---------- MDA ----------

165 Phase I Selections from the 06.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Arthur Keen
MDA 06-001      Selected for Award
Title:Netcentric Operations Defense Environment (NODE)
Abstract:Current approaches to security are flawed because they 1) are highly dependent on characterizing known exploits making them vulnerable to new attack variants, 2) use hub-and-spoke centralized architectures that are not scalable and makes them vulnerable to availability attacks, 3) have single points of failure making them vulnerable to confidentiality, integrity, and availability attacks, 4) focus on perimeter defense, so they are vulnerable to insider threats including compromised hosts, and 5) produce results that overwhelm analysts with low level event data, high false positives, and no guidance on attack variants. Knowledge based Systems, Inc. (KBSI) proposes the Netcentric Operations Defense Environment (NODE). NODE is a new paradigm in computer network defense (CND) that detects network intrusions without 1) signatures cataloged prior to event detection, 2) heuristic rules, and 3) profiles of "normal" system behavior by applying data mining and machine learning technologies originally developed for understanding the function of the human genome. NODE achieves scalability, total coverage, redundancy, and fault tolerance in detecting intrusions by executing distributed data mining and machine learning algorithms over the network hosts (the computing fabric) in order to identify and characterize behavior patterns in the communication among hosts.

MULVAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
212 Carnegie Center,Suite 206
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 273-8407
Dr. Sudhakar Govindavajhala
MDA 06-001      Selected for Award
Title:Computer Network Defense (CND) Technologies
Abstract:Recent preliminary research results have shown, (a) that misconfiguration bugs are an important source of vulnerability in enterprise network and software installations, and (b) how it may be possible to construct practical and useful tools that cyber security managers can use to analyze the security of their enterprise network and software configurations. This rsearch prototype analyzes the current state of defenses of a network. In this Phase I SBIR research project, we plan to incorporate dynamic information like current background scans and attacks into the framework to analyze current threat profile system. With the increasing sophistication of attackers, the problem of managing the security of a large network demands immediate focus to keep the wheels of our economic activity moving.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Dr. David Guaspari
MDA 06-002      Selected for Award
Title:Aspen: Analyzing the compatibility of security policies in a system of systems
Abstract:Complex applications are, increasingly, constructed by networking and integrating computer systems and services, each with its own stakeholders and security policy. Developers can find it difficult to understand how those policies mediate interactions among the component systems. Access decisions at some internal interface can have profound and unanticipated consequences, affecting both the functionality and security of the whole. The architecture of a system supplies the context in which these interactions occur and imposes constraints in addition to those enforced by individual security policies. ATC-NY, in collaboration with Architecture Technology Corporation and Professor Andrew Myers of Cornell University, will develop Aspen, a tool to specify, design, model, and analyze the interactions of security policies and architecture in a system of systems. Aspen will extend a systems modeling language (such as SysML) with rich interface descriptions that include security annotations and specifications of the protocols by which components interact. Annotations and specifications are based, ultimately, on security type systems, which can be used to analyze security properties by a form of type checking. These type systems can also guide implementation of the inter-component protocols so that they do not introduce new security flaws.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
4984 El Camino Real, Suite 230
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 967-4408
Dr. Douglas Smith
MDA 06-002      Selected for Award
Title:Composition and Verification of System Security Policies
Abstract:Modern complex system-of-systems have the problem of coordinating and uniformly enforcing system-wide security policies. This project focuses on formal specification of security policies, system modeling, and specialized analysis tools for (i) composing and analyzing security policies, (ii) checking implementation relationships between policies at different system layers, and (iii) checking conformance of a system design with a given security policy.

GTECH SYSTEMS, INC.
P. O. Box 49735
Atlanta, GA 30359
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 934-9316
Dr. Jan Crowe
MDA 06-003      Selected for Award
Title:Next Generation Simulation Infrastructure for Missile Defense Applications
Abstract:Grid and web-based technologies offer new capabilities with respect to resource allocation and integration for advanced distributed simulations. Realization of these benefits requires exploitation of these techniques in the context of defense industry standards such as the High Level Architecture. This project proposes the development of advanced distributed simulation infrastructure software that accomplishes this task, in conjunction with work to integrate the MDA Benchmark simulation to this new framework.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd.Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
MDA 06-003      Selected for Award
Title:GridSpacesT: Dynamic Spaces for Runtime Composition of Grid Services
Abstract:Despite major technical advances, the ability to "mix and match" disparate complex systems (e.g., live, virtual, constructive simulations) continues to pose a major challenge to DoD in general and MDA in particular. Today MDA believes that transformational advances in interoperability and integration have become possible with the advent of enterprise computing, web services, semantic technologies and grid computing. MDA is looking to harnessing these technologies in a synergistic fashion to achieve rapid fielding of interoperable, distributed systems for testing, analyses and training. With these objectives in mind, the MDA has specified a broad range of requirements such as advanced time management for data synchronization, scaleability of the O(104) entities, HLA-compliance, effective operation within the Global Information Grid, client-server authentication and secure communication, including "thin-client" approaches to conserve host computing, storage and communication resources. Phase I of this effort will develop a system design for a scalable integration framework that enables rapid interoperability among disparate systems through the use of a subset of these transformational technologies and demonstrate secure operation through a proof-of-concept prototype spanning at least two client systems. The prototype architecture will be designed for extensibility and scalability to larger system configurations.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
2984 Eagles Claw Avenue
Thousand Oaks, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 493-5279
Dr. Phillip W. Dennis
MDA 06-004      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Feature Aided Track and CDI Fusion Processing of Data from
Abstract:Successful missile defense operations require an accurate real-time single integrated battlespace picture, while minimizing data throughput and bandwidth requirements. Current multi-sensor tracking approaches that treat kinematic and feature fusion as separate processes have high rates of correlation and target typing errors. Our integrated fusion process integrates optical and radar data, thereby reducing battlespace picture uncertainty by jointly considering kinematic, radar features, and thermal imaging data. Networked sensors working jointly substantially increase lethal object identification capability by sharing independent 2-D or 3-D kinematic data and feature data such as RCS, IR signatures, and length profiles. This approach improves system performance by increasing the ability to resolve high speed closely spaced objects, track maneuvering objects (boosting missiles and maneuvering/unstable reentry vehicles), and identify and destroy lethal objects within dense target clusters containing decoys and debris. Intelligent Systems Research will develop an integrated and distributed target type fusion process within a distributed component system architecture that receives statistically independent data from distributed network sensors and simultaneously processes this data. Our approach operates on sensor reports containing features, tracklets, and object type likelihoods. We minimize network throughput by adaptively transmitting data with a high value-of-information according to the needs of network participants.

MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
616 Brookmeade Ct.
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-1434
Dr. Shan Cong
MDA 06-004      Selected for Award
Title:Distributed Registration with Expectation-maximization and Multiresolution System for BMD
Abstract:MRLets Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a suite of algorithms and software for registration of track and report data from IR and radar sensors. The proposed registration system is able to jointly identify correspondence between data from distributed platforms and to estimate sensor bias parameters. The system relies on three technologies to meet the challenges of the project. First, a distributed multiple hypothesis registration is introduced to establish and evaluate global hypotheses of track/report correspondences. To this end, we developed 3D models for space-based IR sensors and ground-based X-band radar, from which the data from different platforms can be related to solve the true location of a target in a common coordinate system. The models enable the correlation of multiplatform sensor data, both metric and features, so that the likelihood of each hypothesis can be calculated. From the constraints on coexisting hypotheses, joint and marginal probabilities of all hypotheses can be estimated also, providing the most critical information for hypothesis maintenance and registration processing. In order to solve the problem of unresolved cluster and group targets, a spatial domain multiresolutional registration is introduced to build up multiresolutional track/report trees, from which the hypothesis of a correspondence can be made at a proper resolution. When sensor bias exists, a registration algorithm is required to estimate sensor bias parameters and subsequently remove the bias from sensor data. Through an expectation-maximization operation, we demonstrate that bias parameters can be estimated from maximizing the summation of log-likelihoods of registration hypotheses, weighted by their marginal probabilities. As expectation-maximization can be an iterative process, bias estimation and hypothesis processing can be jointly optimized when necessary. Besides removing one source of system error due to miss-matching of sensor resolution, registration over multiresolutional data makes it possible to estimate bias parameters more efficiently by iterating from a coarse resolution to a fine resolution. Overall, the proposed distributed registration with expectation-maximization and multiresolution system (DREAMS) provides a complete solution to the issues of sensor registration for a BMD application.

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Benjamin Slocumb
MDA 06-004      Selected for Award
Title:Track Correlation / Sensor Netting - Submission B
Abstract:The Ballistic Missile Defense System is evolving into a distributed network-centric architecture with tracking and discrimination being performed using multi-sensor data. The X-Band radar (FBX-T, SBX, and THAAD) will play a key role in the network. Each is capable of providing wideband waveforms to support needs in target discrimination. However, wideband waveforms require significant time and energy from the radar. The concern is that the discrimination processing will over-task the X-Band radar and cause it to be unable to meet the timeline requirements for the tracking of all objects. To truly evaluate the requirements and capabilities of the network-centric approach, there needs to be a closed-loop simulation environment. The BMD Benchmark is a premiere simulation environment used by MDA, MDNTB, and their contractors for the analysis of network-centric algorithms. Currently, it is the primary tool used by MDNTB for its development and analysis of the C2BMC Track Processing Thread. However, at this time the BMD Benchmark has no capability to model and simulate wideband waveforms. This Phase I proposal describes a program to conduct a path finding study to identify the way forward for adding the wideband radar capability to the BMD Benchmark.

AMTEC CORP.
500 Wynn Dr. Suite 314
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 722-7200
Mr. Bryan Hughes
MDA 06-005      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Survivable Interceptor Modem
Abstract:Reliable, high speed communications are critical to the successful completion of postulated missile defense engagements. Importantly, interceptor kill vehicles (KV) and carrier vehicles (CV) must meet mission performance requirements under hostile threat conditions and while exposed to direct and indirect radiation effects. The interceptor modem is a key communications link. Modem capability and reliability will have a significant impact on achieving mission success. Existing interceptor modems lack the ability to be reconfigured in response to changes in the threat or modified communications protocols. Further, these modems are point-source designs, are specific to individual systems, and lack the performance robustness and design flexibility for use across multiple system platforms. The successful completion of all 3 phases of this effort will result in a radiation hardened modem capable of meeting HAENS performance requirements. A common design strategy will be used to reduce cost and extend utility across multiple systems; appropriate communications protocols will be used to ensure mission performance and advanced re-configurable FPGA technology will be employed to achieve technological robustness. During Phase 1, survivability and performance requirements analysis will be conducted, and a Phase II approach will be developed.

WELKIN SCIENCES, LLC
102 S. Tejon Suite 200
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 520-5115
Mr. Blair E. Sawyer
MDA 06-005      Selected for Award
Title:Interceptor Communications
Abstract:Welkin Sciences proposes to formulate a class of burst-mode communication waveforms tailored for future MDA interceptor communication systems. The waveform signaling format will support four critical receiver functions: 1) very rapid carrier acquisition and time synchronization; 2) adaptive signal processing to mitigate received signal distortion arising from frequency-selective fading; 3) adaptive signal processing to suppress jamming signals and other interference sources; and 4) powerful error correction decoding. The waveform class will employ direct sequence pseudo-noise spread spectrum (DS-PNSS) modulation with time-varying characteristics to inhibit an adversary's ability to detect, disrupt, intercept or exploit the transmissions. Welkin Sciences also proposes to design the Advanced Interceptor Data Link (AIDL) with new ground-based and flight-vehicle transceivers utilizing our proposed new waveform type. To support evaluation of the AIDL design, Welkin Sciences further proposes to upgrade two important development tools: 1) the COMLNK software package, a development environment for strategic modem development; and 2) the COMLNK Hardware platform (CHP) that serves as a rapid prototyping system with which fully operational strategic data links can be implemented and tested. The upgraded COMLNK and CHP tools will exploit two decades of strategic "software modem" research formulated funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency, DTRA and MDA.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
775 Technology Dr.Suite 300
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 996-3624
Dr. Kazem F. Sabet
MDA 06-006      Selected for Award
Title:Software Defined Radio for Next-Generation Interceptor
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR project is to establish a flexible and efficient software-defined radio architecture based on multi-waveform secure software programmable technology that can be used in two-way communication links between the Carrier and the Multiple Kill Vehicles or in any other MDA Communications System (EKV, KEI, Aegis etc.). EMAG Technologies Inc. has teamed up with Rockwell Collins Inc. to demonstrate this technology through analysis and simulations that will provide a stable compact platform for fabrication, packaging, testing, reliability, maintainability, radiation tolerance and qualification to meet MDA Requiremnts and Environments. There will be particular emphasis on leveraging the IFICS waveform due to its nuclear robustness. It is anticipated that a combination of reconfigurable MEMS-based RF front end hardware and programmable modem will lead to the ultimate flexibility and adaptiveness of missile communication systems. This project will develop a road map for the ultimate total integration of the RF front end and digital back end using silicon micromachining technology.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Ms. Nithya Ramaswami
MDA 06-006      Selected for Award
Title:Software Defined Radio for Next-Generation Interceptor
Abstract:To meet the needs of the Missile Defense Agency by reducing the size, mass, and acquisition cost of kill vehicles, Williams-Pyro, Inc. proposes to develop a Miniature, Robust, Radiation-hardened, Reconfigurable Radio (MR4) that integrates the elements of a communication subsystem in a single System-on-a Chip package. MR4 will process digital IF and baseband as well as control Radio Frequency (RF) front-end and Input/Output (I/O) subsystems through software to support multi-waveform communications. The proposed MR4 will consist of software reconfigurable modem, low power processor, COTS security module, and an optional Up/down converter. The software reconfigurable modem interfaces with existing MEMS RF front-end and commercially off-the-shelf (COTS) security module, processes multiple waveforms (signal patterns), and hosts control algorithms for reconfiguration of RF front-end and the modem. The low power processor interfaces with COTS security module and I/O and controls input/output subsystem. The COTS security module implements the security features required for the application. The Up/down converter interfaces with RF MEMS front-end and converts the frequencies to levels processed by the modem. The Phase I effort will be an open architecture design that will allow for easy adaptability into BMDS platforms, other defense or commercial applications.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford DriveBuilding 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 783-4578
Mr. Darren Woodruff
MDA 06-007      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Battle Management / Planning Aids
Abstract:The first step in performing effective battle management is to understand the threat. Current sensors provide the majority of the information needed to build a complete threat picture. The main issue is the complexity of the data and the multiplicity of the sources, types and time sensitivity of the data inputs. The available sensors range from the current DSP constellation to theater level assets such as AEGIS all the way down to tactical assets such as PATRIOT and SENTINEL. The majority of the theater and tactical systems inject their track data into the LINK-16 network, while the DSP systems are broadcast over TACSAT links. The key to utilizing this data effectively for battle management is turning the data into a coherent picture of the BattleSpace in near real-time. Once this is accomplished, the potential benefits for conducting Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense (JTAMD) are great. Phase I of this effort will provide an initial capability to collect, database and associate DSP/ONIR launch reports to produce a single launch and impact report for each event. This will be used as the foundation to build a system which will correlate all available sensors, producing a single track for each launch event.

SIGNATURE ANALYTICS LLC
1825 Duffield Lane
Alexandria, VA 22307
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 400-0097
Dr. Shaoann Shon
MDA 06-007      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Weapon Target Allocation Optimization
Abstract:Signature Analytics LLC proposes to conduct a 6-month study on the optimiation methodology for weapon-target-allocation in missil defense engagement planning and battle management. We plan to examine the weapon allocation problem, formulate mathematically the optimization objective function and parametric constraints, search for existing applicable linear programming methods, assess their suitability and determine the modification needed to adapt the methods to this missile defense application.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway NorthP.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 663-9034
Mr. Matthew Wilson
MDA 06-007      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Battle Management / Planning Aids
Abstract:The United States missile defense capability is expanding rapidly. As the number of interceptors, types, and locations increase to defend against growing threats, so does the complexity of defense. Development of automated allocation of assets to threats is a critical technology to save lives and to efficiently utilize scarce assets (save money) in the event of an actual launch. This automated allocation strategy must account for the many parameters related to threat and response. Threat parameters include launch location, warheads, range, reliability, and target point. Response parameters include platform, intercept location, time-windows, interceptor types, and probability of kill. The ultimate operational success of any solution requires a quality automated allocation with user acceptance and confidence. Sonalysts will develop the necessary algorithms and visualization techniques for this complex problem. This development will be based on a resource allocation strategy to develop a Multi-Layer Asset Allocation algorithm for engaging multiple threats from varied interceptors. The proposal outlines the mathematical/computational basis as well the user interface design approach for managing the developed algorithmic solution. Sonalysts has considerable knowledge and research success in missile defense, combat systems, and human systems integration to apply towards development of the technologies for this complex problem.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Mr. Richard H. Stottler
MDA 06-007      Selected for Award
Title:Automated Interceptor to Target Assignment Based on Proven, Advanced Techniques for Planning, Resource Allocation, and Constraint Satisfaction
Abstract:We propose the development of an advanced, intelligent, robust engagement planner for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Ultimately the improved missile defense engagement planning capability will allow better quality plans; faster planning; larger, more complex threats; additional defense system capabilities; increased planning problem space; and better accuracy, reliability, maintainability, growth potential, and adaptability of the engagement planning system. In Phase I we will investigate integration requirements, elaborate the heuristics, algorithms and techniques for improved engagement planning, analyze them as to their feasibility in several dimensions, define the metrics for planning performance, define the process to clearly demonstrate the performance improvement, further prove the feasibility of the techniques through prototype development, and develop the Phase II system design and high-level Phase III design. We are confident of our ability to improve upon the current BMDS planning system and to accomplish this ambitious scope within Phase I because we will leverage our existing highly customizable intelligent planning architecture with its existing planning infrastructure; existing, proven, superior algorithms; and capability to develop and implement new ones. Our foundation includes 15 years of advanced planning, scheduling, resource selection, constraint satisfaction, and optimization experience involving a variety of application areas, including tactical engagement planning.

TORCH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4035 Chris DriveSuite C
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-6000
Mr. Roy Thrasher
MDA 06-008      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Sensor Registration Health and Status Monitoring Technology Components
Abstract:MDA is designing and building a Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) that consists of integrated weapon systems and sensors capable of defeating enemy ballistic missiles. The Command, Control, Battle Management, and Communications (C2BMC) Element of the BMDS facilitates the necessary activities to allow information to be shared and engagements to be coordinated. Correlation, cueing, advanced engagement support, and fusion are core functions performed by C2BMC, which allow shared sensor data to be leveraged, and are heavily dependent on maintaining good sensor registration. As a direct result of the importance of sensor registration, the C2BMC Element has a requirement to conduct BMDS Sensor Registration Health and Status Monitoring (SRHSM) as a means to reduce the risk associated with network sharing of sensor metric track data. This proposal presents the Torch Technologies `trusted radar' concept, which provides an innovative means to generate reference tracks to support SRHSM evaluations of networked radars.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Arbitrage Look-ahead Agents for Market-based Optimization (ALAMO)
Abstract:Missile defense takes place in an unpredictable, real-time environment and thus requires an adaptive approach to optimization that dynamically allocates sensors and their supporting resources in response to changing goals and constraints. Here, we propose a system of Arbitrage Look-ahead Agents for Market-based Optimization (ALAMO) to meet the challenge of this real-time resource allocation problem. This approach applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to the resource allocation problem by creating an artificial market for sensor information and computational resources. Intelligent agents are the buyers and sellers in this market, and they represent all the elements of the sensor network, from sensors to sensor platforms to computational resources. These agents interact based on a negotiation mechanism that determines their bidding strategies. This negotiation mechanism and the agents' bidding strategies are based on game theory, and they are designed so that the aggregate result of the multi-agent negotiation process is a market in competitive equilibrium, which guarantees an optimal allocation of resources throughout the sensor network. Here, we extend market-based optimization using arbitrage look-ahead agents to turn this approach into a non-myopic planning algorithm, which provides both computational gains and more efficient allocation of sensor tasks.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd AvenueSuite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. Joni E. Baker
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Optimal Sensor Scheduling for Ballistic Missile Defense
Abstract:Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) has become increasingly complex, as sophisticated and extensive sensors and defense systems have been developed to detect, track, classify and intercept Tactical Ballistic Missiles (TBMs) throughout each phase of their trajectory. These systems include multiple sensors of various types, which must accomplish diverse time-critical tasks that involve multiple moving targets. Our proposed Phase I research involves the development of a new sensor scheduling algorithm for BMD which will utilize Brown's algorithm to create and iteratively refine a schedule for multiple sensors to perform tasks relating to multiple moving targets. This algorithm was originally developed to optimally allocate search effort against a single moving target to maximize the probability of detection. However, the main ideas can be modified to create sensor schedules which handle other types of tasks as well. The first iteration of Brown's algorithm uses myopic conditions to optimally schedule the sensors each successive time step; the subsequent iterations incorporate information gained at other times (future and past) to form a schedule that accounts for long-term conditions. Such a non-myopic schedule is especially important in the BMD scenario wherein careful planning may result in more than one opportunity to intercept certain incoming missiles.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark StreetSuite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5036
Dr. David Fiske
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Optimization of Sensor Management/Sensor Registration
Abstract:We propose to build a sensor resource management algorithm that builds tasking plans that account for both discrimination and tracking information. This approach, which uses a value of information construct to prioritize tasks based on warfighter-defined value, extends our earlier work in which we provided sensor resource management algorithms for the tracking and for the discrimination problem separately. In both cases we have demonstrated the ability to (1) Allow for possible sensor collaboration if the value of collaborating sensors on a single object outweighs the value of unique tasks since all combinations of sensors will be considered when making the sensor plan; (2) Simulate the differences between short single looks and long continuous observations; (3) Take into consideration sensor slew time and physical limitations; (4) Provide engagement support by reporting track data during times when engagement support is required; (5) Allow for varied tracking constraints to increase the fidelity of the tracking data when engagement support is needed; and (6) Allow sensor resources to be available for kill assessment that may provide a shoot-look-shoot option for sensor tasking.

