DoD SBIR FY06.3 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Air Force - Navy - MDA - OSD

---------- AF ----------

19 Phase I Selections from the 06.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mrs. M. Berg
AF 06-002      Awarded: 15DEC06
Title:Nanostructured Radiation Hard Optical Coatings for Star Trackers
Abstract:During the proposed Phase I SBIR program, NanoSonic will fabricate novel multilayered self-assembled anti-reflective coatings onto the surface of space-based detector substrates that will impart improved durability and broadband transmission exceeding the current treatment technology. NanoSonic will demonstrate improvements to broadband transmission by targeting the desired waveband and optical transmission specifications. The requirements for this technology will demonstrate the utility of our patented electrostatic self assembly method, which can be tailored to provide an array of coating properties to a substrate of interest, with controlled thicknesses in the range of several to hundreds of nanometers, with minimal variation and exceptional surface roughness control. The anti-reflective coating of the detector aperture is subjected to a variety of damaging environmental conditions, including extreme temperature variations and exposure to solar radiation. This damage cannot be remotely repaired which renders the detector inoperable, thus unable to communicate accurate information to the interceptors. Substantial improvements to the current coating technology will elevate the performance of the detector and can be achieved through refined control of optical transmission through a longer wavelength, as well as enhanced durability, by employing the ESA method using select materials.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura Road, Suite 240Suite 240
Calabasas, CA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Dr. Richard A. Hutchin
AF 06-002      Awarded: 15DEC07
Title:High Slew Rate Radiation Hardened Star Tracker
Abstract:Optical Physics Company (OPC) is proposing to investigate a novel interferometric star tracker design with end-of-life measurement error of 0.13 arcseconds at a spacecraft slew rate of 2 deg/sec. The interferometer design is inherently rad-hard and athermal, easily capable of operating in the orbital temperature range (-65 to 65 degrees C) and radiation dose (300 krad). Furthermore the full star tracker has lost in space recovery capability similar to most high end star trackers. One proposed option adds an interferometric front end to a more traditional star tracker design, thereby building upon proven technology and leveraging the substantial investment in star trackers to date. The project will be conducted in cooperation with subcontractor Ball Aerospace in Boulder, Colorado, who will keep the technical goals aligned with customer needs. During Phase I a lab breadboard of the star interferometer with a white light simulated star source will be built and tested. In addition, an end-to-end analytic performance model will be developed and anchored to a wave-optic simulation of the system including radiation, thermal, vibration and slew disturbances plus data processing. The Phase I project will conclude with a blueprint of the Phase II prototype design and test plan.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street, Ste. 400Ste. 400
San Diego, CA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0702
Mr. David J. Strobel
AF 06-002      Awarded: 14DEC06
Title:Radiation Hard High Precision Agile Star Tracker
Abstract:Space Micro, teamed with SAIC and Octant, propose a high performance, rad hard star tracker based on proven CMOS APS device technology. The approach that the Space Micro team will use in developing and demonstrating a radiation hardened star tracker that meets the AFRL SBIR performance goals is to highly leverage and integrate existing R&D at all three companies. Combination of new CMOS APS sensor and camera,, Octant's "lost in space" LIS algorithms, and Space Micro's high performance DSP rad hard processing, enables breakthrough DoD star tracker performance. In addition to our baseline concept, we will monitor other DoD SBIR activities and insert if they appear to viable and producible.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Donald L. Herman, Jr.
AF 06-004      Awarded: 15DEC06
Title:High-Speed, Low-Power ADC (9728)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop a radiation-resistant, high-speed (> 2 Gs/s), high-resolution (12-bit), low-power (< 3 W) analog to digital converter (ADC) for satellite communications and other wide band digital receiver applications. No available ADC offers this combination of performance, power, and radiation tolerance. A combination of innovative design and advanced SiGe BiCMOS technology will be used to meet the performance and power goals in an ADC that is radiation resistant by design and technology. The ADC will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of digital receivers by moving data conversion closer to the antenna, eliminating intermediate RF/IF stages. During Phase I a conceptual design will be developed and key cells simulated. Prototype ADCs will be designed during Phase II for use in satellites for the Air Force and other military and commercial applications.

TIALINX, INC.
8 Halley
Irvine, CA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 285-6255
Dr. Fred Mohamadi
AF 06-004      Awarded: 15DEC06
Title:High Data Rate, Low Power Analog to Digital Converter
Abstract:In response to the phase I SBIR proposal, various methods of using flash and folding analaog to digital conversion designs have been proposed to address feasibility of design of an ADC with the minimum requirement of: ERBW > 1 GHz (sample rate >2 GSPS), ENOB >10 bits, Power dissipation <3 W, radiation total dose tolerance > 1 Mrad, Operating temperature range -40 to +80 deg C Gain flatness <0.1 dB, linearity <=0.5 LSB, and channel-to-channel isolation >80 dB. Favorable process technologies and devices have been elaborated.

AZNA CORP.
36 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 642-2095
Dr. Daniel Magherefteh
AF 06-005      Awarded: 15DEC06
Title:Satellite Optical Communications Module
Abstract:Here we propose a compact tunable transmitter based on Azna's established directly modulated chirp managed laser (CMLT) technology that exceeds LaserComm requirements. The transmitter comprises a tunable directly modulated semiconductor laser and a passive optical spectrum reshaping filter. The tunable semiconductor laser is integrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) to generate > 10 dBm output power over 30 nm. This CML transmitter will be capable of generating a variety of modulation formats including standard NRZ, RZ, and RZ-DPSK. The tunable CML transmitter will fit in a standard 14 pin butterfly package, and consume < 3 W power, and require < 2 Vpp driver voltage. Compared to the conventional lithium niobate transmitter, the CML transmitter will be 6 -10 times smaller, consume 3 times less power, with similar performance.

MICROCOSM, INC.
401 Coral Circle
El Segundo, CA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 726-4100
Mr. Paul Graven
AF 06-006      Awarded: 01FEB07
Title:Generic Adaptive Approaches for Orbit and Attitude Determination on Earth Pointing Spacecraft
Abstract:Many critical space assets include imaging payloads that keep vigilant watch over the Earth's surface. The navigation (NAV) and attitude determination and control (ADCS) approaches traditionally used to control these assets rely on the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) and a variety of ADCS sensors as primary inputs for control. However, GPS and ADCS sensors are at some risk of loss, outage, or degradation. Microcosm, with partner HRP Systems, proposes to develop innovative NAV and ADCS approaches, derived from Plug and Play (PnP) avionics and software development concepts, to provide primary and back-up NAV/ADCS operations for these critical Earth pointing space assets. The team will analyze discrete NAV and ADCS mode changes based on sensor performance and availability, as well as the development of a flexible Kalman Filter that seamlessly transitions as the complement and/or quality of inputs changes. These frameworks allow for a broad array of traditional NAV and ADCS sensors, as well as the integration of "synthetic sensor inputs" which could come from specialized payloads, communication devices, or ground interaction. The team will draw from their involvement in the PnP ADCS/NAV activities of AFRL's Responsive Space Testbed (RST) and PnPSat to develop the proposed capabilities.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography Division, 20600 Gram20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Russell Kurtz
AF 06-006      Awarded: 15DEC06
Title:Multispectral Synthetic Aperture Satellite Attitude Sensor System
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for backup sensor capability for earth pointing and attitude determination, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Multispectral Synthetic Aperture Satellite Attitude (MUSAA) sensor system that fuses data from multiple infrared spectral bands into a synthetic aperture system for accurate location of beacons and/or geographic features. This system consists of an all-reflective telescope coupled to a 6 in. x 6 in. x 4 in. box containing space-qualified electronics and optics. The MUSAA system will achieve earth pointing accuracy better than 1 arc second by implementing the first satellite-based combination of synthetic aperture, multiple distributed beacons, and multispectral imaging. It will have high reliability as a result of sensor and multispectral redundancy, robustness from proprietary POC reflection control, the capability of rejecting spurious signals within the imaging band, automatic gain control, and correction latency of <1 ms in all modes. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MUSAA by building a theoretical model, fabricating a benchtop prototype, and conducting laboratory testing and evaluation. In Phase II we plan to develop an optimized prototype system with integrated optics, electronics, and software, and will demonstrate real-time earth pointing.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Andrew Young
AF 06-007      Awarded: 10JAN07
Title:Impact Assessment for Defensive Counterspace (IA4DCS)
Abstract:A key element to supporting Space Situation Awareness (SSA) and Defensive Counterspace (DCS) operations is to develop capabilities that address the characterization and the impact assessment that attacks and environmental effects have on our military space infrastructure. The Space Vehicles directorate of the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL/VS) has funded several programs in recent years studying the application of data fusion theory to automated abnormality and threat detection and characterization. As a member of the AFRL/VS Data Fusion Research Team, Charles River Analytics is currently working on Situation Assessment for Defensive Counterspace (SA4DCS), a suite of relationship and situation assessment algorithms within a large-scale, multi-level Space Awareness and Response System (SARS). In order to estimate and predict the implications of the assessed relationship and situational states generated by SA4DCS, we propose to develop an Impact Assessment System for Defensive Counterspace (IA4DCS). IA4DCS aims to extend current research and development efforts within AFRL/VS's SARS to include Level 3 data fusion impact assessment processing in order to achieve the necessary discrimination and mission impact and appropriate response generation to man-made events, space weather occurrences, and satellite abnormalities.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400Suite 400
Rockville, MD
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5250
Dr. Leonard Haynes
AF 06-007      Awarded: 18DEC06
Title:A Markov Game Theoretic High Level Data Fusion Approach for Defensive Counterspace
Abstract:We propose a highly innovative Markov (stochastic) game theoretic level-3 data fusion approach for defensive counterspace. It is known that Bayesian Network is an insightful approach to determine optimal strategies against adversarial opponent. However, it lacks the essential adversarial decision processes perspective and has the following disadvantages: 1) it needs prior information (or details specific to an unidentified adversary), and 2) assumes only one player. Since game theory is more realistic for addressing the presence of intelligent adversary in decision making, Markov (Stochastic) game model is used to estimate the belief of each possible enemy COA (ECOA), which is proposed here to represent the effect of satellite threats such as space weather and man-made threats. Our multiplayer non-zero sum game theoretic approach is more effective because it takes into account the fact that both the adversary and the neutral players (normal spacecrafts) are intelligent. We integrate the deception concept in our game approach to model the action of purposely rendering partial information to hide the space attackers. With the consideration that an attacker may act like a neutral or white object (normal spacecrafts), we also model the actions of white objects in our non-zero sum Markov game framework.

REFERENTIA SYSTEMS, INC.
550 Paiea Street , Suite #236Suite #236
Honolulu, HI
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 328-1245
Dr. Gary Haith
AF 06-007      Awarded: 15DEC06
Title:Satellite Threat and Environmental Effects Assessments for Defensive Counterspace
Abstract:Satellites and other spacecraft are a key asset and critical vulnerability in our communications, surveillance and defense infrastructure. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Defensive Counterspace (DCS) efforts are aimed at leveraging the massive amounts of data gathered from ground, air and space based sensors to monitor and ideally protect these assets. While there has been much work on data fusion in this area, the efforts to date have not yielded estimates of impact and cost of a given situation or suggested courses of action (level 3 data fusion). This gap is largely due to an absence of historical data relevant to hostile threat scenarios and other anomalous conditions that require countermeasures to ensure continued satellite functioning. The proposed technology leverages Automatic Red Teaming (ART) agent based simulation techniques to generate realistic data relevant to likely threat scenarios - including estimated impact and course of action evaluations. This simulated data can then be analyzed (akin to lower level data fusion approaches) in order to support automatic detection, categorization, and countermeasure suggestion for future satellite data.

FIREHOLE TECHNOLOGIES
1000 E University Ave, Dept. 3011Dept. 3011
Laramie, WY
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 766-3656
Dr. Don Robbins
AF 06-009      Awarded: 19JAN07
Title:Advanced, Lightweight Structural Materials
Abstract:The extreme operating environment and high performance requirements of space vehicles and structures necessitate designs that simultaneously optimize mass efficiency and reliability. These criteria are in direct opposition since reliability comes with a weight penalty and, conversely, extreme mass efficiency leads to reduced reliability. These conflicting goals, in the unforgiving, expensive operating environment of space, require that designers have access to sophisticated analytical tools to predict the behavior of these structures. This project will further develop an innovative composite structures analysis approach known as Multicontinuum Technology (MCT). MCT is a finite element based multiscale technology that is accurate, extremely efficient, and highly accessible to the structural analyst. Evidence from the Worldwide Failure Exercise suggests that MCT is poised to become one of the premier numerical analysis tools for composite structures For verification, an experimental program consisting of combined thermal and multi-axial loading of composite cylinders will be included. Finally, in the second phase of the program, we intend to illustrate the value of the improved analytical techniques by leveraging MCT and our proprietary variable-kinematic finite element technology (VKFE), to perform for the first time an accurate and efficient progressive failure analysis of advanced grid stiffened composite structural components.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
10F GIll Street
Woburn, MA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Pavel Bystricky
AF 06-009      Awarded: 15DEC06
Title:Advanced Architecture, Super Lightweight Structural Composites for Space Applications
Abstract:Future communication satellites require advances in materials and structures to increase vehicle payload ratio. Traditional metal- and composite-based approaches have matured to the point that meaningful improvements in structural efficiency are difficult to achieve. KaZaK proposes to develop and demonstrate a unique composite reinforcement architecture based on novel carbon fiber preforms in combination with matrices optimized specifically for spacecraft applications. Carbon/epoxy composites manufactured by techniques proposed here have already demonstrated surprising improvements in mechanical properties over conventional composites, including a 30% increase in tensile strength, an order of magnitude improvement in fatigue life, increased stiffness and reduction in delamination damage. KaZaK will show that expanding this revolutionary reinforcement architecture from epoxy to include novel high performance matrices tailored for space environments will provide higher temperature capability and lower outgassing. In addition, the proposed technology will enable production of thinner-walled composite parts with mechanical properties equivalent to conventional thickness structures, leading to super lightweight components. In addition to demonstrating improved material properties in Phase I, KaZaK will work with a commercial satellite company to develop a new satellite structure that takes maximum advantage of our improved composite technology, then compare this composite alternative to a current technology aluminum satellite baseline.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. R.O.Loutfy
AF 06-009      Awarded: 15DEC06
Title:Advanced Carbon Nanotubes- based Polymer Matrix Composites for Satellites
Abstract:Significant reductions in structural weight are urgently required in order to create higher payload communication satellites. Reductions are commonly sought through the use of strong, stiff and lightweight composite materials that sometimes possess as an additional advantage good thermal, electrical and radiation protection properties. Carbon nanotubes are promising reinforcements for Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs), but the problems experienced when attempting to incorporate them at high or even moderate loading into a polymer matrix are not yet resolved to the extent of being able to take full advantage of the great potential of nanotubes. The problem of selecting a polymer and then using it to create a composite with a desired set of properties will be addressed by developing a new technique for incorporating the nanotubes into the polymer matrix, consisting of stacking thin uniform large area nanotube mats in alternation with polymer films and then consolidating them into a laminated composite by applying an appropriate thermobaric treatment. In Phase I, laminate PMCs with high loadings of large area mats of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and based on high-performance polymers will be manufactured, and their mechanical, thermal and electric properties evaluated for compliance with communication satellite specifications.

BECK ENGINEERING
3319 21st Ave NW
Gig Harbor, WA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 876-9710
Dr. Douglas S. Beck
AF 06-011      Awarded: 12FEB07
Title:Drill End-Effector for Robotic Drilling in Confined Space Aircraft Inlet Ducts
Abstract:The Air Force needs a Robotic Drilling System (RDS) for drilling and countersinking holes in JSF inlet ducts. We propose a team to develop all elements of a complete RDS: Robot/Robotic Application; Drill End-Effector (DEE); Metrology System; Cutting Tools; and an Automatic Tool Changer. This proposal focuses on the DEE. We propose to develop a Vacuum Nose-Lock/DEE (VNL/DEE). Robots can accurately position drills, but robots lack rigidity required during drilling, so hole quality can be poor. Positive clamp-up forces can be used to increase structural rigidity. However, maximum allowable forces on ducts limit positive clamp-up forces and, therefore, rigidity and hole quality. Our VNL/DEE provides negative clamp-up forces that subtract from drilling forces to produce: small (or even NET-ZERO) forces on ducts; rigid structures; and precise holes. Our VNL/DEE has compact dimensions to access a high percentage of holes in JSF inlet ducts. In Phase I, we will demonstrate our VNL/DEE. In Phase II, we will: implement needed improvements; and fully develop our VNL/DEE and RDS for initial pilot production capability. In Phase III, our team will integrate our RDS for lab and full-scale milestones and production floor cell integration.

COMPOSITE CUTTER TECHNOLOGY
31632 N. Ellis Dr Unit 210
Volo, IL
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 740-6875
Mr. Glenn Isaacson
AF 06-011      Awarded: 12FEB07
Title:Terminally Guided Robots and Robotic Applications in Confined Spaces
Abstract:This proposal focuses on the need to develop a cutting tool for the robotic drilling process. We have enlisted ComauPico as a partner in this venture and all testing shall be carried out in their robotic drilling testing cell by their engineers. This will allow us to get first hand information in robotic drilling that we would not have otherwise been available. In ComauPico's recent testing, it was observed that there can be a point where the thrust exerted by the drill exceeds the force of pressure foot. In talks with ComauPico we have identified this as the root cause that has led to the inaccuracies reported in their testing. Composite Cutter Technology's proposal is to develop a drill bit comprised of state of the art materials while incorporating advanced, patent pending cutting geometry to enhance the initial cutter-to-material engagement, which will reduce the forces on the material and the robotic system. Without the development of a cutter of this type, the thrust forces from the drilling process exceed the levels required for robot stability and consistent hole quality that are required by today's aerospace industry.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. James H. Goldie
AF 06-011      Awarded: 12FEB07
Title:Flange edge-location metrology sensor for robotic drilling in the JSF inlet ducts
Abstract:A sensor is proposed that will allow the robotic system to "see" the frame mounting flange through the inlet duct wall. The ability to directly perceive the location of the flange circumvents the stackup of a number of metrology errors, alleviating the problem of holes in violation of edge margin requirements and potentially offering designers with the option of reducing frame mounting flange widths. Northrop Grumman's own study indicates that accurate kinematic modeling is not enough to solve this problem, and they are seeking new metrology approaches. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the sensor by testing it in a manner that closely emulates its use in the real application. The objective will be to prove that the sensor can locate the flange to the necessary accuracy in the presence of representative manufacturing and material tolerances. In addition, Phase I will both define the integration of the sensor function into the robotic drilling metrology process and incorporate the sensor design into the overall robotic system design, including packaging, signals, and electrical and mechanical interfaces. Phase II would undertake integration of the sensor systems into manufacturing robots and demonstrate their use with test articles and subsequently in pilot production.

PAR SYSTEMS
899 Highway 96 West
Shoreview, MN
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 528-5210
Mr. Jim Cunov
AF 06-011      Awarded: 12FEB07
Title:Terminally Guided Robots and Robotic Applications in Confined Spaces
Abstract:This research will develop designs and new technologies needed for the first two critical system elements; (1) the robot system application and (2) drill end effector as defined in SBIR solicitation AF063C-011 entitled "Terminally Guided Robots and Robotic Application in Confined Spaces". This work will extend the reach and accuracy to successfully drill inside highly contoured JSF/F-35 air inlet ducts. The primary objective is by using low cost commercially available pedestal robots to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving; (a) robot placement accuracy of 0.007" (b) drilled hole diameter accuracies of 0.0015" (c) counter sink diameter accuracies of 0.012" (d) minimal manual intervention (e) support a 20 hour ship set cycle time. Specific areas that will be studied in the robot application are: pose optimization, real-time collision detection, system layout, drill accessibility, interfaces and future enhancements, Specific areas in the drill effector that will be studied include packaging and validation of performance measures. PaR Systems (PaR) will leverage our extensive experience of fielding proven automation systems which have solved many of these similar problems in the production of larger complex aircraft components.

VARIATION REDUCTION SOLUTIONS, INC.
47019 Five Mile Road
Plymouth, MI
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 414-0035
Mr. Brett Bordyn
AF 06-011      Awarded: 12FEB07
Title:Terminally Guided Robots and Robotic Applications in Confined Spaces
Abstract:Variation Reduction Solutions, Inc. (VRSI) has created a partnership with Comau Pico to address the Air Force's stated desire to increase the use of robotics in aerospace manufacturing. Standard articulating arm robots are not currently in widespread use due to their inability to hold aerospace manufacturing tolerances. The current industry trend to create perfect robots through the use of correction modeling and software can be expensive while resulting in complex systems with no in-process positional verification. The robot arm that can fit in and reach through the confined space will likely have deflection under gravity and drilling loads. Additionally, many commercial guidance packages can't meet the accuracy requirements or won't fit the confined space application. To address these issues and meet the aggressive Phase 1 timeline and production schedule for the F-35, VRSI proposes a method to utilize off-the-shelf robots and existing metrology industry hardware in an innovative solution that provides the required accuracy, process control, validation, and robustness. Together with our partner Comau Pico, we offer a comprehensive metrology-based system solution for inlet duct robotic drilling with a technology approach that will meet the process requirements and enable the broader use of robots in aerospace manufacturing.

---------- NAVY ----------

34 Phase I Selections from the 06.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
INTEVAC, INC.
Photonics Technology Division3560 Bassett Street
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 496-2254
Mr.Ross LaRue
NAVY 06-166      Selected for Award
Title:GaAsP Photo-cathode process improvement
Abstract:Intevac has been manufacturing high performance III-V semiconductor photocathode-based electron bombarded sensors for low light level imaging and photon detection for over fifteen years. The focus has been long-range target identification at 1.5 microns, light detection and ranging at 1.06 microns, and VIS-NIR night vision systems. Intevac's wide range of sensors and detector products have been optimized for these applications using high quantum efficiency (QE) gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium arsenide/indium phosphide (InGaAs/InP) photocathodes. Intevac has invested heavily in transitioning its core photocathode manufacturing processes from single-wafer, metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) development tools to state-of-the-art, multi-wafer MOCVD production tools for high volume, low cost manufacturing. Several high priority Navy programs require the use of detectors and sensors with high performance in the blue-green portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These devices have typically been manufactured using gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) photocathodes in order to achieve optimum QE in the blue-green wave-band. Historically, Intevac's MOCVD development tools have not been able to produce GaAsP photocathodes with stable QE and wafer yield. The purpose of this SBIR is to develop a process to consistently produce high yield, high QE GaAsP photocathodes using Intevac's state-of-the-art MOCVD production tools.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr.Michael Reznikov
NAVY 06-166      Awarded: 19DEC06
Title:Technology for Producing GaAsP Transparent Photocathodes
Abstract:To address the Navy need for an innovative process to fabricate gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) photocathodes to improve photosensor performance parameters including wide dynamic range, uniform QE, reduced cost, and high yield, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new process for fabricating GaAsP transparent photocathodes directly on glass substrates. The process is based on new, highly efficient fabrication of GaAsP photocathode directly on an n-type silicon layer. Elimination of bonding to the glass substrate and etching of an initial wafer precludes the distortion of photocathode structure and facilitates integrity thus increasing the yield and enhancing quantum efficiency. The process offers better integrity of the photocathode structure, with reduced stress; improved dynamic range, quantum efficiency, and photocathode uniformity; and increased production yield. Photocathode produced by the new process will then be tested in an existing photodevice. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative process and develop a detailed plan for its implementation in the fabrication of existing photodevices. In Phase II POC will conduct a detailed investigation of each production step, implement the innovative process photodevice fabrication, and demonstrate the parameters of the GaAsP photocathode in the device selected.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr.Peter Chow
NAVY 06-166      Awarded: 20DEC06
Title:Advanced Fabrication Techniques for High Yield GaAsP Photocathodes
Abstract:This Phase I effort seeks to improve the yield and quantum efficiency of GaAsP photocathodes by improved growth process and post-growth fabrication steps

ADAPTIVE METHODS, INC.
5885 Trinity ParkwaySuite 230
Centreville, VA 20120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 968-8040
Mr.Brian Samuels
NAVY 06-167      Awarded: 23JAN07
Title:Modeling and Implementations of Non-explosive Electric Sparker Sources
Abstract:Environmental adaptation is critical to the success of vital ASW missions. Environmental adaptation is particularly important for confident and effective multi-static active ASW in challenging littoral waters characterized by a high degree of uncertainty and variability. Acoustic sources are required to generate the transmission loss or reverberation needed for inversion of bottom properties. Non-explosive sources provide logistical and tactical benefits to the inversion, but they also introduce some computational challenges. Specifically, algorithms are needed for the processing (inversion) and implementation (deployment strategy) of the non-explosive sources for environmental adaptation. The Adaptive Methods team brings a wealth of experience and expertise in the areas of environmental adaptation, geoacoustic inversion, Air ASW operational concepts, and underwater acoustics. Building on prior research in related areas, the team will meet the following objectives in the Phase I research: 1) the specification of processing algorithms for inversion, using a baseline of concurrent inversion based on the Adaptive Simulated Annealing approach; 2) the specification of deployment algorithms, using a baseline of an initial sparse field concept; 3) an evaluation of the algorithms that is data-driven and based on tactical performance metrics; and 4) a comprehensive, integrated plan for deployment of the algorithms to the fleet.

ECHO TECHNICAL
930 S. Bell Blvd Ste 303
Cedar Park, TX 78613
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 918-3246
Dr.Jeffrey A Cook
NAVY 06-167      Awarded: 22JAN07
Title:Littoral Electric Arc Discharge Environmental Reporter (LEADER)
Abstract:Echo Technical proposes to develop an innovative Littoral Electric Arc Discharge Environmental Reporter (LEADER) to support NAVY ASW tactical mission requirements associated with subsurface battlespace environmental characterization. The solution proposed is based on the experience that Echo Technical has with the development and validation of acoustic propagation algorithms in broad ocean areas and with miniaturized sparker acoustic sources recently developed. Key features of the solution include the use of data simulation from representative scenarios, a critical evaluation of the ability of each algorithm to invert the data and recover the original environmental specification, and a subjective evaluation of the overlapping capabilities of algorithms that may be applied in a layered integrated approach. The fidelity of data sets generated will be enhanced by the detailed specification of physical and functional characteristics of one or more sparker implementations, any of which can be demonstrated to be realizable in near term application, based on previously developed Echo Technical fieldable prototypes.

PHOENIX SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
27 Industrial Avenue
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 367-0232
Dr.Raymond B. Schaefer
NAVY 06-167      Awarded: 22JAN07
Title:Modeling and Implementations of Non-explosive Electric Sparker Sources
Abstract:This project is to develop acoustic processing algorithms and implementation methods using sparker acoustic sources for rapid real-time environmental measurements Phase I will evaluate innovative approaches using modeling simulations and sparker experimental data for validation. The proposed approach will employ direct transmission measurements, developing algorithms that take advantage of the repeatability of sparker, the capability to emit multiple pulses, as well as the possible use of real time measurements at the source. In Phase II the new modeling and implementation approach design will be implemented and tested at sea for SEA. The long-term goal is to develop innovative acoustic processing algorithms and implementation methods to support the successful transition of a sparker based SEA buoy to the fleet for rapid real-time environmental measurements.

APECOR
3259 Progress Drive, Ste. A
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 275-1174
Khalid Rustom
NAVY 06-168      Awarded: 09JAN07
Title:DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST, HIGH-EFFICIENCY, HIGH-DENSITY, DIGITALLY-CONTROLLED DC-DC CONVERTER
Abstract:The unique requirements of the high-voltage capacitive load DC/DC converter for the Navy's non-explosive based acoustic source provide an exciting opportunity for applying innovative design concepts not commonly encountered in commercial power supply product design. The objective of this SBIR proposal is to investigate the technical feasibility of a unique 6000V DC/DC converter design to achieve high power density, high efficiency, and extremely low manufacturing cost at the same time. The proposed converter features a simple yet elegant interleaved parallel/series flyback topology, an innovative control mechanism to enhance the energy delivery efficiency under a wide output voltage range of 0-6000V, and a highly compact magnetics design. The novel control mechanism includes a variable frequency peak current mode digital control strategy and a feedback control loop completely isolated from the high voltage load, Our preliminary first order modeling analysis indicates that these proposed design concepts show a great promise in meeting the Navy's product specifications. A more elaborated research plan in the design, modeling, analysis, optimization, and prototyping of the converter is provided in detail in this proposal. In the Phase I option, one or more prototypes will be built in order to verify and improve the proposed design concepts

G.E.S. OF NORTHWEST FLORIDA, INC.
10013 Calle de Celestino
Navarre, FL 32566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 936-1171
Mr.Richard Gean
NAVY 06-168      Awarded: 09JAN07
Title:COMPACT HIGH-POWER DC-DC CONVERTER FOR NAVY NON-EXPLOSIVE ACOUSTIC SOURCES
Abstract:The evolution of technology, over the past decade, has resulted in the miniaturization of electronic packaging in commercial and military applications; this has pushed the demand for higher power densities in low and high voltage switching power supply designs. Due to increased electric field stress, it is a challenge to design large power densities in high voltage applications. Existing methods to address the high voltage issue, result in the introduction of undesired parasitic reactance, which adversely impacts the efficiency and reliability of the converter power stage. To address the problem, the proposed Phase I research intends to investigate the technical feasibility of using a resonant topology to utilize the unwanted parasitic reactance in the power stage.

PHOENIX SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
27 Industrial Avenue
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 367-0232
Dr.Raymond B. Schaefer
NAVY 06-168      Awarded: 09JAN07
Title:COMPACT HIGH-POWER DC-DC CONVERTER FOR NAVY NON-EXPLOSIVE ACOUSTIC SOURCES
Abstract:This proposal is to demonstrate a new DC-DC converter that meets power density, power, life, thermal and cost goals for SEA sparkers. Phase I will include characterizing DC-DC performance in charging a capacitive load of a SEA sparker as well as with a stand-alone SEA sparker system. Test results will be used to design and estimate the cost of a DC-DC converter for use in a SEA sparker, leading to a design of a new SEA sparker and that incorporates the benefits of the more compact converter. In Phase II the new converter design will be built and tested and prototyped for manufacturing, and the new SEA sparker built and tested at sea in a new sparker for SEA.

QORTEK, INC.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr.Gareth J. Knowles
NAVY 06-168      Awarded: 09JAN07
Title:COMPACT HIGH-POWER DC-DC CONVERTER FOR NAVY NON-EXPLOSIVE ACOUSTIC SOURCES
Abstract:The Program will demonstrate, at hardware level, a low cost, all solid-state power solution to providing 250W-300W high-efficiency, compact/subcompact, low weight, DC-DC upconverter delivering 6000 Volts DC power from 30 VDC battery pack power to an acoustic (sparker) source with efficiency greater than 90% (Vin/Vout) efficiency. To achieve this we are proposing a completely different approach of an all solid-state converter using series-parallel electrical architecture.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 501-2880
Mr.Nicholas Flacco
NAVY 06-169      Awarded: 14FEB07
Title:Atmospheric Noise Cancellation for Low Frequency (LF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF)
Abstract:Aret Associates proposes improving VLF channel capacity, bit error rate, and range of operations for submarines and supporting aircraft. By implementing adaptive cancellation of atmospheric noise, the SNR of the received signal will be enhanced as much as 6dB at the VLF receiver. The noise suppression algorithm will require no modification to existing receiver hardware and will apply to VLF receivers aboard E-4B, E-6B, and submarine platforms.

GIRD SYSTEMS, INC.
310 Terrace Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 281-2900
Mr.Bruce Hart
NAVY 06-169      Awarded: 15FEB07
Title:Atmospheric Noise Cancellation for Low Frequency (LF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF)
Abstract:Very Low Frequency (VLF) and Low Frequency (LF) reception suffers from interference of atmospheric noise caused by lightning, which occurs year round. In this proposal we investigate innovative mitigation methods that have the potential of suppressing atmospheric noise in LF/VLF communications. Performance objective is to improve routine VLF and LF reception in natural atmospheric noise conditions that will permit greater communications range and to reduce the cost of providing electrical power to the Navy fixed VLF and LF transmitters. Extensive computer simulations will be performed to evaluate the developed methods, and a final recommendation will be provided at the end of Phase I.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 565-2970
Mr.Hank Schmidt
NAVY 06-169      Awarded: 13FEB07
Title:Atmospheric Noise Cancellation for Low Frequency (LF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF)
Abstract:TSC proposes a Phase I SBIR research effort to establish the feasibility of integrating a Wideband Signal Processing (WBSP) adjunct processor into the RF path of the TACAMO VLF receiver system in order to allow multiple wideband blanking/filtering stages to reduce the impact of atmospheric noise impulses on VLF FSK/MSK reception. Initial feasibility will be obtained by simulation studies on a model of the proposed system using the TSC Prototype Test Bed and TSC wideband VLF atmospheric noise recordings.

TEKNOWLEDGE CORP.
1800 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 494-5447
Dr.Allan Terry
NAVY 06-170      Awarded: 08FEB07
Title:User-Centered Communications Manager
Abstract:The User-Centered Communications Manager (UCCM) maintains a queue of proposed transmissions that ensures the communication channel is filled with the most valuable data at any instant. A priority based on inherent value, timeliness, urgency, and novelty is computed for each item, and may be updated before it is selected for transmission. Prioritization (which may delay or drop some transmissions), along with choices between alternative modes and formats for the information, reduce bandwidth needs. Pilots will be able to fine-tune priorities by stating their preferences as policies during mission planning. A Plan Execution Monitor will identify unexpected problems and opportunities and add them as prioritized transmissions in the queue. Prioritization policies are set by a product-line approach, where general models are created by a Navy maintenance organization and fine-tuned by mission planning in the Wing. No new work flow or training is required for pilots to use the system during a mission. This work will be based on significant ontology and code resources Teknowledge has already created. Both UCCM and Plan Execution Monitor will be designed to be broadly applicable for other Navy communications situations.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr.Mark R. Meloon
NAVY 06-170      Awarded: 08FEB07
Title:Intelligent Information-Gathering Agents
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a novel algorithm for dynamically prioritizing information available to members of a distributed intelligence architecture. This algorithm will allow a network agent to determine what information is of most value to client agents onboard aircraft based on tactical objectives and the current battlefield situation. Our approach is to use Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) - a leading technique in the field of artificial intelligence - as a data structure to model the current information content of each agent in the network and determine the appropriate level of detail to transmit. As new data is received by an agent in the network, the resulting improvement in mission-specific knowledge is quantified through measures from information theory. If the change is significant, the network agent transmits the information to appropriate agents in the network. In Phase I, we will develop appropriate DBNs for representative naval missions, develop a software prototype, and demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and algorithms. In Phase II, we will refine the scheme and develop a more sophisticated prototype that would allow us to demonstrate and evaluate the scheme.

ATLANTEC ENTERPRISE SOLUTIONS, INC.
175 Admiral Cochrane DriveSuite 400
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 897-9912
Ms.Allegra Treaster
NAVY 06-173      Awarded: 23MAR07
Title:Automating Ship Assembly Planning and Simulation
Abstract:First Marine International, in their latest benchmarking study of the global shipbuilding industry, identified production preparation as one of the key items preventing U.S. shipbuilders from reaching world quality status. These problems are partially caused by a lack of standardized tools to support and automate production planning operations. Simulation tools offer a powerful method to analyze production capabilities, resources, and provide feedback to planners on optimizing assembly planning and sequencing. However, use of simulations is limited due to the long set-up times and steep learning curve. The team will investigate the possibility of automating the creation of a simulation model from an existing assemply planning program. Standardized resource models which describe shipyard facilities, along with the assembly structures definitions extracted from product model data will be used as inputs into a discrete event simulator. The resource model will be rules driven, modular and customizable, enabling work packages to be created at one site and rapidly modified to reflect the work environment at another site. The platforms used will be open and interoperable in order to encourage industry collaboration.

KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS, INC.
10670 Treena StreetSuite 210
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 657-2120
Mr.Kenneth Wolsey
NAVY 06-173      Awarded: 23MAR07
Title:Design and Engineering Integration During the Weld Lifecycle
Abstract:Welding is one of the most important aspects of shipbuilding. Welds are one of the largest labor and material components in ship delivery. Also, the effect of even a single weld failure can be catastrophic to the ship's performance and to crew safety. In spite of its key role, welding in the shipbuilding industry suffers from many problems that plague the welding industry at large as well as challenges unique to shipbuilding. These challenges have created a situation where welding is a high-cost process that lacks useful tools and methods to increase efficiency and lower costs. The proposed solution combines recent research from the welding industry with technology and innovations from Knowledge Systems Solutions to create a rule-based suite of software that supports an interoperable weld lifecycle. The proposed solution will 1. Document a weld lifecycle commonly used in shipbuilding. 2. Implement an open system architecture and neutral data modeling standards for interoperability. 3. Create a suite of rule-based software tools to capture, manage, and reuse best practices and lessons learned. 4. Provide a business model that allows companies to incrementally implement the solution with a quick return on investment.

GLOBAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
110 E. Canal St.
Troy, OH 45373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 481-8050
Mr.David Doll
NAVY 06-174      Awarded: 21MAR07
Title:Conductor and Element Design: Minimizing Recovery time in Superconducting Fault Current Limiters
Abstract:For Navy ship electrical systems there is a need for a new electrical component, a fault current limiter, that can provide several "automatic" functions. Presently, fault detection takes about 80 microseconds with the right instrumentation. Several kinds of faults have short duration, but the difficulty is riding through these faults, especially with electronic switches, which have distinct voltages and current levels, above which the components fail or turn off. If the fault is not of a short duration, then it would be good to limit the fault current long enough to automatically implement fault management to isolate the fault, perform diagnosis, and allow for power re-routing if possible to maintain a combat state. It would be preferable to do this in less than 100 milliseconds, if possible. If ride-through or re-routing is not possible it would be useful to provide current limiting until a mechanical breaker has time to respond. In addition, if the current is limited, smaller current breakers can be used and distributed around the ship to give more opportunities for a re-routing of the current. A superconducting fault current limiter enables all of these functions "automatically". The objective of this SBIR Phase I is to develop a system concept design for a YBCO coated conductor based superconducting fault current limiter for Navy ship applications.

IAP RESEARCH, INC.
2763 Culver Avenue
Dayton, OH 45429
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 296-1806
Mr.Antonios Challita
NAVY 06-174      Awarded: 21MAR07
Title:Investigate and Develop an Analytical Approach to Automatically Mitigate Electrical Faults Caused by Battle Damage
Abstract:Electrical faults in the shipboard power system can result in the loss of power to critical loads of the system because today's electrical systems protection devices cannot clear faults in less than a cycle or two. The result is that very high current flow in the system. In this Phase I SBIR, we propose to develop an initial concept to limit the fault current magnitude by interrupting the current in less than 100 s from onset of fault. To accomplish this we propose to use a fast opening mechanical contactor with solid-state switches in parallel. The fast opening mechanical contactor is actuated by magnetic forces and can interrupt fault current in 100 s. This concept was proven at the 440 V system level, and we are proposing to extend it to the medium voltage level. The successful development of this technology will provide revolutionary new capability in system protection and load survivability.

POWER SUPERCONDUCTOR APPLICATIONS CORP.
930 Cass Street
New Castle, PA 16101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 657-8834
Dr.Stephen Kuznetsov
NAVY 06-174      Awarded: 21MAR07
Title:Analytical Approach to Automatically Mitigate Electrical Faults Caused by Battle Damage
Abstract:Power Superconductor and University of Pittsburgh EE Dept. will investigate a new analytical approach to mitigate bus faults on 4 kV and 13.8 kV ship power systems. The corporation has developed a fast response inductive insertion fault limiter for utility power systems at 15 kV and will analyze how this fault limiter can interface with 4 kV and 13.8 kV ship power systems using a differential inductive limiter with 4.2 millisecond (quarter cycle) response time. PSA has developed software and hardware to rapidly identify 15 different classes of power system faults within a 250 us response time using Labviews software. Analytical work will center on 70 MW generation systems and the specific ships: LPD-17, CVNX and DDX. Newport News Shipbuilding and Princeton Power Systems are team partners in this work for ship integration and logistics.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
10F GIll Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Mr.Rob Karnes
NAVY 06-175      Awarded: 22MAR07
Title:Tailorable Packaging System for Optimized Protection in LCS Mission Modules
Abstract:KaZaK Composites proposes a modular packaging system to protect energetic materials carried inside LCS mission modules. A readily tailorable set of standardized protective panels, in combination with an integrated system for securing items inside mission modules, will allow minimum cost/weight protective solutions to be rapidly designed and implemented. A layered approach will allow individual dangerous packages to be optimally protected against detonation from external blast effects, projectiles, fragmentation, spallation, fire and RF energy. In addition, internal modular packaging will prevent adjacent energetics from sympathetic detonation should one item in the mission module ignite or detonate. This system will allow LCS ISO mission modules to be handled as if their contents were inert. KaZaK is uniquely qualified to address this topic, having extensive experience in energy-absorbing materials, protection against blast, thermal effects, ballistic penetration, modular munitions packaging, containerization, design of lightweight military ISO containers, packaging systems for military shipment, and design for low-cost automated composite production. To minimize risk and production cost, designs will be based on proprietary technologies already proven in similar applications. Proposed hardware will be produced by pultrusion, a KaZaK specialty and the least expensive way to make constant section composite parts.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Dr.Aaron C. Small
NAVY 06-175      Awarded: 22MAR07
Title:Self-Monitoring Energetic Materials Storage Module
Abstract:Energetic materials require extensive mitigation with respect to storage and handling procedures. This typically results in large cost and weight penalties when applied to shipping or storage containers. Any container or containment system also must meet stringent fire retardant properties if it is stored on a ship, in addition to meeting reduced smoke and toxic emission requirements for below deck applications. Luna Innovations will propose a module material concept which combines blast mitigating coatings, fire retardant composites, and Luna's proprietary active temperature sensing. This material system will also mitigate the RF activation and shock risk factors associated with energetic material transportation. The material concept will be designed for use in the pultrusion process which will result in a module with low production costs.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr.Chip Beebe
NAVY 06-175      Awarded: 22MAR07
Title:High Energy Material Containment
Abstract:The Navy desires a containment system that provides isolation of energetic materials, so that they can be stored and handled as an inert payload with minimal risk of activation or unconstrained release of energy. Current containers are heavy, costly, provide inadequate ballistic shielding, and do not provide the desired logistical handling characteristics. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. (TRI/Austin) and subcontractor Container Research Corporation (CRC) will develop material and structural concepts for a lightweight, low-cost, high-energy material containment system that is also payload independent, scalable, modular, and conforms to industry standards. Several innovative methods of providing heat-, ballistic- and blast-shielding capability will be explored, including laminated composites, low-cost yet high-performance reinforcements, and unique coatings that enhance blast- and fire-resistance. Innovative joint designs will be incorporated to reduce the likelihood of blast-induced damage. TRI/Austin will evaluate candidate container design concepts using analytical and empirical methods. Representative wall panels will be fabricated and tested to demonstrate the structural, ballistic, and fire performance of selected approaches. The resulting metrics will allow TRI/Austin to recommend a detailed design concept for further development. Finally, an economic analysis will be performed to provide a cost comparison with existing designs.

LUMINIT, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Mr.Kevin Yu
NAVY 06-176      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Superhydrophobic/hydrophilic Advanced Window System
Abstract:To address the U.S. Navy need to reduce or eliminate the accumulation of water and ice on the surface of the bridge windows of surface ships, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a unique SuperHydrophobic/hydrophilic Advanced Window (SHAW) system based on our technology for sol-gel replication technology of 3D nanoscale surface relief moth-eye structures. The nanoparticle-doped moth-eye structure replicated in sol-gel will result in excellent glare reduction and scratch resistance, while the nanostructured surface relief pattern will make the window self-cleaning, anti-fogging, and non-icing. The SHAW system will be manufactured by laminating: glass substrates coated with a superhydrophobic (anti-wetting); a superhydrophilic (anti-fogging) coating; and an index matched indium tin oxide coating as an EMI shield. The standard window lamination process will ensure that SHAW meets or exceeds the requirements for optical qualities, EMI, shock, vibration, and applied static pressure. In Phase I Luminit will develop and demonstrate the feasibility of the SHAW system by coating superhydrophobic/hydrophilic material on glass samples and laminating them together. The laminated samples will be tested to relevant MIL-SPECs for self-cleaning, anti-fogging, scratch resistance, and environmental durability. In Phase II Luminit will optimize the scale-up fabrication process and perform a cost benefit analysis.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr.Pratik Shah
NAVY 06-176      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Advanced Bridge Window Systems
Abstract:Maintaining a high level of visibility in surface ships is very difficult under very inclement environmental conditions. Mechanical systems such as wipers and spinning windows are known to malfunction, are costly to maintain, and also impair vision during clear weather. New systems are required to improve visibility during heavy rain, snow, and ice. The requirements of this system are that they are self-cleaning, anti-fogging, non-icing, scratch resistant, glare dampening, and will provide a low Radar Cross Section (RCS). Luna proposes the combination of our developed coatings with proven electro-thermal deicing technology to produce a bridge window system that will meet all of these requirements. This window system will be inexpensive to produce and operate, and will improve visibility for Aegis class and other Navy surface ships.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr.Mike Bortner
NAVY 06-176      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Economical Robust Multifunctional Bridge Window Coatings
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Navy SBIR program is to demonstrate economical, high performance, multifunctional bridge window coatings that offer high levels of electrical conductivity, high optical transmission, high levels of hydrophilicity (for anti-fogging and anti-reflection), and improved abrasion resistance for current Navy and DoD ship platforms. The immediate goal is to demonstrate improvements over other currently available bridge window designs, specifically targeting lower cost, EMI shielding, abrasion resistance, anti-fogging and de-icing functionality, high impact and shock resistance, high optical transmission, and with minimal optical anomalies for use with night vision goggles. NanoSonic has demonstrated that extremely low percentages of its novel nanomaterials are required to elicit high levels of conductance and tailored electromagnetic response on glass, polycarbonate, and acrylic substrates. Additionally, NanoSonic has done significant related work with similarly fabricated, extremely hydrophilic coatings (anti-fog, self-cleaning) that have inherent anti-reflective properties and are readily integrated with ship bridge windows. NanoSonic will work with systems integrators to address specific requirements for DoD and Navy applications.

TECHNO-SCIENCES, INC.
11750 Beltsville Drive3rd Floor
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 790-0600
Dr.Gaurav Bajpai
NAVY 06-177      Awarded: 22MAR07
Title:Power System Supervision Software for Reconfiguration and Damage Mitigation
Abstract:The objective of the project is the development of algorithms and associated computational tools for supervision of reconfigurable shipboard power systems based on advanced dynamical descriptions. The use of appropriate abstraction makes it possible to pose the questions related to the development of automated power system management in a systematic setting. Furthermore, we propose several innovative techniques for modeling, analysis and software design to address the challenges in the management of and automation of functions required for supervision, reconfiguration and damage mitigation of shipboard power systems. We will deliver an integrated software system leveraging established symbolic processing, numerical control and data management tools. In Phase I, using benchmark scenarios, we will establish the utility of the software tools to handle switched, nonlinear models operating close to stability limits. We will demonstrate the feasibility of the designed algorithms to meet the performance and stability requirements of shipboard systems. The successful completion of the project will result in delivery of software ready for integration into designed power system architectures for the electric ship.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Mr.Kartik Moorthy
NAVY 06-177      Awarded: 22MAR07
Title:Development of a Power System Management Tool to Support Automated Damage Control for Shipboard Power Systems
Abstract:As modern naval vessels become more electrically integrated, managing the total energy resources becomes critical. Currently multiple systems exist to "manage" the system as opposed to a single unified power system management tool. Williams-Pyro, Inc. is proposing a software-based approach that is capable of representing the shipboard power system's dynamic performance, steady-state performance, and system reconfiguration routines in one comprehensive tool. The basic objective of our power management scheme is to identify, isolate, and reconfigure all fault conditions; initiate load adjustments in response to specific contingency triggers; and maintain the stability of the power system. We will achieve these goals by developing algorithms based on proven techniques such as rule-based engines, dynamic integer programming, expert systems, and discrete events. The entire system can act as a stand alone software module or integrated with the ship's command and control. This software-based approach can be extended to an embedded platform and reside in Williams-Pyro's AccuTagT Programmable Automation Controller for localized monitoring and control. Having a tool capable of describing the dynamics of the system during reconfiguration is a powerful capability that can transition in many markets, such as the terrestrial power system industry and the automotive industry for the development of modern vehicles.

BASIC COMMERCE & INDUSTRIES, INC.
304 Harper DriveSuite 203
Moorestown, NJ 08057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 778-1660
Mr.Chuck Reed
NAVY 06-178      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Stability Improvements of Radar Transmitters
Abstract:he overall objective of this proposal is to develop an approach to improve transmitter stability in order to improve radar clutter suppression performance. One approach is to develop an algorithm to effectively 'equalize' out the instability characteristics of the transmitter. This requires sampling of each transmitted pulse, and real-time development of an equalizer filter to be applied to each pulse. A viable solution has been proposed in work performed by NRL. The specific equalizer design approach taken in this work is a frequency domain approach which uses the transmitter samples to generate filter coefficients that yield the ideal matched filter response when the returns are applied. While it is effective in removing the effects of transmitter instability, it assumes a high SNR on the transmitter sample to achieve the best performance. BCI proposes the use of a MMSE equalizer to achieve a more optimal set of coefficients that allow for the removal of the effects of transmitter instability at various SNRs.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 448-1116
Dr.Pei-hwa Lo
NAVY 06-178      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Stability Improvements of Radar Transmitters
Abstract:The U.S. Navy requires highly modern and sophisticated radar system to accomplish missions in littoral water region where near shore terrain and weather in extreme sea-state conditions present challenging clutter environment for moving target indicator (MTI) operations. An important source of this difficulty is caused by the waveform distortions on the radar transmitters. An efficient and effective method to correct the distortions caused by the transmitter is to provide transmitter waveform compensation on the received signal. In this proposal, we will develop a two-step adaptive waveform compensation algorithm based on the adaptive digital signal processing techniques. The developed technique will reduce the inter-pulse and intra-pulse waveform distortions caused by the transmitter power amplifiers and waveguide switching hybrids. The objective of the proposed approach is to maximize the effectiveness of the transmitter waveform compensation for the observable error sources (e.g., CFA, TWT etc.) while reducing received waveform distortions generated by the radar transmitter systems. The developed algorithm is stable, reliable and feasible for real-time implementation.

