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181 Phase I Selections from the 06.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
361 INTERACTIVE, LLC
408 Sharts RoadSuite 7
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 743-0361
Mr. Michael J. McCloskey
OSD 06-CR1      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:A Cognitive Approach to Promoting Cross-Cultural Perspective Taking Skills
Abstract:Cultures differ in cognition. These cognitive differences naturally result in expectancy violations and perceptual mismatches between people of different cultures. And while they are, by nature, difficult to observe, a culture's cognitive attributes significantly influence individual perceptions and overt behaviors. A training program that addresses general cross-cultural perspective taking skills needs to acknowledge these cognitive differences and make them a primary focus. We propose to use the Cultural Lens Model, an innovative cognitive model that integrates multiple theories on cultural differences, as a guiding framework for the proposed effort. The Cultural Lens Model offers a structure for understanding, explaining, and potentially predicting reasoning and decision-making behaviors of members of different cultures. Our resultant program will integrate required baseline knowledge within the context of skill-building, scenario-based exercises. It will provide trainees with a general mental model of how cultures differ in cognition, along with the ability to apply that model to themselves and others. By exploiting several existing technologies from previous efforts, we will demonstrate the feasibility and inherent value of our concept with a functional Phase I prototype. The prototype will contain modules for both Army cultural trainers and self-taught trainees.

ECROSSCULTURE
777 29th Street, Suite 102
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-1978
Ms. Linda Roan
OSD 06-CR1      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Innovative Perspective Taking
Abstract:Consider a typical Army soldier. He's young, he probably has not been abroad before entering the military, he has not been to college, and he is serving in very dangerous situations. He also may not have joined the military with the intention of taking on the role of peacekeeper. Yet the cultural skills he needs are crucial to the success of the US military's missions in foreign environments. Building trust, communicating effectively, and establishing positive relationships with civilians where possible not only furthers US goals, but helps keep him alive. Our challenge is to provide him with the these skills.

JOB PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS, INC.
1240 N. Pitt St,
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 683-5805
Dr. Douglas Rosenthal
OSD 06-CR1      Awarded: 14MAY07
Title:Navigating the Human Terrain: Development of Cross-Cultural Perspective Taking Skills
Abstract:The success of many U.S. military missions depends on working effectively with others from different countries. To do this requires, at all levels of our force structure, an appreciation of the intricacies of societal and tribal cultures and the complexity of human-to-human interactions. The current effort focuses particularly on junior military personnel (E1-E5; O1-04) and the type of intercultural interactions that they typically encounter. Soldiers at this level must know how to establish a relationship with the local populace based on understanding, trust, and mutual interest. The goal of this SBIR effort is to design an automated, deployable culture-general training system. The ultimate product will be deliverable via web technology or CD-ROM and will be SCORM compliant. This document describes our rationale and approach for developing an engaging culture-general training system that will provide high quality knowledge and skill training. The main components of the system will be a curriculum designed to systematically build intercultural knowledge and skills, using multi-media training tools to effectively convey the training content and to provide practice on relevant skills.

ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH GROUP, LLC
5329 Buckhead Trail
Knoxville, TN 37919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 256-2171
Dr. Joan Rentsch
OSD 06-CR1      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Navigating the Human Terrain: Development of Cross-Cultural Perspective Taking Skills
Abstract:As the U.S. Army increasingly operates in multicultural environments, Army leaders at a minimum must develop relationships with the local people. Multicultural perspective-taking competencies will enable leaders to build relationships and to function effectively in multicultural environments. Multicultural perspective-taking competencies are generalizable competencies that will enable Army leaders to extract, interpret, and utilize cultural information in any culture. Recent research (Rentsch & Gundersen, 2006) has identified a set of multicultural perspective-taking competencies including self-awareness, personal and interpersonal skills, regional expertise, extraction skills, interpretation skills, and the development of cultural schema. These multicultural perspective-taking competencies were extracted from a broad search of research in cultural anthropology, psychology, international business, and adult education. Two primary objectives of the proposed effort are (1) to identify any additional multicultural perspective-taking competencies based on interviews with subject matter experts and (2) to develop a prototype training and development system for the initial acquisition of multicultural perspective-taking competencies. To conduct this project, a multidisciplinary team with expertise in intercultural communications and relations, cultural and cognitive anthropology, cross-cultural counseling, international business, training, and adult education has been assembled.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Jared Freeman
OSD 06-CR2      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Modeling Accurate Cultural Behaviors for Effective Training of Humans (MACBETH)
Abstract:The Global War on Terror requires coalition forces to engage with diverse cultures. This requires robust knowledge of cultures and skill at handling them. Current cultural training devices fail to leverage the theory, data, or interfaces necessary to deliver culturally rich training and mission rehearsal. We propose to develop a system for Modeling Accurate Cultural Behaviors for Effective Training of Humans (MACBETH), which addresses these challenges by providing a comprehensive framework (theory) for describing culturally derived behavior; a data capture and modeling tool to use for generating representations of behavior; and a systematic method for evaluating interfaces for cultural training. Specifically, the MACBETH team will: (1) develop a framework for representing cultural behaviors, (2) develop scenarios that exercise the framework, (3) define techniques for capturing behavioral data, evaluate gaming environments, (4) demonstrate our technical results, and (5) craft a Phase II validation plan.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia DriveSuite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Wayne Zachary
OSD 06-CR2      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Modeling Culturally Accurate Behavior via Multiplayer Game Environments
Abstract:Military simulations involving non-player characters (NPCs) from non-US cultures are becoming increasingly important for training and mission rehearsal. However, creating culturally-realistic behaviors for these characters remains a technical challenge because there is not a clear standard or process for creating behaviors that are consistent with a given culture. This Phase I effort will design a solution to the problem via a set of tools, called CulturePad, that allow cultural behaviors to be empirically captured and abstracted in such a way that the resulting abstraction can be used to efficiently create accurate models of the cultural behaviors of non-US NPCs. An important objective of the Phase I research is analyzing the potential obstacles to capturing and simulating culturally appropriate behavior, and developing strategies to mitigate these in the CulturePad design. The CulturePad concept is based on a generative narrative representation which has been shown to hold validity as a way of capturing cultural knowledge in multiple cultural settings, and has also been shown to be a feasible way of generating behaviors for computer-generated synthetic agents. This will be accomplished, in part through empirical studies comparing how culture-specific scenarios would be played out in a multiplayer game versus a live `role-play' simulation.

PATHFINDER SYSTEMS, INC.
200 Union Blvd., Suite 300
Lakewood, CO 80228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 763-8660
Sheila Jaszlics
OSD 06-CR2      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Cognitive Net Accurate Cultural Trainer (CONTACT)
Abstract:Current simulation-based training systems typically support training for conventional combat operations against organized military threat and require large numbers of support personnel to operate. These systems model very limited types of Non Player Characters (NPCs) used to simulate threat forces and non-combatants. The cost and time required to expand the capability of these systems by adding new NPC types, to meet additional training needs, is prohibitive. The expense of these systems makes them largely unavailable to our military personnel at the frequency they require, where they need it. Finally, the time required to develop training scenarios is unacceptable, running into months, when even a few hours may be too long for out military personnel to wait. In this effort we will design and prototype an efficient, low-cost capability to quickly model large numbers of NPC types with the abilities to quickly input cultural aspects and traits. The resulting system will allow users to quickly create and assess NPCs that can be directly inserted into training environments that support warfighters in all echelons and across all simulation domains. The system will significantly reduce the number of personnel required to support simulation-based training events. The effort will also reduce simulation development time and cost by streamlining the NPC modeling process.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Mr. Ryan Houlette
OSD 06-CR3      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Tools and Technologies for Inserting Deep Cultural Context into Mission Training Simulations
Abstract:We propose the development of a system for deep cultural adaptation of synthetic agent behaviors and environmental objects within mission training simulations. This adaptation will incorporate cognitive cultural influences into trainee interactions to meet the training objectives of adapting military skills to specific cultural environments. Training objectives supported by the system will include familiarity with specific material artifacts and observable behavioral attributes on the part of synthetic agents, and deep understanding of the cultural cognitions and relationships that constrain and determine such behaviors. We will evaluate existing technologies for their capacity to provide this deep cultural context for trainee interactions, and the feasibility of their impact on training outcomes. These technologies will constitute a toolset that is capable of reproducing empirical data from the field, and conforming to theoretically sound models of the influence of culture in human behavior. We will develop and demonstrate an architectural framework establishing the interoperability of this toolset in satisfaction of culturally specific skill training objectives.

TACTICAL LANGUAGE TRAINING, LLC
11965 Venice Blvd, Suite 402
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 566-7272
Dr. Andre Valente
OSD 06-CR3      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Tools for Creating Skill Training Content in Distributed Simulations
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop tools for creating cultural skill training content for distributed simulations. It will leverage the technology and content of current Tactical Language and Culture Training System products, including the highly successful Tactical Iraqi training system. The project will focus research in the following areas in order to fully meet the objectives of the SBIR solicitation: (1) develop tools for creating rich knowledge bases of culturally significant objects and behaviors suitable for incorporation into interactive training scenarios, (2) develop authoring tools for specifying multi-user training scenarios in distributed virtual simulations, incorporating culturally significant elements, (3) support these cultural elements and scenarios within distributed virtual simulations, and (4) evaluate the tools and training techniques with appropriate military personnel.