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Scott Miller
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Optimization of Sensor Management/Sensor Registration
Abstract:To provide multiple layers of defense against increasingly complex threats, the heterogeneous sensors of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) must be carefully coordinated to make optimal use of their diverse capabilities. In particular, because information demands are tied to the timeline of various decision points in an engagement, and sensor dynamics impose limitations on the timing of sensing tasks, foresight and planning are crucial to ensure the required information is available in time for effective engagements. A sensor resource manager (SRM) for the BMDS must therefore employ sophisticated models of the sensors to satisfy long-term performance goals. The SRM algorithm proposed here is based on approximate solutions of a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), to properly account for dynamics and generate the desired farsighted behavior. Moreover, the algorithm does not depend on analytical sensor models, but rather uses simulation-based functional models for predicting complex local sensor behavior. The functional models are integrated with the performance prediction and search method in a systematic and intelligent way, making the algorithm much more efficient than a naive Monte Carlo approach, and providing several mechanisms for scaling the amount of computation to trade off performance and runtime.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Kenan O. Ezal
MDA 06-009      Selected for Award
Title:Optimized Resource Allocation for Networked Sensors (OpeRA-Net)
Abstract:Toyon(R) proposes to develop a system for optimized resource allocation of networked sensors that will dynamically task sensors to support data fusion for improved surveillance, detection, tracking and discrimination of time-critical ballistic targets. We treat the problem as a closed-loop feedback system where a fusion-aided continuous identification (ID) process works with a dynamic sensor tasking (DST) module to maximize the information contained in the track database. The amount of information is quantified using an information-theoretic definition of the expected entropy in the track database given a candidate sensor schedule. The domain of sensor tasks involves a range of different sensor modes/waveforms so that the fusion and tracking module may best be serviced for different values of the expected signal-to-interference ratio, resolution, background clutter, drag coefficient, object classification and radar cross-section. The networked sensors need not be co-located. In Phase I, Toyon will develop radar, EO/IR and Ladar sensor models for our SLAMEM(R) simulation. We will then implement the DST module to control the new sensor models and evaluate the resulting performance. In Phase II, Toyon will improve the algorithm and the fidelity of the sensor models and will demonstrate the operation of the algorithm in real time for a scenario approved by the MDA and will develop hardware-in-the-loop simulation capability.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark StreetSuite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5001
Mr. Andy David
MDA 06-010      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:Under this SBIR, the Decisive Analytics Corporation (DAC) team addresses two niche capabilities that are not currently addressed in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). We propose describing the problems of tracking and discrimination within a single, hybrid, dynamic Bayesian network model. We propose solving this network model using a novel inference algorithm suited for use with hybrid dynamic Bayesian network. Additionally, we propose to address the problem of track correlation by employing an innovative Multiple Hypothesis Bayesian Network framework that works in conjunction with our proposed integrated tracking and discrimination network model. Both of these proposed approaches will build on the DAC team's computational techniques for performing inference in large-scale network models. These technologies, combined with DAC's experience in missile defense will result in algorithms suitable for prototyping in Phase I and Phase II, and integration and deployment to the BMDS via in Phase III of this SBIR.

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY CONNECTION, INC.
2839 Paces Ferry Rd. Suite 1160
Atlanta, GA 30339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 803-3001
Dr. Nicholas Propes
MDA 06-010      Selected for Award
Title:A Hierarchical Data Fusion Architecture for Missile Detection and Identification
Abstract:Global Technology Connection, Inc., in collaboration with Center for Multisource Information Fusion (CMIF) at SUNY (Buffalo) and Boeing Net-Centric Operations, proposes the development of data fusion architecture based on a hybrid analytical / intelligent methodology that exploits the concept of "focus of attention" via active perception in order to optimize missile classification accuracy while reducing substantially the computational burden. The fusion scheme incorporates several levels of abstraction: fusion at the data level, the feature level and the sensor level. The overall architecture employs technologies from soft computing, Dempster-Shafer theory and game theory to provide a robust and reliable platform for critical aerospace systems. Phase I effort will develop and test the feasibility of the data fusion algorithms for missile detection and identification using the Distributed Data Fusion (DDF) testbed. The DDF simulator was developed by SUNY (Buffalo) to test and evaluate algorithms to perform networking, sensor simulation, target tracking and fusion in a battlefield environment. Phase II will address design and construction of prototype for implementing the data fusion concept for components that includes logic for dynamic topology, management of features, a variety of sensor platforms, 3D visualization of threat objects, etc. and a performance evaluation module. Several aerospace end users like Boeing Phantom Works have already expressed interest in the commercial applications (Phase III) of this approach for their missile defense systems.

STIEFVATER CONSULTANTS
10002 Hillside terrace
Marcy, NY 13403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 334-4365
Dr. Russell Brown
MDA 06-010      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:The goal of this project is to optimize and validate sensor fusion algorithms for the ballistic missile discrimination mission. These algorithms will take data from multiple radars viewing the exo-atmospheric scene from different angles to form two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. The algorithms will consider (1) the coherent processing of multiple monostatic radars and (2) the coherent processing of the data from these radars operating in simultaneous monostatic and bistatic modes. Multistatic radars using simultaneous orthogonal waveforms have a number of independent sources of information (the various monostatic and bistatic returns from the orthogonal waveforms). This data can be employed to provide improved discrimination capability. A `rooftop?experiment, viewing a rotating target, will be used in the validation of these algorithms. Note that ISAR imaging of rotating targets is mathematically equivalent to imaging of moving targets ( the objective of the missile defense mission). Existing experimental radars will be used for this experiment. Extension of the algorithms to multiple band radar operation will be investigated.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Jeffery Philson
MDA 06-010      Selected for Award
Title:Sensor Data Fusion
Abstract:The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) relies on a geographically dispersed set of sensors operating across different frequency bands. As tracking and discrimination techniques that combine information from multiple BMDS assets are superior to techniques that rely on individual sensors alone, robust data fusion algorithms are needed to maximize performance. Data fusion algorithms that provide 3-dimensional images of targets, as well as estimates of target motion parameters and tests for rigidity, offer promising new capabilities to the BMDS. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) will develop and analyze a suite of algorithms that provide these target features in the context of a multi-sensor network of radars that are not cohered with one another and have a limited Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). The successful demonstration of such a system will provide target features and discrimination with minimal radar resources. In Phase I, TSC will investigate spectral estimation and 3-dimensional tomographic imaging techniques, as well as extend proven physics-based techniques to operate under a multi-sensor network. In Phase II, TSC will refine the algorithms to work with measured data and pursue speed improvements for real time applications.

EUTECUS, INC.
1936 University Avenue Suite 360
Berkeley, CA 94704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 540-9603
Dr. Akos Zarandy
MDA 06-011      Selected for Award
Title:Near-Pixel Signal Processing to Improve Next-Generation Interceptor
Abstract:Eutecus proposes to develop scalable focal-plane sensor-processor array chips, equipped with InGaAs sensor sensitive in the near infrared range. As opposed to the traditional integrating type approach, the sensor interface in our proposed design will contain precise transimpedance amplifiers and 8-12 bit AD converters, which allow significantly higher sampling rate. In this way, the incoming image frequency will go up to the few hundred kilohertz (kHz) or even to a few megahertz (MHz) region, which is critical in case of Fourier analysis of the incoming pixel information. The sensor array will be mapped into a high performance processor array. Each of the processors of the array will handle one or a few pixels. The processors will be equipped with minimum 128 bytes of memory per pixel, a multiple-add type arithmetic unit, a special statistical unit, and a morphology unit. In this way, the proposed sensor-processor chip will be able to perform Fourier analysis or calculate other kinds of computationally heavy linear (e.g. mean, convolution) or non-linear (e.g. min, max, median) or binary (mathematical morphology) filters, and provide the processed output with a few thousand frames per second speed. The output can be either an image or a decision or both, which can alarm the main processor of the host system when a certain target or special visual event occurs.

HYPERACUITY SYSTEMS
6555 Delmonico Drive #212
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 333-6002
Dr. Michael Wilcox
MDA 06-011      Selected for Award
Title:Near-Pixel Signal Processing to Improve Next-Generation Interceptor
Abstract:A vision system based on an insect compound eye is ideal for minimizing size of the vision system but it also offers virtually unlimited field of view with orders of magnitude increase in processing speed over digital camera based systems, because it eliminates the need for frame-rate sampling or even capture and movement of discreet cinematographic frames to a memory space for subsequent digital processing. Parallel processing and analog circuitry provides orders of magnitude increase in processing speed. Hyperacuity or subpixel resolution provides data reduction but is also compatible with all available compression approaches. Feature extraction on the same sensor chip speeds up numerical analysis for object identification over other available approaches. A compound eye does not require the vehicle's coveted front-end position, avoiding optical distortion due to the shock wave and leaving it open for a sharp point to shed heat and a plasma generator. Such a vision system will allow vehicle control with unprecedented accuracy, producing a purely defensive platform that can eliminate a target with precision interception.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(905) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
MDA 06-011      Selected for Award
Title:In-Pixel Signal Processing for Hypertemporal Applications
Abstract:Nova Sensors has developed the world's first infrared 1K x 1K focal plane array with in-pixel memory and switched capacitor processing circuitry. These developments have "paved the way" for other on-focal plane signal processing designs in which circuitry contained directly in the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) may be used to greatly simplify the overall system. The massively parallel pixel-based architecture of such imaging sensors can be of great speed, cost and power advantage when local temporal and spatial operations are applied directly at the pixel level. We propose to design and develop a new ROIC that (a) exploits the advantages of an in-pixel Resistive Transimpedance Amplifier (RTIA) and (b) applies hypertemporal imaging (HTI) algorithms to pixel intensity data directly at the sensor. Investment of a few milliwatts of electrical power in the ROIC can result in dynamically-tunable temporal filtering operations that aid in the detection and discrimination of boosting targets against highly cluttered backgrounds. This proposal will outline a program that develops actual silicon test chip hardware that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for future MDA HTI applications. Lockheed Santa Barbara Focalplane and recognized experts in the field of hypertemporal algorithms are technology partners in this effort.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
101 West Sixth StreetSuite 200
Austin, TX 78701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Brad Sallee
MDA 06-011      Selected for Award
Title:IR Smart Sensor ROIC
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes an advanced, single-chip, hybridized detector Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) and an integrated detector enabling a single-chip large array ROIC receiver solution. The smart pixel circuitry supports on chip multi-frame, pixel by pixel comparison to enable reporting only when scene content changes are greater than some user specified threshold. This technique reduces I/O bandwidth by eliminating the requirement to read out the entire array. Upon exceeding threshold, a precision time stamp for that particular detector will be added to the output file to facilitate high precision tracking algorithms. In addition, an optimized transimpedance amplifier will minimize the Noise Effective Power (NEP) of the sensor assembly. SPECs IR Smart Sensor ROIC (IRSSR) leverages from existing LADAR ROIC circuit modules were each detector is coupled to a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) directly under each detector pixel. SPEC has previously developed LADAR smart pixel ROIC's with the TIA, multiple sample and hold data storage, and independent sample timing circuits directly below each detector pixel in the array to enable the multiple independent signal returns per pixel processing required in a LADAR system application. These modules, with an optimized TIA, will be built into the IRSSR pixel logic.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Jon Geske
MDA 06-013      Selected for Award
Title:2-D Optical Preamplifier Pixel Arrays For Near Photon-Counting FLASH LADAR Receivers
Abstract:Aerius Photonics proposes a 2-D Optical-Preamplifier Pixel Array (OPPA) to provide near photon-counting imaging FLASH LADAR receiver sensitivity with linear-mode operation, full pulse shape discrimination, superior countermeasure immunity, and distinct advantages that improve target discrimination. The approach leverages single pixel receiver programs underway at Aerius. Aerius' OPPA is an optical-preamplifier pass-through approach that is system compatible with advanced direct-detection and coherent Ladar receiver technology programs underdevelopment by the DoD. The OPPA receiver offers an input referred noise equivalent power of 2.4 photons and can achieve an SNR of 10 with 7.5 received photons. The OPPA operates at room temperature, utilizes mature PIN detector array technology, and enables system performance improvements while reducing system cost, weight, and power. Phase II will deliver a 1064 nm 128x128 FLASH Ladar receiver that utilizes Aerius' pixel amplifier technology. In Phase I, Aerius will demonstrate the concept feasibility with the fabrication and test of a 4x4 array of pixel amplifiers operating at 1064 nm and develop a system architecture design for integration with our technology partner's receivers and systems in phase II.

EPITAXIAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1450 South Rolling Road
Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 455-5830
Dr. Ayub Fathimulla
MDA 06-013      Selected for Award
Title:Linear-mode, Wide FOV, Single Photon Counting APD Ladar Array
Abstract:The overall objective of the proposed SBIR program is to develop compact, low-cost, low power and ultra-high sensitivity semiconductor ladar photoreceivers with linear mode photon counting capabilities that will be at once capable of high image, range and angular resolution. Specifically, we will model, design, analyze, fabricate and test and demonstrate high sensitivity, high bandwidth, (1.0 GHz), low noise and high dynamic range detector arrays (32 x 32). In Phase I, we will develop the basic material and device technology for the single pixels photoreceiver, optimize the production process for large format arrays, investigate ROIC design and integration, and establish feasibility by projecting the performance of the photon counting receiver and showing that it meets the performance of typical MDA ladar systems. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate and test the monolithic (32 x 32) ladar photoreceiver arrays operating at 1064 nm with greater than 1GHz bandwidth.

NOVA RESEARCH, INC.
320 Alisal Road, Suite 104
Solvang, CA 93463
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 693-9600
Mr. Mark A. Massie
MDA 06-013      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative 2K x 2K Dual Band Readout Integrated Circuit for MDA Applications
Abstract:Nova Sensors proposes the development of a new 2K x 2K dual-band readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that will be specifically tailored for use in MDA applications. We propose incorporation of on-FPA features that streamline the use of the resulting dual-band focal plane array (FPA) data for missile detection, tracking and spectral discrimination applications. In cooperation with QmagiQ and Lockheed Martin Santa Barbara Focalplane (SBF), Nova will produce a preliminary design for this dual band ROIC in the Phase I effort. The ROIC will also accommodate use of other detector materials, but the superior uniformity and "bandgap engineered" features of QmagiQ's multiple quantum well (QWIP) material will be an important element of the proposed effort. Lockheed Martin SBF has indicated their support for transitioning this new technology into fielded systems. A variety of on-FPA processing operations are proposed that will help to optimize the implementation of such very large format dual band FPAs; these include on-FPA spectral differencing and ratioing operations as well as on-chip analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara BoulevardSuite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
MDA 06-013      Selected for Award
Title:Passive IR Sensors Based on High Quantum Efficiency P-on-N Type-II Strained Layer Superlattices
Abstract:We propose to develop sensitive passive infrared sensors for ballistic missile defense applications from Type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattices (SLS). The novelty of our approach lies in using a P-on-N photodiode device geometry (in contrast to the usual N-on-P) to leverage the excellent low-noise readout multiplexers available to drive these diode arrays. In Phase 1, we will quantify and optimize our material and passivation quality, and develop and DELIVER a 320x256 longwave infrared focal plane array (LWIR FPA). In Phase 2, we will further drive the technology and develop and DELIVER 1Kx1K dualband FPAs with pixel-registered and simultaneous imaging in two longwave infrared bands. This FPA will enhance target discrimination and provide a larger field of view to infrared seekers such as THAAD.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
MDA 06-014      Selected for Award
Title:Radar Debris Algorithms and Models for Discrimination
Abstract: MARK Resources proposes to adapt BMD discrimination technology developed under MDA funding to reject debris while using greatly reduced radar resources. We will measure the positions, motions, and properties of scatterers on each object; derive the size of each object and the configuration of its scatterers, assuming it is a cone; and reject objects too small to be an RV, or whose scatterer configuration does not correspond to an RV. The proposed method offers important advantages over statistical approaches: debris rejection based on physical features is much more reliable; the algorithms do not depend on detailed modeling of debris and its statistical features, so do not require detailed information on the debris; radars of varying capabilities, including those without high signal bandwidth, can employ our method; and no higher signal-to-noise ratio is needed than that required for detection. The debris pre-screener should be demonstrated on measured radar data, supplemented by much more extensive simulated data. We have extensive experience in deterministic modeling of radar targets and in developing statistical models of a wide variety of clutter. We propose to adapt these models and procedures to generate high-fidelity coherent wideband signatures representative of debris present in a threat cloud.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Anthony Falcone
MDA 06-014      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Debris Coherent Discrimination and Modeling
Abstract:Significant interest exists in developing radar algorithms to screen debris and small fragments from objects of interest in a ballistic missile defense threat complex. RCS statistics alone may not be sufficiently reliable to perform this screening function. A statistical model of radar debris fragments with realistic phase and amplitude variations suitable for large scale Monte-Carlo testing of discrimination algorithms and architectures is to be developed. We propose to estimate the size, spin rate, and relative velocity of debris fragments using Single-Range Doppler Interferometry. We also propose to draw upon and extend SSCI's Hypothesis Density (PHD) tracking and classification approach for the prescreening function. To support these investigations, a statistical debris model will be developed that simulates both phase and amplitude for debris fragments. A kinematic and RCS model previously developed by SSCI to support tracking and classification will be extended to incorporate coherent debris signatures. Phase II will demonstrate the effectiveness of the debris prescreener using available measured radar data, and demonstrate the fidelity of the coherent statistical debris model under broader radar operating conditions. Phase III will integrate the debris prescreening algorithms into BMD midcourse ballistic missile defense radars and demonstrate the total capability of the updated system.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Dr. George Bohannon
MDA 06-014      Selected for Award
Title:Radar Debris Algorithms and Models for Discrimination
Abstract:Debris in a missile complex can significantly impact performance of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). The presence of debris can affect the accuracy of tracks on potentially threatening objects and the ability to reliably identify threatening objects versus non-threatening objects. It is important that the effects of debris on BMDS performance be well understood and its detrimental effects mitigated where necessary. The TSC debris RCS model will produce radar signatures with the characteristics needed for BMDS architecture and radar algorithm studies. The model will produce coherent signatures that will support analysis of radar algorithms that rely on phase characteristics, including Doppler. The model will have credible temporal variations in amplitude and phase. It will be compatible with wideband radar waveforms and radar frequencies from UHF through X-band as a minimum, and it will produce credible polarization dependence. The debris model will be used for development and evaluation of the proposed TSC debris pre-screener algorithm. The pre-screener algorithm will make it possible to quickly assign debris identification probabilities to much of the debris in a missile complex, thereby enabling the defense to allocate its resources more effectively. The pre-screener algorithm will operate using low PRF waveforms and low to medium radar bandwidths.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Vitaliy Khizhnichenko
MDA 06-015      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic and Flying Object Finding/Identifying/Tracking Software
Abstract:To address the MDA need for optimal methods for finding, fixing, tracking, and identifying ballistic and flying objects in cluttered space environments, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop new Ballistic And Flying Object Finding/Identifying/Tracking (BAFOFIT) software. This proposed software system is based on: 1) a novel photogrammetric model, 2) a high-speed coregistration procedure, and 3) a software toolset for self-adaptive clutter rejection and optimal filtering. The BAFOFIT system will offer reliable detection and tracking of small, distant, and dim targets using scanning and staring sensors installed on geostationary and low-orbit satellites of the SBIRS-High, STSS, and SBSS systems. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of BAFOFIT by implementing image processing (geometric transformation and clutter suppression) functions using C++ and optimal filtering through MATLAB for the most significant clutter sources and imaging configurations. In Phase II POC plans to develop a real-time operational BAFOFIT prototype, covering an extended set of clutter and imaging configurations, and deployable at MDA facilities.

TORREY PINES LOGIC, INC.
3525 Del Mar Heights Rd, Suite 581
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 382-7200
Dr. Leo Volfson
MDA 06-015      Selected for Award
Title:Robust Spatial-Temporal Clutter Rejection Filters and Track-Before-Detect Architectures for Space Based Platforms
Abstract:Efficient clutter rejection is a challenge for both space-based geostationary and low-earth orbit infrared sensors that must find, extract, and track moving targets in heavily cluttered backgrounds. In such systems, reliable target tracking using conventional approaches fails without clutter rejection down to/below the sensor noise level. The task is complicated by sensor motion which causes image translation, rotation, and non-stationarity that lead in turn to an increased false alarm rate. To address this challenge we propose to develop: (a) Robust, nonlinear spatial-temporal image processing techniques for clutter rejection and image stabilization that are efficient for both geostationary and low-earth orbit platforms and that can be easily integrated into an adaptive multi-filter bank architecture; (b) Extremely accurate two-stage super-stabilization algorithms; (c) Optimal nonlinear filtering-based track-before-detect architectures to detect very dim targets; and (d) Change detection-based advanced track confirmation/deletion algorithms. We will demonstrate that the proposed nonlinear spatial-temporal methods are particularly efficient for target detection/tracking in difficult scenarios where conventional spatial filters and differencing techniques fail. The developed software tools will be capable of predicting the performance and reducing to a minimum the time needed to search for an adequate system configuration in MDA programs/systems.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Andrew P. Brown
MDA 06-015      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Low Observables Algorithms
Abstract:Highly-accurate detection, tracking, and identification of dim missile defense targets poses a significant challenge, due to scene clutter, finite sensor resolution, and nonlinearities in the target dynamics and sensor measurement models. Toyon proposes to use optical mathematical methods to design algorithms which provide significant improvements in the ability to find, fix, track, and identify missile defense targets of interest under the full range of real world operating conditions and sensor limitations. Toyon proposes to clearly demonstrate significant performance improvements using the developed algorithms and software, for highly-stressing datasets. It is expected that completion of this research and development, followed by commercialization, will provide added value for future SBIRS-like (Space Based Infrared Satellite), STSS-like (Space Tracking and Surveillance System), and SBSS-like (Space Based Space Surveillance) systems.

