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) exhibit many desirable properties for applications in gas turbine engines but their applications are limited due to their high cost of fabrication. Preceramic polymers (PCP) used with impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) to produce an interface coating on the ceramic fiber and the matrix of a composite when used with ceramic particle fillers have the potential to reduce the cost to produce net shape CMC's. It is possible for PCP PIP processing to produce CMC's for as little as $50/lb over the materials cost of the CMC. Such low cost processing will be further developed to produce net shape CMC's with properties that meet gas turbine engine requirements. The low cost produced CMC's will be characterized in coordination with one or more engine manufacturers supporting this low cost net shape processing development program. Samples and components will be produced to quantify the cost of fabrication.

STARFIRE SYSTEMS, INC.
10 Hermes road
Malta, NY 12020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 899-9336
Mr. Chad Rittershausen
AF 06-086      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Resin Transfer Molding Using Particle Filled Pre Ceramic Polymers
Abstract:CMC's (Ceramic Matrix Composites) provide durability and weight reduction in high temperature applications, such as engine components, but are costly to manufacture. Starfire proposes to develop RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) and CRTM (Compression Resin Transfer Molding), for the rapid manufacturing of near net shape CMC's incorporating fillers. Two approaches will be pursued to incorporate fillers, injecting filled slurry into a 2D or 3D preform and coating fabric with a compatible binder and fillers prior to laying up in the tool. We will develop techniques for both the HPZ pre-ceramic polymer currently used in the JSF flaps and seals, as well as our own SMP-10 pre-ceramic polymer. Starfire's SMP-10 pre-ceramic polymer advantages include the ability to add a catalyst to reduce out gassing during RTM curing, as well as its use as a compatible prepreggable binder for particle coating of 2-D reinforcing fabric. These variables will be tested concurrently with the HPZ resin system. The final deliverable will be F-100 flap(s) or seal(s) that will be engine tested at Pratt and Whitney. These same techniques are being considered for large volume commercial applications at Starfire including aircraft, automotive and motorcycle brakes.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES CORP.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(304) 848-5929
Mr. Jay Snider
AF 06-087      Awarded: 24APR06
Title:Warpage/Distortion in Machining 7050-T7451 Alloy Components
Abstract:The machining of structures from materials such as titanium is typically accomplished using end mills and roughing 90 to 95 percent of the material to leave precise, complex features on thin walled structures. High speed machining is widely used in the manufacture of parts and reduces labor significantly. Single Cell Machining will be developed to produce structures which require machining and low stress grinding in a single cell with minimal operator input. Several approaches will be examined to produce required parts in a single cell while providing operators with the flexibility to implement different solutions depending upon equipment already in place. Three methods will be explored - NC lathes, mill/turn centers and multiple machines with robotic transfer assistance. Up to 60% unit cost reduction is projected for Single Cell Machining depending on material and part geometry.

ENGINEERING SOFTWARE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
111 West Port Plaza, Suite 825
St. Louis, MO 63146
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 744-5021
Dr. Sebastian Nervi
AF 06-087      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Warpage/Distortion in Machining 7050-T7451 Alloy Components
Abstract:Investigation of the feasibility of development of a mathematical model that will have the capability to provide machine operators with specific guidelines for efficient machining, while minimizing any distortion and warpage, is the main objective of the proposed Phase I effort. The most challenging aspect of this project is the development of a validated mathematical model for the effects of machining-induced residual stresses (MRS). Previous investigation indicated that the influence of machining-induced residual stresses increases with decreasing part thickness. Furthermore, machining-induced residual stresses depend on tool sharpness, corner radii, machining pattern, feed rate and other controllable parameters. It will be necessary to develop a mathematical model capable of predicting the effects of end mill process parameters, specific to alloy and part geometry. MRS caused by metal cutting and grinding operations are confined to a very thin surface layer. Convincing correlation was found between tool diameter, tool sharpness, corner radii and machining pattern. These correlations are likely to be size-dependent and there is statistical variability, yet to be quantified. It is expected that the residual stress pattern is periodic.

OPSOURCE, INC.
The Ben Craig Center, 8701 Mallard Creek Rd.
Charlotte, NC 28262
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 687-8203
Dr. Bethany Woody
AF 06-087      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Warpage/Distortion in Machining 7050-T7451 Alloy Components
Abstract:Workpiece distortion during machining operations causes loss of dimensional tolerance, increased scrap, and an increase in the number of corrective operations, leading to higher manufacturing costs. In an effort to minimize the distortions, significant effort is currently put into relieving the residual stress in workpieces prior to machining operations. However, it is not just the residual stress in the workpiece that affects the final part geometry; it is the machining strategy (tool path, tool geometry, cutting parameters, and workholding) in conjunction with the existing residual stress in the workpiece that results in the final part geometry. Many attempts have been made to model and compensate for residual stress during the machining process. Unfortunately, the idea of choosing machining parameters and a toolpath to compensate for the residual stress state of the part, so that when a part is released from the fixture it springs into the correct geometry has had extremely limited success, and has never been very generic. In principle, the compensation strategy could work, but knowing the stress state with sufficient accuracy is currently not and may not become economically viable, restricting its use to research laboratories and university settings. We are proposing an alternate, complementary solution to the compensation strategy described above, which will provide best practice recommendations and will allow the production of more accurate part with improved machine utilization. This technique will minimize the deformation of the workpiece resulting from these phenomena, given any initial knowledge of the residual stress condition. The long term goal is to create and develop a shop-floor friendly technology to increase part accuracy and machine utilization during the manufacture of monolithic aluminum and titanium aerospace parts. This technology would find applications in the whole range of military aircraft from JSF to C-17 to unmanned aircraft. Commercial industrial applications are also quite extensive and include passenger and cargo aircraft and automotive applications.

ARCOMAC SURFACE ENGINEERING, LLC
6575 Butler Creek Road
Missoula, MT 59808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 522-7620
Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky
AF 06-088      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Protective Coating for Large-Diameter Bearing Races
Abstract:Critical large bearings in the F-35 thrust vector system must operate with absolute reliability under high loads, high heat and corrosive attack from salt air and fluorinated lubricant at elevated temperatures. A unique patented Filtered Arc Plasma Source Ion Deposition (FAPSID) process developed by Arcomac Surface Engineering will deposit an atomically bonded, multiple layered, integrated coating combining different metal and ceramic materials, each with specialized properties that improve both wear and corrosion resistance. This will further increase vector bearing performance, extend component life and reduce life cycle cost. Bearing components with optimized multiplex coating(s) will be rigorously evaluated for their durability and reliability under aggressive test conditions. The FAPSID process is scalable to produce production coatings on the large diameter bearing races in the F35 thrust vectoring system. These coatings have an enormous potential application to a wide range of military and civilian aircraft engine components that operate in severe wear and corrosive conditions.

INOVATI
PO Box 60007
Santa Barbara, CA 93160
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 571-8384
Mr. Jeffrey Henness
AF 06-089      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Innovative Corrosion Protection via Kinetic Metallization
Abstract:High strength, heat treatable, aluminum alloys are typically used in military aircraft, however such components require a corrosion protection coating. Such alloys include the 2xxx and 7xxx series alloys with typical protective coatings applied via anodizing, cladding, or priming. Inovati proposes to investigate the feasibility of using the Kinetic Metallization (KM) process to apply specific coating formulations for corrosion protection of high-strength aluminum aircraft structures and components. It is anticipated that the environmentally acceptable KM process will be a breakthrough innovation for economically coating aluminum aircraft components without degrading structural performance. Various nonhazardous powder feedstock materials including commercially pure aluminum and a composite blend of aluminum with a transition metal called Al-Transr will be evaluated and ideal formulations identified. The object of the Phase I research is to develop one or more nonhazardous coating formulations using the low-temperature KM spraying process and to begin testing of these coatings for qualification in Phase II. It is anticipated that this environmentally compliant coating will be used as a replacement coating for cladding and anodizing currently used to protect components on military aircraft.

KUCHERA DEFENSE SYSTEMS
345 Hillside Drive
Windber, PA 15963
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 467-9060
Mr. Brock Golesich
AF 06-089      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Innovative Corrosion Protection via Cold Spray Kinetic Metallization
Abstract:High-strength aluminum alloys offer excellent strength-to-weight ratios making them attractive for use in aircraft and aerospace applications [1]. During use, these alloys are subjected to multiple environmental conditions that can lead to corrosive formations. Corrosion leads to reduced performance and can eventually lead to catastrophic failure. The type and extent of the corrosion is dependant on alloy composition, temper, type of loading, coupling with other materials and coating. In this proposal, Cold Spray is being developed to create a better means of corrosion-resistant coating to these alloys. Cold Spray which unlike thermal spray coatings, does not form oxide levels at the bond interface and does not use hazardous chemicals as seen in other corrosion-resistant applications. Coatings will be applied to 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys in both robotically-controlled and manually-controlled environments. These coatings will be optimized by varying certain process variables, coating materials, and carrier gas. Once approved coating levels are achieved, an analysis will be conducted to verify corrosion resistance, coating durability and substrate-strength retention. Also a better understanding involved with property coating to process relationship and process costs will be investigated.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Mr. Wei Shih
AF 06-090      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Nano-Enhanced CMC Clutch Material
Abstract:The state-of-the-art clutch plate for the lift systems is made of carbon-carbon composites and is challenged to meet future life and frictional requirements. This clutch is very similar in configuration to an aircraft brake, but operates at significantly higher speeds approximately 8500 rpm. Generally speaking, the clutch plates are required to withstand a high shear load, resist sliding wear, withstand high peak temperatures, and have high static and dynamic friction coefficients to minimize slippage. The clutch plates also need high thermal capacity to dissipate large amounts of frictional energy introduced at a very high rate during engagement. A new family of nano-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) is proposed as the next generation frictional materials for improved wear and frictional performance. Although the frictional performance data of CMC are very limited, there are enough evidences indicating CMC or C-SiC in specific may ameliorate many deficiencies associated with their C-C counterpart. Under this proposed effort, carefully selected CMC candidates will be fabricated using production-ready materials and processes. Candidate materials will be tested on dynamometer under realistic conditions. Performance trends will be established and used for further optimization.

REFRACTORY COMPOSITES, INC.
107 N. Langley Rd.
Glen Burnie, MD 21060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 768-2490
Mr. Ted Paquette
AF 06-090      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:STOVL Clutch Materials for Uprated Thrust Capability
Abstract:RCI has developed new composite process and constituent technologies in fiber, preform architecture, interfaces and matrix elements that when combined will result in friction materials for JSF clutch application that will not only meet the performance and life objectives of the current clutch system but will be capable of handling an thrust upgrade of approximately 35%. In Phase I, RCI will focus on reducing the effect of damage mechanisms on the life of friction material wear films. RCI has unique friction test assets that can meet the current JSF clutch engagement condition criteria and can meet a number of relevant thrust upgrade conditions without modification. RCI plans an accelerated Phase I and Phase II program to bring this next generation of friction materials to full scale clutch application status in late FY 2007.

STARFIRE SYSTEMS, INC.
10 Hermes road
Malta, NY 12020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 899-0336
Mr. Stan Hemstad
AF 06-090      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:Development of a Stable Wear Debris Layer for JSF C/SiC Clutch Plates
Abstract:Starfire is proposing to fabricate and do full scale dynamometer testing of single rotor, JSF lift fan clutch heat sinks, and fully characterize the wear debris layer. The testing will be compared to the baseline C/C lift fan clutch material. The dynamometer testing will be done at Refractory Composites Inc using the dynamometer designed and purchased under RCI's Phase II program to address the same application. CMC friction material is inherently less moisture sensitive than the Carbon/Carbon baseline material which has lead to instability of the clutch and excessive wear. The development of a stable wear debris layer with the addition of Starfire's FM-35 friction modifier to CMC clutch plates is expected to result in reduced wear and further improve stability of the friction couple. Two rounds of full scale testing are proposed with moisture exposure testing. The full scale testing will shorten the development cycle eliminating the potential scale-up discrepancies demonstrated on the CCAB program and prior Starfire JSF Lift Fan Clutch SBIR.

APES, INC.
6669 Fyler Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 644-6040
Dr. Thomas Mills
AF 06-091      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:Corrosion Modeling and Life Prediction Supporting Structural Prognostic Health Management
Abstract:This proposal offers an approach to integrate the latest corrosion sensor technology with corrosion structural effects modeling to enable the transition from periodic corrosion inspections to an efficient, focused prognostics and health monitoring (PHM) system. The fundamental vision of the proposed program is to provide the customer with a process suitable for integrating corrosion effects analysis tools, structural criticality prioritization algorithms, in situ corrosion sensors, conventional non-destructive inspection (NDI), and data management structures to monitor and assess aircraft structure. All of these capabilities currently exist at varying levels of maturity. Phase I will develop the strategy by which, at the end of Phase II, such a PHM system will be designed, developed, integrated, validated, and demonstrated. The resulting system will include state-of-the-art hardware, software, and analytical techniques packaged into a powerful structural management philosophy. Demonstration in Phase II will include installation of hardware on a private jet to provide a flying demonstration article.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Gregory J. Kacprzynski
AF 06-091      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Corrosion Modeling and Life Prediction Supporting Structural Prognostic Health Management
Abstract:Objective: Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Ohio State University (OSU) and with the support of Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems, propose to develop a novel framework for corrosion prognosis addressing corrosion initiation and differentiation physics of failure models, imperfect damage estimates and global to local electrochemical transfer functions. Using both new and historical data on aerospace aluminum alloys available at the OSU Fontana Corrosion Center, the research team will develop reasoning methods for capturing the influence of key microclimatic, metallurgical and electrochemical effects on corrosion initiation and failure mode differentiation. In addition, a Bayesian Inference tool will be developed to calibrate the physics-of-failure models as evidence from inspection becomes available so that the frequency of such inspections may be reduced or eliminated as the prognostic system is validated. Being fully aware of costs of corrosion inspections and limitations on obtaining microclimatic data, the team will report on the relative benefit of obtaining and tracking various data types within the constraints of planned autonomic logistics systems and provide suggested interface design specifications for a corrosion PHM module. Finally, a comprehensive software demonstration of the corrosion prognosis module will be developed and presented illustrating model-based damage predictions vs. experimental data.

GLOBAL ENGINEERING & MATERIALS, INC.
9 Glodfinch Terrace
East Lyme, CT 06333
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 367-4970
Dr. Jim Lua
AF 06-092      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Automated Delamination Onset and Growth Prediction in Composite Structures
Abstract:An automatic software tool for residual strength and life prediction of composite structure will be developed. This tool will for the first time be able to model arbitrary crack growth without user intervention or remeshing and thus provide a user-friendly, reliable tool for predicting component life. The automated delamination onset and growth prediction tool will be integrated with the ABAQUS implicit solver via its user-defined element (UEL). GEM has secured commitments for technical support from LM Aero, Bell Helicopter, and ABAQUS, who will provide supporting data, information, and expertise. In addition, our consultant, Professor Ted Belytschko from Northwestern University, will aid in basic theory development, tool development, and provide existing X-FEM solution modules that are relevant to delamination failure prediction. The multi-faceted feasibility study consists of developing a method that will enable the following 1) arbitrary insertion of multiple initial delamination cracks that are independent of the finite element mesh; 2) characterization of a growing crack without remeshing; 3) accurate extraction of strain energy release (SERR) rate using the enriched near tip displacement field via the virtual crack closure technique; 4) characterization of delamination closure via a frictional contact algorithm.

RHOMBUS CONSULTANTS GROUP, INC.
1121 San Antonio Road, Suite B-100
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 691-1142
Dr. Charles Rankin
AF 06-092      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Composite Delamination Modeling Technology and Automation
Abstract:Composite delamination onset and growth prediction using commercial (COTS) finite-element codes will be facilitated by extension of cohesive element technologies. Cohesive elements eliminate the need for explicit definition and management of nodal constraints such as those required to execute Virtual Crack Closure (VCCT) methods. The Phase I project will extend cohesive element development, and implement these extensions for evaluation and validation in the ABAQUS commercial (COTS) finite-element package. Feasibility of the underlying technology will be established by application to models of actual test articles.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Duraiswamy Ravichandran
AF 06-093      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:A Novel Route for The Production of Net Shaped Transparent Spinel for Infrared Applications
Abstract:Optical quality spinel (MgAl2O4) is finding an increased number of applications for military acquisition, tracking and pointing systems as well as ground vehicle and aircraft armor. This spinel offers a lower cost substitute for presently used sapphire without compromising the needed strength for applications in infrared windows and missile domes. Lynntech Inc., proposes a novel thermo-reversible gelcasting technology which will be developed in collaboration with the Northwestern University. The technique uses low viscosity, high volume fraction ceramic suspensions that undergo a reversible gel transition at temperatures of about 60 degrees C. The wet mechanical strength of the gelled bodies is sufficient to allow them to be removed from the molds and handled without damaging the ceramic components thereby enabling this procedure in the production of objects having complex shapes. In addition, the process does not utilize toxic monomers used in conventional gelcasting methods. The wet green bodies will be dried and densified using conventional pressureless sintering techniques under special gas environment. This sintering technique limits grain growth and produces nanograin transparent ceramics, with increased strength needed for varied applications. These spinel windows can be used for a wide range of applications in the UV, visible and MWIR ranges.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Juan Sepulveda
AF 06-093      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:High Strength, Transparent, Low Cost Spinel Windows
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR Air Force Program proposes the development of transparent magnesium aluminum spinel windows for AF F-35 aircrafts, and similar applications, at an affordable cost. The novel spinel material exhibits high optical and IR transparency in the 0.3 - 5.5 m wavelength, is very resistant to abrasion, with density higher than 99.95% of theoretical, with very fine and uniform grain size exhibiting a flexural strength close to 300 MPa. The novel spinel technology proposed in this project has improved mechanical characteristics and transmission performance, better than conventional available spinel materials. Improved performance derives from the use of an advanced transient sintering aid technology that leaves no traces in the final product and flexible densification processing.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 875-4091
Mr. Thomas Mroz
AF 06-093      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Strength Improvements in Spinel Ceramics
Abstract:Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel is a material of interest for visible to mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) windows and domes that operate in demanding environments. However, spinel is not as strong as other materials, such as sapphire or ALON Optical Ceramic, which are currently used for such applications. In order to be acceptable for the most demanding of these applications, the strength of Spinel must be increased. Surmet recently demonstrated a substantial increase in the strength of spinel through modification of its microstructure. Typically, spinel exhibits a bimodal microstructure (i.e., large and small grains), where the large grains act as stress concentrators. By limiting the growth of these grains, and achieving a uniform, fine grain microstructure, the stress is more uniformly distributed, resulting in higher strength. Furthermore, these improvements are expected to be cost neutral and fully scaleable. We propose to further investigate process improvements to yield microstructures for high strength spinel in Phase I. Process refinement should further improve strength from our initial observations. Phase II will then scale the process to large plates. It will also investigate utilizing refined finishing methods to further capitalize on the fine microstructure and further increase the strength- which Surmet has previously demonstrated on ALON.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Mr. Quincy Chen
AF 06-094      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Passive Wireless Telemetry Sensor for Bearing Cage Temperature Monitoring
Abstract:Boston Applied Technologies proposes to develop a novel passive wireless telemetry sensor for bearing cage temperature monitoring in harsh environment. The sensor will employ Multilayer Ceramic Integrated Circuit (MCIC) Technology to ensure its operation in harsh environment at temperature up to 450 C. A high-temperature capacitive sensing technology and wireless data telemetry scheme will be developed that can easily be integrated into a bearing cage for monitoring its temperature and vibration. The bearing temperature signal is frequency-encoded that is wirelessly monitored by a receiver. Energy for the sensor operation is also fed wirelessly. Thus, no wires or batteries are attached to the sensor unit. Since the proposed system does not use any active elements in the sensor side, there is no bandwidth limitation caused by power limitation. Frequency tracking method will be also developed to make the system more robust to noise, thereby increasing the accuracy. The proposed sensor will be fabricated using MCIC technology and integrated on bearing during fabrication. The device will have small size, light weight, low power consumption, and very low cost. It should fit on the top surface of bearing cage well with less than 0.5 mm in height and less than 10 grams in weight.

SENTIENT CORP.
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls, ID 83401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 522-8560
Mr. Sean Marble
AF 06-094      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:High Performance Cage Sensors for Rolling Element Bearing Health Monitoring
Abstract:Obtaining reliable diagnostic information on turbine engine main shaft bearings is difficult due to space constraints, operating environment, and poor transmissibility of vibration from the bearing to a case-mounted accelerometer. Prior work has shown that bearing cage parameters provide valuable information on bearing health, and might be used to detect incipient spalls in a turbine engine bearing. A passive miniature wireless sensor used to collect this cage data has already been demonstrated on a number of different bearings during rig testing. For this project, Sentient Corporation will enhance this wireless sensor to address the needs of the turbine engine main bearing application. During Phase I, a working prototype of one or more new designs will be tested on a subscale bearing at moderate temperatures, and in a thermal chamber to show 300 deg C capability. Sentient will also work with a major turbine engine manufacturer to determine design constraints and options, and explore opportunities to test a prototype device on a full-scale, full speed rig test of an actual turbine engine bearing as part of the DARPA Prognosis Program.

FRACTURE ANALYSIS CONSULTANTS, INC.
121 Eastern Heights Drive
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-4970
Mr. Paul A Wawrzynek
AF 06-095      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Structural Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Metallic Components and Component Assemblies
Abstract:This Phase I proposal describes the development of three-dimensional, nonlinear structural analysis methods for use in prognosis systems for aerospace, gas turbine, metallic components and component assemblies. Fracture Analysis Consultants Inc (FAC) and Impact Technologies (ITech), with cooperation from Pratt & Whitney (P&W), propose to enhance an existing three-dimensional fracture propagation program, Franc3D/NG, to automatically generate finite element models that relate sensor measurable structural response to damage scenarios involving multiple fatigue cracks, crack locations, and crack sizes. These numerical results will be used to develop response surfaces that relate the rate of damage progression to multiple inputs such as loads, material properties, crack location(s), and crack size(s). The response surfaces will form the basis of probabilistic wrappers for fast predictions of remaining useful component life without the need for additional computationally intensive runs of three-dimensional finite element models.

MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Mr. William Marscher
AF 06-095      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Structural Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Metallic Components and Component Assemblies
Abstract:The proposed system will be capable of providing diagnostic and prognostic nonlinear structural analysis for gas turbine engine metallic components and component assemblies. This approach will use vibration testing and analysis techniques that have proven to be successful for determining turbomachinery structural health, and tie them together with a software program utilizing "artificial intelligence". Vibration data will be recorded with sensors in key locations during engine operation. This data will be analyzed by an autonomous software program using curve fitting of natural frequency peaks, interference diagrams, a detailed finite element model, and comparisons to previously recorded vibration signatures. When a shift in a natural frequency is detected by the on-board sensors, a simulated crack is introduced into the FEA model and its size and location are adjusted until the analytical vibration predictions match the measured data. The efficiency of this process is increased significantly by the use and understanding of an interference diagram, as the location and size of a crack can be deduced by knowing the specific modes that have been influenced. The results of the finite element model will provide the crack size and location information needed for detailed fracture mechanics calculations and predictions for remaining component life.

VEXTEC CORP.
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Mr. Richard Holmes
AF 06-095      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Structural Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Metallic Components and Component Assemblies
Abstract:Air Force engines are required to satisfy both safe-life and fatigue crack growth (damage tolerant) design criteria under the engine structural integrity program (ENSIP). To achieve this requirement, nondestructive inspection techniques are used to detect cracks that can potentially grow to failure within the next inspection interval. However, these nondestructive inspections cannot be performed on wing and require a complete disassembly. Hence, the current life management approach is time consuming and expensive. Phase I will demonstrate feasibility for a three-dimensional nonlinear analysis method for advanced engine prognosis. The proposed methodology will include three dimensional crack growth in components and assemblies of components, non-linear material behavior, surface-treatment induced residual stress effects, and complex mission loading, coupled with detectable sensor parameters. The computational methods will be consistent with a probabilistic prognosis system and the design system developed for JSF. The approach will use engine sensor data acquired by the engine control and incorporate an analytical transfer function to obtain the instantaneous damage state. The resulting damage state will then be used to derive the remaining component durability.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Dr. Hongwei Song
AF 06-096      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Wear Resistant Coatings for Aluminum and Titanium Alloy Housings and Flanges
Abstract:Aluminum and titanium alloys have become more widely used for bearing housings and flanges in aerospace propulsion systems because of their low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, and high thermal conductivity. However, their wear resistance and corrosion resistance are poor. When matched to harder steel surfaces under adverse vibrations, loads, and temperature cycling, they can experience a significant fretting wear. Currently, steel inserts or bushings are employed to solve the fretting wear of aluminum alloy components. However, such approach increases a number of manufactured parts and decreases the strength-to-weight ratio of the entire mechanisms. The mismatches of thermal and mechanical properties at the interface will largely affect the functionality of whole housing and flange system. Boston Applied Technologies Incorporated (BATI) proposes to develop an innovative wear resistant, hard coating to replace the steel inserts and bushings. The proposed coatings are grown from aluminum or titanium alloy substrates utilizing the microarc-discharge oxidation followed spraying process. The coatings will have a thickness of up to 200 m and unique cross-sectional microstructure and phase composition. The inner layer metallurgically binds with substrate alloys and thus exhibits high adhesion strength, and the outer layer exhibits low fraction coefficient and good wear resistant in contact with steel, and also good corrosion resistance. The proposed approach does not affect the bulk mechanical characteristics of bearing housing and flange systems, and yet at a low-cost.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Robert Kovar
AF 06-096      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Wear Resistant Coatings for Aluminum and Titanium Alloy Housings and Flanges
Abstract:The use of Standing Take-Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) is a key attribute of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). While the LiftFan technology to be used on the JSF will provide significant weight savings, excess weight still exists on the JSF. To alleviate this issue, heavy alloy metals (such as stainless steel) are being targeted for replacement with lower density alloys (such as aluminum and titanium). One area for material replacement is the steel inserts that are currently used in bearing housing and flanges. Utilization of aluminum or titanium in this capacity, however, is not currently possible due to fretting and abrasion wear. In this Phase I SBIR program, Infoscitex proposes the development of coating technology that will render aluminum and titanium alloy resistant to fretting wear. A process for protective both aluminum and titanium will be developed, and a range of coating compositions will be investigated.

AEROBOTIX, INC.
351-F Electronics Blvd
Huntsville, AL 35824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 772-9035
Mr. Kirk McLauchlin
AF 06-097      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Damage Identification Algorithms for Composite Structures
Abstract:Current survivability and engineering requirements for airframe platforms necessitate the automated application of specialty coatings to the composite inlet duct OML surface. The specialty coatings have tight specification tolerances for the final thickness. Current equipment does not allow for accurate measuring of the specialty coatings. Measurement techniques and equipment need to be developed and tested to verify the application process achieves engineering requirements. The non-contact method of coating thickness measurement is a technology that allows for thickness measurements of the multiple specialty coatings applied over composite parts. Northrop Grumman Corporation has developed a non destructive, non contact measurement system which is a Dielectric Waveguide Arch (DWA). The DWA emits electromagnetic radiation at a specific frequency and receives the return signal from the article under test. The return signal can then be processed to provide the electromagnetic performance of the material under test. With proper calibration, the electromagnetic performance can be processed and converted to a coating thickness.