REAL-TIME INNOVATIONS
3975 Freedom Circle, 6th Floor
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 200-4720
Mr.Gordon Hunt
NAVY 06-179      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Real-Time, Secure, and Fault Tolerant Discovery for Publish-Subscribe Middleware in a WAN Environment
Abstract:Real-Time Innovations (RTI) proposes to develop an implementation of the Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) for Real-Time Systems that operates across a Wide Area Network (WAN). This implementation will be based upon RTI Data Distribution Service version 4, a proven DDS product uniquely extensible to work in the Global Information Grid (GIG) environment. The modular architecture of RTI allows significant security and fault tolerant discovery improvement possibilities, which are discussed in detail in this proposal. Far beyond the usual expectations for a Phase I SBIR, we intend to have completed work produced by this effort rolled into our standard product for demonstration at the end of the Phase I Option. This Phase I effort will culminate in a high-quality proof-of-concept design, testable code, and quantifiable performance results. Much development work will remain to optimize and fully test our solution during Phase II, but we are confident of our ambitious approach.

TECH-X CORP.
5621 Arapahoe Ave, Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 448-0729
Dr.Nanbor Wang
NAVY 06-179      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:WANDS: A Real-Time, Secure, and Fault-Tolerant Discovery Framework for Publish-Subscribe Middleware in a WAN Environment
Abstract:Tech-X Corporation proposes to develop a discovery framework called WANDS for the OMG DDS publish/subscribe middleware. The WANDS framework fills an important gap in realizing DoD's goal of information dominance by enabling the use of emerging quality of service (QoS)-enabled publish/subscribe (pub/sub) middleware in large-scale, net-centric operations. Specifically, the WANDS framework will enable the use of DDS in a dynamic WAN environment to support net-centric systems with stringent QoS requirements, including real-time, fault-tolerance, and security needs. We will collaborate with other companies and agencies to standardize the discovery framework in DDS through the OMG. Our Phase~I effort will focus on investigating different key aspects of integrating discovery strategies.

DIGITAL SOLID STATE PROPULSION LLC
6150 Sunrise Meadows Loop
Reno, NV 89509
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(775) 851-4443
Dr.Wayne N. Sawka
NAVY 06-181      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:A Safe, Miniature, Solid State Electrically Controlled Thruster System
Abstract:DSSP has developed solid propellant systems that can be controlled and extinguished electrically. These propellants are a first of their kind, capable of multiple ignitions-extinguishments with burn-rate controlled digitally by electrical power input. These new propellants are insensitive to flame ignition, do not produce toxic combustion gases and are low in particulates. Our partner Mid has a proven track record in the system engineering and development of attitude control systems and actuators for gun fired projectiles. Combining this experience we will develop a novel compact, safe-fueled propulsion system for the electromagnetic gun launched and other projectiles requiring insensitive munitions.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr.Jeffrey S.N. Paine
NAVY 06-181      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Mini Safe Fuel Piezo-Actuated DACs
Abstract:Dynamic Structures and Materials, LLC (DSM) proposes the development of a miniature piezo-actuated divert and attitude control system (DACS) for the Naval Electromagnetic (EM) gun projectile. DSM's development team proposes to produce the requirements for the mini-DAC system, develop a safe-fuel formulation, perform endo- and exo-flight dynamic studies, and develop packaging concepts. DSM will develop a piezoelectric actuation technology that will have superior response and performance characteristics over electromagnetic actuator (EMA) options. The proposed DAC system will have sufficient degrees of freedom (DOF) to support the divert capability to achieve accuracy on the order of 5-m CEP for the projectile. The development process will involve performing flight dynamics studies over the course of the entire projected path to determine the requirements of the DAC system. The proposed system will be able to correct for trajectory errors and maintain stable flight. In addition, DSM's development team anticipates being able to produce a system that will be operational over the entire range of aerodynamic pressures during endo-atmospheric and exo-atmospheric portions of hypersonic flight.

---------- MDA ----------

165 Phase I Selections from the 06.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Arthur Keen
MDA 06-001      Selected for Award
Title:Netcentric Operations Defense Environment (NODE)
Abstract:Current approaches to security are flawed because they 1) are highly dependent on characterizing known exploits making them vulnerable to new attack variants, 2) use hub-and-spoke centralized architectures that are not scalable and makes them vulnerable to availability attacks, 3) have single points of failure making them vulnerable to confidentiality, integrity, and availability attacks, 4) focus on perimeter defense, so they are vulnerable to insider threats including compromised hosts, and 5) produce results that overwhelm analysts with low level event data, high false positives, and no guidance on attack variants. Knowledge based Systems, Inc. (KBSI) proposes the Netcentric Operations Defense Environment (NODE). NODE is a new paradigm in computer network defense (CND) that detects network intrusions without 1) signatures cataloged prior to event detection, 2) heuristic rules, and 3) profiles of "normal" system behavior by applying data mining and machine learning technologies originally developed for understanding the function of the human genome. NODE achieves scalability, total coverage, redundancy, and fault tolerance in detecting intrusions by executing distributed data mining and machine learning algorithms over the network hosts (the computing fabric) in order to identify and characterize behavior patterns in the communication among hosts.

MULVAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
212 Carnegie Center,Suite 206
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 273-8407
Dr. Sudhakar Govindavajhala
MDA 06-001      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Network Defense (CND) Technologies
Abstract:Recent preliminary research results have shown, (a) that misconfiguration bugs are an important source of vulnerability in enterprise network and software installations, and (b) how it may be possible to construct practical and useful tools that cyber security managers can use to analyze the security of their enterprise network and software configurations. This rsearch prototype analyzes the current state of defenses of a network. In this Phase I SBIR research project, we plan to incorporate dynamic information like current background scans and attacks into the framework to analyze current threat profile system. With the increasing sophistication of attackers, the problem of managing the security of a large network demands immediate focus to keep the wheels of our economic activity moving.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. David Guaspari
MDA 06-002      Selected for Award
Title:Aspen: Analyzing the compatibility of security policies in a system of systems
Abstract:Complex applications are, increasingly, constructed by networking and integrating computer systems and services, each with its own stakeholders and security policy. Developers can find it difficult to understand how those policies mediate interactions among the component systems. Access decisions at some internal interface can have profound and unanticipated consequences, affecting both the functionality and security of the whole. The architecture of a system supplies the context in which these interactions occur and imposes constraints in addition to those enforced by individual security policies. ATC-NY, in collaboration with Architecture Technology Corporation and Professor Andrew Myers of Cornell University, will develop Aspen, a tool to specify, design, model, and analyze the interactions of security policies and architecture in a system of systems. Aspen will extend a systems modeling language (such as SysML) with rich interface descriptions that include security annotations and specifications of the protocols by which components interact. Annotations and specifications are based, ultimately, on security type systems, which can be used to analyze security properties by a form of type checking. These type systems can also guide implementation of the inter-component protocols so that they do not introduce new security flaws.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
4984 El Camino Real, Suite 230
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 967-4408
Dr. Douglas Smith
MDA 06-002      Selected for Award
Title:Composition and Verification of System Security Policies
Abstract:Modern complex system-of-systems have the problem of coordinating and uniformly enforcing system-wide security policies. This project focuses on formal specification of security policies, system modeling, and specialized analysis tools for (i) composing and analyzing security policies, (ii) checking implementation relationships between policies at different system layers, and (iii) checking conformance of a system design with a given security policy.

GTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
P. O. Box 49735
Atlanta, GA 30359
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 934-9316
Dr. Jan Crowe
MDA 06-003      Selected for Award
Title:Next Generation Simulation Infrastructure for Missile Defense Applications
Abstract:Grid and web-based technologies offer new capabilities with respect to resource allocation and integration for advanced distributed simulations. Realization of these benefits requires exploitation of these techniques in the context of defense industry standards such as the High Level Architecture. This project proposes the development of advanced distributed simulation infrastructure software that accomplishes this task, in conjunction with work to integrate the MDA Benchmark simulation to this new framework.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd.Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
MDA 06-003      Selected for Award
Title:GridSpacesT: Dynamic Spaces for Runtime Composition of Grid Services
Abstract:Despite major technical advances, the ability to "mix and match" disparate complex systems (e.g., live, virtual, constructive simulations) continues to pose a major challenge to DoD in general and MDA in particular. Today MDA believes that transformational advances in interoperability and integration have become possible with the advent of enterprise computing, web services, semantic technologies and grid computing. MDA is looking to harnessing these technologies in a synergistic fashion to achieve rapid fielding of interoperable, distributed systems for testing, analyses and training. With these objectives in mind, the MDA has specified a broad range of requirements such as advanced time management for data synchronization, scaleability of the O(104) entities, HLA-compliance, effective operation within the Global Information Grid, client-server authentication and secure communication, including "thin-client" approaches to conserve host computing, storage and communication resources. Phase I of this effort will develop a system design for a scalable integration framework that enables rapid interoperability among disparate systems through the use of a subset of these transformational technologies and demonstrate secure operation through a proof-of-concept prototype spanning at least two client systems. The prototype architecture will be designed for extensibility and scalability to larger system configurations.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
2984 Eagles Claw Avenue
Thousand Oaks, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 493-5279
Dr. Phillip W. Dennis
MDA 06-004      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Feature Aided Track and CDI Fusion Processing of Data from
Abstract:Successful missile defense operations require an accurate real-time single integrated battlespace picture, while minimizing data throughput and bandwidth requirements. Current multi-sensor tracking approaches that treat kinematic and feature fusion as separate processes have high rates of correlation and target typing errors. Our integrated fusion process integrates optical and radar data, thereby reducing battlespace picture uncertainty by jointly considering kinematic, radar features, and thermal imaging data. Networked sensors working jointly substantially increase lethal object identification capability by sharing independent 2-D or 3-D kinematic data and feature data such as RCS, IR signatures, and length profiles. This approach improves system performance by increasing the ability to resolve high speed closely spaced objects, track maneuvering objects (boosting missiles and maneuvering/unstable reentry vehicles), and identify and destroy lethal objects within dense target clusters containing decoys and debris. Intelligent Systems Research will develop an integrated and distributed target type fusion process within a distributed component system architecture that receives statistically independent data from distributed network sensors and simultaneously processes this data. Our approach operates on sensor reports containing features, tracklets, and object type likelihoods. We minimize network throughput by adaptively transmitting data with a high value-of-information according to the needs of network participants.

MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
616 Brookmeade Ct.
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-1434
Dr. Shan Cong
MDA 06-004      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Registration with Expectation-maximization and Multiresolution System for BMD
Abstract:MRLets Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a suite of algorithms and software for registration of track and report data from IR and radar sensors. The proposed registration system is able to jointly identify correspondence between data from distributed platforms and to estimate sensor bias parameters. The system relies on three technologies to meet the challenges of the project. First, a distributed multiple hypothesis registration is introduced to establish and evaluate global hypotheses of track/report correspondences. To this end, we developed 3D models for space-based IR sensors and ground-based X-band radar, from which the data from different platforms can be related to solve the true location of a target in a common coordinate system. The models enable the correlation of multiplatform sensor data, both metric and features, so that the likelihood of each hypothesis can be calculated. From the constraints on coexisting hypotheses, joint and marginal probabilities of all hypotheses can be estimated also, providing the most critical information for hypothesis maintenance and registration processing. In order to solve the problem of unresolved cluster and group targets, a spatial domain multiresolutional registration is introduced to build up multiresolutional track/report trees, from which the hypothesis of a correspondence can be made at a proper resolution. When sensor bias exists, a registration algorithm is required to estimate sensor bias parameters and subsequently remove the bias from sensor data. Through an expectation-maximization operation, we demonstrate that bias parameters can be estimated from maximizing the summation of log-likelihoods of registration hypotheses, weighted by their marginal probabilities. As expectation-maximization can be an iterative process, bias estimation and hypothesis processing can be jointly optimized when necessary. Besides removing one source of system error due to miss-matching of sensor resolution, registration over multiresolutional data makes it possible to estimate bias parameters more efficiently by iterating from a coarse resolution to a fine resolution. Overall, the proposed distributed registration with expectation-maximization and multiresolution system (DREAMS) provides a complete solution to the issues of sensor registration for a BMD application.

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Benjamin Slocumb
MDA 06-004      Selected for Award
Title:Track Correlation / Sensor Netting - Submission B
Abstract:The Ballistic Missile Defense System is evolving into a distributed network-centric architecture with tracking and discrimination being performed using multi-sensor data. The X-Band radar (FBX-T, SBX, and THAAD) will play a key role in the network. Each is capable of providing wideband waveforms to support needs in target discrimination. However, wideband waveforms require significant time and energy from the radar. The concern is that the discrimination processing will over-task the X-Band radar and cause it to be unable to meet the timeline requirements for the tracking of all objects. To truly evaluate the requirements and capabilities of the network-centric approach, there needs to be a closed-loop simulation environment. The BMD Benchmark is a premiere simulation environment used by MDA, MDNTB, and their contractors for the analysis of network-centric algorithms. Currently, it is the primary tool used by MDNTB for its development and analysis of the C2BMC Track Processing Thread. However, at this time the BMD Benchmark has no capability to model and simulate wideband waveforms. This Phase I proposal describes a program to conduct a path finding study to identify the way forward for adding the wideband radar capability to the BMD Benchmark.

AMTEC CORP.
500 Wynn Dr. Suite 314
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 722-7200
Mr. Bryan Hughes
MDA 06-005      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Survivable Interceptor Modem
Abstract:Reliable, high speed communications are critical to the successful completion of postulated missile defense engagements. Importantly, interceptor kill vehicles (KV) and carrier vehicles (CV) must meet mission performance requirements under hostile threat conditions and while exposed to direct and indirect radiation effects. The interceptor modem is a key communications link. Modem capability and reliability will have a significant impact on achieving mission success. Existing interceptor modems lack the ability to be reconfigured in response to changes in the threat or modified communications protocols. Further, these modems are point-source designs, are specific to individual systems, and lack the performance robustness and design flexibility for use across multiple system platforms. The successful completion of all 3 phases of this effort will result in a radiation hardened modem capable of meeting HAENS performance requirements. A common design strategy will be used to reduce cost and extend utility across multiple systems; appropriate communications protocols will be used to ensure mission performance and advanced re-configurable FPGA technology will be employed to achieve technological robustness. During Phase 1, survivability and performance requirements analysis will be conducted, and a Phase II approach will be developed.

WELKIN SCIENCES, LLC
102 S. Tejon Suite 200
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 520-5115
Mr. Blair E. Sawyer
MDA 06-005      Selected for Award
Title:Interceptor Communications
Abstract:Welkin Sciences proposes to formulate a class of burst-mode communication waveforms tailored for future MDA interceptor communication systems. The waveform signaling format will support four critical receiver functions: 1) very rapid carrier acquisition and time synchronization; 2) adaptive signal processing to mitigate received signal distortion arising from frequency-selective fading; 3) adaptive signal processing to suppress jamming signals and other interference sources; and 4) powerful error correction decoding. The waveform class will employ direct sequence pseudo-noise spread spectrum (DS-PNSS) modulation with time-varying characteristics to inhibit an adversary's ability to detect, disrupt, intercept or exploit the transmissions. Welkin Sciences also proposes to design the Advanced Interceptor Data Link (AIDL) with new ground-based and flight-vehicle transceivers utilizing our proposed new waveform type. To support evaluation of the AIDL design, Welkin Sciences further proposes to upgrade two important development tools: 1) the COMLNK software package, a development environment for strategic modem development; and 2) the COMLNK Hardware platform (CHP) that serves as a rapid prototyping system with which fully operational strategic data links can be implemented and tested. The upgraded COMLNK and CHP tools will exploit two decades of strategic "software modem" research formulated funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency, DTRA and MDA.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
775 Technology Dr.Suite 300
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 996-3624
Dr. Kazem F. Sabet
MDA 06-006      Selected for Award
Title:Software Defined Radio for Next-Generation Interceptor
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR project is to establish a flexible and efficient software-defined radio architecture based on multi-waveform secure software programmable technology that can be used in two-way communication links between the Carrier and the Multiple Kill Vehicles or in any other MDA Communications System (EKV, KEI, Aegis etc.). EMAG Technologies Inc. has teamed up with Rockwell Collins Inc. to demonstrate this technology through analysis and simulations that will provide a stable compact platform for fabrication, packaging, testing, reliability, maintainability, radiation tolerance and qualification to meet MDA Requiremnts and Environments. There will be particular emphasis on leveraging the IFICS waveform due to its nuclear robustness. It is anticipated that a combination of reconfigurable MEMS-based RF front end hardware and programmable modem will lead to the ultimate flexibility and adaptiveness of missile communication systems. This project will develop a road map for the ultimate total integration of the RF front end and digital back end using silicon micromachining technology.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Ms. Nithya Ramaswami
MDA 06-006      Selected for Award
Title:Software Defined Radio for Next-Generation Interceptor
Abstract:To meet the needs of the Missile Defense Agency by reducing the size, mass, and acquisition cost of kill vehicles, Williams-Pyro, Inc. proposes to develop a Miniature, Robust, Radiation-hardened, Reconfigurable Radio (MR4) that integrates the elements of a communication subsystem in a single System-on-a Chip package. MR4 will process digital IF and baseband as well as control Radio Frequency (RF) front-end and Input/Output (I/O) subsystems through software to support multi-waveform communications. The proposed MR4 will consist of software reconfigurable modem, low power processor, COTS security module, and an optional Up/down converter. The software reconfigurable modem interfaces with existing MEMS RF front-end and commercially off-the-shelf (COTS) security module, processes multiple waveforms (signal patterns), and hosts control algorithms for reconfiguration of RF front-end and the modem. The low power processor interfaces with COTS security module and I/O and controls input/output subsystem. The COTS security module implements the security features required for the application. The Up/down converter interfaces with RF MEMS front-end and converts the frequencies to levels processed by the modem. The Phase I effort will be an open architecture design that will allow for easy adaptability into BMDS platforms, other defense or commercial applications.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford DriveBuilding 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 783-4578
Mr. Darren Woodruff
MDA 06-007      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Battle Management / Planning Aids
Abstract:The first step in performing effective battle management is to understand the threat. Current sensors provide the majority of the information needed to build a complete threat picture. The main issue is the complexity of the data and the multiplicity of the sources, types and time sensitivity of the data inputs. The available sensors range from the current DSP constellation to theater level assets such as AEGIS all the way down to tactical assets such as PATRIOT and SENTINEL. The majority of the theater and tactical systems inject their track data into the LINK-16 network, while the DSP systems are broadcast over TACSAT links. The key to utilizing this data effectively for battle management is turning the data into a coherent picture of the BattleSpace in near real-time. Once this is accomplished, the potential benefits for conducting Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense (JTAMD) are great. Phase I of this effort will provide an initial capability to collect, database and associate DSP/ONIR launch reports to produce a single launch and impact report for each event. This will be used as the foundation to build a system which will correlate all available sensors, producing a single track for each launch event.

SIGNATURE ANALYTICS LLC
1825 Duffield Lane
Alexandria, VA 22307
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 400-0097
Dr. Shaoann Shon
MDA 06-007      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Weapon Target Allocation Optimization
Abstract:Signature Analytics LLC proposes to conduct a 6-month study on the optimiation methodology for weapon-target-allocation in missil defense engagement planning and battle management. We plan to examine the weapon allocation problem, formulate mathematically the optimization objective function and parametric constraints, search for existing applicable linear programming methods, assess their suitability and determine the modification needed to adapt the methods to this missile defense application.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway NorthP.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-9034
Mr. Matthew Wilson
MDA 06-007      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Battle Management / Planning Aids
Abstract:The United States missile defense capability is expanding rapidly. As the number of interceptors, types, and locations increase to defend against growing threats, so does the complexity of defense. Development of automated allocation of assets to threats is a critical technology to save lives and to efficiently utilize scarce assets (save money) in the event of an actual launch. This automated allocation strategy must account for the many parameters related to threat and response. Threat parameters include launch location, warheads, range, reliability, and target point. Response parameters include platform, intercept location, time-windows, interceptor types, and probability of kill. The ultimate operational success of any solution requires a quality automated allocation with user acceptance and confidence. Sonalysts will develop the necessary algorithms and visualization techniques for this complex problem. This development will be based on a resource allocation strategy to develop a Multi-Layer Asset Allocation algorithm for engaging multiple threats from varied interceptors. The proposal outlines the mathematical/computational basis as well the user interface design approach for managing the developed algorithmic solution. Sonalysts has considerable knowledge and research success in missile defense, combat systems, and human systems integration to apply towards development of the technologies for this complex problem.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Mr. Richard H. Stottler
MDA 06-007      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Interceptor to Target Assignment Based on Proven, Advanced Techniques for Planning, Resource Allocation, and Constraint Satisfaction
Abstract:We propose the development of an advanced, intelligent, robust engagement planner for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Ultimately the improved missile defense engagement planning capability will allow better quality plans; faster planning; larger, more complex threats; additional defense system capabilities; increased planning problem space; and better accuracy, reliability, maintainability, growth potential, and adaptability of the engagement planning system. In Phase I we will investigate integration requirements, elaborate the heuristics, algorithms and techniques for improved engagement planning, analyze them as to their feasibility in several dimensions, define the metrics for planning performance, define the process to clearly demonstrate the performance improvement, further prove the feasibility of the techniques through prototype development, and develop the Phase II system design and high-level Phase III design. We are confident of our ability to improve upon the current BMDS planning system and to accomplish this ambitious scope within Phase I because we will leverage our existing highly customizable intelligent planning architecture with its existing planning infrastructure; existing, proven, superior algorithms; and capability to develop and implement new ones. Our foundation includes 15 years of advanced planning, scheduling, resource selection, constraint satisfaction, and optimization experience involving a variety of application areas, including tactical engagement planning.

TORCH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4035 Chris DriveSuite C
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-6000
Mr. Roy Thrasher
MDA 06-008      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Sensor Registration Health and Status Monitoring Technology Components
Abstract:MDA is designing and building a Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) that consists of integrated weapon systems and sensors capable of defeating enemy ballistic missiles. The Command, Control, Battle Management, and Communications (C2BMC) Element of the BMDS facilitates the necessary activities to allow information to be shared and engagements to be coordinated. Correlation, cueing, advanced engagement support, and fusion are core functions performed by C2BMC, which allow shared sensor data to be leveraged, and are heavily dependent on maintaining good sensor registration. As a direct result of the importance of sensor registration, the C2BMC Element has a requirement to conduct BMDS Sensor Registration Health and Status Monitoring (SRHSM) as a means to reduce the risk associated with network sharing of sensor metric track data. This proposal presents the Torch Technologies `trusted radar' concept, which provides an innovative means to generate reference tracks to support SRHSM evaluations of networked radars.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Arbitrage Look-ahead Agents for Market-based Optimization (ALAMO)
Abstract:Missile defense takes place in an unpredictable, real-time environment and thus requires an adaptive approach to optimization that dynamically allocates sensors and their supporting resources in response to changing goals and constraints. Here, we propose a system of Arbitrage Look-ahead Agents for Market-based Optimization (ALAMO) to meet the challenge of this real-time resource allocation problem. This approach applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to the resource allocation problem by creating an artificial market for sensor information and computational resources. Intelligent agents are the buyers and sellers in this market, and they represent all the elements of the sensor network, from sensors to sensor platforms to computational resources. These agents interact based on a negotiation mechanism that determines their bidding strategies. This negotiation mechanism and the agents' bidding strategies are based on game theory, and they are designed so that the aggregate result of the multi-agent negotiation process is a market in competitive equilibrium, which guarantees an optimal allocation of resources throughout the sensor network. Here, we extend market-based optimization using arbitrage look-ahead agents to turn this approach into a non-myopic planning algorithm, which provides both computational gains and more efficient allocation of sensor tasks.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd AvenueSuite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. Joni E. Baker
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Optimal Sensor Scheduling for Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) has become increasingly complex, as sophisticated and extensive sensors and defense systems have been developed to detect, track, classify and intercept Tactical Ballistic Missiles (TBMs) throughout each phase of their trajectory. These systems include multiple sensors of various types, which must accomplish diverse time-critical tasks that involve multiple moving targets. Our proposed Phase I research involves the development of a new sensor scheduling algorithm for BMD which will utilize Brown's algorithm to create and iteratively refine a schedule for multiple sensors to perform tasks relating to multiple moving targets. This algorithm was originally developed to optimally allocate search effort against a single moving target to maximize the probability of detection. However, the main ideas can be modified to create sensor schedules which handle other types of tasks as well. The first iteration of Brown's algorithm uses myopic conditions to optimally schedule the sensors each successive time step; the subsequent iterations incorporate information gained at other times (future and past) to form a schedule that accounts for long-term conditions. Such a non-myopic schedule is especially important in the BMD scenario wherein careful planning may result in more than one opportunity to intercept certain incoming missiles.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark StreetSuite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5036
Dr. David Fiske
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Optimization of Sensor Management/Sensor Registration
Abstract:We propose to build a sensor resource management algorithm that builds tasking plans that account for both discrimination and tracking information. This approach, which uses a value of information construct to prioritize tasks based on warfighter-defined value, extends our earlier work in which we provided sensor resource management algorithms for the tracking and for the discrimination problem separately. In both cases we have demonstrated the ability to (1) Allow for possible sensor collaboration if the value of collaborating sensors on a single object outweighs the value of unique tasks since all combinations of sensors will be considered when making the sensor plan; (2) Simulate the differences between short single looks and long continuous observations; (3) Take into consideration sensor slew time and physical limitations; (4) Provide engagement support by reporting track data during times when engagement support is required; (5) Allow for varied tracking constraints to increase the fidelity of the tracking data when engagement support is needed; and (6) Allow sensor resources to be available for kill assessment that may provide a shoot-look-shoot option for sensor tasking.

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Scott Miller
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Optimization of Sensor Management/Sensor Registration
Abstract:To provide multiple layers of defense against increasingly complex threats, the heterogeneous sensors of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) must be carefully coordinated to make optimal use of their diverse capabilities. In particular, because information demands are tied to the timeline of various decision points in an engagement, and sensor dynamics impose limitations on the timing of sensing tasks, foresight and planning are crucial to ensure the required information is available in time for effective engagements. A sensor resource manager (SRM) for the BMDS must therefore employ sophisticated models of the sensors to satisfy long-term performance goals. The SRM algorithm proposed here is based on approximate solutions of a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), to properly account for dynamics and generate the desired farsighted behavior. Moreover, the algorithm does not depend on analytical sensor models, but rather uses simulation-based functional models for predicting complex local sensor behavior. The functional models are integrated with the performance prediction and search method in a systematic and intelligent way, making the algorithm much more efficient than a naive Monte Carlo approach, and providing several mechanisms for scaling the amount of computation to trade off performance and runtime.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Kenan O. Ezal
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Optimized Resource Allocation for Networked Sensors (OpeRA-Net)
Abstract:Toyon(R) proposes to develop a system for optimized resource allocation of networked sensors that will dynamically task sensors to support data fusion for improved surveillance, detection, tracking and discrimination of time-critical ballistic targets. We treat the problem as a closed-loop feedback system where a fusion-aided continuous identification (ID) process works with a dynamic sensor tasking (DST) module to maximize the information contained in the track database. The amount of information is quantified using an information-theoretic definition of the expected entropy in the track database given a candidate sensor schedule. The domain of sensor tasks involves a range of different sensor modes/waveforms so that the fusion and tracking module may best be serviced for different values of the expected signal-to-interference ratio, resolution, background clutter, drag coefficient, object classification and radar cross-section. The networked sensors need not be co-located. In Phase I, Toyon will develop radar, EO/IR and Ladar sensor models for our SLAMEM(R) simulation. We will then implement the DST module to control the new sensor models and evaluate the resulting performance. In Phase II, Toyon will improve the algorithm and the fidelity of the sensor models and will demonstrate the operation of the algorithm in real time for a scenario approved by the MDA and will develop hardware-in-the-loop simulation capability.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark StreetSuite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5001
Mr. Andy David
MDA 06-010      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:Under this SBIR, the Decisive Analytics Corporation (DAC) team addresses two niche capabilities that are not currently addressed in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). We propose describing the problems of tracking and discrimination within a single, hybrid, dynamic Bayesian network model. We propose solving this network model using a novel inference algorithm suited for use with hybrid dynamic Bayesian network. Additionally, we propose to address the problem of track correlation by employing an innovative Multiple Hypothesis Bayesian Network framework that works in conjunction with our proposed integrated tracking and discrimination network model. Both of these proposed approaches will build on the DAC team's computational techniques for performing inference in large-scale network models. These technologies, combined with DAC's experience in missile defense will result in algorithms suitable for prototyping in Phase I and Phase II, and integration and deployment to the BMDS via in Phase III of this SBIR.

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY CONNECTION, INC.
2839 Paces Ferry Rd. Suite 1160
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 803-3001
Dr. Nicholas Propes
MDA 06-010      Selected for Award
Title:A Hierarchical Data Fusion Architecture for Missile Detection and Identification
Abstract:Global Technology Connection, Inc., in collaboration with Center for Multisource Information Fusion (CMIF) at SUNY (Buffalo) and Boeing Net-Centric Operations, proposes the development of data fusion architecture based on a hybrid analytical / intelligent methodology that exploits the concept of "focus of attention" via active perception in order to optimize missile classification accuracy while reducing substantially the computational burden. The fusion scheme incorporates several levels of abstraction: fusion at the data level, the feature level and the sensor level. The overall architecture employs technologies from soft computing, Dempster-Shafer theory and game theory to provide a robust and reliable platform for critical aerospace systems. Phase I effort will develop and test the feasibility of the data fusion algorithms for missile detection and identification using the Distributed Data Fusion (DDF) testbed. The DDF simulator was developed by SUNY (Buffalo) to test and evaluate algorithms to perform networking, sensor simulation, target tracking and fusion in a battlefield environment. Phase II will address design and construction of prototype for implementing the data fusion concept for components that includes logic for dynamic topology, management of features, a variety of sensor platforms, 3D visualization of threat objects, etc. and a performance evaluation module. Several aerospace end users like Boeing Phantom Works have already expressed interest in the commercial applications (Phase III) of this approach for their missile defense systems.

STIEFVATER CONSULTANTS
10002 Hillside terrace
Marcy, NY 13403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 334-4365
Dr. Russell Brown
MDA 06-010      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:The goal of this project is to optimize and validate sensor fusion algorithms for the ballistic missile discrimination mission. These algorithms will take data from multiple radars viewing the exo-atmospheric scene from different angles to form two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. The algorithms will consider (1) the coherent processing of multiple monostatic radars and (2) the coherent processing of the data from these radars operating in simultaneous monostatic and bistatic modes. Multistatic radars using simultaneous orthogonal waveforms have a number of independent sources of information (the various monostatic and bistatic returns from the orthogonal waveforms). This data can be employed to provide improved discrimination capability. A `rooftop?experiment, viewing a rotating target, will be used in the validation of these algorithms. Note that ISAR imaging of rotating targets is mathematically equivalent to imaging of moving targets ( the objective of the missile defense mission). Existing experimental radars will be used for this experiment. Extension of the algorithms to multiple band radar operation will be investigated.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Jeffery Philson
MDA 06-010      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) relies on a geographically dispersed set of sensors operating across different frequency bands. As tracking and discrimination techniques that combine information from multiple BMDS assets are superior to techniques that rely on individual sensors alone, robust data fusion algorithms are needed to maximize performance. Data fusion algorithms that provide 3-dimensional images of targets, as well as estimates of target motion parameters and tests for rigidity, offer promising new capabilities to the BMDS. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) will develop and analyze a suite of algorithms that provide these target features in the context of a multi-sensor network of radars that are not cohered with one another and have a limited Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). The successful demonstration of such a system will provide target features and discrimination with minimal radar resources. In Phase I, TSC will investigate spectral estimation and 3-dimensional tomographic imaging techniques, as well as extend proven physics-based techniques to operate under a multi-sensor network. In Phase II, TSC will refine the algorithms to work with measured data and pursue speed improvements for real time applications.

EUTECUS, INC.
1936 University Avenue Suite 360
Berkeley, CA 94704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 540-9603
Dr. Akos Zarandy
MDA 06-011      Selected for Award
Title:Near-Pixel Signal Processing to Improve Next-Generation Interceptor
Abstract:Eutecus proposes to develop scalable focal-plane sensor-processor array chips, equipped with InGaAs sensor sensitive in the near infrared range. As opposed to the traditional integrating type approach, the sensor interface in our proposed design will contain precise transimpedance amplifiers and 8-12 bit AD converters, which allow significantly higher sampling rate. In this way, the incoming image frequency will go up to the few hundred kilohertz (kHz) or even to a few megahertz (MHz) region, which is critical in case of Fourier analysis of the incoming pixel information. The sensor array will be mapped into a high performance processor array. Each of the processors of the array will handle one or a few pixels. The processors will be equipped with minimum 128 bytes of memory per pixel, a multiple-add type arithmetic unit, a special statistical unit, and a morphology unit. In this way, the proposed sensor-processor chip will be able to perform Fourier analysis or calculate other kinds of computationally heavy linear (e.g. mean, convolution) or non-linear (e.g. min, max, median) or binary (mathematical morphology) filters, and provide the processed output with a few thousand frames per second speed. The output can be either an image or a decision or both, which can alarm the main processor of the host system when a certain target or special visual event occurs.

HYPERACUITY SYSTEMS
6555 Delmonico Drive #212
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 333-6002
Dr. Michael Wilcox
MDA 06-011      Selected for Award
Title:Near-Pixel Signal Processing to Improve Next-Generation Interceptor
Abstract:A vision system based on an insect compound eye is ideal for minimizing size of the vision system but it also offers virtually unlimited field of view with orders of magnitude increase in processing speed over digital camera based systems, because it eliminates the need for frame-rate sampling or even capture and movement of discreet cinematographic frames to a memory space for subsequent digital processing. Parallel processing and analog circuitry provides orders of magnitude increase in processing speed. Hyperacuity or subpixel resolution provides data reduction but is also compatible with all available compression approaches. Feature extraction on the same sensor chip speeds up numerical analysis for object identification over other available approaches. A compound eye does not require the vehicle's coveted front-end position, avoiding optical distortion due to the shock wave and leaving it open for a sharp point to shed heat and a plasma generator. Such a vision system will allow vehicle control with unprecedented accuracy, producing a purely defensive platform that can eliminate a target with precision interception.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(905) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
MDA 06-011      Selected for Award
Title:In-Pixel Signal Processing for Hypertemporal Applications
Abstract:Nova Sensors has developed the world's first infrared 1K x 1K focal plane array with in-pixel memory and switched capacitor processing circuitry. These developments have "paved the way" for other on-focal plane signal processing designs in which circuitry contained directly in the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) may be used to greatly simplify the overall system. The massively parallel pixel-based architecture of such imaging sensors can be of great speed, cost and power advantage when local temporal and spatial operations are applied directly at the pixel level. We propose to design and develop a new ROIC that (a) exploits the advantages of an in-pixel Resistive Transimpedance Amplifier (RTIA) and (b) applies hypertemporal imaging (HTI) algorithms to pixel intensity data directly at the sensor. Investment of a few milliwatts of electrical power in the ROIC can result in dynamically-tunable temporal filtering operations that aid in the detection and discrimination of boosting targets against highly cluttered backgrounds. This proposal will outline a program that develops actual silicon test chip hardware that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for future MDA HTI applications. Lockheed Santa Barbara Focalplane and recognized experts in the field of hypertemporal algorithms are technology partners in this effort.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth StreetSuite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Brad Sallee
MDA 06-011      Selected for Award
Title:IR Smart Sensor ROIC
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes an advanced, single-chip, hybridized detector Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) and an integrated detector enabling a single-chip large array ROIC receiver solution. The smart pixel circuitry supports on chip multi-frame, pixel by pixel comparison to enable reporting only when scene content changes are greater than some user specified threshold. This technique reduces I/O bandwidth by eliminating the requirement to read out the entire array. Upon exceeding threshold, a precision time stamp for that particular detector will be added to the output file to facilitate high precision tracking algorithms. In addition, an optimized transimpedance amplifier will minimize the Noise Effective Power (NEP) of the sensor assembly. SPECs IR Smart Sensor ROIC (IRSSR) leverages from existing LADAR ROIC circuit modules were each detector is coupled to a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) directly under each detector pixel. SPEC has previously developed LADAR smart pixel ROIC's with the TIA, multiple sample and hold data storage, and independent sample timing circuits directly below each detector pixel in the array to enable the multiple independent signal returns per pixel processing required in a LADAR system application. These modules, with an optimized TIA, will be built into the IRSSR pixel logic.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Jon Geske
MDA 06-013      Selected for Award
Title:2-D Optical Preamplifier Pixel Arrays For Near Photon-Counting FLASH LADAR Receivers
Abstract:Aerius Photonics proposes a 2-D Optical-Preamplifier Pixel Array (OPPA) to provide near photon-counting imaging FLASH LADAR receiver sensitivity with linear-mode operation, full pulse shape discrimination, superior countermeasure immunity, and distinct advantages that improve target discrimination. The approach leverages single pixel receiver programs underway at Aerius. Aerius' OPPA is an optical-preamplifier pass-through approach that is system compatible with advanced direct-detection and coherent Ladar receiver technology programs underdevelopment by the DoD. The OPPA receiver offers an input referred noise equivalent power of 2.4 photons and can achieve an SNR of 10 with 7.5 received photons. The OPPA operates at room temperature, utilizes mature PIN detector array technology, and enables system performance improvements while reducing system cost, weight, and power. Phase II will deliver a 1064 nm 128x128 FLASH Ladar receiver that utilizes Aerius' pixel amplifier technology. In Phase I, Aerius will demonstrate the concept feasibility with the fabrication and test of a 4x4 array of pixel amplifiers operating at 1064 nm and develop a system architecture design for integration with our technology partner's receivers and systems in phase II.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5830
Dr. Ayub Fathimulla
MDA 06-013      Selected for Award
Title:Linear-mode, Wide FOV, Single Photon Counting APD Ladar Array
Abstract:The overall objective of the proposed SBIR program is to develop compact, low-cost, low power and ultra-high sensitivity semiconductor ladar photoreceivers with linear mode photon counting capabilities that will be at once capable of high image, range and angular resolution. Specifically, we will model, design, analyze, fabricate and test and demonstrate high sensitivity, high bandwidth, (1.0 GHz), low noise and high dynamic range detector arrays (32 x 32). In Phase I, we will develop the basic material and device technology for the single pixels photoreceiver, optimize the production process for large format arrays, investigate ROIC design and integration, and establish feasibility by projecting the performance of the photon counting receiver and showing that it meets the performance of typical MDA ladar systems. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate and test the monolithic (32 x 32) ladar photoreceiver arrays operating at 1064 nm with greater than 1GHz bandwidth.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
MDA 06-013      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative 2K x 2K Dual Band Readout Integrated Circuit for MDA Applications
Abstract:Nova Sensors proposes the development of a new 2K x 2K dual-band readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that will be specifically tailored for use in MDA applications. We propose incorporation of on-FPA features that streamline the use of the resulting dual-band focal plane array (FPA) data for missile detection, tracking and spectral discrimination applications. In cooperation with QmagiQ and Lockheed Martin Santa Barbara Focalplane (SBF), Nova will produce a preliminary design for this dual band ROIC in the Phase I effort. The ROIC will also accommodate use of other detector materials, but the superior uniformity and "bandgap engineered" features of QmagiQ's multiple quantum well (QWIP) material will be an important element of the proposed effort. Lockheed Martin SBF has indicated their support for transitioning this new technology into fielded systems. A variety of on-FPA processing operations are proposed that will help to optimize the implementation of such very large format dual band FPAs; these include on-FPA spectral differencing and ratioing operations as well as on-chip analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara BoulevardSuite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
MDA 06-013      Selected for Award
Title:Passive IR Sensors Based on High Quantum Efficiency P-on-N Type-II Strained Layer Superlattices
Abstract:We propose to develop sensitive passive infrared sensors for ballistic missile defense applications from Type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattices (SLS). The novelty of our approach lies in using a P-on-N photodiode device geometry (in contrast to the usual N-on-P) to leverage the excellent low-noise readout multiplexers available to drive these diode arrays. In Phase 1, we will quantify and optimize our material and passivation quality, and develop and DELIVER a 320x256 longwave infrared focal plane array (LWIR FPA). In Phase 2, we will further drive the technology and develop and DELIVER 1Kx1K dualband FPAs with pixel-registered and simultaneous imaging in two longwave infrared bands. This FPA will enhance target discrimination and provide a larger field of view to infrared seekers such as THAAD.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 06-014      Selected for Award
Title:Radar Debris Algorithms and Models for Discrimination
Abstract: MARK Resources proposes to adapt BMD discrimination technology developed under MDA funding to reject debris while using greatly reduced radar resources. We will measure the positions, motions, and properties of scatterers on each object; derive the size of each object and the configuration of its scatterers, assuming it is a cone; and reject objects too small to be an RV, or whose scatterer configuration does not correspond to an RV. The proposed method offers important advantages over statistical approaches: debris rejection based on physical features is much more reliable; the algorithms do not depend on detailed modeling of debris and its statistical features, so do not require detailed information on the debris; radars of varying capabilities, including those without high signal bandwidth, can employ our method; and no higher signal-to-noise ratio is needed than that required for detection. The debris pre-screener should be demonstrated on measured radar data, supplemented by much more extensive simulated data. We have extensive experience in deterministic modeling of radar targets and in developing statistical models of a wide variety of clutter. We propose to adapt these models and procedures to generate high-fidelity coherent wideband signatures representative of debris present in a threat cloud.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Anthony Falcone
MDA 06-014      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Debris Coherent Discrimination and Modeling
Abstract:Significant interest exists in developing radar algorithms to screen debris and small fragments from objects of interest in a ballistic missile defense threat complex. RCS statistics alone may not be sufficiently reliable to perform this screening function. A statistical model of radar debris fragments with realistic phase and amplitude variations suitable for large scale Monte-Carlo testing of discrimination algorithms and architectures is to be developed. We propose to estimate the size, spin rate, and relative velocity of debris fragments using Single-Range Doppler Interferometry. We also propose to draw upon and extend SSCI's Hypothesis Density (PHD) tracking and classification approach for the prescreening function. To support these investigations, a statistical debris model will be developed that simulates both phase and amplitude for debris fragments. A kinematic and RCS model previously developed by SSCI to support tracking and classification will be extended to incorporate coherent debris signatures. Phase II will demonstrate the effectiveness of the debris prescreener using available measured radar data, and demonstrate the fidelity of the coherent statistical debris model under broader radar operating conditions. Phase III will integrate the debris prescreening algorithms into BMD midcourse ballistic missile defense radars and demonstrate the total capability of the updated system.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Dr. George Bohannon
MDA 06-014      Selected for Award
Title:Radar Debris Algorithms and Models for Discrimination
Abstract:Debris in a missile complex can significantly impact performance of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). The presence of debris can affect the accuracy of tracks on potentially threatening objects and the ability to reliably identify threatening objects versus non-threatening objects. It is important that the effects of debris on BMDS performance be well understood and its detrimental effects mitigated where necessary. The TSC debris RCS model will produce radar signatures with the characteristics needed for BMDS architecture and radar algorithm studies. The model will produce coherent signatures that will support analysis of radar algorithms that rely on phase characteristics, including Doppler. The model will have credible temporal variations in amplitude and phase. It will be compatible with wideband radar waveforms and radar frequencies from UHF through X-band as a minimum, and it will produce credible polarization dependence. The debris model will be used for development and evaluation of the proposed TSC debris pre-screener algorithm. The pre-screener algorithm will make it possible to quickly assign debris identification probabilities to much of the debris in a missile complex, thereby enabling the defense to allocate its resources more effectively. The pre-screener algorithm will operate using low PRF waveforms and low to medium radar bandwidths.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Vitaliy Khizhnichenko
MDA 06-015      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic and Flying Object Finding/Identifying/Tracking Software
Abstract:To address the MDA need for optimal methods for finding, fixing, tracking, and identifying ballistic and flying objects in cluttered space environments, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop new Ballistic And Flying Object Finding/Identifying/Tracking (BAFOFIT) software. This proposed software system is based on: 1) a novel photogrammetric model, 2) a high-speed coregistration procedure, and 3) a software toolset for self-adaptive clutter rejection and optimal filtering. The BAFOFIT system will offer reliable detection and tracking of small, distant, and dim targets using scanning and staring sensors installed on geostationary and low-orbit satellites of the SBIRS-High, STSS, and SBSS systems. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of BAFOFIT by implementing image processing (geometric transformation and clutter suppression) functions using C++ and optimal filtering through MATLAB for the most significant clutter sources and imaging configurations. In Phase II POC plans to develop a real-time operational BAFOFIT prototype, covering an extended set of clutter and imaging configurations, and deployable at MDA facilities.

TORREY PINES LOGIC, INC.
3525 Del Mar Heights Rd, Suite 581
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 382-7200
Dr. Leo Volfson
MDA 06-015      Selected for Award
Title:Robust Spatial-Temporal Clutter Rejection Filters and Track-Before-Detect Architectures for Space Based Platforms
Abstract:Efficient clutter rejection is a challenge for both space-based geostationary and low-earth orbit infrared sensors that must find, extract, and track moving targets in heavily cluttered backgrounds. In such systems, reliable target tracking using conventional approaches fails without clutter rejection down to/below the sensor noise level. The task is complicated by sensor motion which causes image translation, rotation, and non-stationarity that lead in turn to an increased false alarm rate. To address this challenge we propose to develop: (a) Robust, nonlinear spatial-temporal image processing techniques for clutter rejection and image stabilization that are efficient for both geostationary and low-earth orbit platforms and that can be easily integrated into an adaptive multi-filter bank architecture; (b) Extremely accurate two-stage super-stabilization algorithms; (c) Optimal nonlinear filtering-based track-before-detect architectures to detect very dim targets; and (d) Change detection-based advanced track confirmation/deletion algorithms. We will demonstrate that the proposed nonlinear spatial-temporal methods are particularly efficient for target detection/tracking in difficult scenarios where conventional spatial filters and differencing techniques fail. The developed software tools will be capable of predicting the performance and reducing to a minimum the time needed to search for an adequate system configuration in MDA programs/systems.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Andrew P. Brown
MDA 06-015      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Low Observables Algorithms
Abstract:Highly-accurate detection, tracking, and identification of dim missile defense targets poses a significant challenge, due to scene clutter, finite sensor resolution, and nonlinearities in the target dynamics and sensor measurement models. Toyon proposes to use optical mathematical methods to design algorithms which provide significant improvements in the ability to find, fix, track, and identify missile defense targets of interest under the full range of real world operating conditions and sensor limitations. Toyon proposes to clearly demonstrate significant performance improvements using the developed algorithms and software, for highly-stressing datasets. It is expected that completion of this research and development, followed by commercialization, will provide added value for future SBIRS-like (Space Based Infrared Satellite), STSS-like (Space Tracking and Surveillance System), and SBSS-like (Space Based Space Surveillance) systems.

BLACK FOREST ENGINEERING, LLC
1879 Austin Bluffs Parkway
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-9501
Dr. Steve Gaalema
MDA 06-016      Selected for Award
Title:Multiband Infrared Focal Plane Array for Seeker Applications
Abstract:Improved interceptor seeker capability to detect, identify, and discriminate re-entry vehicles (RV's) from countermeasures at distances of hundreds of kilometers is critical for missile defense. Development of an advanced infrared seeker combining high-spatial resolution with multiband detection for spectral discrimination is desired for material identification and RV discrimination. The challenge is to develop multiband sensors of greater sensitivity, higher resolution, and larger field-of-view to increase detection and tracking range. The sensor needs to be affordable, reliable, and operate at elevated temperature. Corrugated architecture quantum well infrared photodetectors (C-QWIPs) meet many seeker detector requirements and have recently demonstrated improved quantum efficiency and multiband capability. Black Forest Engineering's (BFE) readout integrated circuits provide large charge capacity and dark current subtraction that allows increase of C-QWIP operating temperature. BFE will design a 25x25 μm2 area pixel that will allow readout of 4-band collocated QWIPs in a near simultaneous mode. The Phase I design will include system modeling and fabrication plan for a large format sensor development on Phase II.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 06-016      Selected for Award
Title:Multiband Infrared (IR) Seeker
Abstract:A major issue that inhibits the performance of current long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in THAAD seekers is the residual non-uniformity (RNU). This non-uniformity (larger that 0.2% in FPAs fabricated with the current technology) leads to major restrictions on FPA integration times and optics temperatures. We propose to design and develop a 640x512 two-color mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR)/LWIR FPA technology based on HgCdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Increased uniformity in composition, doping, thickness and defect minimization will occur due to specialized growth and in-situ monitoring techniques. RNUs lower than 0.2% in the LWIR band and 0.05% in the MWIR are expected. We will evaluate the uniformity of MBE-grown LWIR HgCdTe layers and will study the effects of various processing steps on layer uniformity. Test devices will also be fabricated to asses the uniformity of the device operating characteristics. BAE Systems will support the Phase I program with trade studies associated with single and two-color device design and array fabrication. In Phase-II, 640 x 512 two-dimensional, two-color arrays will be fabricated and mated to 2-color MWIR/LWIR ROICs. If necessary, various approaches for improving layer uniformity will be implemented.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Aaron Moy
MDA 06-016      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced MWIR/LWIR Multi-Spectral Detectors
Abstract:Hyperspectral imaging arrays offer far more data and the ability to discriminate objects being observed. Continued difficulties with applying HgCdTe materials, especially for LWIR, present an opportunity for the development of alternate materials. One such candidate for MWIR/LWIR photodetectors are InAsSb alloys and short period Type-II superlattices based on InAs/GaInSb. This superlattice structure has the ability to tune the cutoff wavelengths during device fabrication and yet be amenable to the creation of multi-spectral serially-positioned pixels. One of the issues this Phase I program will address is the intermixing of Arsenic and Antimony at the superlattice interfaces, which can hamper LWIR operation. Improved superlattice growth will be achieved through the application of newly developed MBE apparatus.