VCOM3D, INC.
3452 Lake Lynda Dr., Suite 260
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 737-7309
Dr. Edward M. Sims
OSD 06-CR3      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Tools for Creating Objects and Behaviors for Distributed Simulations with a Cultural Context
Abstract:For this Phase I SBIR project, we will identify key aspects of culturally-influenced behaviors that can impact a soldier's or junior leader's ability to successfully communicate and collaborate with local populations and coalition forces during the conduct of peacekeeping and humanitarian missions. Based on this analysis, we will develop a conceptual framework for modeling these behaviors such that they may be used in distributed training simulations. Using Vcom3D and third-party authoring tools, we will develop and evaluate simulations of culture-specific behaviors, and will demonstrate these in proof-of-concept training scenarios. Working with our subcontractors, Forterra Systems and Soar Technologies, we will also demonstrate how these behaviors can be integrated with multi-player gaming platforms and with computer-generated forces. Key features of the proposed approach include: . Use of a library of over 600 "context aware", culture-specific behaviors originally developed for the DARWARS initiative. . Highly detailed virtual human models capable of multi-lingual speech with lip-sync, facial expression, gesture, proxemic, and haptic behaviors. For Phase II, we will use lessons learned from Phase I to develop a fully functional, extensible prototype simulation and supporting toolset that can be used to create training simulations that embed both computer-generated and player-controlled characters with culture-specific behaviors.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
OSD 06-CR4      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Culturally Aware Agents for Training Environments (CAATE)
Abstract:During the last decade, the U.S. Army has conducted a wide range of missions within the context of very different cultures. These missions often require Soldiers to interact and communicate personally and effectively with people whose cultures, languages, lifestyle, and beliefs are very different from those found in the U.S. It has become increasingly clear that strategy, operational plans, and implementing procedures must occur in the context of local cultural constraints in order to be effective. We propose a simulation-based training approach to providing the necessary training for success across such culturally situated missions. By focusing on the social and cultural elements that most affect mission success, we believe we can limit the problem to a tractable size. We propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of Culturally Aware Agents for Training Environments (CAATE), a modeling and simulation tool for software agents that demonstrate the necessary cultural skills and behaviors for maximally affordable and effective culturally situated training systems. CAATE will embody sound didactic methodologies, it will utilize social network models for modeling the social and cultural situation, and it will support the development of human behavior models with built-in behavior moderator support to model appropriate cultural behavior.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 207-2237
Dr. Douglas Reece
OSD 06-CR4      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Cultural Behavior Generation for Distributed Simulation
Abstract:U.S. Army personnel need realistic cultural training to carry out Stability and Support Operations (SASO) in foreign environments. Virtual environments supported by simulations such as the OneSAF Objective System (OOS) could help fill this training need. To do this, the simulations must model people in foreign cultures. Today's simulations for virtual environments do not have models of intelligent human behavior that are combined with models of mental states, cultural characteristics, and physical expressions of those states and characteristics. Soar Technology, in conjunction with Vcom3D, is proposing to develop a cultural behavior generation (CBG) system that will include the components necessary for generating human behavior characteristic of people of different cultures. These components will include a cognitive behavior model, a human factors model, and a physical behavior model. In Phase I of the proposed project, Soar Technology will review existing culture modeling components and identify technologies that can be applied to the objective CBG system; identify training objectives for a CBG system and develop an exemplary scenario; develop initial designs for integrating CBG into distributed simulations in general and OOS in particular; and provide a functional demonstration of cognitive and physical behavior models working together to produce cultural behavior.

ECROSSCULTURE
777 29th Street, Suite 102
Boulder, CO 80303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 544-1978
Mrs. Linda Roan
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 08FEB07
Title:An Innovative, Interactive, Dynamic Mission Planning Tool
Abstract:The proposed planning tool will be designed after an exhaustive review of commercial and military cross-cultural training products, interviews, and literature review. We describe a sound pedagogical approach which includes transition along the cognitive domain, formal phases, and accommodation to varied learner styles.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5260
Dr. Jacqueline Haynes
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 24JAN07
Title:Simulation-Based Training Approach to Cross-cultural Training
Abstract:Factual aspects of formal cultural knowledge are well documented. So is information on observable cultural differences such as time and space. Systems for training on these more formal cross-cultural attributes are reasonably straightforward to build, and have been quite effective. On the other hand, the more informal attributes such as communication patterns and styles, inter-relationship power perception, predilection to risk-taking etc. are far more difficult to codify and train as these are neither easily observable nor measurable. Currently deployed cross-cultural training methods have focused mostly on the more formal and easily measurable and trainable aspects of cross-cultural training. However these methods are woefully inadequate or prohibitively expensive for training in the informal attributes. In this proposal, we provide a novel and inexpensive solution. We propose an innovative simulation-based cross-cultural training environment, where trainees learn skills through compelling interactive stories. For this purpose, our approach will utilize (a) Interactive Pedagogical Drama (IPD) based adaptable training to create interactive stories where trainees interact with the characters in a realistic, narrative-driven, story-based setting; (b) intelligent agent-based infrastructure to model believable role-playing characters with motivations, attitudes and emotions; and (c) SCORM-compliant web-based distance learning infrastructure to deliver accessible training content.

KINECTION
302 Cypress Avenue
Santa Cruz, CA 95062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 426-6301
Mr. Doug Nelson
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 16FEB07
Title:The Cultural Fluency Toolkit: Cultural Training for Human-to-Human Interactions at the Tactical Level
Abstract:We propose to create a "Cultural Fluency Toolkit," a self-paced, computer-based training tool that personnel involved in SSTR operations will use to develop cultural fluency skills in general, and fluency skills for Mid-East cultures in particular. The Toolkit will incorporate several innovative approaches in terms of content, instructional approach, and technical design. It will convey the following direct benefits to DOD. 1) It will directly improve the performance of junior military personnel in the Middle East. 2) It will engage and motivate learners through games, simulations, and other techniques, increasing interest in cultural fluency and improving acquisition and retention of specific fluency skills. 3) It will allow ongoing updating at the unit level, so that it will maintain its relevance as the COE changes. 4) It will be inexpensively and easily extendable to other non-Western cultures. 5) It will integrate with and contribute to overall DOD efforts to improve cultural awareness.

SMART INFORMATION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, D/B/A SIFT
211 N 1st St.Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 716-4015
Dr. Christopher Miller
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 07FEB07
Title:Interactive Phrasebook
Abstract:Effective cultural training teaches an understanding of appropriate social interactions in context-to take offense when reasonable, to give deference where appropriate, etc. Systems that provide realistic rehearsals have a fundamental need for believability beyond accuracy in appearance, and have the cus-tomizability to alter scenarios so they reflect the needs of the student. We propose using a rich, univer-sal theory of human-human "politeness" behaviors and the culture-specific interpretive frameworks for them (labeled "etiquette") from sociology, linguistics and anthropology to create an interactive and practical training tool. Our model will link observable and inferred aspects of power and familiarity relationships, the degree of imposition of an act (all of which have implications for roles and intents) and the actor's character to produce politeness behavior expectations. By using observations of polite-ness behaviors (or its lack), the same model permits inferences and updates about those attributes, while taking into account potential cultural biases. In Phase I, we will design the architecture of such a sys-tem, provide a Middle-Eastern culture based scenario derived from SSTR operation tasks, and create concrete plans to test the designed system. In Phase II, we will implement the system, conduct a pilot study, and expand cross-cultural content libraries.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway NorthP.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3792
Dr. James E. McCarthy
OSD 06-CR5      Awarded: 01FEB07
Title:Interactive Learning Environment for Managing Socio-cultural Influences on Human-to-Human Interactions at the Tactical Level
Abstract:Sonalysts, Inc. is pleased to propose the Tactical Multicultural Experience Development System (TAC-MEDS) to provide junior military personnel with the experience they need to excel. The TAC-MEDS System will contain basic instruction in multi-cultural interaction principles, skills, and attitudes. Beyond that, the TAC-MEDS System will include a Practice Environment in which users can interact with various characters in realistic situations, observe their results, and get coaching. It will also include a Question-and-Answer (Q&A) Environment in which users can interact with a knowledge base as if they were talking to experienced peers. The TAC-MEDS System will deliver the training "any time and any place." The goal of the TAC-MEDS System will be to allow users to explore new situations, fail as necessary, and learn from those failures before they are faced with real-time events, which will require the application of those skills. The old adage holds that, "Good judgment is the result of experience, and experience is the result of poor judgment." The TAC-MEDS System will give warriors the experience they need to succeed. Further, the experience will take place in a safe, structured environment in which errors do not jeopardize mission success and constructive coaching can be delivered.

COMMAND PERFORMANCE RESEARCH, INC.
1201 Waverly Dr.
Champaign, IL 61821
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 621-3918
Dr. Anna T Cianciolo
OSD 06-CR6      Awarded: 14FEB07
Title:Interactive Learning Environment for Managing Multinational, Interagency, and Other Interactions in Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruction Operations
Abstract:The post-Cold War era has witnessed significant growth in the number of latent tensions that have exploded into violent conflicts. The civil and humanitarian emergencies created by these conflicts have produced an unprecedented need for stability, security, transition, and reconstruction operations, requiring cooperation between military forces and NGOs. Cultural differences between the military and NGOs have made collaboration difficult. Educational and performance-support interventions designed to enhance interpersonal effectiveness in joint military-NGO operations are badly needed and may have significant impact on the success of efforts to win international peace. To address this need, CPResearch is proposing to research and develop a web-based system that will enable the synchronous, distributed, collective development of military-NGO team planning capabilities through cultural awareness education, knowledge management techniques, and deliberate practice. CPResearch will team with Pearson Knowledge Technologies, known for its innovative latent semantic analysis algorithms, so that automated content analysis may serve as the backbone for sequencing reference material and exercise scenarios, providing information push at key learning moments, and enabling augmented team collaboration with real and virtual teammates. This proposal describes the Phase I research, design, and prototyping we plan to undertake to guide the development of a fully functional Phase II product.

GOLDRUSH77.COM
7770 Ramona Dr
Navarre, FL 32566
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 936-0377
Mr. Joseph H. Caruth, Jr.
OSD 06-CR6      Awarded: 26FEB07
Title:Interactive Learning Environment for Managing Multinational, Interagency, and Other Interactions in Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruction Operations
Abstract:OSD06-CR6 Abstract Social, cultural and organizational differences between U.S. military forces (USMs), multinational forces (MNFs), other U.S. and foreign government agencies (OGAs) and non-government organizations (NGOs) make interactions between members of these organizations engaged in stability, security, transition and reconstruction operations (SSTR) less effective. Opportunities exist to develop a SCORM compliant, interactive computer based simulation to educate and exercise USMs in the principles of effective interactions with MNFs, OGAs and NGOs. Although differences in national and organizational culture contribute to difficulties, cultural diversity is not the only problem. Differences in organizational missions, structures and processes, human resources policies, reward systems and cultures create problems that make communication, coordination, cooperation and ultimately collaboration less effective across organizational boundaries. Our first goal will be to identify the context, profiles of participating organizations, principles and practices of successful inter-organizational interactions through a literature review, Lessons Learned and critical incident interviews with USMs, MNFs, OGAs and NGOs. The second goal is to develop a pedagogic strategy, review military and commercial educational software products, choose a software supplier and design a system of technology tools. Our third goal is to create a plan with timetable and budget for the development of the software tools.