METIS DESIGN CORP.
222 Third Street, Suite 3121
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-5616
Dr. Seth Kessler
AF 06-097      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Damage Identification Algorithms for Composite Structures
Abstract:Composites present additional challenges for inspection due to their heterogeneity and anisotropy, the fact they fail by interacting modes, and since often damage occurs beneath their surface. Currently successful laboratory non-destructive methods, such as X-ray and C-scans, are impractical for inspection of large integrated structures. It is clear that new approaches for inspection of composites need to be developed. To resolve this issue, during past BAA and SBIR work with the NRO, AFOSR, NSF and NASA, the Metis Design Corporation (MDC) has developed a structural health monitoring system components for damage detection in composites using Lamb waves. This technique has provided reliable information about the presence, location and type of damage successfully for simple laboratory specimens, and during the course of this SBIR MDC proposes to continue to develop the coded algorithms to increase accuracy and precision. Specifically, MDC will be using pattern recognition techniques in order to improve the reliability of identifying damage type, severity and location. This rule-based method hold potential over traditional logic-based methods for increased robustness due to the constant machine-learning process to further classify (and sub-classify) damage states.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Russell Austin
AF 06-097      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Damage Identification Algorithms for Composite Structures
Abstract:Many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are available today, but currently lacking is a suite of algorithms to automatically analyze their data. Users are responsible for interpreting the data, which is not only significantly costlier in terms of time and effort but is extremely subjective. TRI/Austin proposes the development of a suit of damage assessment algorithms, designed to read raw NDE/SHM data, analyze it, and provide an assessment of not only the severity but also the location of the damage and also to recommend a course of corrective action. Our efforts will build on our existing software library which already contains several NDE/SHM assessment modules; new modules to detect fiber breakage, delaminations, and other composite damage will be developed and directly plugged in to our NDE/SHM system. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the alpha versions of the algorithms. In Phase II, we further refine the software towards a complete commercial solution for the Air Force.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. J.H. Lalli
AF 06-098      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Super High Temperature Erosion and Wear Resistant Ceramic RubberT Coatings
Abstract:NanoSonic has developed revolutionary nanostructured, inorganic/organic hybrid Metal RubberT and Ceramic RubberT coatings. Specifically, ultra-lightweight (< 0.98 g/cc), nanostructured conformal coatings with low CTE, thermal protection (> 450 C, 842 F) and abrasion / wear resistance with excellent adhesion to metal and PMC substrates with complex shapes are offered. Metal RubberT is fabricated via layer-by-layer, molecular self-assembly, which enables thickness and placement control over multiple constituents for true nanostructured multifunctionality (nm scale). Opposed to PVD, NanoSonic's patented self-assembly process incorporates high temperature, advanced polymers within ceramic or metal coatings and offer controlled thickness (nm thin up to mm thick) on substrates up to 24 square inches. Metal RubberT is a novel nanocomposite formed in situ, by chemically reacting monolayers of nanosized components, thereby eliminating residual stress (overcoming mismatched CTEs) and debonding between each component and the substrate. Ductile Metal RubberT coatings do not crack or spall upon intact due to incorporation of polymers. Hardness of up to 1 GPa has been demonstrated by replacing the metal with ceramics for our Ceramic RubberT coatings, which would be optimized for aircraft engine components such as stator vanes. Sand/grit erosion resistance would be verified at UDRI and with assistance from Lockheed Martin Aeronautics.

TRIBOLOGIX, INC.
113 Villa Pointe Drive
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 271-3858
Mr. Andras Korenyi-Both
AF 06-098      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Erosion Resistant Coatings for Polymer Matrix Composites
Abstract:A novel surface treatment technology is proposed to provide wear resistance to PMCs. Our technologies can economically modify the surface of PMC components into a wear resistant surface to effectively distribute thermal and mechanical stresses and provide erosion resistance to sand. Our surface technologies simplify design and reduce overall part count and mechanism weight. Our processes do not affect the bulk mechanical characteristics of the PMCs.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Amarendra K. Rai
AF 06-098      Awarded: 14APR06
Title:Erosion Resistant Coatings for Polymer Matrix Composites
Abstract:The use of polymer matrix composites in selected parts of the future aircraft turbine engines offers significant benefits for aircraft engine performance. However, their useful life time (durability) is limited by their poor erosion resistance. UES, Inc. proposes to develop advanced highly adherent coatings utilizing physical vapor deposition technique to impart erosion resistance to polymer matrix composites. The coating systems will be characterized in terms of adhesion and erosion resistance under appropriate conditions. Based upon their performance ranking, coating systems and processes will be identified for further development in Phase II.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
AF 06-099      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Methodologies for Integration of Prognostic Health Management Systems with Maintenance Data
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the USAF's premier MRO (Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul) organization Standard Aero, propose to develop and demonstrate an innovative software product that integrates maintenance and PHM system data to provide improved fault diagnostics and prediction of the remaining useful life of critical components. The proposed methodologies will enable the maintenance and logistics infrastructure to fully benefit from newly developed PHM systems and conversely for the PHM system to update itself based on feedback obtained from the maintenance systems. The integration process includes two modes of interaction: 1.) Health information driving the maintenance actions with available resource information, and 2.) Feedback from the maintenance systems providing valuable verification information implemented through a learning mechanism to the PHM system. This integration will utilize multi-agent software technology that is appropriate for open, highly dynamic, uncertain and complex systems including distributed databases such as the F-35 Autonomic Logistics (ALIS) system. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the developed algorithms using simulation and test data directly from the F-135 program. Phase II will focus on further development and harnessing of the Phase I technologies for use in specific Air Force applications.

QUALTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
100 Great Meadow Rd., Suite 603
Wethersfield, CT 06109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 257-8014
Dr. Sudipto Ghoshal
AF 06-099      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Methodologies for Integration of Prognostic Health Management Systems with Maintenance Data
Abstract:Prognostic techniques are intricately tied to the physics of incipient-fault-to-failure progression, and hence most prognostics research has focused on developing techniques for a range of components such as rotating machinery parts. The research and development of such techniques has relied on the theories of material science, structural mechanics, domain expertise, as well as empirical studies such as accelerated run-to-failure testing. Even after prognostic models have been developed and operationally validated for various components of a system, the challenge remains how prognostic assessments from individual components of a system (such as the aircraft engine) should be used to make maintenance and logistics decisions. QSI proposes to perform the research and development needed to bridge the gap between the individual component prognostics and the system-level reasoning required to support maintenance and logistics decisions. To strengthen this effort, QSI is teaming with SMI for their expertise in prognostics and logistics decision support and Vanderbilt for expertise in material failure progression modeling and diagnostics. The team is further strengthened by two OEMs: Pratt and Whitney as the engine prime and Boeing as an airframe prime to ensure that the effort retains relevance and applicability to the acquisition program sponsoring this SBIR.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Mr. Jonas Gunter
AF 06-100      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Novel Additives for Passivating Silicon Nitride Bearing Elements in Perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) Lubricants
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force has a need for stable high performance lubricants for current and next generation gas turbine engines. Perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) fluids have been the subject of intense development over the past 40 years. This work has led to a current generation of lubricant formulations that are highly resistant to degradation in the presence of modern engineering steels. However, the latest trend in bearing technology is the use of the ceramic silicon nitride. Silicon nitride is susceptible to attack by active fluorine compounds that are produced by the high energy chemistry present at the bearing surface. Luna Innovations proposes a novel new additive having high temperature stability allowing operation above 300oC in engine applications. The novel additives are expected to react under pressure to passivate the silicon nitride surface with a protective thin film chemically bonded to the surface. This will impart inertness to reactive fluorine developed in the PFPAE fluid and greatly reduce wear of silicon nitride bearings.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Richard S. Sapienza
AF 06-100      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Improved Additives for Perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) Lubricants with Silicon Nitride Rolling Elements
Abstract:Hybrid bearings utilizing silicon nitride rolling elements in conjunction with steel inner and outer bearing races are being developed for use in gas turbine engines. Due to their outstanding thermal and oxidative stability, perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) fluids are of interest as potential high temperature liquid lubricants in these systems. However, this same unique chemistry that provides their higher stabilities also creates some potential problems. One of these is the lack of compatibility with silicon nitride materials. Similar incompatibilities of the PFPAE-based lubricants with conventional bearing metals have been successfully addressed by PFPAE base oils coupled with soluble performance-enhancing additives developed by the U.S. Air Force that improve the compatibility at high temperature. However these materials are not effective with silicon nitride. Under the proposed program, METSS will develop a new improved class of PFPAE lubricants designed for better compatibility with hybrid bearing materials by a combination of PFPAE base oils with maximized stabilities coupled with new, soluble performance-improving additives that significantly improve the compatibility of these lubricants with silicon nitride at high temperature. The proposed program will also address additional issues related to material compatibility issues, personnel safety, environmental impact and use costs.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. S. Subrahmanyan
AF 06-101      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Embedded Health Monitoring Sensor Systems and Ultrasonic Acoustic Detection
Abstract:NanoSonic proposes to develop sensors for the health-monitoring of F-35/Joint Strike Fighter through this Air Force SBIR program. During Phase I, NanoSonic would design and fabricate novel nanostructured thin film sensors formed by Electrostatic Self-Assembly (ESA) to detect material deterioration of strike fighter components. With recent success in the development of conductive polymer based nanostructured sensors, NanoSonic would like to extend the work to specialized sensors and implement those into coatings and materials. NanoSonic has also been able to fabricate new multifunctional nanostructured materials that have high electrical conductivity and low weight, that can be used as an in-situ sensor for detecting breakdown of surface coatings. Ultrasonic actuation using these ESA coated sensors and transducers will serve as a prognostic technique in determining the fatigue state and lifetime of large area structures. NanoSonic has established techniques to control multiple constitutive material properties in coatings and free-standing organic/inorganic thin and thick materials using molecular ESA processes, by varying the type, size, and structure of incorporated molecules. The sensor elements may be incorporated into the coating by patterning or ink-jet printing. Integrating co-located interconnected circuits into the coating would allow for remote mapping of the coating properties and determination of fatigue microstructures.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. David Forsyth
AF 06-101      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Advanced Prognostic Health Management Technologies Using Integrated Detection Techniques with Physics of Failure Mode
Abstract:The proportion of fatigue life that is expended during fatigue crack nucleation is significant in the materials and loading typical of aircraft structural components. The ability to measure or compute the time for fatigue damage to nucleate active fatigue cracks would allow the enhanced service usage of individual aircraft components, on-condition based maintenance, and flexibility in inspection/maintenance/repair scheduling. TRI/Austin and AP/ES Inc. propose the development of a structural prognostics and health management system that combines local measurements of properties of interest with the capability to model crack nucleation and growth, all integrated within a miniaturized onboard system weighing only a few pounds. The TRI team's approach is to combine multiple sensor technologies with proven physics-based modeling on a self-contained system for a complete health assessment and prognostic capability. The TRI team combines the TRI experience in developing nondestructive inspection technologies suitable for miniaturization on TRI's LAHMPT family of PHM systems with the AP/ES capability in structural modeling and prediction.

BERRIEHILL RESEARCH CORP.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. , Ste. 1001
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-1016
Dr. Jeffery A. Berrie
AF 06-102      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Aircraft Damage Locator
Abstract:This effort is concerned with improving aircraft battle damage collection through systematic collection and documentation of battle damage sustained by aircraft. Accurate damage collection is an integral part of aircraft survivability, since much can be learned through its examination and exploitation. Presently, damage geometry and location is typically performed by physical measurements made with tape measures from structural features such as fasteners, doors, or panels which are then transferred manually to paper. This is an inaccurate, insufficient, and time consuming process. To make the process more effective, it is desired to equip collection teams with an inexpensive, portable, digital damage locator system that can be quickly setup in a remote location. The system would quickly and accurately digitize fixed reference points on the aircraft and map battle damage geometry and location in three-dimensional space, accurately defining the damage relative to an overall digital CAD file of the aircraft. The system would store the damage information electronically for onsite engineering analysis or electronic transfer for rapid offsite evaluation, documentation, and/or database entry. In this SBIR proposal, BerrieHill Research Corporation shall identify and demonstrate a feasible design for a digital aircraft damage locator system.

SURVICE ENGINEERING CO.
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 678-8333
Mr. John Manion
AF 06-102      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:Aircraft Damage Locator
Abstract:Military aircraft often receive damage to their structure and special features due to a variety of causes. The damage is typically detected visually or through the aid of hand-held nondestructive inspection devices. Determining the exact location and spatial orientation of the damage is critical for many reasons. Typically, measurements are made from structural features such as fasteners, doors, or panels and then transferred manually to paper, which is often an inaccurate, time-consuming, expensive, and inflexible process that is not readily transferable to other formats. The SURVICE Engineering Company is intimately familiar with this problem as our core business areas, aircraft vulnerability analysis and Aircraft Battle Damage and Repair (ABDR), require a detailed analysis of damage and damage effects. This frequently requires SURVICE to inspect post-test damage and determine the end effects of that damage. SURVICE has developed procedures and software that use a 3D spatial measurement system to accurately and quickly measure post-test damage in support of our vulnerability analyses. SURVICE believes that, with little risk, our procedures and software that uses the 3D measurement system can be tailored to meet the requirements of SBIR AF06-102.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Jay C. Rozzi
AF 06-103      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:An Advanced Machining System for the Improved Manufacture of Aerospace Materials
Abstract:Advanced propulsion systems for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft require the use of advanced materials for longer life, reduced weight, and increased performance. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials have the potential to realize these benefits; however, the high cost of finished CMC components make wide implementation impractical. To reduce these costs, new, innovative fabrication technologies are required that enable substantial processing speed increases to drive down the expense of machining and the cycle time of implementation for advanced materials. Creare proposes to develop an advanced machining system (AMS) that will increase the processing speed 100% or more for the machining of CMCs and other aerospace materials. Such an increase in the processing speed will dramatically reduce both overall cost and cycle time. Because our solution prolongs tool life, the resultant use of sharper tools will reduce the induced residual stresses in the machined part, improving fatigue life. Our innovation is readily integrated with existing machine tools, minimizing initial capital costs. Thus, our solution is effective, affordable, flexible, and easily integrated with current manufacturing operations.

SYNTERIALS, INC.
318 Victory Drive
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-9310
Mr. Richard E. Engdahl
AF 06-103      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Advanced Manufacturing Processes for Reduced Cost of Ceramic Matrix Composite Engine Components
Abstract:The principal objective of the interface coating research has been to provide high strength and high strain to failure in a ceramic composite. As the applications have gain acceptance, the focus has changed to affordability. There are three high cost area in a ceramic composite. They are: 1.The cost of the fiber, 2. The cost of the interface coating, and 3. The cost of the compositing operations.. This proposal addresses the cost of the interface coating. The approach is to increase the coating rate significantly. A high coating rate will result in the reduction in the cost of the coating and also the capital cost required to supply the required production requirements. The proposed work will be demonstrated by modifying the Synterials existing interface coating reactor. From this work, the projected cost factors will be determined. When complete, the work will be transferred to the currently planned production facility.

ALPHA STAR
5199 E. PACIFIC COAST HWY, SUITE # 410
LONG BEACH, CA 90804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 985-1100
Dr. Frank Abdi
AF 06-104      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Three-Dimensional Deformation and Life Prediction Methods for Ceramic Matrix Composite Components
Abstract:Manufacturing defects in ceramic composite matrix require 3D fiber architectures to reinforce and toughen both in-plane and out-of-plane directions of CMCs. Modeling 3D material properties and evaluating durability of structures made of 3D composites are of great importance in their application in advanced turbine engines. Alpha Star proposes to develop a micro/macro-scale finite element failure method that accounts for both 3-D composite material and structural behaviors subject to the engine service condition. The contribution of 3-D fiber architectures to structural stiffness and strengths in both in-plane and out-of-plane directions will be accounted for in unit cells using micromechanics formulation. Assuming fiber distribution in 3D composites to be statistically uniform, the input information for a unit cell will be the fiber orientation and content in each material direction as well as the manufacturing defect content, which covers the entire family of 3D CMCs and maintains computational efficiency in the micro/macro scale FEM failure analysis. Embedding the unit cell model in the macroscopic structural analysis allows detailed micro damage to be addressed in durability evaluation of turbine engine components made of 3D CMCs. The proposed method will provide a highly efficient analytical tool for 3D CMC turbine engine design and application.

CERAMIC & METAL COMPOSITES CORP.
429 Danbury Court
goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 893-6158
Mr. Shane Flores
AF 06-104      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Three-Dimensional Deformation and Life Prediction Methods for Ceramic Matrix Composite Components
Abstract:Ceramic and Metal Composites Corporation (CMCC) will develop a numerical scheme for predicting the life of ceramic composite turbine engine components with generic 3D architectures. The code will be implemented as User Materials and User Elements within the ABAQUS finite element platform, thereby embedding the technology in a popular and sophisticated structural analysis tool widely used by OEMs. The program to be developed will extend the so-called Binary Model formulation: a computationally efficient dual-mesh finite element scheme that explicitly treats the 3D fiber architecture and the intervening matrix material. Associated constitutive laws will be devised for non-linear phenomena such as matrix microcracking, interfacial debonding and sliding, fiber bundle rupture, kink banding, creep deformation, fatigue and thermal degradation. Once calibrated, the program will be capable of predicting the distributions of stress, strain and temperature in components of arbitrarily complex shape. Validation tests will be performed on thermo-mechanically loaded sub-elements. When complete, OEM design engineers will have executed the program. The computational tool will be amenable to future enhancements to include increasingly complex phenomena such as combined creep/fatigue/environmental degradation.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS, INC.
11772 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 260
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 259-7541
Dr. Jalees Ahmad
AF 06-104      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Three-Dimensional Deformation and Life Prediction Methods for Ceramic Matrix Composite Components
Abstract:Innovative research and development leading to a dual-use advanced technology product is proposed. The product is a methodology and associated software for three-dimensional design and life prediction of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components. Once developed and validated, the methodology would be used in cost effective development of CMC components by the Air Force and its major aerospace engine suppliers. The proposed methodology would be applicable to a broad class of CMCs and components for military and commercial applications. An innovative Physics-Based mechanistic modeling approach is proposed. The approach includes direct consideration of relevant defect and damage mechanisms and environmental degradation. Phase I will include characterization of two and three dimensional deformation and damage in mechanistic model for CMC materials selected by Pratt & Whitney. The models will be validated against benchmark and sub-element test data involving three dimensional stress states. Predictions will be compared with experimental measurements to assess the modeling approach and feasibility for a comprehensive methodology development in Phase II.

MATECH ADVANCED MATERIALS
31304 Via Colinas, Suite 102
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 991-8500
Dr. Edward J. A. Pop
AF 06-105      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles Made From Tantalum Carbide Continuous Fiber Composites for Boost Applications
Abstract:In this proposed Air Force Phase I SBIR Program, MATECH/GSM seeks to develop woven TaC ceramic fiber reinforced TaC matrix CMCs for aluminized propellant solid rocket motors (SRMs). An example system that could benefit from TaC/TaC CMCs is the Quad Axial Pintle motor being developed by our partner AEROJET. Aluminized propellant SRMs constitute the most eroding environment when compared to non-aluminized SRMs and liquid boost motors. It has been demonstrated that the erosion rate of TaC is significantly less that HfC and carbon under comparable aluminized propellant SRM conditions. Of all the refractory metal carbide systems, TaC holds the most promise for the unique conditions of aluminized propellant SRMs. In this AF Phase I SBIR program, MATECH/GSM proposes to develop TaC structural ceramic fibers via melt-spinning thermoplastic preceramic polymers (as is done in the fabrication of CG-Nicalon, Hi-Nicalon, and Sylramic SiC-based fibers) in order to achieve the >1.0 GPa strength requirement for structural CMC nozzle fabrication.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James Withers
AF 06-105      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:The Development of TaC Fibers and TaC/TaC Composites
Abstract:Highly aluminumized propellants required for new boosters generate very high temperatures and pressures that exceed the temperatures of refractory metal nozzles and existing composites composition nozzles fail due to stresses generated by the CTE differences in the fibers and matrix materials. Tantalum Carbide (TaC) has the second highest melting point of any material and does not undergo destructive phase changes on heating and cooling. TaC/TaC composites offer potential as composite nozzle throats for rockets using highly aluminumized propellants. A TaC fiber is enabling to produce TaC/TaC composites. As TaC fibers have not heretofore been produced, new processing approaches require development to produce a tow based TaC fiber. A unique demonstrated processing methodology will be utilized to produce continuous lengths of a tow based TaC fiber at less than 10 diameter and strength greater than 1GPa. Also demonstrated processing to produce a TaC matrix will be utilized to produce TaC/TaC composites, and characterize. Tow based TaC fibers, composites and precursor material will be delivered to the Air Force.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
141 W. Xenia Ave., PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Mr. Michael Matuszewski
AF 06-106      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:Nanofiber-Enhanced Polymers for EMI Shielding
Abstract:The current state-of-the-art for providing electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding is to use a polymer coating that has been loaded with up to 87% silver or another metal filler. This approach is both expensive and heavy. Under this Phase I SBIR program, Applied Sciences, Inc., will incorporate regular and metal-coated carbon nanofibers (CNF) into an appropriate polymer matrix to produce a spray-on coating that will meet or exceed the required EMI shielding requirement of 5 dB/mil. The end result of this research will be a new multi-functional coating material that will not only provide exceptional EMI protection, but will also increase thermal conductivity and provide lightning strike protection (LSP).

MATERIALS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, LLC
1321 Research Park Drive
Beavercreek, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-4640
Dr. Chyi-Shan Wang
AF 06-106      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:Lightweight Conformal Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will investigate metallized vapor-grown carbon nanofiber for conformal electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding application. The metallized carbon nanofiber has the beneficial large aspect ratio of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber and high electrical conductivity of the metal. It can be integrated with a wide range of polymers to introduce significant electrical conductivity and shielding effectiveness. The proposed Phase I effort includes optimization of the metallized carbon nanofiber to achieve maximum electrical conductivity reinforcement efficiency and incorporation of the nanofiber into selected polymer resins to produce prototype conformal EMI shielding materials. Application methods such as dip coating, spray, casting, and extrusion will be developed for the conformal EMI shielding materials. Electrical conductivity and shielding effectiveness of the various prototype materials will be characterized to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology.

METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES CO.
P.O. Box 356
Midway, UT 84049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 654-3683
Mr. George Hansen
AF 06-106      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:The Role of Nanostrands in Creating Lightweight Conformal Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Materials
Abstract:Nickel nanostrands have previously demonstrated their ability to create unsurpassed levels of broadband electromagnetic shielding in a wide range of polymers, being superior in both the level of protection (in dB) and in frequency response range when compared to many other competing technologies, including wire meshes and metal or metal coated powders and fibers. This increase in protection is due to the nanostrand's unique combination of sub-micron diameter, high aspect ratio, high degree of 3-D interconnectivity and branching and the electrical conductive and paramagnetic properties of nickel. These properties result in the achievement of exceptionally high shielding levels at very low loadings, resulting in a lightweight shielding material. While much of the previous work has centered on the use of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, the objectives of this proposal will be to demonstrate the ability of nanostrands to create lightweight conformal EMI shielding materials, primarily elastomeric, which can be applied by a wide variety of techniques, such as spraying, extruding, dipping or brushing. If successful, the effort will result in the ability to tailor EMI protection to virtually any protection level, polymer or complex geometry.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Patrick J. Magari
AF 06-107      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:In-Line Air Sensor for Hydraulic Fluid
Abstract:Air in aircraft hydraulic systems can cause cavitation, higher oil operating temperatures, oxidation, noisy operation, vibration, and changes in system natural frequency. To address this problem, the Air Force has developed purification systems to remove both free and dissolved air. The problem is that there is currently no sensor available for controlling the cart that can detect and quantify the amount of both free and dissolved air in the hydraulic fluid. Many approaches exist for detecting free air since it affects many bulk fluid properties. Dissolved air is much more difficult to detect and quantify, because it does not affect bulk fluid properties. We believe no sensor technology that monitors changes in bulk fluid properties will work here. Creare's dissolved air sensor concept causes the dissolved air to temporarily come out of solution so that it can be detected and quantified in a similar manner as free air. Phase I will focus on developing and optimizing the dissolved air sensor and showing the appropriate relationships between the amount of dissolved air and the sensor output. Phase II will include the development of an integrated prototype that can be tested in existing purification carts.

INTERSPACE, INC.
9700 Great Seneca Highway
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 527-0606
Mr. Matthew Price
AF 06-107      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Air Sensor for Hydraulic Fluid
Abstract:Hydraulic systems are vital to aircraft. The Air Force uses approximately 1.5 million gallons of hydraulic fluid per year, resulting in over $15 million in procurement and disposal costs. Hydraulic fluid is usually drained from the aircraft during routine maintenance and disposed of as hazardous waste. Recently the Air Force has started purifying hydraulic fluid for reintroduction to aircraft. These purification systems require an online sensor to measure the quality of hydraulic fluid in real-time. The rapid, on-site ability to measure the quality of hydraulic fluid is essential to avoid significant delays in servicing aircraft. Currently, no online sensor exists to measure air content of hydraulic fluid. Air causes problems such as hotspots, cavitation in pumps, poor heat transfer, loss of power, decreased viscosity, foaming, and decreased flash point, which increase the risk of an explosion. Interspace has developed a prototype sensor that detects air in hydraulic fluids and has tested the sensor with MIL-PRF-83282, MIL-PRF-87257, and MIL-PRF-5606 hydraulic fluids used in military aircraft. This unique sensor noninvasively measures the percent air in hydraulic fluid. InterSpace proposes to build on its successful prototype sensor to extend the temperature range of operation for the target application.

TAUTHETA INSTRUMENTS LLC
1880 S Flatiron Ct Suite C
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 226-0614
Dr. Alan E. Baron
AF 06-107      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Dissolved-air sensor for hydraulic fluid using robust inorganic luminescent material
Abstract:TauTheta Instruments proposes to develop a Total Dissolved Air sensor for use in a hydraulic fluid test stands and purifiers. The proposed optical sensor uses an innovative combination of an inorganic luminophore and sol-gel matrix that will withstand high temperatures, harsh chemical and abrasive mechanical environments. The measurement of Total Dissolved Air (TDA) in hydraulic fluid will be accomplished using a measurement of dissolved oxygen as a proxy for TDA. Preliminary results show that TDA in Royco 782 Fluid can be measured by using dissolved oxygen measurement as a proxy. The commercial sensor proposed by TauTheta is solid state, with no mechanical parts or membranes that could fail under extreme pressures or temperatures. We anticipate that the commercial version of the sensor will consist of two main parts. The active portion of the sensor that mounts into the hydraulic fluid stream will consist of a probe about 4"long with smaller than _" diameter threaded interface. The interface and control electronics will fit on a business card size circuit board, and will be configured for easy integration into existing instrumentation through a variety of analog (4-20ma) or digital (Modbus, RS422) communications.