VEGA TECHNOLOGY & SYSTEMS, INC.
7980 Kingsbury Drive
Hanover Park, IL 60133
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 855-5068
Mr. Vincent Y. Chow
MDA 06-016      Selected for Award
Title:Multiband Infrared (IR) Seeker
Abstract:We propose a large format collinear MWIR/LWIR 2-color HgCdTe IR Focal Plane Array with multiband enhancement capabilities that can be integrated into a kill vehicle interceptor to perform rudimentary signal pre-processing and cell memory functions thereby elevating seeker abilities to acquire, track, and discriminate enemy targets. This proposed approach, supported by the MKV Program (Lockheed Martin and BAE Systems), is based on a novel differential dual pixel design which consists of using pairs of adjacent pixels each connected in an inverted, parallel configuration. With this invention, common mode rejection of incident radiation, chopper stabilized noise rejection, and differential color signature processing can be performed directly on the focal plane. The inherent balance in this differential pixel design is expected to maintain target lock even during sudden background "sky" inversion events created by interceptor flash or nuclear "red-out". Noise mitigation is achieved by the unique ability of this structure to code input optical signals with a polarity modulation pattern that permits signals to be recovered after HgCdTe detection with greater than 15dB of signal-to-noise improvement. This noise mitigation feature can permit the development of a new generation of low cost, high performance (large D*) smart IR focal plane arrays well matched to the requirements of THAAD and multiple kill vehicle (MKV) programs.

ARKANSAS POWER ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Dr. Roberto Schupbach
MDA 06-017      Selected for Award
Title:High-Temperature, Lightweight, Rad-Hard Silicon Carbide (SiC) DC/DC Converters for Missile Defense Satellite Power Management and Distribution Systems
Abstract:Power electronic converters are essential in every MDA vehicle, with use in critical systems ranging from electric power management applications, to power distribution, to on-board servo motor/actuator drivers. Advancing state-of-the-art power electronics technologies through the use of SiC semiconductors will produce significant savings across the board in almost all areas of MDA power management and distribution operations. By utilizing the high efficiency and high temperature potential of SiC power switches, future power electronics systems will be reduced in size and weight by a factor of ten over today's state-of-the-art converters. In particular, this proposal seeks to develop step down DC/DC power converters for 28V dc bus MDA satellite power management and distribution systems. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to develop highly efficient lightweight DC/DC power converters with an order of magnitude size reduction utilizing now emerging silicon-carbide (SiC) power switching technologies. Increasing power density and efficiency, reducing size and weight, and improving modularity of electronics are all goals of the MDA program. Reduction in size and weight means dollar savings in cost to launch and greater capacity for on-board payload systems. In particular, in Phase I APEI, Inc. will develop a 1kW SiC 300V-28V step down DC/DC converter for power management systems in missile defense satellites and kinetic kill vehicles. Phase II of the project will be focused on increasing power capabilities (10kW+) of the converters, control and protection functionality, and investigating radiation hardening of the SiC-based system.

DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-1230
Mr. Theodore G. Stern
MDA 06-017      Selected for Award
Title:Affordable Reliable Electromagnetically Clean Modular Solar Panels (PDRT06-053)
Abstract:The Electromagnetically Clean (EMC) Modular Solar Array is a production manufacturing approach to engineering and delivering solar arrays that have improved cost, reliability, performance and schedule responsiveness of photovoltaic power sources. The EMC Module uses an integral transparent conductive cover to effectively seal the panel from the space environment, and a multifunctional composite structural support that provides resistance to mechanical loads from launch and space thermal cycling stresses. These components are also multi-functional from a manufacturing point of view, enabling a one-step lamination approach to solar panel assembly through self-tooling and self-assembly features. This effort proposes to develop and demonstrate both rigid and flexible EMC Modules, which can be assembled into array of rigid, fold-out panel arrays, or flexible roll-out arrays. The flexible, roll-out option using high efficiency crystalline cells has particularly good specific power capability, in terms of Watts/kilogram, watts/sq.m., and stowed watts/cu.m, and is the main focus of the effort, taking off from previous efforts that showed the feasibility of the rigid EMC Module design.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Mr. Paul Glatkowski
MDA 06-017      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Space Power Technologies
Abstract:Eikos Inc. proposes to develop composite carbon nanotube-metal oxide transparent electrodes to enhance the efficiency of three junction solar cells. Eikos leads the world in developing transparent conductive electodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Eikos also has demonstrated that the performance of nanotube electrodes can be tuned by using apprpriate binders to stabilize the nanotube network. Branded as Invisiconr, our patented technology has already been successfully employed to improve solar cell performance. Eikos has fabricated organic, CIGS, CdTe, and other solar cells incorporating Invisiconr. We now propose to integrate Invisiconr with space stable metal oxide and organic binders into three junction very high efficiency solar cells as a transparent electrode. Carbon nanotube electrodes will reduce shadowing from the metal grid and will allow the AlInP layer to be thinned, while improving carrier transport and acting as an anti-reflective coating. CNT coatings are exceptionally transparent through the visible and into the infrared. Nanotubes are exceptionally stable at high temperatures and under intense irradiation, making them ideal materials for space applications. The addition of appropriate space-stable binders will further enhance the stability of nanotube electro-optical properties. High performance solar cells with Invisiconr will have improved theoretical efficiencies at reduced cost, which will make them the new standard for space applications and open emerging markets for terrestrial applications.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando RoadBuilding 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2002
Dr. Hisashi Tsukamoto
MDA 06-017      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Space Power Technologies
Abstract:The following proposal responds to SBIR solicitation No. MDA06-017 entitled "Advanced Space Power Technologies." Under this solicitation, Phase I calls for the development of an "advanced space power technologies that improve overall EPS performance as measured by EPS system mass, volume, overall efficiency and lifetime." In relation to batteries, the SBIR would like to investigate the replacement of a battery system from nickel-hydrogen to lithium-ion in the proposed Kinetic Kill Vehicle (KKV) or Mid-Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite applications. Quallion's response to this solicitation calls for a design of a lithium-ion battery system that will comply with the KKV's power specifications. Quallion will provide detailed information on individual cell and battery characteristics needed to provide domestic development of lithium-ion battery system, scaled to meet the limited demands of the military and aerospace markets. Quallion is also proposing a "right sizing" of this production facility to allow for cost effective, low volume production with enhanced reliability, long-term supply guarantee and design flexibility that allows for future battery system production. Quallion is headquartered at the Mann Biomedical Park in Sylmar, CA. Quallion currently leases 47,000 sq. ft. from a company wholly owned by Mr. Mann. In addition to its current space, Quallion has an option to lease an additional 200,000 sq. ft. for expansion of its aerospace and military operations. Quallion currently employs more than seventy people supporting engineering, operations and research and development.

QUARTUS ENGINEERING, INC.
10251 Vista Sorrento PkwySuite 250
San Deigo, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 875-6081
Mr. Erik H. Clayton
MDA 06-018      Selected for Award
Title:Symbiotic Multi-mode Structural Health Monitoring utilizing Physics Informed Neural Networks
Abstract:Atomic oxygen (AO) erosion and/or oxidation, micrometeorite impact, "space junk" collisions (e.g. the bolt lost during the STS-115 mission), as well as radiation damage incurred from long duration space exposure, are all serious threats to orbiting Missile Defense Agency (MDA) satellite, interceptor, and kill vehicle hardware. Recently, MDA has expressed a high level of interest in developing satellite interceptor and kill vehicle structures with embedded Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Damage Prognosis (DP) functionality. In the past, embedded functionality has typically implied "strapping" sub-systems onto an existing superstructure structure. This processes is now inadequate for the stringent mass and space requirements of several high performance MDA vehicles. Therefore a new innovative and highly integrated, symbiotic, SHM/DP paradigm must be developed to preserve vehicle functionality without compromising operational cost and performance. In this Phase I effort, our overall objective will be to demonstrate an integrated, online `state awareness' approach that performs event/impact detection, local mass/stiffness change detection and source differentiation in order to separate stiffness changes (due to softening) from mass changes (possibly due to a parasite), and specialized local anomaly (e.g., crack or delamination) assessment. This approach will be implemented via a multi-tier hierarchy with an eye on utilizing SHM/DP output diagnostics for online flight and mission control algorithm optimization.

SCIMITAR TECHNOLOGIES LLC
2005 Big Horn Drive
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 692-9663
Mr. Brian Muskopf
MDA 06-018      Selected for Award
Title:Highly Integrated/Symbiotic Structures
Abstract:Advanced composite materials and innovative structural designs are required that provide a net zero impact or a reduction in mass while increasing the radiation and EMI shielding of MDA kill vehicles (KV) and space based platforms. In addition, the typical process of "strapping" sub-systems such as electrical wiring harnesses onto a structural backbone maybe insufficient for the requirements of several MDA systems. These systems require revolutionary improvements in mass, cost, and volumetric efficiency in order to better perform their missions. This project proposes to develop multi-functional structural composite materials to replace structural/radiation shielding material combinations used in KV and space based platforms. The use of multi-functional structural composite materials will allow for the design of lower cost, lighter weight components and structures that can provide the same structural strength and stiffness as current metal alloy and composite components while incorporating radiation shielding, EMI shielding, and electrical conductivity directly into the structure. In addition innovative electrical conductor designs will be investigated for incorporation into the multi-functional composite structure to replace strap-on electrical harnesses. The multi-functional composite structure design approach for KV and space platforms will provide for less complex, lighter weight and more volumetric efficient structures at reduced manufacturing costs.

SENSORMETRIX
5965 Pacific Center Blvd., Suite 701
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 625-4458
Dr. Anthony Starr
MDA 06-018      Selected for Award
Title:Electromagnetic Metamaterial Composite Structures
Abstract:Recent developments in the area of composite EM materials have shown promise as materials providing both desired mechanical and electromagnetic functionality. To further explore this promise, it is proposed to extend these developments to include: 1) embedded signal control functionality, 2) dynamically modulable EM properties, and 3) hybrid conformal structures.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. John Lock
MDA 06-018      Selected for Award
Title:Polycarborane Resin for Radiation Shielding Structural Composites(1000-980)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. addresses the needs of the Missile Defense Agency for symbiotic lightweight structural materials to protect Ballistic Missile Defense System Multiple Kill Vehicles (MKVs) from exoatmospheric nuclear blasts by the construction of radiation hardened carbon fiber composites using a boron-containing resin. The composite will be designed to efficiently shield Multiple Kill Vehicle electronics from thermal (low energy) and epithermal (medium energy) neutrons, as well as from alpha and beta particles, emitted during a nuclear event. Additional functionality of Triton's radiation hardened composite will include electrical conductivity to provide a common ground for the MKV electronics and antennae, as well as electrostatic dissipation and EMI shielding; lightweight connection strategy for assembly of multiple components; and the ability to incorporate ports and interconnects for interfacing guidance system components.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Jon Geske
MDA 06-019      Selected for Award
Title:High-Gain, Wavelength-Agile Compact Coherent and Direct-Detection Receiver for High-Bandwidth Laser Communications
Abstract:Aerius Photonics proposes a new wavelength tunable, optically preamplified receiver called the MEMS Tunable Vertical Cavity Amplified Detector (MT-VCAD). The MT-VCAD is a compact hybrid semiconductor chip device that utilizes an integrated MEMS mirror in conjunction with an amplifying semiconductor resonant cavity and a hybrid PIN detector to selectively amplify and detect different wavelengths of light. Unlike APDs, whose gain and noise figure suffer at higher data rates, the MT-VCAD maintains high gain (>100x) at high data rates (10 to 40 Gb/s), thus enabling satellites to communicate over longer distances and at 10's of gigabits per second. The MT-VCAD is compatible with coherent and direct detection operation. The MT-VCAD receiver inherently accepts and amplifies only a narrow wavelength band (0.1 nm), reflecting other bands, and is able to change this wavelength in microseconds. Therefore the proposed tunable receiver, with a tunable transmitter, can rapidly change wavelength and eliminate any attempts to jam or damage the detectors either by wideband illumination or by narrowband lasers. Wavelength tunability also enables compact wavelength division multiplexed systems. In Phase I Aerius Photonics will demonstrate device functionality with a breadboard prototype and in Phase II Aerius will deliver a fully functional brassboard prototype receiver.

FREEDOM PHOTONICS LLC
65 Willow Springs Lane Suite 204
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 685-8240
Dr. Jonathon Barton
MDA 06-019      Selected for Award
Title:High-Performance Integrated Rad-Hard Coherent Receivers for Satellite Optical Communications
Abstract:An integrated coherent high sensitivity optical receiver containing a widely tunable laser will be designed and fabricated. This is achieved using a radiation hardened Indium Phosphide materials platform. This will provide a key required component for practical coherent communications systems; a single chip-scale integrated receiver structure containing a balanced detector pair, optical coupler, a widely tunable laser and semiconductor optical amplification. It is expected that this device will provide wide optical bandwidth, high tolerance to environmental and external shocks, low weight and high sensitivity, while reducing the number of required optical interfaces.

SARASWATI ASSOC.
650 5th StreetSuite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Mr. Jim Coward
MDA 06-019      Selected for Award
Title:High Sensitivity Coherent Optical Receiver/Detector
Abstract:The Saraswati Coherent Optical REceiver (SCORE) utilizes an a very innovative approach to achieve record receiver sensitivity for high bandwidth optical communications. The SCORE approach supports 10-100 Gb/s communicaton on a single wavelength. SCORE can utilize dense wavelength division multiplexing to achieve well over 1 terabit per second aggregate communication. SCORE utilizes mature component technology with most components having lifetimes well over 1 million hours. Key components have started the radiation characterization process demonstrating promising results.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Michael MacDougal
MDA 06-020      Selected for Award
Title:High-Power Vertical Cavity Laser Diode Arrays for Space Applications
Abstract:Instead of making incremental improvements to the inherent weakness of the laser facet, Aerius Photonics proposes to fabricate space-qualifiable laser pump arrays that eliminate the weakness of the facet altogether by using kilowatt-capable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), which use a distributed mirror, effectively decoupling the feedback mirror from the output window. When compared to edge-emitting laser arrays, VCSELs offer (1) lower power density at the exit aperture, reducing hotspots, (2) simplified optics, (3) a single solder interface, (4) arbitrary array shape, (5)lower wavelength drift over temperature, and (6) a lower inherent production cost due to their ease of processing and testing. At the end of a successful Phase II, Aerius will deliver arrays with an emission wavelength of 808 nm and an output power of greater than 1000W per bar stack and demonstrating high reliability in a high vacuum environment. In Phase I, they will perform baseline reliability studies of kilowatt-capable VCSEL arrays in vacuum, and formulate a next-generation design based on the results of testing and a thorough trade study.

NLIGHT PHOTONICS
5408 NE 88th Street, Bldg E
Vancouver, WA 98665
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 566-4472
Mr. Mark DeFranza
MDA 06-020      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Laser Diodes for Space Laser Communications
Abstract:We propose to perform analytical and empirical studies of laser diode packages in regards to long-term reliability for use in the space environment. Our approach will be to develop a physics based understanding of the failure mechanisms observed due to operation in vacuum and radiation environments. We expect to be able to mitigate these failure mechanisms through nLight's laser diode design and fabrication capabilities. We anticipate that these failure mechanisms can be significantly reduced through the use of nLight's, diode and package designs, advanced materials and fabrication techniques, and our volume manufacturing capabilities. We have demonstrated, at 808nm, that we can meet the long-term goal of 150 watts per bar, and have further demonstrated very high efficiency (>65%) diode performance at these wavelengths. We anticipate our package designs can be made robust for use in the space environment to meet a 10,000-hour lifetime goal. This would enable high confidence deployment of our laser packages for space-based applications such as LIDAR, communications, and other programs requiring high power laser diode pumps.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr. Jeffrey S.N. Paine
MDA 06-021      Selected for Award
Title:Novel TVC Mini DAC System
Abstract:Thrust Vector Control (TVC) systems offer advantages such as reduced complexity and fewer thrusters relative to many other divert and attitude control (DAC) systems. Proposed is the development of a novel TVC system to provide miniature DAC capabilities for a wide range of mono-prop and bi-prop missile propulsion systems. A primary benefit that the proposed TVC concept offers relative to systems with multiple DAC and attitude control system (ACS) thrusters is that potentially fewer thrusters are required and the overall complexity of the system can be reduced. The proposed research will leverage previous work that has been conducted into TVC systems by incorporating a new piezoelectric motor actuation technology. The proposed system will provide significant improvements in valve proportionality, reduction of system complexity, increased reliability, reduced power consumption, and weight and cost savings relative to systems dependent upon electro-magnetic actuation technologies. The piezoelectric-controlled TVC will also impart a vectoring proportionality that can be valuable to the overall system response. The resulting technology will be scaleable to a wide range of applications.

EXQUADRUM, INC.
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Mr. Kevin Mahaffy
MDA 06-021      Selected for Award
Title:OGRE Technology for Miniature DACS Propulsion
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research and development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach to high performance and highly controllable solid rocket motor propulsion for miniature advanced Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS). The proposed propulsion approach is throttleable and capable of a very large number of cycles of extinguishment and restart. The technology will be experimentally demonstrated during the research program.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Keith R. Meiler
MDA 06-021      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturized CMC Propulsion System Components for Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV)
Abstract:Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) Systems, in near-term deployment, offer a single kill opportunity per vehicle. The growing sophistication of threat countermeasures and target discernment are addressed by the Miniature Kill Vehicle (MKV) interceptor system. Enabling technologies including substantial reduction of kill vehicle size, mass and acquisition cost are required. For the proposed program, Fiber Materials Inc (FMI) supported by Aerojet will develop multi-directionally reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for incorporation within the Aerojet-developed MKV DACS design. The MKV application creates challenging performance requirements associated with controlling pressurized hot gas with miniaturized components. The development effort will focus on the design of specialized CMC's to meet requirements of the MKV Divert Thruster Assembly with direct applicability to the Attitude Control System (ACS).

VALCOR ENGINEERING CORP.
2 Lawrence Road
Springfield, NJ 07081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 467-8400
Mr. Ata Onursal
MDA 06-021      Selected for Award
Title:Miniature Advanced Divert and Attitude Control (DACS) System Technologies
Abstract:Valcor is proposing to perform a trade study of various valve design options to optimize a DACS control valve.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1202
Dr. Henry R. Sebesta
MDA 06-022      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Inertial Measurement System
Abstract:Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop a compact inertial measurement system (CIMS) by combining two inertial rate sensing devices. One rate sensor uses magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for high frequency motion measurement and is denoted the Angular Rate Sensor (ARS). The second sensor is a new micro-electro-mechancial system (MEMS) gyro denoted the Disk Resonant Gyro (DRG) and is used for low frequency motion measurement. In addition to combined ARS/DRG motion sensing, the CIMS also exploits FPGA-based electronics for multi-sensor signal conditioning and fusion. A complete, autonomous attitude determination system is achieved by optionally including a stellar camera unit / star tracker to provide calibration and inertial sensor drift compensation. Depending on performance requirements, other aiding sensors (magnetometers, horizon sensors, etc) may be substituted for the stellar camera. CIMS achieves motion measurement sensitivity at 5 arcsecs (25 microrads) or less over the bandwidth DC-100 Hz. Measurement noise of CIMS above 1 Hz is estimated to be less than 1 microrad. The mass of CIMS is less than 1.5 kg and power required under 2 W.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V. Zagarola
MDA 06-023      Selected for Award
Title:Continuous-Flow Joule-Thomson Cryocoolers for Distributed Heat Loads
Abstract:Future space applications will require low capacity mechanical cryocoolers for distributed cooling of small arrays of infrared detectors, high-temperature superconducting electronics, or payload thermal management. Creare proposes to develop an innovative Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler that utilizes a new type of continuous flow compressor to provide cooling at multiple miniature cold heads. The heat transport to each cooling site is accomplished at ambient temperature allowing large separation distances between cryocooler components and cooling sites with minimal performance impact. The compressor uses non-contacting, gas-lubricated bearings and is a derivative of TRL 9 technology that has demonstrated high efficiency and reliability. The proposed approach eliminates limitations on life and reliability normally associated with JT cryocoolers. During the Phase I project, we propose to perform system modeling and proof-of-concept tests with the compressor to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. During Phase II, we will build and test a complete JT cryocooler at cryogenic temperatures.

CRYOWAVE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, INC.
58 Washington Street
Pawtucket, RI 02860
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 728-6488
Dr. Zhimin Hu
MDA 06-023      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturization of Thermoacoustic Expander for 50 mW Recuperative Coolers Run Below 40 K
Abstract:The objective of this program is to demonstrate and miniaturize a new type of cryogenic expander, thermoacoustic expander (TAE), for space cryocoolers which provide the cooling power less than 50 mW and operate in the low temperature range between 40K and 10K for cooling SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR surveillance and interceptor systems. TAEs employ high energy acoustic waves generated with absolutely no mechanical moving parts at the cold expander to produce efficient cooling over a wide temperature range. The TAE can replace more conventional complex mechanical moving part turbines or piston expanders as well as Joule Thomson expanders. The novel expander is applicable to cooling multiple sensors or focal planes especially if they must be vibrationally decoupled from the host vehicle, and allowes for efficient integration of a low mass cold head with remote and/or numerous objects to be cooled. In phase I, a proof of concept unit will be designed, fabricated and tested.

VIRTUAL AEROSURFACE TECHNOLOGIES
575 14th Street, Suite 1375
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 881-8276
Dr. Thomas M. Crittenden
MDA 06-023      Selected for Award
Title:Small Scale Cryogenic Refrigeration Technology
Abstract:Virtual AeroSurface Technologies, Inc., in collaboration with researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Raytheon Company, proposes an SBIR program for the development of a MEMS fabricated microcompressor suitable for use with microcryocooler systems. The proposed microcompressor will be designed to provide 10 W of compressor power from an approximately 1 cm3 compressor package. In the Phase I program, two candidate concepts will be analyzed as means of provide positive displacement compression (particularly suitable for direct application to cooler systems with reciprocating thermal cycles, such as a Stirling cycle or pulse tube). The first concept will miniaturize a moving-magnet linear actuator, and the second will utilize a piezoelectric vibrating membrane. Both of these designs will be intended to eliminate frictional wear and surface-to-surface contact which would contaminate the micro-scale system and lead to catastrophic reductions in compressor effectiveness. Significant modeling and design of the two concepts will be performed and initial component prototyping will be performed with the superior design (based upon effectiveness, efficiency, and manufacturability) downselected at the end of Phase I for full prototyping and experimental characterization as part of a prospective Phase II program.

MICROSAT SYSTEMS
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5186
Mr. Greg Hegemann
MDA 06-024      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Microsatellite Target Platform
Abstract:This effort will enhance the space based platform for on orbit calibration of ground-based radar systems. Low cost, microsatellite technologies, developed under previous programs, will enable rapidly deployed calibration target system consisting of characteristic shaped bodies. Specific interface details associated with attributes of enhanced motion characteristic, greater telemetry collection, higher precision, multi-object deployment and active thermal control will be performed while maintaining up and downlink encrypted communications.

AMETHYST RESEARCH, INC.
Southern Oklahoma Technology Center2610 Sam Noble Parkway
Ardmore, OK 73401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 227-9414
Dr. Wayne Holland
MDA 06-025      Selected for Award
Title:Passivation Technologies for Improved Operability and Radiation Tolerance in VLWIR HgCdTe Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:HgCdTe, with its high quantum efficiency, remains the material of choice for most high-performance infrared detector applications. By varying its alloy composition, HgCdTe can be used for short wavelength to very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR); however, its use in VLWIR (12-16 microns) applications is problematic, even when grown on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates, due to material and substrate quality issues. Ongoing work by Amethyst Research is proving hydrogenation effective in passivating defects and improving carrier lifetime/mobility in HgCdTe/Si infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs), offering the potential for increased producibility of large arrays, extended effective spectral response to longer wavelengths, and reduced cooling requirements. Recent research by Amethyst suggests that hydrogenation may also be effective in defect mitigation and the attendant operability improvements of HgCdTe/ZnCdTe focal plane arrays. There is also evidence to suggest that hydrogenation may improve radiation hardness of the HgCdTe/ZnCdTe, providing a self-healing material with immunity to a variety of defect sources. Amethyst proposes to investigate hydrogenation of HgCdTe/ZnCdTe for defect passivation and radiation hardening. Amethyst's collaboration with BAE, Raytheon Vision Systems and Teledyne Imaging Sensors (formerly Rockwell Scientific), the country's major IRFPA manufacturers, will ensure rapid transition of this manufacturing technology to MDA platforms.

LUMINIT, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Dr. Fedor Dimov
MDA 06-025      Selected for Award
Title:Fiber-Optic Phase Shifting Interferometer
Abstract:To address the MDA need for non-destructive evaluation and detection of surface and subsurface defects in aspheric telescope SiC mirrors, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new Fiber Optic Phase Shifting Interferometer (FOPSI). The proposed FOPSI is a non-contact real-time in situ surface roughness monitoring system based on an innovative, modular, highly sensitive interferometer consisting of a movable sensor head and a rapid non-mechanical phase shifting module, using single mode fibers to generate the reference and object waves. A high-speed camera in the sensor head captures a sequence of consecutive interferograms within sub-millsecond time intervals, which are then used to reconstruct the surface profile so that real-time image processing software can detect defects. The lightweight sensor head (<1 kg) can be easily positioned for in situ monitoring and evaluation of a SiC mirror in production. In Phase I Luminit will develop a proof-of-principle FOPSI and demonstrate the feasibility of mapping the surface profile in <5 minutes and detecting defects within 1 micron of a typical 10 inch SiC aspherical mirror surface with an accuracy of 5 nm rms. In Phase II Luminit will develop a full functioning FOPSI for in situ monitoring and evaluation of aspheric telescope SiC mirrors.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. David Sheikh
MDA 06-025      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Stress Silicon Cladding for Silicon-Carbide Mirrors
Abstract:Silicon carbide (SiC) has recently become an attractive replacement for berrilium in missile interceptor mirror applications. However, because of the difficulty in grinding silicon carbide and the potential for micro-porosity in the material, many types of SiC require the application of a relatively soft silicon layer for final figuring and polishing. Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) will develop and demonstrate a low-stress, polishable, silicon cladding for SiC mirrors using an ion-assisted deposition technique. In Phase I, SOC will fabricate silicon films and characterize the films for residual stress and polishability. In Phase II, the designs will be optimized and the research will be extended to include environmental exposure testing to ensure long-term stability of the materials.

ENSER CORP. THE
5430 70th Avenue North
Pinellas Park, FL 33781
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 520-1393
Mr. David Harney
MDA 06-026      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense System Innovative Power Storage Devices
Abstract:The overall objective of the pellet production automation program is to develop alternative methodologies for: 1) precise powder measurement, 2) powder preparation for transfer into the die cavity, 3) uniform powder dispersion. Pellet production is currently a rate limiting step in the production of thermal batteries. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the powders are different enough to require unique processing. The pellet production rate is highly dependant on the type of powder material being pressed as well as the type of press being used. The phase I objective is to develop a methodology for doubling ENSER's thermal battery pellet production rate by improving the powder loading, delivery and compaction processes on the automatic presses.

LITHCHEM INTERNATIONAL
1830 Columbia Avenue
Folcroft, PA 19032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 522-5960
Mr. Joseph Kejha
MDA 06-026      Selected for Award
Title:Safe High Power (High Rate) Lithium Battery for MKV (Missiles) with Long storage Life
Abstract:Thermal reserve batteries are an important necessary component for the proper function and optimum performance of guided missiles, many munitions systems, rockets, and other military systems requiring instant high power after a long period of storage. The technology and performance for these difficult, expensive, hand made batteries has not changed appreciably in 20 years. LithChem (Toxco) has developed a new safe, primary prismatic lithium reserve cell/battery (non-thermal) which has 8 times the power density (4 kW/kg) and twice the energy density (120 Wh/kg) over the current reserve batteries. This new LithChem cell operates at 4.3 V compared to the 1.5 V of the current reserve battery cells providing additional savings in space and weight and also has long term storability. Not only are these performance features a major advance for reserve batteries, but these new LithChem cells will have a much lower unit cost with increased reliability due to a unique automated cell manufacturing process. In this program, LithChem will work with Lockheed-Martin to develop this new battery for the Multiple Kill Vehicle as a first application and demonstration of this major improvement in reserve batteries for the Missile Defense Agency.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Thomas Barbarich
MDA 06-026      Selected for Award
Title:A Phase I SBIR Proposal to Lower the Cost and Improve the Manufacturing of Li-ion Batteries
Abstract:Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in military, aerospace, commercial, and vehicular applications because they have high specific energy (up to 200 Wh/kg) and energy density (~ 500 Wh/L) and long cycle life (1,000 - 80,000 cycles currently depending on the depth of cycling). However, the production of these batteries for defense applications is often in low volumes that can lead to increased costs and defects compared to mass-produced Li-ion batteries for the commercial sector. There is a need within the Army, Navy, other military services, NASA, and the commercial sector to lower the manufacturing cost and reliability of low volume systems. The proposed effort will use a new manufacturing technique to simplify the construction that will lower cost and improve the reliability of Li-ion cells.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Keith R. Meiler
MDA 06-027      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced CMC Materials and Manufacturing Processes for Divert and Attitude Control Systems
Abstract:Fiber Materials Inc. (FMI) teamed with Aerojet Sacramento proposes to advance low cost, non-eroding material systems based on carbon fiber reinforced carbon silicon carbide (C-SiC) to high performance divert and attitude control system (DACS) components for the SM-3 TDACS application. In addition the program will develop advanced ceramic matrix composite manufacturing processes to further the material system capabilities while offering reduced system cost. These innovations will facilitate transition of current fielded DACS refractory metal construction technology to ceramic matrix composites with increased pressure capability. This added thrust capability will enable higher performance DACS designs and is applicable to evolving interceptor systems such as KEI. The material will be engineered for use with systems operating in the 3700F temperature regime. Preliminary conceptual design and thermal/stress assessments will be accomplished in Phase I. The Phase I analyses will be used as a basis for varying carbon fiber perform weave design and process parameters to meet the operational end use requirements. In Phase II, final design analysis activities will support both manufacture of material for characterization as well as a representative component for hot gas demonstration.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. Clifford T. Tanaka
MDA 06-027      Selected for Award
Title:Volume, Near Net Shape Manufacturing of Chemical Vapor Composite Divert & Attitude Control Systems (DACS) Nozzles
Abstract:Divert & Attitude Control System nozzles will be fabricated using Trex's chemical vapor composite (CVC) silicon carbide material. Because the CVC process results in high purity SiC, the excellent high temperature performance expected of the material is maintained. For example, some high temperature tests show erosion free performance in CVC SiC at temperatures as high as 4000oF. Furthermore, due to its high hardness and chemical resistance, CVC SiC is highly resistant to both mechanical and chemical erosion from DACS propellants. The Phase 1 program will produce net shape CVC SiC DACS nozzles of varying nozzle dimensions, including wall thickness of material and throat diameter. Trex will also develop fiber-reinforced CVC SiC nozzles with greater fracture toughness and greater survivability under extreme firing temperatures and pressures. Trex will thereby demonstrate cost-effect manufacturing of robust, erosion-resistant DACS nozzles using its CVC process.

UTRON, INC.
8506 Wellington Road, Suite 200
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Dr. Karthik Nagarathnam
MDA 06-027      Selected for Award
Title:High Temperature Propulsion Components for Advanced Solid DACS by Combustion Driven Powder Compaction (CDC) Technology
Abstract:The proposed work is mainly focused on developing Composite Alloys of W-Re, Mo-Re, with Ta, Hf, HfC, and TaC for the application development of higher thrust-high temperature (e.g., TDACS FEDS) Large Thrust Pintles with potential weight reduction by suitable alloying and functional layering for advanced Solid DACS systems using UTRON's 300 or 1000 Ton CDC Press. Major advantages of CDC process are: faster process cycle time (e.g., milliseconds), much higher densification, less part shrinkage, improved mechanical/high temperature strength attributes, ability for micro/nano powder consolidation and simple/complex geometry, much less/no materials wastage cast, superior surface quality (e.g., micron/sub-micron finishes), and scaling up potential. Representative disks, hollow cylinders, and select tensile dogbone samples will be processed to show the proof of concept and evaluated for CDC process optimization, thermal sintering responses, physical /geometrical/surface quality properties, microstructure, microchemistry and mechanical/high temperature properties in Phase I. Our R&D efforts are planned in collaboration with major MDA subcontractor (e.g., Aerojet) and SRI. Further advanced novel alloys, CDC process optimization, fabrication of specific geometries to MDA needs, extensive testing and scaling up efforts will be done in Phase II and Phase III.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
181 Gibraltar Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Mr. Richard Foedinger
MDA 06-028      Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional Hybrid Textiles for Integrated Heat Shield/Airframe Structures(MSC P6037)
Abstract:Advanced missile defense interceptors will require improved solutions for integrating thermal protection systems and high strength composite airframe structures to meet the performance goals for lightweight, low cost, ablative/insulation performance, lightning strike protection, resistance to degradation or damage from adverse weather conditions and structural integrity at elevated temperatures. Improvements in manufacturing processes are also desired to reduce costs associated with current labor intensive heatshield manufacturing and assembly procedures. In order to meet the multifunctional performance goals, an integrated heatshield/airframe structure material system employing hybrid fiber bundles, advanced textile preforms and nanoparticle reinforcements is proposed. Candidate fiber and resin material systems and functionally gradient composite constructions will be identified and evaluated. Analytical material models will be developed and thermostructural analyses will be performed to evaluate candidate heatshield/airframe material combinations. The innovation involves the integration of functional material characteristics at the constituent level to provide design tailorability and compatibility with manufacturing process methods. Alternate manufacturing approaches for integrating the hybrid textile pre-forms will be evaluated. A final prototype hybridized material system for the integrated heatshield/airframe will be down-selected for Phase II manufacturing scale-up and performance demonstration.

OCELLUS, INC.
450 Lindbergh Avenue
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 606-6540
Dr. Michael Droege
MDA 06-028      Selected for Award
Title:Spray-On Thermal Protection for Hypersonic Missiles
Abstract:The development hypersonic missiles is one response to the current need of weapon systems with the ability to attack time-critical targets at long range. Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) is a missile development program to design, develop, and deploy kinetic energy-based missiles that can intercept and destroy enemy ballistic missiles during their boost phase. Future MDA requirements for hypersonic missiles, like the KEI, necessitate advances in structural and insulation materials as enabling technologies. These hypersonic vehicles will experience severe aero-thermal loading, high G accelerations, and must be capable of flight in all-weather conditions. It is clear that a thermal protection system (TPS) will be required to ensure the successful development of hypersonic missiles. While a range of insulation materials are currently used to provide thermal protection for supersonic missiles, none of these appear to be a viable solution for the hypersonic KEI. To meet the need for an effective, robust, nonablating TPS that can applied using efficient manufacturing methods, we propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel composite, spray-on thermal barrier system. We envision this TPS providing thermal protection and adverse weather resistance for ceramic and organic composite structures of hypersonic missiles.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, LLC
9340 Hazard Way, Suite A3
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 750-0450
Ms. Christine Benzie
MDA 06-028      Selected for Award
Title:High Temperature Composite Rocket Motor Cases for Missile Defense
Abstract:Next generation missile defense interceptors will achieve hypersonic velocities during flight to reach offensive missile targets sufficiently early to minimize threat capability. Achieving the peak velocity with current rocket motor technology (i.e., graphite reinforced epoxy case materials) is proving a challenge for the system level contractors. Meeting the booster performance goals with innovative materials technologies is a much lower system level cost approach than by increasing the booster diameter or length. The approach for this SBIR proposal is to target the missile components that have a significant weight impact due to the large surface area, specifically the first and second stage rocket motor cases. Higher temperature rocket motor cases resins have been identified as a technology that is capable of delivering the improved performance that next generation interceptors demand. Optimizing the thermal performance of the case with resins with higher temperature capability than epoxy materials affords the designer the ability to reduce the TPS volume. The volume and mass saved by the higher operating temperature case can be filled with propellant to achieve increased burn-out velocities or quicker time to target.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. Victor M. Arrieta
MDA 06-028      Selected for Award
Title:Economical Manufacture of Refractory Ceramic Matrix Composite Aerostructure with Integral Thermal Protection System for Kinetic Energy Interceptor
Abstract:The thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment generated during launch and flight of hypersonic missiles is severe. Ultramet has developed a melt infiltration process for rapid fabrication of refractory ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) including matrices of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide, silicon carbide, and ceramic alloys including two or more of these materials. The carbon fiber reinforcement provides high strength and toughness and can be braided or wrapped into complex shapes that are retained after the melt process and require little or no postprocess machining. Significant ultrahigh temperature testing of these composites has been performed with good results. Ultramet has also developed and tested high temperature, low cost insulators composed of open-cell carbon foam that is filled with a low conductivity carbon aerogel insulator. The potential exists to combine and optimize melt infiltrated CMCs with foam-based insulators that meet the demanding requirements of hypersonic missile airframes while also demonstrating affordable processing. Ultramet proposes to assemble a development team comprising Materials Research & Design for thermal/mechanical modeling and erosion prediction methodologies, Ocellus Inc. for carbon aerogel/carbon foam insulation processing, and Raytheon Missile Systems for airframe requirements definition. In Phase I, aerostructure prototype components will be fabricated and subjected to high temperature oxidation testing to 3500F at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory.

COSTVISION
1472 North St.
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 539-9312
Mr. Charles Stirk
MDA 06-029      Selected for Award
Title:Cost Modeling Interoperability & Integration within the Model-Based Enterprise
Abstract:Defense acquisition programs suffer from cost escalation due to the inability to accurately estimate costs up front and to predict the cost impact of changes. In this program, we will work with several leading MDA manufacturers to define the requirements for a costing framework integrated with their engineering and business software infrastructure. The framework will facilitate the establishment of a model-based enterprise by developing cost models that interoperate with system, sub-system, part and manufacturing models across development phases. In particular, we will 1) design a lifecycle cost modeling framework for both electrical and mechanical systems; 2) define interfaces to commercial cost estimating and enterprise software applications that are based on developing industry standards to create integrated cost models; 3) automate the integration of cost parameters across the models; 4) automate risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis; and 4) work with MDA manufacturers to ensure that the costing framework meet the needs of critical system development programs. We will leverage the web-based, collaborative costing software under development at CostVision and extend it to interoperate with complementary costing, product lifecycle management, enterprise resource planning, and manufacturing execution systems.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd.Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
MDA 06-029      Selected for Award
Title:Cost360T: Enterprise-wide Cost Modeling Tracking and Sensitivity Analyses
Abstract:The inability of MDA acquisition programs to effectively manage costs and curb cost growth has historically produced cost over-runs. One key reason for this cost escalation is the lack of total visibility into all the sources of cost within the enterprise. What is needed for "total cost knowledge" are accurate cost models that are integrated with the various business and engineering applications (e.g. ERP/ERM, PDM/PLM) in the enterprise. This SBIR project is concerned with developing methods and tools that maximize knowledge of total cost, enable cost sensitivity analysis, and facilitate interoperability and automatic integration of cost models with other enterprise applications including business systems and dependent model elements (such as mechanical part models with related material models and associated manufacturing process models) as part of a model-based enterprise. The cost modeling tool will account for various sources of project uncertainties and risks and will enable cost projections under a variety of "what if" assumptions. Phase I of this effort will establish a generic framework for weapon system lifecycle cost modeling.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, LLC (DBA MMCC, LLC)
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. Yuejian Chen
MDA 06-030      Selected for Award
Title:Thin Copper-Graphite Composite Cold Plate for Thermal Management of High Density Electronics
Abstract:Copper-graphite composite is proposed for a thin liquid-cooled cold plate for high density electronic thermal management. The proposed cold plate will have CTE in the range of 2~9x10-6 /C to match those of semiconductors such as SiC, silicon, GaAs, as well as ceramic substrates. The composites have a thermal conductivity of ~200 W/m K in the through-plane direction and ~300 W/m K in planar directions. The proposed cold plate will be able to withstand temperatures up to those of copper-silver brazing (780 degree C) for subsequent die attachment or substrate bonding, without re-melting the brazing joint.

WAVEFRONT RESEARCH, INC.
616 West Broad Street
Bethlehem, PA 18018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 694-9778
Dr. Thomas W. Stone
MDA 06-030      Selected for Award
Title:NOVEL PACKAGING AND INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGIES FOR GREATLY ENHANCED FOOTPRINT, THERMAL, AND RADIATION PERFORMANCE IN MDA APPLICATIONS
Abstract:The goal of this Phase-I SBIR effort is to establish the feasibility, performance, and advantages of a combination of novel technologies that provide a practical high reliability and high performance solution to challenges encountered in increasing the capabilities of interceptor processors as well as dense multi-board electronic applications. The technology developed in this program will provide breakthrough increases in interconnect density accompanied by enhanced thermal management, high data throughput, relaxed manufacturing tolerances, low power, low crosstalk, and greatly reduced EMI and radiation sensitivity. In addition, the reliability in high shock, vibration, and repeated thermal excursions will be improved. A key feature of this technology is that it has no major cost drivers and is expected to result in a very low-cost and robust interconnection technology. The Phase-I effort includes design and modeling of the technology, the construction of feasibility demonstrators, their experimental evaluation, initial optimization of the technology, and the design of a high performance Phase-II prototype demonstrator that will be built and evaluated by Primes in a potential follow-on Phase-II effort.

DECIBEL RESEARCH, INC.
PO Box 5368
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-6189
Mr. Max Patin
MDA 06-031      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Signal Processing Technologies for BMDS Radars
Abstract:While enormous advances in signal processing throughput have been made over the last decade, there still have been expressed limitations of current technology to handle large data samples and extremely high data rate processing present in tactical missile defense sensor systems. Current methods employed to ameliorate this problem have focused on custom hardware solutions in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and custom digital signal processors (DSPs). As a result, the solutions tend to resolve point design issues but with little flexibility for evolving requirements and at high deployment and maintenance costs. Equipment obsolescence also tends to be a characteristic of these near term solutions. While the achievements in high performance, general purpose compute power and high density memory have produced remarkable results in batch (non-real-time) processing, these have not been realizable in the signal processing domain for tactical sensor systems. However, with the recent advances in low latency interconnect technology, the opportunity is afforded to resolve current limitations of the custom solutions. This research effort will identify innovative software solutions designed to bring high performance compute opportunities to the signal processing domain.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
1220 Kennestone CircleSuite E
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 795-8181
Dr. J. Clayton Kerce
MDA 06-031      Selected for Award
Title:Atmospheric Effects Mitigation and Enhanced Metrics for Improved Radar Tracking and Handover
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) proposes an innovative class of algorithms for ionospheric and tropospheric scintillation effects mitigation that will improve target tracking and handover performance in early warning and tracking Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) radars. One issue in BMD tracking is successfully handing over a threat object map (TOM) from a forward-based radar to a rear-based radar. Atmospheric effects from both the ionosphere and the troposphere will distort the TOM in two significant ways - refraction and turbulence.

PRA will develop target metrics and algorithms that enhance target tracking and handover using atmospheric refraction and turbulence correlation measurements determined by the Total Atmospheric Effects Mitigation System, developed by PRA for the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the US Air Force. The proposed radar metrics will enhance BMD radar tracking and handover for all targets including low-elevation targets thereby increasing the coverage area of BMD radars.

PRA will demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms using a simulation that accounts for scintillation induced spatial and temporal correlation between individual returns for objects in a separating target complex. In Phase II, this simulation will be integrated into early warning MDA radars for algorithm validation.

RDAS, INC.
11003 E.Bradford Circle
Cerritos, CA 90703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 379-4802
Mr. Augustus H. Green, jr.
MDA 06-031      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Signal Processing Technologies for BMDS Radars
Abstract:The objective is to formulate and validate via computer simulations new approaches for developing an algorithm suite having a capability for operating and processing wideband adaptive arrays and to counter interference. Selection of an efficient algorithm suite for both narrowband and wideband environments without a need for matrix inversion and independent of waveform type is the thrust. The goal is to achieve improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the desired signal while suppressing the undesired signals. The approaches will be developed mathematically and will be validated via computer simulations. Algorithm simulation requires selection of physics based models for a phased array antenna, transmitted waveform, target, and jammer. Models from RDAS' database will be used or where available models don't suffice models will be generated. A three dimensional scenario wherein target and jammer locations are defined with respect to radar location will also be defined. Target, jammer and beam-steering motion will be incorporated in a simulation to demonstrate feasibility of the adaptive algorithm processing technique to continually suppress or cancel the jamming signal while preserving the information content of a reflected signal from a target regardless of motion. A planar array of size MxN will be used to demonstrate feasibility.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. Richard Lethin
MDA 06-031      Selected for Award
Title:Software Tools to Optimize BMD Radar Algorithms to COTS Hardware
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop additional capabilities in software tools, in order to map advanced BMD signal processing algorithms to next-generation COTS signal processing hardware, within the context of open standards programming APIs. Specifically we propose to focus on advanced Moving Target Indicator (MTI) algorithms, MTI variants with tightly integrated imaging. The primary target of such mappings will be two-dimensional single-chip fine-grained processor arrays. We will implement additions to parallel program optimization and mapping algorithms based on the polyhedral model, as implemented in the Reservoir R-Stream compiler. These optimization and mapping improvements will serve to take better account of the two-dimensional topology of the hardware processor array. This will result in significant improvements to the ability to implement certain computationally intense portions of radar signal processing algorithms, increasing capabilities and decreasing development costs.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport StreetQuonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Dr. William H. Weedon
MDA 06-032      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Digital Receiver/Exciters for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:This proposal will address the development of digital receivers and exciters capable of supporting > 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth (IBW). The technology will be used in large scalable BMD radar arrays employing a digital waveform generator and digital receiver at the analog input/output of each subarray panel. The receivers/exciters include the necessary up/downconversion and local oscillator circuitry necessary to generate or receive an X-band waveform. Recent developments in > 2 GSPS A/D and D/A chipsets and state-of-the-art FPGA technology allow the real-time processing of wideband (> 1 GHz) radar data, while commercially-available MMIC and PLL chipsets allow the translation of the baseband signals to/from X-band. Several challenges exist in the packaging of the mixed-signal electronics in a manner suitable for a large radar array, routing of the high-speed digital signals both on- and off-board, and cohering of the many receiver/exciter channels across the array. The output of the proposed digital receiver/exciter channels would likely be fed to a wideband digital beamformer array. In Phase I, Applied Radar will design the digital receiver/exciter hardware for a single channel, and develop a multi-channel hardware architecture and packaging approach. In Phase II, the hardware will be fabricated and tested, and integrated with an array such as an MDA SPEAR panel.