KINECTION
302 Cypress Avenue
Santa Cruz, CA 95062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 426-6301
Mr. Doug Nelson
OSD 06-CR6      Awarded: 20FEB07
Title:The Toolkit for Interorganizational Effectiveness: Training Multinational, Interagency, and Other Interactions in SSTR Operations
Abstract:We propose to create a Toolkit for Interorganizational Effectiveness, a self-paced, computer-based training tool that personnel involved in SSTR operations will use to develop the skills required to cooperate effectively with counterparts from other organizational cultures. The Toolkit will incorporate several innovative approaches in terms of content, instructional approach, and technical design. It will convey the following direct benefits to DOD. 1) It will directly improve the performance of military personnel involved in SSTR operations. 2) It will engage and motivate learners through games, simulations, and other techniques, increasing interest in interorganizational effectiveness, and improving acquisition and retention of specific skills. 3) It will allow ongoing updating at the unit level, so that it will maintain its relevance as the COE changes. 4) It will be inexpensively and easily extendable to other non-Western cultures. 5) It will integrate with and contribute to overall DOD efforts to improve cultural awareness.

STRATEGIC ANALYSIS, INC.
3601 Wilson Blvd, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 527-5410
Dr. Evelyn Dahm
OSD 06-CR6      Awarded: 14FEB07
Title:Interactive Learning Environment for Managing Multinational, Interagency, and Other Interactions in Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruction Operations
Abstract:The technical objective is to design a dynamic mission planning tool that increases cognitive readiness and adaptability of U.S. military personnel for interacting in Coalition SSTR operations tasks with OGAs, MNFs, and NGOs. The technical approach includes a literature review and engagement with U.S. military, foreign counterparts and civilians to identify social, cultural and organizational dimensions that impact human-to-human and group interactions among MNFs, OGAs and NGOs; challenges military personnel face in interpersonal/group interactions with the Coalition; approaches and behaviors that have worked and not been successful; and, complex organizational, cultural, social, and language information relevant to interpersonal/group interactions. The technical approach includes assessment of existing commercial/military products that may be applicable to increasing cognitive readiness and adaptability. We will integrate theoretical insights from fields (e.g., cultural studies, cognitive and organizational psychology), with military perspectives. A knowledge engineering, modeling, and simulation tool, Discovery MachineT E3W, will be integrated with the literature, U.S. military, foreign counterparts and civilian engagement, and encode and capture best practices for human-to-human interaction in the form of hierarchical models. The models and technology assessment will enable the design of a planning tool that allows warfighters to prepare for Coalition tasks with MNFs, OGAs, and NGOs.

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-1177
Dr. Brian T. Mitchell
OSD 06-CR7      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:A Multi-Media Approach to Realistic Social and Cultural Skills Training
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop GreenLabs: a web-based, collaborative e-learning environment for the development, delivery, and evaluation of multimedia training sequences that teach cross-cultural communications concepts and provide detailed, media-rich descriptions of target cultures on demand. A two-step process has been identified as being optimal for providing Soldiers with concepts relevant to their needs. The basic course will teach culture-general skills with practical exercises that break down barriers of communication while preserving the student's individual sense of culture, military culture, and the cognitive patterns on which their lives depend. The advanced course will provide culture-specific information and basic language instruction. Every sequence in both courses will include dynamic text, animations, sound, video, and will feature a small, agile game or simulation that demonstrates and reinforces the concepts presented in the sequence. GreenLabs will facilitate the development and packaging of these games within focused sequences of training that will be available via the internet or on CD-ROM. The focus of these courses of training is on individual distributed learning, though it will be possible to integrate the courseware into group classes led by an instructor. All courses will be SCORM-compliant and provide real-time feedback on students' progress.

TACTICAL LANGUAGE TRAINING, LLC
11965 Venice Blvd, Suite 402
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 566-7272
Dr. Andre Valente
OSD 06-CR7      Awarded: 16FEB07
Title:Web-Enabled Interactive Culture and Language Training
Abstract:The goal of this project is to create an interactive computer-based mission planning tool that helps guide US military personnel in how to apply their cultural understanding in interactions with military counterparts and civilians in non-Western cultures. It will leverage the technology and content of current Tactical Language and Culture Training System products, including the highly successful Tactical Iraqi training system. To meet the needs of this SBIR topic, we need to develop an alternative Web-compatible delivery platform that retains the key interactive characteristics of TLCTS, and populate it with relevant social and cultural skill content. This research will focus on four major areas (1) developing an implementation of cultural lesson and exercise pages for the Web; (2) developing an execution engine that can execute interactive scenarios on the Web; (3) developing learner assessment and feedback for Web-based delivery; and (4) author additional training content, and (5) evaluating training effectiveness.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia DriveSuite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Floyd Glenn
OSD 06-CR8      Awarded: 31JAN07
Title:Training Optimization for Generic Game-based Learning Environments (TOGGLE)
Abstract:Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) operations require U.S. military personnel to interact and communicate effectively with people whose cultures, languages, and beliefs are very different from their own. SSTR operations require tact and understanding of the motives and tendencies of indigenous populations in order to defuse tense situations, prevent civil disturbances, and obtain cooperation. Traditional tactical training must be augmented with cultural intelligence and negotiations training. The U.S. military has sponsored previous research into the application of computer game technology for this purpose. In past efforts, learning has been opportunistic and no systematic training methodology has been applied. Previous systems typically lacked training mechanisms such as training goals, performance standards, student models, instructor feedback, and performance remediation/appraisal. To meet this challenge, we propose to develop a training life cycle methodology that is mediated and facilitated by executable cognitive models of the student, the instructor, and the training process itself. The Training Optimization for Generic Game-based Learning Environments (TOGGLE) system will meet the specific training need of Arabic cultural familiarization and negotiations training and will also focus on the use of student models and instructional design practices to develop games that can demonstrate true training effectiveness.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Lisa Scott Holt
OSD 06-CR8      Awarded: 12FEB07
Title:IMPACT: Intelligent Modeling for Pedagogically-Aware Cultural Training
Abstract:Soar Technology proposes to build IMPACT (Intelligent Modeling For Pedagogically-Aware Cultural Training), a sophisticated, agent-based system to enable immersive, realistic practice environments for cultural training. IMPACT features a robust student model that represents a broad matrix of culturally appropriate skills and an intelligent director agent that uses the student model to provide performance feedback in either or two modes: explicitly through spoken directives or implicitly through the dynamic adaptation of characters and events in the training scenario. IMPACT supports pedagogically-sound cultural training that is cost-effective, easily deployed, and highly adaptive to individual needs, beyond what is presently possible in state-of-the-art computer-based training or live training exercises. IMPACT will result in better supported, more focused, more enjoyable, and ultimately more effective computer-based cultural skills training.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Ashley Nunes
OSD 06-CR9      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Tool for enhancing operator Appreciation of socio-Cultural information through Intelligent agent-based Training (TACIT)
Abstract:The ability to classify threats is dependent on a mission planner's ability to integrate various categories of information. Socio-cultural information represents one information type that while important has traditionally been ignored by systems developers seeking to enhance the training capabilities of operators. To address these shortcomings, we propose to design and demonstrate the Tool for enhancing Appreciation of socio-Cultural information through Intelligent agent-based Training (TACIT), to significantly improve the decision-making capability of mission planners. Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a work domain analysis in the context of a realistic scenario to understand what types of socio-cultural information mission planners can and should reason about, develop training regiments addressing difficulties faced by these operators, develop a knowledge base of sources and categories of information and provide insight into existing training and its shortcomings. Second, we will design and demonstrate an agent-based instruction system that integrates intelligent training techniques, visualization concepts for representing socio-cultural information, and that includes user interfaces for the design of training scenarios. Third, we will validate our approach to training and develop measures for operator assessment. We will leverage our team's expertise in training, visualization and intelligent agent development to rapidly demonstrate TACIT.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-9836
Mr. Lee Krause
OSD 06-CR9      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Training for Socio-Cultural Considerations in Planning
Abstract:Securboration, working closely with Dr. Eugene Santos Jr, from Dartmouth College, creates a world-class, socio-cultural training program development team. With an extensive background and expertise in Air Operations Center (AOC) operations, effects-based planning and assessment, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and modeling and simulation (including modeling cultural influences on adversary behavior), Securboration will design "an instrumented training environment for AOC planning mediated by socio-cultural consideration." Securboration will leverage existing technology and previous work on effect-based planning and assessment in the AOC environment to develop this socio-cultural training environment. Securboration's innovative solution will include: 1) analysis of the socio-cultural considerations most critical to air campaign planning, 2) examination of existing training programs for areas of success and improvement, 3) training module(s) to address the gaps in existing training, 4) scenarios/simulations to address socio-cultural considerations in planning, and 5) evaluation criteria to measure the effectiveness of the training module.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Mr. James Ong
OSD 06-CR9      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Scenario-based Training for Socio-Cultural Effects-Based Planning
Abstract:We propose to develop a computer-based training system for socio-cultural effects-based air operations planning. The system would present planning scenarios to a single student or multiple students to provide simulated planning experiences with automated hinting and instruction. For example, a student might be asked to lead a planning cell to research the operational environment and describe the battlefield effects (including terrain, weather, cultural terrain, and their effect on friendly and enemy COA). The scenario would challenge the student to apply cultural cognizance skills as well as air operations planning skills to carry out the simulated air operations planning task. Intelligent tutoring capabilities would monitor and assess the student's planning processes and products and provide instructional feedback via interactive tutoring dialog. We will enhance our existing, general-purpose rapid simulation development tools and add application-specific authoring and run-time capabilities that simplify scenario development and enhance their instructional effectiveness for this subject area. During Phase I, we will carry out a front end analysis to develop a preliminary model of military cultural factors and their relationship to effects-based air operations planning that provide conceptual guidance to scenario developers during scenario development. We will develop a software prototype to illustrate our instructional approach and elicit feedback.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2162
Dr. S. Elango Elangovan
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Development of a Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Abstract:Fuel flexibility is a major advantage of a solid oxide fuel cell as a power generation device. However, present fuel cell anodes do not tolerate the sulfur compounds that are commonly present in both military and commercial liquid fuels. The proposed work will concentrate on developing and demonstrating a sulfur tolerant anode for a solid oxide fuel cell. The performance demonstration will be done at a practical fuel utilization and operating temperature.

FRANKLIN FUEL CELLS
83 Great Valley Parkway
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 640-7545
Mr. Eduardo Paz
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 21FEB07
Title:Sulfur-Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Anodes
Abstract:Franklin Fuel Cells proposes to develop and demonstrate an SOFC anode design having the capability of operating on high sulfur content reformate fuels. Its current cell design utilizing a copper / ceria based anode has demonstrated the capability to operate without poisoning on hydrogen fuel containing up to 450 ppmw H2S at 800C. In this project, we propose to examine the factors that affect sulfur poisoning, improve the anode formulation, if necessary, and demonstrate long term operation on high sulfur reformates under conditions typical for an SOFC stack / system.