BLACK FOREST ENGINEERING, LLC
1879 Austin Bluffs Parkway
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-9501
Dr. Steve Gaalema
MDA 06-016      Selected for Award
Title:Multiband Infrared Focal Plane Array for Seeker Applications
Abstract:Improved interceptor seeker capability to detect, identify, and discriminate re-entry vehicles (RV's) from countermeasures at distances of hundreds of kilometers is critical for missile defense. Development of an advanced infrared seeker combining high-spatial resolution with multiband detection for spectral discrimination is desired for material identification and RV discrimination. The challenge is to develop multiband sensors of greater sensitivity, higher resolution, and larger field-of-view to increase detection and tracking range. The sensor needs to be affordable, reliable, and operate at elevated temperature. Corrugated architecture quantum well infrared photodetectors (C-QWIPs) meet many seeker detector requirements and have recently demonstrated improved quantum efficiency and multiband capability. Black Forest Engineering's (BFE) readout integrated circuits provide large charge capacity and dark current subtraction that allows increase of C-QWIP operating temperature. BFE will design a 25x25 μm2 area pixel that will allow readout of 4-band collocated QWIPs in a near simultaneous mode. The Phase I design will include system modeling and fabrication plan for a large format sensor development on Phase II.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 06-016      Selected for Award
Title:Multiband Infrared (IR) Seeker
Abstract:A major issue that inhibits the performance of current long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in THAAD seekers is the residual non-uniformity (RNU). This non-uniformity (larger that 0.2% in FPAs fabricated with the current technology) leads to major restrictions on FPA integration times and optics temperatures. We propose to design and develop a 640x512 two-color mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR)/LWIR FPA technology based on HgCdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Increased uniformity in composition, doping, thickness and defect minimization will occur due to specialized growth and in-situ monitoring techniques. RNUs lower than 0.2% in the LWIR band and 0.05% in the MWIR are expected. We will evaluate the uniformity of MBE-grown LWIR HgCdTe layers and will study the effects of various processing steps on layer uniformity. Test devices will also be fabricated to asses the uniformity of the device operating characteristics. BAE Systems will support the Phase I program with trade studies associated with single and two-color device design and array fabrication. In Phase-II, 640 x 512 two-dimensional, two-color arrays will be fabricated and mated to 2-color MWIR/LWIR ROICs. If necessary, various approaches for improving layer uniformity will be implemented.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Aaron Moy
MDA 06-016      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced MWIR/LWIR Multi-Spectral Detectors
Abstract:Hyperspectral imaging arrays offer far more data and the ability to discriminate objects being observed. Continued difficulties with applying HgCdTe materials, especially for LWIR, present an opportunity for the development of alternate materials. One such candidate for MWIR/LWIR photodetectors are InAsSb alloys and short period Type-II superlattices based on InAs/GaInSb. This superlattice structure has the ability to tune the cutoff wavelengths during device fabrication and yet be amenable to the creation of multi-spectral serially-positioned pixels. One of the issues this Phase I program will address is the intermixing of Arsenic and Antimony at the superlattice interfaces, which can hamper LWIR operation. Improved superlattice growth will be achieved through the application of newly developed MBE apparatus.

VEGA TECHNOLOGY & SYSTEMS, INC.
7980 Kingsbury Drive
Hanover Park, IL 60133
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 855-5068
Mr. Vincent Y. Chow
MDA 06-016      Selected for Award
Title:Multiband Infrared (IR) Seeker
Abstract:We propose a large format collinear MWIR/LWIR 2-color HgCdTe IR Focal Plane Array with multiband enhancement capabilities that can be integrated into a kill vehicle interceptor to perform rudimentary signal pre-processing and cell memory functions thereby elevating seeker abilities to acquire, track, and discriminate enemy targets. This proposed approach, supported by the MKV Program (Lockheed Martin and BAE Systems), is based on a novel differential dual pixel design which consists of using pairs of adjacent pixels each connected in an inverted, parallel configuration. With this invention, common mode rejection of incident radiation, chopper stabilized noise rejection, and differential color signature processing can be performed directly on the focal plane. The inherent balance in this differential pixel design is expected to maintain target lock even during sudden background "sky" inversion events created by interceptor flash or nuclear "red-out". Noise mitigation is achieved by the unique ability of this structure to code input optical signals with a polarity modulation pattern that permits signals to be recovered after HgCdTe detection with greater than 15dB of signal-to-noise improvement. This noise mitigation feature can permit the development of a new generation of low cost, high performance (large D*) smart IR focal plane arrays well matched to the requirements of THAAD and multiple kill vehicle (MKV) programs.

ARKANSAS POWER ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Dr. Roberto Schupbach
MDA 06-017      Selected for Award
Title:High-Temperature, Lightweight, Rad-Hard Silicon Carbide (SiC) DC/DC Converters for Missile Defense Satellite Power Management and Distribution Systems
Abstract:Power electronic converters are essential in every MDA vehicle, with use in critical systems ranging from electric power management applications, to power distribution, to on-board servo motor/actuator drivers. Advancing state-of-the-art power electronics technologies through the use of SiC semiconductors will produce significant savings across the board in almost all areas of MDA power management and distribution operations. By utilizing the high efficiency and high temperature potential of SiC power switches, future power electronics systems will be reduced in size and weight by a factor of ten over today's state-of-the-art converters. In particular, this proposal seeks to develop step down DC/DC power converters for 28V dc bus MDA satellite power management and distribution systems. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to develop highly efficient lightweight DC/DC power converters with an order of magnitude size reduction utilizing now emerging silicon-carbide (SiC) power switching technologies. Increasing power density and efficiency, reducing size and weight, and improving modularity of electronics are all goals of the MDA program. Reduction in size and weight means dollar savings in cost to launch and greater capacity for on-board payload systems. In particular, in Phase I APEI, Inc. will develop a 1kW SiC 300V-28V step down DC/DC converter for power management systems in missile defense satellites and kinetic kill vehicles. Phase II of the project will be focused on increasing power capabilities (10kW+) of the converters, control and protection functionality, and investigating radiation hardening of the SiC-based system.

DR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7740 Kenamar Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-1230
Mr. Theodore G. Stern
MDA 06-017      Selected for Award
Title:Affordable Reliable Electromagnetically Clean Modular Solar Panels (PDRT06-053)
Abstract:The Electromagnetically Clean (EMC) Modular Solar Array is a production manufacturing approach to engineering and delivering solar arrays that have improved cost, reliability, performance and schedule responsiveness of photovoltaic power sources. The EMC Module uses an integral transparent conductive cover to effectively seal the panel from the space environment, and a multifunctional composite structural support that provides resistance to mechanical loads from launch and space thermal cycling stresses. These components are also multi-functional from a manufacturing point of view, enabling a one-step lamination approach to solar panel assembly through self-tooling and self-assembly features. This effort proposes to develop and demonstrate both rigid and flexible EMC Modules, which can be assembled into array of rigid, fold-out panel arrays, or flexible roll-out arrays. The flexible, roll-out option using high efficiency crystalline cells has particularly good specific power capability, in terms of Watts/kilogram, watts/sq.m., and stowed watts/cu.m, and is the main focus of the effort, taking off from previous efforts that showed the feasibility of the rigid EMC Module design.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Mr. Paul Glatkowski
MDA 06-017      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Space Power Technologies
Abstract:Eikos Inc. proposes to develop composite carbon nanotube-metal oxide transparent electrodes to enhance the efficiency of three junction solar cells. Eikos leads the world in developing transparent conductive electodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Eikos also has demonstrated that the performance of nanotube electrodes can be tuned by using apprpriate binders to stabilize the nanotube network. Branded as Invisiconr, our patented technology has already been successfully employed to improve solar cell performance. Eikos has fabricated organic, CIGS, CdTe, and other solar cells incorporating Invisiconr. We now propose to integrate Invisiconr with space stable metal oxide and organic binders into three junction very high efficiency solar cells as a transparent electrode. Carbon nanotube electrodes will reduce shadowing from the metal grid and will allow the AlInP layer to be thinned, while improving carrier transport and acting as an anti-reflective coating. CNT coatings are exceptionally transparent through the visible and into the infrared. Nanotubes are exceptionally stable at high temperatures and under intense irradiation, making them ideal materials for space applications. The addition of appropriate space-stable binders will further enhance the stability of nanotube electro-optical properties. High performance solar cells with Invisiconr will have improved theoretical efficiencies at reduced cost, which will make them the new standard for space applications and open emerging markets for terrestrial applications.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando RoadBuilding 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2002
Dr. Hisashi Tsukamoto
MDA 06-017      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Space Power Technologies
Abstract:The following proposal responds to SBIR solicitation No. MDA06-017 entitled "Advanced Space Power Technologies." Under this solicitation, Phase I calls for the development of an "advanced space power technologies that improve overall EPS performance as measured by EPS system mass, volume, overall efficiency and lifetime." In relation to batteries, the SBIR would like to investigate the replacement of a battery system from nickel-hydrogen to lithium-ion in the proposed Kinetic Kill Vehicle (KKV) or Mid-Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite applications. Quallion's response to this solicitation calls for a design of a lithium-ion battery system that will comply with the KKV's power specifications. Quallion will provide detailed information on individual cell and battery characteristics needed to provide domestic development of lithium-ion battery system, scaled to meet the limited demands of the military and aerospace markets. Quallion is also proposing a "right sizing" of this production facility to allow for cost effective, low volume production with enhanced reliability, long-term supply guarantee and design flexibility that allows for future battery system production. Quallion is headquartered at the Mann Biomedical Park in Sylmar, CA. Quallion currently leases 47,000 sq. ft. from a company wholly owned by Mr. Mann. In addition to its current space, Quallion has an option to lease an additional 200,000 sq. ft. for expansion of its aerospace and military operations. Quallion currently employs more than seventy people supporting engineering, operations and research and development.

QUARTUS ENGINEERING, INC.
10251 Vista Sorrento PkwySuite 250
San Deigo, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 875-6081
Mr. Erik H. Clayton
MDA 06-018      Selected for Award
Title:Symbiotic Multi-mode Structural Health Monitoring utilizing Physics Informed Neural Networks
Abstract:Atomic oxygen (AO) erosion and/or oxidation, micrometeorite impact, "space junk" collisions (e.g. the bolt lost during the STS-115 mission), as well as radiation damage incurred from long duration space exposure, are all serious threats to orbiting Missile Defense Agency (MDA) satellite, interceptor, and kill vehicle hardware. Recently, MDA has expressed a high level of interest in developing satellite interceptor and kill vehicle structures with embedded Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Damage Prognosis (DP) functionality. In the past, embedded functionality has typically implied "strapping" sub-systems onto an existing superstructure structure. This processes is now inadequate for the stringent mass and space requirements of several high performance MDA vehicles. Therefore a new innovative and highly integrated, symbiotic, SHM/DP paradigm must be developed to preserve vehicle functionality without compromising operational cost and performance. In this Phase I effort, our overall objective will be to demonstrate an integrated, online `state awareness' approach that performs event/impact detection, local mass/stiffness change detection and source differentiation in order to separate stiffness changes (due to softening) from mass changes (possibly due to a parasite), and specialized local anomaly (e.g., crack or delamination) assessment. This approach will be implemented via a multi-tier hierarchy with an eye on utilizing SHM/DP output diagnostics for online flight and mission control algorithm optimization.

SCIMITAR TECHNOLOGIES LLC
2005 Big Horn Drive
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 692-9663
Mr. Brian Muskopf
MDA 06-018      Selected for Award
Title:Highly Integrated/Symbiotic Structures
Abstract:Advanced composite materials and innovative structural designs are required that provide a net zero impact or a reduction in mass while increasing the radiation and EMI shielding of MDA kill vehicles (KV) and space based platforms. In addition, the typical process of "strapping" sub-systems such as electrical wiring harnesses onto a structural backbone maybe insufficient for the requirements of several MDA systems. These systems require revolutionary improvements in mass, cost, and volumetric efficiency in order to better perform their missions. This project proposes to develop multi-functional structural composite materials to replace structural/radiation shielding material combinations used in KV and space based platforms. The use of multi-functional structural composite materials will allow for the design of lower cost, lighter weight components and structures that can provide the same structural strength and stiffness as current metal alloy and composite components while incorporating radiation shielding, EMI shielding, and electrical conductivity directly into the structure. In addition innovative electrical conductor designs will be investigated for incorporation into the multi-functional composite structure to replace strap-on electrical harnesses. The multi-functional composite structure design approach for KV and space platforms will provide for less complex, lighter weight and more volumetric efficient structures at reduced manufacturing costs.

SENSORMETRIX
5965 Pacific Center Blvd., Suite 701
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 625-4458
Dr. Anthony Starr
MDA 06-018      Selected for Award
Title:Electromagnetic Metamaterial Composite Structures
Abstract:Recent developments in the area of composite EM materials have shown promise as materials providing both desired mechanical and electromagnetic functionality. To further explore this promise, it is proposed to extend these developments to include: 1) embedded signal control functionality, 2) dynamically modulable EM properties, and 3) hybrid conformal structures.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. John Lock
MDA 06-018      Selected for Award
Title:Polycarborane Resin for Radiation Shielding Structural Composites(1000-980)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. addresses the needs of the Missile Defense Agency for symbiotic lightweight structural materials to protect Ballistic Missile Defense System Multiple Kill Vehicles (MKVs) from exoatmospheric nuclear blasts by the construction of radiation hardened carbon fiber composites using a boron-containing resin. The composite will be designed to efficiently shield Multiple Kill Vehicle electronics from thermal (low energy) and epithermal (medium energy) neutrons, as well as from alpha and beta particles, emitted during a nuclear event. Additional functionality of Triton's radiation hardened composite will include electrical conductivity to provide a common ground for the MKV electronics and antennae, as well as electrostatic dissipation and EMI shielding; lightweight connection strategy for assembly of multiple components; and the ability to incorporate ports and interconnects for interfacing guidance system components.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Jon Geske
MDA 06-019      Selected for Award
Title:High-Gain, Wavelength-Agile Compact Coherent and Direct-Detection Receiver for High-Bandwidth Laser Communications
Abstract:Aerius Photonics proposes a new wavelength tunable, optically preamplified receiver called the MEMS Tunable Vertical Cavity Amplified Detector (MT-VCAD). The MT-VCAD is a compact hybrid semiconductor chip device that utilizes an integrated MEMS mirror in conjunction with an amplifying semiconductor resonant cavity and a hybrid PIN detector to selectively amplify and detect different wavelengths of light. Unlike APDs, whose gain and noise figure suffer at higher data rates, the MT-VCAD maintains high gain (>100x) at high data rates (10 to 40 Gb/s), thus enabling satellites to communicate over longer distances and at 10's of gigabits per second. The MT-VCAD is compatible with coherent and direct detection operation. The MT-VCAD receiver inherently accepts and amplifies only a narrow wavelength band (0.1 nm), reflecting other bands, and is able to change this wavelength in microseconds. Therefore the proposed tunable receiver, with a tunable transmitter, can rapidly change wavelength and eliminate any attempts to jam or damage the detectors either by wideband illumination or by narrowband lasers. Wavelength tunability also enables compact wavelength division multiplexed systems. In Phase I Aerius Photonics will demonstrate device functionality with a breadboard prototype and in Phase II Aerius will deliver a fully functional brassboard prototype receiver.

FREEDOM PHOTONICS LLC
65 Willow Springs Lane Suite 204
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 685-8240
Dr. Jonathon Barton
MDA 06-019      Selected for Award
Title:High-Performance Integrated Rad-Hard Coherent Receivers for Satellite Optical Communications
Abstract:An integrated coherent high sensitivity optical receiver containing a widely tunable laser will be designed and fabricated. This is achieved using a radiation hardened Indium Phosphide materials platform. This will provide a key required component for practical coherent communications systems; a single chip-scale integrated receiver structure containing a balanced detector pair, optical coupler, a widely tunable laser and semiconductor optical amplification. It is expected that this device will provide wide optical bandwidth, high tolerance to environmental and external shocks, low weight and high sensitivity, while reducing the number of required optical interfaces.

SARASWATI ASSOC.
650 5th StreetSuite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Mr. Jim Coward
MDA 06-019      Selected for Award
Title:High Sensitivity Coherent Optical Receiver/Detector
Abstract:The Saraswati Coherent Optical REceiver (SCORE) utilizes an a very innovative approach to achieve record receiver sensitivity for high bandwidth optical communications. The SCORE approach supports 10-100 Gb/s communicaton on a single wavelength. SCORE can utilize dense wavelength division multiplexing to achieve well over 1 terabit per second aggregate communication. SCORE utilizes mature component technology with most components having lifetimes well over 1 million hours. Key components have started the radiation characterization process demonstrating promising results.

AERIUS PHOTONICS, LLC.
4160 Market St., Suite 6
Ventura, CA 93003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 642-4645
Dr. Michael MacDougal
MDA 06-020      Selected for Award
Title:High-Power Vertical Cavity Laser Diode Arrays for Space Applications
Abstract:Instead of making incremental improvements to the inherent weakness of the laser facet, Aerius Photonics proposes to fabricate space-qualifiable laser pump arrays that eliminate the weakness of the facet altogether by using kilowatt-capable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), which use a distributed mirror, effectively decoupling the feedback mirror from the output window. When compared to edge-emitting laser arrays, VCSELs offer (1) lower power density at the exit aperture, reducing hotspots, (2) simplified optics, (3) a single solder interface, (4) arbitrary array shape, (5)lower wavelength drift over temperature, and (6) a lower inherent production cost due to their ease of processing and testing. At the end of a successful Phase II, Aerius will deliver arrays with an emission wavelength of 808 nm and an output power of greater than 1000W per bar stack and demonstrating high reliability in a high vacuum environment. In Phase I, they will perform baseline reliability studies of kilowatt-capable VCSEL arrays in vacuum, and formulate a next-generation design based on the results of testing and a thorough trade study.

NLIGHT PHOTONICS
5408 NE 88th Street, Bldg E
Vancouver, WA 98665
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 566-4472
Mr. Mark DeFranza
MDA 06-020      Selected for Award
Title:Improved Laser Diodes for Space Laser Communications
Abstract:We propose to perform analytical and empirical studies of laser diode packages in regards to long-term reliability for use in the space environment. Our approach will be to develop a physics based understanding of the failure mechanisms observed due to operation in vacuum and radiation environments. We expect to be able to mitigate these failure mechanisms through nLight's laser diode design and fabrication capabilities. We anticipate that these failure mechanisms can be significantly reduced through the use of nLight's, diode and package designs, advanced materials and fabrication techniques, and our volume manufacturing capabilities. We have demonstrated, at 808nm, that we can meet the long-term goal of 150 watts per bar, and have further demonstrated very high efficiency (>65%) diode performance at these wavelengths. We anticipate our package designs can be made robust for use in the space environment to meet a 10,000-hour lifetime goal. This would enable high confidence deployment of our laser packages for space-based applications such as LIDAR, communications, and other programs requiring high power laser diode pumps.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr. Jeffrey S.N. Paine
MDA 06-021      Selected for Award
Title:Novel TVC Mini DAC System
Abstract:Thrust Vector Control (TVC) systems offer advantages such as reduced complexity and fewer thrusters relative to many other divert and attitude control (DAC) systems. Proposed is the development of a novel TVC system to provide miniature DAC capabilities for a wide range of mono-prop and bi-prop missile propulsion systems. A primary benefit that the proposed TVC concept offers relative to systems with multiple DAC and attitude control system (ACS) thrusters is that potentially fewer thrusters are required and the overall complexity of the system can be reduced. The proposed research will leverage previous work that has been conducted into TVC systems by incorporating a new piezoelectric motor actuation technology. The proposed system will provide significant improvements in valve proportionality, reduction of system complexity, increased reliability, reduced power consumption, and weight and cost savings relative to systems dependent upon electro-magnetic actuation technologies. The piezoelectric-controlled TVC will also impart a vectoring proportionality that can be valuable to the overall system response. The resulting technology will be scaleable to a wide range of applications.

EXQUADRUM, INC.
12130 Rancho Road
Adelanto, CA 92301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 246-0279
Mr. Kevin Mahaffy
MDA 06-021      Selected for Award
Title:OGRE Technology for Miniature DACS Propulsion
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research and development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach to high performance and highly controllable solid rocket motor propulsion for miniature advanced Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS). The proposed propulsion approach is throttleable and capable of a very large number of cycles of extinguishment and restart. The technology will be experimentally demonstrated during the research program.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Keith R. Meiler
MDA 06-021      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturized CMC Propulsion System Components for Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV)
Abstract:Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) Systems, in near-term deployment, offer a single kill opportunity per vehicle. The growing sophistication of threat countermeasures and target discernment are addressed by the Miniature Kill Vehicle (MKV) interceptor system. Enabling technologies including substantial reduction of kill vehicle size, mass and acquisition cost are required. For the proposed program, Fiber Materials Inc (FMI) supported by Aerojet will develop multi-directionally reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for incorporation within the Aerojet-developed MKV DACS design. The MKV application creates challenging performance requirements associated with controlling pressurized hot gas with miniaturized components. The development effort will focus on the design of specialized CMC's to meet requirements of the MKV Divert Thruster Assembly with direct applicability to the Attitude Control System (ACS).