GLOBAL DELTA, LLC
13008 Henson Ct, Suite B
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 651-1782
Mr. Donald D. Coleman
MDA 06-032      Selected for Award
Title:Affordable Digital Receiver/Exciter for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:A program is proposed to leverage the radar technology developed by Global Delta LLC as part of the Navy's Maritime Identification and Surveillance Technology (MIST) project to develop affordable digital receiver/exciters. Global Delta's development of affordable techniques for digital beamforming has focused on designs that rely on the use of state-of-the-art digital circuits to generate waveforms that can precisely form and steer antenna beams without the use of costly phase shifters or time-delay circuitry. Digital beam forming on a pulse to pulse basis permits adaptive control of the radar beam for angle position and frequency and the capability to interleave pulse trains at different frequencies while retaining the coherency of each of several pulse trains. T/R modules suitable for X-band and Ku band use have been investigated by Global Delta as elements of active electronic scanned array (AESA) radar systems. Test modules have been developed at X-band and are in the processes of being integrated into a maritime surveillance radar. The RF-to-digital receiver, combined with the digital exciter for waveform generation provides an affordable element of a high-power active electronic scanned antenna system. The fundamental design objective is a plug-in module that is interchangeable with other modules in an AESA.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. John Poelker
MDA 06-032      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Digital Receiver/Exciters for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:Anticipated threats to missile defense radars are a challenging mixture of countermeasures and simulation. Future systems are expected to incorporate multi-channel adaptive digital beam-forming to counter the active threats and therefore require affordable, high performance digital receivers and digital exciters. This phased array radar technology research effort is focused on developing low-cost, low-power, compact digital exciter technologies. One novel design approach for such application is a direct analog synthesis approach. This Phase 1 proposal describes Hittite's approach for miniaturized direct synthesizers suitable for T/R module applications with X-band outputs. A block diagram of the proposed T/R module is proposed along with the MMICs required to support it. These new MMICs include filters and a Phase locked microwave reference to be used to reduce the module size and complexity. A calibration technique for synchronizing Hittite's resettable frequency dividers is proposed.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Donald L. Herman, Jr.
MDA 06-032      Selected for Award
Title:High-Speed, Low-Power Embedded ADC (9727)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop an advanced wideband high-speed, low-power ADC for embedded applications such as wafer-scale arrays (WSAs). Offering higher speed and lower power than competing devices, the ADC will advance the state of the art and enable next-generation digital sub-arrays. A combination of innovative design and SiGe BiCMOS technology will be used to realize the ADC. Implemented as a key part of a WSA's receiving signal chain, the ADC will reduce RF complexity by moving data conversion inside the antenna element to enable radars with size, weight, power, and cost a fraction that of current phased arrays. During Phase I a conceptual design will be developed and key cells simulated. Prototype ADCs will be designed during Phase II for use in WSAs for SPEAR and other applications.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Geoffrey Burnham
MDA 06-033      Selected for Award
Title:Very Wide Bandwidth Photonic Adaptive Digital Beamformer
Abstract:An innovative concept for a scalable Adaptive Digital Beamformer that can be applied to the full range of MDA radars is proposed. The concept is photonics based and will support transmit/receive applications over the .1 to 20 ghz band. The design provides a digitally controlled True Time Delay Beamformer effectively adaptive to a phased array in any portion of the spectral coverage. Fine pointing resolution design is consistent with the implementation approach. A Phase 1 Approach to demonstrate the key beamformer characteristics follwed by a Phase 2 Program that will miniaturize the design and test a multi element implementation. Agiltron is working closely with BAE Systems on this this unconventional approach leveraging Agiltron's recent breakthrough in manufacturing high performance fiber delay lines and variable optical attenuators. The proposed approach overcomes the deficiencies associated with electronic beam forming components, offering frequency independent performance of controlling phase and amplitude in a small, lightweight package with minimal power consumption. Our approach provides unprecedented performance in terms of wide dynamic range, extremely low microwave signal loss, low noise and fast dynamic reconfigurability. The preferred solution set will be determined after developing optimization algorithms for digital receiver/exciter for MDA.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport StreetQuonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Mr. Michael A. Deaett
MDA 06-033      Selected for Award
Title:Efficient Adaptive Beamforming for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:The detection and classification of reentry vehicles in the presence of jammers and clutter is a very important missile defense radar problem. High resolution, wideband adaptive beamforming (ADBF) is an important solution component in which both the transmit and receive beamforming weight vectors are dynamically updated to optimize performance in a time varying jammer and clutter environment. An important constraint on wideband ADBF performance is the high cost of current radar system implementations. During Phase I, Applied Radar will use an extensive beamforming technology base to demonstrate that a wide band, minimum variance, diagonally loaded adaptive beamformer architecture can be integrated into a low-cost, high speed digital beamformer. This research builds on our previously developed innovative, scaleable beamformer architecture. During Phase II, the beamformer hardware will be programmed and interfaced to an array such as an MDA SPEAR panel and the predicted performance demonstrated. Using realistic unclassified engagement scenarios, we will quantify the improvements in missile defense enabled by our technology. We have identified two technology transition paths, one military and the other commercial. We are teamed with a university partner actively engaged in commercial wireless research. We are also supported by an MDA prime radar development contractor.

VIRTUAL EM, INC.
2019 Georgetown Blvd
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 222-4558
Dr. Tayfun Ozdemir
MDA 06-033      Selected for Award
Title:FPGA-Based Adaptive Digital Beamforming for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:An FPGA-based solution is proposed for Adaptive Digital Beamforming for missle defense radars. The FPGA implementation speeds up real-time computations and allows for remote retuning of the algorithm after launch. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) ensures reliable performance in adverse conditions. The proposed solution is as an enabling technology for legacy beamforming hardware.

METAMATERIALS.LLC
2225 W. Braker Lane
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 228-3662
Dr. Rodger Walser
MDA 06-034      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Technologies for Anti-Jam and Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in Ballistic Missile
Abstract:The objective of this program is to utilize a new type of microwave magnetic materials called MetaFerrites to design novel spin wave limiters to protect radar receivers from "front door" high power microwave jamming signals, and high power, short pulses and UWB interference. In Phase I, we will model, simulate, and design Metaferrites, design techniques for processing the composites, and investigate the design of S and X band MetaFerrite waveguide and microstripline. The MetaFerrite limiters are expected to be lightweight, self-biasing, fast responding and compatible with MMIC integration.

PLASMA SCIENCES CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Mr. Luke Gritter
MDA 06-034      Selected for Award
Title:Plasma Limiter: Electromagnetic Attack Protection for BMDS Radars
Abstract:The enabling solid state semiconductor technology in radar systems supporting the U. S. Army's ballistic missile defense program increases its vulnerability to the effects of high power, fast rise-time EMP, HPM, and UWB pulses. In recent years, significant advances in the technology used to produce these pulses have been made in the United States and abroad, increasing the need for effective protection against these threats. Plasma Sciences Corporation (PSC) has extensive experience in the development of plasma limiters to protect sensitive electronic equipment from high power, fast rise-time pulses. Existing plasma limiter technology utilizes a metallic point-plane electrode configuration. While this configuration has been reasonably effective, the advent of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays presents an opportunity to greatly improve plasma limiter performance. Using a CNT array as a field enhancing electrode in a plasma limiter promises to offer faster reaction time, higher power handling capability, and greater reliability than existing systems, providing effective protection for BMDS radars against high power, fast rise-time pulses.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
70 Cohoes Avenue
Green Island, NY 12183
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 271-7375
Dr. Joseph Smart
MDA 06-035      Selected for Award
Title:High power solid state amplifiers on non-polar AlN substrates for ground-based missile defense system radars
Abstract:Research efforts will focus on design, simulation and fabrication of X-band transistors for use in power amplifiers and T/R modules for missile defense radar systems. Innovative, next generation nitride based power transistors will be fabricated on non-polar native AlN substrates. This will enable new device designs without the strong polarization fields associated with typical nitride growth along the c-direction. Gate and channel breakdown along with RF-to-dc dispersion will be reduced or eliminated in the proposed devices. Novel device structures will not require Fe doping in the buffer layers or field plate extensions on the gate which will increase the gain and frequency response of the devices. New physical modeling will be developed to better understand the non-polar device performance and fed back to aid the epitaxial material development on non-polar nitride crystals. Epitaxial growth optimization on non-polar substrates will be extensively investigated to produce device quality films and heterostructures required for high performance, long lifetime devices for next generation X-band radar system. Nucleation strategies and growth parameters have proven to be quite different for the non-polar face substrates. In addition, transport properties of the 2DEG will be monitored on transistor structures to assess improvements in the material quality.

GROUP4 LABS, LLC
1600 Adams DriveSuite 112
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 688-5760
Dr. Felix Ejeckam
MDA 06-035      Selected for Award
Title:Solid State Amplifiers and Transmit/Receive Modules for Ground-Based Missile Defense System Radars
Abstract:This Phase-I SBIR MDA Proposal proposes the use of a new class of diamond-seeded solid-state material system for the manufacture of virtually all heat-generating solid-state electronics in X-band and Ballistic Missile Defense radar components and systems. In this proposal wherein much preliminary (also MDA-funded) work has been demonstrated hitherto by the authors, Gallium Nitride-on-SiC power amplifiers in X-band radar are replaced with GaN-on-Diamond power amplifiers to enable nearly total and immediate heat extraction from the devices active region. This proposal is focused on producing a GaN-on-Diamond wafer wherein the diamond is 3X thicker (or 75-Ym) than Group4s earlier wafers. Polycrystalline free standing CVD diamond V natures most efficient thermal conductor V enables nearly perfect heat extraction from a .hot" device, owing to the extreme thermal conductivity of diamond (GaAs, Si, and SiC are 35W/m/K, 150W/m/K and 390W/m/K respectively; diamond ranges from 1200-2000 W/m/K depending on quality). In the proposed scheme, the devices active epitaxial layers are removed from their original host substrate and transferred to a specially treated low-cost CVD diamond substrate using a proprietary low-cost manufacturable scheme. The semiconductor-on-diamond technology proposed here may be applied to Si, GaAs, GaN, SiC, SiGe, etc. at up to 8" in wafer diameter.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
MDA 06-035      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Seeded Crystal Growth Processes for Large Area Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride Substrates
Abstract:Kyma Technologies will explore aspects of seeded bulk GaN crystal growth to develop manufacturing processes for large area, high quality, semi-insulating GaN substrates for RF applications. Preparation of GaN seeds and growth thereon, including surface cleaning, off-cut angle and direction, growth initiation, and defect control will be investigated. The use of novel seeds and growth conditions will be examined to expand the crystal size during growth. These substrates are expected to improve the performance and reliability of GaN-based power amplifiers for X-band radar applications.

SINMAT, INC.
2153 Hawthorne RoadGTEC Center, Suite 129, Box2
Gainesville, FL 32641
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 334-7237
Dr. Deepika Singh
MDA 06-035      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Rapid and Low Damage Mechanical Polishing Method for Low Cost and Volume Manufacturing of 100mm SiC Substrates
Abstract:The extremely long and multiple polishing steps represent one of the critical challenges for affordable, volume production of high quality 100 mm SiC wafers. As SiC is relatively chemically inert and mechanically hard, aggressive polishing methods involving very hard particles have been used to achieve high removal rates, but such methods create a high degree of sub-surface damage and scratches. To significantly reduce the manufacturing costs, novel high removal rate and low sub-surface mechanical polishing processes need to be developed. Sinmat proposes to develop a novel mechanical polishing process based on novel nanoparticles that will significantly enhance polishing rates, while at the same time reducing the sub-surface damage. These nanoparticles are expected to combine high hardness with "chemical tooth" capability to achieve high removal rates with low concomitant surface damage. The successful development of such as process is expected to significantly shorten the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) step and related manufacturing costs. In the Phase I of the SBIR project, feasibility studies will be conducted on small substrates, while in the Phase II this process will be extended to 100 mm silicon carbide substrates.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
MDA 06-036      Selected for Award
Title:Thermally Initiated Venting Systems (TIVS)
Abstract:Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) self-detonation is an unacceptable and highly dangerous occurrence. A system that would reduce the likelihood of this occurring would be highly beneficial to the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). Mid proposes to design a Thermally Initiated Venting Systems (TIVS) that will decrease the likelihood of SRM premature detonation in its canister. When the temperature and pressure inside an SRM canister rise too high, it can cause the SRM to detonate, possibly resulting in a loss of life. Mid has previously designed and flight qualified a Positive Pressure Relief Valve (PPRV) that is currently in use on the International Space Station. The valve will work on the same principal as the valve used in the space station. Given a rise in pressure or temperature inside the canister above a pre-determined level, the valve will be automatically be triggered open and quickly reduce the pressure inside the canister, helping to prevent premature detonation.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng Tan
MDA 06-036      Selected for Award
Title:Smart Thermal Activated Vents for Large Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Many advanced military weapon systems involve solid rocket motor (SRM) to achieve supersonic speed. Most SRM casings are made from metal alloys. There is an increasing number of SRMs fabricated from polymeric composites because of high performance to weight ratio. The propellants in SRMs are highly sensitive to the chamber pressure to maintain combustion. However, the high chamber pressure has a safety concern in case of fire or unplanned external stimuli. Current safety design incorporates an explosive device to split the motor casing in case of fire or elevated temperature. The use of explosive with close contact with the propellant is itself a concern for safety. In this Phase I SBIR project Wright Materials Research Co. will team up with ATK Thiokol to fabricate and test a new design of fast venting mechanism for SRM casing for MDA's missile applications. The proposed technology is based on a smart material approach. It will create a vent quickly to release the high chamber pressure and extinguish the fire as the desired condition is reached. This design is reliable, safe, and can be adopted for technology insertion in the near future. Preliminary research results are very promising. Once developed through the Phase II project, the proposed smart material based venting mechanism would have an immediate niche market for missiles applications including THAAD, PAC-3, SM, GBI, KEI, and many others.

ZATORSKI COATING CO., INC.
77 Wopowog Road
East Hampton, CT 06424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 267-9889
Mr. Ray Zatorski
MDA 06-036      Selected for Award
Title:PhaCTIV - Phase Change Thermally Initialted Venting System
Abstract:PhaCTIV - Phase Change Thermally Initiated Venting System The Phase Change Thermally Initiated Venting System (PhaCTIV) consists of the following: 1) A structual plate (external) - low melt alloy - structual plate - thermal barrier (internal). 2) Structural plates are joined together with low-melt alloy having an operating range of 230C to greater than 480C, depending on requirements. 3) Thermal barrier materials (TBC) on the internal surface. The PhaCTIV is installed into sections of the motor case with the thermal barrier layer toward the interior. The thermal barrier preserves the integrity of the low-melt alloy during the firing of the motor. However an external fire will melt the alloy resulting in the structural plates falling away from the case venting the rocket motor resulting in thrust termination. This system has the following features: No pyrotechnics No energetics No sensors to activate the system No electronics No power required No maintenance The proposed thermal barrier system (TBS) also acts as an adhesive enhancement system for the propellant material. A version of the system was demonstrated in a test firing for an Army's rocket case with a diameter of 225 mm. Both laboratory and commercial applications demonstrate that the TBC effectively insulates the low-melt alloy. This TBS is a version of the same system used in flight and land-based gas turbine engines with operating combustion temperatures in excess of 1150F for thousands of hours. Utilizing the joining and metallurgical properties of the low-melt alloy with the structural plate system will provide strength equal to the bulk of the case. Tests are required to demonstrate that the bond strength of the plates to the low-melt alloy are stable over the anticipated temperature range of the motor during firing.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 471-9700
Dr. Amish Desai
MDA 06-037      Selected for Award
Title:MIL-STD 1901A Compliant In-Line Electrical Initiation System for Multifunctional IM/Legacy Propulsion Applications
Abstract:Tanner and Special Devices, Inc. (SDI) will leverage a TRL-6 in-line Fireset/EFI device developed for future use with insensitive munitions (IM) warhead and propellant applications. In Phase I we will package and demonstrate at TRL-5 an in-line electronic Arm-Fire device (EAFD) for use in igniting solid rocket motors (SRM) with either IM or legacy propellants. The TRL-6 ignition system, packaged in -inch3, will be physically integrated into a `standard' _-inch diameter SDI rocket motor igniter body for Phase I demonstration. We will vertically integrating high voltage components within the EFI device to minimize inductance and footprint. This innovative hybrid design approach using MEMS-based mass fabrication techniques creates a multifunctional approach to reliably initiate one or more EFI with nanosecond simultaneity. Similarly, multiple EFI devices can be digital-controlled to sequence initiation of a large array of divert and attitude control system (DACS) thrusters such as the 180 SRM used on PAC-3.

ENERCHEM LLC
609 North Second Street
LaVale, MD 21502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 697-0743
Dr. Kenneth O. Hartman
MDA 06-038      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Solid Rocket Motor Insensitive Munitions Solutions for Impact and Rocket Propelled
Abstract:Enerchem proposes to develop and demonstrate innovative concepts to protect solid rocket motors from impact events. Specifically our ignition delay concept has the potential to mitigate the overpressure, fragmentation and collateral damage that is usually incurred upon bullet or fragment impact on large motors. This concept is part of a systems approach to meeting the IM requirements and is integrated with other mitigation approaches in our Phase I program. Specifically the use of bore mitigants, formulation of tough propellants, and the utilization of low pressure designs and low burning rate propellants to the degree possible are all considered in Enerchem's integrated IM design approach. In Phase I we will develop a generic test motor design, that is compatible with the MDA mission requirements, and will serve to demonstrate the IM and kinematic capabilities in Phase II. We will also address the shaped charge jet threat in this proposal and will develop a data base and define the relationship of formulation variables to the shock sensitivity. With respect to the SJC threat, our Phase I activity will focus on propellant trade studies and defining the Phase II test plan and test configurations. Results of this program will provide the basis to design missile system that can meet the IM criteria for SJC attack and minimize collateral damage.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng Tan
MDA 06-038      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Hybrid SRM Shipping Container To Defeat Rocket Propelled Grenade
Abstract:MDA is interested in insensitive munitions (IM) technology that can protect large solid rocket motors (SRM) from impact stimuli including rifles, fragment, and rocket propelled grenades (RPG). Current IM propellants exhibit poor IM characteristics for SRM larger than 12-in in diameter. RPG, rifles, and fragment impact have created safety concerns for large SRM during transportation and storage. Among all these threats RPG is most difficult to defeat. When an RPG fires, the shape charge formed by the softened metal particles can penetrate a shipping container and cause the propellant inside the SRM to explode. It is one of the most dangerous weapons used in battlefield since the Vietnam War. To defeat RPG using the current technology need thick metals (steel and titanium alloy) and ceramic plates over 12-in thick and weighs hundreds of thousands of pounds. Such heavy weight will nearly immobilize a vehicle that carries the SRM and shipping container. There are no SRM technology that can defeat RPG at the present time. Some military agencies are developing mechanisms with high power electricity to defeat RPG. However, to carry high power electricity around a SRM is a dangerous operation. In this SBIR Phase I project we propose to develop a novel family of hybrid composite to defeat RPG based on the principle of a multidisciplinary approach. It will be lightweight, easy, safe and flexible to use as shipping container for SRM with IM. The proposed composite will be able to save many lives and very expensive missiles like THAAD and ground vehicles from destruction by RPG.

APPLIED NANOTECH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd.Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Dr. James Novak
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Solid State Hypergolic Chemical Leak Detector
Abstract: Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI) proposes to develop novel Gated Metal Oxide Sensor (GMOST) technology into a device capable of sensing leaks of hypergolic fuel materials. GMOST is a robust solid state system that offers several advantages relative to convention metal oxide sensor technology including: lower power consumption (for long battery life), greater sensitivity and higher selectivity. The ANI leak detector will contain sensing elements for both fuel and oxidizer which will be developed and optimized in experimental work in the Phase I SBIR program. The sensors will be integrated into a breadboard prototype with control electronics and software and tested under simulated environmental conditions required for leak detector application to demonstrate a basic working model of a hypergolic fuel leak detector.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. Michael T. Carter
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Hypergolic Chemical Leak Detector
Abstract:Hydrazines, nitrogen oxides, and other highly reactive compounds are extensively used as missile propellants. The toxic nature of these substances requires careful monitoring over long periods to ensure safety of personnel particularly during mobilization after prolonged storage. Detecting chemical leaks may also prevent critical system failures within the missiles. Currently, there are no sensors available that can monitor a range of common propellants with the necessary sensitivity and operating characteristics for military use. To address this situation, this Phase I SBIR proposal outlines the development of an advanced optical sensing technology for simultaneous detection of hypergolic rocket fuel and oxidizer leaks. The approach will involve preconcentration of analytes from the rocket canister's internal atmosphere into a colorimetric polymer film. Spectroscopic changes will be correlated to propellant leak events. The Eltron team has 10 years of experience in hypergolic sensor research and development with a significant focus on spectroscopic detection methods. By partnering with Raymond and Lae Engineering (RLE Technologies) of Fort Collins, CO we will integrate advanced controls and wireless communication features into the proposed sensor platform and provide the Armed Forces with a powerful, cost-effective solution for propellant leak detection.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0527
Mr. Mourad Manoukian
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Microsensor for the Detection of Hypergolic Chemicals
Abstract:GINER, Inc. proposes to design, develop and demonstrate a screen printed, thick-film electrochemical Monomethyl Hydrazine (MMH) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) microsensor module (multi sensor cell with integrated potentiostatic control, signal processing, wired and optional wireless, data transmission circuit) that combines real time, rapid and simultaneous detection of 0 to 200 ppm of MMH and NO2 in one sensor substrate complete with its own battery power source. The microsensor will have a small footprint, low (less than 1.0 mA) power consumption and low cost (less than $200 for quantities larger than 5000 units), and will have a rapid response to MMH and NO2 changes inside a missile canister. The microsensor module will operate in a continuous (optional ON/OFF) mode displaying and sounding an alarm when either the rate of target chemical concentration change exceeds a pre-set value indicating a significant leak, or when the concentration of the target chemical exceeds a pre-set high threshold value regardless of the rate of change. Successful completion of the Phase I program will demonstrate feasibility of the proposed microsensor module for accurately and reliably detecting 0 to 200 ppm of MMH and NO2 and display alarms.

MAKEL ENGINEERING, INC.
1585 Marauder St.
Chico, CA 95973
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 587-4750
Dr. Benjamin Ward
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Microsensor Array for Hypergolic Chemical Leak Monitoring
Abstract:Makel Engineering proposes to work directly with missile contractors such as Lockheed Martin in developing an advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based chemical sensor system for the detection of hypergolic propellant leaks within missile containers. This technology will provide for the safe storage and transport of these propellants. Phase I of Makel Engineering's proposal will be the demonstration of candidate sensor materials and MEMS-based microsensor system designs for use in the detection of hypergolic fuels and oxidizers. These materials and designs will be based on technology developed for the detection of hydrazine and NO2. The system's smart control electronics will have the capability of monitoring rates of change in concentrations, which is a more reliable indicator of a system leak than concentration thresholds alone. MEI will demonstrate the operation of a prototype unit, build prototype sensors, and perform demonstration testing to define the capability of the system.

RAZOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
610 Jennifer Drive
Auburn, AL 36830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 887-3985
Dr. Howard Wikle
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Total Hypergolic Propellant Leak Detector System
Abstract:Razor Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate a total hypergolic propellant (both fuel & oxidizer) leak detection system. During normal storage conditions, the system will monitor and record missile canister environmental parameters such as fuel (mono-methyl hydrazine and/or hydrazine compounds) concentration in the missile canister, oxidizer (mixed oxides of nitrogen) concentration in the missile canister, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc. on an hourly basis. The propellant leak detection system will utilize a proprietary, ultra-low power motion detection circuit to determine when the missile is undergoing transport. Upon detection of transport, the propellant leak detection system will continuously monitor and record propellant concentrations and other transportation events (such as shocks) exceeding preset limits. The system will send out an alarm when a specified rate of change in concentration of propellant is exceeded (indicative of a large leak) or when a preset high value of propellant concentration is exceeded (indicative of a slow leak acting over a long period of time). Long life, conducting polymer sensors for the measurement of fuel and oxidizer concentrations will be used. This project leverages on previously successful SBIRs that have led to the development of a commercially available MMH sensor and missile canister environmental monitoring system.

INTUITIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6767 Old Madison PikeSuite 240
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-1992
Dr. J. Wayne McCain
MDA 06-040      Selected for Award
Title:Safe and Arm and Arm and Fire Devices
Abstract:INTUITIVE proposes the development of a standalone, Laser Ordnance Safe-Arm Distributor (LOSAD) to be used as a combination safe-arm device and laser energy distributor with laser initiated ordnance to address the current need for such a device in existing and future MDA programs. The LOSAD will utilize INTUITIVEs basic optical block Ignition Safety Device (ISD) developed for THAADs laser ordnance system. INTUITIVE will further develop the basic optical switch element to apply its use as a standalone safe-arm device and a distributor for selection and firing of multiple ordnance devices from the same laser firing unit. No such device currently exits in inventory. Furthermore, the need for duplicate laser firing units for initiating multiple devices would be eliminated. In addition, a higher-level of safety is inherent by use of the optical interrupt in the initiation train as required by MIL-STD-1901A. Verification of proper channel selection (via electromechanical switches directly coupled to the optical elements and optical BIT) are to be accomplished before arming and firing. The same level of electrical safety as now provided will result with an additional level of safety provided by the optical interrupts. The LOSAD will result in a significant improvement in overall safety for multiple device initiation with a desirable reduction in laser diodes and related firing hardware complexity and costs. Bottom line: improved safety, reduced complexity, and reduced costs.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Karl Meredith
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:Accurate Insensitive Munitions Modeling Tool Coupling Detailed Chemical Kinetics and Physical Models
Abstract:Understanding the response of solid rocket motors under cookoff and projectile impact scenarios is important to the safety of the military's weapon arsenal. In this SBIR, CFDRC, teamed with Merrill Beckstead of Brigham Young University (BYU), propose to develop an improved modeling tool for simulating the response of solid rocket motors containing AP/HTPB/AL propellant to external heat and impact stimuli. To demonstrate feasibility in Phase I, a cookoff/ignition model recently developed at BYU will be adapted to study fast cookoff of AP/HTPB/AL propellant. Valid condensed-phase decomposition kinetics and detailed gas-phase kinetics for AP/HTPB/AL will be implemented. The cookoff model will be coupled to a 3-dimensional structural mechanics code to incorporate the effects of pressurization on the propellant and surrounding container. This model will accurately estimate pressurization rate and time to explosion for fast cookoff. Alice Atwood of at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (China Lake) will team with us to provide validation data from ongoing cookoff experimental tests. In Phase II, the cookoff prediction capability will be tailored to differentiate between fast/slow cookoff behaviors. Condensed-phase physics pertinent to slow cookoff will be implemented. Also, the detailed cookoff model will be integrated into a robust 3D hydrocode to accurately couple effects of additional IM stimuli. Finally, in-depth experimental characterization of IM phenomena will be performed at China Lake.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:IM Modeling/Simulation Tool for KEI Dynamic/Thermal Loads Associated with Stage Separation
Abstract:Intense dynamic and thermal loads will occur during stage-separation events that are of major concern from both operational and safety viewpoints. The insensitive-munitions (IM) stimuli and thermal/dynamic response associated with such events has received very little attention, yet this is of major concern for the KEI vehicle undergoing Stage 1 to Stage 2 separation. The KEI event is at lower altitude where dynamic and thermal loads are severe, and will involve plume interactions with strong afterburning effects. Our Phase I effort initiates the development of a high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary modeling/simulation tool to quantify the loads that occur during staging events, focusing on the KEI staging problem. This tool will provide the transient load history on sensitive components, including the spectral context of dynamic loads which is important in evaluating resonant phenomena that may occur. Exploratory studies will be performed for the KEI staging event, including a subscale staging analysis to quantify differences in loads in ground test and flight environments. Scaling studies will be performed as part of an experimental planning task to prepare for Phase II validation experiments to be performed in the LENS II shock tunnel facility.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
149 Plantation Ridge Dr.Suite 170
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Insensitive Munitions (IM) Modeling and Simulation Capability for Large Rocket Motors
Abstract:Corvid Technologies is pleased to offer this proposal for the development of a first-principles numerical approach to modeling Solid Rocket Motor (SRMs) response to unplanned thermal stimuli. Corvid has a history of developing models for propellant violent reaction to projectile and fragment impact stimuli. We will adapt an existing heat transfer model to address SRM fast and slow cook-off due to events such as a fuel fire. If successful, this model development can be extended beyond its current capability by combining it with Lagrangian based numerical models to address IM enhancements as part of an SRM design and deployment program.

FULL SPECTRUM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
503 Golfview Dr.Suite 200
San Jose, CA 95127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 926-1338
Mr. William Smith
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Insensitive Munitions (IM) Modeling and Simulation Capability for Large Rocket Motors
Abstract:Full Spectrum Technologies, Inc. (FSTI) is proposing to demonstrate an Insensitive Munitions (IM) systems engineering approach to the development of large (i.e., 14 to 21 inch diameter) solid rocket motors (SRM) for applications to critical Missile Defense Agency (MDA) programs such as the Thermal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile or Ground Based Mid-Course Defense (GMD). Specifically, we are proposing to apply a unique modeling and simulation (M&S) methodology that we believe will provide SRM that meet both performance requirements and IM requirements while reducing system development costs, schedule risks and test requirements.

SYMPLECTIC ENGINEERING CORP.
2901 Benvenue Ave.
Berkeley, CA 94705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 528-1251
Dr. Shmuel L. Weissman
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Insensitive Munitions (IM) Modeling and Simulation Capability for Large Rocket Motors
Abstract:Following a number of events involving large numbers of casualties, Congress is demanding that all new munitions pass IM requirements. NATO also shares this demand. The DoD views the use of IM as a force multiplier and providing tactical advantages. IM is also a necessity in view of the ongoing concentration of munitions in fewer storage facilities, and the proximity of some of these facilities to major population centers. Symplectic Engineering Corporation, together with Aerojet-General Corporation, will develop an insensitive munitions modeling and simulation tool for the design and development of solid rocket motors. The approach pursued employs finite element modeling of the coupled casing-liner-propellant-gas flow to predict the response of SRMs when exposed to ballistic and thermal stimuli. Phase I work will be primarily focused on the development of a model for the propellant, which brings micromechanical characteristic into the macro scale. A set of laboratory tests will be undertaken to develop an associated properties database. Comparing a computer simulation with the results of an experiment will be used to validate the model. Testing a subscale or analog motor subjected to thermal stimuli, as defined by MIL-STD-2105C and accompanying STANAGs, will be used for the validation.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0805
Dr. Joseph M. Benedetto
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-Fast Level 2 Cache SRAM for High-Performance Military and Spaceborne Computing
Abstract:In this proposal we discuss the development of an ultra high-speed synchronous SRAM suitable for use as an embedded level 1 or external level-2 cache memory. The state-of-the-art radiation tolerant/hardened memory devices are of an asynchronous design with access times of 17 to 30ns. The synchronous memory we are proposing has a targeted access time of <3ns (nearly a factor of 6 improvement over the current fastest military devices) and an 18Mbit density (configured for level-2 cache data bus for high-speed processing). This type of memory is extremely popular in the commercial marketplace, but does not exist at all today in a military/rad-hard version. The device we are proposing would be targeted to a commercial fabrication process would use a novel reverse body bias HBD technique to achieve exception total dose hardness without sacrificing speed. Because our proposed SRAM cell is very close in size to a commercial SRAM we could achieve a cost/bit that is potentially a factor of 10 lower than current military asynchronous SRAMs.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 864-7858
Mr. Bill Poland
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Rad-Hard-Strategic, 14-bit, 150 MSPS ADC
Abstract:We will develop a rad-hard-strategic, 14-bit, 150 MSPS, ADC. Major challenge is maintaining part speed, while hardening it to radiation. The traditional approach to photo-compensation involves adding a "compensating" transistor per "circuit" transistor. This method results in doubling the capacitance and introduces coupling from the substrate at every junction, greatly impairing part's sampling rate. Bill Poland's (Nu-Trek) innovation is to increase bias during radiation. The increased bias raises the level of radiation/photocurrent that will upset circuit operation. This approach has already been used in Nu-Trek's monolithic Nuclear Event Detector, enabling the precise measurement of minute transistor photocurrents. Other innovations include: (1) A Master Slave Sample and Holds between stages versus single Sample and Hold; (2) Interstage nulling in the current domain, not the voltage domain, minimizing voltage slew rate against parasitic capacitances; (3) Bootstrap self calibration of the three DACs in the three front stages; and (4) Differential inputs that operate between +2.5 volts and -2.5 volts to accommodate a broader range of applications, including video. ADC is based on a rad-hard 12-bit ADC that Wayne Dietrich (Raytheon) designed for the Navy.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Wesley Morris
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Electronic Components (ADC)
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST), working with Texas Instruments (TI), proposes to demonstrate an innovative approach for converting a high-performance COTS ADC circuit (radiation-soft) to a radiation-hardened circuit by integrating two new process modules into the commercial process. Silicon Space has solved the major space radiation problems, Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID), by combining process modifications and layout design innovation. Our proven-in-silicon approach enables production of radiation-hardened integrated circuits at leading-edge circuit densities within any commercial silicon foundry, for use in both terrestrial and space systems. A sequence of radiation tests have shown SST's Buried Guard Ring (BGR) innovation significantly improves SEE performance (e.g., SEL, SET, & SEU). BGR also significantly improves dose rate performance by >1.5 orders of magnitude higher than non-BGR protected circuits. SST's Parasitic Isolation Device (PID) structures have shown complete TID immunity to > 1Mrad. These methods do not adversely affect either circuit performance or yield. SST will demonstrate a procedure for integrating BGR and PID into an existing TI commercial ADC product. This Phase I effort, when demonstrated in Phase II silicon experiments, will enable manufacture of radiation-hardened ADC's which exceed MDA's required levels of radiation performance.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Wesley Morris
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Electronic Components (DSP)
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST), working with Texas Instruments (TI), proposes to demonstrate an innovative approach for converting a high-performance COTS DSP circuit (radiation-soft) to a radiation-hardened circuit by integrating two new process modules into the commercial process. Silicon Space has solved the major space radiation problems, Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID), by combining process modifications and layout design innovation. Our proven-in-silicon approach enables production of radiation-hardened integrated circuits at leading-edge circuit densities within any commercial silicon foundry, for use in both terrestrial and space systems. A sequence of radiation tests have shown SST's Buried Guard Ring (BGR) innovation significantly improves SEE performance (e.g., SEL, SET, & SEU). BGR also significantly improves dose rate performance by >1.5 orders of magnitude higher than non-BGR protected circuits. SST's Parasitic Isolation Device (PID) structures have shown complete TID immunity to > 1Mrad. These methods do not adversely affect either circuit performance or yield. SST will demonstrate a procedure for integrating BGR and PID into an existing TI commercial DSP product. This Phase I effort, when demonstrated in Phase II silicon experiments, will enable manufacture of radiation-hardened DSP's which exceed MDA's required levels of radiation performance.

VPT, INC.
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5000
Dr. Glenn Skutt
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Prompt Dose Radiation Hardened Point-of-Load Power Converter
Abstract:VPT proposes an innovative, point-of-load (POL) power converter that is immune to radiation effects, including prompt dose. This addresses the demanding low voltage, high current, power requirements of advanced data processing circuitry in MDA applications. VPT will build on its recently-introduced military thick-film hybrid DC-DC POL power converter. VPT will accomplish the radiation hardening by incorporating: (a) a radiation-hardened (RH) pulse-width-modulator integrated circuit (PWM-IC) for POL applications recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories, (b) recent radiation characterization of new low voltage power MOSFETs for POL applications, (c) RH-by-design techniques including MOSFET gate voltage control, latchup current limiting, and transient filtering. The proposed POL will be designed to VPT's Mil-PRF-38534 Class K certified standards. In Phase I of the SBIR VPT will: (a) perform an electrical design of the RH-POL and build a breadboard, (b) perform a radiation analysis to determine the total dose, SEU, and prompt dose radiation capability of the RH-POL, (c) perform a mechanical design that can pass Mil-PRF-38534 requirements, and (d) perform a prompt dose Flash Xray test of the breadboard with aid from Lockheed Martin. The resulting RH-POL will have wide application in MDA and defense space missions where low voltage electronics are employed.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. J.H. Lalli
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional Metal RubberTM Super-NanoComposites for Missile Structures
Abstract:NanoSonic would produce lightweight (< 0.98 g/cc), ablation resistant, rad hard, EMI shielding (-70 dB), inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposites with ultra-high thermal stability (> 450 C). NanoSonic is the only manufacturer of Metal Rubber nanostructured yet macroscale (8' x 4') films and conformal coatings for large defense platforms (i.e., missiles, topside plies for ships, and advanced inceptor structures such as MKV, EKV and THAAD etc.) requiring nuclear, thermal and electrical protection with controlled electromagnetic properties. Such multifunctional super nanocomposites are achieved via the self-assembly of metal nanoparticles (for shielding and radiation hardening) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (for high thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness) with NanoSonic's high performance tailored copolymers. Novel polymer backbones with complexing sites yield conformal casing materials with control over dielectric strength and thermal stability via excellent adhesion to the nanoparticle; and to the missile substrates, thereby mitigating corrosion. Such materials result in nanocomposites with extremely homogenous dispersions; hence even heat dissipation and reliable performance. NanoSonic's Metal RubberTM; a revolutionary self-healing, elastomeric conductor (bulk resistivity = 2 x 10-5 Ohm∙cm) that can be repeatedly strained to more than 1000% elongation while maintaining electrical conductivity would be optimized with Lockheed Martin MS2 to increase the TRL for KV structures.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-0620
Mr. Ray Eastwood
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:High AJ RF ASIC
Abstract:Nu-Trek and Raytheon propose to develop a rad-hard-strategic High Anti-Jam (AJ) RF ASIC. Part will be PRF 38585 qualified and sold as OEM product for incorporation in GPS receivers. Presently, ALL High AJ RF Sections are made of DISCRETE components. Also, there are no GPS receivers that are rad-hard-strategic. High AJ RF Section with external filters constitutes an entire RF Section and is 1/5 the volume of a discrete RF Section with comparable capability. (ASIC will be 64-pin part, < 0.2 cubic inches). AJ capability will be 70 dB with internal 2-bit ADC and 120 dB with external 12-bit ADC. (Attenuation by Antenna, RF Section, and Digital Section are additive.) Codes and applications supported include C/A, P(Y), M, and SAASM. The High AJ RF ASIC will operate simultaneously at two frequencies or support two channels of adaptive antenna nulling. A number of two-channel devices can be used for a larger number of channels and/or more complex adaptive antenna electronics. Advanced RF ASICs will feature up to seven channels per device. This will enable the receiver to perform adaptive antenna spatial signal processing. Primes, such as Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, and Honeywell are interested in using part.

RIDGETOP GROUP, INC.
6595 North Oracle RoadSuite 153B
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
Mr. Douglas Goodman
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardening Designs and Techniques for Missile Defense
Abstract:Together with its supporting partner, Raytheon Missile Systems, the objective of this SBIR proposal is to design a high resolution, high speed 100 MSPS, 14 bit, radiation-hardened Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) for critical KEI and Missile applications. This is considered an aggressive goal, since the commercial state-of-the-art ADC is a 12-bit (resolution) 80 MSPS (speed) ADC. However, Ridgetop has developed a unique approach that will meet that goal combining circuit design innovation, with an innovative silicon process. Commercial high performance ADCs are not radiation hardened and may be incapable of reliably operating in the strategic radiation environment for the projected design-life of deployed system. Another benefit, owing to the structure of the FlexfetT is radiation tolerance. Ridgetop will design a 100 mega sample per second (MSPS), 14-bit ADC, to be manufactured in the American Semiconductor Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) FlexfetTM process. This ADC will function to specification and endure in a weapons-level environment. The combination of reliability, high resolution, and high speed suggests a variety of practical applications, including image processing, radar, and communications systems. This work will be done in collaboration with assistance and consultation by American Semiconductor and Arizona State University.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Wesley Morris
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardening Designs and Techniques for Missile Defense (Process)
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST) has solved the major space radiation problems, Single-Event Effects and Total Ionizing Dose, by combining substrate engineering with layout design innovation. Working with Texas Instruments (TI) to enable radiation hardening of TI's 130nm commercial CMOS process (C035), SST's radiation-hardening (RH) process innovations, previously demonstrated at 180nm, will be scaled and integrated into this process. SST will perform this work by relying heavily on process and device finite-element (or TCAD) simulation. SST will first build the baseline process model to develop the integration approach for inserting the RH process modules into the C035 130nm process. The TCAD model will be calibrated to process measurements and to electrical characteristics of the C035 transistors provided by TI. Using the calibrated TCAD model as a baseline, the simulations will be varied to develop the new RH 130nm process and to quantify any process interactions, constraints or yield limiting factors, especially in the context of circuit ground rules, SPICE models and photolithographic imaging.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
201 Circle Drive NorthUnit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Dr. Catherine E. Rice
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Non-Volatile Solid Electrolyte Memory
Abstract:Of high importance for various computing applications for aerospace and military components are memory devices that retain their memory state when no power is applied, and retain their memory state in a radiation environment. Under these conditions, nonvolatile memory devices based on standard silicon technology are prone to Single Event Upsets (SEU) and "latch up" failures. Typically, these failures become more prominent with increasing memory density. This Phase I proposal utilizes the concept of developing plug-in replacement nonvolatile memory based on Solid Electrolyte films and will demonstrate basic cell functionality of Ag-Ge-S films produced by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) at Structured Materials Industries, Inc., a leader in MOCVD technology, in test structures designed by Arizona State University, the inventors of solid electrolyte memory technology. The Phase II program would advance the technology to a manufacturable state, and SMI can custom build radiation-hard military grade memories in Phase III. Our Phase III commercialization will see licensing of program produced technology for commercial sales and custom military memory products. This program will significantly advance radiation-hardened electronic technology since solid electrolytes are inherently radiation hard. The technology will be evaluated for radiation hardened nonvolatile memory for both military and aerospace markets as well as commercial products.

AMTEC CORP.
500 Wynn Dr. Suite 314
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 722-7200
Mr. Barry Posey
MDA 06-044      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened Controller
Abstract:Reliable, capable, and radiation hardened control electronics are critical and needed for successful completion of postulated missile defense engagements. These electronics are used in motor controllers and divert and attitude control systems (DACS) for missile interceptors and space systems. The existing GBI Booster stage 2 and 3 TVCs, a.k.a. Electronics Control Unit (ECU), have not been hardened to HAENS and natural radiation environments. These controllers are critical for mission success since they drive electromechanical actuators used for pitch and yaw functions of stage 2 and 3 rocket nozzles. The successful completion of all 3 phases of this effort will result in a radiation hardened TVC design that will meet HAENS and natural radiation environment survivability requirements and show marked improvement in other performance parameters. The design approach will be used to reduce cost and extend utility across multiple electronic controller applications. During Phase 1, a prototype controller design will be upgraded to meet survivability requirements and a Phase 2 parts and prototype characterization plan will be developed.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle StreetSte. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0702
Mr. David J. Strobel
MDA 06-044      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened, Miniaturized DACS Electronics for Interceptor and Satellite Control Systems.
Abstract:Space Micro, and our teammates Aerojet and NxGen, propose novel packaging and radiation hardening for demonstration of DACS electronics modules. The applications will range from high altitude missile interceptors propulsion to space boosters and satellite propulsion. Space Micro will develop a common design, which with selected shielding and parts selection can meet both the MDA HAENS and the space radiation environments (electrons, proton, and cosmic rays). We will demonstrate the ability to potentially leverage COTS semiconductors to dramatically reduce the cost and volume of DACS. In response to DoD's need for radiation-hardened miniaturized DACS electronics we propose to demonstrate performance with Aerojet, by modeling/simulation plus lab breadboard in Phase I, followed by prototype rad hard modules in Phase II.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. Honnavalli R Vydyanath
MDA 06-045      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened LWIR HgCdTe Infrared Focal Plane Array Technology
Abstract:The specific objective of the Phase I proposal is the demonstration of the feasibility to develop a technology for improved radiation tolerance and performance of LWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays. In Phase II, we plan to demonstrate and deliver to MDA , radiation hardened 256x256 or larger format arrays of LWIR HgCdTe detectors hybridized to silicon Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROICs).

LUTRONICS
1236 Lawn Lake Trl
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 387-9685
Dr. Yalin Lu
MDA 06-045      Selected for Award
Title:Tunable Long Wavelength Infrared Filters with Narrow Passband and High Peak Transmittance
Abstract:In this SBIR program, Lutronics proposes a unique combination of novel impedance-matching method, new channel design, new use of the field-adjustable material in order to fabricate advanced long wavelength infrared optical filters. In the Phase I, filter prototypes will be fabricated and characterized according to their spectral responses and wavelength tunability.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0805
Dr. Joseph Benedetto
MDA 06-045      Selected for Award
Title:Hardened by Design Cryogenic Infrared Focal Plane Array Readout Integrated Circuit
Abstract:We have developed transistor level radiation tolerant design techniques for the manufacture of radiation resistant digital and mixed signal devices, including infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) readout integrated circuits (ROICs), and verified the operation and radiation performance to 43K (-230C). We have achieved designs that exhibit significant hardness (i.e., very little change in the transistor characteristics) when irradiated to 1Mrad(Si) at 43K. These basic transistor elements were fabricated in a 180nm technology node and can be used for the design, manufacture and production of IRFPAs for spaceborne applications. Further, our design enhancements can easily be scaled to more advanced nodes (130nm and below for high-density ROICs). For maintaining higher-voltage compatibility, the radiation tolerant design techniques can be "reverse scaled" to larger line-width technologies and higher voltage levels (limited only by the available fabrication processes). Our design team has extensive experience in using hardness-by-design techniques (20+ years) to achieve TID, singe event effects (SEE) and prompt dose hardness levels from strategic (military environments) to radiation tolerance for lower cost spaceborne applications. By optimizing and expanding our design techniques, we can maintain our demonstrated radiation hardness, even when analog mixed signal devices are irradiated in a cryogenic environment.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura RoadSuite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Mr. James G. Leatham
MDA 06-045      Selected for Award
Title:Tunable Spectral Sifting (TSS) Filter for Space Sensors
Abstract:Optical Physics Company (OPC) is proposing to investigate a novel tunable spectral sifting (TSS) filter design to enhance the capabilities of space sensors for the STSS and AIRSS programs. TSS filter design goals are tailored for these two space-based sensor acquisition programs, to select between two tunable passbands, with sub-passband selectivity, at the water vapor absorption band and the carbon dioxide absorption band, with passband transmittance in excess of 90% and radiation hardened to 300krad. Subcontractor Raytheon SAS will assist OPC in defining rad-hard optical filter optical components, focal plane array, algorithms, and processor for a flight testable design, and in defining the TSS demo unit proposed for Phase II. Phase I work involves detailed specifications of the TSS filter in two configurations, to accommodate different fields of view associated with low and geosynchronous Earth orbits of the satellites. The design effort will be followed by evaluation of system trade-offs, building and testing of one stage of the TSS filter, and formulation of a Phase II prototype design and test plan.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1243
Dr. Stephen Bruder
MDA 06-046      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Radiation Hardened, Inertial Measurement Unit
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) requires the development of a miniaturized, lightweight, radiation hardened, inertial measurement unit (IMU) to provide high accuracy inertial knowledge in both absolute location/velocity and angular orientation. Proposed MDA systems, such as the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS), are required to track objects at great distances and relay inertial information. Currently available IMU systems do not concurrently meet the size, weight, power, and radiation hardening performance requirements for use in the target applications. Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to realize a Modular Inertial Measurement Unit (MIMU) which is inherently radiation hardened by design to meet a 300 krad total ionizing dose (TID) goal. The proposed Phase I MIMU effort will entail producing the preliminary design for an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which is low-cost, rad-hard, modular, low-power, and compatible for use with aiding sensors (e.g., GPS and star-tracker) in order to provide accurate position and attitude determination which is suitable for MDA on-gimbal applications as well as for use in spacecraft and interceptors. The approach proposed herein seeks to use decades of experience in the area of precise inertial sensors with recent innovations in sensor blending, electronics, and a novel mechanical design.

MODERN TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, INC.
4725 B EISENHOWER AVENUE
ALEXANDRIA, VA 22304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 212-8870
Mr. Elvis Dieguez
MDA 06-047      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High-Fidelity Techniques to Model Impact Flash and Post-Impact Thermal Signature Prediction and Support Kill Assessment
Abstract:Initial implementations of the United States missile defense system utilize two primary sensors for kill assessment: RADAR and infra-red (IR) sensors. The post-impact signatures must be accurately modeled to support kill assessment, sensor design, signal processing, and feature extraction. The post-impact RADAR and IR signatures will be, to first-order, governed in the first few seconds by the distribution of particle sizes and densities generated by the fragmentation dynamics, and the kinetic to thermal energy conversion resulting from the hypervelocity impact. We propose to determine the feasibility of using Hybrid Particle-Element (HPE) numerical methods to accurately model both fragmentation and thermofluid dynamics resulting from hypervelocity impacts. The unique Hamiltonian method used in the HPE technique is well suited for simulating large deformations in fragmented media and representing strength effects in a Lagrangian frame. It is not subject to the numerical simulation difficulties associated with the use of pure particle codes, in particular tensile instability and numerical fracture. Our proposed research will demonstrate the potential of HPE methods to offer significant improvements in the numerical simulation of post-impact signatures for MDA applications.

PRISM COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES, INC.
455 Science DriveSuite 140
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 280-9182
Dr. Joseph J. MacFarlane
MDA 06-047      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High-Fidelity Modeling Tools to Predict Radiative Signatures from Hypervelocity Impact Flash Events
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and validate first-principles modeling tools that will significantly advance the use of spectroscopic techniques for identifying materials present in hypervelocity impact events. Impact flash spectroscopy (IFS) has the potential to identify the presence of special nuclear materials (SNM) during the impact flash phase of hypervelocity interceptor-missile collisions. Utilization of IFS as a reliable approach for missile defense engagement analysis requires a well-developed predictive capability for the evolution of the gas and particulate environment created during the impact. This can be accomplished with the use of well-tested and benchmarked codes that simulate both the hydrodynamic breakup of the target and interceptor debris and the spectral emission originating during the impact flash phase. During Phase I, we propose to utilize data obtained in laboratory impact flash experiments to: develop an understanding of the spectral radiation output, and the physical conditions of the gas/particulates generated in the experiments; and assess the reliability of state-of-the-art shock-physics and spectral codes in simulating impact flash emission. We will identify new modeling techniques needed for advancing IFS simulation capabilities, and, during Phase II, develop, upgrade and validate enhanced modeling tools to support the accurate simulation of hypervelocity engagements.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Matthew Braunstein
MDA 06-047      Selected for Award
Title:A Unified Approach to Intercept Signature Prediction and Kill Assessment Based on High-fidelity Physics Models
Abstract:A successful intercept of a missile by a kinetic energy kill vehicle initiates a complex sequence of events and associated observable signatures that occur over a very wide range of temporal, spatial, and spectral scales. The signatures contain highly desirable information on the lethality of the intercept (glancing blow or deadly impact) and on the contents of the warhead (nuclear, biological, or chemical). A unified, phenomenologically complete model of the intercept signatures does not exist. We propose to address this important MDA need by unifying existing high fidelity physics based models to enable an end-to-end simulation of the intercept signatures. An existing hydrocode will be used to describe the very early time break up and plasma evolution. The SOCRATES-P code will be used to model the longer time scale debris cloud evolution and its interactions with the atmosphere. The FLITES code will be used to compute the spatial and spectral emissions from the model flow fields. Phase I will focus on specifying interfaces between these codes and generating flowfield databases to enable real-time HWIL (HardWare In the Loop) simulations. Phase II will focus on interface development and application of the unified software for end-to-end simulations.