FUNCTIONAL COATING TECHNOLOGY, LLC.
1801 Maple Ave. suite 5320
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 467-5376
Dr. Ilwon Kim
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 21FEB07
Title:Demonstration of Novel Oxide Materials As Sulfur-Tolerant SOFC Anodes
Abstract:Functional Coating Technology LLC, working with Northwestern University, has recently developed new anodes that are either all-oxide materials or oxides that contains a small amount of a nano electro-catalyst metal, e.g., Ru, formed by a novel self-assembly process. Since these anodes work well without Ni, they have potential for substantially improved sulfur tolerance. Prior works have shown that perovskite oxide anodes similar to ours have excellent sulfur tolerance, in some cases working with >10%H2S in the fuel! However, these anodes have typically not shown electrochemical performance consistent with higher power density (~1W/cm2), arguably the key requirement for implementing SOFCs in high power-to-weight ratio, airborne applications. Our new anodes provide this high performance as well as very good sulfur tolerance. The objective of this Phase I project is to explore the feasibility of new materials as high-performance sulfur-tolerant anodes. A main part will be to screen the current anode compositions and several new hybrid compositions in electrolyte-supported cells, using impedance spectroscopy to identify the anode contribution to the performance. The one or two best compositions would be chosen for more detailed testing in follow-up Phase II, that will feature implementation of the new anodes in thin-electrolyte cells for high power densities.

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC.
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 560-1371
Dr. R. Radhakrishnan
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 01MAR07
Title:New Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Abstract:Development of a stable anode material that operates on fossil fuels is a fundamental technical target for the next generation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The conventional Ni/YSZ composite anode show good performance with pure H2 as fuel. However, this anode has a low tolerance to fossil fuels mainly because of the presence of high sulfur content in these fuels. So, alternate anode materials are needed to use military logistic fuels such as JP-8. In this phase I effort, two series of new anode materials will be synthesized and their stability under sulfur containing fuels will be tested. In order to evaluate the electrochemical performance of these anode materials, a small size SOFC will be built and tested using high sulfur-content fuels. The Phase II program will focus on the issues of long-term stability, as well as mid-size SOFC design. Successful completion of the Phase II experimental work will result in the identification of preferred anode material. The SOFC built incorporating this new anode material will enable the use of wide variety of fuels from logistic fuels to synthesis gas.

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD.
404 Enterprise Dr.
Lewis Center, OH 43035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6606
Dr. Edward M. Sabolsky
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 22FEB07
Title:Sulfur-Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Anodes
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I proposal (Topic OSD06-EP1), NexTech Materials, Ltd. will comparatively test anode materials sets for SOFCs for operation on sulfur-containing (200 ppmv H2S) fuels between 700-850,aC. Cell performance and stability will be characterized in both sulfur-containing hydrogen and simulated reformate fuels to provide a better scientific and engineering understanding of the benefits and limitations of the candidate materials sets. Parallel powder and catalyst characterization of the materials will provide a basis for the broader interpretation of the materials performance and operative mechanisms. Based on the optimization of materials performance and comparative testing, the composition(s) exhibiting the best performance will be selected for further development and commercialization in Phase II, providing the Air Force, other branches of the military and the commercial sector, a rapid demonstration of these sulfur-tolerant anode compositions and a commercial source for their acquisition.

XRADIA, INC.
4075A Sprig Drive
Concord, IL 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 656-6122
Dr. Steve Wang
OSD 06-EP1      Awarded: 27FEB07
Title:X-ray 3D Metrology System for SOFC Development
Abstract:We propose to develop an x-ray imaging system to directly visualize and measure the 3D morphology of the nano-porous electrochemical interaction area of a solid oxide fuel cell. Extensive research efforts are required to increase the efficiency and reliability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The proposed system introduces many important new non-destructive in-situ imaging capabilities for measuring structural parameters of an SOFC that directly predict its performance, observing its dynamic structural changes during operation, and studying its aging and contamination mechanism. These direct and relevant information provided by this system will greatly improve the efficiency of SOFC R&D activities, leading to significantly reduced development time and increased reliability. We have demonstrated the basic concept and potential of the proposed system in a preliminary experiment. During the Phase I project, we will demonstrate the ability to prepare a SOFC sample for the imaging operation while maintaining its active area and furthermore, the ability to study the 3D morphology of this sample with sufficient throughput for observing its dynamic changes during normal operation as well as accelerated aging testing.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
2000 West Cabot Blvd.Suite 150
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-6580
Mr. Mark Montesano
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 18MAY07
Title:Innovative Stator Thermal Management to Improve High-Torque Motor
Abstract:With the advent of high-power, solid-state converters, variable speed motor and generators are finding wide applications in both DoD and commercial applications. At the same time, advanced system requirements put more demand on motor torque and power output. This proposal based on application of high-conductivity encapsulated graphite in critical motor components promises to increase the torque and power of existing designs by 25% with minimal weight and no external volume impact. The Phase I proposal will demonstrate potential payoff by tests on representative components.

LAUNCHPOINT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
5735 Hollister Ave, Suite B
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 683-9659
Mr. Michael Ricci
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 19JUL07
Title:Innovative Motor and Generator Technologies
Abstract:The goal of this project is to design a motor/generator capable of very high power density and tip speeds. The initial application is a third-generation electricity storage flywheel, currently under development at LaunchPoint. This flywheel uses a hubless design in which the motor drive coils (stator) are located in a stationary center, surrounded by a composite rim that spins at high speed. The moving elements of the motor/generator are mounted on the ID of the spinning rim where they are radially supported by high strength composite material and thus capable of spinning at tip speeds in excess of 800 meters/second - far faster than possible in conventional motors. Power levels of several hundred kilowatts appear feasible in a small (22-inch diameter, 8-inch long) form factor, and the design is scalable to much larger sizes and power levels. This project will evaluate design alternatives, determine precise constraints imposed on the electromagnetics by other components, test critical elements, and produce a design that achieves maximum performance. Other applications include high power generators for direct coupling to turbine engines without the need for reduction gears.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Brian Tews
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 13JUL07
Title:Development of an Advanced Cooling System for Motors and Generators
Abstract:Typical cooling systems for high power density system include forced air or liquid convection. Problems associated with these single-phase cooling systems are the large thermal gradients that develop along the length of motor and generator stators. These large thermal gradients lead to inefficient systems and decrease overall power density of the machine. Mainstream proposes to develop an advanced thermal epoxy encapsulant and two-phase isothermal cooling system that will allow for the development of even higher power density motors and generators. In conjunction with the two-phase cooling system, Mainstream Engineering proposes developing a new thermal epoxy encapsulant that has a higher thermal conductivity. Mainstream has conducted preliminary research that resulted in an 1100% increase in thermal conductivities for epoxy resins.

NUGEN MOBILITY, INC.
44645 Guilford DriveSuite 201
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 858-0036
Mr. John Salatino
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 29MAR07
Title:Innovative Motor and Generator Technologies
Abstract:NuGen Mobility has demonstrated that their Axial Flux Permanent Magnet motors have high Torque and Power densities, while exhibiting very high efficiencies. In addition, techniques utilized to vary the Rotor-Stator air gap have demonstrated that these high efficiencies can be realized at multiple points in the application's Power-Torque-Speed continuum. Applying this same technique to the generator role of our Axial Flux design, we propose to exploit this ability and provide the generator with multiple "High-efficiency" points of operation. NuGen proposes to demonstrate analytically that as an Integrated Starter-Generator (ISG), high efficiencies can result at low-speed, high torque for engine Start and also at high-speeds for its Generator role. We propose to use this opportunity to both conduct a detailed study of the applicability of this innovation to 50-100kW ISGs and evaluate the potential of axial flux permanent magnet motors as measured against other motor topologies, and demonstrate the technical feasibility and performance gains from the air gap variation at different operating modes.

UQM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7501 Miller Drive PO Box 439
Frederick, CO 80530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 278-2002
Mr. Josh Ley
OSD 06-EP2      Awarded: 09JUL07
Title:Innovative Motor and Generator Technologies
Abstract:The proposed program meets the objective of improved torque density, power density, and efficiency through a topology that combines permanent magnet and reluctance components. The proposed technology improves upon commercial versions of this topology (most notably, the Toyota Hybrid Synergy motor) through a rotor structure that delivers higher torque and speed. The Phase I program includes the design of a machine in the 50 to 100 kW range (scalable based upon stack length), demonstration of the high speed rotor, and planning for future prototype and production phases.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Matthew Erdtmann
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Nanocomposite thin films for capacitors
Abstract:We propose to develop new ceramic nanoparticle filled polymer composites for high power capacitors. The new approach combines the leading-edge nanomaterials development and manufacturing at Agiltron, and the plastic engineering technology at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell. We will transfer the high dielectric constant fillers to our new nanodielctrics with extremely improved breakdown strength and extensively lowered dielectric loss. We expect to engineer the surface of the nanoparticles so that it can be homogenously dispersed in a polymer matrix. Our nanocomposites will have a dielectric constant higher than 10, breakdown strength higher than 700MV/m, dielectric loss lower than 0.01, and energy density over 20J/g. Importantly, the loading of ceramic fillers in the nanocomposites will be lower than 50% in volume and our nanodielectric films will be flexible due to the low filler loading, and they can be folded and rolled like plastic sheets to build compact capacitors. The films will be made by extrusion and bilateral stretching. Our novel materials feature high dielectric constant, low loss and high breakdown strength that maximize the energy density. This Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1801 Maple Ave.Suite 5316
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 287-6292
Mr. Benjamin J. Mangrich
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:A Low-Cost and Scalable Dielectric Films
Abstract:Compact, high-energy-density capacitors will be the key enabling technology for future pulse-power weapon systems that are being pursued by the DoD. These capacitors convert steady electrical energy into short pulses that are needed to energize loads (required for directed energy weapons). There have been recent advances in chemical double layer capacitors, leading to major advances in energy storage capacity, however, there still exists major technical challenges to achieve the required power and energy density, while keeping devices small enough for practical use and lightweight requirements. In order to enable the miniaturization of these capacitors, high energy density dielectric films are needed. To address the specific need for flexible dielectric films, Applied Thin Films, Inc (ATFI) proposes a high throughput, thermally-stable, low cost, solution-based thin film with suitable dielectric properties and flexibility for use in capacitors. In Phase I, dielectric films of various configurations will be deposited on metallic substrates and subsequently tested for dielectric, thermal, and mechanical properties. Microstructural characterization will also be performed to confirm pin-hole free nature of the films. Although preliminary efforts will be employed to determine large area uniformity, scale-up to continuous lengths at relatively high speeds will be pursued in Phase II.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Trung H. Nguyen
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Nanocomposite polymer dielectric film with very high dielectric strength
Abstract:Our goal is to develop nanocomposite dielectric films of SiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in polymer matrices to produce thin uniform dielectric films for metal-film capacitors. These films will be pinhole free and are targeted to have an extremely high dielectric breakdown voltage of up to 1000 MV/m. The result will be metal/polymer film capacitors with very high energy density, since the latter scales with the square of the voltage. In Phase I, EIC Laboratories will demonstrate the synthesis and fabrication processes for these composite membranes with highly dispersed nano-silica and evaluate their dielectric constants and breakdown strength (Phase I goal 700 MV/m). By the end of Phase II, we will develop prototypes of high energy density pulse-power capacitors employing the novel polymer nanocomposites that can be integrated into DOD future weapon systems.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. J.H. Lalli
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Deformable Metal RubberTM Capacitors with High Energy-Density Nanostructured Cores
Abstract:NanoSonic would produce highly ordered dielectric-polymer hybrid nanocomposites with high dielectric strength via the modification of high performance polymer backbones (demonstrated for high kV/dt applications) with controlled mole fractions of ferroelectric complexing and crosslink sites. Such materials result in flexible thin film, nanocomposites with extremely homogenous dispersions nanostructured BST particles, specifically as high energy-density (>15 J/g) capacitors for directed energy OSD platforms. The ultra-lightweight nanocomposites are designed to offer high voltage breakdown strength, high thermal stability, high electrical resistance, low CTE, low loss and performance over a wide service temperature range (Tg = -120讈, degradation > 400讈). Polyorganosiloxanes are commonly used as dielectric insulators, and the addition of proprietary pendent sidechain chemical groups increases both the number of BST complexing sites and the high temperature thermal stability needed for high power electronics and microwaves. NanoSonic's novel manufacturing method for flexible dielectric films will be combined with our Metal Rubber technology currently used to impart in-situ electrodes on nearly any surface. The Dielectric-Metal-Rubber capacitors can be strained to greater than 1000% without loss of electrical conductivity or electrode cracking/spalling. Nanocomposite structure/property relationships for dielectric strength as a function of nanoparticulate content would be elucidated during this program to predict performance.