BETHPAGE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3 Winter Lane
Dix Hills, NY 11746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 549-5886
Mr. Robert A. Haslett
AF 06-108      Awarded: 22MAY06
Title:Materials for Integrated Foam Core Structure
Abstract:The development of a ceramic-polymer composite structure offers the promise of air vehicle structure with integrated load bearing and thermal protection capability. The outer skin which is exposed to high heating rates will be fabricated from a C/SiC composite. The inner structure will be fabricated from a high-performance polymide (PETI) composite. The connecting structure will be low density ceramic foam developed to provide mechanical and thermal coupling. The polymer to ceramic composite joining will be by co-curing the foam directly to the polymer composite.Typical Air Force missions will be identified to define loads and thermal requirements. Thermal/structural finite element analysis correlated with coupon testing will define material properties necessary to prevent failures. The experimental program will conclude with the test of a small scale integrated panel . Performance and cost benefits will be assessed comparing this approach to the current technology of an aluminum structure with a parasitic thermal protection system.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-9000
Ms. Kerry Dunfey
AF 06-108      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Development of Non-Parasitic Integrated Acreage TPS/Airframe Material
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is contemplating a long term investment in advanced thermal protection systems (TPS). The goal of this effort is to provide materials and processing solutions for TPS that can be employed in advanced space access vehicles. The goal of the proposed effort is to design acreage TPS in which the high temperature material not only protects the cooler internal structure from the high temperatures, but also serves as structural (load-bearing) material. This can be accomplished by integrating the TPS with the airframe itself. The innovation proposed here is to design a non-parasitic (load-bearing) TPS by inserting a hybrid structural truss core between the outer CMC shell and the inner OMC frame which will integrate the two components and allow them to act as a sandwich structure. Materials Research & Design (MR&D) is proposing a Phase I program involving analysis and design of the proposed concept, the manufacturing of a fabrication demonstration article, and testing to determine properties and load carrying capability of the key structural elements of the proposed non-parasitic integrated TPS/airframe material design.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-6130
Mr. Kent Buesking
AF 06-108      Awarded: 22MAY06
Title:Evaluation of Design Concepts and Integrated Materials for Efficient Airframe Structures
Abstract:Present space vehicles such as NASA's space shuttle and reentry bodies are designed with a cool internal structure, typically aluminum, surrounded by a parasitic thermal protection system (TPS). The space shuttle TPS uses coated carbon-carbon silica tiles and aluminum blan-kets, while reentry bodies use carbon/phenolic or silica/phenolic ablators. These designs are in-herently heavy and structurally inefficient. Future vehicles can be improved through the use of warm or hot structures in which the TPS in mechanically integrated with the airframe, for exam-ple as a sandwich structure with a hot erosion resistant outer skin, an insulating core, and a warm, load-bearing inner skin. A sandwich construction is structurally very efficient as evi-denced by its use in almost all commercial and military aircraft. However, several challenges must be met to translate this technology into practice for reusable hypersonic and reentry vehi-cles. These include issues associated with high transient heat loads, a severe thermochemical environment, thermostructural interactions among dissimilar materials, heat transfer versus load path, acoustic behavior, and fabrication of large high temperature structure, attachments, and seals. Due to the complexity of the problem this Phase I proposal focuses on a design and analysis effort, with the fabrication and testing tasks planned for Phase II. The behavior of the airframe structure depends upon parameters associated with the vehicle mission, trajectory, local geometry, and location on the body. For this reason we feel it is premature to fabricate and test materials in Phase I, since teaming with a fabricator will automatically constrain the design space to specific materials and processing methods. The proposed Phase I tasks include: 1) Design Goals and Environmental Conditions, 2) Integrated Material and Structural Concepts, 3) Material Property Database, 4) Thermostructural Analysis, and 5) Fabrication and Characterization Plan. The goal of the Phase I effort is to identify several design concepts that address the needs of in-tegrated airframes for both hypersonic and reentry vehicles. The designs will address leading edges, control surfaces, and large acreage windward and leeward locations. These designs will provide the foundation for fabrication and testing tasks that will be undertaken in the Phase II program. Materials Research & Design (MR&D) is uniquely suited to this project. The senior staff each has over 25 years of experience in the design and analysis of materials for extreme envi-ronments. MR&D is not a fabricator so we are not compelled to force a particular material into an improper design. However, MR&D has established a strong professional working relation-ship with multiple members of the advanced materials community so it is well positioned to cre-ate a Phase II team that can fabricate and characterize the design concepts developed in Phase I.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-9835
Dr. Sarath Menon
AF 06-108      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:A Novel Integrated Non-Parasitic Nb Alloy - Based Structure for High Temperature Applications
Abstract:There is a strong need for producing novel aeroshell structures that integrate the thermal protection system with the airframe and to utilize new lightweight materials that possess the requisite high temperature strength and performance such that future hypersonic vehicles are operationally responsive to increasing demands of robustness and high reliability. In this proposal, this aim is directly addressed by a multi-pronged approach of utilizing a ceramic-coated low-density Nb alloy together with studies on joining it with graphitic foam and a substrate material such as titanium alloy. Such a carefully tailored integrated thermal protection system is inherently non-parasitic and is expected to experience very low thermal stresses and have high resistance to thermal fatigue. The main focus during the Phase I program will be in the demonstration of processing ductile Nb alloys as thin sheets and successful application of YAG on the alloy surface and assessment of the reliability and performance of this material. Studies on the high temperature mechanical properties of the Nb alloy and the oxidation resistance of the YAG-coated Nb alloy will be systematically investigated. Subsequently, preliminary experiments on joining this composite to graphitic-foam will also be carried out.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. Victor M. Arrieta
AF 06-108      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Advanced Foam Core Composites for Integrated Airframe/Thermal Protection System Structures
Abstract:The Air Force is establishing a long-term investment in advanced thermal protection systems (TPS). The goal of this effort is to provide design, materials, and fabrication solutions that meet airframe requirements of aircraft-like operability, responsiveness, and mission flexibility in contrast to today's space access vehicles. The proposed Phase I program will address known shortcomings of current airframe thermal TPSs by designing and demonstrating an advanced TPS with the combined objectives of maximizing structural integrity and performance and minimizing thermal conductivity and weight. Specifically, Ultramet proposes to demonstrate an efficient load-carrying structure composed of advanced composite materials insulated by extremely low conductivity aerogel-filled carbon foam. An integrated approach with innovative design and component attachment methodology, utilization of advanced structural materials, and recently developed rapid insulator processing will make these structures a safe, cost-effective reality. Ultramet proposes to assemble a development team composed of Materials Research & Design for thermal/mechanical modeling and attachment design methodologies, Ocellus Inc. for aerogel insulation processing, and Boeing Phantom Works for definition of DoD hypersonic vehicle requirements.

INNOSENSE LLC
2531 West 237th Street, Suite 127
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-2011
Dr. Maksudul Alam
AF 06-109      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:Dye Sensitized, Chemically Modified n-TiO2 Photoanode-Based Photoelectrochemical Generation of Hydrogen from Water
Abstract:InnoSense LLC (ISL), in collaboration with Professor Shahed U.M. Khan at Duquesne University at Pittsburgh, a leading expert within the U.S. and currently active in the photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation area, will design and develop highly efficient, low-cost, lightweight and durable sensitizer-incorporated, chemically modified or carbon modified n-TiO2 (CM-n-TiO2) photoanode-based photo-electrochemical cells for efficient hydrogen generation from water using solar energy. In these cells, the electron excitation by visible light photons occurs not only in the sensitizer layer but also in underlying visible light active CM-TiO2 layer. This is because solar photons would be absorbed both by the sensitizers and by the CM-TiO2 layer to excite electrons from its valence band to conduction band. Hence, H2O will be oxidized to generate O2 both by oxidized sensitizer and by holes of photoexcited CM-TiO2, and the electrons by both layers will move to the cathode (the counter electrode) to generate H2 from H2O. The Phase I project will validate the dye-sensitized CM-TiO2 photoanode design. The Phase II project will develop prototype high-efficiency, lightweight, and low-cost solar cells and deliver them to the Air Force.

INTERPHASES RESEARCH
741 Lakefield Rd, Ste D
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 497-2677
Dr. Shalini Menezes
AF 06-109      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Photo-Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen with CIS Photoelectrodes
Abstract:This SBIR project addresses an Air Force need for in-situ hydrogen generation to operate micro fuel cells in small, unmanned aircraft. It proposes a low cost, safe, lightweight photoelectrochemical system for onboard, real-time hydrogen production from water and sunlight. The project specifically exploits the low cost, high efficiency, and high reliability of electrodeposited CIS films and the applicant's in-depth knowledge of CIS electrochemistry to devise the most efficient H2 generation system. The approach combines concepts from bi-photoelectrode and hybrid cell configurations to maximize the efficiency and durability of the water splitting system. Phase I R&D effort aims to identify the optimum materials, electrode configurations and process parameters for splitting water. The research will provide optimum configuration for an efficient and stable, low cost device, and directions for further improvements leading to over 10% efficient solar-to-hydrogen device with a 10-year lifetime. Its success will lead to new energy resources for the Air Force and provide energy self-sufficiency and clean air and water for the nation.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Anuncia Gonzalez-Martin
AF 06-109      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:High Efficiency Photo-Electrochemical Cell for Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cells
Abstract:High efficiency, inexpensive photo-electrochemical cells that directly generate hydrogen from ambient solar energy and water will provide an on-board real-time source of hydrogen to extend the range and improve the mission capabilities of fuel cell-powered military devices such as small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Cost and efficiencies of current state-of-the-art photoelectrolysis cells are not adequate to provide the cost and power requirements needed for UAVs and other applications. Lynntech proposes the use of an innovative photoelectrode within a tandem cell that will result in an inexpensive, safe, lightweight system with a higher efficiency compared with current systems. The multicomponent photoelectrode contains Fermi level-matched photosystems that can improve the collection efficiency and charge transfer between the photogenerated states, which represent significant factors that limit the efficiency of current cells. During the Phase I project, Lynntech will design, fabricate, and characterize the stacked photoanode and determine its photo-electrochemical performance in half-cell configuration. Complete photo-electrochemical cells within tandem cell configurations will be assembled and tested to determine the overall system's photoelectron to hydrogen conversion efficiency, which will be compared with those of state-of-the-art systems. During the Phase II project, a prototype hydrogen generation system will be fabricated and demonstrated to Air Force personnel.

ADTECH OPTICS, INC.
18007 Cortney Court
City of Industry, CA 91748
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 581-3755
Dr. Tawee Tanbun-Ek
AF 06-110      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Materials for Terahertz Frequencies
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel source of THz radiation based on monolithic integration of dual wavelength Quantum cascade laser (QCL) and intersubband difference frequency generator (DFG) with Cerenkov phase-matching. In addition we propose to demonstrate a novel 3-frequency coherent heterodyning detection scheme using a QWIP as a mixer/detector element with an estimated NEP of 10-17W/Hz(1/2). The THz source will use electrical pumping, incorporate monolithic integration, exhibit room temperature operation, and have a wall plug efficiency of up to 1%. In addition it will have a compact size (determined only by a power supply) and is potential tunable. The key features of our approach for the THz source are: (1)The use of a room temperature dual-wavelength QCL laser for intra-cavity pumping; (2) The use of intra-cavity asymmetric coupled QW's for difference frequency generation in the THz range; (3) The use of Cerenkov -type phase matching for efficient out-coupling of THz radiation; (4) Achieving tunability of the THz radiation based on frequency tuning of the QCL. Key features of the detection scheme is the use of 2 individual mid-IR QCLs as heterodyning sources and a QWIP as a combined mixer/detector element.

ARKLIGHT, INC.
PO Box 2
Center Valley, PA 18034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(484) 547-5375
Dr. Yuliya B. Zotova
AF 06-110      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Design, fabrication, and characterization of novel waveguide structures for high-power and compact THz sources based on a novel concept
Abstract:In the proposed work we will investigate the THz properties of a slab waveguide made from a GaP or ZnGeP2 wafer. We plan to investigate how the width of a slab waveguide will affect the output power of the THz waves and normalized conversion efficiencies. We are particularly interested in the exploration of how the multi-modes supported by the waveguide will affect the THz parametric conversion due to the interference among the multi-modes. We expect that the normalized conversion efficiencies will be significantly increased by using a slab waveguide. Following our results, we are going to design, fabricate, and characterize a novel coupled-waveguide structure in which a slab GaP or ZnGeP2 waveguide is coupled to an adjacent waveguide made from a polymer material by a thin polymer layer. The idea behind this is to couple the THz wave from an electro-optic crystal to a polymer waveguide before it is absorbed by the electro-optic crystal. According to our previous theory, this is equivalent to the increase of the interaction length among the three parametric waves within the electro-optic crystal, and therefore, the output power and conversion efficiencies for the THz generation can be increased by one order of magnitude. The coupling layer can be fabricated in such a way that it serves as a confinement layer for the two waveguides and it is used to achieve the phase-matching for the parametric conversion. We will use the method of diffusion-bonding technique to bond the electro-optic crystal and polymer wafers together. We will experimentally determine the condition for fabricating such a high-quality waveguide structure by using this technique. Since in such a case the polymer plate does not have to be poled, we could just use any low-loss polymer such as polyethylene. We will use our ultrafast laser pulses to characterize such a novel structure by measuring the THz output characteristics such as the central wavelength, linewidith, conversion efficiencies, and coupling efficiencies. Following our result, we will optimize our coupled-waveguide structure in order to further improve the normalized conversion efficiencies. We also plan to carry out comprehensive study and design for a prototype device which can produce an output power of more than 10 W. In addition, we are going to identify key sub-components for the device with a tuning range of 0.3-10 THz. Furthermore, we will complete a feasibility study on the increase of a conversion efficiency to about 1%.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Krishna C. Mandal
AF 06-110      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Anisotropic Semiconductor Crystals for Terahertz Frequencies
Abstract:Terahertz (THz) technology shows great promise for threat detection and imaging of concealed weapons, explosives, mail and packaging materials, chemical and biological agents, luggage at airport security checkpoints, and medical diagnostics. THz frequencies however have not been fully and successfully utilized because of a lack of compact high power sources and high efficiency detectors. To address these needs, EIC Laboratories proposes to grow large-area, defect free ultrapure nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals for generating and detecting THz radiation in the 0.3 V20 THz range (10-600 cm-1). The crystal is a unique layered anisotropic binary semiconductor with great potential for terahertz frequency generation. Its broad transmission range with low absorption coefficient (<1 cm-1) and large nonlinear coefficient (d22 ,d 75 pm/V) enables phase matching accessible over a broad THz range. In the Phase I research, commercially available precursor materials will be purified using zone refining, and then large single crystals will be grown using a modified Bridgman technique. Physical, opto-electronic, and spectroscopic properties of the grown crystals will be characterized repetitively to achieve optimum crystal growth conditions. The performance evaluation and high potential of this material as a tunable THz source and sensor will be demonstrated.

ONYX OPTICS, INC.
6551 Sierra Lane
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 833-1969
Dr. Helmuth Meissner
AF 06-111      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Advanced Zinc Germanium Phosphide for Mid-IR Lasers
Abstract:Tunable solid state mid-IR lasers are desirable for many applications, including remote sensing, trace gas detection, multispectral imaging and optical communications in poor visibility conditions and molecular spectroscopy. Solid state lasers that operate at wavelengths longer than about 4 m typically have low efficiency and low output power and may utilize unstable hygroscopic laser hosts. Therefore, nonlinear optical parametric oscillator devices (OPO) such as ZnGeP2 (ZGP), AgGaSe2, CdSe and LiNbO3 in bulk or as PPLN appear to be the most useful approach to generate output in the mid-IR region. The most successful material is ZGP, because of its high thermal conductivity in comparison to other candidate materials, highest laser damage threshold and largest nonlinear figure of merit. Advanced ZGP samples will be designed and prepared such that they adequately demonstrate the ZGP improvements possible through utilization of the Adhesive-Free Bonding (AFBr) process and special polishing techniques. Developed samples and methods will be compared with existing technology using tests of laser damage, mechanical strength, laser transmission and transmitted wavefront. Improvements analogous to those with ZGP will become available for other nonlinear crystals.

TELAZTEC LLC
15 A Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 229-9904
Douglas Hobbs
AF 06-111      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Improved AR Treatment for Mid-IR Laser Materials Based of Surface Relief Microstructures
Abstract:Conventional multi-layer thin film anti-reflection (AR) coatings limit the output energy of laser systems designed for important mid-infrared (mid-IR) applications such as LIDAR, communications, and atmospheric monitoring. Mismatched thermal expansion between the lasing crystals and thin-film AR coatings leads to failed film adhesion and catastrophic physical damage at optical energies well below that which could be attained with an alternative AR treatment. As a result there is an urgent need for an AR treatment that can suppress reflections of broad-band mid-IR light from the crystal faces used in solid-state laser systems while simultaneously allowing for an increased light output over a longer operational period. An innovative type of high performance AR treatment for mid-IR lasers is proposed that promises an increased laser damage threshold for higher output energies over a longer lifetime. Based on surface relief microstructures fabricated directly into the faces of the lasing crystals, the AR treatment completely eliminates the limitations due to stress, thermal mismatch, adhesion, physical damage, complexity, narrow-band performance, polarization splitting, and cost associated with conventional multi-layer thin-film AR coatings. The proposed Phase I project will adapt the designs and methods developed in a recent MDA SBIR program that demonstrated a radiation-resistant micro-structured AR treatment for HgCdTe infrared FPAs, to demonstrate an improved AR treatment for high-power solid-state lasers generating mid-IR light. In addition, mid-IR laser manufacturers such as BAE Systems will be engaged and plans will be developed for integrating the improved AR treatment fabrication process into the laser manufacturing process as part of a Phase II effort.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Sergey Sandomirsky
AF 06-112      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Laser Ultrasound Noncontact Seismic System
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force urgently needs a rapid nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology to determine the load-carrying capacity of runways for aircraft operations. To meet this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Laser Ultrasound Noncontact Seismic (LUNS) system to conduct advanced pavement seismic analysis without mechanical contact between the system and the pavement being inspected. Seismic waves will be excited in the pavement by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, and displacements of the pavement surface will be measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. After data processing, the stiffness of the pavement, base, and subgrade will be evaluated. Wholly optical instrumentation makes the system significantly lighter than comparable state-of-the art systems, and enables it to measure continuously. The LUNS system will be mounted on a robotic platform for autonomous inspection of airfields. In Phase I we will build a laboratory prototype LUNS to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept, and in Phase II a fully packaged prototype will be developed and field tested to address both Air Force and commercial needs.

ZYBRON, INC.
3915 Germany Lane
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-2892
Dr. Evan Zhang
AF 06-112      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Continuous Runway Load-Deflection Evaluation Methodology
Abstract:The deployment of US military forces often requires aircraft operations on runways of unknown construction, roughness, and load carrying capacities not only in UAS but also in foreign countries. Current FWD, DCP and RWD cannot satisfy the mission requirement. The air force is looking for an air droppable lighter weight RWD that can rapidly collect continuous data using sensor technologies. In this proposal, a lightweight RWD with same tire pressure as the big RWD is proposed. Instead of using a rotating mirror an innovative sensor array using linear IR laser diode array and detector array sharing a common optical axis is designed. One sensor array will be put at a location under truck before loading and the other will be put after loading to measure the perpendicular distance from the laser to the runway. Two arrays will be mounted on a H-shape suspension platform with the same height and will be aligned each other precisely. By subtracting the data from two sensor arrays we not only can quantitatively measure the deflection of the runway but also can eliminate all systematic errors caused by vibration etc. If we use our unique parabolic LED array to replace the laser diode array, the total saving will be over $10,000 and the system reliability can be largely increased. In addition to the above sensor arrays, a stereo camera using linear CCD & LIR fused arrays is also designed to not only visualize the runway deformation after loading but also detect the void underneath the runway. Since all optical sensors cannot penetrate the runway, simple microwave impulse radar is also designed to show the void and construction under the runway. Because the RWD is air droppable it should not use a driver, therefore a novel robot is designed to operate the sensors in the RWD and drive the RWD to any place on the runway, and the data will be wirelessly sent to a remote computer for analysis. After finishing the runway survey the RWD will return to the start point and wait for pickup by the helicopter. In order to calibrate the RWD data, our automatic FWD and DCP operated by the robot and developed in one phase-I and two phase-II projects for Army and SOF will be used to measure the runway stiffness and CBR at certain points, thus the relationship between the RWD deflection and the runway strength can be established. Not only all above new sensor prototypes but also a bench scale RWD prototype will be delivered to the Air Force in phase-I.

ADVANCED DESIGN CONSULTING, INC.
126 Ridge Road, PO Box 187
Lansing, NY 14882
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 533-3531
Dr. Eric Johnson
AF 06-113      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Advanced Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
Abstract:ADC is presenting a new method of nondestructive evaluation/inspection technology that enable the capability to detect improvised explosive devices (IEDs) carried or hidden within motor ve-hicles.

QUANTASPEC, INC.
PO Box 163
Essex Junction, VT 05453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 872-8471
Mr. Kenneth A. Puzey
AF 06-113      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Advanced Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
Abstract:Standoff detecctors are required to detect IEDs. These detectors are needed to save the lives of american soldiers. QuantaSpec has developed patent pending methods for long-range, sensitive, and selective standoff detection of explosives. These methods have already demonstrated sensitive remote detection of explosive vapors under previous efforts. QuantaSpec's multidisciplinary team will demonstrate additional explosive detection capabilities and improvements.

MIKRO SYSTEMS, INC.
770 Harris Street, Suite 104
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 244-6480
Mr. Michael Appleby
AF 06-114      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Improved Manufacturing Technology for Investment Casting Cores
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR project will demonstrate the ability to produce investment cast ceramic cores at lower cost and in a shorter time than current manufacturing technology, while improving process yield. This will result in more rapid and less costly prototyping of advanced aircraft engine components and will enable production of turbine airfoils having advanced film cooling features that have not been possible using current technology. The enabling technology is Mikro Systems' patent-pending Tomo-Lithographic- Molding (TLMT) process. Using micro-molding and casting techniques and application-specific materials, the TLMT process has successfully produced fine-featured ceramic strainers and core specimens. Ceramic material compositions, binder systems, and firing schedules have been developed that are directly applicable to this effort. Phase I will apply the TLMT process to the rapid, cost-effective production of prototype cores and associated manufacturing tools. Two iterations of sample core specimens will be produced and taken through several critical steps in the investment casting process, including wax lay-up, wax injection, shelling, and wax removal. A detailed process assessment will be performed comparing the TLMT process with current technology and quantifying potential cost and time savings. Phase II will extend the work to include DS and SX casting.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Justin Neutra
AF 06-114      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Micro Ceramic Inserts for Affordable Investment Casting Cores(1000-877)
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes to demonstrate an improved method of making complex geometry investment casting cores for turbine blades and vanes using the gelcasting process with tailored ceramic compositions. This phase I project is in conjunction with an engine supplier and will focus on gelcasting's feasibility in producing complex dimension ceramic cores using three different ceramic core formulations. The three compositions have been chosen to address issues historically encountered in the manufacture of ceramic cores for high temperature alloy investment cast blades and vanes for turbine powerplants. In the Phase I, Triton will develop a process to manufacture ceramic cores. Core samples will formulated and tested for casting compatibility and analyzed for dimensional feature retention, basic dimensions and density. The best formulation will be downselected for further development and future casting trials.

2PHASE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 730, 33 River Vista Drive
Dayton, NV 89403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 450-7900
Mr. Ted Jacobson
AF 06-115      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Polymer Matrix Composite Engine Components
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development and use of lightweight, low thermal-capacity reformable tooling materials for high-temperature composite processing evaluation, parts prototyping, trial production and full-rate production of PMC engine components. The weight-saving promise of high-temperature polymer matrix composites (PMCs) for engine components is offset by the very high costs of parts manufacture. In processing polyimide-matrix composites to produce engine duct components, current tooling and methods require very long processing times. Optimized tooling would provide a ramp-up rate consistent with the heatup rate of the composite material, while providing the strength to withstand the process temperatures and pressures.

MAVERICK CORP.
11379 Grooms Road
Blue Ash, OH 45242
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 469-9919
Dr. Robert A. Gray
AF 06-115      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Polymer Matrix Composite Engine Components
Abstract:The recent development of AFR-PE-4E polyimide composites has increased the high-temperature performance of military engine structures due to weight reduction. But, to take full advantage of this "new" composite system, and to compete against titanium, low-cost manufacture of AFR-PE-4E resin and prepreg must be achieved. Current F135 and F136 engines slated for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) require three ducts that total up to 300 pounds per engine. AFR-PE-4E composite has currently been selected for these structures which will require continuous service temperatures in excess of 316C (600F) while retaining maximum physical strength. The high cost of AFR-PE-4 resin is primarily driven by the high cost of the 4-PEPA and 6FDA monomers. Reducing the AFR-PE-4E resin cost can be realized through obtaining alternate sources for these monomer components, so the major goal of the Phase I SBIR program is to jump-start work to identify a combination of lower cost monomer suppliers and demonstrate their suitability through fabrication of carbon uni-tape prepreg trial lots. Chemical characterization testing is planned to provide a thorough assessment of batch-to-batch reproducibility, storage stability, and reactive behavior. The thermal performance, processing characteristics, and cost benefits will be determined and compared to the baseline AFR-PE-4E material.

STRATTON COMPOSITE SOLUTIONS
865 Chestnut Lake Dr
Marietta, GA 30068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 840-3530
Mr. Robert Stratton
AF 06-115      Awarded: 26APR06
Title:Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Polymer Matrix Composite Engine Components
Abstract:Bagging of high temperature composites continues to be difficult becuase the Kapton material that is used is not elastic at any temperature. This inelasticity causes bages to bridge and break. There are alternative lower cost mateials that may be used up to 750F.

FARADAY TECHNOLOGY, INC.
315 Huls Drive
Clayton, OH 45315
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 836-7749
Dr. Maria Inman
AF 06-116      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Modeling of Chromate-Free Coating Systems Using Data Mining
Abstract:In the proposed Phase I SBIR program, Faraday, KBSI and Prof. John Scully will demonstrate the applicability of data mining combined with fundamental parameter analysis to model the performance and predict the lifetime of chromate-free coatings systems for aircraft applications, exposed to a variety of environmental stresses. This technology will assist coating developers with finding a coating system that functionally replaces traditional coatings that contain toxic chromates. In Phase I, the team will identify a commercially available non-chromium based coating system, monitor the performance of that coating system under environmental stresses (including pH, aggressive chemical species, and elevated temperature) and develop algorithms to model the data. In Phase II, we will extend the scope of the data mining model to a variety of commercially available chromate-free coating systems, with extensive laboratory and field testing, and including service data. This predictive model will help to accelerate the development of new chromate-free coatings systems by separating out the effects of each layer in the coating system, and providing guidance as to the best possible combinations of conversion coating, primer and topcoat to provide the functionality required for U.S. Air Force applications.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Rock Rushing
AF 06-116      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Corrosion Prediction for Nonchrome Based Coatings Systems
Abstract:Coatings are critical aerospace materials that require well-defined performance and lifetime characteristics. They perform multiple functions on aircraft but one of the more important functions is for prevention of corrosion. Some coatings application areas are expected to last the lifetime of the aircraft after application. The qualification test methods currently used to determine corrosion protection provided by a coating do not accurately predict the lifetimes of coatings products. In fact, the current qualification tests age test specimens for the equivalent of less than two year of service based on the acceleration factors for humidity and temperature. TRI/Austin, Inc. and PPG Industries propose the development of a new corrosion test protocol that will enable determinations of corrosion resistance imparted by coatings on metal substrates. A primary Phase I goal is determination of the primary factors that influence corrosion rates. While this work specifically targets coatings exposures, the outcomes will be applicable to other aircraft corrosion control materials.

ENGINEERED COATINGS, INC.
P.O. Box 4702
Parker, CO 80134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 593-0588
Dr. Frank M. Kustas
AF 06-118      Awarded: 18APR06
Title:Thick Nanostructured, Erosion-Resistant PVD Coatings for Metallic Turbine Blade Materials
Abstract:The Air Force is seeking optimized physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating solutions to mitigate sand ingestion of modern aircraft engines, which causes severe erosion, high turbine-engine maintenance costs, and reduced efficiency. Engine manufacturers are developing blisk components from steels and advanced Ti alloys to reduce weight, part count, manufacturing costs, and fretting wear from an integrated construction. However, Ti alloys need surface protection to increase their poor erosion resistance. Also, due to the varying angles of the airfoil surfaces, the impingement angle of erodent will change as a function of position on the blisk blades. To address these concerns, Engineered Coatings, Inc. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) propose to demonstrate thick, dense nanostructured PVD coatings fabricated by an enhanced plasma processing method. These nanostructured coatings offer demonstrated improvements in sand-erosion resistance. The combination of the enhanced plasma processing method and component translation will enable complex part coverage. Coating screening will include indentation adhesion/toughness measurements, thermal cycling, screening erosion tests, and final erosion testing in a representative environment. In the final task of the program, a blisk component or section will be coated with the nanostructured coating to demonstrate part fixturing and translation during coating application.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-5771
Mr. Jose Nainaparampil
AF 06-118      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:Resistant Coatings for Metal Turbine Blades
Abstract:Even with well equipped filtering techniques that are available today, sand ingestion reduce efficiency and life expectancy of gas turbine (GT) engines. A remedy for the problem is to coat related parts of the engine with a suitable material that can withstand the damage caused by the fast flying sand particles. From experiments conducted it is concluded that such materials should have high toughness, adherence to the part's surface, moderate hardness and chemical stability at high temperature. All these capabilities could be obtained in Ti-B-N material system because of its unique capability of mixing various phases with contrasting properties. The method developed here is based on well established deposition process that can be used to form suitable nano-composite architecture possessing the required qualities. The feasibility of the work is supported by a number of publications by numerous research groups. In this work, a thick coating of nano-crystalline TiN phase imbedded in hexagonal boron nitride matrix will be synthesized with proper hardness and low stresses in a filtered vacuum arc system fitted with a magnetron sputtering gun. A gradient Ti-B-N bond-layer will provide the needed adhesion to avoid the delamination of the thick composite coating.

MESOSCRIBE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Long Island High Technology Incubator, 25 Health S
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6455
Mr. Christopher Gouldstone
AF 06-119      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Embedded high-temperature strain sensors for in situ interrogation and damage prognosis
Abstract:MesoScribe Technologies proposes to develop in-situ sensing technologies to interrogate material and damage states in aerospace components operating in harsh environments e.g., gas turbine engines. Sensors will be fabricated using Direct Write (DW) technology for coupon-level testing. Phase I will focus on demonstrating durability and reliability of DW sensors under mechanical loading at high temperatures. Resistive strain gages and gage arrays will provide in-situ monitoring of damage states, with provision for environmental signal disturbances. Sensors will be designed for embedding within functional components, but evaluated on standardized specimens for fundamental performance analysis. Pratt & Whitney will act as a strategic partner, providing specifications for the operational environment, sensor fidelity and engine compatibility.