CG2, INC.
1525 Perimeter ParkwaySuite 325
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 361-9927
Mr. Todd Nordland
MDA 06-048      Selected for Award
Title:High Fidelity Scene Generation for Distributed Hardware in the Loop of BMDS Components
Abstract:With the goal of incorporating a variety of Missile Defense assets into a "network of test", CG2 Inc proposes to investigate, experiment and formulate proof-of-concept designs based upon its pre-existing per-pixel synchronization technology. This synchronization technology, called nVSync Pacing, adapts commercial-off-the-shelf graphics components to the unique variable frame-rate requirements of hardware-in-the-loop missile guidance scenario validation. The ultimate goal is the test and validation of a "theater level" subset of some of the following MDA systems: command and control, missile warning, intelligence processing, sensors (multiple passbands), signal processing, target discrimination, hardware-in-the-loop test, battle management, and kill assessment. We propose a heterogeneous system consisting of both local-area and wide-area networking interfaces. We propose to include "portal" where a DIS, HLS or TENA protocol can be interfaced to a synchronization topology that would synchronize the local laboratory with remote facilities. To establish a measure of success, CG2 proposes to measure the latency of proposed inter-laboratory links, and measure and optimize the throughput requirements for test scenarios.

KINETICS, INC.
100 SE Cascade AvenueP. O. Box 1262
Stevenson, WA 98648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 427-3649
Mr. Dennis R. Crow
MDA 06-048      Selected for Award
Title:High Fidelity Scene Generation for Distributed Hardware in the Loop of BMDS Components
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is currently developing a comprehensive testing environment to test and evaluate the operation of multiple elements operating concurrently within the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). High-fidelity synthetic scene generators are required to be developed to stimulate, in real-time, both radar and optical sensors within the BMDS. These scene generators must present to the sensor hardware being tested synthetic representations of the scene signature while maintaining temporal consistency with the time-evolving battle-space scenario. This effort investigates how to take a common battle-space scenario consisting of a specified environmental condition with multiple targets and distribute that data across geographically diverse PC-based scene generators used to stimulate different BMDS sensing hardware and algorithms. The Government-Owned codes FLITES and Real-Time CHAMP are utilized to provide the low-level high-fidelity scene generation capability while analyzing the usage of current distributed processing infrastructures utilized by MDA to support Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) testing of multiple dissimilar sensors operating concurrently.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5218
Dr. Genshe Chen
MDA 06-049      Selected for Award
Title:Agent-based Multi-missile Interception Simulation Tool Using Distributed Pursuit-evasion Game
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose a comprehensive and innovative agent-based simulation tool and game theoretic supporting algorithm. We leverage novel game theoretic method, advanced hierarchical framework, cooperative pursuit strategy, adaptive estimators, limited look-ahead and Markov chain approximation algorithms in the agent-based simulation tool to provide real time simulations which can accommodate a variety of defensive missile scenario and military operations. To achieve this goal, first, in a software agent-based simulation, each element in the system is represented by an individual agent that interacts with other agents via messages. Each agent has its own logical thread of control and once initialized, runs independently. Second, for the multi-pursuer multi-evader pursuit evasion game, a hierarchical framework used to decompose the high-level multi-player game into several low-level small-scale distributed pursuit evasion games where each game only has one missile. Third, particle filters and multi-model estimators used to predict system states especially when measurements are noise-corrupted and the adversarial players' control strategies are randomly changed. Fourth, formation control is used in group coordination to exploit the cooperation among interceptors to destroy multiple missiles. Finally, limited look-ahead and Markov chain approximation is used as computational algorithms in deriving Nash equilibrium to obtain real time solution.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom DriveSuite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Greg Godfrey
MDA 06-049      Selected for Award
Title:Simulation Tool to Intercept Multiple Missiles Employing Quick and Random Evasive Flight Path
Abstract:New interceptor control strategies are required to counter threat missiles that are capable of randomly changing their flight paths. This SBIR project will result in a new simulation tool that can be used to compute, analyze, and test cooperative interceptor control strategies. Metron's approach will use a proven simulation model that has been specifically developed to study optimal guidance and control strategies in maneuvering missile defense encounters. A new family of interceptor control algorithms will also be developed by adapting previous work on dynamic search area sectoring. Dynamic sectoring is a powerful method that will allow the interceptors to cooperate and negotiate their assigned tasks so that an overall balance in workload is achieved. The Phase I project will result in a general simulation framework and a set of limited-capability software components. An initial feasibility demonstration will be formulated to validate the technical approach.

PRINCETON SATELLITE SYSTEMS
33 Witherspoon Street
Princeton, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 279-9606
Dr. Pradeep Bhatta
MDA 06-049      Selected for Award
Title:Simulation Tool to Intercept Multiple Missiles Employing Quick and Random Evasive Flight Path
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of a versatile, computationally-efficient simulation tool for integrating flight path data from missile interceptors and analyzing defensive missile scenarios. The simulation tool will provide a user-friendly platform for design and testing of cooperative missile-interception techniques. We also propose to develop innovative cooperative control algorithms for multiple interceptors pursuing multiple missiles. Our cooperative control algorithms will be based on using artificial potentials for determining command accelerations for individual interceptors. The artificial potentials framework provides a systematic procedure for designing and implementing formation control and reconfiguration. We will combine artificial potential based cooperative control with modern target detection and missile guidance techniques to create an integrated solution for cooperative missile interception. This will be a step towards developing reliable technology for countering missiles that are specifically designed to elude interceptors via quick and random flight path changes. The simulation tool will be modular in nature, and will incorporate all aspects of cooperative missile interception including search-surveillance-engage modes, formation control and reconfiguration, inter-interceptor communication limitations, resource management and flight path data fusion. Interceptor performance constraints such as minimum turning radius and maximum velocity, as well as time-varying communication topologies will be accounted.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 385-9464
Mr. Martin Denham
MDA 06-050      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Security Features for Commodity Integrated Circuits
Abstract:COTS IC manufacturing technologies are capable of deployment to spaced-based vehicles. Their performance levels, degree of innate rad-hardness, and cost-effective yields make them compelling for U.S. strategic launch vehicles. It is of concern that some of the `generation-N' COTS IC fabrication steps are moving outside of U.S. jurisdictional control. It is crucial that secure data and algorithms on these ICs cannot be compromised through reverse engineering and possibly misused by adversaries. Micro-RDC proposes further development of its anti-tamper by design (ATBD) stealthy key storage and stealthy micro-store encryptions, that effectively cannot be reverse engineered, having sufficient entropy and autonomy so as to prevent any key compromises from exploiting other systems or even further levels within the same IC or system. Micro-RDC proposes a phase I effort focused on the following four (4) development objectives: (1) continue to leverage overt technologies such as complex LFSR-based ciphers to scramble code-stores, structured ASICs, and other digital circuitry; (2) apply similar cipher techniques to scramble and obfuscate chip IOs; (3) develop stealthy keys and ciphers, and (4) demonstrate the kinds of stealthy key and cipher technologies that an adversary might deploy in low-cost COTS capabilities, providing the opportunity to develop suitable counter-attacks.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1636
Dr. James Deak
MDA 06-050      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation-Hard Anti-Tamper Magnetic Patch Memory
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project proposal describes a program to research and develop a method for producing a radiation-hard solid-state Magnetic Patch Memory (MPM) deposited on top of a wafer from an untrusted facility and programmed in a trusted facility. MPM can be erased with zero remanence in the event of tampering to render the device it protects impossible to reverse engineer. MPM technology can be added at back end of line processing onto any silicon based complex components that might be produced in foreign foundries. It is ideal for storing encryption keys or codes for digital rights management schemes. Although MPM is a solid-state memory, it is designed using magnetic media similar to a hard disk drive that permits it to be erased with remanent signature reduction exceeding that required for erasure of media containing SECRET data. Depending in the specific application, the proposed MPM can be erased electronically by the system it protects using a current or magnetically in bulk using a degausser or permanent magnet. MPM technology uses thin film magnetic materials and spin dependent tunneling (SDT) sensors that are intrinsically radiation hard.

PUFCO, INC.
750 Menlo AvenueSuite 300
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 329-1656
Dr. Srinivas Devadas
MDA 06-050      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced security features for Commodity Integrated Circuits
Abstract:Physical Unclonable Functions ("PUFs"), originally developed at MIT by the principal investigator, and as evidenced by recently completed DARPA-funded research, hold promise to significantly enhance the security of commodity ICs used in defense systems. PUFs are innovative circuit primitives that extract secrets from complex physical characteristics of ICs. PUFs offer several potential advantages over conventional approaches that store secrets in memory (e.g., battery-backed RAM, fuses, or EEPROM). First, PUFs increase physical security by generating reliable volatile secrets that exist in a digital form only when a chip is powered and using the secret. In addition to its physical security, even the IC manufacturer cannot clone PUF-enabled ICs because random manufacturing variation cannot be controlled or easily modeled. In addition, PUF secrets are automatically determined during the fabrication process and do not require a separate hardware programming step. Furthermore, RAM is volatile unless battery backed, making it inappropriate for storing secrets in individual ICs before assembly. Non-volatile memory is vulnerable to physical attack and often requires hard-programming before packaging, whereas PUF-keys can be securely soft-programmed post-manufacture. PUFCO, working with Lockheed Martin Corporation, proposes to evaluate the suitability of PUF circuits as a cryptographically robust candidate RADIATION HARDENED anti-tamper technology.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Mark A. Stacy
MDA 06-051      Selected for Award
Title:Conformal Electronics Coating Materials and Processes
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to provide a complete conformal coating solution to the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). CRG developed a conformal coating under a previous anti-tamper SBIR program. The manufacturing process and proprietary mixing procedures have been developed for this baseline formulation, and independent laboratory testing has produced good results. This formulation is designated CRG5008. CRG will apply industrial-based manufacturing and application techniques and government anti-tamper validation criteria to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of CRG's conformal coating. A complete evaluation will determine strengths, shortfalls, and economic adjustments that will allow CRG to refine the material, manufacturing process, and application processes of the current CRG conformal coating. Documentation of the resulting processes and procedure will provide the basis for a consistent, high-quality anti-tamper conformal coating solution. CRG's demonstrated expertise in the proposed conformal coating technology area presents MDA the opportunity to obtain an effective, reliable, and economical anti-tamper conformal coating for use in protecting the critical information components of the ballistic missile defense system. The proposing team's track record of innovation in new materials positions CRG for successful implementation of an effective, reliable, and economical anti-tamper conformal coating meeting a wide range of MDA's operational needs.

ENGINEERED COATINGS, INC.
P.O. Box 4702
Parker, CO 80134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 593-0588
Mrs. Frank Kustas
MDA 06-051      Selected for Award
Title:Near Atmosphere Plasma Processing Application of Anti-Tamper Coatings
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has issued a directive to protect, by application of anti-tamper (AT) coatings, Critical Program Information (CPI) from unintentional transfer on MDA acquisition and associated technical programs. The mission is to deter the reverse engineering and exploitation of our military's critical technology. Engineered Coatings Inc., with Southwest Research Institute, and Analytical Solutions, Inc., propose to demonstrate an innovative near-atmosphere plasma processing method to deposit AT coatings onto semiconductor substrates. This unique deposition method is essentially container-less and can be used for substrate etching, functionalization, and deposition of coatings at relatively low temperatures, which will not degrade the device. Plasma cleaning of bond pads is already an accepted processing method. Incorporation of embedded sensors in the AT coating, to detect tampering attempts, will be developed. Anti-tamper coatings will be applied to silicon substrates for subsequent adhesion tests and removal investigations using reverse engineering techniques, including ion-etching, chemical, and mechanical methods. Embedded sensor networks will also be tested during the removal attempts. Near the end of the program, a selected electronic device will be used for coating demonstration, followed by electrical performance testing.

RESODYN CORP.
130 North Main StreetSuite 600
Butte, MT 59701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 497-5242
Dr. Milan Ivosevic
MDA 06-051      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Anti-Tamper Coating Manufacturing
Abstract:The implementation of anti-tamper (AT) technology as one vital strategy for preserving US military superiority. (Communiqu DoD 5200.1-M) In response to this need, many AT technologies have been developed including AT coatings for securing electronic components and devices. However, the use of successful AT coatings is impeded by lack of a manufacturing process that: 1.) Possesses the capacity for utilizing these technologies in a composite coating formulation; and 2.) Can be used to apply coatings to heat-sensitive electronics without adversely affecting their operation or shorten their useful life cycle. A technology and methodology is proposed for development and application of anti-tamper coating processes for substrates that differ greatly in shape, size, topography, and material type. This technological capability includes applying high temperature melting polymers and metals onto heat-sensitive electronic circuits. This technology can be used to create composite coatings of various layers and materials and can fully incorporate materials of various sizes and shapes into the coating. The Phase I research will demonstrate not only the feasibility of the technology, but will demonstrate the broad utility of the coating process. The coatings manufacturing technology, and demonstrated capabilities, will provide the missing manufacturing capability for forming advanced AT coatings.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Scott Morrison
MDA 06-051      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Low-Temperature Process for Anti-Tamper Coatings(1000-991)
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes to demonstrate the use of a new plasma process for anti-tamper coatings. The process is gentle enough to allow for coating of sensitive electronics. Triton's proposed effort will allow for the coating of a wide range of electronics.

HIRSCH ENGINEERING & COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
10300 N. Cassel Rd.
Vandalia, OH 45377
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 454-9662
Mr. Herbert L. Hirsch
MDA 06-052      Selected for Award
Title:Sensed ENergy Transient INterrogation ELement (SENTINEL)
Abstract:This is a unique, practical solution to the tampering prevention problem, because even if reverse engineers know exactly how it works - they cannot overcome it. Similar to human DNA typing, SENTINEL checks the electronic power signature that characterizes a volume operating in its environment. Any volume of or individual analog, digital, or RF elements of any system have a unique power signature on the supply voltage line(s), due to the unique combination of components in the system and their individual behaviors, which combine to form a signature that is unique to the operating environment in which the element functions. We can exploit this signature in a simple system which detects the signature, compares it with an expected one stored within it at activation, and then responds to a detected tampering situation with a reaction that prevents reverse engineering. It can be implemented in any volume, at subsystem, board, MCM, module, or chip levels. Phase I will produce (1) an experimental prototype, (2) experimental and analytical feasibility assessments using actual and simulated signature data, (3) a prototype demonstration, (4) a preliminary system design to carry forward into Phase II, and (5) an initial assessment of commercialization potential.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Red Hill AvenueBuilding #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8920
Mr. John Leon
MDA 06-052      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Anti-Tamper Volume Protection
Abstract:Irvine Sensors, together with Teledyne, plan to develop a novel approach to anti-tamper volume protection. Anti-tamper, when used in a layered fashion, is intended to deter reverse engineering, spoofing or other forms of circuit tampering. The idea we propose is to develop a sensor to detect physical tamper events for protection of small to medium volumes. The idea we contemplate is specific to microelectronic circuitry. Further development may show promise to other applications. After a system is enclosed, any attempt to remove the enclosure will trigger erasure or zeroization of critical memory elements within the circuit. The AT sensor will provide both a physical barrier to entry and probing, as well as prevent visual observation of the circuit it protects. Experimentation at a high-level design will be performed in Phase I and used in the development for implementation in Phase II.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1636
Dr. James Deak
MDA 06-052      Selected for Award
Title:Passive Anti-Tamper Latching Stress Sensors for Volume Protection
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I proposal describes a latching anti-tamper (AT) stress sensor (LATSS) for volumetric protection of military systems. LATSS devices are intended to passively detect and remember if a change in some mechanical aspect of the shield enclosing a protected volume has occurred and provide a signal that can be queried to report the change. They are based on spin dependent tunnel (SDT) junctions utilizing magnetostrictive ferromagnetic electrodes. Magnetostrictive SDT junctions provide a unique combination of capabilities for an AT sensor. The hysteretic magnetic behavior of the SDT electrodes provides the capability to record a change in stress without applied power. The magnetoresistance of the SDT junctions permits electrical readout of the orientation of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic sensor electrodes, which is set by magnetostrictive coupling to the substrate strain. SDT devices can be fabricated using standard back end of line semiconductor processes, potentially making LATSS a low cost volumetric AT solution. Because of their small size, several LATSS devices could be combined on the same substrate to produce a cryptokey memory, providing a new class of passive tamper-responsive cryptokey memory. Additionally, SDT materials are intrinsically radiation hard, permitting development of radiation hard LATSS devices.

QORTEK, INC.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
MDA 06-052      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Anti-Tamper Volume Protection
Abstract:The purpose of this Program is to demonstrate an inexpensive thin Multi-threat Detect sensor compatible with die integration, that can provide reliable detect information on multiple kinds of attempts to access information (design or code) contained within security sensitive microelectronics. Although the multi-threat detection sensors are passive (power independent), they can rapidly detect a range of threats including: physically tamper; X-ray; magnetic; electromagnetic and acoustic reverse engineering methods. Direct die integration/packaging will be investigated for PPGA type and BGA type packages. The primary goal is to clearly demonstrate that these Multi-threat Detect sensors can accurately detect a variety of potentially adversarial threats with a high degree of sensitivity.

BENNETT OPTICAL RESEARCH, INC.
201 N. Sanders Street
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 384-1177
Dr. Harold E. Bennett
MDA 06-053      Selected for Award
Title:Optimization and Reduced Print Thru in HEL Deformable Mirrors
Abstract:Several possible material and design changes to improve HEL deformable mirrors will be discussed. The principles will apply to Air Force ACDM and BCDM mirrors and to other HEL mirror designs. Simple changes to conventional mirrors and a new mounting technique are evaluated first using highly efficient finite element thermal analysis. Material changes including substitution of a low expansion, low thermal conductivity, lightweight, relatively inexpensive faceplate for the current high expansion coefficient, transparent silicon faceplate and development of a high thermal conductivity, opaque faceplate similar to silicon but having a low expansion coefficient are considered. High thermal conductivity low expansion coefficient mirrors have the smallest mirror distortion coefficient theoretically. The last concept could be developed and the other ideas demonstrated experimentally in an SBIR Phase II project.

METASTABLE INSTRUMENTS, INC.
5988 Mid Rivers Mall Drive - Suite 236
St. Peters, MO 63304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 447-9555
Dr. George Dube
MDA 06-053      Selected for Award
Title:Reduced Print Thru in HEL Deformable Mirrors
Abstract:This project will investigate a passive solution to the deformable mirror print through problem. No additional sensor or control subsystems will be required. The high reflector surface will be positioned on the backside of the thin deformable transparent glass sheet. First order theory (uniform temperature through the thickness of the thin glass sheet) indicates that for most glasses there is a thickness that makes this backside reflector athermal with respect to actuator thermal expansion. The thermal expansion and dn/dT of the thin glass sheet cancels the change in optical path caused by the thermal expansion of the actuators and their heating of the mirror substrate. The thermal optic distortion of mirrors heated by simulated actuators will be measured interferometrically and compared to theory. Besides the required change in optical path with temperature, the glass must have physical and chemical properties suitable for fabrication into a thin polished sheet that will be HR coated on one side and AR coated on the other. This project will investigate the most practical actuators, transparent materials and fabrication techniques and apply finite element analysis to guide design modifications to minimize any effects of thermal gradients produced by the actuators and/or laser beam.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura RoadSuite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Dr. Richard A. Hutchin
MDA 06-053      Selected for Award
Title:Segmented Deformable Mirror for Tactical HEL
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project proposes to investigate a segmented deformable mirror (SDM) to minimize the thermal distortion in high energy laser (HEL) beam correction. The main innovation is to use a 1 cm thick segmented silicon facesheet elastically bonded into a monolithic substrate. The elastomeric bonding is only 25 microns thick and allows the facesheet to be figured and coated like solid glass while still being pliable enough for piezo-actuator control. The result is a fully capable DM where each individual actuator is too thick to produce any thermal ripple. Furthermore, silicon's high thermal conductivity coupled with a cooling collar limits temperature rise to 1 degree K/Megawatt. Phase I will build a 16 actuator DM tested under simulated HEL loading. It also includes the detailed design and test plan of the Phase II segmented deformable mirror prototype. This will prepare us to fabricate a 200 actuator DM in Phase II.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Matthew Erdtmann
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:High-Performance Dual-Band MWIR/LWIR Uncooled Imager for ABL IRST Sensors
Abstract:Agiltron proposes a high-performance dual-band imager for the IRST sensors used in the ABL Wide Area Surveillance System (WASS). To meet the needs of the MDA, the proposed imager will feature simultaneous dual-band MWIR/LWIR operation for increased discrimination capability; megapixel resolution for increased field of view, detection range, and angular resolution; uncooled operation for minimized weight, volume, power, and cost and absence of cooling requirements; and ruggedized components and packaging for operation at high altitudes, automotive-grade temperature operating range (-40C to +85C), and robust shock resistance. The use of COTS components and vertically integrated manufacturing will simplify manufacturing and radically reduce sensor cost. Compared to state-of-the-art IR imagers without dual-band capability, Agiltron's novel dual-band imager will achieve significant reductions of about 30% in weight, over 80% in power consumption, and 70% in cost. In this Program, Agiltron will work with Lockheed Martin Missiles & Fire Control (LMMFC), the manufacturer of the ABL WASS, for implementation of the dual-band imager. The Phase I work will develop a prototype thermal imager for operation in the MWIR and LWIR bands and demonstrate its capability for detecting rocket/missile launches. A fully functional prototype dual-band MWIR/LWIR imager with megapixel resolution and ruggedized packaging will be produced in Phase II. The anticipated volume insertion time frame is less than 3 years.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 517-8660
Dr. James Murray
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:Optimization of ABLs Long-Range LADAR Sensor Under Objective Aero-optical Environments
Abstract:To counter emerging threats of theater ballistic missiles the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has sponsored the development of the Airborne Laser (ABL) system. For the ABL system to defeat multiple targets over the theater of operation it must be capable of accurately tracking multiple targets simultaneously. The Active Ranging System (ARS) plays a critical role in achieving this capability by providing quick and accurate measurements of the missiles position and velocity over time. This proposal addresses critical new ladar technology for the ARS tracking function. Aret Associates has developed a proprietary ladar approach that takes advantage of fiber laser transmitters and high sensitivity low-noise detectors. The choice of the optimum transmitter wavelength in the context of performance and component availability is an unresolved issue. Detailed analysis and trade-studies are required on the near-field aero-optical effects, total path length attenuation and atmospheric turbulence to develop the trade-offs between candidate ladar configurations. In this effort Aret Associates and teammates Analysis and Applications Associates will utilize sophisticated aero-optical, atmospheric propagation and ladar system models developed specifically to address the ABL operational scenario to analyze theses trade-offs between various laser transmitter wavelengths and ladar components that will support our novel ladar approach.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:ABL (Airborne Laser) Detection Sensor Improvements
Abstract:MDA is developing deployable airborne systems such as the Airborne Laser (ABL) for boost-phase missile defense. The ABL's mission would significantly benefit from enhanced target detection and ranging capabilities. We propose an active sensing system compatible with ABL that is based on HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which are an attractive choice for active sensing applications because their internal gain mechanism can improve signal to noise ratios. Moreover, they offer an advantageous combination of several factors, including high quantum efficiencies and high frequency response. We propose to design and fabricate long wavelength infrared (LWIR) APD focal plane arrays based on HgCdTe. As a novel approach, we propose a lateral current collection device design that will have larger optical detection areas than electrical junction areas, and also have the advantages of reduced dark currents and relatively high resistances compared to traditional planar heterostructures. In the Phase I effort, we will use Taurus-Medici, a 2-dimensional device modeling tool, to design and simulate single element HgCdTe LWIR lateral current collection APDs, grow the structures by molecular beam epitaxy, fabricate single element detectors with lithography, inductively coupled plasma etching and metal evaporation, and characterize the electrical and optical performance of the active sensing detectors.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9380 SW 72nd Street, B-180
Miami, FL 33173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. Jame J. Yang
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:Foveated Imaging and Spectral Discrimination Sensor
Abstract:The Airborne Laser (ABL) is a key component of the US government's overall ballistic missile defense systems. In an operational scenario, the ABL's sensor system will detect and track enemy's boosting missile, determine its position and destroy it with a high energy laser. The ABL's sensor system also identifies the launch location and predicts the impact location, which is communicated to other assets in the missile defense systems. Existing missile detection and tracking sensors cannot meet advanced missile defense requirements including wide field of view (FOV), long detection range, increased capability to correctly discriminate between ballistic missile targets and other types of tracks, high angular resolution for a 2-D passive only angle-angle track, and low weight, volume and power requirements, et al. There is a demand to enhance the ability of today's airborne surveillance systems for missile defense. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes herein a novel optical configuration that is capable of simultaneously providing wide FOV global monitoring, high spatial resolution and spectral details in areas of interest for enhanced missile detection rate, and precise positioning and tracking without mechanical scanning. In Phase I we will establish the model, demonstrate the feasibility, and recognize challenging issues of the proposed concept.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan WaySuite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. Andrew Huntington
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:ABL (Airborne Laser) Detection Sensor Improvements
Abstract:Recent and emerging technologies, such as a 3-D LADAR tracker with precise target detection, tracking, and aimpoint imaging could make significant gains for ABL's capabilities. Solid state avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are a rugged, fully-monolithic detector technology well suited for LADAR focal plane arrays (FPAs). In the past, Geiger mode APD operation has been preferred for tasks requiring sensitivity to single photon, but Geiger APDs achieve single photon sensitivity comes at the price of high dark current and long dead times because fundamental tradeoffs exist between detection probability, dark count rate, and speed. Recent advances in low-noise amplifier design and techniques for suppressing APD multiplication noise have brought single photon sensitivity within reach of linear APD systems. This technology has application for a number of the ABL EO systems and in this Phase I program. Through a series of materials growth and fabrication designed experiments, Voxtel proposes to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a NIR photon-counting linear mode APD capable of sub-nanosecond-scale detection and pulse pair resolution and establish its reliability. In Phase II, a large-format, fully-functional LADAR FPA will be fabricated and tested.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
MDA 06-055      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Valve Technology for COIL (AVTCOIL)
Abstract:The (Airborne Laser) ABL Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) creates a lasing medium by utilizing Chlorine to produce Singlet Delta Oxygen (SDO) which in-turn dissociates a separately supplied Iodine molecule and then excites the resulting Iodine atom for lasing. Both Chlorine and Iodine are extremely caustic substances and require great care when handling. Of particular importance is the lifetime of high performance valves used to meter these substances as well as all other ABL fluid products (Helium, Nitrogen, ammonia and Hydrogen Peroxide). Since the valves must operate on an aircraft, overall contribution to ABL system weight is an important consideration. Mid proposes an innovative design that incorporates corrosion resistant materials in the valve body, seat materials that are compatible will all the fluids to be used, and an actuating mechanism that can meet the desired opening and closing times. The actuation system will be pneumatically operated while materials with unique properties will be included in the actuating mechanism. Mid's experience with the design, development and flight qualification of custom valves and materials expertise creates the required combination for the development of a successful valve for use on ABL.

POWDERMET, INC.
24112 Rockwell drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 404-0053
Mr. Asit Biswas
MDA 06-055      Selected for Award
Title:Self- Lapping Chemical Valves for ABL-COIL Laser
Abstract:In this Phase I program teaming with system integrator, Powdermet will develop a low cost light weight, high strength, chlorine, iodine, helium, ammonia, caustic compatible corrosion resistant, high performance, long life capable, maintenance free Self- Lapping Chemical Valves for ABL-COIL Laser by corrosion resistant particle reinforced light weight superalloy MMC using CVD coated powders

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Mr. Harry S. Katz
MDA 06-055      Selected for Award
Title: Lightweight, Corrosion Resistant Valve Materials
Abstract:The main objective will be to improve the reliability and reduce the overall system weight for the numerous currently pneumatically actuated flight qualified valves used by the Airborne Laser (ABL) program. Important steps in successfully achieving the main objective will be UDC'S formulation, fabrication and evaluation of lightweight and chemical resistant composites that can easily be fabricated into valve components as improved substitutes for the current steel and aluminum components. UDC will conduct testing to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. At the end of Phase I, UDC will provide a report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate.

---------- OSD ----------

181 Phase I Selections from the 06.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
361 INTERACTIVE, LLC
408 Sharts RoadSuite 7
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 743-0361
Mr. Michael J. McCloskey
OSD 06-CR1      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:A Cognitive Approach to Promoting Cross-Cultural Perspective Taking Skills
Abstract:Cultures differ in cognition. These cognitive differences naturally result in expectancy violations and perceptual mismatches between people of different cultures. And while they are, by nature, difficult to observe, a culture's cognitive attributes significantly influence individual perceptions and overt behaviors. A training program that addresses general cross-cultural perspective taking skills needs to acknowledge these cognitive differences and make them a primary focus. We propose to use the Cultural Lens Model, an innovative cognitive model that integrates multiple theories on cultural differences, as a guiding framework for the proposed effort. The Cultural Lens Model offers a structure for understanding, explaining, and potentially predicting reasoning and decision-making behaviors of members of different cultures. Our resultant program will integrate required baseline knowledge within the context of skill-building, scenario-based exercises. It will provide trainees with a general mental model of how cultures differ in cognition, along with the ability to apply that model to themselves and others. By exploiting several existing technologies from previous efforts, we will demonstrate the feasibility and inherent value of our concept with a functional Phase I prototype. The prototype will contain modules for both Army cultural trainers and self-taught trainees.

ECROSSCULTURE
777 29th Street, Suite 102
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-1978
Ms. Linda Roan
OSD 06-CR1      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Innovative Perspective Taking
Abstract:Consider a typical Army soldier. He's young, he probably has not been abroad before entering the military, he has not been to college, and he is serving in very dangerous situations. He also may not have joined the military with the intention of taking on the role of peacekeeper. Yet the cultural skills he needs are crucial to the success of the US military's missions in foreign environments. Building trust, communicating effectively, and establishing positive relationships with civilians where possible not only furthers US goals, but helps keep him alive. Our challenge is to provide him with the these skills.

JOB PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS, INC.
1240 N. Pitt St,
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-5805
Dr. Douglas Rosenthal
OSD 06-CR1      Awarded: 14MAY07
Title:Navigating the Human Terrain: Development of Cross-Cultural Perspective Taking Skills
Abstract:The success of many U.S. military missions depends on working effectively with others from different countries. To do this requires, at all levels of our force structure, an appreciation of the intricacies of societal and tribal cultures and the complexity of human-to-human interactions. The current effort focuses particularly on junior military personnel (E1-E5; O1-04) and the type of intercultural interactions that they typically encounter. Soldiers at this level must know how to establish a relationship with the local populace based on understanding, trust, and mutual interest. The goal of this SBIR effort is to design an automated, deployable culture-general training system. The ultimate product will be deliverable via web technology or CD-ROM and will be SCORM compliant. This document describes our rationale and approach for developing an engaging culture-general training system that will provide high quality knowledge and skill training. The main components of the system will be a curriculum designed to systematically build intercultural knowledge and skills, using multi-media training tools to effectively convey the training content and to provide practice on relevant skills.

ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH GROUP, LLC
5329 Buckhead Trail
Knoxville, TN 37919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 256-2171
Dr. Joan Rentsch
OSD 06-CR1      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Navigating the Human Terrain: Development of Cross-Cultural Perspective Taking Skills
Abstract:As the U.S. Army increasingly operates in multicultural environments, Army leaders at a minimum must develop relationships with the local people. Multicultural perspective-taking competencies will enable leaders to build relationships and to function effectively in multicultural environments. Multicultural perspective-taking competencies are generalizable competencies that will enable Army leaders to extract, interpret, and utilize cultural information in any culture. Recent research (Rentsch & Gundersen, 2006) has identified a set of multicultural perspective-taking competencies including self-awareness, personal and interpersonal skills, regional expertise, extraction skills, interpretation skills, and the development of cultural schema. These multicultural perspective-taking competencies were extracted from a broad search of research in cultural anthropology, psychology, international business, and adult education. Two primary objectives of the proposed effort are (1) to identify any additional multicultural perspective-taking competencies based on interviews with subject matter experts and (2) to develop a prototype training and development system for the initial acquisition of multicultural perspective-taking competencies. To conduct this project, a multidisciplinary team with expertise in intercultural communications and relations, cultural and cognitive anthropology, cross-cultural counseling, international business, training, and adult education has been assembled.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Jared Freeman
OSD 06-CR2      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Modeling Accurate Cultural Behaviors for Effective Training of Humans (MACBETH)
Abstract:The Global War on Terror requires coalition forces to engage with diverse cultures. This requires robust knowledge of cultures and skill at handling them. Current cultural training devices fail to leverage the theory, data, or interfaces necessary to deliver culturally rich training and mission rehearsal. We propose to develop a system for Modeling Accurate Cultural Behaviors for Effective Training of Humans (MACBETH), which addresses these challenges by providing a comprehensive framework (theory) for describing culturally derived behavior; a data capture and modeling tool to use for generating representations of behavior; and a systematic method for evaluating interfaces for cultural training. Specifically, the MACBETH team will: (1) develop a framework for representing cultural behaviors, (2) develop scenarios that exercise the framework, (3) define techniques for capturing behavioral data, evaluate gaming environments, (4) demonstrate our technical results, and (5) craft a Phase II validation plan.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia DriveSuite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Wayne Zachary
OSD 06-CR2      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Modeling Culturally Accurate Behavior via Multiplayer Game Environments
Abstract:Military simulations involving non-player characters (NPCs) from non-US cultures are becoming increasingly important for training and mission rehearsal. However, creating culturally-realistic behaviors for these characters remains a technical challenge because there is not a clear standard or process for creating behaviors that are consistent with a given culture. This Phase I effort will design a solution to the problem via a set of tools, called CulturePad, that allow cultural behaviors to be empirically captured and abstracted in such a way that the resulting abstraction can be used to efficiently create accurate models of the cultural behaviors of non-US NPCs. An important objective of the Phase I research is analyzing the potential obstacles to capturing and simulating culturally appropriate behavior, and developing strategies to mitigate these in the CulturePad design. The CulturePad concept is based on a generative narrative representation which has been shown to hold validity as a way of capturing cultural knowledge in multiple cultural settings, and has also been shown to be a feasible way of generating behaviors for computer-generated synthetic agents. This will be accomplished, in part through empirical studies comparing how culture-specific scenarios would be played out in a multiplayer game versus a live `role-play' simulation.

PATHFINDER SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Union Blvd., Suite 300
Lakewood, CO 80228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 763-8660
Sheila Jaszlics
OSD 06-CR2      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Cognitive Net Accurate Cultural Trainer (CONTACT)
Abstract:Current simulation-based training systems typically support training for conventional combat operations against organized military threat and require large numbers of support personnel to operate. These systems model very limited types of Non Player Characters (NPCs) used to simulate threat forces and non-combatants. The cost and time required to expand the capability of these systems by adding new NPC types, to meet additional training needs, is prohibitive. The expense of these systems makes them largely unavailable to our military personnel at the frequency they require, where they need it. Finally, the time required to develop training scenarios is unacceptable, running into months, when even a few hours may be too long for out military personnel to wait. In this effort we will design and prototype an efficient, low-cost capability to quickly model large numbers of NPC types with the abilities to quickly input cultural aspects and traits. The resulting system will allow users to quickly create and assess NPCs that can be directly inserted into training environments that support warfighters in all echelons and across all simulation domains. The system will significantly reduce the number of personnel required to support simulation-based training events. The effort will also reduce simulation development time and cost by streamlining the NPC modeling process.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Mr. Ryan Houlette
OSD 06-CR3      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Tools and Technologies for Inserting Deep Cultural Context into Mission Training Simulations
Abstract:We propose the development of a system for deep cultural adaptation of synthetic agent behaviors and environmental objects within mission training simulations. This adaptation will incorporate cognitive cultural influences into trainee interactions to meet the training objectives of adapting military skills to specific cultural environments. Training objectives supported by the system will include familiarity with specific material artifacts and observable behavioral attributes on the part of synthetic agents, and deep understanding of the cultural cognitions and relationships that constrain and determine such behaviors. We will evaluate existing technologies for their capacity to provide this deep cultural context for trainee interactions, and the feasibility of their impact on training outcomes. These technologies will constitute a toolset that is capable of reproducing empirical data from the field, and conforming to theoretically sound models of the influence of culture in human behavior. We will develop and demonstrate an architectural framework establishing the interoperability of this toolset in satisfaction of culturally specific skill training objectives.

TACTICAL LANGUAGE TRAINING, LLC
11965 Venice Blvd, Suite 402
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 566-7272
Dr. Andre Valente
OSD 06-CR3      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Tools for Creating Skill Training Content in Distributed Simulations
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop tools for creating cultural skill training content for distributed simulations. It will leverage the technology and content of current Tactical Language and Culture Training System products, including the highly successful Tactical Iraqi training system. The project will focus research in the following areas in order to fully meet the objectives of the SBIR solicitation: (1) develop tools for creating rich knowledge bases of culturally significant objects and behaviors suitable for incorporation into interactive training scenarios, (2) develop authoring tools for specifying multi-user training scenarios in distributed virtual simulations, incorporating culturally significant elements, (3) support these cultural elements and scenarios within distributed virtual simulations, and (4) evaluate the tools and training techniques with appropriate military personnel.

VCOM3D, INC.
3452 Lake Lynda Dr., Suite 260
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 737-7309
Dr. Edward M. Sims
OSD 06-CR3      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Tools for Creating Objects and Behaviors for Distributed Simulations with a Cultural Context
Abstract:For this Phase I SBIR project, we will identify key aspects of culturally-influenced behaviors that can impact a soldier's or junior leader's ability to successfully communicate and collaborate with local populations and coalition forces during the conduct of peacekeeping and humanitarian missions. Based on this analysis, we will develop a conceptual framework for modeling these behaviors such that they may be used in distributed training simulations. Using Vcom3D and third-party authoring tools, we will develop and evaluate simulations of culture-specific behaviors, and will demonstrate these in proof-of-concept training scenarios. Working with our subcontractors, Forterra Systems and Soar Technologies, we will also demonstrate how these behaviors can be integrated with multi-player gaming platforms and with computer-generated forces. Key features of the proposed approach include: . Use of a library of over 600 "context aware", culture-specific behaviors originally developed for the DARWARS initiative. . Highly detailed virtual human models capable of multi-lingual speech with lip-sync, facial expression, gesture, proxemic, and haptic behaviors. For Phase II, we will use lessons learned from Phase I to develop a fully functional, extensible prototype simulation and supporting toolset that can be used to create training simulations that embed both computer-generated and player-controlled characters with culture-specific behaviors.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
OSD 06-CR4      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Culturally Aware Agents for Training Environments (CAATE)
Abstract:During the last decade, the U.S. Army has conducted a wide range of missions within the context of very different cultures. These missions often require Soldiers to interact and communicate personally and effectively with people whose cultures, languages, lifestyle, and beliefs are very different from those found in the U.S. It has become increasingly clear that strategy, operational plans, and implementing procedures must occur in the context of local cultural constraints in order to be effective. We propose a simulation-based training approach to providing the necessary training for success across such culturally situated missions. By focusing on the social and cultural elements that most affect mission success, we believe we can limit the problem to a tractable size. We propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of Culturally Aware Agents for Training Environments (CAATE), a modeling and simulation tool for software agents that demonstrate the necessary cultural skills and behaviors for maximally affordable and effective culturally situated training systems. CAATE will embody sound didactic methodologies, it will utilize social network models for modeling the social and cultural situation, and it will support the development of human behavior models with built-in behavior moderator support to model appropriate cultural behavior.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 207-2237
Dr. Douglas Reece
OSD 06-CR4      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Cultural Behavior Generation for Distributed Simulation
Abstract:U.S. Army personnel need realistic cultural training to carry out Stability and Support Operations (SASO) in foreign environments. Virtual environments supported by simulations such as the OneSAF Objective System (OOS) could help fill this training need. To do this, the simulations must model people in foreign cultures. Today's simulations for virtual environments do not have models of intelligent human behavior that are combined with models of mental states, cultural characteristics, and physical expressions of those states and characteristics. Soar Technology, in conjunction with Vcom3D, is proposing to develop a cultural behavior generation (CBG) system that will include the components necessary for generating human behavior characteristic of people of different cultures. These components will include a cognitive behavior model, a human factors model, and a physical behavior model. In Phase I of the proposed project, Soar Technology will review existing culture modeling components and identify technologies that can be applied to the objective CBG system; identify training objectives for a CBG system and develop an exemplary scenario; develop initial designs for integrating CBG into distributed simulations in general and OOS in particular; and provide a functional demonstration of cognitive and physical behavior models working together to produce cultural behavior.

ECROSSCULTURE
777 29th Street, Suite 102
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-1978
Mrs. Linda Roan
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 08FEB07
Title:An Innovative, Interactive, Dynamic Mission Planning Tool
Abstract:The proposed planning tool will be designed after an exhaustive review of commercial and military cross-cultural training products, interviews, and literature review. We describe a sound pedagogical approach which includes transition along the cognitive domain, formal phases, and accommodation to varied learner styles.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5260
Dr. Jacqueline Haynes
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 24JAN07
Title:Simulation-Based Training Approach to Cross-cultural Training
Abstract:Factual aspects of formal cultural knowledge are well documented. So is information on observable cultural differences such as time and space. Systems for training on these more formal cross-cultural attributes are reasonably straightforward to build, and have been quite effective. On the other hand, the more informal attributes such as communication patterns and styles, inter-relationship power perception, predilection to risk-taking etc. are far more difficult to codify and train as these are neither easily observable nor measurable. Currently deployed cross-cultural training methods have focused mostly on the more formal and easily measurable and trainable aspects of cross-cultural training. However these methods are woefully inadequate or prohibitively expensive for training in the informal attributes. In this proposal, we provide a novel and inexpensive solution. We propose an innovative simulation-based cross-cultural training environment, where trainees learn skills through compelling interactive stories. For this purpose, our approach will utilize (a) Interactive Pedagogical Drama (IPD) based adaptable training to create interactive stories where trainees interact with the characters in a realistic, narrative-driven, story-based setting; (b) intelligent agent-based infrastructure to model believable role-playing characters with motivations, attitudes and emotions; and (c) SCORM-compliant web-based distance learning infrastructure to deliver accessible training content.

KINECTION
302 Cypress Avenue
Santa Cruz, CA 95062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 426-6301
Mr. Doug Nelson
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 16FEB07
Title:The Cultural Fluency Toolkit: Cultural Training for Human-to-Human Interactions at the Tactical Level
Abstract:We propose to create a "Cultural Fluency Toolkit," a self-paced, computer-based training tool that personnel involved in SSTR operations will use to develop cultural fluency skills in general, and fluency skills for Mid-East cultures in particular. The Toolkit will incorporate several innovative approaches in terms of content, instructional approach, and technical design. It will convey the following direct benefits to DOD. 1) It will directly improve the performance of junior military personnel in the Middle East. 2) It will engage and motivate learners through games, simulations, and other techniques, increasing interest in cultural fluency and improving acquisition and retention of specific fluency skills. 3) It will allow ongoing updating at the unit level, so that it will maintain its relevance as the COE changes. 4) It will be inexpensively and easily extendable to other non-Western cultures. 5) It will integrate with and contribute to overall DOD efforts to improve cultural awareness.

SMART INFORMATION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, D/B/A SIFT
211 N 1st St.Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 716-4015
Dr. Christopher Miller
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 07FEB07
Title:Interactive Phrasebook
Abstract:Effective cultural training teaches an understanding of appropriate social interactions in context-to take offense when reasonable, to give deference where appropriate, etc. Systems that provide realistic rehearsals have a fundamental need for believability beyond accuracy in appearance, and have the cus-tomizability to alter scenarios so they reflect the needs of the student. We propose using a rich, univer-sal theory of human-human "politeness" behaviors and the culture-specific interpretive frameworks for them (labeled "etiquette") from sociology, linguistics and anthropology to create an interactive and practical training tool. Our model will link observable and inferred aspects of power and familiarity relationships, the degree of imposition of an act (all of which have implications for roles and intents) and the actor's character to produce politeness behavior expectations. By using observations of polite-ness behaviors (or its lack), the same model permits inferences and updates about those attributes, while taking into account potential cultural biases. In Phase I, we will design the architecture of such a sys-tem, provide a Middle-Eastern culture based scenario derived from SSTR operation tasks, and create concrete plans to test the designed system. In Phase II, we will implement the system, conduct a pilot study, and expand cross-cultural content libraries.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway NorthP.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3792
Dr. James E. McCarthy
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 01FEB07
Title:Interactive Learning Environment for Managing Socio-cultural Influences on Human-to-Human Interactions at the Tactical Level
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. is pleased to propose the Tactical Multicultural Experience Development System (TAC-MEDS) to provide junior military personnel with the experience they need to excel. The TAC-MEDS System will contain basic instruction in multi-cultural interaction principles, skills, and attitudes. Beyond that, the TAC-MEDS System will include a Practice Environment in which users can interact with various characters in realistic situations, observe their results, and get coaching. It will also include a Question-and-Answer (Q&A) Environment in which users can interact with a knowledge base as if they were talking to experienced peers. The TAC-MEDS System will deliver the training "any time and any place." The goal of the TAC-MEDS System will be to allow users to explore new situations, fail as necessary, and learn from those failures before they are faced with real-time events, which will require the application of those skills. The old adage holds that, "Good judgment is the result of experience, and experience is the result of poor judgment." The TAC-MEDS System will give warriors the experience they need to succeed. Further, the experience will take place in a safe, structured environment in which errors do not jeopardize mission success and constructive coaching can be delivered.

COMMAND PERFORMANCE RESEARCH, INC.
1201 Waverly Dr.
Champaign, IL 61821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 621-3918
Dr. Anna T Cianciolo
OSD 06-CR6      Awarded: 14FEB07
Title:Interactive Learning Environment for Managing Multinational, Interagency, and Other Interactions in Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruction Operations
Abstract:The post-Cold War era has witnessed significant growth in the number of latent tensions that have exploded into violent conflicts. The civil and humanitarian emergencies created by these conflicts have produced an unprecedented need for stability, security, transition, and reconstruction operations, requiring cooperation between military forces and NGOs. Cultural differences between the military and NGOs have made collaboration difficult. Educational and performance-support interventions designed to enhance interpersonal effectiveness in joint military-NGO operations are badly needed and may have significant impact on the success of efforts to win international peace. To address this need, CPResearch is proposing to research and develop a web-based system that will enable the synchronous, distributed, collective development of military-NGO team planning capabilities through cultural awareness education, knowledge management techniques, and deliberate practice. CPResearch will team with Pearson Knowledge Technologies, known for its innovative latent semantic analysis algorithms, so that automated content analysis may serve as the backbone for sequencing reference material and exercise scenarios, providing information push at key learning moments, and enabling augmented team collaboration with real and virtual teammates. This proposal describes the Phase I research, design, and prototyping we plan to undertake to guide the development of a fully functional Phase II product.

GOLDRUSH77.COM
7770 Ramona Dr
Navarre, FL 32566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 936-0377
Mr. Joseph H. Caruth, Jr.
OSD 06-CR6      Awarded: 26FEB07
Title:Interactive Learning Environment for Managing Multinational, Interagency, and Other Interactions in Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruction Operations
Abstract:OSD06-CR6 Abstract Social, cultural and organizational differences between U.S. military forces (USMs), multinational forces (MNFs), other U.S. and foreign government agencies (OGAs) and non-government organizations (NGOs) make interactions between members of these organizations engaged in stability, security, transition and reconstruction operations (SSTR) less effective. Opportunities exist to develop a SCORM compliant, interactive computer based simulation to educate and exercise USMs in the principles of effective interactions with MNFs, OGAs and NGOs. Although differences in national and organizational culture contribute to difficulties, cultural diversity is not the only problem. Differences in organizational missions, structures and processes, human resources policies, reward systems and cultures create problems that make communication, coordination, cooperation and ultimately collaboration less effective across organizational boundaries. Our first goal will be to identify the context, profiles of participating organizations, principles and practices of successful inter-organizational interactions through a literature review, Lessons Learned and critical incident interviews with USMs, MNFs, OGAs and NGOs. The second goal is to develop a pedagogic strategy, review military and commercial educational software products, choose a software supplier and design a system of technology tools. Our third goal is to create a plan with timetable and budget for the development of the software tools.

KINECTION
302 Cypress Avenue
Santa Cruz, CA 95062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 426-6301
Mr. Doug Nelson
OSD 06-CR6      Awarded: 20FEB07
Title:The Toolkit for Interorganizational Effectiveness: Training Multinational, Interagency, and Other Interactions in SSTR Operations
Abstract:We propose to create a Toolkit for Interorganizational Effectiveness, a self-paced, computer-based training tool that personnel involved in SSTR operations will use to develop the skills required to cooperate effectively with counterparts from other organizational cultures. The Toolkit will incorporate several innovative approaches in terms of content, instructional approach, and technical design. It will convey the following direct benefits to DOD. 1) It will directly improve the performance of military personnel involved in SSTR operations. 2) It will engage and motivate learners through games, simulations, and other techniques, increasing interest in interorganizational effectiveness, and improving acquisition and retention of specific skills. 3) It will allow ongoing updating at the unit level, so that it will maintain its relevance as the COE changes. 4) It will be inexpensively and easily extendable to other non-Western cultures. 5) It will integrate with and contribute to overall DOD efforts to improve cultural awareness.