STRATEGIC POLYMER SCIENCES, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd.Suite 237
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7400
Dr. Minren Lin
OSD 06-EP3      Awarded: 23FEB07
Title:Novel Processing of Dielectric Films
Abstract:Develop high-performance, state-of-the-art dielectric materials that have high breakdown strength through novel processing methods to enable leading-edge, pulse-power, high-energy-density (>15 J/g) capability with milliseconds to nanoseconds delivery rates (burst mode).

COMPACT MEMBRANE SYSTEMS, INC.
325 Water Street
Wilmington, DE 19804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 999-7996
Stuart Nemser
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 07JUN07
Title:Highly Oxygen Permeable Perfluoro Membrane for the Air Cathode of Lithium-Air Batteries
Abstract:This proposal addresses development of highly oxygen permeable perfluoromembranes for Lithium-Air organic electrolyte batteries. These batteries have demonstrated very high specific capacity (greater than 500 Wh/kg) at low rates in pure oxygen. Oxygen from the air can be utilized if a membrane is developed that allows for oxygen transport but prevents solvents in the organic electrolyte from diffusion out into cell or attacking the membrane. Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) membranes are high flux, defect-free nonporous membranes with very good separation characteristics for passing small molecules such as oxygen while retaining large molecules such as organic based solvents. CMS perfluoromembranes have excellent chemical and thermal resistance and are not plasticized by organic solvents. Data on CMS perfluoro membranes indicate that oxygen/solvent permeability ratios of 850 to 2620 are feasible, well in excess of program target of 200. Program focus will be on providing high oxygen permeability while minimizing loss of the electrolyte material. Liquid-side mass transfer is important to maximize total oxygen transport. The CMS membranes are commercial in several related applications so the probability of technical success is high. The developed oxygen-selective perfluoromembrane is expected to have significant military and commercial applications.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Dharmasena Peramunage
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 14MAR07
Title:Oxygen Permeable Membrane for Lithium Air Batteries
Abstract:The development of a gas permeable membrane with an O2 permeability coefficient (Dk) of > 2000 Barrers and carbonate permeability coefficient of <10 Barrers is proposed. The membrane is designed using a polysiloxane polymer as the basis by taking into account that silicone rubber has the highest oxygen permeability at least two orders of magnitude better than any other polymer known today. The membrane will curtail ingression of moisture into the Li-air cell and minimize egression of electrolyte solvents out of the cell, thus ensuring uninterrupted and steady utilization of its designed capacity and also, preservation of its functionality during extended storage. The high oxygen permeability expected from this membrane will allow the Li-air battery to use ambient air as its oxygen source, and realize specific energies > 500 Wh/kg. The membrane could also be useful in hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, metal-air battery cells and oxygen sensing devices. The principal Phase I objective is to synthesize materials and to demonstrate the enhanced oxygen transport ability of the membrane while retarding carbonate and moisture transport. They membrane will be free of pinholes and has adequate mechanical properties to be useful in thicknesses as low as 25 micrometers.

ENSION, INC.
240 William Pitt Way
Pittsburgh, PA 15238
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 828-5209
Dr. Greg Johnson
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Oxygen Permeable Membrane for Lithium Air Batteries
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an oxygen permeable membrane using plasma deposition of polymer films on a microporous substrate material. Membranes that are permeable to oxygen are needed to allow oxygen to reach the cathode of a lithium/air galvanic cell, while simultaneously preventing loss of organic electrolyte. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings will be applied to the surfaces of microporous membrane materials in order to control the molecular/gas barrier properties of the membranes. Prototype membranes will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescent dye penetrant, and stability testing to characterize the physicochemical properties of the candidate coated membranes. In addition, gas exchange capability will be evaluated experimentally in gas-gas and gas-liquid environments.

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH, INC.
1360 Willow Road, Suite 103
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 543-3362
Dr. Tim C. Merkel
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 20MAR07
Title:Oxygen-Permeable Membrane for Lithium Air Batteries
Abstract:Membrane Technology and Research Inc. (MTR) proposes to develop oxygen-permeable and organic-rejecting membranes for use as a sealing layer on the cathode of lithium/air batteries. Thin, stable membranes that allow oxygen in air to transport into the cathode, but prevent organic solvents found in batteries from leaking to the environment are required to realize the considerable potential of lithium/air batteries. We believe composite membranes fabricated from perfluorinated polymers are the ideal choice for this application because of their unrivaled chemical stability, high oxygen permeance, and excellent organic solvent barrier properties. In the Phase I program the properties of perfluorinated composite membranes in the presence of organic solvents found in lithium/air batteries will be measured. This data will be used to select optimized membranes for scale-up and incorporation into prototype lithium/air batteries in Phase II.

OXAZOGEN, INC.
1910 West St. Andrews Road
Midland, MI 48640
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(989) 832-5590
Dr. Abhijit Sarkar
OSD 06-EP4      Awarded: 14MAR07
Title:Chemically Resistant Polymer-Based Oxygen Permeable Membrane for Lithium Air Batteries
Abstract:This Phase I program seeks to design and develop novel polymer membranes that are highly permeable to oxygen, and also impermeable to organic carbonates and ethers. The membranes will be used in the air cathode of lithium-air batteries, a unique battery system because the cathode material is not stored in the battery but simply extracted from ambient air and used as needed. Our approach is based on unique hyperbranched polymer technology with a chemical composition that will pair high oxygen permeability with strong chemical resistance, as well low moisture permeability. The hyperbranched polymer approach also provides the ability to tune in appropriate levels of crosslink density to optimize the mechanical properties of the material. Lithium-air batteries show great promise as the ultimate battery in terms of energy and power density and their market potential is in the billions of dollars. The membrane being developed by Oxazogen will help make the lithium-air battery a marketable success and our commercialization partner is committed to commercializing this technology.

ENOGETEK, INC.
2716 Sunrise Street
Yorktown Height, NY 10598
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 426-2577
Dr. Lin-Feng Li
OSD 06-EP5      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:NOVEL TRANSITION METAL OXIDE ANODE FOR HIGH RATE LITHIUM ION BATTERY
Abstract:Military operating in remote locations have increasing demand for man-portable electric power for communications and other advanced electronic devices, which is currently met by Li/SO2 (BA-5590) or Li/MnO2 (BA-2590) primary batteries. In order to substantially reduce the logistic burden and the cost for power, this is a growing trend calling for the replacement of primary power source to rechargeable ones. However, there are still a number of obstacles for the soldiers in the field to adopt the rechargeable lithium ion battery as the preferred power sources; one of which is because of its slow recharge rate. Driven by the strong market pull for this technology, Enogetek has invented a unique approach to address the issues related to the conventional non-carbonaceous negative electrodes for lithium ion battery. The lithium ion battery containing such nanostructured transition metal oxide anode promises great advantages, including 1) high energy density (>200 Wh/kg); 2) high rate capability (>4 C charge and discharge rate);3) Excellent cycleability (>100 cycles with 100% DOD); 4) Minimum initial capacity loss; 5) good scalability and 6) wide operation temperature range (-40oC- 70oC). Therefore, it can meet the stringent demand as set in this solicitation.

LITHIUM TECHNOLOGY CORP.
5115 Campus Drive
Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 940-6090
Mr. Ron turi
OSD 06-EP5      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Fast Charging Lithium Ion Battery Utilizing Phosphide-Based Anode Material
Abstract:As a class, lithium ion anodes based on metal phosphide chemistry provide safe, rapid charging as well as deep cycling while yielding a higher specific capacity than the present carbon-based negative materials. The combination of high rate capability and high energy density makes phosphides among the anode materials with the highest specific power for both discharging and charging. For these reasons, phosphides are among promising materials to replace carbon-based anodes in high power applications. This includes cost-savings by having the ability to recharge in minutes from a portable generator in the field, and also from the fact that phosphide production processes are expected to be straightforward and inexpensive compared to that of other non-carbonaceous negative materials. The latter greatly improves the viability of domestic supply. The experimental evaluation of lithium ion cells with phosphide anodes will include comparisons to control cells having well-known high rate anode compositions based on lithium titanate as well as cells with high energy anode compositions based on carbon - both provided as key benchmarks in the pursuit of minimizing the charging time while optimizing the specific charge, W/kg. These two properties serve as initial screening metrics for guiding the anode development.