RADATEC, LLC
75 Fifth St. NW, Suite 217
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 526-6037
Mr. Jon Geisheimer
AF 06-119      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:High Temperature Sensors for In Situ Interrogation of Damage States in Structural Materials Components
Abstract:The key to material damage state sensor systems making the transition from the laboratory to on-wing is to improve overall system robustness. It is important to develop simple, robust algorithms that can be coupled together with survivable, reliable sensors for turbine blade prognosis to be successful. One of the keys to developing these systems is the ability to quickly and inexpensively develop a large enough data set for simulating engine operating conditions and material damage state conditions. This proposal outlines an approach using a high temperature microwave tip clearance sensor along with a sub-scale, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) based spin rig to develop a large data set for algorithm development. The resulting data set will be used to develop robust algorithms that track material damages states over normal engine operating conditions. The end result of the project is a complete sensor system able to detect and trend material state as part of an on-wing prognosis system.

KEYSTONE SYNERGISTIC ENTERPRISES, INC.
542 SW Keats Ave
Palm City, FL 34990
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 626-7717
Mr. Ralph Anderson
AF 06-120      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Precision Deposition and Finishing of Invar Tooling in a Limited Production Environment
Abstract:Innovative approaches are needed to put the airframe and gas turbine engine structures in play for spiral development as technological improvements offer reduced weights, lower costs, or shorter manufacturing cycle times. This proposed research and development effort will demonstrate the feasibility of producing low cost, flexible tooling for the fabrication of composite components. Precision Deposition and Finishing (PDF) methods are proposed to enable affordable and rapid methods to build and modify tooling produced from materials such as INVAR, to meet the demand for small lot productioin as well as spiral development for military aircraft and engines.

RSP TOOLING, LLC
28999 Aurora Rd.
Solon, OH 44139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 349-5262
Mr. James Knirsch
AF 06-120      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Manufacturing Structures in a Limited Production Environment
Abstract:This project is to determine the feasibility, cost, and benefits of scaling up the RSP Tooling process to make tools that are 10 feet square, accurate enough to be used for composite tooling, and can be produced in significantly less time and for less money. The RSP Technology is an additive, indirect, spray form system. It starts with a CAD model of the tool. A rapid prototype process is used to make a replica of the tool surface. A ceramic mold is taken from this model. The desired metal is then melted and sprayed onto the ceramic continually building up until the desired tool thickness is achieved. The unique feature of the technology is the atomization of the metal which allows for excellent replication of the ceramic and extremely dense metal structure. The new design will use multiple moving nozzles, vertically spraying onto a moving ceramic that is kept at temperature outside of the spray area using infrared heaters. The melt system will be a continuous melter capable of melting 800 pounds per hour. The ceramic will be made of small sections fit together to maintain required accracy.

STRATTON COMPOSITE SOLUTIONS
865 Chestnut Lake Dr
Marietta, GA 30068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 840-3530
Mr. Robert Stratton
AF 06-120      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Manufacturing Structures in a Limited Production Environment
Abstract:Risk and Cost are the primary roadblocks to insertion of new structures technologies. The risk going through the design changes, tooling the part, fabricating the part and testing the part can prove too daunting a task. The results are of the effort are not known until it is too late to make another alteration or fix to a problem. The cost of a change can be substantial; the cost of design is a minor part, the major part of the cost in the tooling of the new part. Reconfigurable tooling systems will reduce cost, time, and risk.

HUGHES ASSOC., INC.
3610 Commerce Drive, Suite 817
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 737-8677
Mr. John A. Cutonilli
AF 06-121      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Comprehensive Unified User Oiriented Risk Assessment Tool for Fire Modeling Codes
Abstract:Fire modeling software has been used to evaluate the impacts of fire on people, and property. Numerous lives and untold millions have been saved as a result of these evaluations. More and more of these analysis are being conducted as people and organizations recognize the benefits of a performance based design. Unfortunately, no real interfaces have been designed for most of the fire modeling software used today. Some attempts have been made to make a graphical interface for this software, but these attempts are typically nothing more than a graphical implementation of the input file used. No attempt is made to synthesize the inputs into simpler and easier to use values. Nor has any attempt been made to provide analysis tools to evaluate the results. This SBIR project will develop more than an interface, it will develop an analysis tool that is oriented towards the user. This tool will be designed to assist the user throughout the model use; from scenario generation, to model execution, to the evaluation of results, and back to new scenarios based on the evaluation of results. It will leverage the strengths of the various modeling software packages in calculating specific parts of an analysis by creating a common interface that can be used with different modeling software packages. It will provide means to deal with uncertainty in the inputs and validate results. The anticipated market for the software includes the military, architects, engineers, peer reviewers, authority having jurisdiction, and academics. In addition to software, modeling and training services can also be provided with this software.

REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL
77 West 200 South, Suite 210
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 364-6925
Mr. David A. Swensen
AF 06-121      Awarded: 02MAR06
Title:Graphical User Interface for Fire Modeling Codes
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will evaluate the merit and feasibility of developing a graphical user interface (GUI) for major existing fire modeling codes. Fire modeling is used to evaluate fire spread and damage for a wide variety of applications of interest to private industry and the United States Air Force (USAF). Currently, most of these codes are difficult to use and require advanced training before they can be used successfully. Successful implementation of the proposed GUI would provide for significantly improved usability by fire research and fire protection engineering personnel. The GUI would support a wide variety of fire codes, ranging from simple zonal models to complex 3D CFD-based models. The capabilities of the GUI would include fire scenario development, model execution control and monitoring and multi-level post-processing, including advanced visualization. The GUI would support multiple computer platforms, and would provide capabilities for remote execution of the core fire models.

STAR BRIDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
6925 Union Park Center, Fourth Floor
Midvale, UT 84047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 984-4143
Mr. Matthew Scarpino
AF 06-123      Selected for Award
Title:Analytical Techniques for Complex Logic Devices in Safety-Critical Applications
Abstract:To improve design reliability and reduce errors and error-testing, Starbridge intends to add a high-level architecture entry capability to its upcoming Viva design entry application. This will provide a standardized method of entering specifications for large-scale systems. In addition, Viva will provide full verification to ensure that the system meets its operational goals. Once the design has been implemented in a digital system, the intended results will be compared to the hardware signals to ensure accuracy and timing integrity. These capabilities will both simplify FPGA development and provide greater assurance that the device will function as desired.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Barry Ambrose
AF 06-124      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-Channel Space-Time Adaptive Processing Technology
Abstract:Because the ability to accurately and reliably determine moving targets is very important in all automatic target recognition (ATR) applications, the Air Force is seeking innovative air target sensor and signal processing techniques. Unfortunately, previous research activities in multi-channel and space-time adaptive processing (STAP) techniques for the ATR of moving air targets, with in-motion platforms, have failed to produce good results. To overcome these problems, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to design and develop an innovative Multi-channel Space-Time Adaptive Processing (M-STAP) technology for air target ATR applications. BCI's solution uses an innovative combination of signal transformation and detection algorithms. A unique transformation is applied to the received data in order to convert a recognition problem into a coordinate system solution. The transformation is to enable application of intelligent space-time detection algorithms in the transformed space, where the algorithm can operate with reduced complexity and with minimal no loss of optimality. The transformation and algorithms are designed together to obtain highly reliable recognition results. BCI's goal is to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of the M-STAP approach for the Air Force's air-to-air automatic target recognition applications. In Phase II, a working demonstration model will be developed.

AETHERCOMM, INC.
2910 Norman Strasse Road, Suite 105
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 598-4340
Mr. Leif Roll
AF 06-125      Selected for Award
Title:Miniature Wide Band Power Amplifiers for Miniature Munitions
Abstract:Aethercomm will investigate feasibility of producing an amplifier covering a 225 to 2000 MHz frequency range with an output power of 50 watts. Potential wideband gap materials will be evaluated to suit this need. Additionally, a space study will be conducted to ensure the final product will conform to the desired 25 cubic inch form factor. A preliminary thermal analysis will also be coducted in order to demostrate proper operation in the harse miniature munitions environment.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-9000
Ms. Kerry Dunfey
AF 06-126      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Lower Cost High Temperature Composites for Hypersonic Tactical Missiles
Abstract:MR&D proposes to develop and demonstrate lower cost versions of high temperature composites with suitable temperature ranges, which are capable of surviving the high temperature exposures of hypersonic flight while retaining sufficient strength for their specific applications. Low cost materials for various temperature regimes and therefore for various missile parts will be fabricated within the Phase I effort. A total of four different materials, each with different but associated processing conditions, will be processed. Four different flight time-temperature regimes and corresponding tactical missile part applications will evolve from the successful fabrication effort. Material properties of these materials, at both room and elevated temperature, will be measured. These properties will be used in mathematical models of candidate missile component applications, including fuselage sections and the leading edges of missile fins. Design analyses will be performed to determine expected temperature distributions, thermal and mechanical stress states. Stress margins of safety (MOS) will be calculated and compared with measured material strengths to determine viability of the lower cost alternative materials in these tactical missile applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. James Groman
AF 06-126      Selected for Award
Title:3-D Pyrolised-In-Place Composites for Integrated Hypersonic Airframes(1000-845)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. of Chelmsford MA, with the support of Boeing Phantom Works, proposes to develop a modern adaptation of the AVCO 3-D Quartz-Phenolic (3DQP) integrated structure-heatshield composite used in US and British re-entry vehicles, in order to reduce total airframe weight for a wide range of short-to-moderate duration hypersonic flight applications. Advances in performing, fiber properties, and particularly matrix chemistries promise composite performance far superior to 3DQP, and superior to current TPS/Metallic airframe combinations. The key reliability and performance value of eliminating a separate metallic substructure and the accompanying bond (or other) joints remains as true now as in the 1970s. New preforming techniques, such as AutoWeave, allow complex hybrid 2-D/3-D reinforcements to be assembled at moderate cost. The relatively recent innovation of cost- and processing-effective pre-ceramic polymers offers unique possibilities for maintaining structural and electromagnetic properties of the airframe at surface temperatures exceeding 1500 C, while limiting heat transfer to internals. Triton proposes select a promising application for the new airframe concept, in combination with the USAF TPOC and Phantom Work (e.g. the X51 Single Engine Demonstrator /WaveRider) in to evaluate the potential for optimizing the 3-D structural heatshield composite subject to realistic environmental requirements.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Gregory Zeltser
AF 06-127      Selected for Award
Title:Versatile Agent Detection/Decontamination System
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need for a technology, enhanced with nanotechnology, to remotely and autonomously detect and neutralize chemical and biological agents, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Versatile Agent Detection/Decontamination system (VAD/D). The VAD/D concept is based on the integration of dielectrophoretic aerosol particulate trapping, Raman spectrum reading, and photocatalytic deactivation of collected particles. The VAD/D will be a stand-alone instrument capable of continuous, fully autonomous monitoring and decontamination of multiple airborne biological and chemical threat agents. The system will be highly sensitive with >95% accuracy and a frequency of false alarms <5%, and will operate in real time, be power-efficient, and be deployable in high-threat environments. It will have information processing electronics and a communication capability easily accessible to operators. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the VAD/D system by fabricating a prototype and demonstrating its capability to collect, identify, and destroy chem/bio agent simulants. In Phase II, POC will optimize the VAD/D design and performance parameters and develop a production-scalable process to implement the device. Also, POC will evaluate this device for its ease of production and conduct long-term reliability testing to measure effectiveness.

BLAZETECH CORP.
24 Thorndike St.
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0700
Dr. N. Albert Moussa
AF 06-128      Selected for Award
Title:Modeling and Simulation of Biological Agent Response to Combustion Effects
Abstract:Weapons directed at enemy stores of chemical and biological agents can cause extreme collateral damage by venting live agents from broken containers into the surrounding area. This is severely hazardous for friendly forces, noncombatants, and the surrounding environment. An Agent Defeat weapon (such as HTIs) is specifically designed to cause substantial damage to the target, while minimizing collateral damage. The response of the agent to the environment created by the weapon is currently unknown. Most of the research thus far has focused on the pyrolysis and combustion of chemical agents and thermal inactivation of biological agents. However, the combustion of biological agents has not been examined and even the most fundamental properties such as the ignition temperature are currently not available. Here we propose to develop combustion models for biological agents based on carefully controlled sub-system level bench scale tests on live agents and simulants. In addition to measuring the combustion properties such as the ignition temperature, flammability limits, and the products of combustion, the study also will yield a fundamental understanding of the combustion mechanism. The models and data from this study can be used to predict the extent of combustion and fractional viability of spores in a real life combustion event.

PHARAD LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive, Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 590-3333
Dr. Rod Waterhouse
AF 06-130      Selected for Award
Title:Highly Efficient Wideband Antenna for Small Diameter Munitions
Abstract:In this Phase I project Pharad proposes to create a wideband, highly efficient, conformal, omni-directional radiator that can be integrated on small, smart munitions platforms, such as missile or bomb airframes. Our antenna solution will incorporate a novel wideband printed radiating element that can operate efficiently from 200 - 1215 MHz. It will be cavity backed to ensure the antenna can reside beneath the surface of the munition's aeroshell, thereby producing minimal impact on the aerodynamics of the missile projectile. We will use wraparound procedures to control the input impedance properties of the radiator and achieve omni-directional radiation patterns. We will use rigorous full-wave analysis tools to accurately predict the performance of the antenna when mounted on the munition. As part of this Phase I effort we will also fabricate and test the performance of a prototype of our proposed wideband radiator solution. From the analytical and measured results of the created antenna, we will analyze its performance given certain connected hardware and environmental conditions. The new novel radiator technology will be key to realizing a wideband high performance antenna that can be structurally integrated on a small munitions aeroshell and support the simultaneous communication of multiple RF frequency signals.

BLAZETECH CORP.
24 Thorndike St.
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0700
Dr. Albert Moussa
AF 06-131      Selected for Award
Title:Measuring Particulate Entrained Mass-Flow from Internal Detonations
Abstract:BlazeTech proposes a rugged, cost-effective probe which can record the time history of the dynamic pressure in a hostile flow including entrained particulate matter. We will compile a list of flow properties of detonations of interest and perform a detailed study of the expected response of the probe. We will then demonstrate the technical feasibility by conducting critical analysis and selected lab-scale tests with a particle-laden flow.

MINNESOTA WIRE & CABLE CO.
1835 Energy Park Drive
Saint Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 659-6762
Mr. Randy L. Milbert
AF 06-132      Selected for Award
Title:Fatigue Resistant Wire for Airborne Applications
Abstract:The gradual degradation of wiring systems in aircraft is a serious concern plaguing the Air Force's aging fleet. It has been observed that the majority of wire breakage problems occur within nine inches of the connector, terminal lug, or other junction. In many cases, the wiring was not properly relieved of strain near the junction points. Traditional wires are by nature inelastic under stress, strain, or vibration - overtime this leads to wire failure. The creation of more flexible wire would reduce the occurrence of wire failure. Minnesota Defense proposes to develop flexible fatigue resistant wires based on electrically conductive elastic composites loaded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Carbon nanotubes have extremely high aspect ratios (length/diameter), and thus form conductive percolation networks through materials more easily than other conductive fillers such as carbon fiber or carbon black. The end result is a highly flexible, durable wire that can withstand substantial strain (> 25%) as a replacement for metal wires and cabling. The challenges in this Phase I, include developing wires with significant conductivity and heat resistance to replace signal carrying wires in aircraft.

MUSTANG TECHNOLOGY GROUP, L.P.
400 W. Bethany, Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 396-4422
Mr. David Boroson
AF 06-133      Selected for Award
Title:Optimal Trajectory Shaping and Fuzing for Munitions
Abstract:Mustang Technology Group, LP is proposing a Phase I SBIR study that will improve the lethality of future munitions, such as the Small Diameter Bomb (SDB), by offering a tightly coupled guidance and fuzing algorithm set using information about the weapon, target, and vulnerability of the target. The algorithm set features the use of weapon approach angles to optimize lethality, real-time methods for optimal trajectory shaping, and real-time methods for computing sub-optimal approaches that are still lethal if the weapon is kinematically limited. The algorithm set will improve weapon performance by optimizing lethality instead of focusing on minimizing miss distance.

SURVICE ENGINEERING CO.
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 678-8333
Dr. Kevin McArdle
AF 06-133      Selected for Award
Title:Multi-mode Weapon Algorithms for Future Miniature Munitions
Abstract:Thus far, the weapons community has developed fuze, guidance, and control algorithms independently due to constraints in computing power and associated cost. However, modern electronics and sensor technology have now developed to where it is conceivable to autonomously detect, identify, and obtain enough data to aim and detonate weapons based upon known target vulnerabilities. In effect, we now have the opportunity to develop a more ideal weapon, capable of defeating its target set with a minimum amount of high explosive and fragments, thereby minimizing collateral damage. To do this, it is first required to develop an algorithm to define optimal endgame conditions that maximize target defeat. This can be done using current analysis codes and processes used in new and innovative ways. Once these optimal endgame conditions are defined, modern guidance systems can be set to intercept the endgame trajectory some distance from the target to achieve the selected optimal endgame scenario and defeat the target.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Red Hill Avenue, Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8772
Mr. Ying Hsu
AF 06-135      Selected for Award
Title:Micro Combustion Power System (MCPS)
Abstract:Micro Combustion Power System (MCPS) is a new power storage technology potentially capable of delivering eight times higher energy density than Li-ion battery. The MCPS is designed to produce electrical power from heat generated by micro-scale combustion (microcombustion) of liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The advantages of MCPS are high energy density (up to 1400 W-hr/Kg), reconfigurable power output (1 to 50 V), expandable capacity, high reliability and low unit cost. MCPS consists of a fuel cartridge, fuel injection chip, power generation chip, and power management electronics. MCPS integrates power generation components in a 3D structure to maximize energy conversion efficiency, and employs passive fluid flow and Micro-electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) actuator to achieve ultra-low power fuel injection. The core components of the MCPS are two silicon chips produced using MEMS processing: the Power Generation chip integrates a microcombustor and a thermoelectric generator; the Fuel Injection chip integrates a fuel evaporator and an injector. The focus of this proposed SBIR program is on the design of the MCPS system and the Power Generation chip. The small size of MCPS coupled with high energy density makes this technology an ideal candidate for powering new generation of miniature smart munitions.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 272-3969
Dr. Lee M. Goldman
AF 06-137      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Multi-mode Seeker Dome for Miniature Munitions
Abstract:New applications, such as the Small Diameter Bomb (SDB), require affordable, durable domes with multiple-waveband transparency (i.e., near-IR, MWIR or LWIR, and MMW). Cost effective fabrication of such a dome, will require achieving the optimal balance between competing requirements. Choice of durable dome materials, with suitable transparency, high speed/tight tolerance fabrication techniques, and incorporation of suitable grid/resonant structures to provide EMI shielding and suitable MMW transmission are all critical to the development of a tri-mode seeker dome design for the SDB program. Surmet is developing tri-mode seeker domes for the Joint Common Missile program, working with the Army, Navy and Lockheed Martin. In addition to producing full scale prototypes for evaluation, Surmet is developing alternate configurations which will lead to more affordable dome solutions. Surmet's experience will be used in evaluating potential dome solutions for this proposed effort. During the proposed Phase I effort, Surmet will perform a trade study on candidate dome materials, dome designs, manufacturing concepts, and applicable technologies for multi-mode seeker domes. Current development activities and technologies, Government and Commercially funded, will be evaluated against specific requirements for the SDB dome. A design concept, will be selected for subsequent development under the Phase II funding.

NEI CORP.
400 E Apgar Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-3141
Dr. Stein Schreiber Lee
AF 06-138      Selected for Award
Title:Thermally Initiated Self Healing Polymer Nanocomposites
Abstract:To successfully achieve and maintain Air Theater Superiority over the modern battlefield the Air Force requires high performance polymer/fiber composite materials. These lightweight high strength materials have greatly advanced the capabilities of jet aircrafts, munitions, space vehicles, as well as ground support vehicles. Damage caused by small impacts during transport and handing of munitions can create unseen micro-damage within the resin matrix and at the fiber/matrix interface. These micro-cracks reduce the actual performance of the composite below the expected level for which the component was designed. Detecting micro-cracks in materials is very difficult, and accessing them to repair them is also non-trivial. Therefore, imparting the capability for composites to self-repair these micro-cracks will reduce the frequency of full part replacement, maintain the designed high performance characteristics, and eliminate the expansion of micro-cracks that can result in further weakening of the composite over time leading to catastrophic failure and loss of life. The proposed technology is based on thermally initiated self-healing. Unlike previous approaches to self-healing, the polymer nanocomposite will actively close and seal cracks and is designed as a matrix replacement in fiber reinforced polymer composites.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Mr. Joseph Salzman
AF 06-139      Selected for Award
Title:Airborne Radar Ground Clutter Mitigation
Abstract:Radar-guided medium-range missiles with look-down/shoot-down capability, such as AAMRAM, give the U.S. decisive air superiority over any adversary. However, low-flying targets provide a daunting challenge at beam aspect, where the target signal is embedded in high-amplitude ground clutter returns. Specialized signal processing techniques, such as STAP, reduce the impact of the mainlobe clutter, but they require multiple antenna apertures -- which may not be practical in missile applications -- and their effect is primarily to improve the signal-to-clutter ratio by ~30 dB, reducing the target's MDV. But the closer target motion is to beam aspect, the less likely it is for its signal to be recovered from the mainlobe clutter signal. To address this problem, TSC is proposing an innovative technique, designated Target-in-Clutter Discriminator (TCD), whose aim is to discriminate the target signal in the presence of the much larger ground clutter signal, rather than to suppress the clutter signal, as done by existing clutter mitigation techniques. Additionally, angle measurement to the target is provided. To insure optimal processing conditions, appropriate waveform parameters are selected with the aid of DTED data. Initial estimates indicate moderate processor impact, although data compression may be needed for DTED, depending on the data's region size.

CYAN SYSTEMS
3718 Barcelona Drive
Santa Barbara, CA, CA 93105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 453-0582
Mr. John Caulfield
AF 06-140      Selected for Award
Title:Extremely High Temperature Projector Technology
Abstract:Cyan Systems has teamed with Nova Sensors and Sandia National Laboratory to develop a novel Multispectral Emitter System capable of projecting effective temperatures greater than 3000K with high spectral and radiometric accuracy. The XTEMPS is the centerpiece for a potentially revolutionary technical breakthrough required in the successful development of high fidelity Multi-band IR Scene Projection systems. Cyan Systems has formed a team of experts in Electro-Optics and material science for the novel development of the XTEMPS. Our strategy is to address the limitations that exist in current Scene Projection Technologies, namely low effective temperatures, pixel reliability, poor spectral control, slow slew rates, and non-uniformity. By developing a new class of spectrally tunable emitters and drive electronics, wide dynamic range scenes can be simulated with excellent linearity and uniformity in the projected image. Our goals for temperature emission of photonic crystals are to approach 6,000 Kelvin effect projected temperatures. Dramatic improvement in spectral, temporal and spatial resolution to 512 x 512 and greater are also key technology improvement goals we hope to obtain for the XTEMPS.

POWER PHOTONIC
Old Chemistry Building, Room 214, SUNY Stony Brook
Stony Brook, NY 11794
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 632-1358
Dr. David Westerfeld
AF 06-140      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Infrared (IR) Emissive Devices
Abstract:During Phase I, we propose the design, fabrication, and test a of light emitting diode (LED) array emitting in a broad band centered around 3.5 microns. We believe the proposed Type-I array based on the GaSb material system will provide superior performance for hardware in the loop (HWIL) simulation applications as compared to existing technologies.

AVID LLC
1750 Kraft Drive, Suite 1400
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-0067
Mr. Paul Gelhausen
AF 06-141      Selected for Award
Title:Micro Munition Technologies: Smart Material-Enabled Hovering Ducted-Fan MAV, Optimized for BDI Mission
Abstract:AVID LLC proposes a smart material-enabled hovering ducted-fan micro air vehicle (MAV) to greatly enhance the bomb damage information (BDI) capabilities of the U.S. Air Force. Such a design offers a more intuitive search capability for the BDI mission. Unlike fixed-wing MAVs, a ducted-fan MAV would stop, hover, and investigate an area, rotating to pan the sensor right and left, zooming in and out: observing much like a human would investigate an area. Once the search is complete, it could dash out at high speed to the next area of interest. The quality of the BDI sensing and the agility of a ducted-fan MAV are strengths that need to be evaluated in the context of the prescribed mission requirements. Conceptual designs of a ducted-fan and fixed-wing MAV (using the AVID OAV and AVID ACS design tools) will be compared in trade studies to show the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Innovative use of smart materials in the duct and control surfaces will be investigated. Dynamic models of each vehicle will be integrated with simulated sensor output in AVID SPOT (Software Pixels On Target) to evaluate the quality of the sensor performance during a BDI mission. A final optimized ducted-fan MAV design will be presented for fabrication and testing in Phase II.

FIRST POINT SCIENTIFIC, INC.
5330 Derry Avenue, Suite J
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 707-1131
Dr. Rod Greaves
AF 06-141      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Energy Source for Micro Platforms
Abstract:Antimatter has the highest energy density of any potential fuel and, thus, is extremely attractive for advanced energy conversion applications such as micromunitions. Positrons will be essential to any such system and positron sources that are substantially more powerful than those currently available will be required. First Point Scientific, Inc.(FPSI), in collaboration with the University of California, Riverside (UCR), Is currently developing a state-of-the-art positron source, the High Flux Positron Source (HFPS). The system will be based on the production of a high flux of the positron-emitting radioisotope nitrogen-13 produced by accelerating high-energy deuterons onto a carbon target. We propose to further enhance the capabilities of this system by the addition of an advanced rare gas moderator for producing high quality positron beams and by upgrading the accelerator energy to 5 MeV. The Phase I project will: (1) perform experiments to demonstrate the creation of a highly concentrated N-13 source; (2) develop a design for a rare gas positron moderator chamber; and (3) develop an implementation plan for the Phase II project. Successful completion of this project will provide a firm foundation to proceed with the development of the advanced power source required for critical defense applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. James Gorman
AF 06-141      Selected for Award
Title:Modular Disc-Wing (Frisbee) Urban Cruise Munition (1000-844)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. of Chelmsford MA proposes to develop a MEFP-armed Lethal Frisbee UAV, whose purpose is to locate defiladed combatants in complex urban terrain and provide precision fires to neutralize these hostiles with minimum hazard to friendly forces or bystanders. The 3-D maneuverability of the Frisbee-UAV will provide revolutionary tactical access and lethality against hostiles hiding in upper story locations and/or defiladed behind obstacles to direct observation and fire. The developed Frisbee-UAV system will be modular to provide reconnaissance, pursuit, and precision fire options to the lowest echelon units. Multiple UAVs can be air- or ground-launched from munitions dispensers or by means of a simple mechanism similar to a shotgun target (skeet) launcher. Both tele-operated (man-in-the-loop) and autonomous modes of operation will be provided, through wireless links to standard tactical data systems. Range, payload, and maneuverability will be tailored to the missions defined during requirements studies. The fuzing mode of the MEFP warheads will be controllable so as to provide a single large fragment (bunker-buster) or tailorable pattern of smaller fragments (unprotected infantry or light utility vehicles). The fuzing mode may be determined in real time by direct operator intervention or autonomous target classification routine built into the UAV.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Jonathan Geske
AF 06-142      Selected for Award
Title: Optical Pre-Amplifier Pixel Arrays for Laser Radar Applications
Abstract:The next generation of autonomously guided munition seekers requires the development of imaging LADAR systems capable of detection through obscurants at greater ranges and with greater precision and speed while reducing system cost, weight, and power consumption. Aerius Photonics has developed an advanced optical pre-amplifier pixel technology to enhance the performance of LADAR receiver systems by optically amplifying return pulses up to 100x prior to signal detection. The new optical pre-amplifier pixel array technology is a complementary technology that can be used to boost the performance of high-sensitivity detector array technologies (APD, PIN) that are presently being developed for imaging LADAR applications. The optical pre-amplifier pixel array technology can simultaneously provide high gain, high fill factors, low noise, and offers the future potential for high-speed detector gating. By inserting the optical pre-amplifier pixel array in the optical system path, before the final detector plane, LADAR return pulse intensities can be increased by over 100 times prior to detection and additional amplification by the high-sensitivity detector array/electronics hybrid. By utilizing these advanced optically pre-amplified pixel arrays it will be possible to greatly enhance the performance of imaging laser radar and laser rangefinder systems operating at eye-safe wavelengths in the near IR.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Fang Zhang
AF 06-142      Selected for Award
Title:Tunable Micro-Phased Array Laser Scanner
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a compact, inexpensive, and reliable laser scanner for 3D imaging laser radar in seekers for autonomously guided munitions, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel fast two-dimensional scanning device based on a Tunable MicroPhased Array Laser Scanner (TMPALS). The scanner will operate with divergent optical beams, switching to 22 x 22 resolved positions in about 30 microsecond so the entire 45 degree x 45 degree field of view is scanned more than 60 times per second, forming a tiled image with high spatial and range resolution. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of TMPALS by demonstrating it in the form of a simplified experimental device. In Phase II POC plans to optimize the scanner design and component performance, and will develop a fully functional prototype that will produce a new rugged solid-state scanner for next-generation munition seekers, and for airborne reconnaissance and surveillance systems.