STRATEGIC ANALYSIS, INC.
3601 Wilson Blvd, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 527-5410
Dr. Evelyn Dahm
OSD 06-CR6      Awarded: 14FEB07
Title:Interactive Learning Environment for Managing Multinational, Interagency, and Other Interactions in Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruction Operations
Abstract:The technical objective is to design a dynamic mission planning tool that increases cognitive readiness and adaptability of U.S. military personnel for interacting in Coalition SSTR operations tasks with OGAs, MNFs, and NGOs. The technical approach includes a literature review and engagement with U.S. military, foreign counterparts and civilians to identify social, cultural and organizational dimensions that impact human-to-human and group interactions among MNFs, OGAs and NGOs; challenges military personnel face in interpersonal/group interactions with the Coalition; approaches and behaviors that have worked and not been successful; and, complex organizational, cultural, social, and language information relevant to interpersonal/group interactions. The technical approach includes assessment of existing commercial/military products that may be applicable to increasing cognitive readiness and adaptability. We will integrate theoretical insights from fields (e.g., cultural studies, cognitive and organizational psychology), with military perspectives. A knowledge engineering, modeling, and simulation tool, Discovery MachineT E3W, will be integrated with the literature, U.S. military, foreign counterparts and civilian engagement, and encode and capture best practices for human-to-human interaction in the form of hierarchical models. The models and technology assessment will enable the design of a planning tool that allows warfighters to prepare for Coalition tasks with MNFs, OGAs, and NGOs.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-1177
Dr. Brian T. Mitchell
OSD 06-CR7      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:A Multi-Media Approach to Realistic Social and Cultural Skills Training
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop GreenLabs: a web-based, collaborative e-learning environment for the development, delivery, and evaluation of multimedia training sequences that teach cross-cultural communications concepts and provide detailed, media-rich descriptions of target cultures on demand. A two-step process has been identified as being optimal for providing Soldiers with concepts relevant to their needs. The basic course will teach culture-general skills with practical exercises that break down barriers of communication while preserving the student's individual sense of culture, military culture, and the cognitive patterns on which their lives depend. The advanced course will provide culture-specific information and basic language instruction. Every sequence in both courses will include dynamic text, animations, sound, video, and will feature a small, agile game or simulation that demonstrates and reinforces the concepts presented in the sequence. GreenLabs will facilitate the development and packaging of these games within focused sequences of training that will be available via the internet or on CD-ROM. The focus of these courses of training is on individual distributed learning, though it will be possible to integrate the courseware into group classes led by an instructor. All courses will be SCORM-compliant and provide real-time feedback on students' progress.

TACTICAL LANGUAGE TRAINING, LLC
11965 Venice Blvd, Suite 402
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 566-7272
Dr. Andre Valente
OSD 06-CR7      Awarded: 16FEB07
Title:Web-Enabled Interactive Culture and Language Training
Abstract:The goal of this project is to create an interactive computer-based mission planning tool that helps guide US military personnel in how to apply their cultural understanding in interactions with military counterparts and civilians in non-Western cultures. It will leverage the technology and content of current Tactical Language and Culture Training System products, including the highly successful Tactical Iraqi training system. To meet the needs of this SBIR topic, we need to develop an alternative Web-compatible delivery platform that retains the key interactive characteristics of TLCTS, and populate it with relevant social and cultural skill content. This research will focus on four major areas (1) developing an implementation of cultural lesson and exercise pages for the Web; (2) developing an execution engine that can execute interactive scenarios on the Web; (3) developing learner assessment and feedback for Web-based delivery; and (4) author additional training content, and (5) evaluating training effectiveness.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia DriveSuite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Floyd Glenn
OSD 06-CR8      Awarded: 31JAN07
Title:Training Optimization for Generic Game-based Learning Environments (TOGGLE)
Abstract:Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) operations require U.S. military personnel to interact and communicate effectively with people whose cultures, languages, and beliefs are very different from their own. SSTR operations require tact and understanding of the motives and tendencies of indigenous populations in order to defuse tense situations, prevent civil disturbances, and obtain cooperation. Traditional tactical training must be augmented with cultural intelligence and negotiations training. The U.S. military has sponsored previous research into the application of computer game technology for this purpose. In past efforts, learning has been opportunistic and no systematic training methodology has been applied. Previous systems typically lacked training mechanisms such as training goals, performance standards, student models, instructor feedback, and performance remediation/appraisal. To meet this challenge, we propose to develop a training life cycle methodology that is mediated and facilitated by executable cognitive models of the student, the instructor, and the training process itself. The Training Optimization for Generic Game-based Learning Environments (TOGGLE) system will meet the specific training need of Arabic cultural familiarization and negotiations training and will also focus on the use of student models and instructional design practices to develop games that can demonstrate true training effectiveness.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Lisa Scott Holt
OSD 06-CR8      Awarded: 12FEB07
Title:IMPACT: Intelligent Modeling for Pedagogically-Aware Cultural Training
Abstract:Soar Technology proposes to build IMPACT (Intelligent Modeling For Pedagogically-Aware Cultural Training), a sophisticated, agent-based system to enable immersive, realistic practice environments for cultural training. IMPACT features a robust student model that represents a broad matrix of culturally appropriate skills and an intelligent director agent that uses the student model to provide performance feedback in either or two modes: explicitly through spoken directives or implicitly through the dynamic adaptation of characters and events in the training scenario. IMPACT supports pedagogically-sound cultural training that is cost-effective, easily deployed, and highly adaptive to individual needs, beyond what is presently possible in state-of-the-art computer-based training or live training exercises. IMPACT will result in better supported, more focused, more enjoyable, and ultimately more effective computer-based cultural skills training.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Ashley Nunes
OSD 06-CR9      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Tool for enhancing operator Appreciation of socio-Cultural information through Intelligent agent-based Training (TACIT)
Abstract:The ability to classify threats is dependent on a mission planner's ability to integrate various categories of information. Socio-cultural information represents one information type that while important has traditionally been ignored by systems developers seeking to enhance the training capabilities of operators. To address these shortcomings, we propose to design and demonstrate the Tool for enhancing Appreciation of socio-Cultural information through Intelligent agent-based Training (TACIT), to significantly improve the decision-making capability of mission planners. Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a work domain analysis in the context of a realistic scenario to understand what types of socio-cultural information mission planners can and should reason about, develop training regiments addressing difficulties faced by these operators, develop a knowledge base of sources and categories of information and provide insight into existing training and its shortcomings. Second, we will design and demonstrate an agent-based instruction system that integrates intelligent training techniques, visualization concepts for representing socio-cultural information, and that includes user interfaces for the design of training scenarios. Third, we will validate our approach to training and develop measures for operator assessment. We will leverage our team's expertise in training, visualization and intelligent agent development to rapidly demonstrate TACIT.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-9836
Mr. Lee Krause
OSD 06-CR9      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Training for Socio-Cultural Considerations in Planning
Abstract:Securboration, working closely with Dr. Eugene Santos Jr, from Dartmouth College, creates a world-class, socio-cultural training program development team. With an extensive background and expertise in Air Operations Center (AOC) operations, effects-based planning and assessment, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and modeling and simulation (including modeling cultural influences on adversary behavior), Securboration will design "an instrumented training environment for AOC planning mediated by socio-cultural consideration." Securboration will leverage existing technology and previous work on effect-based planning and assessment in the AOC environment to develop this socio-cultural training environment. Securboration's innovative solution will include: 1) analysis of the socio-cultural considerations most critical to air campaign planning, 2) examination of existing training programs for areas of success and improvement, 3) training module(s) to address the gaps in existing training, 4) scenarios/simulations to address socio-cultural considerations in planning, and 5) evaluation criteria to measure the effectiveness of the training module.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Mr. James Ong
OSD 06-CR9      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Scenario-based Training for Socio-Cultural Effects-Based Planning
Abstract:We propose to develop a computer-based training system for socio-cultural effects-based air operations planning. The system would present planning scenarios to a single student or multiple students to provide simulated planning experiences with automated hinting and instruction. For example, a student might be asked to lead a planning cell to research the operational environment and describe the battlefield effects (including terrain, weather, cultural terrain, and their effect on friendly and enemy COA). The scenario would challenge the student to apply cultural cognizance skills as well as air operations planning skills to carry out the simulated air operations planning task. Intelligent tutoring capabilities would monitor and assess the student's planning processes and products and provide instructional feedback via interactive tutoring dialog. We will enhance our existing, general-purpose rapid simulation development tools and add application-specific authoring and run-time capabilities that simplify scenario development and enhance their instructional effectiveness for this subject area. During Phase I, we will carry out a front end analysis to develop a preliminary model of military cultural factors and their relationship to effects-based air operations planning that provide conceptual guidance to scenario developers during scenario development. We will develop a software prototype to illustrate our instructional approach and elicit feedback.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2162
Dr. S. Elango Elangovan
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Development of a Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Abstract:Fuel flexibility is a major advantage of a solid oxide fuel cell as a power generation device. However, present fuel cell anodes do not tolerate the sulfur compounds that are commonly present in both military and commercial liquid fuels. The proposed work will concentrate on developing and demonstrating a sulfur tolerant anode for a solid oxide fuel cell. The performance demonstration will be done at a practical fuel utilization and operating temperature.

FRANKLIN FUEL CELLS
83 Great Valley Parkway
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 640-7545
Mr. Eduardo Paz
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 21FEB07
Title:Sulfur-Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Anodes
Abstract:Franklin Fuel Cells proposes to develop and demonstrate an SOFC anode design having the capability of operating on high sulfur content reformate fuels. Its current cell design utilizing a copper / ceria based anode has demonstrated the capability to operate without poisoning on hydrogen fuel containing up to 450 ppmw H2S at 800C. In this project, we propose to examine the factors that affect sulfur poisoning, improve the anode formulation, if necessary, and demonstrate long term operation on high sulfur reformates under conditions typical for an SOFC stack / system.

FUNCTIONAL COATING TECHNOLOGY, LLC.
1801 Maple Ave. suite 5320
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 467-5376
Dr. Ilwon Kim
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 21FEB07
Title:Demonstration of Novel Oxide Materials As Sulfur-Tolerant SOFC Anodes
Abstract:Functional Coating Technology LLC, working with Northwestern University, has recently developed new anodes that are either all-oxide materials or oxides that contains a small amount of a nano electro-catalyst metal, e.g., Ru, formed by a novel self-assembly process. Since these anodes work well without Ni, they have potential for substantially improved sulfur tolerance. Prior works have shown that perovskite oxide anodes similar to ours have excellent sulfur tolerance, in some cases working with >10%H2S in the fuel! However, these anodes have typically not shown electrochemical performance consistent with higher power density (~1W/cm2), arguably the key requirement for implementing SOFCs in high power-to-weight ratio, airborne applications. Our new anodes provide this high performance as well as very good sulfur tolerance. The objective of this Phase I project is to explore the feasibility of new materials as high-performance sulfur-tolerant anodes. A main part will be to screen the current anode compositions and several new hybrid compositions in electrolyte-supported cells, using impedance spectroscopy to identify the anode contribution to the performance. The one or two best compositions would be chosen for more detailed testing in follow-up Phase II, that will feature implementation of the new anodes in thin-electrolyte cells for high power densities.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. R. Radhakrishnan
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 01MAR07
Title:New Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Abstract:Development of a stable anode material that operates on fossil fuels is a fundamental technical target for the next generation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The conventional Ni/YSZ composite anode show good performance with pure H2 as fuel. However, this anode has a low tolerance to fossil fuels mainly because of the presence of high sulfur content in these fuels. So, alternate anode materials are needed to use military logistic fuels such as JP-8. In this phase I effort, two series of new anode materials will be synthesized and their stability under sulfur containing fuels will be tested. In order to evaluate the electrochemical performance of these anode materials, a small size SOFC will be built and tested using high sulfur-content fuels. The Phase II program will focus on the issues of long-term stability, as well as mid-size SOFC design. Successful completion of the Phase II experimental work will result in the identification of preferred anode material. The SOFC built incorporating this new anode material will enable the use of wide variety of fuels from logistic fuels to synthesis gas.

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD.
404 Enterprise Dr.
Lewis Center, OH 43035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6606
Dr. Edward M. Sabolsky
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 22FEB07
Title:Sulfur-Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Anodes
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I proposal (Topic OSD06-EP1), NexTech Materials, Ltd. will comparatively test anode materials sets for SOFCs for operation on sulfur-containing (200 ppmv H2S) fuels between 700-850,aC. Cell performance and stability will be characterized in both sulfur-containing hydrogen and simulated reformate fuels to provide a better scientific and engineering understanding of the benefits and limitations of the candidate materials sets. Parallel powder and catalyst characterization of the materials will provide a basis for the broader interpretation of the materials performance and operative mechanisms. Based on the optimization of materials performance and comparative testing, the composition(s) exhibiting the best performance will be selected for further development and commercialization in Phase II, providing the Air Force, other branches of the military and the commercial sector, a rapid demonstration of these sulfur-tolerant anode compositions and a commercial source for their acquisition.

XRADIA, INC.
4075A Sprig Drive
Concord, IL 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 656-6122
Dr. Steve Wang
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 27FEB07
Title:X-ray 3D Metrology System for SOFC Development
Abstract:We propose to develop an x-ray imaging system to directly visualize and measure the 3D morphology of the nano-porous electrochemical interaction area of a solid oxide fuel cell. Extensive research efforts are required to increase the efficiency and reliability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The proposed system introduces many important new non-destructive in-situ imaging capabilities for measuring structural parameters of an SOFC that directly predict its performance, observing its dynamic structural changes during operation, and studying its aging and contamination mechanism. These direct and relevant information provided by this system will greatly improve the efficiency of SOFC R&D activities, leading to significantly reduced development time and increased reliability. We have demonstrated the basic concept and potential of the proposed system in a preliminary experiment. During the Phase I project, we will demonstrate the ability to prepare a SOFC sample for the imaging operation while maintaining its active area and furthermore, the ability to study the 3D morphology of this sample with sufficient throughput for observing its dynamic changes during normal operation as well as accelerated aging testing.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
2000 West Cabot Blvd.Suite 150
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-6580
Mr. Mark Montesano
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 18MAY07
Title:Innovative Stator Thermal Management to Improve High-Torque Motor
Abstract:With the advent of high-power, solid-state converters, variable speed motor and generators are finding wide applications in both DoD and commercial applications. At the same time, advanced system requirements put more demand on motor torque and power output. This proposal based on application of high-conductivity encapsulated graphite in critical motor components promises to increase the torque and power of existing designs by 25% with minimal weight and no external volume impact. The Phase I proposal will demonstrate potential payoff by tests on representative components.

LAUNCHPOINT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5735 Hollister Ave, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-9659
Mr. Michael Ricci
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 19JUL07
Title:Innovative Motor and Generator Technologies
Abstract:The goal of this project is to design a motor/generator capable of very high power density and tip speeds. The initial application is a third-generation electricity storage flywheel, currently under development at LaunchPoint. This flywheel uses a hubless design in which the motor drive coils (stator) are located in a stationary center, surrounded by a composite rim that spins at high speed. The moving elements of the motor/generator are mounted on the ID of the spinning rim where they are radially supported by high strength composite material and thus capable of spinning at tip speeds in excess of 800 meters/second - far faster than possible in conventional motors. Power levels of several hundred kilowatts appear feasible in a small (22-inch diameter, 8-inch long) form factor, and the design is scalable to much larger sizes and power levels. This project will evaluate design alternatives, determine precise constraints imposed on the electromagnetics by other components, test critical elements, and produce a design that achieves maximum performance. Other applications include high power generators for direct coupling to turbine engines without the need for reduction gears.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Brian Tews
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 13JUL07
Title:Development of an Advanced Cooling System for Motors and Generators
Abstract:Typical cooling systems for high power density system include forced air or liquid convection. Problems associated with these single-phase cooling systems are the large thermal gradients that develop along the length of motor and generator stators. These large thermal gradients lead to inefficient systems and decrease overall power density of the machine. Mainstream proposes to develop an advanced thermal epoxy encapsulant and two-phase isothermal cooling system that will allow for the development of even higher power density motors and generators. In conjunction with the two-phase cooling system, Mainstream Engineering proposes developing a new thermal epoxy encapsulant that has a higher thermal conductivity. Mainstream has conducted preliminary research that resulted in an 1100% increase in thermal conductivities for epoxy resins.

NUGEN MOBILITY, INC.
44645 Guilford DriveSuite 201
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 858-0036
Mr. John Salatino
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 29MAR07
Title:Innovative Motor and Generator Technologies
Abstract:NuGen Mobility has demonstrated that their Axial Flux Permanent Magnet motors have high Torque and Power densities, while exhibiting very high efficiencies. In addition, techniques utilized to vary the Rotor-Stator air gap have demonstrated that these high efficiencies can be realized at multiple points in the application's Power-Torque-Speed continuum. Applying this same technique to the generator role of our Axial Flux design, we propose to exploit this ability and provide the generator with multiple "High-efficiency" points of operation. NuGen proposes to demonstrate analytically that as an Integrated Starter-Generator (ISG), high efficiencies can result at low-speed, high torque for engine Start and also at high-speeds for its Generator role. We propose to use this opportunity to both conduct a detailed study of the applicability of this innovation to 50-100kW ISGs and evaluate the potential of axial flux permanent magnet motors as measured against other motor topologies, and demonstrate the technical feasibility and performance gains from the air gap variation at different operating modes.

UQM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7501 Miller Drive PO Box 439
Frederick, CO 80530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 278-2002
Mr. Josh Ley
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 09JUL07
Title:Innovative Motor and Generator Technologies
Abstract:The proposed program meets the objective of improved torque density, power density, and efficiency through a topology that combines permanent magnet and reluctance components. The proposed technology improves upon commercial versions of this topology (most notably, the Toyota Hybrid Synergy motor) through a rotor structure that delivers higher torque and speed. The Phase I program includes the design of a machine in the 50 to 100 kW range (scalable based upon stack length), demonstration of the high speed rotor, and planning for future prototype and production phases.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Matthew Erdtmann
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Nanocomposite thin films for capacitors
Abstract:We propose to develop new ceramic nanoparticle filled polymer composites for high power capacitors. The new approach combines the leading-edge nanomaterials development and manufacturing at Agiltron, and the plastic engineering technology at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell. We will transfer the high dielectric constant fillers to our new nanodielctrics with extremely improved breakdown strength and extensively lowered dielectric loss. We expect to engineer the surface of the nanoparticles so that it can be homogenously dispersed in a polymer matrix. Our nanocomposites will have a dielectric constant higher than 10, breakdown strength higher than 700MV/m, dielectric loss lower than 0.01, and energy density over 20J/g. Importantly, the loading of ceramic fillers in the nanocomposites will be lower than 50% in volume and our nanodielectric films will be flexible due to the low filler loading, and they can be folded and rolled like plastic sheets to build compact capacitors. The films will be made by extrusion and bilateral stretching. Our novel materials feature high dielectric constant, low loss and high breakdown strength that maximize the energy density. This Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1801 Maple Ave.Suite 5316
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 287-6292
Mr. Benjamin J. Mangrich
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:A Low-Cost and Scalable Dielectric Films
Abstract:Compact, high-energy-density capacitors will be the key enabling technology for future pulse-power weapon systems that are being pursued by the DoD. These capacitors convert steady electrical energy into short pulses that are needed to energize loads (required for directed energy weapons). There have been recent advances in chemical double layer capacitors, leading to major advances in energy storage capacity, however, there still exists major technical challenges to achieve the required power and energy density, while keeping devices small enough for practical use and lightweight requirements. In order to enable the miniaturization of these capacitors, high energy density dielectric films are needed. To address the specific need for flexible dielectric films, Applied Thin Films, Inc (ATFI) proposes a high throughput, thermally-stable, low cost, solution-based thin film with suitable dielectric properties and flexibility for use in capacitors. In Phase I, dielectric films of various configurations will be deposited on metallic substrates and subsequently tested for dielectric, thermal, and mechanical properties. Microstructural characterization will also be performed to confirm pin-hole free nature of the films. Although preliminary efforts will be employed to determine large area uniformity, scale-up to continuous lengths at relatively high speeds will be pursued in Phase II.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Trung H. Nguyen
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Nanocomposite polymer dielectric film with very high dielectric strength
Abstract:Our goal is to develop nanocomposite dielectric films of SiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in polymer matrices to produce thin uniform dielectric films for metal-film capacitors. These films will be pinhole free and are targeted to have an extremely high dielectric breakdown voltage of up to 1000 MV/m. The result will be metal/polymer film capacitors with very high energy density, since the latter scales with the square of the voltage. In Phase I, EIC Laboratories will demonstrate the synthesis and fabrication processes for these composite membranes with highly dispersed nano-silica and evaluate their dielectric constants and breakdown strength (Phase I goal 700 MV/m). By the end of Phase II, we will develop prototypes of high energy density pulse-power capacitors employing the novel polymer nanocomposites that can be integrated into DOD future weapon systems.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. J.H. Lalli
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Deformable Metal RubberTM Capacitors with High Energy-Density Nanostructured Cores
Abstract:NanoSonic would produce highly ordered dielectric-polymer hybrid nanocomposites with high dielectric strength via the modification of high performance polymer backbones (demonstrated for high kV/dt applications) with controlled mole fractions of ferroelectric complexing and crosslink sites. Such materials result in flexible thin film, nanocomposites with extremely homogenous dispersions nanostructured BST particles, specifically as high energy-density (>15 J/g) capacitors for directed energy OSD platforms. The ultra-lightweight nanocomposites are designed to offer high voltage breakdown strength, high thermal stability, high electrical resistance, low CTE, low loss and performance over a wide service temperature range (Tg = -120C, degradation > 400C). Polyorganosiloxanes are commonly used as dielectric insulators, and the addition of proprietary pendent sidechain chemical groups increases both the number of BST complexing sites and the high temperature thermal stability needed for high power electronics and microwaves. NanoSonic's novel manufacturing method for flexible dielectric films will be combined with our Metal Rubber technology currently used to impart in-situ electrodes on nearly any surface. The Dielectric-Metal-Rubber capacitors can be strained to greater than 1000% without loss of electrical conductivity or electrode cracking/spalling. Nanocomposite structure/property relationships for dielectric strength as a function of nanoparticulate content would be elucidated during this program to predict performance.

STRATEGIC POLYMER SCIENCES, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd.Suite 237
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7400
Dr. Minren Lin
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Novel Processing of Dielectric Films
Abstract:Develop high-performance, state-of-the-art dielectric materials that have high breakdown strength through novel processing methods to enable leading-edge, pulse-power, high-energy-density (>15 J/g) capability with milliseconds to nanoseconds delivery rates (burst mode).

COMPACT MEMBRANE SYSTEMS, INC.
325 Water Street
Wilmington, DE 19804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 999-7996
Stuart Nemser
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 07JUN07
Title:Highly Oxygen Permeable Perfluoro Membrane for the Air Cathode of Lithium-Air Batteries
Abstract:This proposal addresses development of highly oxygen permeable perfluoromembranes for Lithium-Air organic electrolyte batteries. These batteries have demonstrated very high specific capacity (greater than 500 Wh/kg) at low rates in pure oxygen. Oxygen from the air can be utilized if a membrane is developed that allows for oxygen transport but prevents solvents in the organic electrolyte from diffusion out into cell or attacking the membrane. Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) membranes are high flux, defect-free nonporous membranes with very good separation characteristics for passing small molecules such as oxygen while retaining large molecules such as organic based solvents. CMS perfluoromembranes have excellent chemical and thermal resistance and are not plasticized by organic solvents. Data on CMS perfluoro membranes indicate that oxygen/solvent permeability ratios of 850 to 2620 are feasible, well in excess of program target of 200. Program focus will be on providing high oxygen permeability while minimizing loss of the electrolyte material. Liquid-side mass transfer is important to maximize total oxygen transport. The CMS membranes are commercial in several related applications so the probability of technical success is high. The developed oxygen-selective perfluoromembrane is expected to have significant military and commercial applications.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Dharmasena Peramunage
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 14MAR07
Title:Oxygen Permeable Membrane for Lithium Air Batteries
Abstract:The development of a gas permeable membrane with an O2 permeability coefficient (Dk) of > 2000 Barrers and carbonate permeability coefficient of <10 Barrers is proposed. The membrane is designed using a polysiloxane polymer as the basis by taking into account that silicone rubber has the highest oxygen permeability at least two orders of magnitude better than any other polymer known today. The membrane will curtail ingression of moisture into the Li-air cell and minimize egression of electrolyte solvents out of the cell, thus ensuring uninterrupted and steady utilization of its designed capacity and also, preservation of its functionality during extended storage. The high oxygen permeability expected from this membrane will allow the Li-air battery to use ambient air as its oxygen source, and realize specific energies > 500 Wh/kg. The membrane could also be useful in hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, metal-air battery cells and oxygen sensing devices. The principal Phase I objective is to synthesize materials and to demonstrate the enhanced oxygen transport ability of the membrane while retarding carbonate and moisture transport. They membrane will be free of pinholes and has adequate mechanical properties to be useful in thicknesses as low as 25 micrometers.

ENSION, INC.
240 William Pitt Way
Pittsburgh, PA 15238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 828-5209
Dr. Greg Johnson
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Oxygen Permeable Membrane for Lithium Air Batteries
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an oxygen permeable membrane using plasma deposition of polymer films on a microporous substrate material. Membranes that are permeable to oxygen are needed to allow oxygen to reach the cathode of a lithium/air galvanic cell, while simultaneously preventing loss of organic electrolyte. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings will be applied to the surfaces of microporous membrane materials in order to control the molecular/gas barrier properties of the membranes. Prototype membranes will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescent dye penetrant, and stability testing to characterize the physicochemical properties of the candidate coated membranes. In addition, gas exchange capability will be evaluated experimentally in gas-gas and gas-liquid environments.

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH, INC.
1360 Willow Road, Suite 103
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 543-3362
Dr. Tim C. Merkel
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 20MAR07
Title:Oxygen-Permeable Membrane for Lithium Air Batteries
Abstract:Membrane Technology and Research Inc. (MTR) proposes to develop oxygen-permeable and organic-rejecting membranes for use as a sealing layer on the cathode of lithium/air batteries. Thin, stable membranes that allow oxygen in air to transport into the cathode, but prevent organic solvents found in batteries from leaking to the environment are required to realize the considerable potential of lithium/air batteries. We believe composite membranes fabricated from perfluorinated polymers are the ideal choice for this application because of their unrivaled chemical stability, high oxygen permeance, and excellent organic solvent barrier properties. In the Phase I program the properties of perfluorinated composite membranes in the presence of organic solvents found in lithium/air batteries will be measured. This data will be used to select optimized membranes for scale-up and incorporation into prototype lithium/air batteries in Phase II.

OXAZOGEN, INC.
1910 West St. Andrews Road
Midland, MI 48640
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(989) 832-5590
Dr. Abhijit Sarkar
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 14MAR07
Title:Chemically Resistant Polymer-Based Oxygen Permeable Membrane for Lithium Air Batteries
Abstract:This Phase I program seeks to design and develop novel polymer membranes that are highly permeable to oxygen, and also impermeable to organic carbonates and ethers. The membranes will be used in the air cathode of lithium-air batteries, a unique battery system because the cathode material is not stored in the battery but simply extracted from ambient air and used as needed. Our approach is based on unique hyperbranched polymer technology with a chemical composition that will pair high oxygen permeability with strong chemical resistance, as well low moisture permeability. The hyperbranched polymer approach also provides the ability to tune in appropriate levels of crosslink density to optimize the mechanical properties of the material. Lithium-air batteries show great promise as the ultimate battery in terms of energy and power density and their market potential is in the billions of dollars. The membrane being developed by Oxazogen will help make the lithium-air battery a marketable success and our commercialization partner is committed to commercializing this technology.

ENOGETEK, INC.
2716 Sunrise Street
Yorktown Height, NY 10598
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 426-2577
Dr. Lin-Feng Li
OSD 06-EP5      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:NOVEL TRANSITION METAL OXIDE ANODE FOR HIGH RATE LITHIUM ION BATTERY
Abstract:Military operating in remote locations have increasing demand for man-portable electric power for communications and other advanced electronic devices, which is currently met by Li/SO2 (BA-5590) or Li/MnO2 (BA-2590) primary batteries. In order to substantially reduce the logistic burden and the cost for power, this is a growing trend calling for the replacement of primary power source to rechargeable ones. However, there are still a number of obstacles for the soldiers in the field to adopt the rechargeable lithium ion battery as the preferred power sources; one of which is because of its slow recharge rate. Driven by the strong market pull for this technology, Enogetek has invented a unique approach to address the issues related to the conventional non-carbonaceous negative electrodes for lithium ion battery. The lithium ion battery containing such nanostructured transition metal oxide anode promises great advantages, including 1) high energy density (>200 Wh/kg); 2) high rate capability (>4 C charge and discharge rate);3) Excellent cycleability (>100 cycles with 100% DOD); 4) Minimum initial capacity loss; 5) good scalability and 6) wide operation temperature range (-40oC- 70oC). Therefore, it can meet the stringent demand as set in this solicitation.

LITHIUM TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5115 Campus Drive
Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 940-6090
Mr. Ron turi
OSD 06-EP5      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Fast Charging Lithium Ion Battery Utilizing Phosphide-Based Anode Material
Abstract:As a class, lithium ion anodes based on metal phosphide chemistry provide safe, rapid charging as well as deep cycling while yielding a higher specific capacity than the present carbon-based negative materials. The combination of high rate capability and high energy density makes phosphides among the anode materials with the highest specific power for both discharging and charging. For these reasons, phosphides are among promising materials to replace carbon-based anodes in high power applications. This includes cost-savings by having the ability to recharge in minutes from a portable generator in the field, and also from the fact that phosphide production processes are expected to be straightforward and inexpensive compared to that of other non-carbonaceous negative materials. The latter greatly improves the viability of domestic supply. The experimental evaluation of lithium ion cells with phosphide anodes will include comparisons to control cells having well-known high rate anode compositions based on lithium titanate as well as cells with high energy anode compositions based on carbon - both provided as key benchmarks in the pursuit of minimizing the charging time while optimizing the specific charge, W/kg. These two properties serve as initial screening metrics for guiding the anode development.

POWDERMET, INC.
24112 Rockwell drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 404-0053
Dr. Jun Nable
OSD 06-EP5      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Anode Materials for Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries
Abstract:In this phase I SBIR porogram, Powdermet will produce stable, prelithiated Si- and Sn- based nanocomposite anode materials for use as inherently safe, high rate anode materials for high power military battery applications. Various approaches to overcome capacity fade and first cycle loss will be investigated using cost-effective bulk nanomaterial manufacturing capabilities available at Powdermet Inc.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Joseph Gnanaraj
OSD 06-EP5      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Phase I Nano-Engineered Anode Materials For Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a novel nano-engineered anode material that significantly shortens the Li+ diffusion length and enable lithium ion batteries capable of being quickly recharged in less than 15 minutes. A nanostructured electrode will be engineered by adapting template-assisted fabrication of copper nanorod arrays as miniature current collectors and depositing titanate based nano-particles on copper nanorod forest using a simple and inexpensive method of electrochemical deposition. Demonstrate its ability to apply a small laboratory half-cell that can charge in less than 15 minutes without deposition of metallic lithium. A recent study on electrodes with nano-architectured current collectors showed a promising high-rate capacity. Using such electrodes, the researchers demonstrated a factor of six improvements in power density over planar electrodes and an 80% retention of total capacity at 8C rate over 100 cycles. Yardney/Lithion, Inc., a leader in cutting edge Li-ion batteries technology and producers of such high power batteries for variety of commercial, aerospace and military applications, proposes in collaboration with research experts in nano-engineering of materials, at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts, to investigate nano-architectured amorphous TiO2 based anode materials for a new generation rapid recharge lithium ion battery.

ELECTRO ENERGY, MOBILE PRODUCTS, INC.
3820 S Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs, CO 80911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 392-4266
Dr. Scott Preston
OSD 06-EP6      Awarded: 09MAY07
Title:Reduced Temperature, High Power Thermal Battery Chemistry
Abstract:Mobile Energy Products, Inc. proposes the development of a high rate low temperature thermal battery based on lithium salt electrolytes which have a melting point less than 240C. As part of the electrolyte characterization effort under this proposal, emphasis will be on a eutectic that melts at 236C. This material shows the greatest promise and lowest risk for being successfully incorporated into a thermal battery that would operate at lower temperatures. The goal is to develop the chemistry for a target operating temperature of as low as 250C to as high as 550C using primarily the Li(Si)/FeS2 couple. This 300C operational window is substantially greater than the 200C one for thermal batteries using the LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte. Detailed full-scale battery tests are envisioned as part of a Phase II effort, with the possibility of designing a battery to replace a conventional thermal battery now being used for specific weapons applications.

MILLENNIUM ENGINEERING & INTEGRATION CO.
2231 Crystal Dr.Suite 711
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 608-3093
Dr. Melvin Miles
OSD 06-EP6      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Reduced Temperature, High Power Thermal Battery Chemistry
Abstract:Commercial lithium batteries (lithium-ion) utilize metal oxide based cathode materials to produce 4 volts per cell. In contrast, present lithium thermal batteries yield only 2 volts per cell. These new high voltage metal oxide materials are not stable in the hot molten chloride electrolytes of present thermal batteries and cannot be used. The large increase in cell voltages for thermal batteries offered by these new cathode materials can be realized by the use of molten nitrate electrolytes where these high voltage metal oxide cathode materials are stable. Examples of possible high voltage metal oxide based cathode materials include V2O5, PbO2, MnO2, LiCoO2, and LiMn2O4. The LMETB (Low Melting Electrolytes for Thermal Batteries) being developed by Dr. Mel Miles of Millennium Engineering allows for the use of molten nitrates and promises to deliver unprecedented thermal battery capability. Increasing the cell voltage for thermal batteries translates directly into large increases in energy densities and power densities. Molten nitrates offer lower operating temperatures of 150-350C versus the much higher operating temperatures of 400-550C for present thermal battery systems. Lower operating temperatures will allow the use of less insulating materials and gives the possibility of much longer thermal battery lifetimes following activation.

ATHENA ENERGY, LLC.
13602 Ulysses Ct.
Bowie, MD 20720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 352-8454
Dr. Dimosthenis Katsis
OSD 06-EP7      Awarded: 21FEB07
Title:Robust Silicon Carbide Power Switch Module Technologies
Abstract:Athena Energy, LLC proposes to develop a robust high temperature silicon carbide SiC power semiconductor module to address the needs stated for control of energy in DoD and commercial applications directed towards power electronic applications. Athena Energy's proposed SiC power switch module will be targeted towards the 600V, 100A application operating over the -40 to 250C temperature range.

DCHOPKINS & ASSOC.
Denal Way - m/s 408
Vestal, NY 13850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-9949
Dr. Douglas C Hopkins
OSD 06-EP7      Awarded: 16FEB07
Title:High Reliability SiC Power Switch Module Packaging
Abstract:Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor devices inherently operate at higher frequencies and temperatures than silicon counterparts, allowing design of denser power electronic systems. To take full advantage in early stages of device maturation, related packaging must be developed that provides reliable paralleling of many die and manages large thermal gradients during wide-temperature-range cycling. The goal is to demonstrate high current (<1000A), high voltage (<1,800V) module packaging of devices for operation in -40C to 250C ambient with operation >500kHz. DCHopkins & Associates is a technology developer of power electronic systems from electrical concepts to physical design with emphasis on reliability. During Phase-I, DCH&A will demonstrate through modeling and selective testing, two packaging approaches. The packaging encompasses material selection, structural definition and processing. The design is driven first by reliability needs, then electrical performance. For highly reliable wide-temperature operation, physical module components must be selected to manage inherent stresses caused by CTE differences. Stresses are managed by optimum selection of material type, thicknesses and stiffness (modulus of elasticity), and thermal conductance (to reduce thermal gradients). Electrical performance is meet by optimum selection of electrical layout to minimize inductance and resistance, and, consequently, decrease thermal gradients that exacerbate stress gradients.

UNITED SILICON CARBIDE, INC.
New Brunswick Technology Center 100 Jersey Ave. Building A
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 565-9500
Dr. Leonid Fursin
OSD 06-EP7      Awarded: 22FEB07
Title:A Novel Approach to Packaging High-Power and High-Temperature SiC Modules for Double-sided Cooling
Abstract:In response to OSD/AF SBIR Topic No. OSD06-EP7, we propose to develop a novel and simple approach to packaging high-temperature and high-power SiC modules. The approach, simple to implement and suitable for auto-processing, is proposed to address the problems of (i) the mechanical stress induced degradations such as peeling, cracking, voiding and fracturing due to mismatch of material coefficients of thermal expansion(CTE), (ii) the package material degradation due to operation under high and wide temperature and oxidizing conditions, (iii) the metallurgical incompatibility and interconnect thermal cycling degradation, (iv) the high thermal impedance between device junction and module baseplate, and (v) the parasitic impedance for high frequency operation targeting ultimately up to 250kHz. Double-sided cooling along with hermetical sealing is proposed to achieve the ultimate performance capability of SiC power modules under high and wide temperature conditions. Phase I will focus on the demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed concept through computer modeling and simulations and through experimental demonstration of a high-voltage and high-current SiC power module. Phase II will carriy out the major R&D work based on feasibility demonstrated in Phase I to develop 600V-1.8kV high power phase-legs and three phase power modules up to 300A for >300C operations. Privately funded Phase III will address auto-processing issues for wide-spread commercialization of the SiC power modules.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Michael G. Izenson
OSD 06-EP8      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:Advanced Thermal Management for Aircraft Systems
Abstract:Future weapons systems on advanced aircraft will generate large amounts of heat at intense heat fluxes. Advanced thermal management technology is needed to control the temperatures of these components with systems that are compact enough for service on aircraft. We propose to develop a thermal management system to meet these requirements using two innovative elements: two-phase cooling will enable a very compact system, and microchannel heat exchangers will absorb heat efficiently at high heat fluxes. In Phase I we will assess design requirements for multiple missions and identify the common challenges for a compact cooling system. We will then design two-phase, microchannel components to cool high heat flux components and show by analysis and design that these components will enable temperature control in advanced weapons systems using a compact system that uses ram air as the ultimate heat sink. In Phase II we will design, build, and demonstrate a subscale version of the proposed system.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Gregory Cole
OSD 06-EP8      Awarded: 01MAR07
Title:Experimental Validation of a 50-kW Thermal Management System for High Power Density Systems
Abstract:OSD is currently seeking compact and lightweight thermal management systems (TMS) for airborne and ground-based high-power electronics (HPE), high-energy laser (HEL), and directed energy weapons (DEW) systems that are capable of dissipating extremely high heat fluxes at temperatures potentially below the heat rejection temperature. Therefore, Mainstream proposes demonstrating a vapor-compression-cycle TMS that is capable of dissipating 500 W/cm2 at 30C and 200 W/cm2 at 100C. Mainstream has already demonstrated complete closed-loop TMSs capable of dissipating these heat fluxes using our patented thermal control and compressor technologies. The proposed full-scale design occupies only 18% of the allowable volume specified in the solicitation. In Phase I, Mainstream will perform a small-scale demonstration and use the results to complete a detailed design of the full-scale system. The small-scale demonstration will use representative heat fluxes and therefore validate the size, weight, and efficiency prior to Phase II funding decisions. In Phase II, Mainstream will demonstrate a full-scale TMS that will be transitioned to the prime contractors in Phase III for government use.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-6230
Mr. William Murphy
OSD 06-EP8      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:Advanced 50-kW Thermal Management System Demonstration
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a compact thermal management system for cooling of high-heat-flux surfaces of DEW weapons systems which uses polyalfaolefin (PAO) fluid to transport system heat to ram air. TIAX proposes to develop a compact thermal management system technology based on the use of carbon dioxide refrigerant and the direct use of CO2 refrigerant and the PAO coolant for the two temperature levels required to be cooled. CO2 has numerous advantages, including excellent refrigerant heat transfer properties, high vapor density for compact piping and equipment size, heat rejection profile which will allow PAO and ram air flow rate about half of what would be required for conventional refrigerants, and it is nonflammable, nontoxic, and environmentally friendly. Use of TIAXs scroll work-recovery expansion technology with such a system will ensure that its power input is consistent with weapons platform needs. Direct use of the CO2 refrigerant and the required PAO fluid in the high heat flux interface with DEW weapons will simplify the system and assure small size. Refrigerated CO2 will be used for 30 C cooling loads, while PAO of the heat rejection loop will be used for 100 C cooling loads.

ELINTRIX
4901 Morena BoulevardSuite 124
San Diego, CA 92117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 483-1321
Mr. Drew Barnett
OSD 06-H01      Awarded: 07AUG07
Title:Bidirectional Inductive On-body Network (BIONET) for Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM)
Abstract:Performance- and cost-requirements for the BIONET, body-worn, personal area network is fruitfully addressed in a cost-effective manner by using modern, digital-signal-controller technology, combined with software-defined-radio techniques. The open architecture and flexible design enabled by this technology facilitates novel processing methods that result in minimized power consumption, selectable data-rates and band agility.

FREENT TECHNOLOGIES
340 Usher Rd.
Madison, AL 35757
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 651-5673
Mr. Herbert U. Fluhler
OSD 06-H02      Awarded: 05JUL07
Title:Robust Hydration System Reservoir Level Meter
Abstract:A truly robust method for measuring the fullness of a collapsible bladder canteen based on induction is proposed. The theory is first developed, and then a highly realistic set of quantitative experiments are performed to characterize the real phenomenology. It is found that the proposed method provides an extremely robust method that stands up to several additional abusive follow-on experiments that try, but fail, to "break it". The method is eminently produceable with off the shelf parts and circuits, will run well over a year on a simple watch battery and literally meets all the solicitiation requirements with margin to spare.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 869-6460
Mr. Gordon Hirschman
OSD 06-H02      Awarded: 23MAY07
Title:Volume-Sensing Personal Hydration System
Abstract:Dehydration is a major problem facing our troops, who by necessity are physically active, weighed down by numerous pieces of armor and equipment, and serve in warm, dry climates. Our troops each carry a supply of liquid and are trained to stay hydrated, however this does not guarantee against dehydration. Some soldiers run out of liquid well before they have a chance to refill, while others nurse their supply too much. They currently have no quick, easy way of monitoring their liquid supply, which can lead to dehydration and the concomitant physical impairments. In this Phase I program, Infoscitex proposes a simple, robust system that utilizes capacitive sensing to determine the volume of water in a collapsible bladder canteen. The information calculated by our system is presented to the soldier as a quantity, as well as a visual representation of how much liquid is left in the canteen. Our system is composed entirely of solid state elements and does not come into contact with the sensed liquid. These factors ensure that our system is robust, with operational parameters that withstand multiple uses, extreme temperatures and austere environments. We anticipate that our system will prove invaluable not only for the military, but also in the very broad sports market.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 457-4245
Mr. Larry Solecki
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 19JAN07
Title:Webster-Med
Abstract:The recent outbreak of E. coli only served to remind us of the vulnerability of our food production. It stirred memories of an amateur bio-terror attack using salmonella in local salad bars in an attempt to influence a local election in Oregon. In handling any bio-terrorism event, there are two facets to consider, pre-event crisis management and post-event consequence management. Crisis management includes measures to identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources necessary to anticipate, prevent, detect, and resolve the event. Post-event consequence management entails outbreak control, treatment, and more. 21st Century Systems Incorporated is pleased to propose the research and development of a tool to provide state-of-the-art data source aggregation, interpretation, visualization, and decision support for pre-event indications and warning, crisis response, and consequence management. We call our Phase I concept Webster-Med. Webster-Med product encompasses both facets of the challenge: crisis response and consequence management. The crisis response portion encompasses a pre-event tool for detection and situational awareness. The sources of data for the detection process could include open sources, ED data, intelligence reports, battlefield sensors, and more. The consequence management portion will incorporate decision aids for monitoring the outbreak, mitigation (treatment, resource allocation, etc.), and resolution.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2407
Dr. Paul Picciano
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:BioSurveillance Indicators of Notable Events (BioSINE)
Abstract:The potential for biological catastrophes, whether acts of war or naturally occurring, require military leaders to consider a variety of vexing scenarios. Commanders will be tasked with making difficult decisions that have critical implications for personnel, resources, and mission objectives. The data currently available to support such decision efforts are disparate, incomplete and inconclusive. Representing the state-of-the-art, syndromic surveillance systems are insufficient as they demand epidemiological expertise, may be irrelevant to the area of responsibility (AOR), and fail to offer response guidance. The Aptima team is proposing BioSurveillance Indicators of Notable Events (BioSINE), a solution dedicated to supporting commander decision making surrounding biological crises. This project endeavors to provide commanders actionable intelligence to prevent, mitigate and respond to bioevents. Beyond monitoring reported illness (which suffers connate lag as it requires symptoms to present), BioSINE will integrate diverse data streams including intelligence, medical, sensor, and open source components. The resulting information fusion will provide intuitive, task-relevant guidance to support commander decision making.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 869-6460
Ms. Lynn Bardsley
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 01FEB07
Title:Integrated Medical and Biosurveillance Early Warning System Technology
Abstract:Current biosurveillance systems monitor limited data sources or utilize rigid rules that limit their effectiveness and flexibility causing problems such as triggering alarms so frequent that they are routinely ignored. Biosurveillance systems today can be improved by utilizing intelligent software agent networks with flexible templates refined by experts and software in collaboration. In this Phase I Infoscitex program, Infoscitex proposes to develop this architecture and as a result have the ability to proactively identify bioevents by fusing disparate data sources providing commanders the information they need in time to accurately assess the danger and make a difference. The Phase I program will evaluate the proper design of a software system architecture that will accomplish these goals and allow the refinement necessary to learn from past events to minimize current problems such as false alarms. While a system of this caliber is invaluable to theatre commanders needing to protect their troops, we believe that further development will lead to a wide range of biosurveillance detection and resolution systems protecting civilians and troops alike from natural and terrorist bioevents. Such as system would be attractive to the military, hospitals, municipalities, and managed healthcare providers.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Satheesh Ramachandran
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 05FEB07
Title:Biosurveillance-based Integrated Outbreak Warning And Recognition System (BIOWARS)
Abstract:Seemingly unrelated events occurring over time in different parts of the world may culminate in a biological attack on U.S. Armed Forces overseas or at home. However, having information about these events is like obtaining parts of a million-piece jigsaw puzzle without the underlying picture. To be able to take large volumes of such structured and unstructured information and discover an event pattern and the underlying ground truth so as to warn our troops in time and save their lives along with the lives of innocent unintended targets requires a comprehensive, robust, adaptive technology that complements human intelligence rather than replace it. We propose to design and develop an adaptive system for automated discovery of disease outbreaks. This system will provide innovative mechanisms to rapidly discover emerging bio-threat situations and early signs of a potential disease outbreak through syndromic surveillance. The proposed approach integrates intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to facilitate robust and cost-effective threat detection through multi-source information fusion. The main product of this project is the Biosurveillance-based Integrated Outbreak Warning And Recognition System (BIOWARS), an agent-based system that facilitates automated support early detection of emerging threats and potential disease outbreaks.

VCRSOFT LLC
30W084 Capistrano CT Suite 201
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 527-0425
Dr. VC Ramesh
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Bioevent Prediction and Consequence Management Tool
Abstract:We propose an approach to fuse open-source, intelligence and medical surveillance data into an integrated information technology system capable of providing the commander with early indications and warnings of a possible bioevent. The software tool will make positive identifications of bioevent threats. It will provide early warning before personnel begin to present symptoms. It will identify a biological attack or a natural outbreak as soon as it happens. It will also provide consequence management and post-event decision support.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2426
Ms. Fuji Lai
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Medical Support Operations Team Readiness Training
Abstract:Medical Support Operations teams need to learn how to work effectively and safely in a coordinated response to large scale disaster situations such as Hurricane Katrina and 9/11. A key challenge in such situations is the need for situation awareness at all levels of command, which requires multi-agency coordination and communication. We propose to develop the Medical Emergency Team Training and Learning Environment (METTLE), which will prepare medical support operations teams to work together in diffuse, complex disaster situations that are hazardous and dynamic, where they need to be able to perform under stress to determine "ground truth," maintain awareness of the larger situation, prioritize needs, communicate to coordinate efforts most effectively, and work with limited resources. The training will consist of didactic and scenario-based experiential training delivered using a combination of interactive multimedia web-enabled e-learning software and distributed multi-player simulation software. The training will align with national preparedness priority capabilities and equip medical support personnel with the skills with which to assess situations as they unfold and develop strategies for effective emergency management. The program will allow medical support teams to face the challenges of large scale disaster response to complete their mission safely and effectively.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-8019
Mr. Edward R. Mandy
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 31JAN07
Title:Medical Operations Simulator for Monitoring and Assessing the Readiness of Trainees (MOSMART)
Abstract:Medical Support Operations personnel need specialized training to prepare for stressful operations. Often, though, these operations do not follow the scripted training and require contingency plans that are more dynamically robust. Thus, a training tool is necessary to allow the medical support operations trainees to employ contingency plans on-the-fly in an environment that can be modified to allow for a new experience for each use. An immersive computer simulation can create such a dynamic environment that is readily available to trainees. To achieve an immersive computer simulation for use by medical support operations personnel, Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) will design and develop MOSMART (Medical Operations Simulator for Monitoring and Assessing the Readiness of Trainees). MOSMART is a tool for use by medical support operations personnel to allow them to train in a dynamic environment. Trainees will be able to immerse themselves in MOSMART's virtual world and employ specific plans for various operations. During this training, the trainees will learn from the decisions made in the simulation and be assessed on their readiness for the given scenario. This assessment data will also be viewable by trainers to evaluate trainees' readiness.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 16JAN07
Title:Software to Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams
Abstract:Team medical support operations are in a curious position. Their importance in future emergencies, from natural disasters to military environments, is becoming more and more evident as our reliance on the capabilities that high technological assets give us increases. However, for all this importance, it is tricky to determine appropriate doctrine for emergency medical support operations given the difficulty and cost of performing them. In such a situation, simulation is an obvious tool to bring to bear. Fortunately, after almost a decade of intense development driven by the consumer game market, technology has matured to the point that simulation is a viable option without a giant price tag. Still, the creation of such simulations is a difficult process that requires a fine balancing act of content development, real-time performance requirements, and domain fidelity. Again, we find some solace in the gaming market, where many of the thorny issues of interactive, real-time software development have been pruned. In this proposal we discuss particular techniques and procedures that we will make use of to meet the OSD's needs as described in the solicitation, OSD06-H04 - Software to Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams.