VALCOR ENGINEERING CORP.
2 Lawrence Road
Springfield, NJ 07081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 467-8400
Mr. Ata Onursal
MDA 06-021      Selected for Award
Title:Miniature Advanced Divert and Attitude Control (DACS) System Technologies
Abstract:Valcor is proposing to perform a trade study of various valve design options to optimize a DACS control valve.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1202
Dr. Henry R. Sebesta
MDA 06-022      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Inertial Measurement System
Abstract:Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop a compact inertial measurement system (CIMS) by combining two inertial rate sensing devices. One rate sensor uses magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for high frequency motion measurement and is denoted the Angular Rate Sensor (ARS). The second sensor is a new micro-electro-mechancial system (MEMS) gyro denoted the Disk Resonant Gyro (DRG) and is used for low frequency motion measurement. In addition to combined ARS/DRG motion sensing, the CIMS also exploits FPGA-based electronics for multi-sensor signal conditioning and fusion. A complete, autonomous attitude determination system is achieved by optionally including a stellar camera unit / star tracker to provide calibration and inertial sensor drift compensation. Depending on performance requirements, other aiding sensors (magnetometers, horizon sensors, etc) may be substituted for the stellar camera. CIMS achieves motion measurement sensitivity at 5 arcsecs (25 microrads) or less over the bandwidth DC-100 Hz. Measurement noise of CIMS above 1 Hz is estimated to be less than 1 microrad. The mass of CIMS is less than 1.5 kg and power required under 2 W.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Mark V. Zagarola
MDA 06-023      Selected for Award
Title:Continuous-Flow Joule-Thomson Cryocoolers for Distributed Heat Loads
Abstract:Future space applications will require low capacity mechanical cryocoolers for distributed cooling of small arrays of infrared detectors, high-temperature superconducting electronics, or payload thermal management. Creare proposes to develop an innovative Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler that utilizes a new type of continuous flow compressor to provide cooling at multiple miniature cold heads. The heat transport to each cooling site is accomplished at ambient temperature allowing large separation distances between cryocooler components and cooling sites with minimal performance impact. The compressor uses non-contacting, gas-lubricated bearings and is a derivative of TRL 9 technology that has demonstrated high efficiency and reliability. The proposed approach eliminates limitations on life and reliability normally associated with JT cryocoolers. During the Phase I project, we propose to perform system modeling and proof-of-concept tests with the compressor to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. During Phase II, we will build and test a complete JT cryocooler at cryogenic temperatures.

CRYOWAVE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, INC.
58 Washington Street
Pawtucket, RI 02860
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 728-6488
Dr. Zhimin Hu
MDA 06-023      Selected for Award
Title:Miniaturization of Thermoacoustic Expander for 50 mW Recuperative Coolers Run Below 40 K
Abstract:The objective of this program is to demonstrate and miniaturize a new type of cryogenic expander, thermoacoustic expander (TAE), for space cryocoolers which provide the cooling power less than 50 mW and operate in the low temperature range between 40K and 10K for cooling SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR surveillance and interceptor systems. TAEs employ high energy acoustic waves generated with absolutely no mechanical moving parts at the cold expander to produce efficient cooling over a wide temperature range. The TAE can replace more conventional complex mechanical moving part turbines or piston expanders as well as Joule Thomson expanders. The novel expander is applicable to cooling multiple sensors or focal planes especially if they must be vibrationally decoupled from the host vehicle, and allowes for efficient integration of a low mass cold head with remote and/or numerous objects to be cooled. In phase I, a proof of concept unit will be designed, fabricated and tested.

VIRTUAL AEROSURFACE TECHNOLOGIES
575 14th Street, Suite 1375
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 881-8276
Dr. Thomas M. Crittenden
MDA 06-023      Selected for Award
Title:Small Scale Cryogenic Refrigeration Technology
Abstract:Virtual AeroSurface Technologies, Inc., in collaboration with researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Raytheon Company, proposes an SBIR program for the development of a MEMS fabricated microcompressor suitable for use with microcryocooler systems. The proposed microcompressor will be designed to provide 10 W of compressor power from an approximately 1 cm3 compressor package. In the Phase I program, two candidate concepts will be analyzed as means of provide positive displacement compression (particularly suitable for direct application to cooler systems with reciprocating thermal cycles, such as a Stirling cycle or pulse tube). The first concept will miniaturize a moving-magnet linear actuator, and the second will utilize a piezoelectric vibrating membrane. Both of these designs will be intended to eliminate frictional wear and surface-to-surface contact which would contaminate the micro-scale system and lead to catastrophic reductions in compressor effectiveness. Significant modeling and design of the two concepts will be performed and initial component prototyping will be performed with the superior design (based upon effectiveness, efficiency, and manufacturability) downselected at the end of Phase I for full prototyping and experimental characterization as part of a prospective Phase II program.

MICROSAT SYSTEMS
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5186
Mr. Greg Hegemann
MDA 06-024      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Microsatellite Target Platform
Abstract:This effort will enhance the space based platform for on orbit calibration of ground-based radar systems. Low cost, microsatellite technologies, developed under previous programs, will enable rapidly deployed calibration target system consisting of characteristic shaped bodies. Specific interface details associated with attributes of enhanced motion characteristic, greater telemetry collection, higher precision, multi-object deployment and active thermal control will be performed while maintaining up and downlink encrypted communications.

AMETHYST RESEARCH, INC.
Southern Oklahoma Technology Center2610 Sam Noble Parkway
Ardmore, OK 73401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 227-9414
Dr. Wayne Holland
MDA 06-025      Selected for Award
Title:Passivation Technologies for Improved Operability and Radiation Tolerance in VLWIR HgCdTe Focal Plane Arrays
Abstract:HgCdTe, with its high quantum efficiency, remains the material of choice for most high-performance infrared detector applications. By varying its alloy composition, HgCdTe can be used for short wavelength to very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR); however, its use in VLWIR (12-16 microns) applications is problematic, even when grown on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates, due to material and substrate quality issues. Ongoing work by Amethyst Research is proving hydrogenation effective in passivating defects and improving carrier lifetime/mobility in HgCdTe/Si infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs), offering the potential for increased producibility of large arrays, extended effective spectral response to longer wavelengths, and reduced cooling requirements. Recent research by Amethyst suggests that hydrogenation may also be effective in defect mitigation and the attendant operability improvements of HgCdTe/ZnCdTe focal plane arrays. There is also evidence to suggest that hydrogenation may improve radiation hardness of the HgCdTe/ZnCdTe, providing a self-healing material with immunity to a variety of defect sources. Amethyst proposes to investigate hydrogenation of HgCdTe/ZnCdTe for defect passivation and radiation hardening. Amethyst's collaboration with BAE, Raytheon Vision Systems and Teledyne Imaging Sensors (formerly Rockwell Scientific), the country's major IRFPA manufacturers, will ensure rapid transition of this manufacturing technology to MDA platforms.

LUMINIT, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Dr. Fedor Dimov
MDA 06-025      Selected for Award
Title:Fiber-Optic Phase Shifting Interferometer
Abstract:To address the MDA need for non-destructive evaluation and detection of surface and subsurface defects in aspheric telescope SiC mirrors, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new Fiber Optic Phase Shifting Interferometer (FOPSI). The proposed FOPSI is a non-contact real-time in situ surface roughness monitoring system based on an innovative, modular, highly sensitive interferometer consisting of a movable sensor head and a rapid non-mechanical phase shifting module, using single mode fibers to generate the reference and object waves. A high-speed camera in the sensor head captures a sequence of consecutive interferograms within sub-millsecond time intervals, which are then used to reconstruct the surface profile so that real-time image processing software can detect defects. The lightweight sensor head (<1 kg) can be easily positioned for in situ monitoring and evaluation of a SiC mirror in production. In Phase I Luminit will develop a proof-of-principle FOPSI and demonstrate the feasibility of mapping the surface profile in <5 minutes and detecting defects within 1 micron of a typical 10 inch SiC aspherical mirror surface with an accuracy of 5 nm rms. In Phase II Luminit will develop a full functioning FOPSI for in situ monitoring and evaluation of aspheric telescope SiC mirrors.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. David Sheikh
MDA 06-025      Selected for Award
Title:Low-Stress Silicon Cladding for Silicon-Carbide Mirrors
Abstract:Silicon carbide (SiC) has recently become an attractive replacement for berrilium in missile interceptor mirror applications. However, because of the difficulty in grinding silicon carbide and the potential for micro-porosity in the material, many types of SiC require the application of a relatively soft silicon layer for final figuring and polishing. Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) will develop and demonstrate a low-stress, polishable, silicon cladding for SiC mirrors using an ion-assisted deposition technique. In Phase I, SOC will fabricate silicon films and characterize the films for residual stress and polishability. In Phase II, the designs will be optimized and the research will be extended to include environmental exposure testing to ensure long-term stability of the materials.

ENSER CORP. THE
5430 70th Avenue North
Pinellas Park, FL 33781
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 520-1393
Mr. David Harney
MDA 06-026      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense System Innovative Power Storage Devices
Abstract:The overall objective of the pellet production automation program is to develop alternative methodologies for: 1) precise powder measurement, 2) powder preparation for transfer into the die cavity, 3) uniform powder dispersion. Pellet production is currently a rate limiting step in the production of thermal batteries. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the powders are different enough to require unique processing. The pellet production rate is highly dependant on the type of powder material being pressed as well as the type of press being used. The phase I objective is to develop a methodology for doubling ENSER's thermal battery pellet production rate by improving the powder loading, delivery and compaction processes on the automatic presses.

LITHCHEM INTERNATIONAL
1830 Columbia Avenue
Folcroft, PA 19032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 522-5960
Mr. Joseph Kejha
MDA 06-026      Selected for Award
Title:Safe High Power (High Rate) Lithium Battery for MKV (Missiles) with Long storage Life
Abstract:Thermal reserve batteries are an important necessary component for the proper function and optimum performance of guided missiles, many munitions systems, rockets, and other military systems requiring instant high power after a long period of storage. The technology and performance for these difficult, expensive, hand made batteries has not changed appreciably in 20 years. LithChem (Toxco) has developed a new safe, primary prismatic lithium reserve cell/battery (non-thermal) which has 8 times the power density (4 kW/kg) and twice the energy density (120 Wh/kg) over the current reserve batteries. This new LithChem cell operates at 4.3 V compared to the 1.5 V of the current reserve battery cells providing additional savings in space and weight and also has long term storability. Not only are these performance features a major advance for reserve batteries, but these new LithChem cells will have a much lower unit cost with increased reliability due to a unique automated cell manufacturing process. In this program, LithChem will work with Lockheed-Martin to develop this new battery for the Multiple Kill Vehicle as a first application and demonstration of this major improvement in reserve batteries for the Missile Defense Agency.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Thomas Barbarich
MDA 06-026      Selected for Award
Title:A Phase I SBIR Proposal to Lower the Cost and Improve the Manufacturing of Li-ion Batteries
Abstract:Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in military, aerospace, commercial, and vehicular applications because they have high specific energy (up to 200 Wh/kg) and energy density (~ 500 Wh/L) and long cycle life (1,000 - 80,000 cycles currently depending on the depth of cycling). However, the production of these batteries for defense applications is often in low volumes that can lead to increased costs and defects compared to mass-produced Li-ion batteries for the commercial sector. There is a need within the Army, Navy, other military services, NASA, and the commercial sector to lower the manufacturing cost and reliability of low volume systems. The proposed effort will use a new manufacturing technique to simplify the construction that will lower cost and improve the reliability of Li-ion cells.

FIBER MATERIALS, INC.
5 Morin Street
Biddeford, ME 04005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 282-5911
Mr. Keith R. Meiler
MDA 06-027      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced CMC Materials and Manufacturing Processes for Divert and Attitude Control Systems
Abstract:Fiber Materials Inc. (FMI) teamed with Aerojet Sacramento proposes to advance low cost, non-eroding material systems based on carbon fiber reinforced carbon silicon carbide (C-SiC) to high performance divert and attitude control system (DACS) components for the SM-3 TDACS application. In addition the program will develop advanced ceramic matrix composite manufacturing processes to further the material system capabilities while offering reduced system cost. These innovations will facilitate transition of current fielded DACS refractory metal construction technology to ceramic matrix composites with increased pressure capability. This added thrust capability will enable higher performance DACS designs and is applicable to evolving interceptor systems such as KEI. The material will be engineered for use with systems operating in the 3700øF temperature regime. Preliminary conceptual design and thermal/stress assessments will be accomplished in Phase I. The Phase I analyses will be used as a basis for varying carbon fiber perform weave design and process parameters to meet the operational end use requirements. In Phase II, final design analysis activities will support both manufacture of material for characterization as well as a representative component for hot gas demonstration.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 245-6465
Dr. Clifford T. Tanaka
MDA 06-027      Selected for Award
Title:Volume, Near Net Shape Manufacturing of Chemical Vapor Composite Divert & Attitude Control Systems (DACS) Nozzles
Abstract:Divert & Attitude Control System nozzles will be fabricated using Trex's chemical vapor composite (CVC) silicon carbide material. Because the CVC process results in high purity SiC, the excellent high temperature performance expected of the material is maintained. For example, some high temperature tests show erosion free performance in CVC SiC at temperatures as high as 4000oF. Furthermore, due to its high hardness and chemical resistance, CVC SiC is highly resistant to both mechanical and chemical erosion from DACS propellants. The Phase 1 program will produce net shape CVC SiC DACS nozzles of varying nozzle dimensions, including wall thickness of material and throat diameter. Trex will also develop fiber-reinforced CVC SiC nozzles with greater fracture toughness and greater survivability under extreme firing temperatures and pressures. Trex will thereby demonstrate cost-effect manufacturing of robust, erosion-resistant DACS nozzles using its CVC process.

UTRON, INC.
8506 Wellington Road, Suite 200
Manassas, VA 20109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 369-5552
Dr. Karthik Nagarathnam
MDA 06-027      Selected for Award
Title:High Temperature Propulsion Components for Advanced Solid DACS by Combustion Driven Powder Compaction (CDC) Technology
Abstract:The proposed work is mainly focused on developing Composite Alloys of W-Re, Mo-Re, with Ta, Hf, HfC, and TaC for the application development of higher thrust-high temperature (e.g., TDACS FEDS) Large Thrust Pintles with potential weight reduction by suitable alloying and functional layering for advanced Solid DACS systems using UTRON's 300 or 1000 Ton CDC Press. Major advantages of CDC process are: faster process cycle time (e.g., milliseconds), much higher densification, less part shrinkage, improved mechanical/high temperature strength attributes, ability for micro/nano powder consolidation and simple/complex geometry, much less/no materials wastage cast, superior surface quality (e.g., micron/sub-micron finishes), and scaling up potential. Representative disks, hollow cylinders, and select tensile dogbone samples will be processed to show the proof of concept and evaluated for CDC process optimization, thermal sintering responses, physical /geometrical/surface quality properties, microstructure, microchemistry and mechanical/high temperature properties in Phase I. Our R&D efforts are planned in collaboration with major MDA subcontractor (e.g., Aerojet) and SRI. Further advanced novel alloys, CDC process optimization, fabrication of specific geometries to MDA needs, extensive testing and scaling up efforts will be done in Phase II and Phase III.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
181 Gibraltar Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Mr. Richard Foedinger
MDA 06-028      Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional Hybrid Textiles for Integrated Heat Shield/Airframe Structures(MSC P6037)
Abstract:Advanced missile defense interceptors will require improved solutions for integrating thermal protection systems and high strength composite airframe structures to meet the performance goals for lightweight, low cost, ablative/insulation performance, lightning strike protection, resistance to degradation or damage from adverse weather conditions and structural integrity at elevated temperatures. Improvements in manufacturing processes are also desired to reduce costs associated with current labor intensive heatshield manufacturing and assembly procedures. In order to meet the multifunctional performance goals, an integrated heatshield/airframe structure material system employing hybrid fiber bundles, advanced textile preforms and nanoparticle reinforcements is proposed. Candidate fiber and resin material systems and functionally gradient composite constructions will be identified and evaluated. Analytical material models will be developed and thermostructural analyses will be performed to evaluate candidate heatshield/airframe material combinations. The innovation involves the integration of functional material characteristics at the constituent level to provide design tailorability and compatibility with manufacturing process methods. Alternate manufacturing approaches for integrating the hybrid textile pre-forms will be evaluated. A final prototype hybridized material system for the integrated heatshield/airframe will be down-selected for Phase II manufacturing scale-up and performance demonstration.

OCELLUS, INC.
450 Lindbergh Avenue
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 606-6540
Dr. Michael Droege
MDA 06-028      Selected for Award
Title:Spray-On Thermal Protection for Hypersonic Missiles
Abstract:The development hypersonic missiles is one response to the current need of weapon systems with the ability to attack time-critical targets at long range. Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) is a missile development program to design, develop, and deploy kinetic energy-based missiles that can intercept and destroy enemy ballistic missiles during their boost phase. Future MDA requirements for hypersonic missiles, like the KEI, necessitate advances in structural and insulation materials as enabling technologies. These hypersonic vehicles will experience severe aero-thermal loading, high G accelerations, and must be capable of flight in all-weather conditions. It is clear that a thermal protection system (TPS) will be required to ensure the successful development of hypersonic missiles. While a range of insulation materials are currently used to provide thermal protection for supersonic missiles, none of these appear to be a viable solution for the hypersonic KEI. To meet the need for an effective, robust, nonablating TPS that can applied using efficient manufacturing methods, we propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel composite, spray-on thermal barrier system. We envision this TPS providing thermal protection and adverse weather resistance for ceramic and organic composite structures of hypersonic missiles.

SAN DIEGO COMPOSITES, LLC
9340 Hazard Way, Suite A3
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 750-0450
Ms. Christine Benzie
MDA 06-028      Selected for Award
Title:High Temperature Composite Rocket Motor Cases for Missile Defense
Abstract:Next generation missile defense interceptors will achieve hypersonic velocities during flight to reach offensive missile targets sufficiently early to minimize threat capability. Achieving the peak velocity with current rocket motor technology (i.e., graphite reinforced epoxy case materials) is proving a challenge for the system level contractors. Meeting the booster performance goals with innovative materials technologies is a much lower system level cost approach than by increasing the booster diameter or length. The approach for this SBIR proposal is to target the missile components that have a significant weight impact due to the large surface area, specifically the first and second stage rocket motor cases. Higher temperature rocket motor cases resins have been identified as a technology that is capable of delivering the improved performance that next generation interceptors demand. Optimizing the thermal performance of the case with resins with higher temperature capability than epoxy materials affords the designer the ability to reduce the TPS volume. The volume and mass saved by the higher operating temperature case can be filled with propellant to achieve increased burn-out velocities or quicker time to target.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. Victor M. Arrieta
MDA 06-028      Selected for Award
Title:Economical Manufacture of Refractory Ceramic Matrix Composite Aerostructure with Integral Thermal Protection System for Kinetic Energy Interceptor
Abstract:The thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment generated during launch and flight of hypersonic missiles is severe. Ultramet has developed a melt infiltration process for rapid fabrication of refractory ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) including matrices of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide, silicon carbide, and ceramic alloys including two or more of these materials. The carbon fiber reinforcement provides high strength and toughness and can be braided or wrapped into complex shapes that are retained after the melt process and require little or no postprocess machining. Significant ultrahigh temperature testing of these composites has been performed with good results. Ultramet has also developed and tested high temperature, low cost insulators composed of open-cell carbon foam that is filled with a low conductivity carbon aerogel insulator. The potential exists to combine and optimize melt infiltrated CMCs with foam-based insulators that meet the demanding requirements of hypersonic missile airframes while also demonstrating affordable processing. Ultramet proposes to assemble a development team comprising Materials Research & Design for thermal/mechanical modeling and erosion prediction methodologies, Ocellus Inc. for carbon aerogel/carbon foam insulation processing, and Raytheon Missile Systems for airframe requirements definition. In Phase I, aerostructure prototype components will be fabricated and subjected to high temperature oxidation testing to 3500§F at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory.

COSTVISION
1472 North St.
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 539-9312
Mr. Charles Stirk
MDA 06-029      Selected for Award
Title:Cost Modeling Interoperability & Integration within the Model-Based Enterprise
Abstract:Defense acquisition programs suffer from cost escalation due to the inability to accurately estimate costs up front and to predict the cost impact of changes. In this program, we will work with several leading MDA manufacturers to define the requirements for a costing framework integrated with their engineering and business software infrastructure. The framework will facilitate the establishment of a model-based enterprise by developing cost models that interoperate with system, sub-system, part and manufacturing models across development phases. In particular, we will 1) design a lifecycle cost modeling framework for both electrical and mechanical systems; 2) define interfaces to commercial cost estimating and enterprise software applications that are based on developing industry standards to create integrated cost models; 3) automate the integration of cost parameters across the models; 4) automate risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis; and 4) work with MDA manufacturers to ensure that the costing framework meet the needs of critical system development programs. We will leverage the web-based, collaborative costing software under development at CostVision and extend it to interoperate with complementary costing, product lifecycle management, enterprise resource planning, and manufacturing execution systems.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd.Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
MDA 06-029      Selected for Award
Title:Cost360T: Enterprise-wide Cost Modeling Tracking and Sensitivity Analyses
Abstract:The inability of MDA acquisition programs to effectively manage costs and curb cost growth has historically produced cost over-runs. One key reason for this cost escalation is the lack of total visibility into all the sources of cost within the enterprise. What is needed for "total cost knowledge" are accurate cost models that are integrated with the various business and engineering applications (e.g. ERP/ERM, PDM/PLM) in the enterprise. This SBIR project is concerned with developing methods and tools that maximize knowledge of total cost, enable cost sensitivity analysis, and facilitate interoperability and automatic integration of cost models with other enterprise applications including business systems and dependent model elements (such as mechanical part models with related material models and associated manufacturing process models) as part of a model-based enterprise. The cost modeling tool will account for various sources of project uncertainties and risks and will enable cost projections under a variety of "what if" assumptions. Phase I of this effort will establish a generic framework for weapon system lifecycle cost modeling.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, LLC (DBA MMCC, LLC)
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. Yuejian Chen
MDA 06-030      Selected for Award
Title:Thin Copper-Graphite Composite Cold Plate for Thermal Management of High Density Electronics
Abstract:Copper-graphite composite is proposed for a thin liquid-cooled cold plate for high density electronic thermal management. The proposed cold plate will have CTE in the range of 2~9x10-6 /øC to match those of semiconductors such as SiC, silicon, GaAs, as well as ceramic substrates. The composites have a thermal conductivity of ~200 W/m K in the through-plane direction and ~300 W/m K in planar directions. The proposed cold plate will be able to withstand temperatures up to those of copper-silver brazing (780 degree C) for subsequent die attachment or substrate bonding, without re-melting the brazing joint.