DATA FUSION CORP.
10190 Bannock Street, Suite 246
Northglenn, CO 80260
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 872-2145
Mr. Kent Krumvieda
AF 06-143      Selected for Award
Title:Home on Structured Interference/Multipath
Abstract:Data Fusion Corporation (DFC) and Scientific Applications and Research Associates (SARA), propose the development of a prototype sensor that will be able to detect, geo-locate and home on GPS structured interference and multipath-like signals (HOSIM). This next-generation sensor will be employed on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV), precision-guided munitions as well as other platforms. When fielded, this technology will greatly enhance missions requiring accurate Position, Navigation and Time (PNT) information.

CUSTOM MANUFACTURING & ENGINEERING, INC.
2904 44th Avenue North
St. Petersburg, FL 33714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 547-9799
Mr. Richard Sidley
AF 06-144      Selected for Award
Title:Micro Fuel Cell (MFC) for Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Power
Abstract:In this proposal, an integrated in situ hydrogen production and Micro Fuel Cell (MFC) for Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Power will be developed. The system can replace conventional battery powered MAVs, with the added benefit of longer range. The system will also be capable of recharging or replenishing fuel. This system consists of four parts: (1) An in situ hydrogen generation subsystem, (2) a power generation subsystem, (3) a thermal management system, and (4) a power management system. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the entire system is being considered from a systems engineering viewpoint with realistic constraints. Past work has typically focused on only one subsystem and the interaction between systems has been ignored. At the end of this research, a virtual prototype of an integrated in situ hydrogen production and fuel cell system that is capable of operating onboard a MAV will be developed. The virtual prototype developed in this research project will provide the key systems integration parameters necessary for building a prototype vehicle as part of a Phase II SBIR effort. The Phase I will develop a model prototype for simulation.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Mr. Jonas Gunter
AF 06-144      Selected for Award
Title:Space Efficient Fuel Cell Fibers for Micro Air Vehicles
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force faces a growing need for small covert air platforms to detect, identify, and defeat enemy targets. These micro air vehicles (MAV) have stringent space and payload requirements. Existing battery technology cannot provide the energy densities needed to meet future mission durations. Low temperature micro fuel cell systems powered by hydrogen or hydrocarbons offer promising power performance. However, current materials technology limits these systems to using planar stacks of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that produce power. MEA stacks take up a significant amount of space which would be available to enhance payloads or increase fuel volume. Luna Innovations proposes the use of fuel cell fiber MEAs that avoid the traditional stack structure by wrapping the MEA layers onto a small thread-like fiber electrode. The inherent flexibility of these fibers allows them to be interspersed among the existing avionics, lift structures, and payload. Fuel cell fibers also represent a distributed power system which is more fault and damage tolerant. New materials technology used to construct the fibers will be demonstrated. Modeling and simulation will be used to compare existing micro fuel cell designs to that of the fuel cell fiber technology.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Brad Fiebig
AF 06-144      Selected for Award
Title:High Power, Long Endurance Micro Fuel Cell for Micro Air Vehicles
Abstract:Current battery technology is unable to provide necessary time of operation for some micro air vehicles (MAVs) and ground mobile robotic platforms resulting in a strong desire for longer lasting power sources. Lithium-based rechargeable and primary battery chemistries are at the limits of performance with only slight gains seen in the foreseeable future. Fuel cells have offered the potential to significantly improve energy storage density, but have been limited by their power density for applications such as micro air vehicles in which both power and lightweight energy storage is needed. Lynntech's patented FlatstackT fuel cell technology was used on the world's first fuel cell powered MAV in March of 2003. Lynntech's adhesively-bonded bipolar fuel cell technology also has benefits in the MAV size and power range. Combined with Lynntech's chemical hydride hydrogen generation experience, Lynntech's technology base and engineering experience will be used to develop the first practical cartridge based MAV micro fuel cell power system. Lynntech will characterize multiple fuel cell configurations and hydrogen generation techniques resulting in an optimal combination of fuel type and fuel cell type to provide the necessary power requirements while significantly improving the energy storage requirements for micro air vehicles.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Mr. Jeffrey T. Daiker
AF 06-145      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Fuze Technology Research
Abstract:Aret Associates proposes to demonstrate a low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electro-optical (EO) navigation sensor as a Target Detection Device (TDD) solution which offers several advantages over the RF sensors used in air-delivered munitions fuzes. Prototype sensor development and demonstration coupled with optical flow and munition simulations form the core of our technological approach.

MUSTANG TECHNOLOGY GROUP, L.P.
400 W. Bethany, Suite 110
Allen, TX 75013
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 396-4425
Dr. Alan England
AF 06-145      Selected for Award
Title:Low-cost, Miniature Proximity Sensor
Abstract:In 2005 Mustang Technology Group completed the Fuze Air-to-Surface Technology (FAST) program on which we developed and tested a highly-successful next-generation proximity sensor. This technology is not available to certain munitions (Small Diameter Bomb (SDB)) and submunitions that require enhanced proximity sensor performance in extremely small form factors. The purpose of the proposed effort is to apply innovative techniques and the latest technologies to extend the capabilities of FAST to very small form factor munitions and submuntions.

TAO OF SYSTEMS INTEGRATION, INC.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 220-5040
Mr. Arun S. Mangalam
AF 06-145      Selected for Award
Title:Adaptive, High-Resolution Accelerometer for Extreme Dynamic Range
Abstract:Tao Systems proposes to develop a cost-effective, adaptive accelerometer having 60dB resolution over the dynamic range of acceleration from 0.001 to 100,000 g. We propose to combine an array of signal- and range-optimized MEMS accelerometer devices with a novel active sensor circuit (ASC) topology that has several relevant features: with a single op-amp, it has at least an order-of-magnitude higher sensitivity than a Wheatstone bridge-based circuit, can incorporate several piezoresistive gage pairs, is able to independently monitor the behavior of each piezoresistive element, and is relatively immune to EMI/RFI. In the Phase I effort, we shall design, fabricate and demonstrate a single-axis MEMS accelerometer array with an ASC-based system that will maintain a high output resolution over a dynamic range through intelligent signal processing of the device array.

ENERGETIC MATERIALS & PRODUCTS, INC.
12706 Magnolia Mound
Austin, TX 78727
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 294-2400
Dr. Dennis Wilson
AF 06-146      Selected for Award
Title:Dial-a-Yield Munitions
Abstract:Today's asymmetric battleground has created a whole new set of problems for the warfighter. Key challenges include providing (1) scalable or selectable effect munitions, (2) munitions that have controllable lethality radius or low collateral effects, and (3) munitions that meet a strict "insensitive munitions" classification. In this Phase I SBIR project for the USAF, Energetic Materials & Products Inc of Austin, Texas, will develop a technology to address the goals of developing both selectable or tunable effect munitions, and insensitive munitions. The innovation involves the convergence of two technologies. The first is a specially engineered nanothermite material, Binary Metastable Intermolecular Composite (Binary-MIC). Special engineering keeps the fuel and oxidizer compartmentalized and insensitive until it is mixed at the target. The second technology is the use of electrical energy via either a field or spark discharge to control the time rate of release of energy, and thereby, the heat of combustion. In Phase I, EMPI will investigate the effects of explosive power output of laboratory-scale devices, and, via modeling and simulation, identify and develop scalable and economically feasible methods to exploit these effects for existing warhead geometries. Phase II would see the development of a tunable or variable effects prototype.

NEWTEC SERVICES GROUP, INC.
PO Box 643, 333 Hart Street
Edgefield, SC 29824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 637-0898
Mr. Keith Williams
AF 06-147      Selected for Award
Title:Micro Damage Mechanisms
Abstract:Small caliber ballistically fired projectiles, explosively driven fragments and micro-sized (CM3) warheads fabricated from reactive materials are emerging as potential payloads for air, space, surface, and subterranean micro and larger scale delivery systems. Under laboratory and small scale testing platforms, various types of Metastable Intermolecular Composite (MIC) materials have demonstrated calculated energy densities up to 10 kcal per gram. This energy level exceeds that of Tri-Nitro Toluene (TNT) by more than a factor of 10. The exploitation of such energies and the ability to apply it to specific military objectives provides opportunities for next generation warhead systems. These systems will provide multi-functional applications for enhanced lethality, smaller weapons platforms, decreased payload requirements and reduction of collateral damage by localizing terminal effects to specific target sets. Exploitation of such capabilities requires the development of reactive material systems that are robust enough to survive ballistic and explosive launch platforms and retain abilities to penetrate a variety of targets with a broad range of material compositions and thickness. The target penetration parameters include capabilities for MIC projectiles and fragments to undergo rapid disassembly during penetration in a controllable and predictable manner to present kinetic, thermal and barometric insults. Additionally, the ability to accurately test the scalability and effectiveness of these munitions is needed to develop predictive weapons effects models that will provide mission planners and operators with the necessary tools to plan, resource and execute their requirements.

TECHNOVA CORP.
1232 Mizzen Drive
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 485-9583
Dr. Anagi Balachandra
AF 06-148      Selected for Award
Title:Biologically Inspired Adhesive Microstructure
Abstract:The merits of a strong, detachable and durable (self-cleaning) dry adhesive system, which is inspired by gecko-foot hair, will be validated. The proposed system comprises micro-scale fibers exposed on a composite surface, upon which aligned nanotubes or nanofibers are deposited. Photocatalytic and superhydrophilic phenoemna are employed to provide the system with self-cleaning capabilities. Buckling/bending of micro- and nanoscale fibers as well as the contact mechanics of nanofibers yield massive molecular (van der Waals) interactions which render high adhesion capacity. The detachment mechanism relies on fracture mechanics concepts where an angular separation facilitates progressive dissociation of surfaces. The proposed Phase I research will: (i) develop a preliminary system design based on mechanics principles and molecular (van der Waals) interactions; (ii) adapt the directed self-assembly process toward fabricaiton of the dry adhesion system; (iii) determine the mechanical performance, self-cleaning attributes and detachment characteristics of the system; and (iv) assess the technical potential and commercial promise of the dry adhesion system.

GUIDED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P.O. Box 1453
McDonough, GA 30253
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 898-9100
Dr. J. Eric Corban
AF 06-149      Selected for Award
Title:Collision Avoidance for Micro Air Vehicles
Abstract:The innovative use of variational methods to dynamically segment scenes, which leads to a fast, natural approach to estimating the location of unknown 3-D obstacles is proposed. The previously developed algorithm has been shown in simulation to be suitable for real-time processing in flight using current generation processors, and to be robust in the presence of transient sensor data, distortion, and obscuration. It is employed to rapidly construct a 3-D database in the flight path ahead of the vehicle, and is combined with custom-developed guidance laws to produce a real-time in-flight obstacle detection and avoidance capability using only a sequence of 2-D images. This technology is to be tailored to application on the Block II production Wasp micro air vehicle and evaluated in near-real-time simulation. Simulation results are to be validated using flight video collected on the Wasp. Sensitivity studies will be conducted to develop a set of design requirements, and a preliminary design for hardware and software implementation completed. Detailed design, development, flight test on the Wasp, algorithm refinement, and demonstration at an MOUT test site will be carried out in phase II.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Mr. Jeffrey Byrne
AF 06-149      Selected for Award
Title:Visual Collision Detection and Avoidance for a Micro Air Vehicle
Abstract:This proposal presents the VAMAV system (Visual Awareness/Avoidance for a Micro Air Vehicle) for monocular visual collision detection and avoidance. Real time collision detection will be implemented using a time-to-collision approach based on area moment estimates of expansion from globally optimal image segmentation. This approach does not require explicit optical flow computations, and avoids noisy flow correspondence and differentiation. Real time collision avoidance will be implemented using rapidly exploring random trees (RRTs), which generate feasible trajectories given known obstacles and popup threats, while taking into account differential constraints arising from vehicle dynamics. The objective of the phase I investigation is to characterize the performance of the VAMAV system in simulation and on flight data. The phase I will investigate the performance of the VAMAV system using Monte Carlo simulations in the RIPTIDE simulator, resulting in a trade study of performance and MAV system constraints. Proof of concept for collision detection will be demonstrated on flight video data of a UAV in appropriate collision scenarios. Scientific Systems Company Inc. (SSCI) is joined in this investigation by team members Sarnoff Corporation and Brigham Young University.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 471-9786
Dr. Patrick Shoemaker
AF 06-149      Selected for Award
Title:Collision Avoidance and Local Guidance Based on Insect Visual Motion Processing
Abstract:Tanner Research proposes to apply technology based on visual motion processing and flight control in insects to collision avoidance and guidance in autonomous vehicles and robots. The visual processing mimics adaptive motion detection as observed in flies, which has the effect of reducing detector dependence on non-motion-related parameters of visual stimuli, improving estimates of optic flow. The control theory is modeled after wide-field neurons (tangential cells) that spatially integrate local optic flow estimates. The outputs of these integrators are applied as feedback signals for direct control of vehicle dynamics. This control paradigm is capable of robust collision avoidance in complex, cluttered environments. We will investigate integration of the two technologies, and develop a roadmap for implementation in a miniature flying platform, including trade studies for implementation technologies, and integration and resource-sharing with other functions, such as bomb damage indication, that are required of the payload in miniature- and micro-unmanned aerial vehicles.

REYNOLDS SYSTEMS, INC.
PO BOX 1229, 18649 HWY 175
MIDDLETOWN, CA 95461
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 928-5244
Mr. Richard Reynolds
AF 06-150      Selected for Award
Title:1.6 Hazard Class Detonator
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR effort will be to investigate the feasibility of significantly reducing the firing energy required to reliably initiate a 1.6 Hazard Class Extremely Insensitive Detonating Substance directly with an Exploding Foil Initiator (EFI). RSI Proposed to do a trade-off study leading to several conceptual EFI designs. These designs will be tested to analyze performance to determine the feasibility and optimum configuration for energy reduction in a 1.6 Hazard Class Detonator. This work is expected to facilitate the benefits that a 1.6 Hazard Class offers to the safety, transportation and storage of in-line explosive munitions. Additionally, several key technology questions will be answered, providing a basis for guidance on future research efforts.

APPLIED COLLOIDS
11080 Industrial Circle NW
Elk River, MN 55330
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 485-1368
Dr. Gary Pozarnsky
AF 06-151      Selected for Award
Title:Wax Substitutes for Melt Castable Explosive Fills.
Abstract:The use of carnauba wax in melt/castable explosives yields a insensitive explosive formulation that enhances overall safety for the use of these munitions in the field. However, carnauba wax is only obtained from overseas sources and there is no domestic source for this material. This leads to shortages of material and higher prices. There exists a need for a wax substitute to replace the carnauba wax binder. Applied Colloids proposes the use of a proprietary gelling agent with jojoba and polyalphaolefin waxes to yield high melting point waxes whose new properties will micmic that of carnauba wax. These wax substitutes are inexpensive and are available domestically. This will yield a superior, inexpensive component for use in insensitive explosives.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. Michael Cushman
AF 06-151      Selected for Award
Title:Natural and Synthetic Alternatives to Carnauba Wax
Abstract:Carnauba wax is a natural product that is used in a variety of applications ranging from food additives to surface protection to explosive matrix. The material comes in several grades and is supplied by a number of companies. Its high melting point and hardness make it useful in many melt-castable explosive compositions. Examples include Composition B, which is an RDX/TNT blend, and the many experimental compositions designed to address the shortcomings of TNT-based melt-castable compositions. While its performance is undoubtedly exceptional, the lack of domestic sources makes it logistically undesirable. In this Phase I SBIR program, Infoscitex Corporation proposes to identify and develop natural and synthetic alternatives to carnauba wax through use of computational methods and experimental evaluation. At least one natural and one synthetic alternative will be recommended for further investigation to the USAF.

QUASONIX, LLC
7313 Overland Park
West Chester, OH 45069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 942-1287
Mr. Terrance J Hill
AF 06-152      Selected for Award
Title:Common Flight Test Module (CFTM)
Abstract:All DoD aircraft, airborne munitions, and weapon systems are subjected to extensive flight testing. This testing requires a core set of instrumentation onboard the test article, including Time-Space Position Information (TSPI), flight termination (FT), and telemetry (TM) functions. At present, each test article employs a combination of unique modules to support these capabilities. The time and expense to develop, flight-qualify, and maintain these unique modules is enormous, so a common module which provided these standard functions for a variety of test articles would result in substantial improvements in efficiency within the flight test community. The goal of the Subminiature Flight Safety System (SFSS) program is just such a common module. Designing a common module to support weapon system flight testing is a conceptually straightforward task. However, the steady progression toward ever-smaller munitions makes the transition from concept to reality risky. The emergence of new paradigms for some capabilities, such as the two-way telemetry links envisioned for the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program, adds further complexity and technical risk. The research proposed here will greatly mitigate the technical, cost, and schedule risks associated with the development of future range safety and telemetry systems such as SFSS.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Red Hill Avenue, Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8772
Mr. Ying Hsu
AF 06-153      Selected for Award
Title:Cooling Systems for Electronics in Confined Spaces
Abstract:Irvine Sensors Corporation is proposing to design, build and demonstrate a thermal management solution for electronics in confined spaces. For this purpose, Irvine Sensors Corporation will investigate two proposed technical solutions and will select the one that is best suitable for the application as described in this solicitation. The increasingly dense design and construction of current and future electronics systems make the problem of removing heat from electronic components and assemblies in confined spaces a common problem to many applications. Irvine Sensors Corporation is proposing to investigate and analyze two novel concepts for addressing the cooling of dense electronics assemblies in the Small Diameter Bomb and other miniaturized munitions. The first of these concepts is a solution tailored to applications similar to the one presented in the solicitation while the second is a more broad solution that can be used in many dense electronics cooling applications.

ATA ENGINEERING, INC.
11995 El Camino Real, Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 480-2030
Mr. Kevin Napolitano
AF 06-162      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Identification of Integrally Bladed Rotor (IBR) Damping
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of methods to accurately determine from spin rig test data the damping associated with individual blades of an integrally bladed rotor (IBR) or blisk. The general approach which will be used here has two key components. The first part involves the development of analytical methods to extract the modal parameters (frequency, damping, and some shape information). The second part involves hypothesis testing which will provide the data to verify that the modes can be extracted independently and verify that damping values can be assigned to each blade. The analytical methods will be based on application of advanced modal parameter extraction methods combined with the use of formal multivariate statistical hypothesis testing techniques. This will allow us to by-pass most of the limitations of using a modal formulation to assess damping behavior. The technology which will be developed here will also be sufficiently robust to be able to measure the required data in operational environments that are typical of a turbine engine, particularly military jet turbines.

BLADE DIAGNOSTICS CORP.
6688 Kinsman Road
Pittsburgh, PA 15217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 901-3467
Dr. Drew M. Feiner
AF 06-162      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Identification of Integrally Bladed Rotor (IBR) Damping
Abstract:Due to funding and scheduling limitations, current testing for different IBR damping techniques and treatments has been forced to be accomplished simultaneously on a single IBR. Just like IBRs in service, the rotors are mistuned and the modal response is highly coupled. Mistuning refers to the fact that slight manufacturing differences cause each blade to have a different natural frequency - they are mistuned. Even very small amounts of mistuning can cause some blades to vibrate much more than others. Practically, every IBR is mistuned and even small amounts of mistuning can affect the frequency response of the IBR in a way that is currently indistinguishable from damping variations. Furthermore, different damping treatments change the frequencies of the blades as well as their damping. As a result, there are currently no accurate, reliable methods for extracting the individual damping contributions of each blade from the vibratory response of an IBR. The purpose of the work proposed here is to develop such methods.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Bauke Heeg
AF 06-163      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Lifing Technology using In-Situ Luminescence Imaging of Embedded Thermographic Phosphors
Abstract:Since the remnant life of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) structure depends critically on the temperature history at the TBC/bondcoat interface, the development of viable lifing prognostics requires instrumentation to obtain accurate interface temperature data as input to life models. Such data is preferably obtained in real time and with sufficient spatial resolution to identify hot-spots. New advances in embedding thermographic phosphors within the very crystal structure of real TBC materials, and at sufficiently dilute concentrations not to affect the TBC microstructure, provide an opportunity for the first time to monitor temperature at the interface, in real-time, under realistic engine operation conditions. In this proposal we outline a plan to address TBC lifing in terms of a crucial combination of materials development, optical sensor instrumentation and life modeling. The materials science is being pioneered at the University of California Santa Barbara, which forms the basis of this proposal. During Phase I we will determine the feasible instrument requirements for interface temperature imaging, test a suitable lifing model, demonstrate the measurement concept and design a prototype to be developed during Phase II and tested in a thermal gradient burner rig.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. Andrei B. Vakhtin
AF 06-163      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Optical Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) Lifing Technology
Abstract:Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) are widely used in aircraft engines to protect metal components from high operating temperatures in order to improve the durability and engine efficiency. Since coating spallation can lead to premature component failure, it is highly desirable to have a non-destructive inspection (NDI) technique to detect early damage of TBC and assess the remaining life. Southwest Sciences in collaboration with the University of Connecticut proposes an innovative approach that utilizes a combination of optical methods as a means of NDI of TBC's. The measured characteristics will be used as input parameters for the TBC life predicting theory, providing the TBC remaining life assessment. The Phase I effort will provide experimental evidence of the feasibility of this approach and outline the design of the Phase II prototype instrument.

FUNCTIONAL COATING TECHNOLOGY, LLC.
1801 Maple Ave. suite 5320
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 467-5376
Dr. Ilwon Kim
AF 06-164      Awarded: 31MAR06
Title:Development of Hydrocarbon-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)
Abstract:We have recently demonstrated that high power densities can be achieved for SOFC using liquid hydrocarbon fuels via direct internal reforming. This approach can provide solutions for the highly power-dense applications required by Air Force (e.g. auxiliary power units for aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles) and many portable and transportation applications in commercial sector. Because the stack power densities are high, the system can be compact and light-weight. Since there is no external reformer or water tank required (reforming is done with H2O-CO2 recycled from the exhaust), fuel efficiency is potentially higher than other designs, reducing the fuel pay load. In addition, fast system start-up can be accomplished in part using partial oxidation reforming for heating the stack. Addition of a novel catalyst to a conventional SOFC allowed stable operations with liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This approach has an advantage that the catalyst can be "tuned" to work with various fuels. The proposed Phase I SBIR project is to demonstrate a stable, high power density operation of this catalyst-assisted SOFC using JP-8 surrogate fuel. The proposed work will include modifications /improvements to the current catalyst, as well as tests of both single cells and multi-cell array. Detailed modelling and experimental measurements will be combined to better understand the interplay between mass transport, charge transport, catalytic reactions, and electrochemical reactions in complex multi-layer anode/catalyst structures.

LAMBDA INSTRUMENTS
840 University City Blvd, Suite 4
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1796
Mr. Jon Greene
AF 06-165      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Self-Powered MEMS Sensors for Advanced Turbine Disk/Blade PHM Systems
Abstract:Previous instrumentation for real-time aircraft turbine blade/disk PHM includes non-intrusive optical, eddy current, and capacitive-based probes as well as blade-mounted transducers for direct measurement of blade condition. Noncontact optical probes have demonstrated higher accuracy than competing eddy current and capacitive-based probes, but are prone to contamination from debris. Fueled by the overwhelming need for NDE sensors for an advanced turbine blade PHM system, Lambda Instruments, Inc.proposes to investigate the feasibility of using self-powered MEMS sensors directly attached to turbine blades for real-time monitoring of blade vibration, temperature, and strain. The salient features of the proposed MEMS sensors include 1) extremely low power, opening the possibility of self-powering using energy harvesting techniques, 2) high sensitivity and resolution using optical interferometry, 3) low-profile geometry allowing sensors to be installed between blade/disk surface and thermal barrier coating (TBC), 4) no slip rings - sensor output will be wirelessly transmitted to remote PHM system computer, and 5) the proposed sapphire optical fiber-based MEMS sensors can operate up to 3600 F, the melting point of single-crystal sapphire.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-6273
Mr. Carl S. Byington, P.E.
AF 06-166      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Very High Frequency Vibration Monitoring System for Accessory Health Management
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with the major propulsion engine manufacturers (OEMs) propose to develop and demonstrate a unique very high frequency vibration monitoring system that integrates various vibro-acoustic data with intelligent feature extraction and fault isolation algorithms to effectively assess engine accessory component health. The system will be capable of reporting on the early detection and progression of faults by utilizing the optical and acoustic frequency measurements for improved, incipient anomaly detection. The gas turbine engine vibration monitoring technologies proposed herein will address the existing O&M goals for current USAF engines, as well as those set forth by the USAF's VAATE Intelligent Engines initiative, and F-35 prognostics and health management programs. These system features will be integrated in a state-of-the-art vibration monitoring system that will not only identify faults more confidently and at an earlier stage, but also enabling the prediction of the time to failure or a degraded condition worthy of maintenance action.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
AF 06-167      Awarded: 20APR06
Title:Application of Silicon Carbide Photodiode Flame Temperature Sensors in an Active Combustion Pattern Factor Control System
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with General Electric's Global Research Center, propose an intelligent pattern factor control concept that will utilize an innovative Silicon Carbide photodiode-based UV Flame Temperature Sensor (FTS) in an adaptive/learning controller that can compensate for degradations/errors in the combustion system. The core developments will be based on the integration of the first-time use of the FTS in an engine application, coupled with a learning neural network control algorithm that can accommodate for errors in the combustion monitoring process. This innovative engine control concept consists of the following key elements: 1) Learning Neural Network using Model Inversion Compensation control system - takes into account errors in the combustion balancing and actuation model; 2) Signal health estimation - if the sensors are unreliable or not giving consistent information as a group, then the system takes this into account; and 3) Nozzle health estimation and accommodation - if the combustion hardware is unhealthy (e.g. nozzle coking), the adaptive controller will alter system behavior accordingly. The Phase I concept will be demonstrated within a dSPACE hardware-in-the-loop simulation that can simulate real-time behavior of relevant combustor pattern faults.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Jamine Lee
AF 06-167      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Pattern Factor Control Based on Fuel Modulation and Passive Optical Sensors
Abstract:The proposed research addresses the design and testing of a flight-worthy combustion pattern factor control system, suitable for integration into legacy aircraft. Operating point control would be achieved using fuel modulation, passive optical sensors, and the FADEC to identify aberrant fuel injectors and trim fuel flow to reduce overall pattern factor. Miniature sensors, which would be integrated into existing engine components, would collect radiation emitted by the hot gas and process multiple-spectral bands to produce a moderate frequency (order 100 HZ), intensity-independent control signal. Multiple sensors, distributed around the annulus would provide redundant, overlapping information on local and global combustion properties. Logic in the FADEC would identify an association between a specific fuel injector and increased temperature pattern factor, and modify the fuel flow accordingly. In Phase I we will perform a detailed engineering evaluation of the spectral, spatial, and temporal information available for sensor operation, and identify and rank candidate sensor and control schemes. In Phase II, we will use a flexible prototype to make measurements of the functional relationships between fuel modulation, pattern factor, and sensor signals in a multi-injector high-pressure combustor. Control relationship(s) will be demonstrated in open loop tests.

PLASMA TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1754 Crenshaw blvd.
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3373
Dr. Satish Dixit
AF 06-168      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:TBC process condition monitoring in a production environment
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I objective is to implement sensors in a production environment to optimize the thermal spray TBC coating process. The principle goal of this SBIR partnership between a small business such as Plasma Technology Inc. and Center for Thermal Spray Research at Stony Brook University is to bring to bear the integrated strategy in plasma spraying under development at Stony Brook Industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology for enhancing reliability and reproducibility of thermal barrier coatings as applied to Air Force engines. To this end, we will strategically investigate and demonstrate particle state sensing/analysis and in-situ coating property sensing/analysis for fabrication of reliable TBCs.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. John W. Steinbeck
AF 06-169      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Fiber Optic CMC Health Monitoring System
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a fiber optic ceramic matrix composite health monitoring system that can provide real-time diagnostics and system health prognoses for operating engine and other high temperature systems. Passive fiber optic sensors collect thermal radiation that is amplified using an innovative optical fiber laser amplifier to diagnose composite defects. The fiber laser amplifier enables sensors to be polled serially to minimize overall system topology and minimize the cost and expertise required to interface the system to onboard avionics. This Phase I SBIR will develop and demonstrate a fiber optic ceramic matrix composite health monitoring system that 1) Operates at gas turbine exhaust temperatures (800 to 2400 deg F). 2) Detects surface erosion and delaminations within ceramic matrix composite materials at operating temperature. 3) Can be used to develop a prognosis for component maintenance. We will design and fabricate a fiber optic health monitoring demonstrator for high temperature ceramic matrix composites. We will also demonstrate that passive fiber optic sensors can detect material defects that could threaten system health and that a fiber optic health monitoring system can be designed for critical components in advanced aeronautical systems like the Joint Strike Fighter.