GENSYM CORP.
15245 Shady Grove Rd.S-470
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 350-6136
Mr. John H. McKitrick
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 27FEB07
Title:Software to Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams
Abstract:The purpose of this Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams modeling, simulation, and analysis capability is to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of integrated strategic, operational and tactical medical support operations information and response process modeling and personnel training. The effort will conduct research to determine current and future information and medical response capabilities for Joint C4ISR requirements. In support of current GWOT and future US and Coalition global asymmetric capability requirements, we will build a modeling, simulation and training environment. This capability will provide decision makers, medical operations staff and personnel the capability of advanced information and sense and respond training, evaluation and assessment to enhance mission performance in an asymmetric, global, and network-centric warfare. The prototype will also address how the models and simulations can be transitioned to support other government and civilian requirements outside conventional military operations. The primary prototype will include process models, simulations, databases, medical support operations planning and execution, and assessment data to validate current response planning, policy and medical support capabilities requirements.

MYMIC LLC
200 High StreetSuite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 391-9200
Dr. Thomas W. Mastaglio
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 16JAN07
Title:Software to Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams
Abstract:To be appended

INNOVEYDA
5105 Mindora Dr.
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(901) 339-9930
Dr. E. Fiesler
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Automated Database Linking and Interface System for Aiding Epidemiologic Studies and Preventing Disease
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I proposal is to develop a versatile, robust, and easy-to-use Data EXtraction and Interpretation System (DEXIS) for epidemiological studies and disease prevention. The modular system will enable automated linking of remote disparate databases to access data in real-time with minimal human intervention. The DITSCAP/DIACAP accreditable system will contain modules for database linking, application interfacing, user interface management, and overall system control. A module for automated data interpretation can be added. DEXIS will be a powerful tool for research and an important aid in the development of measures for cancer prevention. The user-friendly technology will be scalable with the complexity of the databases as well as adaptive in handling missing and erroneous data. Hence, DEXIS will enhance the speed and depth of research accross multiple databases of interest to OSD. The resulting system will be easily adapted to be applied to a variety of other military and civilian applications.

INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS, INC.
2137 Highway 35
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 335-9877
Ms. Victoria Nelson
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Software Technology for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Abstract:The goal of the proposed project is the creation of a web-based software application that efficiently and flexibly integrates and extracts multiple-sourced epidemiological data for a wide array of study designs. We envision software that links existing databases at appropriate levels of aggregation, most notably at person-level, and assists researchers in dynamically applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to create cohorts or select cases and controls, merging and splitting datasets, selecting fields for export, visualizing the process and results, and exporting datasets to statistical analysis software. We propose to build this software on our patented technology platform which provides the advantages of easy extensibility for additional data sources and applications, continuous upgrade while the system is live, software modification without core engine rebuild, and a modular design approach which makes simultaneous modification of domain logic and user interface possible. In Phase I, we will analyze the databases and data dictionary for best approaches to data linkage and extraction, create usability diagrams to guide the software development, and describe our findings in a written feasibility and approach report. Database linkage, dataset manipulation, and data import into statistical software is currently time-consuming and difficult to reproduce; a software tool that expedites the path from data collection to data analysis will be critical for improved response time from study to implemented protective measures for prevention of disease.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner Rd.Suite 130
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 681-4153
Ms. Lynn Difato
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 25JAN07
Title:Air Force Consolidated Cancer Epidemiology Repository (ACCER)
Abstract:Cancer epidemiology research on military personnel is hampered by the fact that the necessary data is stored in separate databases. Researchers must manually link information from tumor registry, manpower, and personnel databases. Our solution proposes to fuse such data in an automated fashion. We will explore creation of a customized data cache containing a normalized collection of relevant data points from the data sources. This cache must be based on a metadata standard, designed to ensure semantic and syntactic comparability across the data. Research will be necessary to determine the best methods of making the data cache structure independent of the specific database definitions. We will design a data extractor and data normalizers that are generic in function yet work with each data source. Researchers will be able to select cohorts and download data through a straightforward web-based user interface. Once the framework is developed it may be extended to any number of additional data sources. The Scenario-based Engineering Process, which is ideal for projects with non-obvious requirements, will drive our approach. Frequent shareholder input is key to the process and ensures that all relevant issues are uncovered and addressed.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Lingji Chen
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Software Technology for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Abstract:A significant hindrance for military cancer studies is the lack of linkages between the disease outcomes database (Automated Central Tumor Registry) and the personnel databases (Air Force Personnel Center Personnel Database and Defense Manpower Data Center Database). Linking cancer and relevant personnel data is currently carried out manually, which is extremely cumbersome and time-consuming. There are two "bottlenecks" in a cancer researcher's work flow. One is the recoding of cancer registry data. The other is the wait time for receiving personnel data. We propose to develop a Recoding Assistant to address the former, and a Data Format Previewer to address the latter. SSCI has assembled a strong team to develop the proposed software. The team includes Professors Shawn Murphy and Qing Zeng, both at Harvard Medical School, and Dr. William Salomon, an experienced physician/informatician. Professor Murphy is Director of the Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), a multimillion-dollar effort sponsored by the Partners Research Council that gathers data from various hospital legacy systems and stores the data in one place for researchers to access. Professor Zeng and her collaborators have developed a suite of open-source NLP modules that they refer to as the Health Information Text Extraction (HITEx) tool, which uses GATE (General Architecture for Text Engineering) as a platform and can be assembled into pipelines for different tasks.

SYSTEMS ANALYTICS
57 Brentwood Circle
Needham, MA 02492
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 398-2233
Dr. John Zhang
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 25JAN07
Title:Software Technology for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Abstract:This project is to develop a DITSCAP accreditable software that can link and extract person-specific data from cancer registries and personnel databases for epidemiologic and bio-statistical research. Phase I objective is to analyze and define the critical features of the software application that will support cancer research. Phase II objective will be to develop, demonstrate and document the software application, and validate the software to assure data quality and responsiveness. During the validation testing, we will also assure that the software meets the security requirements according to all applicable military and federal regulations. The software can be utilized for linking disparate databases, extracting data to form cohorts and for easy use of bio-statistical and epidemiologic tools.

CELADON LABORATORIES, INC.
6525 Belcrest RDSuite 500
Hyattsville, MD 20782
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 683-2118
Dr. Raymond J. Peterson
OSD 06-H06      Awarded: 23JAN07
Title:Software Technology for QFT-GIT ELISA Reader
Abstract: Tuberculosis is a growing threat to military personnel. The accepted method of preventing tuberculosis disease in military personnel is to screen for latent infection using the tuberculin skin test. In order to overcome the high false-positive and false-negative rates of the skin test, the Air Force is conducting a clinical trial of the Cellestis QFT-GIT test kit. The clinical trial presents the opportunity for a software system that manages and interprets QFT-GIT test data. The deliverable of this Phase 1 SBIR proposal is software that transforms optical density readings from the Triturus ELISA reader into QFT-GIT clinical results. It will communicate electronically with the Triturus using the ASTM standard and it will communicate electronically with CHCS using the HL7 standard. Delivery of this system will establish feasibility of the entire project. Additionally during Phase 1 the proposer will perform a comprehensive requirements analysis for Phase 2. Phase 2 deliverables will include DITSCAP accreditation and software validation as well all other deliverables identified in the requirements analysis proposed for Phase 1. Phase 2 deliverables may include a data management system, software for manual editing of instrument sample layout, configuration of the Triturus software, and analysis of the clinical trial data.

LEARNITEC, INC.
313 Price Place
Madison, WI 53705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 239-5442
Mrs. Ruth A. Ross
OSD 06-H06      Awarded: 16JAN07
Title:Software Technology for QFT-GIT ELISA Reader
Abstract:This project aims to demonstrate the feasibility of developing software to support use of an improved test to detect latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) with maximum throughput. Using the Cellestis QFT-GIT test, blood is collected directly into tubes containing TB-specific antigens ESAT-6, CFP-10, and TB7.7 as well as into positive and negative control tubes for each patient. In previous detailed analysis of clinical performance and quality compliance, QFT-GIT has shown strong potential as a replacement for the problematic tuberculin skin test(TST). Since it is more specific, its use could prevent much of the human and dollar cost of current inappropriate treatment. The QFT-GIT is, however, more expensive to administer to large groups with current analysis procedures. The software must evaluate the quality of the run, acceptability of clinical results from the batch ELISA reader-analyzer and their correct electronic posting in HL7 format through the approved CHCS interface to the military medical record. This project's success would help make the QFT-GIT more practical for routine screening of large groups by supporting its use with a large-capacity fully-automated immunoassay system like the TRITURUS System.

VCRSOFT LLC
30W084 Capistrano CT Suite 201
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 527-0425
Dr. VC Ramesh
OSD 06-H06      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Automated Transfer of QFT-GIT ELISA Results to CHCS
Abstract:The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT), developed by Cellestis Ltd., is an in-vitro diagnostic test using a peptide cocktail simulating ESAT-6, CFP-10 and TB7.7(p4) proteins to stimulate cells in heparinized whole blood. Detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-g) by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is used to identify in vitro responses to these peptide antigens that are associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Grifols USA Inc. makes the Triturus ELISA reader which automates measurements of IFN-g for batch processing of many specimens. However, the conversion of the Triturus Optical Density (OD) readings to IFN-g concentrations is a manual process that requires considerable data manipulations and configuration changes. Once the IFN-g concentrations are obtained, they need to be interpreted to obtain clinically relevant results, i.e., positive, negative and indeterminate. Cellestis has published guidelines, and an algorithmic procedure, for creating computer software for deriving these clinical results from the concentrations. However, currently, researchers have had to perform rather cumbersome and labor-intensive spreadsheet-based computations to derive clinical results from the concentrations. Finally, the clinical results have to be exported to the DoD CHCS electronic medical records system. We propose an approach for automating all these steps.

ARMORWORKS, INC.
7306 S. Harl Avenue
Tempe, AZ 85283
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 682-1005
Dr. Ken-An Lou
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 12JAN07
Title:Computerized Impact Injury Risk Assessment Tool
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to demonstrate the concepts for utilization of existing real-world crash data and impact test data to develop an easy-to-use tool to show the feasibility of conducting impact injury risk assessments in the field. Existing validated impact injury criteria for each individual body region will be identified and used for predicting the severity and probability of impact injury during military vehicle crashes, blasts, and aircraft ejections. The detailed computerized impact injury assessment tool will be further developed in Phase II.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Anna M. Galea
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 31JAN07
Title:Risk Assessment for Frontline Troops
Abstract:The main aim of our work is to create a decision support tool that will help keep our troops safer while fighting in far field theatres. We first focus on injuries incurred for troops moving along roads, in armored vehicles, as a result of an improvised explosive device (IED), though our solution can easily be expanded to foot troops and air vehicles. Our solution is a risk assessment and mission planning tool for frontline troops (RAFT) that provides an easy interface for mission planners as to the risk associated with particular mission profiles, and can also suggest alternate profiles. Our system is first and foremost based on what is truly needed in the field, and this approach will be rooted in our work in Phase I. Anticipating the need for rapid path analysis, our RAFT system has at its core a heuristic approach to risk assessment that is based on past and recent incident reports and field intelligence. Our team is experienced in all aspects required to make the RAFT system a useful and usable device in the hands of the end users in the near term; and comprises engineers with extensive knowledge in injury analysis, data mining, data analysis, human factors, user interfaces, and complex system design.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5214
Dr. Kaizhi Tang
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Experiment Exploited, Simulation based, and Distributed Tool for Injury Assessment
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative tool for injury assessment that will systematically analyze and model huge amounts of experimental/simulation data in biodynamics by exploiting established injury models and criteria currently used. Our proposed tool will be developed from synergistic combination of experimental exploitation, simulation approximation, and distributed computation. Experimental exploitation tries to utilize the experimental data to the largest extent. Exploitation of this data includes the validation of some biomechanical simulations and interpolation inside the space of experimental data/extrapolation outside that space. Simulation approximation uses sophisticated artificial intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks to fit the experimental/simulation datasets between the scenario inputs and injury levels under various impacts. For computational efficiency, web wide access, generation of portable systems, will use a three-tiered distributed computational architecture whereby web browsers and portable devices will perform as clients, databases and large amount of caches as web servers, and parallel computers as computational servers empowering the web servers. The envisioned end-product of this SBIR effort will be distributed, accurate and rapid injury assessment tool which utilizes experimental data, different computer simulation programs, and various injury criteria and models which offer the capability of effective decision making in the battlefield.

MIGMA SYSTEMS, INC.
1600 Providence Highway
Walpole, MA 02081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 660-0328
Dr. Michael Zeifman
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 07FEB07
Title:Integrated Risk Injure Software (IRIS)
Abstract:Migma Systems, Inc. and Professor Cynthia Bir of Wayne State University propose an innovative technology to quickly and accurately predict the probability and severity of potential injuries caused by vehicle crashes, blasts, aircraft ejections and other impact events as appropriate for users employing personnel in military vehicles. The proposed approach integrates two classes of predictive tools, the kinematic models predicting the mechanical human body response to the impact and the criteria of probability and severity of the injures or Human Injury Tolerance (HIT) criteria. In Phase I, we consider head-, spinal and thoracic injuries, as these are the most frequent injuries in the military crashes and impacts. The impact conditions will be the automotive crash, blast and aircraft ejection. To validate the accuracy of this approach, the selected mechanistic models will be tested against the Air Force Biodynamics Database. The injury criteria will be selected manually in Phase I, and will be automatically selected based on their domain of validity in Phase II. The integrated model will be verified using the available crash data of NHTSA.

SIMQUEST, LLC
1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 940
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 587-9440
Dr. Howard Champion
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 31JAN07
Title:Computerized Impact Injury Risk Assessment Tool
Abstract:SimQuest proposes to use existing data from civilian and military sources to populate an existing software tool to produce a predictor of probability and severity of injury and death during military vehicle crashes and explosive events. A key feature will be the ability to update the data to keep current and to add additional modules for different types of injury scenarios such as aircraft ejection. During Phase I, we propose to identify the variables for the analysis and the scores that would represent the output/results of the analysis, and to determine how the existing software tool would need to be modified to meet project goals. SimQuest proposes to use subject-matter experts from each of the services and the Special Operations community with expertise in military operations, military medicine, vehicle crash biomechanics, and blast to ensure relevancy and applicability at each step of the process. The expertise of the principals and use of existing tools wherever possible will greatly expedite the development process, to the point that we expect to be able to provide a Web-based prototype in Phase I instead of Phase II.

CAMRIS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
1801 Rockville PikeSuite 410
Rockville, MD 20852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 770-6000
Dr. Maria F Trujillo
OSD 06-H08      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:Global Profile Database to Blood Donor's identity, Health,Travel History
Abstract:CAMRIS International will develop a global profile software technology to provide universal access to donor identity, previous deferrals, and travel history to assist data filing continuity of the blood bank collection facilities. Even though software systems to track donor identity, previous deferrals and travel history are commercially available, the knowledge management needs of the Air Force and the Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP) will require software development. With proper deployment, these software systems provide continuous and universal access to information in a secure setting, ensure data integrity, reliability and proper record management -so that data are filed continually with each donor visit, each blood collection, each infectious disease test, each component manufactured from every donation and the final disposition of every blood component. CAMRIS has established a partnership with Wyndgate Technologiesr, so that we already begin with a donor management information system (SafeTracer) already approved by the FDA. In short, the ASBP global profile database of blood donors will be powered by the SafeTrace system. CAMRIS International understands the challenge for Phase I as the development of the necessary software layers that will meet the ASBP knowledge management, needs while maximizing the proven benefits of Wyndgate's donor information system (SafeTrace).

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5206
Dr. Sung Jung
OSD 06-H08      Awarded: 09FEB07
Title:Secure Web Interfaces to Database
Abstract:The food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the responsible agency for ensuring the safety our nation's blood supply. CBER with the Public Heath Service (PHS) identifies potential errors or threats to blood safety through developing adequate technical standards to implement zero risk transmission of infectious disease. Blood donors are asked very specific and direct questions about multiple risk factors and the answers must be carefully documented and filed appropriately. The current system at all blood facilities keep individual files that correspond to a particular time of donation and when the same donor is reevaluated for next blood donation eligibility a new file is created and data is filed separately. There is no system to evaluate the continuity of donor's data with multiple blood donations over the time. To solve the problem, a secure web interfaces to a new database is proposed. The new database contains all donor information by unique donors, and the database is connected to an internet web interface. The SSL enabled internet web provides easy data access from anywhere, and the SSL offers secure data transmission. Using web with SSL ensures communication security and maximizes global data access.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Madhav Erraguntla
OSD 06-H08      Awarded: 05FEB07
Title:Universal, Integrated Donor Profile Database (DPD)
Abstract:We propose a Universal, Integrated blood Donor Profile Database (DPD) to capture and maintain information about blood donor identity, deferrals, health and travel history, and responses to blood donor eligibility questionnaires across multiple donor visits, different geographic locations and blood establishments. DPD will enable establishments to maintain global connectivity, consistency and integrity of information, and efficient utilization of donor history for global screening and deferrals. DPD promotes safety and improve efficiency by ensuring consistency of donor history and profile across multiple visits and across diverse geographic locations. DPD enables facilities to both identify donors deferred permanently, and allow quicker processing of donors with no history of deferrals or whose temporary deferral criteria are satisfied. Phase I will research the required data structures and constraints, model those structures, and demonstrate a donor profile database consistent with that model. Phase I will research and demonstrate interfaces to DPD adaptable to the application and security requirements of different clinical environments. Phase II will extend and validate the research in multiple clinical settings to ensure that the results are scaleable, robust, secure, produce accurate and consistent information, and provide a user friendly interface for the key user roles in different facilities with different requirements.

MEDICAL DECISION LOGIC, INC.
1216 E. Baltimore St.
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 828-8948
Dr. Allen Tien
OSD 06-H08      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Global Profile Database to Blood Donor's identity, Health,Travel History
Abstract:The Phase I Technical Objectives are designed to create a prototype Web-application software system that meets the needs of the Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP) to integrate and centralize donor information, and to automate various aspects of data collection, management, and documentation. At present, all ASBP facilities keep individual files that correspond to a particular time of donation. When the same donor is reevaluated for next blood donation eligibility, a new file is created and data is filed separately. At present there is no system to ensure the continuity and consistency of a donor's data across multiple blood donations over time. For example, a discrepancy can occur when a donor does not remember, at different donation times, the exact number of weeks of overseas travel. If the donor reports different numbers at different times, the discrepancy can lead to a permanent deferral, resulting in loss of an otherwise productive donor. The planned software will allow users to: 1) Identify and protect the correct donor's identity; 2) Access previous data on donations; 3) Access temporary or permanent deferrals; and 4) Oversee travel history that can be updated and verified with each blood donation.

MEDLEE APPLICATION TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
382 Central Park West, Suite 12D
New York, NY 10025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 793-8884
Dr. Lawrence Fagan
OSD 06-H09      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Automated Extraction and Encoding of Information in Armed Forces Health Records
Abstract:This proposal employs an existing medical language processing and encoding system called MedLEE (Medical Language Extraction and Encoding System), and will adapt it to be fully compatible with the Armed Forced Health Longitudinal Technology Application. MedLEE is ideally suited to perform this task because it has comprehensive coverage of the clinical domain, has a proven ten year record of effective performance in diverse clinical areas and applications, and is already integrated and used operationally in a complex clinical environment in a major medical center. MedLEE can readily be adapted to different coding systems, is easy to extend, and has successfully undergone numerous independent evaluations. Notably, MedLEE has been used to provide clinical data for important tasks such as i) data mining to find correlations between medical conditions, ii) medical error detection to automatically find errors that should be reported, iii) surveillance and alerting to detect specified clinical conditions, and iv) clinical research to automatically find variables for research databases. The research and development effort of this proposal will be led by a team of well-known and highly respected international leaders in the fields of Medical Informatics, Natural Language Processing, Data Mining, and Evaluation.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Gary Sikora
OSD 06-H09      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Natural Language Processing
Abstract:We propose a hybrid NLP solution: a medical ontology system from Mayo Clinic, the Mayo Vocabulary Server (MVS) based on SNOMED- CT, MEDCIN and many other UMLS terminologies; and a machine learning system from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), the Scone semantic knowledge-base that represents knowledge from numerous ontologies and corpuses. Out-of-the-box, the MVS far exceeds the Phase I goals, with a proven recall sensitivity of 99.7%, precision of 99.8% and specificity of 97.9%, using a 5,000 inpatient and the outpatient published data sample set. While the MVS provides a great vertical depth within the medical domain, the Scone horizontally broadens the knowledge into other domains, increasing the realm possibilities. For example, an NLP input to Scone linked to a news feed can automatically understand an event such as a "forest fire in Alaska" and the concept that "fire causes smoke". The MVS then can be used to inference about smoke and return the concept that "smoke triggers asthma". This and additional inferences about health and local information can conclude expected inpatient volume, helping first responders in natural and homeland security scenarios. NLP input from speech recognition systems are also addressed to provide real-time prompts to improve medical form inputs.

DATA BLUEPRINT
501 E. Franklin StreetSuite 414
Richmond, VA 23219
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 521-4056
Mr. Peter Aiken
OSD 06-H10      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Civilian Medical Records Interface tool for AHLTA and VISTA
Abstract:A data transformation interface based upon a standards-based data architecture will enable AHLTA (and eventually VistA) to receive, store, and view patient health records of TRICARE beneficiaries from civilian medical providers who utilize a variety of electronic health record (EHR) solutions. This will solve the problem of moving unstructured and structured data into the structured format of AHLTA from the vast multitude of EHR's and non-digital systems. The Data Blueprint design of an architecture, built on standards (e.g., CDA-R2, HL7) will also be extensible so that additional components can be "plugged in" as required and reused across multiple document sources. Thus, components such as Natural Language Processing, Rules Engines, Digital Signature Systems, Ontology and Taxonomy engines, and other algorithmic translation technologies can be optimized and used as necessary. The Data Blueprint team includes data, AHLTA development, healthcare and research professionals who possess the expertise from a design, interface, business process and AHLTA integration standpoint to conduct the feasibility research and design required for an interface suite that will not only lead to a successful prototype to production solution to move data from civilian medical providers to AHLTA, but have the potential for data movement to VistA.

SYSNET INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2930 Oak Shadow Drive
Oak Hill, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 855-2029
Dr. Odysseas Pentakalos
OSD 06-H10      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Civilian Medical Records Interface tool for AHLTA and VISTA
Abstract:In response to SBIR solicitation OSD06-H10, SYSNET International, Inc. is pleased to propose the design of an interface tool that will allow for the transfer of medical records from diverse commercial or government medical information systems to the DOD Military Health System AHLTA and the Veteran Administration's VISTA medical information systems. As part of the Phase I effort, we will research and design a flexible integration framework that is platform and language agnostic and that will allow civilian providers to incorporate the consults that result from patient visits to civilian provider facilities into the patient's Electronic Health Record. Key elements of the design of the proposed integration framework are its ability to support the widely varying capabilities of the providers' medical information systems, its ability to incorporate various components that both the DOD and VA have already invested money in, and its compliance with health IT industry standards, thereby increasing its commercialization potential.

SIMQUEST, LLC
1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 940
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 587-9440
Dr. Dwight Meglan
OSD 06-H11      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Simulation-based Planning and Training Tool for Infectious Disease Outbreak, i.e., Pandemic Influenza
Abstract:Medical experts and public health officials agree that the nation is overdue for an infectious disease outbreak, most probably through pandemic influenza. Because of the relative rarity of pandemic influenza (three times in the 20th Century, with the most recent in 1968), there is a severe lack of experienced responders to these types of events. It is therefore critically vital for medical treatment facility (MTF) personnel to have the opportunity to practice developing and deploying plans prior to an actual occurrence. A strategic simulation-based game environment that allows MTF administrators and supervisors to understand the causal relationships that strategic planning and tactical decision-making have on the spread of disease will enable them to respond quickly and effectively. The PC-based real-time strategy game proposed here will evaluate users' ability to recognize early warning signs and track their strategic planning and decision making when presented with actual events. This simulation-based planning and training tool for infectious disease outbreak will allow practice of mitigation strategies at the local medical treatment facility (MTF) level, which will likely reduce the spread of disease in the event of pandemic influenza.

TOTAL IMMERSION SOFTWARE, INC.
1080 Marina Village ParkwaySuite 205
Alameda, CA 94501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 400-3447
Mr. Wendell Lunceford
OSD 06-H11      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Simulation-based Planning and Training Tool for Infectious Disease Outbreak, i.e., Pandemic Influenza
Abstract:PandemicWorld (PW) will be designed as a tool to aid hospital and other medical treatment facilities staffs in managing the influx of a large number of patients that would result from an unexpected major outbreak of some form of contagious disease. PW will be designed as an analysis tool and real-time strategy game like simulation focused on hospital/medical treatment facility (MTF) resource management (traffic, triage, treatment management). Its objective is to allow hospital/MTF personnel to develop plans for how they will manage the influx of patients (pandemic victims or people with everyday needs such as accident victims, labor and delivery patients, etc.), space, medical supplies, treatment personnel, services, and so forth from the moment potentially infected people begin arriving through the time of their release. PW will provide the necessary scenario development tools to create an initial plan of action, analyze the plan to "harden" it, and to train on the plan. PW will be based upon the simulation builder's toolkit created under DARPA's RealWorld program. More important is that Total Immersion Software intends to use technology and program management techniques it has evolved out of the commercial computer game community, modified to meet the needs of the Federal Government.

ARCHIEMD, INC.
1602 ALTON RD , SUITE 126
MIAMI BEACH, FL 33139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 981-4830
Dr. Robert Levine
OSD 06-H12      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:A 3-D Multimedia Battlefield Trauma Training System
Abstract:ArchieMD, Inc. proposes to develop a 3-D Multimedia Battlefield Trauma Training Kit. We propose to integrate visual 3-D computer models, video recording of the actual treatments, and an interactive virtual patient to develop a comprehensive, effective training tool for Army, Air Force, and Navy medical personnel. The proposed system should be highly effective given the nature of the visual component This system will include state of the art medically correct and realistic interactive visualization of patients at multiple levels (whole patient, organ systems, individual organs, etc.) superimposed upon video and still images of actual procedures. The superimposed internal anatomy, visualized during the procedure reinforces the identification of critical external anatomical landmarks and illustrates the proper guidance of instruments within the body. Additionally, a virtual patient will allow additional instructor led training simulation. The resultant system will include the input of subject-matter experts and be rigorously evaluated to determine its didactic value throughout the development process.

PELAGIQUE
2545 Cordeila Rd
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 472-5162
Ms. Koren Shelton
OSD 06-H12      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:Multimedia Combat Injury Management Training
Abstract:The severity and spectrum of battlefield injuries seen in military conflict is rarely encountered in the civilian sector. It is exceedingly difficult to achieve adequate training for these complex battlefield injuries (e.g., blast injuries) in the civilian sector. There exists a need for a situation-specific training tool for physicians deploying to combat zones. We propose a low-cost, widely deployable, scalable multimodal training solution. A personal computer (PC)-based, multimodal training system to promote skill acquisition and maintenance in life saving resuscitative, procedural, and operative management of battlefield injuries would provide deploying careproviders a relevant, vivid, and concise training tool. This Combat Injury Training System would comprise digital video footage of actual complex battlefield injury care, three-dimensional (3D) interactive image visualization of patient anatomy, digital media and interactive game elements, motion sensor, and force-feedback technologies. This multimodal trainer will provide a level of instruction not possible using traditional and mannequin-based teaching methods. It will also provide users with an independent learning tool providing real-time feedback and performance tracking. The structure of the educational platform will meet SCORM compliance standards and be compatible with future ADL systems.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-8019
Mr. Barry A. Trent
OSD 06-I10      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Commodity Auxiliary Processors for Enhanced Software Tamper Protection (CAPESTAR)
Abstract:Software plays an ever-increasing role in modern weapons systems. The consequences of enemies capturing and reverse engineering the software in these systems pose a real risk for the DoD. Anti-tamper technologies protect these assets by increasing the costs associated with extraction of this information by enemy forces. "Out-of-band" protection measures (involving trusted hardware modules) are considered to be most effective, with "in-band" protection measures (implemented only in software) being considered less effective. Increasingly, COTS systems include special-purpose auxiliary processors, such as dedicated graphics processors. These auxiliary processors can substitute for proprietary trusted hardware modules in a hybrid approach to increase the effectiveness of anti-tamper protection. To enhance existing "in-band" protection measures, Architecture Technology Corporation will leverage its extensive experience in software Anti-Tamper technologies to design and build a novel, hybrid anti-tamper approach: Commodity Auxiliary Processors for Enhanced Software Tamper Protection (CAPESTAR). CAPESTAR will move anti-tamper functionality off the main CPU onto COTS auxiliary processors within the system, providing increased resistance to tampering and also "locking" the software to a particular hardware configuration. CAPESTAR will function automatically and will not require any specialized programming knowledge, expertise, or experience related to the specifics of the COTS auxiliary processors used.

BLUERISC, INC.
28 Dana St.
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-0599
Mr. Kristopher Carver
OSD 06-I10      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Software Protection through TPM Co-execution
Abstract:This project proposes the research of an approach that leverages Trusted Platform Modules (TPM) to protect software. It utilizes the TPM as a security co-processor to the main application processor: instead of executing the software entirely on the main application processor, small fractions of the application code are executed on the TPM as secured code snippets. The strength of the approach comes from the fact that (1) the software application is securely tied to the TPM security chip through these snippets, (2) the "holes" or "voids" that the snippets create in the original binary make it very difficult to reverse engineer the overall application code, (3) the application software can be protected against unauthorized execution, and (4) the TPM snippets provide integrity checking against modifications of the binary. This project focuses on the software technologies and tools necessary for software protection and will use the BlueRISC TPM as a vehicle to demonstrate the approach.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. David Melski
OSD 06-I10      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Software Protection through Specialized Commodity Processors
Abstract:The protection of intellectual property is a key problem being addressed both in public and private research. However, even with the amount of resources given to further research into the state-of-the-art, existing technologies are far short of being sufficiently protected against reverse engineering. Of particular concern is the use of software-only techniques, which are susceptible to a variety of known attacks through emulation, debugging, and disassembly. Additionally, hardware-only defenses are vulnerable to mimicry and circumvention; the most effective solution to the problem will evolve as a hybridization of both software- and hardware-based methods. Modern computing systems are not monolithic devices, and contain several commodity processors that perform various operations such as network, sound and graphics processing. Monolithic software protections are limited in their effectiveness due to relatively low complexity; that is, the reverse engineer has a single program to attack, and must only emulate known system architectures and behavior if necessary. The work proposed herein will demonstrate the feasibility of offloading software protections to commodity processors using the existing anti-tamper framework at GrammaTech. In doing so, it will be possible to establish stronger and more efficient software protections due to the expanded computational abilities afforded by commodity hardware.

SI GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS, INC.
4450 W. Eau Gallie Blvd.Suite 240
Melbourne, FL 32934
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 259-4221
Mr. Terry Gillette
OSD 06-I10      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Low Cost Cryptographic Coprocessing (LC^3) For Software Protection
Abstract:As the dependence on more complex and powerful software constantly grows, so does the need to protect that software from tampering and reverse engineering. A major problem of securing software is the challenge of staying one step ahead of the attacker by developing new technologies that defeat the efforts of available reverse engineering tools. Recently software protection mechanisms have evolved at a faster rate than the computers on which they run, and as a result the protection often comes with greatly decreased performance. The computer industry is constantly looking for new ways to improve performance and enhance the user experience. In modern systems, more processing power is being added to traditionally less sophisticated IO components. Of these components, the video card in particular is interesting because the video card manufacturers have provided developers a standard interface to enable customized, sophisticated graphics processing to be executed directly on the video card. This proposal introduces the innovative concept of using the programmable graphics processor on a video card as a low cost, widely available cryptographic coprocessor for the purpose of efficient software protection.

PIKEWERKS CORP.
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Ms. Sandra Ring
OSD 06-I11      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Software Situational Awareness for End-node Authentication
Abstract:The foundation of software protection is built around guarding against reverse engineering, tampering, privacy/theft, and unauthorized execution. One means of preventing a malicious attack is to use software-hardware locking to "bind" an application to a specific computer or set of computers so it cannot be used on an unauthorized system. Pikewerks believes it has uncovered new methodologies to relate an application to its approved host system(s) that could strengthen security. As part of this effort, Pikewerks will examine current binding research and couple that with its own unique solutions to create and test new and innovative approaches. One proposed solution will look at weighted system/environmental attributes. Pikewerks will also examine history-based protection mechanisms to determine if a program is running on the correct platform by looking at residual information. The output of the research and analysis will be a prototype capable of differentiating between a valid and an unauthorized host and that can apply penalties in the case of malicious intent.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Mr. Thomas Johnson
OSD 06-I12      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Light-weight Virtualization as a Defense against Reverse Engineering
Abstract:The victor in a conflict is often the party that can gain the "upper hand". In the battle between software protection and reverse engineering, however, the victor is the party that gains the "lower hand". We propose a novel software protection system based on hypervisors that gives the advantage to the defended application by lowering it below the operating system, effectively making the application inaccessible to attackers.

PIKEWERKS CORP.
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Ms. Sandra Ring
OSD 06-I12      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Dynamic Secure Virtualization Co-Processor
Abstract:Software critical to National Security and essential to a corporation's survival can be exploited through reverse engineering and unauthorized access. Without innovative protection initiatives, these vulnerabilities can be leveraged to distribute programs or critical information without proper authority. One of the best methods to prevent such malicious attack is to maintain critical elements of the program and data encrypted, even when it is being used, with specialized hardware. However, this can come with undesired side effects such as increased cost, processor dependency, and the break-one, break often syndrome. One way to overcome these limitations is to incorporate a virtual machine, an executing operating system that is encapsulated into a single process thread, into the solution. Given the recent support that major hardware companies have given to virtualization, including Intel's 64-bit Dual-core and the AMD's AMD64 processors, this can now be implemented with performance at or near native speed. Through the use of a dynamic secure virtualization co-processor and an innovative processing algorithm, Pikewerks plans to prototype a cost-effective system that will suffer minimal, if any, performance degradation and allow the software protection scheme to run on a multitude of hosts.

SI GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS, INC.
4450 W. Eau Gallie Blvd.Suite 240
Melbourne, FL 32934
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 259-4221
Mr. Terry Gillette
OSD 06-I12      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Highly Efficient Virtualized Execution
Abstract:As the dependence on more complex and powerful software constantly grows, so does the need to protect that software from tampering and reverse engineering. The software security industry is locked in a constant arms race between reverse engineers and security engineers. Therefore, security engineers must meet the challenge of staying one step ahead of the attacker by developing technologies that defeat the efforts of available reverse engineering tools. A recent development in the effort to thwart reverse engineering is the use of virtual machines in software protection mechanisms; this technique has proven to be quite effective in protecting secrets in applications. Attempting to reverse engineer the protected code requires first reverse engineering the virtual machine used. Unfortunately, the use of virtualization incurs a hefty penalty on execution speed, with the performance of the protected application reduced by orders of magnitude. This document proposes a solution to create a virtual machine protection technology that will greatly improve performance of the protection and increase the difficulty of reverse engineering the protection. This will be accomplished through taking advantage of our existing state-of-the-art static and dynamic analysis tools to automatically craft a unique virtual machine architecture for each application protected.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-8019
Mr. Barry A. Trent
OSD 06-I13      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Steganography for Tamper-Resistant Software (STARS)
Abstract:The DoD has valuable and sensitive software which it must protect from use, exploitation, or attack by other countries or organizations. Anti-tamper technologies protect these assets by increasing the costs associated with extracting this information by enemy forces. A variety of techniques have been and are being developed to address specific aspects of anti-tamper protection. These techniques frequently include methods for obfuscating the algorithms and data of the program, and typically include data encryption functions. Encryption techniques require that both decryption keys and the corresponding decryption algorithms are present in the end-system being protected. These decryption components on the end-system are prime targets for reverse-engineering, de-activation, and other forms of tampering. To protect these encryption/decryption components it is desirable to obscure or hide them within the end-system. Architecture Technology Corporation will leverage its extensive experience in software Anti-Tamper technologies to design and build a novel anti-tamper data-hiding approach: Steganography for Tamper-Resistant Software (STARS). STARS will enable hiding of arbitrary data within the executable code of the end-system itself. Hidden data could include both decryption keys and algorithms. To enhance both information hiding and the tamper-resistance of the protected software, STARS will combine steganographic techniques with other anti-tamper obfuscation techniques.

ARXAN RESEARCH, INC.
3000 Kent AvenuePurdue Technology Center
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 775-1004
Dr. John Rice
OSD 06-I13      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Improving "Trusting the Edge" Through Cryptographic Key Hiding
Abstract:The Security to the Edge strategy identifies a growth area in the development technologies to enable Trusting the Edge; particularly, two research areas are specified: i) hardening an edge node against physical attack; and ii) facilitating the ability of an edge node to monitor and communicate the state of its integrity. The thrust of this proposal is twofold: i) to describe a technique for hiding cryptographic keys in software---including the development of stealthy encryption/decryption techniques; and ii) to build on this capability to implement a challenge/response mechanism for the purposes of i) improving resistance to a class of physical attack (i.e. replay attacks); and ii) interrogating/evaluating an edge node for its status/integrity.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. Jonathan Springer
OSD 06-I13      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:An Architecture for Software Obfuscation
Abstract:Modern devices of all kinds are increasingly dependent upon software, and that software increasingly constitutes a distinct military assert and battlefield advantage. To protect that software, a layered defense in desirable. A key component of a defense-in-depth is obfuscation, which inhibits understanding of and subversion of software even when physical access to the code is obtained. Current obfuscation technology is generally ad-hoc, however, lacking power, system integration, and/or flexibility to adapt to future threats. We seek to devise an architecture for obfuscation based on traditional compiler technology. The compiler can provide a framework for devising and organizing multiple obfuscations, which can then be composed to work in concert. Furthermore, the use of an architecture facilitates modularity, allowing obfuscations to be easily swapped in and out, leading to a flexible and adaptable overall system. We expect that our approach can be the basis for an obfuscation infrastructure that can have wide applicability and long endurance.

SI GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS, INC.
4450 W. Eau Gallie Blvd.Suite 240
Melbourne, FL 32934
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 259-4221
Mr. Terry Gillette
OSD 06-I13      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Hypervisor Advanced Robust Protection (HARP)
Abstract:There has been a significant push in recent years to move more and more critical infrastructure onto the Internet. Unfortunately, this network-centric model creates real security risks. A successful compromise of these network systems can lead to disclosure of sensitive information or even direct manipulation of critical resources. The threat of attack is ever increasing due to the ongoing arms race between malware authors and protection technology vendors. Both sides are constantly innovating in order to defeat the other side's new technologies in a self-perpetuating manner. This document proposes a solution that will prevent sensitive program code from being reverse engineered or tampered with using the tools available to an attacker today through the development of a hypervisor (a hardware-assisted virtual machine technology being introduced into the latest x86 processors). The developed hypervisor will allow, from the point of view of the operating system and a protected application, encrypted code to be executed directly by the processor. Decrypted code will not be available outside the hypervisor, and since the reverse engineering tools available today do not support hypervisors, this protection technology will significantly increase the difficulty of any attack on protected code.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Ryan C. MArotz
OSD 06-IA1      Awarded: 07JUN07
Title:Sandtrap
Abstract:The Army has identified a need for a Cross Platform Digital Rights Management (CP-DRM) system that provides a data owner the ability to control the flow of sensitive digital information even after it has been released. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes Sandtrap that allows sensitive information to be packaged into a distributable self-contained package. Sensitive data is protected using Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). The self-contained package uses the recipient machine's default application for the data type to display the information to the user. The default application is executed in a separated environment which restricts its ability to print, copy, or transfer sensitive information as specified by the Original Classifying Authorities (OCA).

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd.Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
OSD 06-IA1      Awarded: 07JUN07
Title:DataSentryT: A Cross Platform Digital Rights Management Technology
Abstract:Cross Platform Digital Rights Management (CP-DRM) is essential for protecting sensitive digital information even after it has been released to a third party. What is needed to achieve this goal is a cross-platform, non-intrusive Digital Rights Management technology that can achieve this end with minimal restriction of the receiver's rights. This Phase I SBIR effort is devoted to studying available and potential methods to implement a non-intrusive, platform-independent DRM technology. The findings from this work are expected to set the stage for developing the design and architecture requirements documents that will inform downstream implementation.

KEYWAY SECURITY
142 Parker Road
West Long Branch, NJ 07764
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 506-6019
Ms. Kat McFarland
OSD 06-IA1      Awarded: 31MAY07
Title:TrustShare- An innovative approach to Digital Rights Management (DRM) and Assured Information Sharing.
Abstract:The objective of this study is to make recommendations on the best approach(s) for the Defense and Intelligence Communities to adopt in relationship to Digital Rights Management (DRM). We will explore how to apply DRM technology to help achieve assured information sharing. Our emphasis will be in the areas of rights expression (i.e., the expression of permissions: constraints, requirements, and conditions, over the data assets) and the digital management of the aforementioned rights. Our goal is to identify a solution to support assured information sharing that will allow data producers, such as Warfighters, to dynamically share information while still retaining responsible control over who sees it and how it is further used and/or redistributed. We will seek to modify and adapt Rights Expression Languages (REL) such as Extensible Rights Markup Language (XrML) and Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) to fit the taxonomies of the Defense and Intelligence communities. In Phase II a prototype/Engineering Development Model (EDM) called TrustShare would be developed on laboratory systems to demonstrate the feasibility of the design to meet the use cases identified in Phase I. Phase III will productize the technology to meet both military and commercial needs.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center ParkwaySuite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Steven Hilderbrand PI
OSD 06-IA2      Awarded: 14MAY07
Title:Document Classification and Summarization System (DOCS)
Abstract:21st Century Technologies (21CT), is proposing the development of DOCS (Document Classification and Summarization System), a document management system which applies natural language processing (NLP) techniques to provide a cross-domain solution (CDS) for document dissemination. DOCS will utilize document classification, summarization, reasoning, and other advanced NLP techniques to provide documents at multiple security classification levels. The fully realized proof-of-concept DOCS application will provide a robust and secure document management system that classifies, summarizes, stores and disseminates information in cross-domain environments, allowing analysts to focus on analysis, rather than document classification and management.

BCL COMPUTERS
990 Linden Dr.Suite 203
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 249-4126
Mr. Hassan Alam
OSD 06-IA2      Awarded: 08MAY07
Title:Artificial Intelligence Technique Applied to Cross-Domain Solution
Abstract:BCL proposes researching an AI/Natural Language Processing based Information Classification and Filtering System that finds and extracts relevant concepts from free text. The proposed approach utilizes syntactic-semantic information from input text to come up with 'semantic classifications' of themes that get tagged to a particular category such as NATO, CIA, FBI, ISI etc. In its Phase I research, BCL will evaluate COTS CDS systems and methods, and AI methods such as NLP, Machine learning, pattern recognition, and translation systems to provide sanitization techniques in Cross-Domain Solutions. In its Phase I efforts, BCL will develop a proof-of-concept design for a syntactic-semantic based CDS system in a particular domain (e.g. terrorism). The proposed system rests upon the extensive research BCL has conducted in Natural Language Processing. At the end of Phase I, BCL will recommend a combination of the best methods that promise to provide an information filtering and classification methods for CDS systems.

POTOMAC FUSION
4460 Brookfield Corporate DriveSuite H
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 669-2226
Ms. Kathleen Lossau
OSD 06-IA2      Awarded: 01JUN07
Title:Artificial Intelligence Technique Applied to Cross-Domain Solution
Abstract:Most of todays cross domain solutions allow only well structured text to be automatically parsed and shared at a different security levels. Unstructured text must be released by a human. While dirty words searches and classification markings are helpful, the human still needs to spend an inordinate amount of time reading the document. Often documents contain very similar text and there is no reliable method for comparing this document to what has been previously released/denied. The user must critically re-evaluate the entire document before releasing. The focus of this effort is reduce the amount of time the human has to spend on a document and increase the level of assurance (accuracy) in sharing information across security domains. Our effort will focus on developing a complete approach for reducing the humans workload by: using NLP techniques to parse and tag a document, summarize (distill) the content of the unstructured data, categorize the document, use word/phrase checking and machine learning techniques to compare to previously released documents. Provide a phase I, initial prototype, that assists the human in identifying areas of the document s/he should focus on. A robust and complete prototype will be implemented in phase II.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center ParkwaySuite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry Marcus
OSD 06-IA3      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Impact Modeling and Prediction of Attacks on Cyber Targets (IMPACT)
Abstract:Data fusion techniques applied to intrusion detection and network defense have recently shown promise in multi-stage attack detection and network situation assessment. However, to provide full situation awareness, cyber attack impact assessment and future attack prediction must be addressed. 21st Century Technologies presents Impact Modeling and Prediction of Attacks on Cyber Targets (IMPACT) as a solution to these issues. The specific capabilities provided by IMPACT are four-fold. First, IMPACT will identify the actions and targets that would maximize an attacker's effectiveness, given a particular goal or intent. Second, IMPACT will provide rapid assessment of the progression of an attack toward a particular goal or set of goals, which will enable efficient prioritization of attack strategies for analysts. Third, IMPACT will locate particular hosts or services within the network that are mostly likely to be future targets of an attacker, thereby increasing the effectiveness of an attack response. Last, using the knowledge gained in the prior steps, IMPACT uses a highly innovative approach to determine plausible attack vectors on the system. Together these capabilities will provide the means for rapidly assessing the impact of a series of events and predicting the future actions an attacker may pursue to further his/her intention(s) on the network.

APPLIED VISIONS, INC.
6 Bayview Avenue
Northport, NY 11768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 754-4920
Mr. John Goodall
OSD 06-IA3      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Situation Awareness and Impact Assessment for Cyber Network Defense
Abstract:The Secure Decisions division of Applied Visions, Inc. proposes to fill a technology gap in determining how mission and client/host configurations can be analyzed and used to identify the impact of cyber attacks. We will develop an asset-to-mission model that represents the complex relationships that exist between network nodes, network services, mission-critical cyber capabilities, and organizational missions. The model will include how factors such as redundancies among network assets and timing of mission tasks affect the operational impact of cyber attacks. Because populating such a model with real enterprise data is a laborious process, we also propose to identify methods to automatically collect network data to estimate critical dependencies between nodes, services, capabilities and missions. We will develop a conceptual prototype that incorporates the results of a populated model into an information display that maps network nodes to the services they support, maps the services to the mission-relevant capabilities they support, and maps those capabilities to the organizational missions that depends on them. An important part of our proposed work will be our exploration of current network mapping, attacker modeling, and mission planning systems to determine integration opportunities for Phase II development and transition of this research.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5218
Dr. Genshe Chen
OSD 06-IA3      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:A Game Theoretic Approach for Cyber Situation Awareness and Impact Assessment
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose a highly innovative information fusion approach for detection and prediction of multistage stealthy cyber attacks. Our approach unifies INFERD/TANDI (successfully used in cyber network situation awareness) developed by University at Buffalo team and Markov Game theoretical threat intent inference developed by IAI team to provide a better solution. There are two main parts: data fusion module and dynamic/adaptive feature recognition module. Various log file entities Alters generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusion Prevention Sensors (IPSs) are fed into the L1 data fusion components. The fused objects and related pedigree information are used by a feature/pattern recognition module to generate primitive prediction of intents of cyber attackers. High-level (L2 and L3) data fusion based on Markov game model, Hierarchical Entity Aggregation (HEA) are proposed to refine the primitive prediction generated in stage 1 and capture new unknown features. Markov (Stochastic) game method is used to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack graph. The captured unknown or new cyber attack patterns will be associated to related L1 results in dynamic learning block, which takes deception reasoning, trend/variation identification, and distribution model and calculation into account.

LI CREATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
30 A Vreeland Road, Suite 130
Florham Park, NJ 07932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 822-0048
Dr. Qi (Peter) Li
OSD 06-IA4      Awarded: 22JUN07
Title:Multi-Level Voice Over IP (VOIP) Security for Army Environments
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to describe a unique and promising solution for multi-level voice over IP (VoIP) security for Army environments. The proposed secure VoIP solution utilizes state-of-the-art technologies and will fully meet the Army's requirements and NIST's security recommendations. In this proposal, the special security requirements, such as "liveness" verification, keyword stripping, key exchange, and cross domain solution are addressed with feasible solutions. A prototype of secure VoIP will be delivered in the end of this project.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee HighwaySuite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 388-1261
Ms. Anna Monastyrsky
OSD 06-IA4      Awarded: 16MAY07
Title:Multi-Level Voice Over IP (VOIP) Security for Army Environments
Abstract:The military is transitioning to a fast reaction mobile strike force with increasing reliance on unmanned, autonomous systems. As part of this, IP networks at various sites are now handling an increasing number of voice calls using Voice over IP (VoIP) in different security domains. Further, there is a need to capture and archive the voice collaboration data for subsequent analysis. This key capability provides added security for auditing purposes. Emerging XML technologies that provide enhancements to voice collaboration may be applied toward this problem space. Trident System proposes to leverage industry technologies and innovations to develop a Secure Inter-Domain VoIP Architecture (SIDVA) that will provide the architectural foundation to support the intra- and inter-domain secure VoIP requirements. Trident Systems will also conduct continuous, in-depth examinations of emerging technologies that may be utilized to implement the required capabilities. The SIDVA system will make use of standards as put forth by W3C Voice Browser Working Group, IETF and ITU-T Internet telephony standard bodies. Adhering to these standards also ensures that the proposed solution is interoperable with existing VoIP applications. Trident Systems will insure that the proposed architecture is a high assurance solution that can be certified for deployment in DoD environments.