WAVEFRONT RESEARCH, INC.
616 West Broad Street
Bethlehem, PA 18018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 694-9778
Dr. Thomas W. Stone
MDA 06-030      Selected for Award
Title:NOVEL PACKAGING AND INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGIES FOR GREATLY ENHANCED FOOTPRINT, THERMAL, AND RADIATION PERFORMANCE IN MDA APPLICATIONS
Abstract:The goal of this Phase-I SBIR effort is to establish the feasibility, performance, and advantages of a combination of novel technologies that provide a practical high reliability and high performance solution to challenges encountered in increasing the capabilities of interceptor processors as well as dense multi-board electronic applications. The technology developed in this program will provide breakthrough increases in interconnect density accompanied by enhanced thermal management, high data throughput, relaxed manufacturing tolerances, low power, low crosstalk, and greatly reduced EMI and radiation sensitivity. In addition, the reliability in high shock, vibration, and repeated thermal excursions will be improved. A key feature of this technology is that it has no major cost drivers and is expected to result in a very low-cost and robust interconnection technology. The Phase-I effort includes design and modeling of the technology, the construction of feasibility demonstrators, their experimental evaluation, initial optimization of the technology, and the design of a high performance Phase-II prototype demonstrator that will be built and evaluated by Primes in a potential follow-on Phase-II effort.

DECIBEL RESEARCH, INC.
PO Box 5368
Huntsville, AL 35814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-6189
Mr. Max Patin
MDA 06-031      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Signal Processing Technologies for BMDS Radars
Abstract:While enormous advances in signal processing throughput have been made over the last decade, there still have been expressed limitations of current technology to handle large data samples and extremely high data rate processing present in tactical missile defense sensor systems. Current methods employed to ameliorate this problem have focused on custom hardware solutions in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and custom digital signal processors (DSPs). As a result, the solutions tend to resolve point design issues but with little flexibility for evolving requirements and at high deployment and maintenance costs. Equipment obsolescence also tends to be a characteristic of these near term solutions. While the achievements in high performance, general purpose compute power and high density memory have produced remarkable results in batch (non-real-time) processing, these have not been realizable in the signal processing domain for tactical sensor systems. However, with the recent advances in low latency interconnect technology, the opportunity is afforded to resolve current limitations of the custom solutions. This research effort will identify innovative software solutions designed to bring high performance compute opportunities to the signal processing domain.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
1220 Kennestone CircleSuite E
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 795-8181
Dr. J. Clayton Kerce
MDA 06-031      Selected for Award
Title:Atmospheric Effects Mitigation and Enhanced Metrics for Improved Radar Tracking and Handover
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) proposes an innovative class of algorithms for ionospheric and tropospheric scintillation effects mitigation that will improve target tracking and handover performance in early warning and tracking Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) radars. One issue in BMD tracking is successfully handing over a threat object map (TOM) from a forward-based radar to a rear-based radar. Atmospheric effects from both the ionosphere and the troposphere will distort the TOM in two significant ways - refraction and turbulence.

PRA will develop target metrics and algorithms that enhance target tracking and handover using atmospheric refraction and turbulence correlation measurements determined by the Total Atmospheric Effects Mitigation System, developed by PRA for the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the US Air Force. The proposed radar metrics will enhance BMD radar tracking and handover for all targets including low-elevation targets thereby increasing the coverage area of BMD radars.

PRA will demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms using a simulation that accounts for scintillation induced spatial and temporal correlation between individual returns for objects in a separating target complex. In Phase II, this simulation will be integrated into early warning MDA radars for algorithm validation.

RDAS, INC.
11003 E.Bradford Circle
Cerritos, CA 90703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 379-4802
Mr. Augustus H. Green, jr.
MDA 06-031      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Signal Processing Technologies for BMDS Radars
Abstract:The objective is to formulate and validate via computer simulations new approaches for developing an algorithm suite having a capability for operating and processing wideband adaptive arrays and to counter interference. Selection of an efficient algorithm suite for both narrowband and wideband environments without a need for matrix inversion and independent of waveform type is the thrust. The goal is to achieve improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the desired signal while suppressing the undesired signals. The approaches will be developed mathematically and will be validated via computer simulations. Algorithm simulation requires selection of physics based models for a phased array antenna, transmitted waveform, target, and jammer. Models from RDAS' database will be used or where available models don't suffice models will be generated. A three dimensional scenario wherein target and jammer locations are defined with respect to radar location will also be defined. Target, jammer and beam-steering motion will be incorporated in a simulation to demonstrate feasibility of the adaptive algorithm processing technique to continually suppress or cancel the jamming signal while preserving the information content of a reflected signal from a target regardless of motion. A planar array of size MxN will be used to demonstrate feasibility.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. Richard Lethin
MDA 06-031      Selected for Award
Title:Software Tools to Optimize BMD Radar Algorithms to COTS Hardware
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop additional capabilities in software tools, in order to map advanced BMD signal processing algorithms to next-generation COTS signal processing hardware, within the context of open standards programming APIs. Specifically we propose to focus on advanced Moving Target Indicator (MTI) algorithms, MTI variants with tightly integrated imaging. The primary target of such mappings will be two-dimensional single-chip fine-grained processor arrays. We will implement additions to parallel program optimization and mapping algorithms based on the polyhedral model, as implemented in the Reservoir R-Stream compiler. These optimization and mapping improvements will serve to take better account of the two-dimensional topology of the hardware processor array. This will result in significant improvements to the ability to implement certain computationally intense portions of radar signal processing algorithms, increasing capabilities and decreasing development costs.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport StreetQuonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Dr. William H. Weedon
MDA 06-032      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Digital Receiver/Exciters for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:This proposal will address the development of digital receivers and exciters capable of supporting > 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth (IBW). The technology will be used in large scalable BMD radar arrays employing a digital waveform generator and digital receiver at the analog input/output of each subarray panel. The receivers/exciters include the necessary up/downconversion and local oscillator circuitry necessary to generate or receive an X-band waveform. Recent developments in > 2 GSPS A/D and D/A chipsets and state-of-the-art FPGA technology allow the real-time processing of wideband (> 1 GHz) radar data, while commercially-available MMIC and PLL chipsets allow the translation of the baseband signals to/from X-band. Several challenges exist in the packaging of the mixed-signal electronics in a manner suitable for a large radar array, routing of the high-speed digital signals both on- and off-board, and cohering of the many receiver/exciter channels across the array. The output of the proposed digital receiver/exciter channels would likely be fed to a wideband digital beamformer array. In Phase I, Applied Radar will design the digital receiver/exciter hardware for a single channel, and develop a multi-channel hardware architecture and packaging approach. In Phase II, the hardware will be fabricated and tested, and integrated with an array such as an MDA SPEAR panel.

GLOBAL DELTA, LLC
13008 Henson Ct, Suite B
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 651-1782
Mr. Donald D. Coleman
MDA 06-032      Selected for Award
Title:Affordable Digital Receiver/Exciter for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:A program is proposed to leverage the radar technology developed by Global Delta LLC as part of the Navy's Maritime Identification and Surveillance Technology (MIST) project to develop affordable digital receiver/exciters. Global Delta's development of affordable techniques for digital beamforming has focused on designs that rely on the use of state-of-the-art digital circuits to generate waveforms that can precisely form and steer antenna beams without the use of costly phase shifters or time-delay circuitry. Digital beam forming on a pulse to pulse basis permits adaptive control of the radar beam for angle position and frequency and the capability to interleave pulse trains at different frequencies while retaining the coherency of each of several pulse trains. T/R modules suitable for X-band and Ku band use have been investigated by Global Delta as elements of active electronic scanned array (AESA) radar systems. Test modules have been developed at X-band and are in the processes of being integrated into a maritime surveillance radar. The RF-to-digital receiver, combined with the digital exciter for waveform generation provides an affordable element of a high-power active electronic scanned antenna system. The fundamental design objective is a plug-in module that is interchangeable with other modules in an AESA.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. John Poelker
MDA 06-032      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Digital Receiver/Exciters for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:Anticipated threats to missile defense radars are a challenging mixture of countermeasures and simulation. Future systems are expected to incorporate multi-channel adaptive digital beam-forming to counter the active threats and therefore require affordable, high performance digital receivers and digital exciters. This phased array radar technology research effort is focused on developing low-cost, low-power, compact digital exciter technologies. One novel design approach for such application is a direct analog synthesis approach. This Phase 1 proposal describes Hittite's approach for miniaturized direct synthesizers suitable for T/R module applications with X-band outputs. A block diagram of the proposed T/R module is proposed along with the MMICs required to support it. These new MMICs include filters and a Phase locked microwave reference to be used to reduce the module size and complexity. A calibration technique for synchronizing Hittite's resettable frequency dividers is proposed.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Donald L. Herman, Jr.
MDA 06-032      Selected for Award
Title:High-Speed, Low-Power Embedded ADC (9727)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop an advanced wideband high-speed, low-power ADC for embedded applications such as wafer-scale arrays (WSAs). Offering higher speed and lower power than competing devices, the ADC will advance the state of the art and enable next-generation digital sub-arrays. A combination of innovative design and SiGe BiCMOS technology will be used to realize the ADC. Implemented as a key part of a WSA's receiving signal chain, the ADC will reduce RF complexity by moving data conversion inside the antenna element to enable radars with size, weight, power, and cost a fraction that of current phased arrays. During Phase I a conceptual design will be developed and key cells simulated. Prototype ADCs will be designed during Phase II for use in WSAs for SPEAR and other applications.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Geoffrey Burnham
MDA 06-033      Selected for Award
Title:Very Wide Bandwidth Photonic Adaptive Digital Beamformer
Abstract:An innovative concept for a scalable Adaptive Digital Beamformer that can be applied to the full range of MDA radars is proposed. The concept is photonics based and will support transmit/receive applications over the .1 to 20 ghz band. The design provides a digitally controlled True Time Delay Beamformer effectively adaptive to a phased array in any portion of the spectral coverage. Fine pointing resolution design is consistent with the implementation approach. A Phase 1 Approach to demonstrate the key beamformer characteristics follwed by a Phase 2 Program that will miniaturize the design and test a multi element implementation. Agiltron is working closely with BAE Systems on this this unconventional approach leveraging Agiltron's recent breakthrough in manufacturing high performance fiber delay lines and variable optical attenuators. The proposed approach overcomes the deficiencies associated with electronic beam forming components, offering frequency independent performance of controlling phase and amplitude in a small, lightweight package with minimal power consumption. Our approach provides unprecedented performance in terms of wide dynamic range, extremely low microwave signal loss, low noise and fast dynamic reconfigurability. The preferred solution set will be determined after developing optimization algorithms for digital receiver/exciter for MDA.

APPLIED RADAR, INC.
210 Airport StreetQuonset Point
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 295-0062
Mr. Michael A. Deaett
MDA 06-033      Selected for Award
Title:Efficient Adaptive Beamforming for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:The detection and classification of reentry vehicles in the presence of jammers and clutter is a very important missile defense radar problem. High resolution, wideband adaptive beamforming (ADBF) is an important solution component in which both the transmit and receive beamforming weight vectors are dynamically updated to optimize performance in a time varying jammer and clutter environment. An important constraint on wideband ADBF performance is the high cost of current radar system implementations. During Phase I, Applied Radar will use an extensive beamforming technology base to demonstrate that a wide band, minimum variance, diagonally loaded adaptive beamformer architecture can be integrated into a low-cost, high speed digital beamformer. This research builds on our previously developed innovative, scaleable beamformer architecture. During Phase II, the beamformer hardware will be programmed and interfaced to an array such as an MDA SPEAR panel and the predicted performance demonstrated. Using realistic unclassified engagement scenarios, we will quantify the improvements in missile defense enabled by our technology. We have identified two technology transition paths, one military and the other commercial. We are teamed with a university partner actively engaged in commercial wireless research. We are also supported by an MDA prime radar development contractor.

VIRTUAL EM, INC.
2019 Georgetown Blvd
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 222-4558
Dr. Tayfun Ozdemir
MDA 06-033      Selected for Award
Title:FPGA-Based Adaptive Digital Beamforming for Missile Defense Radars
Abstract:An FPGA-based solution is proposed for Adaptive Digital Beamforming for missle defense radars. The FPGA implementation speeds up real-time computations and allows for remote retuning of the algorithm after launch. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) ensures reliable performance in adverse conditions. The proposed solution is as an enabling technology for legacy beamforming hardware.

METAMATERIALS.LLC
2225 W. Braker Lane
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 228-3662
Dr. Rodger Walser
MDA 06-034      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Technologies for Anti-Jam and Electromagnetic Attack Rejection in Ballistic Missile
Abstract:The objective of this program is to utilize a new type of microwave magnetic materials called MetaFerrites to design novel spin wave limiters to protect radar receivers from "front door" high power microwave jamming signals, and high power, short pulses and UWB interference. In Phase I, we will model, simulate, and design Metaferrites, design techniques for processing the composites, and investigate the design of S and X band MetaFerrite waveguide and microstripline. The MetaFerrite limiters are expected to be lightweight, self-biasing, fast responding and compatible with MMIC integration.

PLASMA SCIENCES CORP.
7001 Shallowford Road
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(423) 894-4646
Mr. Luke Gritter
MDA 06-034      Selected for Award
Title:Plasma Limiter: Electromagnetic Attack Protection for BMDS Radars
Abstract:The enabling solid state semiconductor technology in radar systems supporting the U. S. Army's ballistic missile defense program increases its vulnerability to the effects of high power, fast rise-time EMP, HPM, and UWB pulses. In recent years, significant advances in the technology used to produce these pulses have been made in the United States and abroad, increasing the need for effective protection against these threats. Plasma Sciences Corporation (PSC) has extensive experience in the development of plasma limiters to protect sensitive electronic equipment from high power, fast rise-time pulses. Existing plasma limiter technology utilizes a metallic point-plane electrode configuration. While this configuration has been reasonably effective, the advent of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays presents an opportunity to greatly improve plasma limiter performance. Using a CNT array as a field enhancing electrode in a plasma limiter promises to offer faster reaction time, higher power handling capability, and greater reliability than existing systems, providing effective protection for BMDS radars against high power, fast rise-time pulses.

CRYSTAL IS, INC.
70 Cohoes Avenue
Green Island, NY 12183
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 271-7375
Dr. Joseph Smart
MDA 06-035      Selected for Award
Title:High power solid state amplifiers on non-polar AlN substrates for ground-based missile defense system radars
Abstract:Research efforts will focus on design, simulation and fabrication of X-band transistors for use in power amplifiers and T/R modules for missile defense radar systems. Innovative, next generation nitride based power transistors will be fabricated on non-polar native AlN substrates. This will enable new device designs without the strong polarization fields associated with typical nitride growth along the c-direction. Gate and channel breakdown along with RF-to-dc dispersion will be reduced or eliminated in the proposed devices. Novel device structures will not require Fe doping in the buffer layers or field plate extensions on the gate which will increase the gain and frequency response of the devices. New physical modeling will be developed to better understand the non-polar device performance and fed back to aid the epitaxial material development on non-polar nitride crystals. Epitaxial growth optimization on non-polar substrates will be extensively investigated to produce device quality films and heterostructures required for high performance, long lifetime devices for next generation X-band radar system. Nucleation strategies and growth parameters have proven to be quite different for the non-polar face substrates. In addition, transport properties of the 2DEG will be monitored on transistor structures to assess improvements in the material quality.

GROUP4 LABS, LLC
1600 Adams DriveSuite 112
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 688-5760
Dr. Felix Ejeckam
MDA 06-035      Selected for Award
Title:Solid State Amplifiers and Transmit/Receive Modules for Ground-Based Missile Defense System Radars
Abstract:This Phase-I SBIR MDA Proposal proposes the use of a new class of diamond-seeded solid-state material system for the manufacture of virtually all heat-generating solid-state electronics in X-band and Ballistic Missile Defense radar components and systems. In this proposal wherein much preliminary (also MDA-funded) work has been demonstrated hitherto by the authors, Gallium Nitride-on-SiC power amplifiers in X-band radar are replaced with GaN-on-Diamond power amplifiers to enable nearly total and immediate heat extraction from the device­İs active region. This proposal is focused on producing a GaN-on-Diamond wafer wherein the diamond is 3X thicker (or 75-ŸYm) than Group4­İs earlier wafers. Polycrystalline free standing CVD diamond ­V nature­İs most efficient thermal conductor ­V enables nearly perfect heat extraction from a ­hot­" device, owing to the extreme thermal conductivity of diamond (GaAs, Si, and SiC are 35W/m/K, 150W/m/K and 390W/m/K respectively; diamond ranges from 1200-2000 W/m/K depending on quality). In the proposed scheme, the device­İs active epitaxial layers are removed from their original host substrate and transferred to a specially treated low-cost CVD diamond substrate using a proprietary low-cost manufacturable scheme. The semiconductor-on-diamond technology proposed here may be applied to Si, GaAs, GaN, SiC, SiGe, etc. at up to 8­" in wafer diameter.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
MDA 06-035      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Seeded Crystal Growth Processes for Large Area Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride Substrates
Abstract:Kyma Technologies will explore aspects of seeded bulk GaN crystal growth to develop manufacturing processes for large area, high quality, semi-insulating GaN substrates for RF applications. Preparation of GaN seeds and growth thereon, including surface cleaning, off-cut angle and direction, growth initiation, and defect control will be investigated. The use of novel seeds and growth conditions will be examined to expand the crystal size during growth. These substrates are expected to improve the performance and reliability of GaN-based power amplifiers for X-band radar applications.

SINMAT, INC.
2153 Hawthorne RoadGTEC Center, Suite 129, Box2
Gainesville, FL 32641
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(352) 334-7237
Dr. Deepika Singh
MDA 06-035      Selected for Award
Title:Novel Rapid and Low Damage Mechanical Polishing Method for Low Cost and Volume Manufacturing of 100mm SiC Substrates
Abstract:The extremely long and multiple polishing steps represent one of the critical challenges for affordable, volume production of high quality 100 mm SiC wafers. As SiC is relatively chemically inert and mechanically hard, aggressive polishing methods involving very hard particles have been used to achieve high removal rates, but such methods create a high degree of sub-surface damage and scratches. To significantly reduce the manufacturing costs, novel high removal rate and low sub-surface mechanical polishing processes need to be developed. Sinmat proposes to develop a novel mechanical polishing process based on novel nanoparticles that will significantly enhance polishing rates, while at the same time reducing the sub-surface damage. These nanoparticles are expected to combine high hardness with "chemical tooth" capability to achieve high removal rates with low concomitant surface damage. The successful development of such as process is expected to significantly shorten the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) step and related manufacturing costs. In the Phase I of the SBIR project, feasibility studies will be conducted on small substrates, while in the Phase II this process will be extended to 100 mm silicon carbide substrates.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
MDA 06-036      Selected for Award
Title:Thermally Initiated Venting Systems (TIVS)
Abstract:Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) self-detonation is an unacceptable and highly dangerous occurrence. A system that would reduce the likelihood of this occurring would be highly beneficial to the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). Mid‚ proposes to design a Thermally Initiated Venting Systems (TIVS) that will decrease the likelihood of SRM premature detonation in its canister. When the temperature and pressure inside an SRM canister rise too high, it can cause the SRM to detonate, possibly resulting in a loss of life. Mid‚ has previously designed and flight qualified a Positive Pressure Relief Valve (PPRV) that is currently in use on the International Space Station. The valve will work on the same principal as the valve used in the space station. Given a rise in pressure or temperature inside the canister above a pre-determined level, the valve will be automatically be triggered open and quickly reduce the pressure inside the canister, helping to prevent premature detonation.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng Tan
MDA 06-036      Selected for Award
Title:Smart Thermal Activated Vents for Large Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Many advanced military weapon systems involve solid rocket motor (SRM) to achieve supersonic speed. Most SRM casings are made from metal alloys. There is an increasing number of SRMs fabricated from polymeric composites because of high performance to weight ratio. The propellants in SRMs are highly sensitive to the chamber pressure to maintain combustion. However, the high chamber pressure has a safety concern in case of fire or unplanned external stimuli. Current safety design incorporates an explosive device to split the motor casing in case of fire or elevated temperature. The use of explosive with close contact with the propellant is itself a concern for safety. In this Phase I SBIR project Wright Materials Research Co. will team up with ATK Thiokol to fabricate and test a new design of fast venting mechanism for SRM casing for MDA's missile applications. The proposed technology is based on a smart material approach. It will create a vent quickly to release the high chamber pressure and extinguish the fire as the desired condition is reached. This design is reliable, safe, and can be adopted for technology insertion in the near future. Preliminary research results are very promising. Once developed through the Phase II project, the proposed smart material based venting mechanism would have an immediate niche market for missiles applications including THAAD, PAC-3, SM, GBI, KEI, and many others.

ZATORSKI COATING CO., INC.
77 Wopowog Road
East Hampton, CT 06424
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 267-9889
Mr. Ray Zatorski
MDA 06-036      Selected for Award
Title:PhaCTIV - Phase Change Thermally Initialted Venting System
Abstract:PhaCTIV - Phase Change Thermally Initiated Venting System The Phase Change Thermally Initiated Venting System (PhaCTIV) consists of the following: 1) A structual plate (external) - low melt alloy - structual plate - thermal barrier (internal). 2) Structural plates are joined together with low-melt alloy having an operating range of 230øC to greater than 480øC, depending on requirements. 3) Thermal barrier materials (TBC) on the internal surface. The PhaCTIV is installed into sections of the motor case with the thermal barrier layer toward the interior. The thermal barrier preserves the integrity of the low-melt alloy during the firing of the motor. However an external fire will melt the alloy resulting in the structural plates falling away from the case venting the rocket motor resulting in thrust termination. This system has the following features: No pyrotechnics No energetics No sensors to activate the system No electronics No power required No maintenance The proposed thermal barrier system (TBS) also acts as an adhesive enhancement system for the propellant material. A version of the system was demonstrated in a test firing for an Army's rocket case with a diameter of 225 mm. Both laboratory and commercial applications demonstrate that the TBC effectively insulates the low-melt alloy. This TBS is a version of the same system used in flight and land-based gas turbine engines with operating combustion temperatures in excess of 1150øF for thousands of hours. Utilizing the joining and metallurgical properties of the low-melt alloy with the structural plate system will provide strength equal to the bulk of the case. Tests are required to demonstrate that the bond strength of the plates to the low-melt alloy are stable over the anticipated temperature range of the motor during firing.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 471-9700
Dr. Amish Desai
MDA 06-037      Selected for Award
Title:MIL-STD 1901A Compliant In-Line Electrical Initiation System for Multifunctional IM/Legacy Propulsion Applications
Abstract:Tanner and Special Devices, Inc. (SDI) will leverage a TRL-6 in-line Fireset/EFI device developed for future use with insensitive munitions (IM) warhead and propellant applications. In Phase I we will package and demonstrate at TRL-5 an in-line electronic Arm-Fire device (EAFD) for use in igniting solid rocket motors (SRM) with either IM or legacy propellants. The TRL-6 ignition system, packaged in «-inch3, will be physically integrated into a `standard' _-inch diameter SDI rocket motor igniter body for Phase I demonstration. We will vertically integrating high voltage components within the EFI device to minimize inductance and footprint. This innovative hybrid design approach using MEMS-based mass fabrication techniques creates a multifunctional approach to reliably initiate one or more EFI with nanosecond simultaneity. Similarly, multiple EFI devices can be digital-controlled to sequence initiation of a large array of divert and attitude control system (DACS) thrusters such as the 180 SRM used on PAC-3.