AMBIENT MICRO
Maui Research & Technology Center, 590 Lipoa Parkw
Kihei, HI 96753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(866) 561-4823
Mr. Scott A. Weeker
AF 06-170      Awarded: 12APR06
Title:Ambient Power Supply for On-Board Vehicle Health Monitoring MEMS Sensors
Abstract:To support its use of MEMS sensors for vehicle health monitoring, the Air Force seeks to couple the harvesting of ambient energy sources with a micro energy storage device. Microbatteries have demonstrated their viability as a high density power source, but their short operating life limits their usefulness. To extend the operating life of microbatteries, ambient energy sources can be used to continuously recharge the microbattery. However, to operationally support the use of microbatteries for MEMS sensors, it is necessary to increase the reliability of ambient energy collection and to develop an efficient approach to controlling the continuous recharging of the microbattery. Ambient Micro proposes an Ambient Micro Power Supply (AMPS) that couples multiple ambient energy sources with an ASIC that combines a power integrator and constant voltage charge controller with a microbattery. Ambient Micro is currently developing a Multi-Source Ambient Power Supply funded by the Office of Naval Research. We propose to leverage this work to accelerate the development of the ASIC by completing a working prototype during Phase 1. Ambient Micro will seek "fast track" matching funds in Phase 2 to expedite the design and fabrication of the micro power supply ASIC.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-6273
Mr. Carl S. Byington, P.E.
AF 06-171      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Automated Health Management for Gas Turbine Engine Accessory Components
Abstract:Impact Technologies, LLC proposes to develop embeddable software modules for autonomous health management of gas turbine engine accessory components, including actuators, valves, pumps, APUs, and other auxiliary components. As part of the proposed approach, customized physical models will be generated to determine changes in component health using only control command/response data. This proven model-based approach will be fused with innovate signal processing and classification techniques, again operating on control data, to provide a confident assessment of component health. Remaining useful life predictions will also be generated (if sufficient trending data is available) using a suite of trending algorithms and novel tracking methods. This effort will build upon ongoing development of similar technologies for flight control actuators/valves and aircraft generators, as well as previous development of health management for aircraft pumps. As part of this program, available historical data will be evaluated to 1) customize the existing suite of algorithms and models that have been developed for similar systems and 2) identify precursors to impending failures that can be used to increase detection horizon and prediction capability. The proposed algorithms/models will be developed with considerations to a number of implementations, including on-component (embedded within the component, possibly displayed through an LED indicator), on-engine (embedded with the engine controller or similar processing unit), and at-wing (as part of an at-wing automated test equipment package), in order to maximize commercialization and transition potential. False alarm mitigation techniques, such as sensor validation and feature separability analysis, will also be implemented to ensure system reliability. Although the effort will strive to utilize only existing engine sensors, a distributed system of low-overhead (low-cost, low-weight, low-power) sensors will be implemented if the existing suite does not provide sufficient fault coverage.

SENTIENT CORP.
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls, ID 83401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 522-8560
Mr. Sean Marble
AF 06-171      Awarded: 12APR06
Title:Health Management for Gas Turbine Engine Accessory Components
Abstract:A great deal of effort has been put into health management of turbine engine turbomachinery components, such as bearings, disks and blades, while engine externals have received less research attention. Accessories on gas turbine engines include electrical, hydraulic, lubrication, and fuel subsystems. While not as critical, faults in these engine externals are much more common and are increasing maintenance costs. Sentient Corporation, in collaboration with GE Aircraft Engines, will implement a diagnostic scheme for engine accessories based on physics-based models of the accessory's operation. Phase I will include a demonstration of the technology on an axial piston variable displacement pump, a common element of several engine accessory subsystems. Both nominal and faulted data will be collected on the test stand and used to validate the physics-based model for the nominal case and test the diagnostic routine in the faulted case.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Ray Fuller
AF 06-172      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Probabilistic Methodology for Establishing Test Requirements in a Gas-Turbine System Development and Demonstration (SDD) Program
Abstract:The most prohibitive factor in the development of a new gas turbine engine is the cost of testing. Substantial reductions in development test costs are possible if test requirements are optimized using probabilistic methodologies. CFDRC will demonstrate a probabilistic methodology, which quantifies the modeling bias and the uncertainties associated with combustor-turbine numerical simulations. This will be accomplished through a probabilistic design analysis process that characterizes the system variance and supports the construction of a transfer function capable of describing system response. Using this approach CFDRC will establish the extent to which actual physical hardware testing can be reduced given a certain accuracy level of engineering modeling tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The methodology will be applied to define the necessary test requirements for a desired combustor-turbine performance - i.e., meet or surpass operational and lifetime specifications. Phase I will demonstrate that a reduction in system variance translates into a significant cost reduction in actual development testing. Williams has committed to supplying CFDRC critical development experience at no cost during Phase I to assist in quantifying the payoff of probabilistic methodology based on test requirements. In Phase II, this methodology will be incorporated into a software package that can be integrated into a virtual engine test cell.

MAXPOWER, INC.
141 Christopher Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 256-4575
Dr. David Chua
AF 06-173      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Exploration of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Battery for Space Application
Abstract:Due to their light weight, high energy and high capacity, Li-ion batteries offer significant advantages for applications in space. To employ Li-ion batteries for use in space, high cycle and calendar life must be demonstrated, and this is the major objective of the present Phase I proposal. In this Phase I program, the objective to demonstrate that new Li-ion technology developed by MaxPower will meet Air Force and NASA requirements for LEO and GEO applications. Fundamental questions pertaining to the stability of materials and degradation reactions will be addressed. Overdischarge and overcharge are two mechanisms which can lead to significant degradation in energy and capacity retention, and solution of this potential problem is a major area to be addressed in the Phase program.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-4264
Mr. Dennis F. Grosjean
AF 06-174      Awarded: 25APR06
Title:Arc Fault Protection for Direct Current Power Circuits in Aircraft
Abstract:An effort to apply modern signal-processing techniques to the detection of arcs on a direct-current (DC) power line in an air vehicle is proposed. The Phase-I effort will concentrate on demonstrating the feasibility of a simple, inexpensive technique for detecting both series and parallel arcs in DC power lines that operate at pressures corresponding to a range of flight altitude between sea level and 100,000 ft (760 - 5 Torr pressures). This effort will also identify applications that are not being addressed by present arc-fault-circuit-breaker technologies. A Phase-II effort will include incorporation of the technique into operational hardware.

KINETIC BEI, LLC
2197 Brookwood Dr.
South Elgin, IL 60177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 837-8975
Mr. Jack Jerovsek
AF 06-174      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Power and Aeropropulsion: Meyer Nutating Disk Engine
Abstract:The Meyer Nutating Engine is a new engine technology with significant advantages and multiple potential military and commercial applications. While some development work has been accomplished, including proof of principal, more research is required to advance the technology to a point where it will become a viable option for military and commercial applications. With this new engine concept, three critical areas of research and development are required. These include: mechanical engine design, seal design, combustion analysis/engine modeling, and testing. To date, the mechanical engine design efforts have been completed, the seals have been designed and an 80 kW prototype exists. The purpose of this SBIR Phase I contract would be to fully explore and evaluate combustion analysis in this very unique engine and to validate engine modeling/ combustion analysis predictions through additional testing utilizing existing engine hardware. Looking toward a Phase II SBIR, the objective would be to build a second prototype engine in the <20 Hp range to fit specific Air Force UAV applications.

LOS GATOS RESEARCH
67 East Evelyn Ave., Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-7772
Dr. Manish Gupta
AF 06-174      Awarded: 30MAR06
Title:Ultrasensitive Diagnostics for Hypersonic Propulsion Systems
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop an ultrasensitive, multiplexed gas analyzer to simultaneously measure several key combustion species from the turbulent flow field of a air-breathing, hypersonic propulsion system. This analyzer, which is based on LGR's proprietary Off-Axis ICOS technology, will provide highly accurate, real-time quantification of several combustion products and fuel constituents at numerous locations, enabling the validation and refinement of numerical kinetic models and eventual development of next-generation propulsion systems. In Phase I, the instrument will be fabricated and tested at LGR prior to integration onto a ground-based test engine at a DoD facility. The system will then be refined and delivered to a DoD Propulsions Directorate test site. Final Phase I work will involve developing a Phase II prototype capable of making both extractive and in situ measurements on a variety of engine systems.

OPTOMEC DESIGN CO.
3911 Singer NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 641-2852
Dr. Marcus Johnson
AF 06-174      Awarded: 31MAR06
Title:Advanced Manufacturing Techniques for High-Efficiency Functional Gradient Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Abstract:The use of functionally-graded materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can improve performance and reliability of the devices. However, cost effective and dependable manufacturing methods to achieve these functionally graded materials have been hard to come by. Optomec's M3D technology is ideal for this application as materials can be perfectly mixed in an aerosol form before being deposited to form a homogeneous layer. By adjusting flow rates to the individual atomizer units, composition can be very accurately controlled. In addition, M3D provides excellent spatial control mechanisms for material deposition; these can be utilized to introduce synthetic porosity thereby improving transport of gasses to and from the electrolyte region.

TK ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
55 Merchant Street, Suite 220
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 552-5027
Mr. Bob Harris
AF 06-174      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:UAV Propulsion Versatile Common Core --Turbine
Abstract:TK Engineering will propose a Phase I program for a Advanced Material High Pressure Turbine. The Turbine will be used in TK's Versatile Common Core (VCC) Dual Mode Engine. The primary application for the Turbine/Core/Engine is the UAV market.

FUTURE TEK USA CORP.
454 Patterson Rd.
Dayton, OH 45419
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 229-5533
Ms. Yuhui Shen
AF 06-175      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Improving Coating Technologies for Synthesis of Interface-Exchange-Coupled Permanent Magnets
Abstract:The critical technical issue in synthesizing bulk anisotropic interface-exchange-coupled magnets with magnetic performance superior to conventional magnets is to create a composite magnet microstructure in which a highly dispersed nanometer-sized magnetically soft phase, such as -Fe-or Fe-Co, is uniformly distributed in a nanograin magnetically hard phase, such as Nd-Fe-B or Sm-Co. Previously, sputtering, pulse laser deposition, electroless coating, and electrolyte coating were used to coat Nd-Fe-B or Sm-Co particles with thin -Fe-or Fe-Co layers followed by rapid inductive hot compaction and hot deformation. Bulk interface-exchange-coupled magnets synthesize using these technologies can have (BH)max = 45 - 55 MGOe. In order to accomplish better magnetic performance with (BH)max ≥ 60 MGOe, technical problems associated with the above-mentioned powder coating technologies, such as low deposition rate, high processing cost, and high oxygen pickup, must be solved. In this proposed SBIR Phase I research project, innovative powder coating technologies will be studied and developed and their feasibility in crating the desired microstructure and in synthesizing high performance interface-exchange-coupled nanograin magnets will be demonstrated. The advantage of these technologies include high deposition rate, low processing cost, and low oxygen pickup.

NGIMAT CO.
5315 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 287-3959
Dr. Michael Sigman
AF 06-175      Awarded: 31MAR06
Title:Nanoparticle Synthesis and Coating for Exchange Coupled Permanent Magnets
Abstract:The formation of exchange coupled permanent magnets consisting of nanometer sized hard magnetic grains enveloped in a soft magnetic matrix has been demonstrated experimentally to increase the energy product of advanced magnetic materials. Additional gains are still predicted, but improved control of the nanostructure must be achieved through a route that is both performance and cost effective. nGimat Co. proposes to utilize their proprietary NanoSpraySM and CCVC processing techniques to produce nanopowders suitable for sintering into dense, nanostructured exchange coupled magnets. Initially, both hard magnetic and soft magnetic nanopowders will be demonstrated individually. The two powders will then be blended as a liquid dispersion or in dry powder form via ball milling for subsequent pressing and sintering into consolidated pellets. Following successful production of the individual powders, core-shell nanopowders will be developed consisting of a hard magnetic core coated with a soft magnetic phase using a dynamic heterogeneous nucleation deposition technique. Core-shell nanocrystals are expected to improve dispersion and contact between the two phases following sintering. Successful completion of Phase I objectives will lead to a Phase II effort to complete the development and commercialization of the proposed nanomaterials for annealing/sintering into high energy density exchange coupled permanent magnets.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 743-1110
Dr. Douglas J. Bamford
AF 06-176      Awarded: 04APR06
Title:Combustion Database for Kerosene Fuels
Abstract:The Air Force needs a better understanding of liquid fuel combustion to develop hypersonic aircraft which can rapidly deliver militarily important payloads to distant places. The Air Force also requires the development of multiple fuels to lower the risk associated with a supply interruption for any particular fuel. To facilitate these missions, detailed experimental studies of liquid fuel combustion are needed. Our innovation is to combine recently-developed, widely-tunable mid-IR laser sources with shock tube facilities at Stanford University having enhanced capabilities (longer test times and amenability to liquid injection) to develop a data base of combustion properties (including ignition times and species concentrations) over a wide range of conditions relevant to the combustion of candidate jet fuels. The Phase I program will prove the feasibility of this approach by demonstrating a shock tube with longer test times and using it to measure species concentrations and ignition times under conditions relevant to Air Force applications. A detailed measurement campaign, designed to produce a data base for researchers in the field, will then be conducted in Phase II.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. David Black
AF 06-177      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:Combined Linear/Nonlinear Reduced-Order Analysis Tool for Predicting Dynamic and Static Instabilities in Gas Turbine Augmentors
Abstract:Combustion stability is an important concern in the design and operation of advanced gas turbine augmentors. Engineering design tools are needed that predict potential instabilities in a timely and affordable manner. In this SBIR, a novel, physics-based, reduced-order analysis tool that predicts both dynamic and static stability will be developed and validated. Two types of analysis will be performed: 1) a 3-D linear stability analysis to predict the unstable modes (all types) and 2) a nonlinear analysis to determine limit cycle behavior at a specified frequency. Heat release effects with vitiated air (core flow) and unvitiated air (fan flow) will be predicted by a linear and nonlinear flame response model using detailed kinetics. Other important processes, such as non-uniform mean flows, liquid fuel injection, cooling air, and fuel/air mixing will be included. CFDRC will team up with Georgia Tech (Professor Tim Lieuwen) for the flame response model (in Phase I) and experimental testing (in Phase II). In Phase I, a 3-D linear stability analysis tool will be developed and a simplified augmentor geometry analyzed to demonstrate feasibility. In Phase II, non-linear stability analysis will be implemented and tested. Extensive model improvements and validation will be performed. At the end of Phase II, a GE augmentor system will be analyzed and compared to data.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Darin A. Knaus
AF 06-177      Awarded: 06APR06
Title:Reactor Network Modeling of Augmentors
Abstract:Augmentor stability is critical to the operational performance of numerous military systems. Current predictive tools for augmentor performance and stability are based on decades-old empirical correlations that do not provide reliable estimates for advanced augmentor designs. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and advanced combustion diagnostics have provided new insight into the fundamental processes that occur in these flows. Reacting-flow CFD has yet to mature to a level where it can be practically applied as a design tool for this problem, primarily due to computational cost. In this project, we will develop reduced-order models for augmentor stability and performance. Our low-order modeling approach involves a reactor-network type model using Partially Stirred Reactors (PaSR), which can be used to directly model turbulence-chemistry interactions. In its limits, the PaSR behaves like a conventional reactor, the Well-Stirred Reactor(WSR), or Plug-Flow Reactor (PFR). We will use a CFD calculation of the non-reacting flow to predict combustion parameters such as Damkhler number, and use this information to set model parameters within the domain. Experimental data and fully coupled reacting flow CFD results will be used to support the low-order model development and validation.

AMERICAN SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
888 West Big Beaver Road, Suite #420
Troy, MI 48084
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 362-4100
Mr. Michael Scherrer
AF 06-178      Awarded: 19APR06
Title:A Time to Failure Model for Switch-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) in More-Electric Aircraft
Abstract:With the increased adoption of electrical actuators, pumps and valves in more-electric aircraft, the failure of an SMPS has a greater impact on overall aircraft safety. As power and operating temperature requirements are increasing, conventional prognostic techniques, which rely upon measurement of accessible parameters, have not been adequate to provide an accurate SMPS time-to-failure (TTF) prediction. In the absence of reliable predictive prognostics, redundancy is the only solution to reliability and safety. The additional space, weight and cost requirements for this redundancy make more-electric UAVs and lighter aircraft designs impractical. American Systems Technology, Inc. (ASTI) proposes to develop a prognostic algorithm that will provide more accurate time-to failure predictions for SMPS components. In addition to conventional threshold, leakage, and conductance parameters, ASTI proposes to utilize Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and other techniques that have potential to predict catastrophic failure well in advance. TDR techniques hold promise in the determination of aging information when components have failure modes that are not recognizable using conventional techniques. Our research approach will be useful for future Prognostic Health Management (PHM) and electronics subsystem design tools which should enable greater design resiliency and minimal redundancy for high temperature SMPS applications.

SATCON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
27 Drydock Avenue
Boston, MA 02210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 897-2435
Dr. Leo Casey
AF 06-178      Awarded: 13APR06
Title:Predictive Controller for Power Supply Prognostication
Abstract:SatCon will demonstrate the feasibility of prognostic control techniques for switching power converters utilizing emerging Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices, while using predictive modeling to avoid excessive sensing requirements in the prognostics. Silicon Carbide is an emerging technology, that promises dramatic enhancements in size, weight, and reliability of power converters, and therefore significant work is required to accurately model the aging and wear out mechanisms. The significant benefits of SiC technology, and the increased confidence level in critical survivability of the converter, for manned and unmanned airborne applications, motivates this work. The prognostic control techniques will accelerate adoption and application of this and other new semiconductor technologies, by addressing concerns with the new devices and unknown failure mechanisms. Prognostic techniques focus on detection or prediction of developing failure mechanisms, invariably requiring extensive sensing to form an effective signature of the power converter and its operating environment. Changes in the signature indicate changes or trends system. This type of prognostic system is quite successful but can require excessive use of sensors, which can compromise the overall reliability of the system and increase both cost and complexity. Predictive modeling based on accurate component and system models can greatly reduce the sensing requirements.

NOVACOMP, INC.
2537-B Wyandotte Road
Willow Grove, PA 19090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 219-0668
Mr. James Kaufmann
AF 06-179      Awarded: 12APR06
Title:Manufacture Sensitive Analysis of Three Dimensional Ceramic Matrix Composites
Abstract:A primary obstacle to the wide-spread adoption of advanced textile reinforced ceramic matrix composites is the understanding of the effects of fiber architecture on the performance of the part. This proposal will develop an analytical model capable of understanding the effects of weaving on the properties of the composite material. Unlike other methodologies, the proposed model accounts for variations in weave structure at different points of the composite. This model is based on the actual weaving loom instruction set to ensure that the developed geometric model correctly matches the formed fabric. The model will be validated using experimental results obtained for a SiC/SiC C-channel through our partnership with Pratt & Whitney and B. F. Goodrich.

AEROVIRONMENT, INC.
181 W. Huntington Drive, Suite 202
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 357-9983
Mr. Omourtag Velev
AF 06-180      Awarded: 03APR06
Title:Long Endurance Fuel Cell System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:For operational and logistic reasons, the warfighter requires longer flight duration hand-launched, Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). PUMA, a 9-ft wingspan SUAV, designed and manufactured by AeroVironment (AV), has a flight duration of four hours on primary batteries, while Dragon Eye, another AV SUAV, with a 4-ft wingspan, has a flight duration of one hour on secondary batteries. Single use primary batteries are extremely expensive on a life-cycle basis, while, unfortunately, rechargeable ones aren't always used to their full potential. A viable alternative to batteries, that could provide higher gravimetric and volumetric energy density, and lower life cycle cost, is hydrogen fuel cells where a chemical hydride combines with water to generate the required hydrogen fuel on an as-needed basis. Our Phase I effort will investigate the feasibility of developing a high specific energy (>800 Wh/kg), integrated fuel cell/battery hybrid energy storage system with a chemical hydride as a source of the hydrogen fuel. We will conduct our design efforts specifically for an Air Force SUAV, such as the Raven or PUMA, but will keep other potential SUAVs in mind. AV, DOD's largest supplier of SUAVs, will work with an advanced developer of lightweight, compact fuel cell systems.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Jeremy Steinshnider
AF 06-180      Awarded: 30MAR06
Title:High-efficiency Power Supply for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAVs, are becoming increasingly important for the military and commercial sectors. They allow the user to access areas that are high risk or where manned aircraft is costly. Small UAVs used for surveillance of battlespace, must have a short response time and be capable of long duration flights while providing the necessary data to aid military personnel. For accurate response the UAV must provide still and video images and location while being portable and simple to operate. This calls for a properly equipped UAV with a power supply that exhibits high mass and volumetric energy densities. A FlatstackT fuel cell / battery hybrid power supply that is integrated into the wing structure along with a chemical hydride energy storage systems offers the highest energy density option. This system will allow a small UAV to fly long duration missions, >12 hours, before refueling. Current battery technology is only capable of 2 hours of flight time and must be recharged. Developing this novel hybrid power system for small UAVs will provide a critical tool with which airmen can maintain battlespace awareness and ensure force protection.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng C. Tan
AF 06-187      Awarded: 07APR06
Title:Hybrid Composite Foam-Filled Engine Fan Blades
Abstract:Most of the current fan blades of aircraft engines are manufactured from Titanium. In the last decade, high-bypass turbofan engines become very popular for subsonic aircraft because of their high thrust-to-weight ratios and efficient fuel consumption among the existing aircraft engines [1]. Since the dimensions of fan blades are much larger than other components of an engine the weight and cost of an engine are strongly dependent on the fan blades. Recent research in aircraft engines has geared toward the reduction of the weight of the fan blade. A numerous of research have indicated that composite fan blades have the potential to reduce the weight (27-30%) and life cycle costs of advanced turbofan engines. Impact tests, however, revealed that composite fan blades are weak in bird striking and foreign object impact, especially around the leading edge area. Additional research is, therefore, needed to overcome this issue before composite fan blades can be used for engine applications. In this SBIR Phase I project we propose to develop a hybrid composite engine fan blade based on a low-cost net-shape fabrication technique. It will possess excellent impact resistant and flexural properties with the same or lighter than its hollow fan blade counterpart. Preliminary research results are very encouraging. The proposed research will result in a new family of lighter engine fan blades with better overall performance.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 904-4007
Dr. Terrence R. Meyer
AF 06-188      Awarded: 30MAR06
Title:Chemical and Physical Enhancement of Ignition and Combustion of Alternative Scramjet Fuels
Abstract:The overall technical objectives of this Phase I proposal are to establish shock-tube and continuous-flow experimental methodologies for evaluating alternative fuels relevant to hypersonic propulsion, and to perform feasibility studies of fuel blends, additives, and other means of generating radicals for chemical and physical enhancement of ignition and combustion. Specifically, the technical objectives for the shock tube and continuous flow experiments will involve developing precise control of pressure, temperature, molecular fuel species concentration of fuel blends, time-resolved assessment of the overall and chemical ignition delay from optical diagnostic methods (OH* emission and diode-laser absorption), and preliminary comparisons of alternative fuel blends, additives, and other ignition enhancement strategies.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2350
Dr. David Wickham
AF 06-188      Awarded: 30MAR06
Title:Thermally-Stable Catalysts for Methane Reforming to Improve Combustion and Increase Heat Sink Capacity
Abstract:Liquefied methane is a promising fuel for space launch vehicles because it has a high specific impulse, excellent cooling capacity, and is very resistant to coking and soot formation. Unfortunately, it is also a very stable molecule and therefore ignition delay times can exceed combustor residence times. Therefore, in order to utilize methane effectively, combustors must be larger, increasing the drag and weight of the vehicle. In addition, due to the extreme heat loads expected, improving the fuel's heat sink capacity is also a critical need. Reforming a small percentage of the methane fuel flow with an equal molar ratio of water will produce high concentrations of hydrogen and substantial increases in heat sink capacity. Unfortunately temperatures required to obtain hydrogen are higher than those in which typical reforming catalysts can remain active. However, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed a method to prepare thermally stable catalysts that can withstand the temperatures that are required in this application. Thus, in this project we will prepare a series of catalysts substituted with metals that are known to be active for steam reforming, characterize their activity for methane reforming, and perform an initial system study that evaluates the effects of methane reforming for high speed vehicles.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
626 Whitney Street
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Mr. Jason Wright
AF 06-189      Awarded: 03APR06
Title:Electrical Contacts and Packaging for Diamond and Diamondlike High-Power Devices
Abstract:The purpose of this Phase-I SBIR is to demonstrate the feasibility of using filtered cathodic arc deposition (FCAD) to fabricate improved metal multilayer Ohmic and Schottky contacts to CVD diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond substrates will be acquired, on which eight Ohmic and two Schottky contact metal multilayer architectures will be fabricated using FCAD. Linear transmission line model (LTLM) and van der Pauw test structures will be photolithographically patterned on Ohmic contacts using standard semiconductor lift off or etch back procedures. These test structures will be used to measure the specific contact resistivity and sheet resistance of Ohmic contacts. The microstructural evolution due to interdiffusion processes, solid-state reactions, and oxidation will be characterized by successive Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and LTLM electrical measurements during thermal aging at 250C in air for 750 hours. Horizontal Schottky barrier diode (SBD) test structures will be fabricated using FCAD and photolithography, incorporating the best performing Ohmic contact. Current-voltage curves will be measured as a function of temperature, to 250C, to evaluate the performance of rectifying contacts.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., NW 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Mr. Matthew E. Thomas
AF 06-192      Awarded: 17APR06
Title:Air-Turbo-Rocket Propulsion for Small Launch Vehicle Operations
Abstract:As a result of its maximum air-breathing specific thrust and Isp, inherent fly-back capability and propellant commonality with upper stage boosters, the ATR is the optimal air breathing first stage booster to support minimized recurring launch costs. During Phase I CFDRC will examine the benefits of using two variations of the Air-Turbo-Rocket (ATR), a Solid Propellant Air-Turbo-Rocket (SPATR) and a Bi-propellant Air-Turbo-Rocket (BATR), as the first stage propulsion of multiple low cost and responsive small launch vehicles. Multiple bi-propellant combinations will be studied during Phase I including LOX/CH4, LOX/RP1, gelled MMH/IRFNA and others of interest to the Air Force. Prime contractors Lockheed Martin and Orbital Sciences have also expressed formal interest in the ATR for selected FALCON derivative concepts. CFDRC will conceptually integrate promising ATR configurations into ongoing CAV/SLV related development activities. During Phase II the first ever comprehensive demonstration of a BATR engine will be executed. Demonstration of an optimally configured BATR engine during a single SBIR effort is only achievable by leveraging our existing 6-inch SPATR demonstrator engine configuration currently under consideration in tactical missile applications. The proposed engine demonstration will verify the capability of a BATR to deliver over 200 lbf-s/lbm specific thrust with an Isp of 800-900 seconds throughout a first stage launch and powered fly-back operation. CFDRC will integrate this demonstration activity into innovative small launch vehicle concepts under consideration by FALCON contractors Lockheed Martin and Orbital Sciences.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
300 E. Swedesford Road
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-9000
Ms. Tiffany Boarts
AF 06-193      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Novel High Strength C-C Nozzle Material for Advanced Rocket Propulsion
Abstract:MR&D proposes to develop and demonstrate lower cost versions of high temperature composites with suitable temperature ranges, which are capable of surviving the high temperature exposures of hypersonic flight while retaining sufficient strength for their specific applications. Low cost materials for various temperature regimes and therefore for various missile parts will be fabricated within the Phase I effort. A total of four different materials, each with different but associated processing conditions, will be processed. Four different flight time-temperature regimes and corresponding tactical missile part applications will evolve from the successful fabrication effort. Material properties of these materials, at both room and elevated temperature, will be measured. These properties will be used in mathematical models of candidate missile component applications, including fuselage sections and the leading edges of missile fins. Design analyses will be performed to determine expected temperature distributions, thermal and mechanical stress states. Stress margins of safety (MOS) will be calculated and compared with measured material strengths to determine viability of the lower cost alternative materials in these tactical missile applications.