POWDERMET, INC.
24112 Rockwell drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 404-0053
Dr. Jun Nable
OSD 06-EP5      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Anode Materials for Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries
Abstract:In this phase I SBIR porogram, Powdermet will produce stable, prelithiated Si- and Sn- based nanocomposite anode materials for use as inherently safe, high rate anode materials for high power military battery applications. Various approaches to overcome capacity fade and first cycle loss will be investigated using cost-effective bulk nanomaterial manufacturing capabilities available at Powdermet Inc.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Joseph Gnanaraj
OSD 06-EP5      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Phase I Nano-Engineered Anode Materials For Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a novel nano-engineered anode material that significantly shortens the Li+ diffusion length and enable lithium ion batteries capable of being quickly recharged in less than 15 minutes. A nanostructured electrode will be engineered by adapting template-assisted fabrication of copper nanorod arrays as miniature current collectors and depositing titanate based nano-particles on copper nanorod forest using a simple and inexpensive method of electrochemical deposition. Demonstrate its ability to apply a small laboratory half-cell that can charge in less than 15 minutes without deposition of metallic lithium. A recent study on electrodes with nano-architectured current collectors showed a promising high-rate capacity. Using such electrodes, the researchers demonstrated a factor of six improvements in power density over planar electrodes and an 80% retention of total capacity at 8C rate over 100 cycles. Yardney/Lithion, Inc., a leader in cutting edge Li-ion batteries technology and producers of such high power batteries for variety of commercial, aerospace and military applications, proposes in collaboration with research experts in nano-engineering of materials, at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts, to investigate nano-architectured amorphous TiO2 based anode materials for a new generation rapid recharge lithium ion battery.

ELECTRO ENERGY, MOBILE PRODUCTS, INC.
3820 S Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs, CO 80911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 392-4266
Dr. Scott Preston
OSD 06-EP6      Awarded: 09MAY07
Title:Reduced Temperature, High Power Thermal Battery Chemistry
Abstract:Mobile Energy Products, Inc. proposes the development of a high rate low temperature thermal battery based on lithium salt electrolytes which have a melting point less than 240低. As part of the electrolyte characterization effort under this proposal, emphasis will be on a eutectic that melts at 236低. This material shows the greatest promise and lowest risk for being successfully incorporated into a thermal battery that would operate at lower temperatures. The goal is to develop the chemistry for a target operating temperature of as low as 250低 to as high as 550低 using primarily the Li(Si)/FeS2 couple. This 300低 operational window is substantially greater than the 200低 one for thermal batteries using the LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte. Detailed full-scale battery tests are envisioned as part of a Phase II effort, with the possibility of designing a battery to replace a conventional thermal battery now being used for specific weapons applications.

MILLENNIUM ENGINEERING & INTEGRATION CO.
2231 Crystal Dr.Suite 711
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 608-3093
Dr. Melvin Miles
OSD 06-EP6      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Reduced Temperature, High Power Thermal Battery Chemistry
Abstract:Commercial lithium batteries (lithium-ion) utilize metal oxide based cathode materials to produce 4 volts per cell. In contrast, present lithium thermal batteries yield only 2 volts per cell. These new high voltage metal oxide materials are not stable in the hot molten chloride electrolytes of present thermal batteries and cannot be used. The large increase in cell voltages for thermal batteries offered by these new cathode materials can be realized by the use of molten nitrate electrolytes where these high voltage metal oxide cathode materials are stable. Examples of possible high voltage metal oxide based cathode materials include V2O5, PbO2, MnO2, LiCoO2, and LiMn2O4. The LMETB (Low Melting Electrolytes for Thermal Batteries) being developed by Dr. Mel Miles of Millennium Engineering allows for the use of molten nitrates and promises to deliver unprecedented thermal battery capability. Increasing the cell voltage for thermal batteries translates directly into large increases in energy densities and power densities. Molten nitrates offer lower operating temperatures of 150-350低 versus the much higher operating temperatures of 400-550低 for present thermal battery systems. Lower operating temperatures will allow the use of less insulating materials and gives the possibility of much longer thermal battery lifetimes following activation.

ATHENA ENERGY, LLC.
13602 Ulysses Ct.
Bowie, MD 20720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 352-8454
Dr. Dimosthenis Katsis
OSD 06-EP7      Awarded: 21FEB07
Title:Robust Silicon Carbide Power Switch Module Technologies
Abstract:Athena Energy, LLC proposes to develop a robust high temperature silicon carbide SiC power semiconductor module to address the needs stated for control of energy in DoD and commercial applications directed towards power electronic applications. Athena Energy's proposed SiC power switch module will be targeted towards the 600V, 100A application operating over the -40 to 250C temperature range.

DCHOPKINS & ASSOC.
Denal Way - m/s 408
Vestal, NY 13850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 729-9949
Dr. Douglas C Hopkins
OSD 06-EP7      Awarded: 16FEB07
Title:High Reliability SiC Power Switch Module Packaging
Abstract:Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor devices inherently operate at higher frequencies and temperatures than silicon counterparts, allowing design of denser power electronic systems. To take full advantage in early stages of device maturation, related packaging must be developed that provides reliable paralleling of many die and manages large thermal gradients during wide-temperature-range cycling. The goal is to demonstrate high current (<1000A), high voltage (<1,800V) module packaging of devices for operation in -40C to 250C ambient with operation >500kHz. DCHopkins & Associates is a technology developer of power electronic systems from electrical concepts to physical design with emphasis on reliability. During Phase-I, DCH&A will demonstrate through modeling and selective testing, two packaging approaches. The packaging encompasses material selection, structural definition and processing. The design is driven first by reliability needs, then electrical performance. For highly reliable wide-temperature operation, physical module components must be selected to manage inherent stresses caused by CTE differences. Stresses are managed by optimum selection of material type, thicknesses and stiffness (modulus of elasticity), and thermal conductance (to reduce thermal gradients). Electrical performance is meet by optimum selection of electrical layout to minimize inductance and resistance, and, consequently, decrease thermal gradients that exacerbate stress gradients.

UNITED SILICON CARBIDE, INC.
New Brunswick Technology Center 100 Jersey Ave. Building A
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 565-9500
Dr. Leonid Fursin
OSD 06-EP7      Awarded: 22FEB07
Title:A Novel Approach to Packaging High-Power and High-Temperature SiC Modules for Double-sided Cooling
Abstract:In response to OSD/AF SBIR Topic No. OSD06-EP7, we propose to develop a novel and simple approach to packaging high-temperature and high-power SiC modules. The approach, simple to implement and suitable for auto-processing, is proposed to address the problems of (i) the mechanical stress induced degradations such as peeling, cracking, voiding and fracturing due to mismatch of material coefficients of thermal expansion(CTE), (ii) the package material degradation due to operation under high and wide temperature and oxidizing conditions, (iii) the metallurgical incompatibility and interconnect thermal cycling degradation, (iv) the high thermal impedance between device junction and module baseplate, and (v) the parasitic impedance for high frequency operation targeting ultimately up to 250kHz. Double-sided cooling along with hermetical sealing is proposed to achieve the ultimate performance capability of SiC power modules under high and wide temperature conditions. Phase I will focus on the demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed concept through computer modeling and simulations and through experimental demonstration of a high-voltage and high-current SiC power module. Phase II will carriy out the major R&D work based on feasibility demonstrated in Phase I to develop 600V-1.8kV high power phase-legs and three phase power modules up to 300A for >300C operations. Privately funded Phase III will address auto-processing issues for wide-spread commercialization of the SiC power modules.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Michael G. Izenson
OSD 06-EP8      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:Advanced Thermal Management for Aircraft Systems
Abstract:Future weapons systems on advanced aircraft will generate large amounts of heat at intense heat fluxes. Advanced thermal management technology is needed to control the temperatures of these components with systems that are compact enough for service on aircraft. We propose to develop a thermal management system to meet these requirements using two innovative elements: two-phase cooling will enable a very compact system, and microchannel heat exchangers will absorb heat efficiently at high heat fluxes. In Phase I we will assess design requirements for multiple missions and identify the common challenges for a compact cooling system. We will then design two-phase, microchannel components to cool high heat flux components and show by analysis and design that these components will enable temperature control in advanced weapons systems using a compact system that uses ram air as the ultimate heat sink. In Phase II we will design, build, and demonstrate a subscale version of the proposed system.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Gregory Cole
OSD 06-EP8      Awarded: 01MAR07
Title:Experimental Validation of a 50-kW Thermal Management System for High Power Density Systems
Abstract:OSD is currently seeking compact and lightweight thermal management systems (TMS) for airborne and ground-based high-power electronics (HPE), high-energy laser (HEL), and directed energy weapons (DEW) systems that are capable of dissipating extremely high heat fluxes at temperatures potentially below the heat rejection temperature. Therefore, Mainstream proposes demonstrating a vapor-compression-cycle TMS that is capable of dissipating 500 W/cm2 at 30讈 and 200 W/cm2 at 100讈. Mainstream has already demonstrated complete closed-loop TMSs capable of dissipating these heat fluxes using our patented thermal control and compressor technologies. The proposed full-scale design occupies only 18% of the allowable volume specified in the solicitation. In Phase I, Mainstream will perform a small-scale demonstration and use the results to complete a detailed design of the full-scale system. The small-scale demonstration will use representative heat fluxes and therefore validate the size, weight, and efficiency prior to Phase II funding decisions. In Phase II, Mainstream will demonstrate a full-scale TMS that will be transitioned to the prime contractors in Phase III for government use.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-6230
Mr. William Murphy
OSD 06-EP8      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:Advanced 50-kW Thermal Management System Demonstration
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a compact thermal management system for cooling of high-heat-flux surfaces of DEW weapons systems which uses polyalfaolefin (PAO) fluid to transport system heat to ram air. TIAX proposes to develop a compact thermal management system technology based on the use of carbon dioxide refrigerant and the direct use of CO2 refrigerant and the PAO coolant for the two temperature levels required to be cooled. CO2 has numerous advantages, including excellent refrigerant heat transfer properties, high vapor density for compact piping and equipment size, heat rejection profile which will allow PAO and ram air flow rate about half of what would be required for conventional refrigerants, and it is nonflammable, nontoxic, and environmentally friendly. Use of TIAX兼s scroll work-recovery expansion technology with such a system will ensure that its power input is consistent with weapons platform needs. Direct use of the CO2 refrigerant and the required PAO fluid in the high heat flux interface with DEW weapons will simplify the system and assure small size. Refrigerated CO2 will be used for 30 C cooling loads, while PAO of the heat rejection loop will be used for 100 C cooling loads.