ENERCHEM LLC
609 North Second Street
LaVale, MD 21502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 697-0743
Dr. Kenneth O. Hartman
MDA 06-038      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Solid Rocket Motor Insensitive Munitions Solutions for Impact and Rocket Propelled
Abstract:Enerchem proposes to develop and demonstrate innovative concepts to protect solid rocket motors from impact events. Specifically our ignition delay concept has the potential to mitigate the overpressure, fragmentation and collateral damage that is usually incurred upon bullet or fragment impact on large motors. This concept is part of a systems approach to meeting the IM requirements and is integrated with other mitigation approaches in our Phase I program. Specifically the use of bore mitigants, formulation of tough propellants, and the utilization of low pressure designs and low burning rate propellants to the degree possible are all considered in Enerchem's integrated IM design approach. In Phase I we will develop a generic test motor design, that is compatible with the MDA mission requirements, and will serve to demonstrate the IM and kinematic capabilities in Phase II. We will also address the shaped charge jet threat in this proposal and will develop a data base and define the relationship of formulation variables to the shock sensitivity. With respect to the SJC threat, our Phase I activity will focus on propellant trade studies and defining the Phase II test plan and test configurations. Results of this program will provide the basis to design missile system that can meet the IM criteria for SJC attack and minimize collateral damage.

WRIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH CO.
1187 Richfield Center
Beavercreek, OH 45430
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-8811
Dr. Seng Tan
MDA 06-038      Selected for Award
Title:Lightweight Hybrid SRM Shipping Container To Defeat Rocket Propelled Grenade
Abstract:MDA is interested in insensitive munitions (IM) technology that can protect large solid rocket motors (SRM) from impact stimuli including rifles, fragment, and rocket propelled grenades (RPG). Current IM propellants exhibit poor IM characteristics for SRM larger than 12-in in diameter. RPG, rifles, and fragment impact have created safety concerns for large SRM during transportation and storage. Among all these threats RPG is most difficult to defeat. When an RPG fires, the shape charge formed by the softened metal particles can penetrate a shipping container and cause the propellant inside the SRM to explode. It is one of the most dangerous weapons used in battlefield since the Vietnam War. To defeat RPG using the current technology need thick metals (steel and titanium alloy) and ceramic plates over 12-in thick and weighs hundreds of thousands of pounds. Such heavy weight will nearly immobilize a vehicle that carries the SRM and shipping container. There are no SRM technology that can defeat RPG at the present time. Some military agencies are developing mechanisms with high power electricity to defeat RPG. However, to carry high power electricity around a SRM is a dangerous operation. In this SBIR Phase I project we propose to develop a novel family of hybrid composite to defeat RPG based on the principle of a multidisciplinary approach. It will be lightweight, easy, safe and flexible to use as shipping container for SRM with IM. The proposed composite will be able to save many lives and very expensive missiles like THAAD and ground vehicles from destruction by RPG.

APPLIED NANOTECH, INC.
3006 Longhorn Blvd.Suite 107
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 339-5020
Dr. James Novak
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Solid State Hypergolic Chemical Leak Detector
Abstract: Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI) proposes to develop novel Gated Metal Oxide Sensor (GMOST) technology into a device capable of sensing leaks of hypergolic fuel materials. GMOST is a robust solid state system that offers several advantages relative to convention metal oxide sensor technology including: lower power consumption (for long battery life), greater sensitivity and higher selectivity. The ANI leak detector will contain sensing elements for both fuel and oxidizer which will be developed and optimized in experimental work in the Phase I SBIR program. The sensors will be integrated into a breadboard prototype with control electronics and software and tested under simulated environmental conditions required for leak detector application to demonstrate a basic working model of a hypergolic fuel leak detector.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. Michael T. Carter
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Hypergolic Chemical Leak Detector
Abstract:Hydrazines, nitrogen oxides, and other highly reactive compounds are extensively used as missile propellants. The toxic nature of these substances requires careful monitoring over long periods to ensure safety of personnel particularly during mobilization after prolonged storage. Detecting chemical leaks may also prevent critical system failures within the missiles. Currently, there are no sensors available that can monitor a range of common propellants with the necessary sensitivity and operating characteristics for military use. To address this situation, this Phase I SBIR proposal outlines the development of an advanced optical sensing technology for simultaneous detection of hypergolic rocket fuel and oxidizer leaks. The approach will involve preconcentration of analytes from the rocket canister's internal atmosphere into a colorimetric polymer film. Spectroscopic changes will be correlated to propellant leak events. The Eltron team has 10 years of experience in hypergolic sensor research and development with a significant focus on spectroscopic detection methods. By partnering with Raymond and Lae Engineering (RLE Technologies) of Fort Collins, CO we will integrate advanced controls and wireless communication features into the proposed sensor platform and provide the Armed Forces with a powerful, cost-effective solution for propellant leak detection.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0527
Mr. Mourad Manoukian
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Microsensor for the Detection of Hypergolic Chemicals
Abstract:GINER, Inc. proposes to design, develop and demonstrate a screen printed, thick-film electrochemical Monomethyl Hydrazine (MMH) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) microsensor module (multi sensor cell with integrated potentiostatic control, signal processing, wired and optional wireless, data transmission circuit) that combines real time, rapid and simultaneous detection of 0 to 200 ppm of MMH and NO2 in one sensor substrate complete with its own battery power source. The microsensor will have a small footprint, low (less than 1.0 mA) power consumption and low cost (less than $200 for quantities larger than 5000 units), and will have a rapid response to MMH and NO2 changes inside a missile canister. The microsensor module will operate in a continuous (optional ON/OFF) mode displaying and sounding an alarm when either the rate of target chemical concentration change exceeds a pre-set value indicating a significant leak, or when the concentration of the target chemical exceeds a pre-set high threshold value regardless of the rate of change. Successful completion of the Phase I program will demonstrate feasibility of the proposed microsensor module for accurately and reliably detecting 0 to 200 ppm of MMH and NO2 and display alarms.

MAKEL ENGINEERING, INC.
1585 Marauder St.
Chico, CA 95973
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 587-4750
Dr. Benjamin Ward
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Microsensor Array for Hypergolic Chemical Leak Monitoring
Abstract:Makel Engineering proposes to work directly with missile contractors such as Lockheed Martin in developing an advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based chemical sensor system for the detection of hypergolic propellant leaks within missile containers. This technology will provide for the safe storage and transport of these propellants. Phase I of Makel Engineering's proposal will be the demonstration of candidate sensor materials and MEMS-based microsensor system designs for use in the detection of hypergolic fuels and oxidizers. These materials and designs will be based on technology developed for the detection of hydrazine and NO2. The system's smart control electronics will have the capability of monitoring rates of change in concentrations, which is a more reliable indicator of a system leak than concentration thresholds alone. MEI will demonstrate the operation of a prototype unit, build prototype sensors, and perform demonstration testing to define the capability of the system.

RAZOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
610 Jennifer Drive
Auburn, AL 36830
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 887-3985
Dr. Howard Wikle
MDA 06-039      Selected for Award
Title:Total Hypergolic Propellant Leak Detector System
Abstract:Razor Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate a total hypergolic propellant (both fuel & oxidizer) leak detection system. During normal storage conditions, the system will monitor and record missile canister environmental parameters such as fuel (mono-methyl hydrazine and/or hydrazine compounds) concentration in the missile canister, oxidizer (mixed oxides of nitrogen) concentration in the missile canister, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc. on an hourly basis. The propellant leak detection system will utilize a proprietary, ultra-low power motion detection circuit to determine when the missile is undergoing transport. Upon detection of transport, the propellant leak detection system will continuously monitor and record propellant concentrations and other transportation events (such as shocks) exceeding preset limits. The system will send out an alarm when a specified rate of change in concentration of propellant is exceeded (indicative of a large leak) or when a preset high value of propellant concentration is exceeded (indicative of a slow leak acting over a long period of time). Long life, conducting polymer sensors for the measurement of fuel and oxidizer concentrations will be used. This project leverages on previously successful SBIRs that have led to the development of a commercially available MMH sensor and missile canister environmental monitoring system.

INTUITIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6767 Old Madison PikeSuite 240
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 971-1992
Dr. J. Wayne McCain
MDA 06-040      Selected for Award
Title:Safe and Arm and Arm and Fire Devices
Abstract:INTUITIVE proposes the development of a standalone, Laser Ordnance Safe-Arm Distributor (LOSAD) to be used as a combination safe-arm device and laser energy distributor with laser initiated ordnance to address the current need for such a device in existing and future MDA programs. The LOSAD will utilize INTUITIVE­İs basic ­optical block­İ Ignition Safety Device (ISD) developed for THAAD­İs laser ordnance system. INTUITIVE will further develop the basic optical switch element to apply its use as a standalone safe-arm device and a ­distributor­İ for selection and firing of multiple ordnance devices from the same laser firing unit. No such device currently exits in inventory. Furthermore, the need for duplicate laser firing units for initiating multiple devices would be eliminated. In addition, a higher-level of safety is inherent by use of the optical interrupt in the initiation train as required by MIL-STD-1901A. Verification of proper channel selection (via electromechanical switches directly coupled to the optical elements and optical BIT) are to be accomplished before arming and firing. The same level of electrical safety as now provided will result with an additional level of safety provided by the optical interrupts. The LOSAD will result in a significant improvement in overall safety for multiple device initiation with a desirable reduction in laser diodes and related firing hardware complexity and costs. Bottom line: improved safety, reduced complexity, and reduced costs.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Karl Meredith
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:Accurate Insensitive Munitions Modeling Tool Coupling Detailed Chemical Kinetics and Physical Models
Abstract:Understanding the response of solid rocket motors under cookoff and projectile impact scenarios is important to the safety of the military's weapon arsenal. In this SBIR, CFDRC, teamed with Merrill Beckstead of Brigham Young University (BYU), propose to develop an improved modeling tool for simulating the response of solid rocket motors containing AP/HTPB/AL propellant to external heat and impact stimuli. To demonstrate feasibility in Phase I, a cookoff/ignition model recently developed at BYU will be adapted to study fast cookoff of AP/HTPB/AL propellant. Valid condensed-phase decomposition kinetics and detailed gas-phase kinetics for AP/HTPB/AL will be implemented. The cookoff model will be coupled to a 3-dimensional structural mechanics code to incorporate the effects of pressurization on the propellant and surrounding container. This model will accurately estimate pressurization rate and time to explosion for fast cookoff. Alice Atwood of at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (China Lake) will team with us to provide validation data from ongoing cookoff experimental tests. In Phase II, the cookoff prediction capability will be tailored to differentiate between fast/slow cookoff behaviors. Condensed-phase physics pertinent to slow cookoff will be implemented. Also, the detailed cookoff model will be integrated into a robust 3D hydrocode to accurately couple effects of additional IM stimuli. Finally, in-depth experimental characterization of IM phenomena will be performed at China Lake.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:IM Modeling/Simulation Tool for KEI Dynamic/Thermal Loads Associated with Stage Separation
Abstract:Intense dynamic and thermal loads will occur during stage-separation events that are of major concern from both operational and safety viewpoints. The insensitive-munitions (IM) stimuli and thermal/dynamic response associated with such events has received very little attention, yet this is of major concern for the KEI vehicle undergoing Stage 1 to Stage 2 separation. The KEI event is at lower altitude where dynamic and thermal loads are severe, and will involve plume interactions with strong afterburning effects. Our Phase I effort initiates the development of a high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary modeling/simulation tool to quantify the loads that occur during staging events, focusing on the KEI staging problem. This tool will provide the transient load history on sensitive components, including the spectral context of dynamic loads which is important in evaluating resonant phenomena that may occur. Exploratory studies will be performed for the KEI staging event, including a subscale staging analysis to quantify differences in loads in ground test and flight environments. Scaling studies will be performed as part of an experimental planning task to prepare for Phase II validation experiments to be performed in the LENS II shock tunnel facility.

CORVID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
149 Plantation Ridge Dr.Suite 170
Mooresville, NC 28117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(704) 799-6944
Mr. John Cogar
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Insensitive Munitions (IM) Modeling and Simulation Capability for Large Rocket Motors
Abstract:Corvid Technologies is pleased to offer this proposal for the development of a first-principles numerical approach to modeling Solid Rocket Motor (SRMs) response to unplanned thermal stimuli. Corvid has a history of developing models for propellant violent reaction to projectile and fragment impact stimuli. We will adapt an existing heat transfer model to address SRM fast and slow cook-off due to events such as a fuel fire. If successful, this model development can be extended beyond its current capability by combining it with Lagrangian based numerical models to address IM enhancements as part of an SRM design and deployment program.

FULL SPECTRUM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
503 Golfview Dr.Suite 200
San Jose, CA 95127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 926-1338
Mr. William Smith
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Insensitive Munitions (IM) Modeling and Simulation Capability for Large Rocket Motors
Abstract:Full Spectrum Technologies, Inc. (FSTI) is proposing to demonstrate an Insensitive Munitions (IM) systems engineering approach to the development of large (i.e., 14 to 21 inch diameter) solid rocket motors (SRM) for applications to critical Missile Defense Agency (MDA) programs such as the Thermal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile or Ground Based Mid-Course Defense (GMD). Specifically, we are proposing to apply a unique modeling and simulation (M&S) methodology that we believe will provide SRM that meet both performance requirements and IM requirements while reducing system development costs, schedule risks and test requirements.

SYMPLECTIC ENGINEERING CORP.
2901 Benvenue Ave.
Berkeley, CA 94705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 528-1251
Dr. Shmuel L. Weissman
MDA 06-041      Selected for Award
Title:Developing Insensitive Munitions (IM) Modeling and Simulation Capability for Large Rocket Motors
Abstract:Following a number of events involving large numbers of casualties, Congress is demanding that all new munitions pass IM requirements. NATO also shares this demand. The DoD views the use of IM as a force multiplier and providing tactical advantages. IM is also a necessity in view of the ongoing concentration of munitions in fewer storage facilities, and the proximity of some of these facilities to major population centers. Symplectic Engineering Corporation, together with Aerojet-General Corporation, will develop an insensitive munitions modeling and simulation tool for the design and development of solid rocket motors. The approach pursued employs finite element modeling of the coupled casing-liner-propellant-gas flow to predict the response of SRMs when exposed to ballistic and thermal stimuli. Phase I work will be primarily focused on the development of a model for the propellant, which brings micromechanical characteristic into the macro scale. A set of laboratory tests will be undertaken to develop an associated properties database. Comparing a computer simulation with the results of an experiment will be used to validate the model. Testing a subscale or analog motor subjected to thermal stimuli, as defined by MIL-STD-2105C and accompanying STANAGs, will be used for the validation.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0805
Dr. Joseph M. Benedetto
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Ultra-Fast Level 2 Cache SRAM for High-Performance Military and Spaceborne Computing
Abstract:In this proposal we discuss the development of an ultra high-speed synchronous SRAM suitable for use as an embedded level 1 or external level-2 cache memory. The state-of-the-art radiation tolerant/hardened memory devices are of an asynchronous design with access times of 17 to 30ns. The synchronous memory we are proposing has a targeted access time of <3ns (nearly a factor of 6 improvement over the current fastest military devices) and an 18Mbit density (configured for level-2 cache data bus for high-speed processing). This type of memory is extremely popular in the commercial marketplace, but does not exist at all today in a military/rad-hard version. The device we are proposing would be targeted to a commercial fabrication process would use a novel reverse body bias HBD technique to achieve exception total dose hardness without sacrificing speed. Because our proposed SRAM cell is very close in size to a commercial SRAM we could achieve a cost/bit that is potentially a factor of 10 lower than current military asynchronous SRAMs.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 864-7858
Mr. Bill Poland
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Rad-Hard-Strategic, 14-bit, 150 MSPS ADC
Abstract:We will develop a rad-hard-strategic, 14-bit, 150 MSPS, ADC. Major challenge is maintaining part speed, while hardening it to radiation. The traditional approach to photo-compensation involves adding a "compensating" transistor per "circuit" transistor. This method results in doubling the capacitance and introduces coupling from the substrate at every junction, greatly impairing part's sampling rate. Bill Poland's (Nu-Trek) innovation is to increase bias during radiation. The increased bias raises the level of radiation/photocurrent that will upset circuit operation. This approach has already been used in Nu-Trek's monolithic Nuclear Event Detector, enabling the precise measurement of minute transistor photocurrents. Other innovations include: (1) A Master Slave Sample and Holds between stages versus single Sample and Hold; (2) Interstage nulling in the current domain, not the voltage domain, minimizing voltage slew rate against parasitic capacitances; (3) Bootstrap self calibration of the three DACs in the three front stages; and (4) Differential inputs that operate between +2.5 volts and -2.5 volts to accommodate a broader range of applications, including video. ADC is based on a rad-hard 12-bit ADC that Wayne Dietrich (Raytheon) designed for the Navy.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Wesley Morris
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Electronic Components (ADC)
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST), working with Texas Instruments (TI), proposes to demonstrate an innovative approach for converting a high-performance COTS ADC circuit (radiation-soft) to a radiation-hardened circuit by integrating two new process modules into the commercial process. Silicon Space has solved the major space radiation problems, Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID), by combining process modifications and layout design innovation. Our proven-in-silicon approach enables production of radiation-hardened integrated circuits at leading-edge circuit densities within any commercial silicon foundry, for use in both terrestrial and space systems. A sequence of radiation tests have shown SST's Buried Guard Ring (BGR) innovation significantly improves SEE performance (e.g., SEL, SET, & SEU). BGR also significantly improves dose rate performance by >1.5 orders of magnitude higher than non-BGR protected circuits. SST's Parasitic Isolation Device (PID) structures have shown complete TID immunity to > 1Mrad. These methods do not adversely affect either circuit performance or yield. SST will demonstrate a procedure for integrating BGR and PID into an existing TI commercial ADC product. This Phase I effort, when demonstrated in Phase II silicon experiments, will enable manufacture of radiation-hardened ADC's which exceed MDA's required levels of radiation performance.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Wesley Morris
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Electronic Components (DSP)
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST), working with Texas Instruments (TI), proposes to demonstrate an innovative approach for converting a high-performance COTS DSP circuit (radiation-soft) to a radiation-hardened circuit by integrating two new process modules into the commercial process. Silicon Space has solved the major space radiation problems, Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID), by combining process modifications and layout design innovation. Our proven-in-silicon approach enables production of radiation-hardened integrated circuits at leading-edge circuit densities within any commercial silicon foundry, for use in both terrestrial and space systems. A sequence of radiation tests have shown SST's Buried Guard Ring (BGR) innovation significantly improves SEE performance (e.g., SEL, SET, & SEU). BGR also significantly improves dose rate performance by >1.5 orders of magnitude higher than non-BGR protected circuits. SST's Parasitic Isolation Device (PID) structures have shown complete TID immunity to > 1Mrad. These methods do not adversely affect either circuit performance or yield. SST will demonstrate a procedure for integrating BGR and PID into an existing TI commercial DSP product. This Phase I effort, when demonstrated in Phase II silicon experiments, will enable manufacture of radiation-hardened DSP's which exceed MDA's required levels of radiation performance.

VPT, INC.
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5000
Dr. Glenn Skutt
MDA 06-042      Selected for Award
Title:Prompt Dose Radiation Hardened Point-of-Load Power Converter
Abstract:VPT proposes an innovative, point-of-load (POL) power converter that is immune to radiation effects, including prompt dose. This addresses the demanding low voltage, high current, power requirements of advanced data processing circuitry in MDA applications. VPT will build on its recently-introduced military thick-film hybrid DC-DC POL power converter. VPT will accomplish the radiation hardening by incorporating: (a) a radiation-hardened (RH) pulse-width-modulator integrated circuit (PWM-IC) for POL applications recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories, (b) recent radiation characterization of new low voltage power MOSFETs for POL applications, (c) RH-by-design techniques including MOSFET gate voltage control, latchup current limiting, and transient filtering. The proposed POL will be designed to VPT's Mil-PRF-38534 Class K certified standards. In Phase I of the SBIR VPT will: (a) perform an electrical design of the RH-POL and build a breadboard, (b) perform a radiation analysis to determine the total dose, SEU, and prompt dose radiation capability of the RH-POL, (c) perform a mechanical design that can pass Mil-PRF-38534 requirements, and (d) perform a prompt dose Flash Xray test of the breadboard with aid from Lockheed Martin. The resulting RH-POL will have wide application in MDA and defense space missions where low voltage electronics are employed.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. J.H. Lalli
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:Multifunctional Metal RubberTM Super-NanoComposites for Missile Structures
Abstract:NanoSonic would produce lightweight (< 0.98 g/cc), ablation resistant, rad hard, EMI shielding (-70 dB), inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposites with ultra-high thermal stability (> 450 C). NanoSonic is the only manufacturer of Metal Rubber›ƒ nanostructured yet macroscale (8' x 4') films and conformal coatings for large defense platforms (i.e., missiles, topside plies for ships, and advanced inceptor structures such as MKV, EKV and THAAD etc.) requiring nuclear, thermal and electrical protection with controlled electromagnetic properties. Such multifunctional super nanocomposites are achieved via the self-assembly of metal nanoparticles (for shielding and radiation hardening) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (for high thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness) with NanoSonic's high performance tailored copolymers. Novel polymer backbones with complexing sites yield conformal casing materials with control over dielectric strength and thermal stability via excellent adhesion to the nanoparticle; and to the missile substrates, thereby mitigating corrosion. Such materials result in nanocomposites with extremely homogenous dispersions; hence even heat dissipation and reliable performance. NanoSonic's Metal RubberTM; a revolutionary self-healing, elastomeric conductor (bulk resistivity = 2 x 10-5 Ohm∙cm) that can be repeatedly strained to more than 1000% elongation while maintaining electrical conductivity would be optimized with Lockheed Martin MS2 to increase the TRL for KV structures.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 487-0620
Mr. Ray Eastwood
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:High AJ RF ASIC
Abstract:Nu-Trek and Raytheon propose to develop a rad-hard-strategic High Anti-Jam (AJ) RF ASIC. Part will be PRF 38585 qualified and sold as OEM product for incorporation in GPS receivers. Presently, ALL High AJ RF Sections are made of DISCRETE components. Also, there are no GPS receivers that are rad-hard-strategic. High AJ RF Section with external filters constitutes an entire RF Section and is 1/5 the volume of a discrete RF Section with comparable capability. (ASIC will be 64-pin part, < 0.2 cubic inches). AJ capability will be 70 dB with internal 2-bit ADC and 120 dB with external 12-bit ADC. (Attenuation by Antenna, RF Section, and Digital Section are additive.) Codes and applications supported include C/A, P(Y), M, and SAASM. The High AJ RF ASIC will operate simultaneously at two frequencies or support two channels of adaptive antenna nulling. A number of two-channel devices can be used for a larger number of channels and/or more complex adaptive antenna electronics. Advanced RF ASICs will feature up to seven channels per device. This will enable the receiver to perform adaptive antenna spatial signal processing. Primes, such as Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, and Honeywell are interested in using part.