SOFTWARE & ENGINEERING ASSOC., INC.
1802 N. Carson Street, Suite 200
Carson City, NV 89701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 882-1966
Dr. Jonathan C. French
AF 06-193      Awarded: 01MAY06
Title:Advanced Rocket Propulsion Technologies
Abstract:A modeling and experimental program is proposed with the goal of reducing the mean size of metal oxide droplets in the exhaust of solid propellant rocket motors (SRMs). The proposed effort looks at all aspects of metal combustion and discrete phase dynamics which occur in SRMs and offers approaches which have the potential to reduce the mean droplet size in the flowfield which would subsequently increase the delivered performance of these motors. The payoff in terms of payload or range is tremendous. A 1% increase in Isp means approximately a 4% increase in payload. The rule of thumb used for most motors is that the two-phase flow loss is 1% in Isp per micron of droplet diameter, i.e. "1% per micron". Thus any reduction in the mean drop size has large potential payback.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Dr. Martin Chiaverini
AF 06-194      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:High-Performance Fuels
Abstract:ORBITEC and SRI propose to develop a high-performance fuel to replace monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and hydrocarbon based fuels. The new fuel will have higher energy-density, increased storability, be non-toxic and non-carcinogenic, and provide better compatibility and sensitivity than current MMH and hydrocarbon fuels. The proposed fuel will have performance in excess of IHPRPT phase III requirements. The families of compounds under consideration should have greater heats of formation, lower volatility, and lower toxicity than MMH, an important consideration for potential terrestrial applications. Their reduced volatility will make them safer to handle and pose less inhalation hazards than MMH. The energetic functionality of these materials and the presence of secondary or tertiary amines should provide short ignition delays. In Phase I, physical properties and performance of the specific identified compounds will be measured or determined using molecular modeling and other methods to provide data for candidate fuel rankings. Hot-fire and ignition delay tests plans for Phase II will be developed and initial synthesis of several candidate compounds will begin. During Phase II, down-select to the optimum candidate will result in an advanced fuel that will be hot-fired in a liquid rocket engine with GOX and LOX, or as a possible monopropellant.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Stuart F. Cogan
AF 06-195      Awarded: 21APR06
Title:Atomic Oxygen Resistant Conductive (POSS) Kapton Polyimides.
Abstract:The development of electrically conductive co-polymers of Kapton and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-Kapton) are proposed. The electrically conductive constituents are dispersed on a nano-scale throughout the POSS-Kapton and preserve electrical conductivity under oxidizing conditions. The modified POSS-Kapton polymer will be self-passivating against atomic oxygen erosion and will maintain electrical conductivity of the POSS-derived surface passivation layer that provides the erosion protection. Electrical conductivity will also be preserved at defects such as scratches and micrometeoroid or space debris impact sites. The proposed modification will not significantly alter the solar absorptance or thermal emittance of the POSS-Kapton. In Phase I, modified films of POSS-Kapton containing 0%, 10%, and 20%, POSS would be fabricated with a range of conductive constituent loadings and characterized by measurement of atomic oxygen erosion rate, electrical conductivity, solar and infrared optical properties and mechanical properties as a function of composition. Samples of modified POSS-Kapton with the best performance would be delivered to the Air Force. In Phase II, the fabrication process for the modified POSS-Kapton would be scaled for production of larger films and a more extensive evaluation of atomic oxygen erosion resistance and charge dissipation properties under simulated space conditions would be undertaken.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt Baum
AF 06-196      Awarded: 01JUN06
Title:Propellant Ingredients for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Improved solid performance is needed to meet Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program goals. The principal objective of this program is to design and synthesize new compounds that have the properties needed for use as energetic solid propellant additives. The focus of the work will be the synthesis of new energetic heterocyclic compounds that are useful as solid propellant additives/oxidizers. Sufficient material will be synthesized for structure characterization and the preliminary determination of sensitivity characteristics.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Ana Racoveanu
AF 06-196      Awarded: 27APR06
Title:Novel Triazole Based Plasticizer for Solid Propellants
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and its team member, Aerojet, propose to synthesize a novel azido triazolic plasticizer with low sensitivity, good energy and good density. It is recognized that "energy compartmentalization" is critical to reducing the response of energetic propellants to unplanned stimuli.This plasticizer is expected to be superior to current plasticizers (e.g. Butyl NENA) in that it does not contain a thermally unstable nitrato group and shock sensitive nitramine group, but does contain the favorable azidotriazole group. The proposed triazolic plasticizer will impart better propellant IM response through the reduction in propensity for fuel fire, shock or bullet/frag ignition. PSI will provide Aerojet with 25 grams of the triazolic plasticizer for testing by Small Scale Gap Test and Calorimetry. On a potential Phase II program, PSI will scale-up the synthesis and Aerojet will formulate the plasticizer in a propellant mixture and provide more thorough propellant characterization. PSI and Aerojet will show a path to the azidotriazolic plasticizer to commercial manufacture.

EVIGIA SYSTEMS, INC.
333 Parkland Plaza Dr. Ste. 500
Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 302-1140
Dr. Navid Yazdi
AF 06-197      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Navigation-Grade Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)
Abstract:The proposed Phase I SBIR effort initiates development of a miniature navigation-grade MEMS-based IMU providing 6 DOF angular rate and linear acceleration output with a total size of <16cc weight of <27gram and power consumption of <100mW. Evigia Systems proposes an innovative multi-faceted approach in MEMS inertial sensors and circuits to deliver the required performance.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2811
Mr. Ronald Clericus
AF 06-198      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Network-Centric Warfare Connectivity for Electronic Attack
Abstract:Network-Centric Warfare (N-CW) concepts involve connectivity of Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) assets through multiple interfaces and environments to enhance combat operations. N-CW concepts are applied to the Airborne Electronic Attack (AEA) environment to provide improved coordination/assignment of critical resources. Integrated laboratory capabilities provide for the development/evolution of N-CW concepts/technologies using synthetic battlespace simulation and address the stringent requirements for evolving/maturing/demonstrating AEA/C4ISR technologies as an integral part of N-CW concepts/solutions. Currently the communication simulation capabilities of these laboratory configurations lack the fidelity and integration/correlation to support the evolution/maturation/evaluation of advanced AEA/C4ISR technologies. Defense Research Associates (DRA) proposes a robust, integrated, high-fidelity Network-Centric Electronic Attack Communications Testbed (NEACT) to address deficiencies in existing laboratory AEA/C4ISR testbeds. DRA will apply state-of-the-art simulation tools coupled with an innovative integration concept to provide a fully functional N-CW communications capability. DRA will use the Sensors Directorate Virtual Combat Laboratory (VCL) and Integrated Demonstrations and Applications Laboratory (IDAL) testbeds to demonstrate the architecture's feasibility. During Phase II, DRA will implement a prototype capability using the VCL and IDAL testbeds to demonstrate key performance characteristics. The Phase II effort will provide a building block capability for rapid evolution of advanced N-CW communication technology.

OPNET TECHNOLOGIES
7255 Woodmont Avenue
Bethesda, MD 20814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 497-3000
Mr. Paul Janes
AF 06-198      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Network-Centric Warfare Connectivity for Electronic Attack
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I proposal is to research and develop real-time simulation-based solutions to advance network-centric warfare connectivity for Electronic Attack (EA) in a virtual battlespace. OPNET proposes to develop methodologies and simulation capabilities that enable cost effective testing and demonstration of prototype C4ISR architectures and technologies. During Phase I, OPNET will research and demonstrate the effectiveness of COTS modeling and simulation capabilities and methodologies to evaluate emerging sensor technologies used in C4ISR operations. Phase I will produce simulation methodologies that enable cost effective testing and demonstration of prototype C4ISR architectures and technologies, reducing the number of test cycles and costs associated with evaluating network attack architectures. OPNET's proposal focuses on leveraging OPNET COTS modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities (i.e., software and methodologies) to reduce the overall cost and time associated with evaluating new network-centric warfare technologies and network attack architectures. OPNET's M&S technology has the capability to reduce the cost and risk associated with system development via System-in-the-Loop (SITL) simulations. OPNET's SITL capability provides an interface between complex simulated network environments and real hardware devices. This includes the ability to simulate the effects of network attacks and evaluate their impact on strategic and tactical network infrastructure.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3424
Mr. Bryan Johnson
AF 06-198      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Network-Centric Warfare Connectivity for Electronic Attack
Abstract:Radiance proposes to develop, upgrade, and enhance the Virtual Combat Laboratory's (VCL) high-fidelity threat models to support the development of network-centric warfare connectivity architectures and technologies for aircraft. In addition, Radiance proposes to upgrade the current network monitoring and recording capabilities of the VCL to allow analysis of sensors, next-generation communication systems, and battlespace management needs. The proposed upgrades will allow the VCL to provide real world network data to any technique development environment. It will also provide a configurable tool capable of monitoring, recording, and analyzing any network message structure. These enhancements will give the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) the capability to characterize and evaluate C4ISR topologies in a real-time virtual battlespace environment, thus saving their customers time and money.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 996-3624
Dr. Kazem F. Sabet
AF 06-199      Awarded: 05MAY05
Title:Real-Time Digital Receiver Rapid Prototyping Testbed
Abstract:A broadband, low noise source of programmable signal generation is proposed which can be used to characterize ultra-wideband digital receivers in a laboratory setting. The proposed test equipment must generate waveforms of arbitrary form over a broad spectrum and coherently inject these waveforms into many channels. The signal generation will use commercially available broadband arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs) to allow complete computer control of signals. Approaches to coherent signal generation on multiple channels will be explored. Such approaches will include trigger signals distributed to multiple AWGs or by allocation of spectrum of a single AWG among multiple channels. The separate signals generated for a specific channel will be combined and superimposed onto a broadband version of a low noise source previously developed by the investigator. The proposed Phase I activities will address the highest risk components of the proposed design, namely the generation of coherent signals on multiple channels, and will address necessary trade-offs for design and fabrication of a prototype in Phase II.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2811
Mr. Ronald Clericus
AF 06-200      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Digital Receiver Geolocation Technology Simulation
Abstract:Man/hardware-in-the-loop laboratory simulation is the most cost-effective methodology for evolving/maturing advanced receiver geolocation technologies because the battlefield can be brought to the laboratory through multi-spectral synthetic battlespace simulation. Current laboratory laboratory RF threat environment simulators do not provide the required fidelity to accurately simulate the parameters needed to develop ultra-precise direction finding and geolocation capabilities. DRA proposes to solve this challenging technology limitation by developing an Advanced RF Geolocation Simulation Testbed (ARGST) for rapid prototyping of advanced RF receiver processor geolocation. The ARGST flexible architecture will enable the development of advanced geolocation technologies for single and multiple aircraft within a controlled laboratory environment enabling repeatable test and step-by-step evaluation/debugging capabilities. ARGST will provide simulator technology to develop advanced geolocation capabilities for receiver/processor technologies within new military concepts such as Advanced Threat Alert (ATA) Advanced Technology Demonstration, and Lightweight Modular Support Jammer (LMSJ) for application to military aircraft such as F-35, F-15, F-16, F-117, B-2, and C-130. During Phase II, DRA will develop a prototype capability using the Sensors Directorate's Integrated Demonstrations and Applications Laboratory (IDAL) as a testbed to demonstrate key performance characteristics. The Phase II effort will provide a building-block capability for rapid evolution of advanced RF receiver/processor technology.

KOR ELECTRONICS
10855 Business Center Dr., Bldg. A
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 622-2330
Mr. Thomas Brenner
AF 06-200      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Digital Receiver Geolocation Technology Simulation
Abstract:Recent digital receiver technology developments have transformed receivers such as RWRs from "warning only" to "situational awareness" assets. Two key capabilities for these systems are the abilities to develop more detailed identifications of the radars (specific emitter identification [SEI]) in the environment and to geolocate those radars. More sophisticated digital receiver RWRs and the like, benefit from the increased parameterization of the electronic environment. Geolocation software is based upon the comparison of captured parameters to each other and to aircraft navigation system position information. This increased sophistication of systems and system interaction have serious implications for the test community as present Air Force RWR test philosophy calls for complete end-to-end laboratory tests of all RWR capabilities before installation on an airframe for ground and flight testing. Successful end-to-end tests for this equipment will depend upon simulators that generate signals of much higher fidelity that currently available today. Higher fidelity simulators with SEI and geolocation capabilities are required. This SBIR Phase I program will research requisite geolocation parameters and develop fundamental architectures for simulation development so that cost effective laboratory geolocation simulation together with SEI can reduce the need for costly flight tests.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2811
Mr. Ronald Clericus
AF 06-201      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Simulation Technologies to Rapidly Evolve EA Sensor Resource Management Concepts
Abstract:The System-of-Systems (SoS) environment is composed of multiple platforms possessing both receiver and transmitter resources. To use these resources to effectively combat the evolving complexity of the threat environment, resource management techniques must evolve to apply the best combination of resources to successfully achieve mission objectives. Integrated laboratory capabilities provide technologies to enable the development/evolution of SoS AEA concepts/technologies through synthetic battlespace simulation and address the stringent requirements for evolving/maturing/demonstrating Electronic Attack Resource Management (EA RM) technologies for SoS AEA concepts/solutions. These laboratory configurations lack capabilities to fully support the evolution/maturation/evaluation of SoS AEA technologies. Defense Research Associates (DRA) will provide a Real-Time Electronic Attack Resource Management Testbed (REART) to address the deficiencies in existing laboratory SoS testbeds. DRA will apply state-of-the-art simulation tools and innovative integration technologies to develop the required SRM capability. DRA will utilize the real-time simulation capability in the Sensors Directorate Virtual Combat Laboratory (VCL) and Integrated Demonstrations and Applications Laboratory (IDAL) to demonstrate the architecture's feasibility. During Phase II, DRA will implement a prototype capability using the VCL as a testbed and demonstrate key performance characteristics. The Phase II effort will provide a building-block capability for evolution of advanced electronic attack sensor resource management technology.

OR CONCEPTS APPLIED
7032 Comstock Avenue, Suite 100
Whittier, CA 90602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 907-6700
Dr. Rubin Johnson
AF 06-201      Awarded: 05MAY05
Title:Simulation Technologies for EA Management (STEAM)
Abstract:The demand for electronic warfare (EW) is increasing with the proliferation of advanced radar systems and wireless communications and triggering devices. There is a growing number of target sets from increasingly effective integrated air defense systems and in the urban battle space. Our limited electronic attack (EA) assets will better fulfill the many demands if there are effective resource management schemes. OR Concepts Applied has teamed with AEA, Inc. to supply the USAF with a simulation environment that includes models of electronic warfare assets and optimization schemes that build on the expertise of frontline EW operators. Data driven models will be used to represent stand-off and stand-in jamming resources hosted on manned, unmanned, and expendable platforms. The software will facilitate the invention and analysis of dynamic EA resource management strategies. The analysis will address impacts on both the EA assets and the supported entity missions. Ultimately, we see providing this capability to the AFRL Virtual Combat Laboratory.

EDAPTIVE COMPUTING, INC.
1245 Lyons Road, Building G
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-0477
Dr. John Bellando
AF 06-202      Awarded: 05MAY05
Title:Integration of Risk Analysis into Acquisition Cost, Schedule, and Performance Evaluation Tools
Abstract:Our proposal specifically addresses the stated requirements of the solicitation; we will develop concepts and deploy an electro-optics (EO) technology engineering tool that supports net-centric architecture immersion, quantitatively incorporates uncertainty-sensitive risk metrics, and integrates into system level program management tools. The proposed solution builds on previous EDAptive Computing, Inc (ECI) knowledge and technology - itself innovative - for performance, risk, and cost estimates that are derived from provable requirements that effectively traverse the complete weapons system/technology life-cycle. Prior success and new research has already shown that ECI's innovative tools suite will be clearly applicable to Air Force systems, technology, and Programs.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 06-203      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Argumentation-based Negotiation for Automated Sensor Tasking (ANAST)
Abstract:Traditional sensor management problems rely on planning and scheduling algorithms that formulate solutions based on a predefined set of goals and constraints. Optimization of sensor assignments with static goals and constraints is a well-developed area of research in objective function optimization and planning. However, when the set of goals and constraints are dynamic, as is the case with military surveillance and targeting missions, traditional techniques fail to appropriately address the dynamic nature of the environment in which they operate. A proper dynamic sensor management system requires an adaptive approach to optimization that dynamically allocates sensors and their supporting resources in response to changing goals and constraints. Here, we propose a system for Argumentation-based Negotiation for Automated Sensor Tasking (ANAST) to meet the challenge of this real-time resource allocation problem. This approach applies solutions from argumentation theory by creating a dialogue between multiple user-specified needs, which compete for sensor information and computational resources. Intelligent agents argue on behalf of each task and interact based on a negotiation mechanism that determines the means by which agents may resolve conflicting goals. Negotiation works continuously, providing dynamic adaptation to changes in the mission environment.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Mr. Michael McKinley
AF 06-204      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Long-Duration, Eye-in-the-Sky Monitoring for Airfield Threat Detection
Abstract:Base and airfields in forward-operating areas are continually threatened by small enemy forces using portable weapons. It is desire to develop a small UAV to assist military personnel in base and airfield patrol and protection. Current small UAVs are limited in their military effectiveness due to their lack of payload-carrying capability, minimal flight time to support a military mission, and lack of significant bandwidth to transmit collected data. To address these issues, DRA proposes a soaring UAV that has an autonomous refueling (recharging) capability. Available high-power transmission lines are the power source. The UAV will use readily available lines to charge its batteries, and then continues its mission when desired. This UAV also utilizes soaring aerodynamics to significantly enhance endurance and reduce power consumption. Finally, the data collection issues are addressed through the application of the EO/IR sensor and image processing technology developed under previous and current DRA efforts.

MIAMI VALLEY AEROSPACE, LLC
2815 N. Hampton Rd.
Springfield, OH 45502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 231-5689
Dr. James Schmitz
AF 06-204      Awarded: 05MAY05
Title:Long-Duration, Eye-in-the-Sky Monitoring for Airfield Threat Detection
Abstract:As demonstrated by recent world events regarding the Global War on Terror, there is an increasing demand for automated persistent monitoring of remote airfields to protect against enemy combatants. The ability to scout around an airfield in a manner that is transparent to the both the user and the threat, would significantly reduce the risk of threats and intrusions from small enemy forces with portable weapons. A UAV that is remotely launched and that can stay aloft for long periods of time with little or no user intervention is a key force multiplier. This capability can allow security forces to focus on regular entry/exit points with quick reaction teams being deployed to perimeter threats identified by the Long-Duration, Eye-in-the-Sky (LDES) Airfield Threat Detection System (ATDS). The primary objective of our proposed Phase I effort is to establish the concept feasibility for the Long-duration, Eye-in-the-Sky monitoring system. The system conceptual design will optimize the design constraints: low cost, flight duration, simplicity of operation and maintenance, and mission requirements. The design will encompass the following subsystems: airframe, sensor, exploitation algorithms, operator interface, and communication links.

PERCEPTEK
12395 North Mead Way
Littleton, CO 80125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 344-1037
Dr. Mark Allmen
AF 06-204      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Long-Duration, Eye-in-the-Sky Monitoring for Airfield Threat Detection
Abstract:Remote airfields are vulnerable to attack from small enemy forces carrying portable weapons. Persistent surveillance from UAVs has the potential to address this need, but, limitations of existing systems must be overcome: systems require highly trained teams to support operations; The latency between initial image acquisition and response can measure in the tens of minutes; Existing systems cannot rapidly disseminate intelligence information directly to troops; persistent surveillance requires platform endurances of greater than 10 hours. Existing platforms with this level of endurance cost in the 10's of millions of dollars and are not affordable Our approach provides a low cost system that can be autonomously launched and recovered. Operator involvement is limited to initial planning and determining responses to threats and exception events. Intelligence information is shared in real time with troops via wearable devices. The overall goal of this SBIR is to develop a low cost system for automated persistent surveillance of remote airfields. The specific objectives for phase I are to establish the airfield surveillance requirements, complete system trades and analyses to arrive at a system level design, Demonstrate critical elements of the system as a proof of concept, and prepare a detailed implementation plan for Phase II.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Dr. Triveni Upadhyay
AF 06-208      Awarded: 05MAY05
Title:Multistage Antenna-Array based Adaptive Signal Processing (MAASP) for Wideband Systems
Abstract:Mayflower's MAASP (Multistage Antenna Array based Adaptive Signal Processing) proposal aspires to research and develop an adaptive signal processing approach to counteract jammers in wideband systems. The proposal builds on Mayflower's proven expertise in adaptive signal processing and antenna arrays. Interference from unintentional sources and hostile jammers can disrupt mission-critical military surveillance systems. Traditional interference mitigation measures cannot cope with the characteristically diverse interferers in wideband antenna arrays. Jammers could both be narrowband and wideband and could have different statistical and spatial characteristics. Mayflower's proposal directly addresses the wide variety of possible jammers and the complexity associated with wideband systems. Mayflower's approach is suitable for both narrowband and wideband jammers, with a variety of signal statistics. Mayflower's implementation provides a straightforward way to reduce computational burden by reducing the processing rank and avoiding expensive operations such as matrix inversions and eigen decompositions. The Phase I feasibility study will demonstrate that the Mayflower approach meets the Air Force objectives of antijam performance in wideband systems. In the Phase II program, we will build a high-speed FPGA-based prototype that achieves low computational complexity and high performance, and demonstrate its functionality in a test bed designated by the Air Force.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
1220 Kennestone Circle, Suite E
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 795-8181
Dr. David Aalfs
AF 06-208      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Adaptive Signal Processing to Counter Jamming
Abstract:PRA proposes to develop a wideband adaptive digital beamforming solution to autonomously cancel multiple jammers at various locations, bandwidths, and center frequencies. The wide waveform bandwidths desired for fine range resolution in current and future phased-array systems impact the performance of adaptive cancellation algorithms due to the effects of wideband jammer dispersion, antenna architecture artifacts, and receiver channel mismatches across the band. Wideband adaptive algorithms must compensate for these effects to maximize SINR while preserving the desired compressed range response. The algorithm will be designed for efficient implementation on FPGA hardware. Performance of the algorithm will be evaluated using the Digital Array Radar Prototyping Simulation (DARPSim), a Matlab based tool developed by GTRI for modeling wideband phased-array antennas that utilize a digital beamforming (DBF) architecture.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-2811
Mr. Ronald Clericus
AF 06-211      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Two-Color Infrared (IR) Simulation Tools
Abstract:A major challenge in developing an operationally useful optics based MWS is maintaining a high probability of detection in high clutter with a minimum number of false alarms. A method to remove false alarms caused by the sun is to use two-color discrimination techniques as well as using visible sensor systems. Available laboratory IR simulators only generate high-fidelity single-color IR scenes and emulate single-color MWS in real time, but cannot provide the fidelity and scene generation capability to mature two-color IR and visible sensor systems. DRA proposes a robust, integrated, Real-Time Optics Multi-color Simulation (ROMS) capability to address the two-color and visible MWS requirements. ROMS applies commercial scene rendering concepts with innovative architecture for a flexible optical sensor technology testbed. During Phase I, DRA will investigate optical MWS development requirements, define key simulation technologies to generate a real-time optical scene, and develop simulation architecture that integrates these technologies. DRA will utilize the Sensors Directorate Integrated Demonstrations and Applications Laboratory (IDAL) as a testbed for demonstrating the architecture's feasibility. During Phase II, DRA will implement a prototype using the IDAL to demonstrate key characteristics. The Phase II effort will provide a building-block capability for rapid evolution of advanced optical MWS technology.

INTELLIGENT FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS CORP.
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 565-9004
Dr. Behzad Moslehi
AF 06-213      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Low-Cost, High-Performance Inertial Rate Sensors
Abstract:Defense systems such as the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) High and Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) require extremely high-resolution Line of Sight (LOS) stabilization and extremely accurate inertial pointing knowledge. Key to mission objectives are ultra high performance inertial rate sensors to provide absolute inertial LOS knowledge and low-frequency sensor information to support control system LOS stabilization for the pointing and tracking system. Intelligent IFOS with a team having many years of pioneering experience in Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) proposes FOG development to meet space, particularly SBIRS High and SSTS, specifications. To meet the stringent SSTS requirements on minimal scale factor error and angular random walk as well as achieve the required angular rate and angular acceleration capabilities, IFOS will exploit innovative techniques including new components, coil production methods, and control techniques. Phase I will focus on design and the production of a proof-of-concept FOG. In Phase II, IFOS will work with Lockheed Martin on design optimization for SBIRS High / SSTS and design and fabricate four engineering prototype FOGs.

QORTEK, INC.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road, Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
AF 06-214      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Low-Profile Tamper Detection Sensors
Abstract:What is proposed is an inexpensive nearly undetectable method for detection of any effort to tamper with security sensitive electronics. This new approach would defeat the entire gamut of intrusion events from board probing through to device-level intrusive dissection making it extraordinarily difficult to reverse engineer the electronics. The use of a new class of semiconductor materials can be applied at individual IC level through to an entire circuit board assembly as to be extremely intrusion sensitive. External device integration can extend from very low profile integration to thick layer heat sink augmentation or replacement. Internal device integration options include Small Outline (SO), Ball Grid Array (BGA), and Land Grid Array (LGA). Integration of this new class of semiconductor materials also enables a completely new approach to autonomous electronics autodestruct in response to any unauthorized access attempt.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Robert Gillen
AF 06-214      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Low-Profile RFID AT Sensors
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp. (SFC) proposes to develop a low-profile tamper detection sensor for the purpose of protecting sensitive hardware and data from adversaries and reverse engineers by alerting a system when it has been removed from its intended environment and brought to a laboratory for reverse engineering. We will make use of emerging radio frequency identification (RFID) technology act as versatile, low-cost, low-power proximity sensors that can be featured in a number of different sensor architectures. From an Anti-Tamper (AT) design perspective, this solution is excellent in that it is simple, compact and low-profile, is difficult to detect and to reverse engineer once detected, offers flexibility to be incorporated into many anti-tamper designs, should be stable under a wide range of environmental conditions, and is low-cost and low-power. These attributes make these proximity sensors difficult to detect, simple to monitor, and easy to integrate into a new or legacy system. This technology should also be easy to maintain over the life of the operational system and have a long shelf life.

BERRIEHILL RESEARCH CORP.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. , Ste. 1001
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-1016
Dr. Jeffery A. Berrie
AF 06-215      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Lightweight, Miniature Sensor Payload for a Mini-UAV
Abstract:The Air Force is interested in substantially improving the productivity of their unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radar systems to provide all environment detection of targets as well as detection and tracking of air and ground threats. SAR/GMTI radar systems deployed on mini-UAVs are expected to be very effective at covering large areas of the battlefield, providing persistent, continuous ISR and serving as a means to cross-cue targeting sensors. When outfitted with advanced sensor payloads, mini-UAVs can be an effective means to deny the enemy sanctuary. These mini-UAVs have demonstrated their usefulness with optical cameras in past programs. This SBIR proposal represents an effort to add capabilities to these aircraft by adding a miniature radio frequency (RF) ISR sensor. Such a sensor offers many benefits for battlefield awareness while complementing the existing RF and optical capabilities of these vehicles. The RF sensor will expand the conditions under which the platform can be effective, providing all weather capabilities that include the ability to penetrate rain, fog, dust, smoke, and other obscurants which degrade the usefulness of optical sensors. This SBIR program is intended to develop a lightweight sensor system for surveillance that can be installed on a mini-UAV.

IONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
2161 O'Toole Avenue, Unit H
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 435-2680
Dr. Ronald M. Kubacki
AF 06-216      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Reliability without Hermetic Packaging Technology for Millimeter Wave Devices (RWoH)
Abstract:We propose application of a room temperature plasma deposited thin film similar to a low dielectric constant organo-silicon aerogel to provide an environmental barrier for board level assemblies either alone or in concert with silicon nitride. The future of micro-electronic assemblies is to use all types of components on a high density printed wiring board. This COB will be a mixed technology assembly integrating passives, actives, MEMs and hybrid components of all types. Decades of material and process improvements in IC fabrication have greatly reduced feature sizes, increased functionality and created dramatic cost savings. Developments in electronic assembly/packaging have been far less dramatic. Most packaging technology involves packaging the individual components. However, system performance is limited with such an approach. Multi-chip modules (MCMs) combine several bare die into a common package. The operating frequencies of many of these modules are generating crosstalk problems due to the higher dielectric constant materials used as insulators on the printed wiring will use both prepackaged devices and bare die.