ELINTRIX
4901 Morena BoulevardSuite 124
San Diego, CA 92117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 483-1321
Mr. Drew Barnett
OSD 06-H01      Awarded: 07AUG07
Title:Bidirectional Inductive On-body Network (BIONET) for Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM)
Abstract:Performance- and cost-requirements for the BIONET, body-worn, personal area network is fruitfully addressed in a cost-effective manner by using modern, digital-signal-controller technology, combined with software-defined-radio techniques. The open architecture and flexible design enabled by this technology facilitates novel processing methods that result in minimized power consumption, selectable data-rates and band agility.

FREENT TECHNOLOGIES
340 Usher Rd.
Madison, AL 35757
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 651-5673
Mr. Herbert U. Fluhler
OSD 06-H02      Awarded: 05JUL07
Title:Robust Hydration System Reservoir Level Meter
Abstract:A truly robust method for measuring the fullness of a collapsible bladder canteen based on induction is proposed. The theory is first developed, and then a highly realistic set of quantitative experiments are performed to characterize the real phenomenology. It is found that the proposed method provides an extremely robust method that stands up to several additional abusive follow-on experiments that try, but fail, to "break it". The method is eminently produceable with off the shelf parts and circuits, will run well over a year on a simple watch battery and literally meets all the solicitiation requirements with margin to spare.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 869-6460
Mr. Gordon Hirschman
OSD 06-H02      Awarded: 23MAY07
Title:Volume-Sensing Personal Hydration System
Abstract:Dehydration is a major problem facing our troops, who by necessity are physically active, weighed down by numerous pieces of armor and equipment, and serve in warm, dry climates. Our troops each carry a supply of liquid and are trained to stay hydrated, however this does not guarantee against dehydration. Some soldiers run out of liquid well before they have a chance to refill, while others nurse their supply too much. They currently have no quick, easy way of monitoring their liquid supply, which can lead to dehydration and the concomitant physical impairments. In this Phase I program, Infoscitex proposes a simple, robust system that utilizes capacitive sensing to determine the volume of water in a collapsible bladder canteen. The information calculated by our system is presented to the soldier as a quantity, as well as a visual representation of how much liquid is left in the canteen. Our system is composed entirely of solid state elements and does not come into contact with the sensed liquid. These factors ensure that our system is robust, with operational parameters that withstand multiple uses, extreme temperatures and austere environments. We anticipate that our system will prove invaluable not only for the military, but also in the very broad sports market.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 457-4245
Mr. Larry Solecki
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 19JAN07
Title:Webster-Med
Abstract:The recent outbreak of E. coli only served to remind us of the vulnerability of our food production. It stirred memories of an amateur bio-terror attack using salmonella in local salad bars in an attempt to influence a local election in Oregon. In handling any bio-terrorism event, there are two facets to consider, pre-event crisis management and post-event consequence management. Crisis management includes measures to identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources necessary to anticipate, prevent, detect, and resolve the event. Post-event consequence management entails outbreak control, treatment, and more. 21st Century Systems Incorporated is pleased to propose the research and development of a tool to provide state-of-the-art data source aggregation, interpretation, visualization, and decision support for pre-event indications and warning, crisis response, and consequence management. We call our Phase I concept Webster-Med. Webster-Med product encompasses both facets of the challenge: crisis response and consequence management. The crisis response portion encompasses a pre-event tool for detection and situational awareness. The sources of data for the detection process could include open sources, ED data, intelligence reports, battlefield sensors, and more. The consequence management portion will incorporate decision aids for monitoring the outbreak, mitigation (treatment, resource allocation, etc.), and resolution.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2407
Dr. Paul Picciano
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:BioSurveillance Indicators of Notable Events (BioSINE)
Abstract:The potential for biological catastrophes, whether acts of war or naturally occurring, require military leaders to consider a variety of vexing scenarios. Commanders will be tasked with making difficult decisions that have critical implications for personnel, resources, and mission objectives. The data currently available to support such decision efforts are disparate, incomplete and inconclusive. Representing the state-of-the-art, syndromic surveillance systems are insufficient as they demand epidemiological expertise, may be irrelevant to the area of responsibility (AOR), and fail to offer response guidance. The Aptima team is proposing BioSurveillance Indicators of Notable Events (BioSINE), a solution dedicated to supporting commander decision making surrounding biological crises. This project endeavors to provide commanders actionable intelligence to prevent, mitigate and respond to bioevents. Beyond monitoring reported illness (which suffers connate lag as it requires symptoms to present), BioSINE will integrate diverse data streams including intelligence, medical, sensor, and open source components. The resulting information fusion will provide intuitive, task-relevant guidance to support commander decision making.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 869-6460
Ms. Lynn Bardsley
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 01FEB07
Title:Integrated Medical and Biosurveillance Early Warning System Technology
Abstract:Current biosurveillance systems monitor limited data sources or utilize rigid rules that limit their effectiveness and flexibility causing problems such as triggering alarms so frequent that they are routinely ignored. Biosurveillance systems today can be improved by utilizing intelligent software agent networks with flexible templates refined by experts and software in collaboration. In this Phase I Infoscitex program, Infoscitex proposes to develop this architecture and as a result have the ability to proactively identify bioevents by fusing disparate data sources providing commanders the information they need in time to accurately assess the danger and make a difference. The Phase I program will evaluate the proper design of a software system architecture that will accomplish these goals and allow the refinement necessary to learn from past events to minimize current problems such as false alarms. While a system of this caliber is invaluable to theatre commanders needing to protect their troops, we believe that further development will lead to a wide range of biosurveillance detection and resolution systems protecting civilians and troops alike from natural and terrorist bioevents. Such as system would be attractive to the military, hospitals, municipalities, and managed healthcare providers.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Satheesh Ramachandran
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 05FEB07
Title:Biosurveillance-based Integrated Outbreak Warning And Recognition System (BIOWARS)
Abstract:Seemingly unrelated events occurring over time in different parts of the world may culminate in a biological attack on U.S. Armed Forces overseas or at home. However, having information about these events is like obtaining parts of a million-piece jigsaw puzzle without the underlying picture. To be able to take large volumes of such structured and unstructured information and discover an event pattern and the underlying ground truth so as to warn our troops in time and save their lives along with the lives of innocent unintended targets requires a comprehensive, robust, adaptive technology that complements human intelligence rather than replace it. We propose to design and develop an adaptive system for automated discovery of disease outbreaks. This system will provide innovative mechanisms to rapidly discover emerging bio-threat situations and early signs of a potential disease outbreak through syndromic surveillance. The proposed approach integrates intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to facilitate robust and cost-effective threat detection through multi-source information fusion. The main product of this project is the Biosurveillance-based Integrated Outbreak Warning And Recognition System (BIOWARS), an agent-based system that facilitates automated support early detection of emerging threats and potential disease outbreaks.

VCRSOFT LLC
30W084 Capistrano CT Suite 201
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 527-0425
Dr. VC Ramesh
OSD 06-H03      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Bioevent Prediction and Consequence Management Tool
Abstract:We propose an approach to fuse open-source, intelligence and medical surveillance data into an integrated information technology system capable of providing the commander with early indications and warnings of a possible bioevent. The software tool will make positive identifications of bioevent threats. It will provide early warning before personnel begin to present symptoms. It will identify a biological attack or a natural outbreak as soon as it happens. It will also provide consequence management and post-event decision support.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2426
Ms. Fuji Lai
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Medical Support Operations Team Readiness Training
Abstract:Medical Support Operations teams need to learn how to work effectively and safely in a coordinated response to large scale disaster situations such as Hurricane Katrina and 9/11. A key challenge in such situations is the need for situation awareness at all levels of command, which requires multi-agency coordination and communication. We propose to develop the Medical Emergency Team Training and Learning Environment (METTLE), which will prepare medical support operations teams to work together in diffuse, complex disaster situations that are hazardous and dynamic, where they need to be able to perform under stress to determine "ground truth," maintain awareness of the larger situation, prioritize needs, communicate to coordinate efforts most effectively, and work with limited resources. The training will consist of didactic and scenario-based experiential training delivered using a combination of interactive multimedia web-enabled e-learning software and distributed multi-player simulation software. The training will align with national preparedness priority capabilities and equip medical support personnel with the skills with which to assess situations as they unfold and develop strategies for effective emergency management. The program will allow medical support teams to face the challenges of large scale disaster response to complete their mission safely and effectively.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-8019
Mr. Edward R. Mandy
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 31JAN07
Title:Medical Operations Simulator for Monitoring and Assessing the Readiness of Trainees (MOSMART)
Abstract:Medical Support Operations personnel need specialized training to prepare for stressful operations. Often, though, these operations do not follow the scripted training and require contingency plans that are more dynamically robust. Thus, a training tool is necessary to allow the medical support operations trainees to employ contingency plans on-the-fly in an environment that can be modified to allow for a new experience for each use. An immersive computer simulation can create such a dynamic environment that is readily available to trainees. To achieve an immersive computer simulation for use by medical support operations personnel, Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) will design and develop MOSMART (Medical Operations Simulator for Monitoring and Assessing the Readiness of Trainees). MOSMART is a tool for use by medical support operations personnel to allow them to train in a dynamic environment. Trainees will be able to immerse themselves in MOSMART's virtual world and employ specific plans for various operations. During this training, the trainees will learn from the decisions made in the simulation and be assessed on their readiness for the given scenario. This assessment data will also be viewable by trainers to evaluate trainees' readiness.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 16JAN07
Title:Software to Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams
Abstract:Team medical support operations are in a curious position. Their importance in future emergencies, from natural disasters to military environments, is becoming more and more evident as our reliance on the capabilities that high technological assets give us increases. However, for all this importance, it is tricky to determine appropriate doctrine for emergency medical support operations given the difficulty and cost of performing them. In such a situation, simulation is an obvious tool to bring to bear. Fortunately, after almost a decade of intense development driven by the consumer game market, technology has matured to the point that simulation is a viable option without a giant price tag. Still, the creation of such simulations is a difficult process that requires a fine balancing act of content development, real-time performance requirements, and domain fidelity. Again, we find some solace in the gaming market, where many of the thorny issues of interactive, real-time software development have been pruned. In this proposal we discuss particular techniques and procedures that we will make use of to meet the OSD's needs as described in the solicitation, OSD06-H04 - Software to Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams.