3 SIGMA RESEARCH, INC.
503 S. River Oaks Dr.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 674-9267
Mr. Michael Winburn
OSD 06-IA5      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Defensive Cyber Craft Systems
Abstract:The primary focus of this investigation is to develop techniques to bring all the "parts" together by creating the models that comprise the cybercraft system and to investigate methods that support commanders in deploying cyber assets to achieve a specific mission task. This effort fills an important niche in the evolving concept of cybercraft.

ADVENTIUM ENTERPRISES, LLC
111 Third Ave. S., Suite 100
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 295-7136
Mr. Todd Carpenter
OSD 06-IA5      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Cyber Craft System Scaling
Abstract:Many technical challenges will need to be surmounted to create practical cybercraft: assurance, control, rules of engagement, representation and discovery of the target environment, among others. However a serious challenge lurks behind all of these: scaling solutions to fleets of up to a million craft. New approaches are needed to deploy and control the craft at this scale. Failure to come to grips with this will risk mishaps such as fatal host resource exhaustion, accidental overrun of a node by thousands of cybercraft, and communications gridlock. This project will develop techniques to analyze very large fleets of cyber craft, associated operational constraints, and changing situation to enable deployment, command and control, and situation assessment. Adventium will evaluate and employ the latest research in large scale collaboration systems to craft an architectural solution tailored for the special needs of DoD cybercraft. We believe it is important to address these issues early in the cybercraft development and in parallel with other research efforts to ensure scalability solutions are part of cybercraft design.

CYBER DEFENSE AGENCY, LLC
3601 43rd Street South
Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54494
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 694-7542
Mr. Richard Feiertag
OSD 06-IA5      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:Trust-Enabled Cyber Craft
Abstract:Cyber Defense Agency sees cyber craft as a potentially powerful distributed security enforcement mechanism performing a variety of functions from intrusion detection to policy enforcement. To realize the great potential, the elements require a means to establish trust or else the cyber craft could be hijacked as a powerful attack vector. Without a means to establish trust, the risks of using cyber craft for defense will be too high, system owners will be reluctant to employ defensive cyber craft, and the vulnerability to certain types of attacks of networks and systems will remain high. This proposal describes a program that will develop techniques and tools to enable cyber craft and host systems to establish mutual trust and to use dynamic risk assessment of alternative cyber craft workflows to determine the lowest risk means to accomplish its mission by most effectively using the established trust.

DISTRIBUTED INFINITY, INC.
1382 Quartz Mountain Drive
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 825-8709
Dr. Wendy L. Hamilton
OSD 06-IA5      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Representation Agnostic Cyber Knowledge (R.A.C.K.)
Abstract:Context affects the systems' ability to comprehend its environment and to make effective decisions based on that understanding. It is a natural tendency for independently generated reasoning systems to use separate representations, which makes each reasoning system, its inputs, and its conclusions, incompatible with others. What is needed is a knowledge representation that supports backward compatibility, can efficiently support numerous reasoning methods, and enable information exchange between systems, even legacy systems where compatibility was not originally envisioned in the design. We propose to build Representation Agnostic Cyber Knowledge (R.A.C.K.), a fuzzy linguistic context construct that can efficiently support use by a wide range of technologies, and maintain compatibility between independent adopters of R.A.C.K. despite selection of separate sets of linguistic representations for context reasoning. With R.A.C.K., multiple independent enclaves using independently developed and maintained network defense tools can coordinate to provide mutual defensive support.

ASHTON SECURITY LABORATORIES, LLC
12530 Rock Ridge Road
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 570-6695
Dr. Gary Grainger
OSD 06-IA6      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Kernel-mode Software Protection to Prevent Piracy, Reverse Engineering, and Tampering of End-Node Applications
Abstract:We propose to develop a secure niche from which to run integrity management or other OS and application monitoring software on COTS PCs running popular COTS operating systems. The security of the proposed environment will have no dependency on the correct operation of the host operating system. The security model will assume that the operating system and its kernel have been compromised. The design of the secure niche will be capable of being formally modeled, proved, and evaluated under the Common Criteria at a high assurance level. Our approach is to use the Security Management Mode (SMM) that is part of every Pentium processor as the core of the mechanism, using it to implement a new security ring (call it Ring -1) below the Ring 0 kernel. Various payloads can then be run in this niche, such as integrity monitors and virus checkers, to protect the OS and user applications and data from corruption. The secure niche protects the payload so the payload can protect the system.

PAC, INC.
1660 International DrSuite 400
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 288-5251
Mr. Carl Geary
OSD 06-IA6      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Kernel-mode Software Protection to Prevent Piracy, Reverse Engineering, and Tampering of End-Node Applications
Abstract:Building on key hardware technology developed by the Trusted Computing Group we propose to develop a powerful system that will significantly raise the bar for software piracy and tampering. Prior attempts at solving this problem have generally relied on security- through-obscurity which offers little deterrence to a sophisticated attacker. Our approach integrates a sophisticated hardware module that is already widely deployed in personal computers with an augmented kernel leading to an unprecedented level of protection against piracy, reverse-engineering, and tampering. This integrated approach builds a chain of trust beginning with the hardware and ending with application software which is to be executed. This chain of trust is secured with state-of-the-art cryptographic algorithms. During Phase I, we will develop software modules which will demonstrate the efficacy of the system. Phase II will build on the results of the Phase I work resulting in a high-quality product ready to be integrated into application software by customers around the world with minimal effort.

PIKEWERKS CORP.
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Mr. Michael Nordfelt
OSD 06-IA6      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Kernel-mode Software Protection to Prevent Piracy, Reverse Engineering, and Tampering of End-Node Applications
Abstract:Traditional software developed for most general-purpose computing platforms conforms to some pre-determined standard file structure. This standardized structure is important because it allows files to be efficiently loaded by the operating system, easily debugged and analyzed, and makes them portable. While this feature is beneficial for the distribution and sharing of software, it runs counter to the basic tenets of computer and information security. Some of the most popular file formats for x86 based operating have little or no capabilities to protect the software from reverse engineering, tampering, and access by unauthorized individuals. To counter these weaknesses, Pikewerks will employ an existing proprietary software algorithm and conceptual data protection methodologies to develop and test a Windows based data security system called WinEA (Windows Electronic Armor). The solution, based on a proven methodology (Electronic Armor) that was developed to protect high-performance super computers from insider threat and hackers, will supply protection for programs and information in a wide range of environments including end user applications.

AFCO SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT, INC.
200 Finn Court
Farmingdale, NY 11735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 424-3935
Mr. Godfrey Vassallo
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Hardware-assisted Software Anti-Tamper
Abstract:Computer systems are lacking adequate security properties as demonstrated by the increase in system failure and service disruptions over the last few years. In response to an evolving threat environment AFCO Systems Development (ASD) proposes an adaptable and field upgradeable Global Information Grid (GIG) System Security Monitor (SSM) that contains a PCI co-processor card, reconfigurable hardware, firmware, and host-based software to accomplish its mission. The SSM represents a hybrid system monitoring architecture that can be tailored to a large assortment of platforms. This flexibility is especially important within the context of DODs net-centric warfare concepts where autonomous decision-making has moved into the battle space. In this vision every device becomes a potential threat as an attack vector or intelligence tool. The SSM provides a chain of trust that starts with its own secure boot and extends to the host operating system, applications and data. Its reconfigurable logic provides a self-defense mechanism as well as secure functionality that can be quickly upgraded and extended. Edge nodes that are fortified with the SSM will be able to protect themselves, respond to interrogations relative to the nodes trustworthiness and protect its host. The SSM provides Security to the Edge.

BLUERISC, INC.
28 Dana Street
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-0599
Mr. Kristopher Carver
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Hardware-assisted Software Anti-Tamper
Abstract:In this proposal, we outline a project to develop a hardware-assisted in-memory software protection solution that is independent of the trustworthiness of the operating system (OS). Protection of software with software-only solutions typically relies on at least some components of the OS being correct - this assumption can be invalid during sophisticated attacks. The innovation in this proposal is a hardware-assisted tamper-detection system based on a special add-on card containing a BlueRISC security microprocessor, and a host-resident virtual-to-physical mapping/monitoring and extraction tool (VPMET). This system verifies the integrity of selected software applications during execution by checking their physical memory signatures. The approach has three distinct advantages compared to prior art: (1) it works on operating systems with sophisticated virtual memory schemes; (2) the proposed software-protection technology would protect against both in-wire security as well as physical tampering; and (3) a reactive mechanism can be added to prevent compromised software executing in the host. This project primarily focuses on the software technologies and tools necessary and will use BlueRISC's hardware platform as a vehicle to demonstrate the approach.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Colin Van Dyke
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Hardware-assisted Software Anti-Tamper
Abstract:Defense research and development is increasingly using software to perform critical roles. It is important that these assests be protected. Great progress has been made in providing in-band protection of software, including on-going work at GrammaTech. However, strong protection requires defensive measures at both the hardware and software levels. By adding additional reconfigurable hardware components to a system, a reverse engineer is confronted with additional devices to decipher, more hardware requirements for analysis, and the added complexity of additional inter-device communication to understand. We expect our Phase I effort to result in a prototype that will: (1) identify portions of a software executable that can be translated to an FPGA hardware environment; (2) perform sound binary-to-binary transformations to lift software algorithms out of a sensitive program and onto an FPGA.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. James Inge
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Co-Processor Secure Software Platform with Instruction-Set Emulation
Abstract: The art and science of software reverse engineering have matured to the point that their methods, tools, and philosophies are well defined and commonly known. Robust fault injection, debugger, disassembly, and de-compilation tools are available to assist efforts to reveal the details of software intellectual property and steal once-secret code and data. As unacceptable as this is the commercial sector, the importance of defeating such practices becomes magnified when protecting DOD embedded software applications responsible for maintaining technological superiority on the battlefield. Luna Innovations proposes to protect sensitive software code and data through an innovative integration of Luna's Secure Software Platform (SSP) with other higher layer anti-tamper protections. By tightly integrating Luna's hardware-based software protection platform with higher layer protection schemes, we will provide protection from, detection of, and response to both over-the-wire, remote user attacks and attacks where the user has physical observability and controllability, while still providing the user with a high performance computing resource.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento ParkwaySuite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Dean Mumme
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:PCI-based Trusted Platform Security Manager for Hardware-Assisted Anti-Tamper
Abstract:The Anti-Tamper-Software Protection Initiative (AT-SPI) Technology Office is charged with preventing piracy, reverse engineering, and malicious alteration of critical national security software and data. Software protection involves developing a defense-in-depth strategy using out-of-band defenses that complement traditional in-band information assurance defenses, such as network firewalls and operating system access controls. This proposed Phase I effort describes a suggested architecture for a Trusted Platform Security Manager (TPSM) running on a coprocessor with security services. Specifically, this effort will focus on providing services that support the authentification of software files, configuration files, and other high-value files; the management of agent-based security; the management of secure communication protocols; vulnerability monitors and user files; and, and hardware fingerprinting mechanisms. This effort will collect performance benchmarks for computation-intensive applications with and without an active security system. The results will be compared to ascertain the performance costs of the security manager and conditions under which they are greatest.

AVENDA SYSTEMS
2855 Kifer Rd, Suite #102
Santa Clara, CA 95051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 748-1993
Mr. Krishna Prabhakar
OSD 06-IA8      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Software Protection for Embedded Applications
Abstract:Avenda Systems proposes to research and build an effective protection mechanism called Elimination of Side-Channel Attacks from Exploitation (E-SAFE). E-SAFE solution will consist of methods and techniques for detecting control-flow side channel attacks and transforming the source code of embedded applications to eliminate such attacks. E-SAFE provides many of the protection mechanisms needed to protect embedded applications. The technologies employed in this product are practical and innovative and have not been implemented in commercially available comparable products. Research and analysis in Phase I will provide the knowledge and foundation for building a complete solution in Phase II, and a commercially viable product in Phase III.

CODETRONIX LLC
5940 Buena Vista Avenue
Oakland, CA 94618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 282-1108
Dr. Per Ljung
OSD 06-IA8      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Software Protection for Embedded Applications
Abstract:Several FPGA compatible mechanisms are presented to minimize data remanence, power glitch analysis, glitch attacks and reverse engineering of bitstreams. The explicit distributed control and data signals of handshake circuits are exploited to allow data encoding, on-demand autonomous partial reconfiguration, and diversity.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. James Inge
OSD 06-IA8      Awarded: 08FEB07
Title:Advanced Software Protection for Embedded Applications
Abstract:Software reverse engineering has become a science of well-defined methods, tools, and philosophies. Known approaches - such as white-box, black-box, and gray-box attacks - and highly-intricate tools - such as debuggers, decompilers, and disassemblers - can be combined to reveal the secrets of software intellectual property and to steal once-secret code and data. Current approaches to software anti-tamper protection that utilize software mechanisms for security have proven largely ineffective when attacked by a well-funded enemy. The complexity of software anti-tamper approaches often lead to coding errors that have been exploited by disciplined attackers. In the case of embedded software utilized by the DOD, the attacker could be a wealthy foreign government with a great deal of expertise, personnel, and resources. Luna Innovations proposes to augment its Secure Software Platform (SSP), which protects embedded software through robust hardware-accelerated software anti-tamper mechanisms. By leveraging the advantages of a hardware-assisted approach - better performance, better security, and reduced overall complexity - the Luna SSP significantly increases the required cost and time for a software reverse engineering effort. This effort will augment the SSP's functionality to include advanced hardware and software attack detection/response techniques, data remanence solutions, and internal key generation concepts.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Michael McDougall
OSD 06-IA9      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Software Protection to Deter Malicious Forensic Data Collection and Exploitation
Abstract:Distributing applications across networks brings both new power and new risks. Mission-critical applications are increasingly spread over national or global networks to enable information gathering and sharing on an unprecedented scale. The Global Information Grid envisions diverse end-to-end information flows to enhance military effectiveness. While this large-scale information sharing promises new efficiencies, endpoints in these networks must be armored against attacks that exploit their new autonomy. Distributed applications must cope with the possibility that some network endpoints have been compromised and are gathering forensic data for malicious ends. We propose mimicry protection as a technique to make safety-critical applications indistinguishable from low-security applications for observers using forensic tools. This technique leverages techniques for automatically creating mimicry attacks that elude intrusion detection systems. By adapting mimicry techniques in the literature, we can offer mimicry protection that allows a security-critical application to mimic uninteresting applications, eluding all but the most intrusive and expensive forensic measures.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt Baum
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 11JUL07
Title:Novel Propellant Ingredients Containing Trinitromethyl Groups
Abstract:Improved solid performance is needed to meet Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program goals. The principal objective of this program is to synthesize new hydroxy-terminated oligomers for use in polyurethane binders. These novel oligomers will contain trinitromethyl groups to provide major performance advantages compared to currently used propellant components. The materials are expected to have good low-temperature properties, acceptable high-temperature properties, and to be compatible with nitroplasticizers.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt Baum
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Improved HTPB Propellants
Abstract:Advanced HTPB propellant formulations are needed to improve specific impulse and density impulse with improved cold temperature operation and storage capability. A problem is that most energetic plasticizers are insoluble in HTPB. Under this program, a series of energetic plasticizers will be designed to be compatible with HTPB. The plasticizers will be synthesized and tested.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt baum
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Novel Propellant Ingredients Containing Gem-Dinitro Groups
Abstract:Improved solid performance is needed to meet Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program goals. The principal objective of this program is to synthesize new hydroxy-terminated oligomers for use in polyurethane binders. These novel oligomers will contain gem-dinitro groups to provide performance advantages compared to currently used propellant components. The materials are expected to have good low-temperature and high-temperature properties, and to be compatible with nitroplasticizers.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Mr. Brant White
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 11JUL07
Title:High Energy Binders for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:ORBITEC and SRI propose to develop high-energy binders to replace conventional binders commonly used in solid propellants. The proposed binders will enjoy higher enthalpy, higher density, greater tolerance for impurities while curing, and greater range of compatibility with other propellant ingredients compared to the conventional binders, such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene. The use of the proposed high-energy binders will produce solid propellants with higher energy and energy density, acceptable hazards, and desirable mechanical and processing properties. In Phase I, physical properties and performance of the specific identified binders will be measured or determined using modeling approaches to provide data for ranking the candidate binders. Initial synthesis of selected binders will begin in Phase I. Plans for Phase II characterization and synthesis scale-up will also be developed.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Ana Racoveanu
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Novel Energetic Binder for Solid Propellants
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), and its team member Aerojet, propose to synthesize and evaluate a novel energetic binder for solid rocket propellants with high energy and low sensitivity. The proposed polymeric binder is a candidate that is expected to perform better (higher Isp, density, oxygen balance, and heat of formation) than the currently used energy-releasing binders. The PSI-Aerojet team has developed a synthetic approach to produce the binder PGDNMA in 2 stages: monomer synthesis followed by polymerization. PSI will provide Aerojet 25 grams of the energetic binder for testing of its energetic and thermal properties. On a potential Phase II program, PSI will scale up the synthesis. Aerojet will formulate the binder in a propellant mixture and provide enhanced properties characterization. Also, in a Phase II effort PSI and Aerojet will investigate similar polymeric binders.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Bryan V. Bergeron
OSD 06-PR2      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Novel Nanoscale Ingredients as Solid Propellant Burn Rate Modifiers
Abstract:Physical Sciences Incorporated (PSI) and Aerojet propose to synthesize, characterize, and formulate new nanoscale ingredients as burn rate modifiers in solid rocket propellants. The compounds will be shown to be sufficiently insensitive to ESD, friction, and impact to ensure their safe handling, storage, and use. Compatibility testing of the synthesized burn rate modifiers and plasticizers will be performed to guide the proper selection of formulations. Various solid rocket propellant formulations will be developed that contain the innovative burn rate modifiers and standard burn rate modifiers at low mass loadings. Strand burn rates will be obtained over several thousands of psi pressure. A survey of currently used metal-based burn rate modifiers, their formulations, and corresponding systems will also be performed. The applicability of the innovative nanoscale burn rate modifiers to these systems and their advantage over standard burn rate modifiers will be evaluated.

REACTIVE METALS, INC.
294 Hana Rd
Edison, NJ 08817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 261-4876
Dr. M. Trunov
OSD 06-PR2      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Nanocomposite Metal-Based Ingredients for Use as Solid Propellant Burn Rate Modifiers
Abstract:It is proposed use Arrested Reactive Milling (ARM), a "top-down" synthesis approach to produce energetic nanomaterials optimized to serve as burn rate modifiers for solid propellants. Boron-based B-Ti and B-Zr nanocomposites will be evaluated as candidate materials for the Phase I work, while other boron and aluminum based compositions will be addressed later. Such nanocomposite powders are expected to boost ignition rates and eliminate agglomeration of unignited aluminum particles in aluminized propellants. They will also increase the bulk burn rate of the metal fuels by modifying the temperature profile in the solid rocket motor. The overall result will be a 10% or greater increase in the experimental specific impulse. Proposed research will demonstrate the feasibility of this concept by evaluating the effect of burn rate modifier additives on agglomeration and burn rate of aluminum powders with and without the propellant binders. Compatibility of the nanocomposite burn rate modifier materials with different propellant binders will also be addressed. Finally, electrostatic discharge sensitivity of new materials will be quantified.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Debasis Sengupla
OSD 06-PR3      Awarded: 12JUN07
Title:Development Novel High-Performance Solid Propellants
Abstract:CFDRC proposes to develop some novel high performance solid propellant that will meet the requirement of Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Phase III goals. The propellants will enhance the performance of space access vehicles, strategic, tactical and missile defense systems. A number of triazole, tetrazole, and tetrazines based solid energetic ionic salts have been proposed as potential candidates. The salient feature of these salts is that that both cations and anions contain heterocyclic rings with energetic groups as substituents. In Phase I, we estimate the physical and chemical properties (such as heat of formation, density, specific, and density impulse and sensitivity) computationally prior to their synthesis. The two most promising candidates, as predicted via theoretical calculations, will then be synthesized in laboratory scale (in collaboration with Professor Jean'ne Shreeve of University of Idaho) and characterized for physical and chemical properties, including crystal structure, density, melting point, and sensitivity. In Phase II, synthetic procedures will be scaled up in partnership with chemical companies, such as Aerojet, Thiokol, and 3M. The propellants will be formulated with a binder and tested for ageing, compatibility, stability, and sensitivity. The performance of the propellants will be evaluated with small-scale rocket engine firing test at CFDRC.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Allan Dokhan
OSD 06-PR3      Awarded: 15JUN07
Title:Advanced Coatings for Alane with Enhanced Stability
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a higher performing solid propellant fuel by enhancing the stability of Aluminum Hydride (AlH3) by developing a novel coating around the energetic ingredient. Careful selection of the coating ingredient around the AlH3 will allow for revolutionary advances in a stable insensitive higher performing solid propellant fuel for use on space access launch vehicles, strategic tactical and missile defense systems. The proposed investigation will focus upon a group of pre-selected coating materials and synthesis methods that can increase the thermal stability and potentially reduce the sensitivity of AlH3 particle. The study will also involve characterizing the coating around the AlH3, thermal stability surveillance, sensitivity characterization, thermal-chemical analysis, and chemical compatibility.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt Baum
OSD 06-PR4      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Solid Propellant Oxidizers for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Improved solid performance is needed to meet Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program goals. Oxidizers more energetic than currently available materials are needed to meet these goals. The objective of this program is to prepare new nitro-substituted heterocyclic oxidizers using a novel synthesis approach. If the method is successful, it can lead to structures that can be used to meet IHPRPT goals.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Ana Racoveanu
OSD 06-PR4      Awarded: 10MAY07
Title:Novel Furazan Oxidizer for Solid Propellants
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), and its team member Aerojet, propose to synthesize and evaluate a novel organic furazan based oxidizer for solid rocket propellants. Models of the furazans predict a class of oxidizers with high performance (high energy, high oxygen balance, high density, low sensitivity) and clean combustion (chlorine free). The proposed team has developed a synthetic scheme to produce the oxidizer molecule in three synthetic steps. PSI will provide Aerojet with 25 grams of the furazan oxidizer for testing of its energetic, sensitivity and thermal properties. On a potential Phase II program, PSI will scale up the oxidizer synthesis and Aerojet will formulate the oxidizer in a propellant mixture and provide enhanced characterization. Also during a Phase II effort PSI and Aerojet will investigate similar chemistries within this furazan class.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Debasis Sengupla
OSD 06-PR5      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Model Independent First Principle Method for Prediction of Heat of Condensation/Sublimation of Solid Propellant
Abstract:Prediction of accurate heats of formation of solid propellant has tremendous implication in theoretically evaluating the performance of new generation solid propellants. While state-of-the-art quantum mechanical methods can accurately calculate the heat of formation in the gas phase, heat of condensation (HC) is required to convert this gas phase quantity to solid phase. To our knowledge, all existing methods for computing HC are based on fitting the experimental data for a set of model compounds using some descriptors, such as molecular groups or molecular electrostatic potentials. These methods, although useful, suffer from their inability to estimate HC for molecules containing chemical functionalities that are non-existent in the model set, thereby limiting their use for development of new propellants. In the proposed work, CFDRC plans to apply the Conductor-like Screening Model for prediction of heat of condensation. This method is truly first-principle, and combines quantum chemically computed molecular screening charge density and statistical thermodynamics to calculate heat of condensation. In Phase I, this method will be applied to compute heat of condensation for a set of compounds, and its performance will be evaluated. In Phase II, it will be extended for solid mixture, and combined with thermochemical code to compute specific and density impulses.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Robert Shroll
OSD 06-PR5      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Theoretical Estimation of New Propellant Ingredient Heats of Condensation
Abstract:A critical concern in the manufacture of rocket engines is the development of new propellants to increase performance. A fundamental measure of rocket engine performance is the specific impulse, which is the force delivered per weight of propellant consumed. Due to the potentially high cost of laboratory experiments, the development of new rocket propellants is often guided by computational methods for estimating specific impulse. These methods are based upon accurate knowledge of the heat of condensation. Quantum chemical methods are not currently capable of accurately predicting condensed phase heats of condensation. The current empirically based methods are limited to interpolating between molecules that are chemically similar. For many propellants, experimental measurements of chemically similar molecules do not exist. Thus, a computational procedure capable of extrapolating to these molecules is needed. Spectral Sciences, Inc. proposes to address this need by developing an innovative semi-empirical method of relating fundamental molecular interactions to heats of condensation. In Phase I, we propose to test our strategy on a well characterized reaction set. In Phase II, novel methods of chemical modeling techniques based on the results of Phase I will be developed into a software toolkit.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd AvenueSuite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
OSD 06-UM1      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Unmanned Water Vehicle Maneuver Recommendation (UWVMR)
Abstract:In this project Wagner Associates will develop an Unmanned Water Vehicle Maneuver Recommendation (UWVMR) system that processes all available data, dynamically generates a SA Picture and a maneuver recommendation plan, and provides this information to the UWV control system (and potentially alerts a UWV operator). A key capability provided by UWVMR will be the ability to fuse data obtained by off-board systems (e.g., friendly aircraft and ship radars and E-O systems, Digital Nautical Charts (DNCs), detections of mines or mine-like objects) with UWV sensor data in real-time. To minimize the risk and cost of developing UWVMR, we will leverage algorithms and software developed in our Object Avoidance for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (OAUSV) project for Naval Surface Warfare Center-Dahlgren Division (NSWC-DD). The primary algorithmic techniques that will be utilized in UWVMR are non-Gaussian and multiple hypothesis data registration and fusion, Bayesian inferential reasoning, and non-Gaussian route optimization. In Phase I of this project we will show the feasibility of creating the UWVMR, and we will also describe how we will interface to the UWV control system, and provide both the UWV control system and its operator (if desired) with recommendations concerning how to avoid potentially threatening objects in the water.

ROBOTIC MARINE SYSTEMS LLC
139 Cottage RoadPO Box 1359
Gray, ME 04039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 408-5879
Mr. Joseph Curcio
OSD 06-UM1      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Littoral Navigation Autonomy for Unmanned Surface Vehicle
Abstract:Unmanned underwater and surface vehicles are increasingly being used to provide persistent littoral surveillance and a wide array of autonomous operations. Autonomous maritime navigation with obstacle avoidance requires adherence to the U.S. Coast Guard and International Maritime Organization (IMO) collision avoidance regulations (COLREG), a.k.a. "Rules-of-the-Road". Robotic Marine Systems (RMS), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Newport, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ocean Engineering (MIT) have jointly developed and demonstrated baseline algorithms and multi-behavior control technologies to implement optimal safe navigation. Results from this research will also provide the critical maritime situation awareness required for Littoral Navigation Autonomy for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV). General Dynamics Robotics Research (GDRS) have developed and demonstrated maritime situation awareness with passive video camera arrays. Automated maritime situation awareness technology will also transition to the thousands of sensor systems required for the Sea Power 21 initiatives: Sea Base Force Protection and Maritime Domain Awareness.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Mr. Alon Yaari
OSD 06-UM1      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:The Autonomous Helmsman: Algorithms and Sensors for Unmanned Littoral Navigation
Abstract:The Navy is currently developing an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) program. Currently operating systems require human operators for each USV. Manual operation of USVs results in an inefficient use of labor and complex staffing requirements over a long-term deployment. SARA proposes the "Autonomous Helmsman," a modular system that allows USV navigation according to COLREG Rules and without human intervention. The Helmsman is based on "subsumption architecture", a behavior-based model derived by robotics expert Rodney Brooks. Subsumption architecture provides a biomimetic decision basis for a state machine, resulting in "reflex" actions (reactive) such as obstacle avoidance and "cognitive" (deliberative) actions such as navigation behaviors. The system allows for evolution of abilities through by an innate ability to subsume new behaviors. The Helmsman realizes behaviors by modifying an initial path, accounting for moving vessels, obstacles, and COLREG Rules. Path modifications are made using an evolution-based path planning algorithm. As part of Phase I, SARA proposes to demonstrate Helmsman operations on our set of unmanned kayaks. Supporting the Helmsman is a localization system and a sensor array capable of detecting obstacles and dynamic vessel characteristics. The proposed trade study identifies the ideal suite of sensors for detecting the environment and vessel attitude.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center ParkwaySuite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Thayne Coffman
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 16APR07
Title:Human and Unmanned Teams for Tracking Elusive Dismounts (HUNTED)
Abstract:The autonomy of Unmanned Systems (UMS) must increase if they are to be fully leveraged by small military units. Current unmanned systems require at least one human operator per platform to function in a combat environment, preventing small military units from deploying UMS teams for collaborative target acquisition and pursuit. We present the Human and Unmanned Teams for Tracking Elusive Dismounts (HUNTED) system, which will fill this functionality gap and enable teams of UMS to cooperatively acquire and maintain tracks on elusive human dismount targets with minimal oversight by a single warfighter. Our novel approach combines 3D models of the environment with game theory models of the interaction between target and pursuer to react to and shape target behavior by proactive UMS placement. Superior track maintenance is provided by actively driving and hunting targets instead of simply following them. The approach leverages 21st Century Technologies' capabilities and expertise in 3D scene understanding, visual target acquisition and tracking, predictive planning, target behavior prediction, and dynamic tasking of surveillance assets in response to targets of opportunity. The resulting HUNTED system will drastically reduce the operator oversight needed to field UMS teams that provide superior track maintenance through cooperation.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott K. Ralph
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Parameterized-Agents Collaboratively Tracking (PACT)
Abstract:The need for mostly-autonomous robotic systems to perform robust tracking and identification of dismounts is especially acute in urban asymmetric scenarios where the possibility of losing track of a potentially armed dismount makes the risks to an organic asset too large. The constraints of line-of-sight sensors coupled with urban canyons and tree canopies makes loss of track inevitable, meaning that more than one tracking agent, cooperating in a tightly-coupled fashion, must be used to get acceptable tracking performance. Using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) allows the composite system to observe the dismount using very distinctive viewing geometries, which are robust to different types of occlusion. We propose a system called Parameterized-Agents Collaboratively Tracking (PACT), which incorporates a UAV with a UGV in a cooperative tightly-coupled system, enabling improved tracking performance by combining the capabilities of the two platforms. Leveraging our expertise in image stabilization, target detection, particle filter tracking, and sensor fusion, PACT will combine observations from multiple vehicles into a global scene description and choose appropriate actions for vehicles in the system to maximize track continuity and focus agents on targets of particular interest.

IROBOT CORP.
63 South Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 418-3291
Dr. Brian Yamauchi
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:Sagittarius: A Human-Assisted UAV/UGV Team for Cooperative Tracking of Elusive Dismounts
Abstract:iRobot Corporation and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) propose to develop the Sagittarius UAV/UGV team for tracking elusive human dismounts in complex urban terrain. iRobot will develop the UGV; CMU will develop the UAV; and iRobot and CMU will jointly develop techniques to enable the UGV and UAV to cooperate. The UAV will be equipped with multispectral cameras on a gimbaled, downward-looking mount. Active vision algorithms developed by CMU will separate the target from the background. Predictive tracking algorithms will determine the optimal path for the UAV to minimize occlusions between the UAV and the target. The UGV will be equipped with stereo FLIR cameras on a pan/tilt base that will enable the UGV to track human targets based on their temperature, size, and a target tracking vector supplied by the UAV. iRobot will use its extensive experience with behavior-based robotics to develop a control system to enable the UGV to robustly track elusive humans. During Phase I, we will demonstrate the UGV thermal vision system tracking a human target, the UAV active vision system tracking a human target from the air, and simulated UAV/UGV coordination techniques. We will also design the Phase II prototype UAV/UGV system.

PERCEPTEK
12395 North Mead Way
Littleton, CO 80125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 344-1037
Dr. Mark Allmen
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:Collaborative UAV-UGV Tracking of Elusive Dismounts
Abstract:Unmanned Systems (UMS) provide increased battlespace awareness and act as a force multiplier in operations today and in the future. However, there are several enabling technologies that need to be further developed in order to provide the forces with effective UAV - UGV collaborative operation to get and keep "cross hairs on target." Currently, UAVs are performing autonomous tracking and surveillance of ground threats with some success in relatively open terrain where the onboard sensors can easily and continually view ground objects of interest. However, this tracking capability is critically needed in urban environments, where many of today's conflicts take place. Automated trackers applied in urban environments have shown poor performance due to a number of factors: Occlusions, Confusors, and Tracking reliability. In order for UMSs to effectively track elusive dismounts operating in an urban environment, fundamental changes have to be made to the way that threats are tracked autonomously. We are proposing an active vision approach that provides Geometric Modeling, Geometric reasoning, Collaborative Threat Modeling, Track fusion, Vision Based Control to improve tracking performance in complex environments

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd4th Floor
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 738-6278
Dr. David Coombs
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Human Assisted UAV-UGV Cooperative Tracking of Urban Dismounts
Abstract:A new set of technologies must be developed to enable UAVs to collaborate with UGVs and cooperatively search, detect, track, and ID elusive humans operating in complex urban settings. SET Corporation, a world leader in sensor exploitation and human signature analysis, proposes to develop a refined urban tracking CONOPS and to synthesize an advanced system design for human-assisted cooperative UAV-UGV tracking. Critical technology innovations in active sensor manipulation, pose-invariant human target verification, and adaptive modeling will enable entirely new capabilities in pervasive sensing and persistent tracking of human targets. Feasibility analyses and risk reduction studies will be used to confirm the viability of our Phase II plan for development and demonstration. SET has teamed with Brigham Young University, a leader in autonomous air vehicle technology and multi-vehicle cooperative control. BYU's UAV / UGV testbed provides a unique opportunity for rapid prototyping of candidate architectures and real world data collection. Together, SET and BYU's expertise span the full scope of technologies required to develop tightly-coupled on board sensing, tracking, and control algorithms that allow a small UAV and small UGV to cooperatively track an elusive dismount through spatially complex urban clutter.

AUTONOMOUS SOLUTIONS, INC.
1946 South 1600 West
Young Ward, UT 84339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 755-2980
Dr. Matthew Berkemeier
OSD 06-UM3      Awarded: 16AUG07
Title:Enhanced Manipulator Control Through 3D Visualization & Autonomy
Abstract:Autonomous Solutions proposes to increase the speed, accuracy, and overall effectiveness of currently fielded EOD robotic manipulators through 3D visualization and arm automation. ASI will integrate a 3D Flash Ladar camera onto an EOD robotic platform to enable the creation of a 3D model of the object of interest at the user interface. ASI will also implement autonomous arm control which will enable the user to specify an arm path without having to actuate individual joints. The ultimate goal is to enable point-and-click functionality for remotely picking up and handling objects using existing manipulators.

ENERGID TECHNOLOGIES
124 Mount Auburn StreetSuite 200 North
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 547-4100
Dr. John Hu
OSD 06-UM3      Awarded: 21AUG07
Title:Human-Robot Manipulation for Complex Operations
Abstract:The use of improvised explosive devices on our forces has been increasing at an alarming rate. And though there has been significant technological progress to combat this threat, more needs to be done. One of the most effective ways to combat IEDs is with teleoperated robotic technology. Current technology is good, but it presents two problems: 1) Remote control of the robot arm using existing Operator Control Unit (OCU) technology is often unintuitive and cumbersome, and 2) for more complex manipulations the operator may require force (or haptic) feedback. Energid Technologies proposes developing an enhanced OCU that is more accurate and easier to use than any existing technology. It will provide robust, accurate end-effector control (using Energid's patented Actin control software) and a novel haptic feedback device that presents force feedback to the operator using magnetic force. During Phase I, we will focus on the UGV PackBot platform developed by iRobot, one of our partners on this SBIR.

OPEN TECH, INC.
2000 Kraft DriveSuite 1101
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 239-1863
Mr. Patrick Roye
OSD 06-UM3      Awarded: 09AUG07
Title:Human-Robot Manipulation for Complex Operations
Abstract:In order to provide better control of existing manipulator arms, Open Tech proposes to develop software for the Automatic Calibration and Intuitive Control of Manipulator Arms (from here on referred to as the AIMs System). The purpose of the AIMs System is to provide simulation, visualization, and advanced kinematic software tools that are reusable between manipulator arms that vary in complexity and configuration. The AIMs system will calibrate itself to a new manipulator arm, so the system could be rapidly deployed on new hardware with little or no manual configuration. As a result, the AIMs System could be used to enhance a multitude of existing unmanned manipulator arm-based systems. The AIMs system would provide manipulator arm operators with: spatial awareness of the arm, haptic feedback, natural and intuitive controls, and adaptive learning algorithms for repeating common tasks.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Emily K. M. Stelzer
OSD 06-UM4      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Command & Control Robotic Assets Display (C2RAD)
Abstract:The Army's Future Force will transform human warfighting units into distributed teams of human and robotic assets. These robotic assets are envisioned to dramatically improve real-time situational awareness (SA) for human troops, and increase mission success. Aptima has tested these claims for DARPA, ONR, and others in computational and human factors experiments. We have identified several challenges at the interfaces between the human and machine, and between human commanders and operators. Aptima and Lockheed Martin propose to address these challenges in a manner that leverages new science concerning human-robot and human-human collaboration. The product of this work will be the Command and Control Robotic Assets Display (C2RAD). To create C2RAD, the team will: conduct a Cognitive Work Analysis of human-robot missions in the Future Force; develop requirements for system models, and draft a system architecture; develop and demonstrate a C2RAD user interface; and plan a full evaluation of the prototyped product in Phase II.

FSCX, INC.
511 S.W. ''A'' Avenue, Suite 2
Lawton, OK 73501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(580) 353-4030
Mr. Vance Miller
OSD 06-UM4      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Command and Control of small robotics assets
Abstract:The Army is using robots in ever increasing number to execute it mission across its spectrum of operations. Although these robots provide significant operational benefits, the Army currently lacks an adequate, automated Command and Control (C2) systems to communicate relevant information from them to leaders in a timely manner without overwhelming or distracting these leaders from their overall mission. FSCX, Inc.'s proposed concept will result in a design for a near-real time system to overcome the C2 deficiencies. Our Common Operational Picture-Robotic (COP-R) design will: 1) enable leaders to utilize filtered, robot-provided information without causing leaders to neglect competing responsibilities; 2) automate data flow between robot operators, the small unit leader, and Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I) networks to maintain a Common Operational Picture (COP); 3) provide the capability for one leader or robot operator to control multiple robots; 4) provide the ability to capture information pertinent for during and After Action Review (AAR) purposes. The resulting product will help soldiers and leaders improve the quality and timeliness of their decisions to positively affect their operations. COP-R's design will allow it to either reside on or embed in an operator's Robot Control Station and a leader's C4I platform.

NATURAL INTERACTION SYSTEMS, LLC
821 Second AveSuite 1150
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 428-0800
Dr. Paulo Barthelmess
OSD 06-UM4      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Command and Control of small robotics assets
Abstract:This SBIR proposal investigates a solution for Command and Control of Small Robotic Assets. Because of the location and tempo of military activities, standard computing equipment and their interfaces fail to support small units in their use of robotic assets. Current requirements for command and control of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs) do not take into consideration the highly dynamic and mobile conditions of use, or the potential impact on the workload of the warfighters striving to use them. The proposed work (including Phase I and Phase II) will develop technology to provide a small unit Commander (CDR) and his Robotics Operator (ROP) with multimodal collaboration and automated assistance tools that will allow them to coordinate their work to make effective and timely use of UV-provided information for enhanced situation awareness.

PERCEPTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 259-4278
Dr. Amos Freedy
OSD 06-UM4      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Technology for Enhanced Command and Control of Small Robotics Assets (TECRA)
Abstract:Perceptronics Solutions, Inc., with the George Mason University Arch Lab and consultant Nathan Schurr of the USC Computer Science Department, presents this proposal for Technology for Enhanced Command and Control of Small Robotics Assets. Our approach will use adaptive display methodology to enhance commander-operator shared situation awareness and structured language to facilitate efficient commander-operator communication, reducing command workload and increasing operational effectiveness. Our technical objective is to apply recent advances in cognitive engineering, information display automation and structured human robot communication to create a command and control infrastructure that allows more effective operation of small UAVs and UGVs. An additional objective is to provide team performance measurement and feedback capabilities for training and after action review. Our team has already made significant progress toward achieving these project goals, and our TECRA system is based on innovative technology products contributed by our team members; these include: George Mason University's adaptive interface concept for effective human-system performance in the control of robotic assets, USC's OmniView display concept, Perceptronics Solutions' Composable Command Language (CCL) and Mixed Initiative Team Performance Assessment System (MITPAS) a complete simulation environment and methodology to measure and assess the performance of teams involving both human and robotic elements.

IROBOT CORP.
63 South Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 418-3495
Dr. Chris Jones
OSD 06-UM5      Awarded: 15FEB07
Title:Peer-to-Peer Embedded Human Robot Interaction
Abstract:iRobot Corporation and the Brown University Robotics Lab propose to develop a system allowing natural interactions between human operators and robots. The goal of the Natural Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) project is to utilize different verbal and non-verbal modes of communication between humans and robots, and ultimately demonstrate a more natural, less stressful, and more fully integrated method for control of robotics resources. During Phase I, we will 1) evaluate the use of gesture and speech recognition to provide the operator with an intuitive means of communicating to the robot, 2) evaluate the use of dialogue-based communication systems and humanlike gestures or character representations to provide the robot a naturally-understood way of communicating with the human operator, and 3) we will enlist the discussion and comments from end-user robot operators on our proposed HRI, including their usability and their utility for use in typical field operations.

MOBILEROBOTS, INC.
19 Columbia Drive
Amherst, NH 03031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 881-7960
Dr. William P. Kennedy
OSD 06-UM5      Awarded: 15FEB07
Title:Peer-to-Peer Embedded Human Robot Interaction
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is develop a concept for embedded peer-to-peer human/robot interaction that will allow a robot to work side-by-side with a person or a group of people in contrast to more traditional deployments of robotic hardware which keep the robots and humans very far from each other. MobileRobots Inc and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) will exploit advances in dynamic perception and probabilistic reasoning techniques to develop a concept for robust human robot interaction (HRI) that will provide a robot with the necessary situation awareness to achieve a high level of peer-to-peer interaction. In the proposed concept, humans will interact with the robot in a natural fashion using speech, gestures, and verbal dialog. To facilitate such understanding of the human's activities and communicative acts, we will exploit the state of the art in computer vision techniques (both monocular and stereo) to detect and recognize the presence of humans, monitor and understand their gestures, and track their activities over time. This multi-modal situation awareness will allow the robot to monitor the actions and speech of a human in order to interactively learn to execute a state sequence for rudimentary joint plans with the human.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2436
Dr. Michael Patterson
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:COSMIC: Collaborative Optimization System for Mixed-Initiative Control
Abstract:We propose to produce COSMIC (Collaborative Optimization System for Mixed Initiative Control), a unique collaborative environment allowing multiple operators of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles to coordinate their efforts in accomplishing multiple high-level missions. Building on the work of the MiDAS (Mission Displays for Autonomous Systems) project, this environment will integrate an existing Aptima product called MOST (Model of Organizations, Systems, and Technologies) for optimally planning human team behavior with Lockheed's ICARUS (Intelligent Control and Autonomous Replanning of Unmanned Systems) testbed and its local autonomy planning algorithms to ensure maximally effective mission performance. The same CWA (Cognitive Work Analysis) approach applied to constructing the interaction design of MiDAS will be extended to the multiple watch-station domain of COSMIC. The result will be a collaborative environment and operator interface that ensures optimal team behavior in coordinating autonomous vehicle resources. In Phase I, we will define collaborative interaction in this domain; design COSMIC functionality, architecture, interface to ICARUS, and interface to the user; develop a computational team model; and plan evaluations and formative assessments. In Phase II, Aptima will fully implement COSMIC for a broad set of missions, including complete functional integration with the ICARUS testbed.

ITERATIVITY, INC.
3236 17th Ave. S.
Minneapolis, MN 55407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 871-4514
Dr. Robin R. Penner
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Collaborative Control of Unmanned Vehicles
Abstract:Iterativity, Inc. will create a flexible information and interface system allowing multiple users to collaboratively control multiple unmanned vehicles with variable levels of autonomy. Collaboration is provided implicitly by a shared situation representation, and explicitly by user interface tasks allowing distributed users to communicate with other users and unmanned systems.

PERCEPTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 259-4278
Dr. Amos Freedy
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:Automated Mission Scheduling by Distributed Constraint Optimization for Collaborative and Shared Control of Unmanned Vehicle Systems
Abstract:Perceptronics Solutions, Inc., with the USC Computer Science Department Teamcore Research Group and Charles River Analytics, and supported by Professor Mary (Missy) Cummings of MIT presents this proposal to develop an Automated Mission Scheduler (AMS). The AMS will automatically create a mission plan for heterogeneous, multiple unmanned vehicles performing joint actions under the control of collaborating operators. The objective is to support dynamic mission scheduling in response to high-level mission objectives, priorities, constraints. Accordingly, the plans will include allocation of required mission tasks, including specific assignments to vehicles as well as sequencing of individual vehicle and mission tasks to achieve the collective objectives. Output of AMS will be used as a decision aid to the collaborating operators as well as for direct control as a component of evolving mixed initiative interface modules concepts. Our team has already made significant progress toward achieving the project goals, and our proposed system is based on innovative technology products contributed by our team members: USC's ground-breaking work to apply Distributed Constraint Optimization to optimally allocate multi-vehicle tasks in collaborative control of UVs, Charles River's advanced Human/UV interface technology, and Perceptronics Solutions' Tactical Group Decision Analysis System and Mixed Initiative Human-Robots Team Performance Assessment System.

ROBOTIC RESEARCH LLC
814 W. Diamond Ave.Suite 301
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 631-0008
Mr. Charles Shoemaker
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:Collaborative and Shared Control of Unmanned Vehicle Systems
Abstract:Technologies for Human-Robotic Interactions (HRI) currently are not designed for, and do not adequately support, dynamic teaming and Command & Control (C2) interaction paradigms in distributed, manned-unmanned teaming environments to a degree routinely exhibited by well-trained and experienced manned-manned operations or by highly autonomous hierarchical intelligent control systems. Interaction protocols do exist for highly trained collaborative teams or cooperative co-habitants in a purely manned environment. Interaction protocols also exist for highly autonomous systems employing a hierarchical intelligent control architecture capable of integrating distributed autonomy. However, the equivalent interaction protocols are not well defined and matured for human-robotic (manned-unmanned) for the collaborative teams and cooperative co-habitants cases. Our over-arching objectivefor this SBIR effort is to use our team's expertise in human system integration and autonomous control to develop HRI protocols capable of achieving similar levels of integration between the manned-unmanned systems as currently exist between the manned-manned or unmanned-unmanned.

SA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3750 Palladian Village DriveBuilding 600
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 565-9859
Dr. Mica Endsley
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:Collaborative and Shared Control of Unmanned Vehicle Systems
Abstract:The Navy is evolving into a force that will project power, assure access, and protect and advance America's interests worldwide within an environment of reduced shipboard manning and increased operational efficiency. This confluence of events has resulted in an increase in the number and types of unmanned systems. In order to maximize the potential of these systems, there is a critical demand for technology which supports the operators, sensor specialists and commanders as they coordinate activity among multiple heterogeneous unmanned systems. Technological solutions that allow warfighters to rapidly and easily command and monitor the operation of unmanned vehicles (UVs) in a highly unpredictable world and receive needed situation awareness from UV sensors will facilitate this force transformation. Our goal for this SBIR is to develop and integrate technologies that support high levels of SA for distributed teams, built on a backbone of proven technology for UV mission planning and control. We will apply leading edge methods for designing systems to support SA, with specific attention to the critical factors that make SA challenging in UV operations, and have a solid foundation for ensuring high levels of shared SA across the distributed team.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia DriveSuite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Wayne Zachary
OSD 06-UM7      Awarded: 06MAR07
Title:Motive and Affect-based Robotic Control (MARC)
Abstract:Wider use of robotic and uninhabited vehicles is limited by needs for UxVs to be intermittently out of direct operator control and thus operate under relative autonomy, and for a simple and efficient human controller interface. This proposal addresses both issues by using human-human interaction and communication as a metaphor. Specifically, it seeks to achieve UxV control/autonomy through an on-board cognitive architecture that is not merely purposive, but also based on human-understandable motives and affective states. This forms the basis for a more robust UxV autonomy and, in turn, allows a more abstracted form of control from the human controller (in terms of motive and affective states). This concept is called MARC (Motive and Affect-based Robotic Control). Phase I will adapt a motive/affect-based cognitive architecture called PAC to use as MARC. Three key Phase I objectives are: adapting PAC to the UxV control/autonomy problem; defining a realistic interface to the existing (and typically low-level) UxV control mechanisms, and defining a MARC-based human controller interface based on motives, affective states, and lower-level mission goals/objectives. Feasibility is established through an evaluative human-in-the-loop experiment comparing control of MARC-based simulated UxVs with UxVs with more traditional control mechanisms.

MOBILE INTELLIGENCE CORP.
33150 Schoolcraft RoadSuite 108
Livonia, MI 48150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 367-0430
Dr. Douglas C. MacKenzie
OSD 06-UM7      Awarded: 06MAR07