VT SILICON, INC.
75 5th Street NW, Suite 211
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 526-6169
Dr. Vikram Krishnamurthy
AF 06-216      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Coatings for Millimeter Wave (MMW) Electronics
Abstract:The main objective of this Phase I SBIR is to develop a hermetic like protective coating which will not degrade performance of millimeter wave ICs. In Phase I, VT Silicon, Inc will collaborate with the Georgia Institute of Technology to demonstrate a low-cost, environmentally rugged coating on a custom designed millimeter wave (MMW) SiGe (Silicon Germanium) power amplifier (PA) IC. In Phase I, an innovative coating concept, the chemical modification of polymers, along with other coating concepts involving low stress polymer systems and polyimides will be evaluated. In order to have applicability to a wide variety of semiconductors such as GaAs, InP, and GaN, the compatibility of passivation layers with air bridges will be a key criteria in the choice a successful coating. The MMW SiGe PA IC will be fabricated in a commercial SiGe BiCMOS (Bipolar and CMOS devices) IC process with operation in the Ku band. The MMW SiGe PA IC with the deposited coating layer will be subjected to HAST and temperature cycling (-55C to 125C). The environmentally stressed MMW SiGe PA ICs will be tested to 40 GHz and the best coating layer will be selected. Manufacturability will be addressed with collaboration with semiconductor IC manufacturers.

ANALYTIC DESIGNS, INC.
245 East Gay Street
Columbus, OH 43215
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 224-9078
Dr. Sean W. Gilmore
AF 06-217      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:A Generalized Uncertainty Analysis for Physical Optics Based Radar Cross Section Prediction
Abstract:Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) for Combat Identification (CID) represents one of the most demanding disciplines in sensor technology facing the United States Air Force today. Central to this process is the development of validated synthetic. Unfortunately, the synthetic database generation process is hampered by uncertainty. Under a previous program, Analytic Designs, Incorporated developed a robust and extensible theoretical foundation uncertainty analysis for Physical Optics based Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction. The goal of this Phase~I proposal is to extend this statistical theory to include two important areas of uncertainty: coupled regions and altered parameterizations. Coupled regions addresses the statistical dependence associated with vertices comprised by feature-based regions. During the target modeling process, a modeler may be unsure of the exact location of a specific feature (e.g., hatch, weapon, antenna, etc.), and this uncertainty may be larger than the geometry capture process. Altered parameterizations addresses the need to simulate RCS uncertainty in synthetic data due to errors in pose angle and/or frequency to facilitate comparisons to measured data and streamline the data validation process. The overall purpose of this Phase~I program is to improve the efficiency of the synthetic RCS database development process and thereby advance Automatic Target Recognition capabilities.

BERRIEHILL RESEARCH CORP.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. , Ste. 1001
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-1016
Dr. Jeffery A. Berrie
AF 06-217      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Signature Prediction and Uncertainty Analysis for Recognition Applications
Abstract:The goal of signature prediction is to provide electromagnetics modeling to support detection and identification technologies for a wide range of target configurations and sensor characteristics. Signature prediction technologies have been extensively developed by AFRL, leading to a suite of integrated codes used for generating radar signatures of both air and ground targets. An important input to the codes is a CAD file of the target geometry. When selected from the CAD library, it is desired that the model contains reliable materials information that doesn't cause undue uncertainty in the resulting signature predictions. The material information is typically measured using a handheld RF tool. The existing tool has no bandwidth for characterizing materials across frequencies, provides limited RF material information, and has no data storage capability. In this SBIR, BerrieHill Research shall demonstrate an advanced RF material measurement tool having the ability to fully characterize material surfaces and computerize the data collection. Such a tool will lead directly to more accurate material information that can easily be incorporated into the target CAD file library, resulting in better signature predictions that don't suffer uncertainty due to unreliable or incomplete materials information.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
31255 Cedar Valley Drive, Suite 327
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 865-3713
Mrs. Vijaya Shankar
AF 06-217      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Signature Prediction and Uncertainty Analysis for Recognition Applications
Abstract:Development of target recognition algorithms require 1) predicting accurate physics-based signatures, and 2) characterizing signature sensitivity to various field parameters in order to identify robust and stable signature features. HyPerComp Inc. in collaboration with SAIC-DEMACO proposes to build a computational platform using its highly accurate Maxwell's equations solver TEMPUS (Time-Domain EM Parallel Unstructured Simulator) a procedure to model uncertainty that enables quantifying the sensitivity of solutions and derived quantities (RCS, SAR, etc.) to key parameters affecting signatures observed in the field. The uncertainty model is based on the recent work of Prof. Hesthaven of Brown University and his colleagues that uses a so-called chaos expansions to represent the functional dependence of the solution on parameters that can only be described in a statistical sense. This approach is far more efficient than the traditional method of Monte Carlo sampling and it naturally provides a probability distribution for the solution space.

JRM ENTERPRISES, INC.
4500 Plank Road, Suite 2606
Fredericksburg, VA 22407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 548-0922
Dr. John Helmsen
AF 06-217      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Correlated Multi-Sensor "Target Chip" Generator and Target Constructor for ATR in Arbitrary Background Clutter Environments
Abstract:JRM Technologies proposes to develop the Correlated Multi-Sensor "Target Chip" Generator for ATR and Feature Extraction in Arbitrary Background Clutter Environments, an innovative new approach for generating credible libraries of target signature chips as a function of user-defined angles and resolutions, passband (visible, IR, SAR and MTI), sensor specifications (frequency, optics, etc.) and clutter type (forested, desert, urban, etc.). This "Target Chip" Generation Toolkit (TCGT) will leverage JRM's comprehensive Xpatch scatter centers technology-- called Universal Scatter Center Sets (USCSs) -- that advances Xpatch scattering technology to define the RF response of an object from any arbitrary transmitter or receiver (bi-static) direction. It will provide the Air Force with the capability to generate fast, high-fidelity, physics-based RF scenes for the detection and identification of moving and stationary targets in arbitrarily-complex background clutter. The TCGT will be a scalable-fidelity-performance simulation system that will not only generate target chip libraries, but can be used for the exploration of multi-sensor suites and ATR algorithms with the goal of improving SAR sensor and processing development for target detection, recognition, and fusion applications. Additionally, JRM will develop an advanced feature extraction capability to allow for the extraction of critical targets from complex sensor imagery.

GITAM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9782 Country Creek Way
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 439-0345
Dr. William S. McCormick
AF 06-218      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Hyperspectral Identification for Collaborative Tracking
Abstract:Gitam Technologies Inc. (GTI) proposes to develop novel HSI/MSI algorithms for detection, recognition and tracking of dismounts, vehicles and other man-made objects (Fortifications, Ordnance, weapons, IEDs, etc.). Preliminary work on dismount/vehicle detection using PCA with VIS-HSI data indicated improved performance when compared to traditional EO processing. In this work, we will extend the work to incorporate NIR-HSI bands. For the dismount case, a major focus will be in the phenomenology analysis, and exploitation of NIR band facial/skin data for face recognition, as well as for dismount tracking in darkness using NIR-HSI sensors. Preliminary results on moving target tracking using change detection over successive HSI bands have been promising. In this project, we shall consider Active Contour Tracking of dismounts and vehicles using Level Sets where the contours are represented by energy-minimizing splines known as Snakes. Genetic algorithm will be used to harness large quantity of high-quality spatio-spectral HSI data for automated feature extraction. In addition to traditional HSI algorithms, such as PCA, LDA and ICA, we will also study the feasibility of a new information theoretical Spectral Information Measure algorithm, which is specially suited for exploiting spectral variability, similarity, and discrimination from hyperspectral images.

HYPERTECH SYSTEMS
4 Dickens Court
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 477-1019
Dr. David Slater
AF 06-218      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Hyperspectral Identification for Collaborative Tracking
Abstract:We will develop a system called HyperTrack that will significantly advance the capability of target tracking systems. HyperTrack will include new algorithms for acquiring target models and new methods for using these models for tracking. The Phase I effort will focus on the use of target spectral and geometric characteristics. Physical models will be used to allow a target spectral model to adapt to changing environmental conditions while at the same time adapting to maximize contrast with the background. We will also develop a module for the acquisition of target geometric models that will allow tracking in the presence of partial obscuration and changes in target pose and sensor viewpoint. A general Bayesian technique will be developed to combine information that is acquired from different sensors on different platforms. We will characterize the algorithms during Phase I using a range of airborne imagery that includes vehicle and dismount targets. The algorithms will be structured to allow near real-time operation on modest hardware. We provide a detailed commercialization plan for the new software.

SPACE COMPUTER CORP.
12121 Wilshire Boulevard , Suite 910
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
Mr. Alan D Stocker
AF 06-218      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Hyperspectral Identification for Collaborative Tracking
Abstract:This proposed SBIR program will capitalize on advances in hyperspectral processing and feature-aided tracking to enhance the military's ability to detect and track moving targets over long time periods using data from UAV-based spectral imaging sensors. Existing multi-target tracking approaches that rely solely on spatial and temporal information from conventional electro-optical sensors fall short of demanding needs in complex environments, particularly urban areas. New technology developments such as time-sequential spectral imagers coupled with high-precision registration processing, and "hyperspectral video" cameras capable of acquiring spectral image cubes at fast frame rates, are removing previous limitations on simultaneous acquisition and utilization of high-resolution spatial, spectral and temporal information from moving platforms. Space Computer Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate signature-based methods in support of collaborative target tracking, with emphasis on spectral-temporal signature extraction, evolution and matching to enable continuous recognition of specific targets moving in a complex scene. In Phase I we will provide a proof-of-concept for the signature-based tracking approach using data from a VNIR-band spectral imager in a stationary configuration. The Phase II program will optimize the algorithms, characterize tracking performance in realistic scenarios, and demonstrate a real-time processor implementation using data from an airborne hyperspectral imager.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
Suite A, 75 Aero Camino
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Craig S. Agate
AF 06-218      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Hyperspectral Identification for Collaborative Tracking
Abstract:Many problems exist, particularly in defense and security scenarios, in which long-term tracking of objects is important. Long-term tracking generally requires the use of collected features in order to uniquely identify the object of interest. As conditions under which the features are collected changes, so do the features. While different sensor phenomenologies have been developed to collect feature measurements (i.e., measurements that depend on target attributes such as shape or color), this effort is focused on using dynamically collected features from hyperspectral sensors under changing operating conditions to extend track lifetime. Changing operating conditions preclude the use of a priori feature databases; thus, a feature database that is built "on-the-fly" is required to reliably track vehicles over longer periods. Furthermore, the feature database must be dynamically managed since, as conditions that affect the collected features change, the previously collected features may no longer be used to realiably identify the vehicle. Toyon Research proposes to analyze and statistically model hyperspectral feature data, and develop a feature database management algorithm to accommodate changing operating conditions. Moreover, Toyon will analyze the utility of using hyperspectral signatures and the database management algorithm to extend track life.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Steven Jaroszewski
AF 06-219      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Signal Processing and Exploitation for High-Dimensional Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Abstract:Combat ID performance is driven not only by the need to prevent fratricide and minimize collateral damage but also by the increasingly important requirement to reduce the cost associated with expending high-cost weapons on low-value targets and decoys. During Phase 1 TSC will develop a system concept for integrating a 3D aided target recognition system by exploiting multiple-frequency, full-polarization SAR performed using a circular flight path. The 3D aided target recognition concept will be based on 2D Circular SAR Imaging (CSI) and 3D Tomographic SAR Imaging (TSI) techniques. Three-dimensional projection and true stereo displays of 3D SAR imagery and target CAD-models will be investigated to provide robust semi-automated target ID. The Phase II program will build on Phase I results by optimizing the 3D tomographic imaging software for speed and performance and developing automatic techniques for finding correspondence between the 3D sensed target data and articulated CAD target models. TSC will investigate enhanced visualization techniques and extend the processing to other data sources such as new DCS data collections or UHF-band data collections from other platforms. The processing algorithms can then be integrated into existing WPAFB workstations to provide the ability to perform 3D combat ID.

BJ INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES LLC
P.O. Box 553
Storrs, CT 06268
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 429-1023
Dr. David Jordan
AF 06-220      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Real-time Passive Three-Dimensional (3-D) Imaging and Ranging
Abstract:Comprehensive solutions for extracting 3-D imagery and absolute range from visible and/or infrared (IR) images collected from small UAVs, micro-UAVs, or situational awareness sensors are proposed. These techniques can be used for 3D structure reconstruction, scene interpretation and 3D visualization of areas of interest. Challenges such as perspective changes between image platform and scene, uncertainties in the position and orientation of the imaging platform, and scene changes will be addressed. Algorithms with optimum performance will be selected for extracting 3-D imagery and absolute range from sensor images. The viability of these approaches for real-time 3-D image reconstruction and range estimation will be evaluated and demonstrated. BJ Information Technologies will partner with Lockheed Martin to evaluate performance, provide hardware implementation, and facilitate implementation in small and micro UAV systems. We propose to implement these algorithms on compact hardware which can be placed onboard a small or micro UAV for real time processing capability.

UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORP.
11150 Olympic Blvd., Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Dr. Joseph Yadegar
AF 06-220      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Passive Three-Dimensional (3-D) Imaging and Ranging
Abstract:Creation of 3-D data from 2-D imagery has vast applications, particularly in defense related areas. Two such applications of great interest to the Air Force are real-time and lightweight imaging device for seekers on board of autonomous munitions and for systems that supports navigation and tactical reconnaissance from unmanned-aerial-vehicles (UAVs) and small UAVs also known as Small Air Vehicles (SAV). These systems carry imaging payloads operating in either visible or infrared wavelengths. 3-D images provide unit commanders with a much intuitively useful representation of the area of operations than simple 2-D photos, and greatly aids automated detection and tracking of objects in the air or otherwise. UtopiaCompression Corporation (UC) and the team member Defense Research Associates Inc., (DRA) proposes (1) Novel structure-from-motion (SFM) framework (augmenting and refining existing algorithms), using a robust feature matching technique, instead of the conventional Harris corner detector, to derives structure and motion of dynamic scene containing multiple moving objects observed from a stationary/non-stationary camera; (2) The derived structure and motion parameters are used in conjunction with the metric self-calibration algorithm to obtain 3-D model, which is physically more appealing for human perception; and (3) for far-off objects particle filter is used to derive depth information.

BLACK FOREST ENGINEERING, LLC
1879 Austin Bluffs Parkway
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-9501
Dr. Steve Gaalema
AF 06-221      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Miniaturized Infrared Imaging Camera for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle
Abstract:Uncooled focal plane array technology, based on micro-bolometer thermal detectors, has evolved such that high performance can be achieved in both the medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) bands with small pixel pitch, large array format and fast thermal time constant. This improved infrared sensor technology allows development of miniaturized infrared video cameras with high radiometric sensitivity and spatial resolution under both daytime and nighttime conditions. Small pixel pitch allows instantaneous field of view significantly less than 1.5 millirad with short focal lengths and commensurate reduction in the size and weight of the optics suitable for micro-uninhabited aerial vehicle. The predicted noise equivalent temperature difference with f/0.9 LWIR optics is less than 30 mK for the 60 Hz frame rates. Advanced CMOS processes for readout integrated circuitry analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing allows reduction in camera power to less than 1.5 watts.

COMPUTATIONAL SENSORS CORP.
201 N. Calle Cesar Chavez, Suite 203
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 962-1175
Dr. John Langan
AF 06-221      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Low-Cost Day/Night Imaging Sensors for Micro/Mini-Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:During this Phase I program CSC will produce a hardware demonstration of its InGaAs Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) sensor processor coupled to Raytheon's Low Cost Miniature Data Link (LCMDL) unit serving as a state-of-the-art digital downlink. The prototype camera system will be used to guide further integration and weight/power reduction in a transition to CSC's Alternate Architecture (AA) technology in Phase II. The AA dramatically improves `on-FPA' processing capability by allowing complex spatial and temporal filtering to be performed prior to digitization in addition to performing typical detector ROIC roles of signal integration and muxing operations. One or more layers married to a detector array using conventional bump-bonding is a highly functional integrated sensor processor (ISP) well suited for the dynamic range management and scene-based NUC processing needed on UAV platforms. The result of this effort will be a hardware validated camera/image processing/digital data downlink system design that includes all requisite electronics, optics and a state-of-the-art digital down linking compatibility that will exceed the goals of the solicitation. In addition, a feasibility study/program plan for integrating micro-bolometer thermal imaging with the AA will be developed as an optional technical direction for government selection in Phase II.

INTEVAC, INC.
Photonics Technology Division, 3560 Bassett Street
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 987-2537
Dr. Phil Arcuni
AF 06-221      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Low-Cost Day/Night Imaging Sensors for Micro/Mini-Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:Night operations are of critical importance for the military today. Present day TV cameras do not offer any capability at night and are typically NTSC format. The low-resolution thermal cameras have limited utility at night beyond providing situational awareness. Intevac proposes to address these present limitations by adapting its miniature, low power, low-light level megapixel format VIS-NIR sensor and camera products for this small- and micro-UAV application. The Intevac VIS-NIR low light level sensor is an Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS). EBAPS technology is based on use of a high quantum efficiency GaAs photocathode (derived from Generation-III image intensifier technology) in proximity focus with a high resolution, backside thinned, CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) imager anode. The EBAPS sensor does not utilize an optically opaque microchannel plate so it can be operated in a day-only mode with no high voltage applied to the sensor. This provides 24-hour capability - a critical camera requirement for the small UAV application. Additionally, the Intevac design integrates on-chip functions with correspondingly smaller size and lower weight.

MEMS OPTICAL, INC.
205 Import Circle
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 859-1886
Dr. Luis Nelson
AF 06-221      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Low-Cost Day/Night Imaging Sensors for Micro/Mini-Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Abstract:The miniaturization of UAV reveal a growing need for smaller and lighter lenses, sensors, and electronics that consume less power. Much work has already been done in the area of high temperature thermal sensors. However, further miniaturization of the optics is required in order to meet the weight requirements. MEMS Optical has developed an approach using a multi-order diffractive lens with a phase correcting plate that has diffraction limited performance and color correction. Because both optics are fabricated on planar wafers, they are extremely lightweight. This ultra-lightweight, compact camera lens can be fabricated using IR materials by MEMS Optical, and assembled to an existing commercially available microbolometer in order to attain the proper resolution and field of view. The diffractive lens works on the principle of harmonics, being etched to the proper depth for one wavelength at one order, and for another wavelength at a different order. The planar optics naturally exhibit no field curvature or distortion, and other aberrations can be minimized by the phase plate.

HYPERTECH SYSTEMS
4 Dickens Court
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 477-1019
Dr. David Slater
AF 06-222      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Hyperspectral Detector Enhancement Using Auxiliary High-Resolution Imagery
Abstract:The deployment of hyperspectral and higher-resolution panchromatic imagers on the same platform provides the opportunity to use detailed spectral and spatial models for target detection. In this project, we will address this opportunity by developing a system INV-SE that uses combined spectral/spatial information to advance the operational utility of target detection algorithms. A new spectral detection algorithm that includes scene-based environmental constraints will be combined with an innovative spatial detection algorithm that is invariant to target pose and partial obscuration. We will also develop new methods for acquiring target spectral and spatial models from airborne imagery. A Bayesian technique will be used to rank detection results by integrating spectral and spatial cues. The algorithms will be derived to allow real-time performance on tactically relevant hardware. The new approach will be assessed over a range of data during Phase I. We also provide a detailed strategy for the commercialization of INV-SE for a range of applications.

INNOVATIVE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
733 Bishop Street, 28th Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 348-9103
Dr. Tyson J. Thomas
AF 06-222      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Panchromatic Image Chip Classifier
Abstract:NOVASOL is pleased to propose development of an algorithm for enhancing hyperspectral target detection performance in reconnaissance imagery using spectral detection combined with spatial processing of auxiliary panchromatic high-resolution imagery. The exploitation of both spectral and spatial data from multiple bore-sighted sensors represents a heretofore untapped opportunity to improve detection performance and mitigate false alarms in reconnaissance systems. By combining spectral signatures with multiple extracted spatial features in an operator supervised classifier, a knowledge base is quickly built up that can serve to filter and prioritize future detection image chips to more effectively use the analyst's time and attention. Spatial features can be geared towards either target detection or false alarm mitigation. Since there are many more examples of false alarms, it is more practical to focus on improving performance by filtering unwanted cues. In addition, the proposed panchromatic image chip classifier (PICC) involves relatively simple computations, making it highly amenable to real-time operation on existing processor platforms. Furthermore, the inherent parallelism of the architecture lends itself to implementation on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware which would produce significant economies in weight, size, power and cost.

SPACE COMPUTER CORP.
12121 Wilshire Boulevard , Suite 910
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 481-6000
Mr. Alan D. Stocker
AF 06-222      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Hyperspectral Detector Enhancement Using Auxiliary High-Resolution Imagery
Abstract:Space Computer Corporation proposes to enhance target detection performance of airborne hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems by developing new algorithms that exploit the spectral content of HSI and spatial information in panchromatic high-resolution imagery (HRI) normally collected by such systems. Simultaneous generation and analysis of co-registered spatial and spectral features extracted from target cue imagery has the potential to increase the effectiveness of conventional recognition approaches based on either class of discriminants alone. Novel recognition strategies that "fuse" spatial and spectral features extracted from cued image chips may provide additional performance gains through more selective discrimination processes that operate in a joint feature space. In Phase I we plan to develop an effective set of spatial and spectral features and feature extraction techniques, along with related target discrimination metrics and databases, to demonstrate the practical utility of an automated approach to target cue confirmation and false alarm rejection. The work will utilize available HSI and HRI imagery from an existing sensor system, and will emphasize algorithms that are amenable to real-time implementation in Phase II.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
8130 Boone Blvd., Suite 500
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Mr. J. Doss Halsey
AF 06-223      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Multi-Phenomenology Sensing and Sensor Control in Unmanned Intelligence Vehicle (UIV) for ATR and Tracking of Dismounts and Vehicles
Abstract:Information Systems Laboratories (ISL) and DMT LLC are pleased to propose an SBIR program to develop an advanced sensor system for an Unmanned Intelligence Vehicle (UIV). The proposed Phase I effort focuses on the cooperation and interaction potential offered by multi-sensor phenomenology and intelligent sensor control to enable autonomous persistent track of targets in urban areas. The project entails detailed characterization of available sensors and sensor types to fully understand their capability, size, weight, and power (SWAP), cost, and availability. These sensors will include GMTI radar, EO/IR systems, Hyperspectral Imaging Systems, and SIGINT systems. Algorithms for sensor fusion and tracking performance improvement through automatic target recognition will be identified and evaluated. The most promising algorithms and techniques will be recommended for implementation in a Phase II demonstration. A concept of operations (CONOPS) will be developed which includes persistent surveillance capability for counter IED as well as intelligence gathering and operations support missions.

PHOTON-X, INC.
4835 University Square, Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 704-3416
Mr. Blair A. Barbour
AF 06-223      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Multi-Phenomenology Sensing and Sensor Control in Unmanned Intelligence Vehicle (UIV) for ATR and Tracking of Dismounts and Vehicles
Abstract:Photon-X has developed a novel spatial phase technology that can passively and automatically extract 3-D feature information from a targeted scene in real-time using a single aperture visible or IR camera system. Photon-X will demonstrate the additional benefit derived from this system when combined with legacy sensor systems to create a comprehensive unmanned targeting application. The Photon-X Spatial Phase camera directly measures the Surface Normal Unit Vector (SNUV) of reflected light without moving parts and without sacrificing brightness and color imaging as available with traditional video cameras. SNUV's are processed directly into surface elements with associated normal vectors yielding 3D surface geometry with extremely low computational complexity and ambiguity. Photon-X has demonstrated the fact that camera-extracted 3D normal vectors are inherently specific to the object of origin, and can be transformed into rotational-, translational- and scale-invariant signatures. Normal vectors are generated by the true object surface geometry, independent of surface characteristics, including paint scheme, brightness, reflectivity, smoothness, color and camouflage. Normal vectors are far less distorted by smoke, clouds, or haze than traditional image intensities. Normal vector extraction is also independent of range to target, allowing object recognition and 3D extraction to achieve equal accuracy for near and far-range objects.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 350
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-5401
Dr. Ronald L. Dilsavor
AF 06-223      Awarded: 05MAY06
Title:Single Platform Autonomous Reconnaissance using Omnispectral Sensing (SPAROS) for Sensor-Aided Vigilance
Abstract:SET Corporation will develop a system to conduct Single Platform Autonomous Reconnaissance using Omnispectral Sensing (SPAROS) from an unmanned intelligence vehicle (UIV). The SPAROS UIV will feature a tightly-integrated suite of RF and EO sensors and associated processing to detect, track, identify, and geolocate target vehicles and dismounts operating in urban environment. SET will collaborate with the AFRL/SNAT research team to establish system requirements, develop a concept of operations, and conduct cost/benefit trades involved in the selection of discriminating phenomenologies, promising processing strategies, RF and EO sensors, and candidate UIV platforms and auxiliary subsystems. The system engineering design space will span a suite of sensors including active radar and SIGINT sensors as well as Low Light and Image Intensified TV, MWIR/LWIR/multispectral video, and ladar to provide a reconnaissance capability even in near-dark and moderate cloud/smoke conditions. SET is well-acquainted with a broad range of processing strategies from RF Doppler fingerprinting to 3D model construction from multi-view ladar as well as particle filtering to combat complex urban target kinematics and high confuser densities. Phase I research will form the foundation for a significant Phase II prototyping and experimentation effort in the AFRL/SNA SAVig laboratory.

FIRST RF CORP.
4865 Sterling Drive, Suite 100
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 06-231      Awarded: 01MAY06
Title:Load Bearing Antenna Structure for Small Unmanned Air Vehicles (SUAV's)
Abstract:FIRST RF is proposing a two pronged approach of both smaller and small sized SUAVs. For the "smaller" SUAV FIRST RF is teaming up with the Research and Engineering Center for Unmanned Vehicles (RECUV), at the University of Colorado, Boulder. During Phase I FIRST RF will be funding RECUV using IR&D funds for assistance in integrating a Conformal Miniturized Broadband (CoMB) antenna into their SUAV, the ARES II. RECUV has a composites layup facility, and the appropriate machining capabilities necessary to design and integrate CoMB antennas into the wing of a SUAV. As a larger "small" platform, FIRST RF will work with General Atomics using their Predator UAV. The Predator will allow for larger payloads to be carried as well as longer flight times. Our relationship with GA gives us the opportunity to collaborate with an advanced UAV house and extend the CoMB antenna concept into larger and more capable SUAVs. FIRST RF is proposing evaluation of three types of antennas. All three antennas make use of advanced antenna technology developed by FIRST RF. The proposed CoMB antennas are practical and can be easily integrated into the wing of a UAV or SUAV.

NEXTGEN AERONAUTICS
2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8362
Mr. Robert Bortolin
AF 06-231      Awarded: 01MAY06
Title:CLAS (Conformal Load Bearing Antenna Structures) for SUAVs (Small Unmanned Air Vehicles)
Abstract:A team led by NextGen Aeronautics Inc. has teamed with Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) to develop a group of CLAS antennas that cover broadband, low-band (30 MHz to 300 MHz) frequencies on a confined structure for military aircraft applications. The planned work builds upon the team's extensive prior experience in conformal load-bearing antenna structures (CLAS) and antenna design, and DBF technologies. The proposed antenna elements have already been designed and tested in standard VHF-FM and AM, UHF Comm, and L band Comm configurations and can have their frequency bands broadened using the same RF design and antenna design tools already employed. At the end of Phase I, we will fabricate a proof of concept VHF antenna design and in a Phase II program we plan to flight test the structures on a NextGen UAV. Parts of the UAV's aluminum frame will be replaced with composite pieces that include the antennas and are a structural part of the airframe. This antenna system will provide efficient broadband RF performance that covers the full spectrum of commercial communications systems such as HAM radio, satellite radio, cellar phones, television, AM/FM radio, HDTV, and marine services.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Mr. Ryan Sneed
AF 06-232      Awarded: 01MAY06
Title:Unified Pressurization and Valving for Smart-Material Based Electrohydrostatic Actuators (EHAs)
Abstract:Smart material-based actuators have shown promise as compact units for generating fluid power. These actuators have been successfully built to operate at high frequencies, but valve limitations have consistently reduced overall performance. Both passive and active valve concepts have been designed and tested. Passive reed-type valves are simple and compact, but fail to fully open and close during high frequency operation. Conventional active valves require additional drive and control hardware that red