RIDGETOP GROUP, INC.
6595 North Oracle RoadSuite 153B
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
Mr. Douglas Goodman
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardening Designs and Techniques for Missile Defense
Abstract:Together with its supporting partner, Raytheon Missile Systems, the objective of this SBIR proposal is to design a high resolution, high speed 100 MSPS, 14 bit, radiation-hardened Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) for critical KEI and Missile applications. This is considered an aggressive goal, since the commercial state-of-the-art ADC is a 12-bit (resolution) 80 MSPS (speed) ADC. However, Ridgetop has developed a unique approach that will meet that goal combining circuit design innovation, with an innovative silicon process. Commercial high performance ADCs are not radiation hardened and may be incapable of reliably operating in the strategic radiation environment for the projected design-life of deployed system. Another benefit, owing to the structure of the FlexfetT is radiation tolerance. Ridgetop will design a 100 mega sample per second (MSPS), 14-bit ADC, to be manufactured in the American Semiconductor Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) FlexfetTM process. This ADC will function to specification and endure in a weapons-level environment. The combination of reliability, high resolution, and high speed suggests a variety of practical applications, including image processing, radar, and communications systems. This work will be done in collaboration with assistance and consultation by American Semiconductor and Arizona State University.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 891-9702
Wesley Morris
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardening Designs and Techniques for Missile Defense (Process)
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST) has solved the major space radiation problems, Single-Event Effects and Total Ionizing Dose, by combining substrate engineering with layout design innovation. Working with Texas Instruments (TI) to enable radiation hardening of TI's 130nm commercial CMOS process (C035), SST's radiation-hardening (RH) process innovations, previously demonstrated at 180nm, will be scaled and integrated into this process. SST will perform this work by relying heavily on process and device finite-element (or TCAD) simulation. SST will first build the baseline process model to develop the integration approach for inserting the RH process modules into the C035 130nm process. The TCAD model will be calibrated to process measurements and to electrical characteristics of the C035 transistors provided by TI. Using the calibrated TCAD model as a baseline, the simulations will be varied to develop the new RH 130nm process and to quantify any process interactions, constraints or yield limiting factors, especially in the context of circuit ground rules, SPICE models and photolithographic imaging.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
201 Circle Drive NorthUnit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Dr. Catherine E. Rice
MDA 06-043      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hard Non-Volatile Solid Electrolyte Memory
Abstract:Of high importance for various computing applications for aerospace and military components are memory devices that retain their memory state when no power is applied, and retain their memory state in a radiation environment. Under these conditions, nonvolatile memory devices based on standard silicon technology are prone to Single Event Upsets (SEU) and "latch up" failures. Typically, these failures become more prominent with increasing memory density. This Phase I proposal utilizes the concept of developing plug-in replacement nonvolatile memory based on Solid Electrolyte films and will demonstrate basic cell functionality of Ag-Ge-S films produced by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) at Structured Materials Industries, Inc., a leader in MOCVD technology, in test structures designed by Arizona State University, the inventors of solid electrolyte memory technology. The Phase II program would advance the technology to a manufacturable state, and SMI can custom build radiation-hard military grade memories in Phase III. Our Phase III commercialization will see licensing of program produced technology for commercial sales and custom military memory products. This program will significantly advance radiation-hardened electronic technology since solid electrolytes are inherently radiation hard. The technology will be evaluated for radiation hardened nonvolatile memory for both military and aerospace markets as well as commercial products.

AMTEC CORP.
500 Wynn Dr. Suite 314
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 722-7200
Mr. Barry Posey
MDA 06-044      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened Controller
Abstract:Reliable, capable, and radiation hardened control electronics are critical and needed for successful completion of postulated missile defense engagements. These electronics are used in motor controllers and divert and attitude control systems (DACS) for missile interceptors and space systems. The existing GBI Booster stage 2 and 3 TVCs, a.k.a. Electronics Control Unit (ECU), have not been hardened to HAENS and natural radiation environments. These controllers are critical for mission success since they drive electromechanical actuators used for pitch and yaw functions of stage 2 and 3 rocket nozzles. The successful completion of all 3 phases of this effort will result in a radiation hardened TVC design that will meet HAENS and natural radiation environment survivability requirements and show marked improvement in other performance parameters. The design approach will be used to reduce cost and extend utility across multiple electronic controller applications. During Phase 1, a prototype controller design will be upgraded to meet survivability requirements and a Phase 2 parts and prototype characterization plan will be developed.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle StreetSte. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0702
Mr. David J. Strobel
MDA 06-044      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened, Miniaturized DACS Electronics for Interceptor and Satellite Control Systems.
Abstract:Space Micro, and our teammates Aerojet and NxGen, propose novel packaging and radiation hardening for demonstration of DACS electronics modules. The applications will range from high altitude missile interceptors propulsion to space boosters and satellite propulsion. Space Micro will develop a common design, which with selected shielding and parts selection can meet both the MDA HAENS and the space radiation environments (electrons, proton, and cosmic rays). We will demonstrate the ability to potentially leverage COTS semiconductors to dramatically reduce the cost and volume of DACS. In response to DoD's need for radiation-hardened miniaturized DACS electronics we propose to demonstrate performance with Aerojet, by modeling/simulation plus lab breadboard in Phase I, followed by prototype rad hard modules in Phase II.

AVYD DEVICES, INC.
2925 COLLEGE AVENUE, UNIT A-1
COSTA MESA, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 751-8553
Dr. Honnavalli R Vydyanath
MDA 06-045      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation Hardened LWIR HgCdTe Infrared Focal Plane Array Technology
Abstract:The specific objective of the Phase I proposal is the demonstration of the feasibility to develop a technology for improved radiation tolerance and performance of LWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays. In Phase II, we plan to demonstrate and deliver to MDA , radiation hardened 256x256 or larger format arrays of LWIR HgCdTe detectors hybridized to silicon Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROICs).

LUTRONICS
1236 Lawn Lake Trl
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 387-9685
Dr. Yalin Lu
MDA 06-045      Selected for Award
Title:Tunable Long Wavelength Infrared Filters with Narrow Passband and High Peak Transmittance
Abstract:In this SBIR program, Lutronics proposes a unique combination of novel impedance-matching method, new channel design, new use of the field-adjustable material in order to fabricate advanced long wavelength infrared optical filters. In the Phase I, filter prototypes will be fabricated and characterized according to their spectral responses and wavelength tunability.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0805
Dr. Joseph Benedetto
MDA 06-045      Selected for Award
Title:Hardened by Design Cryogenic Infrared Focal Plane Array Readout Integrated Circuit
Abstract:We have developed transistor level radiation tolerant design techniques for the manufacture of radiation resistant digital and mixed signal devices, including infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) readout integrated circuits (ROICs), and verified the operation and radiation performance to 43K (-230øC). We have achieved designs that exhibit significant hardness (i.e., very little change in the transistor characteristics) when irradiated to 1Mrad(Si) at 43K. These basic transistor elements were fabricated in a 180nm technology node and can be used for the design, manufacture and production of IRFPAs for spaceborne applications. Further, our design enhancements can easily be scaled to more advanced nodes (130nm and below for high-density ROICs). For maintaining higher-voltage compatibility, the radiation tolerant design techniques can be "reverse scaled" to larger line-width technologies and higher voltage levels (limited only by the available fabrication processes). Our design team has extensive experience in using hardness-by-design techniques (20+ years) to achieve TID, singe event effects (SEE) and prompt dose hardness levels from strategic (military environments) to radiation tolerance for lower cost spaceborne applications. By optimizing and expanding our design techniques, we can maintain our demonstrated radiation hardness, even when analog mixed signal devices are irradiated in a cryogenic environment.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura RoadSuite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Mr. James G. Leatham
MDA 06-045      Selected for Award
Title:Tunable Spectral Sifting (TSS) Filter for Space Sensors
Abstract:Optical Physics Company (OPC) is proposing to investigate a novel tunable spectral sifting (TSS) filter design to enhance the capabilities of space sensors for the STSS and AIRSS programs. TSS filter design goals are tailored for these two space-based sensor acquisition programs, to select between two tunable passbands, with sub-passband selectivity, at the water vapor absorption band and the carbon dioxide absorption band, with passband transmittance in excess of 90% and radiation hardened to 300krad. Subcontractor Raytheon SAS will assist OPC in defining rad-hard optical filter optical components, focal plane array, algorithms, and processor for a flight testable design, and in defining the TSS demo unit proposed for Phase II. Phase I work involves detailed specifications of the TSS filter in two configurations, to accommodate different fields of view associated with low and geosynchronous Earth orbits of the satellites. The design effort will be followed by evaluation of system trade-offs, building and testing of one stage of the TSS filter, and formulation of a Phase II prototype design and test plan.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1243
Dr. Stephen Bruder
MDA 06-046      Selected for Award
Title:Low Cost, Radiation Hardened, Inertial Measurement Unit
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) requires the development of a miniaturized, lightweight, radiation hardened, inertial measurement unit (IMU) to provide high accuracy inertial knowledge in both absolute location/velocity and angular orientation. Proposed MDA systems, such as the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS), are required to track objects at great distances and relay inertial information. Currently available IMU systems do not concurrently meet the size, weight, power, and radiation hardening performance requirements for use in the target applications. Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to realize a Modular Inertial Measurement Unit (MIMU) which is inherently radiation hardened by design to meet a 300 krad total ionizing dose (TID) goal. The proposed Phase I MIMU effort will entail producing the preliminary design for an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which is low-cost, rad-hard, modular, low-power, and compatible for use with aiding sensors (e.g., GPS and star-tracker) in order to provide accurate position and attitude determination which is suitable for MDA on-gimbal applications as well as for use in spacecraft and interceptors. The approach proposed herein seeks to use decades of experience in the area of precise inertial sensors with recent innovations in sensor blending, electronics, and a novel mechanical design.

MODERN TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS, INC.
4725 B EISENHOWER AVENUE
ALEXANDRIA, VA 22304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 212-8870
Mr. Elvis Dieguez
MDA 06-047      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High-Fidelity Techniques to Model Impact Flash and Post-Impact Thermal Signature Prediction and Support Kill Assessment
Abstract:Initial implementations of the United States missile defense system utilize two primary sensors for kill assessment: RADAR and infra-red (IR) sensors. The post-impact signatures must be accurately modeled to support kill assessment, sensor design, signal processing, and feature extraction. The post-impact RADAR and IR signatures will be, to first-order, governed in the first few seconds by the distribution of particle sizes and densities generated by the fragmentation dynamics, and the kinetic to thermal energy conversion resulting from the hypervelocity impact. We propose to determine the feasibility of using Hybrid Particle-Element (HPE) numerical methods to accurately model both fragmentation and thermofluid dynamics resulting from hypervelocity impacts. The unique Hamiltonian method used in the HPE technique is well suited for simulating large deformations in fragmented media and representing strength effects in a Lagrangian frame. It is not subject to the numerical simulation difficulties associated with the use of pure particle codes, in particular tensile instability and numerical fracture. Our proposed research will demonstrate the potential of HPE methods to offer significant improvements in the numerical simulation of post-impact signatures for MDA applications.

PRISM COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES, INC.
455 Science DriveSuite 140
Madison, WI 53711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 280-9182
Dr. Joseph J. MacFarlane
MDA 06-047      Selected for Award
Title:Development of High-Fidelity Modeling Tools to Predict Radiative Signatures from Hypervelocity Impact Flash Events
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop and validate first-principles modeling tools that will significantly advance the use of spectroscopic techniques for identifying materials present in hypervelocity impact events. Impact flash spectroscopy (IFS) has the potential to identify the presence of special nuclear materials (SNM) during the impact flash phase of hypervelocity interceptor-missile collisions. Utilization of IFS as a reliable approach for missile defense engagement analysis requires a well-developed predictive capability for the evolution of the gas and particulate environment created during the impact. This can be accomplished with the use of well-tested and benchmarked codes that simulate both the hydrodynamic breakup of the target and interceptor debris and the spectral emission originating during the impact flash phase. During Phase I, we propose to utilize data obtained in laboratory impact flash experiments to: develop an understanding of the spectral radiation output, and the physical conditions of the gas/particulates generated in the experiments; and assess the reliability of state-of-the-art shock-physics and spectral codes in simulating impact flash emission. We will identify new modeling techniques needed for advancing IFS simulation capabilities, and, during Phase II, develop, upgrade and validate enhanced modeling tools to support the accurate simulation of hypervelocity engagements.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Matthew Braunstein
MDA 06-047      Selected for Award
Title:A Unified Approach to Intercept Signature Prediction and Kill Assessment Based on High-fidelity Physics Models
Abstract:A successful intercept of a missile by a kinetic energy kill vehicle initiates a complex sequence of events and associated observable signatures that occur over a very wide range of temporal, spatial, and spectral scales. The signatures contain highly desirable information on the lethality of the intercept (glancing blow or deadly impact) and on the contents of the warhead (nuclear, biological, or chemical). A unified, phenomenologically complete model of the intercept signatures does not exist. We propose to address this important MDA need by unifying existing high fidelity physics based models to enable an end-to-end simulation of the intercept signatures. An existing hydrocode will be used to describe the very early time break up and plasma evolution. The SOCRATES-P code will be used to model the longer time scale debris cloud evolution and its interactions with the atmosphere. The FLITES code will be used to compute the spatial and spectral emissions from the model flow fields. Phase I will focus on specifying interfaces between these codes and generating flowfield databases to enable real-time HWIL (HardWare In the Loop) simulations. Phase II will focus on interface development and application of the unified software for end-to-end simulations.

CG2, INC.
1525 Perimeter ParkwaySuite 325
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 361-9927
Mr. Todd Nordland
MDA 06-048      Selected for Award
Title:High Fidelity Scene Generation for Distributed Hardware in the Loop of BMDS Components
Abstract:With the goal of incorporating a variety of Missile Defense assets into a "network of test", CG2 Inc proposes to investigate, experiment and formulate proof-of-concept designs based upon its pre-existing per-pixel synchronization technology. This synchronization technology, called nVSync Pacing, adapts commercial-off-the-shelf graphics components to the unique variable frame-rate requirements of hardware-in-the-loop missile guidance scenario validation. The ultimate goal is the test and validation of a "theater level" subset of some of the following MDA systems: command and control, missile warning, intelligence processing, sensors (multiple passbands), signal processing, target discrimination, hardware-in-the-loop test, battle management, and kill assessment. We propose a heterogeneous system consisting of both local-area and wide-area networking interfaces. We propose to include "portal" where a DIS, HLS or TENA protocol can be interfaced to a synchronization topology that would synchronize the local laboratory with remote facilities. To establish a measure of success, CG2 proposes to measure the latency of proposed inter-laboratory links, and measure and optimize the throughput requirements for test scenarios.

KINETICS, INC.
100 SE Cascade AvenueP. O. Box 1262
Stevenson, WA 98648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 427-3649
Mr. Dennis R. Crow
MDA 06-048      Selected for Award
Title:High Fidelity Scene Generation for Distributed Hardware in the Loop of BMDS Components
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is currently developing a comprehensive testing environment to test and evaluate the operation of multiple elements operating concurrently within the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). High-fidelity synthetic scene generators are required to be developed to stimulate, in real-time, both radar and optical sensors within the BMDS. These scene generators must present to the sensor hardware being tested synthetic representations of the scene signature while maintaining temporal consistency with the time-evolving battle-space scenario. This effort investigates how to take a common battle-space scenario consisting of a specified environmental condition with multiple targets and distribute that data across geographically diverse PC-based scene generators used to stimulate different BMDS sensing hardware and algorithms. The Government-Owned codes FLITES and Real-Time CHAMP are utilized to provide the low-level high-fidelity scene generation capability while analyzing the usage of current distributed processing infrastructures utilized by MDA to support Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) testing of multiple dissimilar sensors operating concurrently.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5218
Dr. Genshe Chen
MDA 06-049      Selected for Award
Title:Agent-based Multi-missile Interception Simulation Tool Using Distributed Pursuit-evasion Game
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose a comprehensive and innovative agent-based simulation tool and game theoretic supporting algorithm. We leverage novel game theoretic method, advanced hierarchical framework, cooperative pursuit strategy, adaptive estimators, limited look-ahead and Markov chain approximation algorithms in the agent-based simulation tool to provide real time simulations which can accommodate a variety of defensive missile scenario and military operations. To achieve this goal, first, in a software agent-based simulation, each element in the system is represented by an individual agent that interacts with other agents via messages. Each agent has its own logical thread of control and once initialized, runs independently. Second, for the multi-pursuer multi-evader pursuit evasion game, a hierarchical framework used to decompose the high-level multi-player game into several low-level small-scale distributed pursuit evasion games where each game only has one missile. Third, particle filters and multi-model estimators used to predict system states especially when measurements are noise-corrupted and the adversarial players' control strategies are randomly changed. Fourth, formation control is used in group coordination to exploit the cooperation among interceptors to destroy multiple missiles. Finally, limited look-ahead and Markov chain approximation is used as computational algorithms in deriving Nash equilibrium to obtain real time solution.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom DriveSuite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Greg Godfrey
MDA 06-049      Selected for Award
Title:Simulation Tool to Intercept Multiple Missiles Employing Quick and Random Evasive Flight Path
Abstract:New interceptor control strategies are required to counter threat missiles that are capable of randomly changing their flight paths. This SBIR project will result in a new simulation tool that can be used to compute, analyze, and test cooperative interceptor control strategies. Metron's approach will use a proven simulation model that has been specifically developed to study optimal guidance and control strategies in maneuvering missile defense encounters. A new family of interceptor control algorithms will also be developed by adapting previous work on dynamic search area sectoring. Dynamic sectoring is a powerful method that will allow the interceptors to cooperate and negotiate their assigned tasks so that an overall balance in workload is achieved. The Phase I project will result in a general simulation framework and a set of limited-capability software components. An initial feasibility demonstration will be formulated to validate the technical approach.

PRINCETON SATELLITE SYSTEMS
33 Witherspoon Street
Princeton, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 279-9606
Dr. Pradeep Bhatta
MDA 06-049      Selected for Award
Title:Simulation Tool to Intercept Multiple Missiles Employing Quick and Random Evasive Flight Path
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of a versatile, computationally-efficient simulation tool for integrating flight path data from missile interceptors and analyzing defensive missile scenarios. The simulation tool will provide a user-friendly platform for design and testing of cooperative missile-interception techniques. We also propose to develop innovative cooperative control algorithms for multiple interceptors pursuing multiple missiles. Our cooperative control algorithms will be based on using artificial potentials for determining command accelerations for individual interceptors. The artificial potentials framework provides a systematic procedure for designing and implementing formation control and reconfiguration. We will combine artificial potential based cooperative control with modern target detection and missile guidance techniques to create an integrated solution for cooperative missile interception. This will be a step towards developing reliable technology for countering missiles that are specifically designed to elude interceptors via quick and random flight path changes. The simulation tool will be modular in nature, and will incorporate all aspects of cooperative missile interception including search-surveillance-engage modes, formation control and reconfiguration, inter-interceptor communication limitations, resource management and flight path data fusion. Interceptor performance constraints such as minimum turning radius and maximum velocity, as well as time-varying communication topologies will be accounted.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 385-9464
Mr. Martin Denham
MDA 06-050      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced Security Features for Commodity Integrated Circuits
Abstract:COTS IC manufacturing technologies are capable of deployment to spaced-based vehicles. Their performance levels, degree of innate rad-hardness, and cost-effective yields make them compelling for U.S. strategic launch vehicles. It is of concern that some of the `generation-N' COTS IC fabrication steps are moving outside of U.S. jurisdictional control. It is crucial that secure data and algorithms on these ICs cannot be compromised through reverse engineering and possibly misused by adversaries. Micro-RDC proposes further development of its anti-tamper by design (ATBD) stealthy key storage and stealthy micro-store encryptions, that effectively cannot be reverse engineered, having sufficient entropy and autonomy so as to prevent any key compromises from exploiting other systems or even further levels within the same IC or system. Micro-RDC proposes a phase I effort focused on the following four (4) development objectives: (1) continue to leverage overt technologies such as complex LFSR-based ciphers to scramble code-stores, structured ASICs, and other digital circuitry; (2) apply similar cipher techniques to scramble and obfuscate chip IOs; (3) develop stealthy keys and ciphers, and (4) demonstrate the kinds of stealthy key and cipher technologies that an adversary might deploy in low-cost COTS capabilities, providing the opportunity to develop suitable counter-attacks.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1636
Dr. James Deak
MDA 06-050      Selected for Award
Title:Radiation-Hard Anti-Tamper Magnetic Patch Memory
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project proposal describes a program to research and develop a method for producing a radiation-hard solid-state Magnetic Patch Memory (MPM) deposited on top of a wafer from an untrusted facility and programmed in a trusted facility. MPM can be erased with zero remanence in the event of tampering to render the device it protects impossible to reverse engineer. MPM technology can be added at back end of line processing onto any silicon based complex components that might be produced in foreign foundries. It is ideal for storing encryption keys or codes for digital rights management schemes. Although MPM is a solid-state memory, it is designed using magnetic media similar to a hard disk drive that permits it to be erased with remanent signature reduction exceeding that required for erasure of media containing SECRET data. Depending in the specific application, the proposed MPM can be erased electronically by the system it protects using a current or magnetically in bulk using a degausser or permanent magnet. MPM technology uses thin film magnetic materials and spin dependent tunneling (SDT) sensors that are intrinsically radiation hard.

PUFCO, INC.
750 Menlo AvenueSuite 300
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 329-1656
Dr. Srinivas Devadas
MDA 06-050      Selected for Award
Title:Enhanced security features for Commodity Integrated Circuits
Abstract:Physical Unclonable Functions ("PUFs"), originally developed at MIT by the principal investigator, and as evidenced by recently completed DARPA-funded research, hold promise to significantly enhance the security of commodity ICs used in defense systems. PUFs are innovative circuit primitives that extract secrets from complex physical characteristics of ICs. PUFs offer several potential advantages over conventional approaches that store secrets in memory (e.g., battery-backed RAM, fuses, or EEPROM). First, PUFs increase physical security by generating reliable volatile secrets that exist in a digital form only when a chip is powered and using the secret. In addition to its physical security, even the IC manufacturer cannot clone PUF-enabled ICs because random manufacturing variation cannot be controlled or easily modeled. In addition, PUF secrets are automatically determined during the fabrication process and do not require a separate hardware programming step. Furthermore, RAM is volatile unless battery backed, making it inappropriate for storing secrets in individual ICs before assembly. Non-volatile memory is vulnerable to physical attack and often requires hard-programming before packaging, whereas PUF-keys can be securely soft-programmed post-manufacture. PUFCO, working with Lockheed Martin Corporation, proposes to evaluate the suitability of PUF circuits as a cryptographically robust candidate RADIATION HARDENED anti-tamper technology.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Mark A. Stacy
MDA 06-051      Selected for Award
Title:Conformal Electronics Coating Materials and Processes
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to provide a complete conformal coating solution to the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). CRG developed a conformal coating under a previous anti-tamper SBIR program. The manufacturing process and proprietary mixing procedures have been developed for this baseline formulation, and independent laboratory testing has produced good results. This formulation is designated CRG5008. CRG will apply industrial-based manufacturing and application techniques and government anti-tamper validation criteria to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of CRG's conformal coating. A complete evaluation will determine strengths, shortfalls, and economic adjustments that will allow CRG to refine the material, manufacturing process, and application processes of the current CRG conformal coating. Documentation of the resulting processes and procedure will provide the basis for a consistent, high-quality anti-tamper conformal coating solution. CRG's demonstrated expertise in the proposed conformal coating technology area presents MDA the opportunity to obtain an effective, reliable, and economical anti-tamper conformal coating for use in protecting the critical information components of the ballistic missile defense system. The proposing team's track record of innovation in new materials positions CRG for successful implementation of an effective, reliable, and economical anti-tamper conformal coating meeting a wide range of MDA's operational needs.

ENGINEERED COATINGS, INC.
P.O. Box 4702
Parker, CO 80134
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 593-0588
Mrs. Frank Kustas
MDA 06-051      Selected for Award
Title:Near Atmosphere Plasma Processing Application of Anti-Tamper Coatings
Abstract:The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has issued a directive to protect, by application of anti-tamper (AT) coatings, Critical Program Information (CPI) from unintentional transfer on MDA acquisition and associated technical programs. The mission is to deter the reverse engineering and exploitation of our military's critical technology. Engineered Coatings Inc., with Southwest Research Institute, and Analytical Solutions, Inc., propose to demonstrate an innovative near-atmosphere plasma processing method to deposit AT coatings onto semiconductor substrates. This unique deposition method is essentially container-less and can be used for substrate etching, functionalization, and deposition of coatings at relatively low temperatures, which will not degrade the device. Plasma cleaning of bond pads is already an accepted processing method. Incorporation of embedded sensors in the AT coating, to detect tampering attempts, will be developed. Anti-tamper coatings will be applied to silicon substrates for subsequent adhesion tests and removal investigations using reverse engineering techniques, including ion-etching, chemical, and mechanical methods. Embedded sensor networks will also be tested during the removal attempts. Near the end of the program, a selected electronic device will be used for coating demonstration, followed by electrical performance testing.

RESODYN CORP.
130 North Main StreetSuite 600
Butte, MT 59701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 497-5242
Dr. Milan Ivosevic
MDA 06-051      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Anti-Tamper Coating Manufacturing
Abstract:The implementation of anti-tamper (AT) technology as one vital strategy for preserving US military superiority. (Communiqu‚ DoD 5200.1-M) In response to this need, many AT technologies have been developed including AT coatings for securing electronic components and devices. However, the use of successful AT coatings is impeded by lack of a manufacturing process that: 1.) Possesses the capacity for utilizing these technologies in a composite coating formulation; and 2.) Can be used to apply coatings to heat-sensitive electronics without adversely affecting their operation or shorten their useful life cycle. A technology and methodology is proposed for development and application of anti-tamper coating processes for substrates that differ greatly in shape, size, topography, and material type. This technological capability includes applying high temperature melting polymers and metals onto heat-sensitive electronic circuits. This technology can be used to create composite coatings of various layers and materials and can fully incorporate materials of various sizes and shapes into the coating. The Phase I research will demonstrate not only the feasibility of the technology, but will demonstrate the broad utility of the coating process. The coatings manufacturing technology, and demonstrated capabilities, will provide the missing manufacturing capability for forming advanced AT coatings.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Scott Morrison
MDA 06-051      Selected for Award
Title:Innovative Low-Temperature Process for Anti-Tamper Coatings(1000-991)
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes to demonstrate the use of a new plasma process for anti-tamper coatings. The process is gentle enough to allow for coating of sensitive electronics. Triton's proposed effort will allow for the coating of a wide range of electronics.

HIRSCH ENGINEERING & COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
10300 N. Cassel Rd.
Vandalia, OH 45377
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 454-9662
Mr. Herbert L. Hirsch
MDA 06-052      Selected for Award
Title:Sensed ENergy Transient INterrogation ELement (SENTINEL)
Abstract:This is a unique, practical solution to the tampering prevention problem, because even if reverse engineers know exactly how it works - they cannot overcome it. Similar to human DNA typing, SENTINEL checks the electronic power signature that characterizes a volume operating in its environment. Any volume of or individual analog, digital, or RF elements of any system have a unique power signature on the supply voltage line(s), due to the unique combination of components in the system and their individual behaviors, which combine to form a signature that is unique to the operating environment in which the element functions. We can exploit this signature in a simple system which detects the signature, compares it with an expected one stored within it at activation, and then responds to a detected tampering situation with a reaction that prevents reverse engineering. It can be implemented in any volume, at subsystem, board, MCM, module, or chip levels. Phase I will produce (1) an experimental prototype, (2) experimental and analytical feasibility assessments using actual and simulated signature data, (3) a prototype demonstration, (4) a preliminary system design to carry forward into Phase II, and (5) an initial assessment of commercialization potential.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Red Hill AvenueBuilding #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 435-8920
Mr. John Leon
MDA 06-052      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Anti-Tamper Volume Protection
Abstract:Irvine Sensors, together with Teledyne, plan to develop a novel approach to anti-tamper volume protection. Anti-tamper, when used in a layered fashion, is intended to deter reverse engineering, spoofing or other forms of circuit tampering. The idea we propose is to develop a sensor to detect physical tamper events for protection of small to medium volumes. The idea we contemplate is specific to microelectronic circuitry. Further development may show promise to other applications. After a system is enclosed, any attempt to remove the enclosure will trigger erasure or zeroization of critical memory elements within the circuit. The AT sensor will provide both a physical barrier to entry and probing, as well as prevent visual observation of the circuit it protects. Experimentation at a high-level design will be performed in Phase I and used in the development for implementation in Phase II.

NVE CORP. (FORMERLY NONVOLATILE ELECTRONICS, INC.
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 996-1636
Dr. James Deak
MDA 06-052      Selected for Award
Title:Passive Anti-Tamper Latching Stress Sensors for Volume Protection
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I proposal describes a latching anti-tamper (AT) stress sensor (LATSS) for volumetric protection of military systems. LATSS devices are intended to passively detect and remember if a change in some mechanical aspect of the shield enclosing a protected volume has occurred and provide a signal that can be queried to report the change. They are based on spin dependent tunnel (SDT) junctions utilizing magnetostrictive ferromagnetic electrodes. Magnetostrictive SDT junctions provide a unique combination of capabilities for an AT sensor. The hysteretic magnetic behavior of the SDT electrodes provides the capability to record a change in stress without applied power. The magnetoresistance of the SDT junctions permits electrical readout of the orientation of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic sensor electrodes, which is set by magnetostrictive coupling to the substrate strain. SDT devices can be fabricated using standard back end of line semiconductor processes, potentially making LATSS a low cost volumetric AT solution. Because of their small size, several LATSS devices could be combined on the same substrate to produce a cryptokey memory, providing a new class of passive tamper-responsive cryptokey memory. Additionally, SDT materials are intrinsically radiation hard, permitting development of radiation hard LATSS devices.

QORTEK, INC.
1965 Lycoming Creek Road Suite 205
Williamsport, PA 17701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(570) 322-2700
Dr. Gareth J. Knowles
MDA 06-052      Selected for Award
Title:Ballistic Missile Defense Anti-Tamper Volume Protection
Abstract:The purpose of this Program is to demonstrate an inexpensive thin Multi-threat Detect sensor compatible with die integration, that can provide reliable detect information on multiple kinds of attempts to access information (design or code) contained within security sensitive microelectronics. Although the multi-threat detection sensors are passive (power independent), they can rapidly detect a range of threats including: physically tamper; X-ray; magnetic; electromagnetic and acoustic reverse engineering methods. Direct die integration/packaging will be investigated for PPGA type and BGA type packages. The primary goal is to clearly demonstrate that these Multi-threat Detect sensors can accurately detect a variety of potentially adversarial threats with a high degree of sensitivity.

BENNETT OPTICAL RESEARCH, INC.
201 N. Sanders Street
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 384-1177
Dr. Harold E. Bennett
MDA 06-053      Selected for Award
Title:Optimization and Reduced Print Thru in HEL Deformable Mirrors
Abstract:Several possible material and design changes to improve HEL deformable mirrors will be discussed. The principles will apply to Air Force ACDM and BCDM mirrors and to other HEL mirror designs. Simple changes to conventional mirrors and a new mounting technique are evaluated first using highly efficient finite element thermal analysis. Material changes including substitution of a low expansion, low thermal conductivity, lightweight, relatively inexpensive faceplate for the current high expansion coefficient, transparent silicon faceplate and development of a high thermal conductivity, opaque faceplate similar to silicon but having a low expansion coefficient are considered. High thermal conductivity low expansion coefficient mirrors have the smallest mirror distortion coefficient theoretically. The last concept could be developed and the other ideas demonstrated experimentally in an SBIR Phase II project.

METASTABLE INSTRUMENTS, INC.
5988 Mid Rivers Mall Drive - Suite 236
St. Peters, MO 63304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 447-9555
Dr. George Dube
MDA 06-053      Selected for Award
Title:Reduced Print Thru in HEL Deformable Mirrors
Abstract:This project will investigate a passive solution to the deformable mirror print through problem. No additional sensor or control subsystems will be required. The high reflector surface will be positioned on the backside of the thin deformable transparent glass sheet. First order theory (uniform temperature through the thickness of the thin glass sheet) indicates that for most glasses there is a thickness that makes this backside reflector athermal with respect to actuator thermal expansion. The thermal expansion and dn/dT of the thin glass sheet cancels the change in optical path caused by the thermal expansion of the actuators and their heating of the mirror substrate. The thermal optic distortion of mirrors heated by simulated actuators will be measured interferometrically and compared to theory. Besides the required change in optical path with temperature, the glass must have physical and chemical properties suitable for fabrication into a thin polished sheet that will be HR coated on one side and AR coated on the other. This project will investigate the most practical actuators, transparent materials and fabrication techniques and apply finite element analysis to guide design modifications to minimize any effects of thermal gradients produced by the actuators and/or laser beam.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura RoadSuite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Dr. Richard A. Hutchin
MDA 06-053      Selected for Award
Title:Segmented Deformable Mirror for Tactical HEL
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project proposes to investigate a segmented deformable mirror (SDM) to minimize the thermal distortion in high energy laser (HEL) beam correction. The main innovation is to use a 1 cm thick segmented silicon facesheet elastically bonded into a monolithic substrate. The elastomeric bonding is only 25 microns thick and allows the facesheet to be figured and coated like solid glass while still being pliable enough for piezo-actuator control. The result is a fully capable DM where each individual actuator is too thick to produce any thermal ripple. Furthermore, silicon's high thermal conductivity coupled with a cooling collar limits temperature rise to 1 degree K/Megawatt. Phase I will build a 16 actuator DM tested under simulated HEL loading. It also includes the detailed design and test plan of the Phase II segmented deformable mirror prototype. This will prepare us to fabricate a 200 actuator DM in Phase II.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Matthew Erdtmann
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:High-Performance Dual-Band MWIR/LWIR Uncooled Imager for ABL IRST Sensors
Abstract:Agiltron proposes a high-performance dual-band imager for the IRST sensors used in the ABL Wide Area Surveillance System (WASS). To meet the needs of the MDA, the proposed imager will feature simultaneous dual-band MWIR/LWIR operation for increased discrimination capability; megapixel resolution for increased field of view, detection range, and angular resolution; uncooled operation for minimized weight, volume, power, and cost and absence of cooling requirements; and ruggedized components and packaging for operation at high altitudes, automotive-grade temperature operating range (-40øC to +85øC), and robust shock resistance. The use of COTS components and vertically integrated manufacturing will simplify manufacturing and radically reduce sensor cost. Compared to state-of-the-art IR imagers without dual-band capability, Agiltron's novel dual-band imager will achieve significant reductions of about 30% in weight, over 80% in power consumption, and 70% in cost. In this Program, Agiltron will work with Lockheed Martin Missiles & Fire Control (LMMFC), the manufacturer of the ABL WASS, for implementation of the dual-band imager. The Phase I work will develop a prototype thermal imager for operation in the MWIR and LWIR bands and demonstrate its capability for detecting rocket/missile launches. A fully functional prototype dual-band MWIR/LWIR imager with megapixel resolution and ruggedized packaging will be produced in Phase II. The anticipated volume insertion time frame is less than 3 years.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 517-8660
Dr. James Murray
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:Optimization of ABLs Long-Range LADAR Sensor Under Objective Aero-optical Environments
Abstract:To counter emerging threats of theater ballistic missiles the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has sponsored the development of the Airborne Laser (ABL) system. For the ABL system to defeat multiple targets over the theater of operation it must be capable of accurately tracking multiple targets simultaneously. The Active Ranging System (ARS) plays a critical role in achieving this capability by providing quick and accurate measurements of the missiles position and velocity over time. This proposal addresses critical new ladar technology for the ARS tracking function. Aret‚ Associates has developed a proprietary ladar approach that takes advantage of fiber laser transmitters and high sensitivity low-noise detectors. The choice of the optimum transmitter wavelength in the context of performance and component availability is an unresolved issue. Detailed analysis and trade-studies are required on the near-field aero-optical effects, total path length attenuation and atmospheric turbulence to develop the trade-offs between candidate ladar configurations. In this effort Aret‚ Associates and teammates Analysis and Applications Associates will utilize sophisticated aero-optical, atmospheric propagation and ladar system models developed specifically to address the ABL operational scenario to analyze theses trade-offs between various laser transmitter wavelengths and ladar components that will support our novel ladar approach.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Silviu Velicu
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:ABL (Airborne Laser) Detection Sensor Improvements
Abstract:MDA is developing deployable airborne systems such as the Airborne Laser (ABL) for boost-phase missile defense. The ABL's mission would significantly benefit from enhanced target detection and ranging capabilities. We propose an active sensing system compatible with ABL that is based on HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which are an attractive choice for active sensing applications because their internal gain mechanism can improve signal to noise ratios. Moreover, they offer an advantageous combination of several factors, including high quantum efficiencies and high frequency response. We propose to design and fabricate long wavelength infrared (LWIR) APD focal plane arrays based on HgCdTe. As a novel approach, we propose a lateral current collection device design that will have larger optical detection areas than electrical junction areas, and also have the advantages of reduced dark currents and relatively high resistances compared to traditional planar heterostructures. In the Phase I effort, we will use Taurus-Medici, a 2-dimensional device modeling tool, to design and simulate single element HgCdTe LWIR lateral current collection APDs, grow the structures by molecular beam epitaxy, fabricate single element detectors with lithography, inductively coupled plasma etching and metal evaporation, and characterize the electrical and optical performance of the active sensing detectors.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
9380 SW 72nd Street, B-180
Miami, FL 33173
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. Jame J. Yang
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:Foveated Imaging and Spectral Discrimination Sensor
Abstract:The Airborne Laser (ABL) is a key component of the US government's overall ballistic missile defense systems. In an operational scenario, the ABL's sensor system will detect and track enemy's boosting missile, determine its position and destroy it with a high energy laser. The ABL's sensor system also identifies the launch location and predicts the impact location, which is communicated to other assets in the missile defense systems. Existing missile detection and tracking sensors cannot meet advanced missile defense requirements including wide field of view (FOV), long detection range, increased capability to correctly discriminate between ballistic missile targets and other types of tracks, high angular resolution for a 2-D passive only angle-angle track, and low weight, volume and power requirements, et al. There is a demand to enhance the ability of today's airborne surveillance systems for missile defense. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes herein a novel optical configuration that is capable of simultaneously providing wide FOV global monitoring, high spatial resolution and spectral details in areas of interest for enhanced missile detection rate, and precise positioning and tracking without mechanical scanning. In Phase I we will establish the model, demonstrate the feasibility, and recognize challenging issues of the proposed concept.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan WaySuite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. Andrew Huntington
MDA 06-054      Selected for Award
Title:ABL (Airborne Laser) Detection Sensor Improvements
Abstract:Recent and emerging technologies, such as a 3-D LADAR tracker with precise target detection, tracking, and aimpoint imaging could make significant gains for ABL's capabilities. Solid state avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are a rugged, fully-monolithic detector technology well suited for LADAR focal plane arrays (FPAs). In the past, Geiger mode APD operation has been preferred for tasks requiring sensitivity to single photon, but Geiger APDs achieve single photon sensitivity comes at the price of high dark current and long dead times because fundamental tradeoffs exist between detection probability, dark count rate, and speed. Recent advances in low-noise amplifier design and techniques for suppressing APD multiplication noise have brought single photon sensitivity within reach of linear APD systems. This technology has application for a number of the ABL EO systems and in this Phase I program. Through a series of materials growth and fabrication designed experiments, Voxtel proposes to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a NIR photon-counting linear mode APD capable of sub-nanosecond-scale detection and pulse pair resolution and establish its reliability. In Phase II, a large-format, fully-functional LADAR FPA will be fabricated and tested.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
MDA 06-055      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Valve Technology for COIL (AVTCOIL)
Abstract:The (Airborne Laser) ABL Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) creates a lasing medium by utilizing Chlorine to produce Singlet Delta Oxygen (SDO) which in-turn dissociates a separately supplied Iodine molecule and then excites the resulting Iodine atom for lasing. Both Chlorine and Iodine are extremely caustic substances and require great care when handling. Of particular importance is the lifetime of high performance valves used to meter these substances as well as all other ABL fluid products (Helium, Nitrogen, ammonia and Hydrogen Peroxide). Since the valves must operate on an aircraft, overall contribution to ABL system weight is an important consideration. Mid‚ proposes an innovative design that incorporates corrosion resistant materials in the valve body, seat materials that are compatible will all the fluids to be used, and an actuating mechanism that can meet the desired opening and closing times. The actuation system will be pneumatically operated while materials with unique properties will be included in the actuating mechanism. Mid‚'s experience with the design, development and flight qualification of custom valves and materials expertise creates the required combination for the development of a successful valve for use on ABL.

POWDERMET, INC.
24112 Rockwell drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 404-0053
Mr. Asit Biswas
MDA 06-055      Selected for Award
Title:Self- Lapping Chemical Valves for ABL-COIL Laser
Abstract:In this Phase I program teaming with system integrator, Powdermet will develop a low cost light weight, high strength, chlorine, iodine, helium, ammonia, caustic compatible corrosion resistant, high performance, long life capable, maintenance free Self- Lapping Chemical Valves for ABL-COIL Laser by corrosion resistant particle reinforced light weight superalloy MMC using CVD coated powders

UTILITY DEVELOPMENT CORP.
112 Naylon Avenue
Livingston, NJ 07039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 994-4334
Mr. Harry S. Katz
MDA 06-055      Selected for Award
Title: Lightweight, Corrosion Resistant Valve Materials
Abstract:The main objective will be to improve the reliability and reduce the overall system weight for the numerous currently pneumatically actuated flight qualified valves used by the Airborne Laser (ABL) program. Important steps in successfully achieving the main objective will be UDC'S formulation, fabrication and evaluation of lightweight and chemical resistant composites that can easily be fabricated into valve components as improved substitutes for the current steel and aluminum components. UDC will conduct testing to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. At the end of Phase I, UDC will provide a report with results and conclusions, and a Phase II plan, schedule and cost estimate.