GENSYM CORP.
15245 Shady Grove Rd.S-470
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 350-6136
Mr. John H. McKitrick
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 27FEB07
Title:Software to Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams
Abstract:The purpose of this Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams modeling, simulation, and analysis capability is to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of integrated strategic, operational and tactical medical support operations information and response process modeling and personnel training. The effort will conduct research to determine current and future information and medical response capabilities for Joint C4ISR requirements. In support of current GWOT and future US and Coalition global asymmetric capability requirements, we will build a modeling, simulation and training environment. This capability will provide decision makers, medical operations staff and personnel the capability of advanced information and sense and respond training, evaluation and assessment to enhance mission performance in an asymmetric, global, and network-centric warfare. The prototype will also address how the models and simulations can be transitioned to support other government and civilian requirements outside conventional military operations. The primary prototype will include process models, simulations, databases, medical support operations planning and execution, and assessment data to validate current response planning, policy and medical support capabilities requirements.

MYMIC LLC
200 High StreetSuite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 391-9200
Dr. Thomas W. Mastaglio
OSD 06-H04      Awarded: 16JAN07
Title:Software to Assess Readiness and Train Medical Support Operations Teams
Abstract:To be appended

INNOVEYDA
5105 Mindora Dr.
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(901) 339-9930
Dr. E. Fiesler
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Automated Database Linking and Interface System for Aiding Epidemiologic Studies and Preventing Disease
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I proposal is to develop a versatile, robust, and easy-to-use Data EXtraction and Interpretation System (DEXIS) for epidemiological studies and disease prevention. The modular system will enable automated linking of remote disparate databases to access data in real-time with minimal human intervention. The DITSCAP/DIACAP accreditable system will contain modules for database linking, application interfacing, user interface management, and overall system control. A module for automated data interpretation can be added. DEXIS will be a powerful tool for research and an important aid in the development of measures for cancer prevention. The user-friendly technology will be scalable with the complexity of the databases as well as adaptive in handling missing and erroneous data. Hence, DEXIS will enhance the speed and depth of research accross multiple databases of interest to OSD. The resulting system will be easily adapted to be applied to a variety of other military and civilian applications.

INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS, INC.
2137 Highway 35
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 335-9877
Ms. Victoria Nelson
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Software Technology for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Abstract:The goal of the proposed project is the creation of a web-based software application that efficiently and flexibly integrates and extracts multiple-sourced epidemiological data for a wide array of study designs. We envision software that links existing databases at appropriate levels of aggregation, most notably at person-level, and assists researchers in dynamically applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to create cohorts or select cases and controls, merging and splitting datasets, selecting fields for export, visualizing the process and results, and exporting datasets to statistical analysis software. We propose to build this software on our patented technology platform which provides the advantages of easy extensibility for additional data sources and applications, continuous upgrade while the system is live, software modification without core engine rebuild, and a modular design approach which makes simultaneous modification of domain logic and user interface possible. In Phase I, we will analyze the databases and data dictionary for best approaches to data linkage and extraction, create usability diagrams to guide the software development, and describe our findings in a written feasibility and approach report. Database linkage, dataset manipulation, and data import into statistical software is currently time-consuming and difficult to reproduce; a software tool that expedites the path from data collection to data analysis will be critical for improved response time from study to implemented protective measures for prevention of disease.

SCENPRO, INC.
101 W. Renner Rd.Suite 130
Richardson, TX 75082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 681-4153
Ms. Lynn Difato
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 25JAN07
Title:Air Force Consolidated Cancer Epidemiology Repository (ACCER)
Abstract:Cancer epidemiology research on military personnel is hampered by the fact that the necessary data is stored in separate databases. Researchers must manually link information from tumor registry, manpower, and personnel databases. Our solution proposes to fuse such data in an automated fashion. We will explore creation of a customized data cache containing a normalized collection of relevant data points from the data sources. This cache must be based on a metadata standard, designed to ensure semantic and syntactic comparability across the data. Research will be necessary to determine the best methods of making the data cache structure independent of the specific database definitions. We will design a data extractor and data normalizers that are generic in function yet work with each data source. Researchers will be able to select cohorts and download data through a straightforward web-based user interface. Once the framework is developed it may be extended to any number of additional data sources. The Scenario-based Engineering Process, which is ideal for projects with non-obvious requirements, will drive our approach. Frequent shareholder input is key to the process and ensures that all relevant issues are uncovered and addressed.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Lingji Chen
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Software Technology for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Abstract:A significant hindrance for military cancer studies is the lack of linkages between the disease outcomes database (Automated Central Tumor Registry) and the personnel databases (Air Force Personnel Center Personnel Database and Defense Manpower Data Center Database). Linking cancer and relevant personnel data is currently carried out manually, which is extremely cumbersome and time-consuming. There are two "bottlenecks" in a cancer researcher's work flow. One is the recoding of cancer registry data. The other is the wait time for receiving personnel data. We propose to develop a Recoding Assistant to address the former, and a Data Format Previewer to address the latter. SSCI has assembled a strong team to develop the proposed software. The team includes Professors Shawn Murphy and Qing Zeng, both at Harvard Medical School, and Dr. William Salomon, an experienced physician/informatician. Professor Murphy is Director of the Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), a multimillion-dollar effort sponsored by the Partners Research Council that gathers data from various hospital legacy systems and stores the data in one place for researchers to access. Professor Zeng and her collaborators have developed a suite of open-source NLP modules that they refer to as the Health Information Text Extraction (HITEx) tool, which uses GATE (General Architecture for Text Engineering) as a platform and can be assembled into pipelines for different tasks.

SYSTEMS ANALYTICS
57 Brentwood Circle
Needham, MA 02492
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 398-2233
Dr. John Zhang
OSD 06-H05      Awarded: 25JAN07
Title:Software Technology for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Abstract:This project is to develop a DITSCAP accreditable software that can link and extract person-specific data from cancer registries and personnel databases for epidemiologic and bio-statistical research. Phase I objective is to analyze and define the critical features of the software application that will support cancer research. Phase II objective will be to develop, demonstrate and document the software application, and validate the software to assure data quality and responsiveness. During the validation testing, we will also assure that the software meets the security requirements according to all applicable military and federal regulations. The software can be utilized for linking disparate databases, extracting data to form cohorts and for easy use of bio-statistical and epidemiologic tools.

CELADON LABORATORIES, INC.
6525 Belcrest RDSuite 500
Hyattsville, MD 20782
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 683-2118
Dr. Raymond J. Peterson
OSD 06-H06      Awarded: 23JAN07
Title:Software Technology for QFT-GIT ELISA Reader
Abstract: Tuberculosis is a growing threat to military personnel. The accepted method of preventing tuberculosis disease in military personnel is to screen for latent infection using the tuberculin skin test. In order to overcome the high false-positive and false-negative rates of the skin test, the Air Force is conducting a clinical trial of the Cellestis QFT-GIT test kit. The clinical trial presents the opportunity for a software system that manages and interprets QFT-GIT test data. The deliverable of this Phase 1 SBIR proposal is software that transforms optical density readings from the Triturus ELISA reader into QFT-GIT clinical results. It will communicate electronically with the Triturus using the ASTM standard and it will communicate electronically with CHCS using the HL7 standard. Delivery of this system will establish feasibility of the entire project. Additionally during Phase 1 the proposer will perform a comprehensive requirements analysis for Phase 2. Phase 2 deliverables will include DITSCAP accreditation and software validation as well all other deliverables identified in the requirements analysis proposed for Phase 1. Phase 2 deliverables may include a data management system, software for manual editing of instrument sample layout, configuration of the Triturus software, and analysis of the clinical trial data.

LEARNITEC, INC.
313 Price Place
Madison, WI 53705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 239-5442
Mrs. Ruth A. Ross
OSD 06-H06      Awarded: 16JAN07
Title:Software Technology for QFT-GIT ELISA Reader
Abstract:This project aims to demonstrate the feasibility of developing software to support use of an improved test to detect latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) with maximum throughput. Using the Cellestis QFT-GIT test, blood is collected directly into tubes containing TB-specific antigens ESAT-6, CFP-10, and TB7.7 as well as into positive and negative control tubes for each patient. In previous detailed analysis of clinical performance and quality compliance, QFT-GIT has shown strong potential as a replacement for the problematic tuberculin skin test(TST). Since it is more specific, its use could prevent much of the human and dollar cost of current inappropriate treatment. The QFT-GIT is, however, more expensive to administer to large groups with current analysis procedures. The software must evaluate the quality of the run, acceptability of clinical results from the batch ELISA reader-analyzer and their correct electronic posting in HL7 format through the approved CHCS interface to the military medical record. This project's success would help make the QFT-GIT more practical for routine screening of large groups by supporting its use with a large-capacity fully-automated immunoassay system like the TRITURUS System.

VCRSOFT LLC
30W084 Capistrano CT Suite 201
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 527-0425
Dr. VC Ramesh
OSD 06-H06      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Automated Transfer of QFT-GIT ELISA Results to CHCS
Abstract:The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT), developed by Cellestis Ltd., is an in-vitro diagnostic test using a peptide cocktail simulating ESAT-6, CFP-10 and TB7.7(p4) proteins to stimulate cells in heparinized whole blood. Detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-g) by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is used to identify in vitro responses to these peptide antigens that are associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Grifols USA Inc. makes the Triturus ELISA reader which automates measurements of IFN-g for batch processing of many specimens. However, the conversion of the Triturus Optical Density (OD) readings to IFN-g concentrations is a manual process that requires considerable data manipulations and configuration changes. Once the IFN-g concentrations are obtained, they need to be interpreted to obtain clinically relevant results, i.e., positive, negative and indeterminate. Cellestis has published guidelines, and an algorithmic procedure, for creating computer software for deriving these clinical results from the concentrations. However, currently, researchers have had to perform rather cumbersome and labor-intensive spreadsheet-based computations to derive clinical results from the concentrations. Finally, the clinical results have to be exported to the DoD CHCS electronic medical records system. We propose an approach for automating all these steps.

ARMORWORKS, INC.
7306 S. Harl Avenue
Tempe, AZ 85283
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 682-1005
Dr. Ken-An Lou
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 12JAN07
Title:Computerized Impact Injury Risk Assessment Tool
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to demonstrate the concepts for utilization of existing real-world crash data and impact test data to develop an easy-to-use tool to show the feasibility of conducting impact injury risk assessments in the field. Existing validated impact injury criteria for each individual body region will be identified and used for predicting the severity and probability of impact injury during military vehicle crashes, blasts, and aircraft ejections. The detailed computerized impact injury assessment tool will be further developed in Phase II.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Anna M. Galea
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 31JAN07
Title:Risk Assessment for Frontline Troops
Abstract:The main aim of our work is to create a decision support tool that will help keep our troops safer while fighting in far field theatres. We first focus on injuries incurred for troops moving along roads, in armored vehicles, as a result of an improvised explosive device (IED), though our solution can easily be expanded to foot troops and air vehicles. Our solution is a risk assessment and mission planning tool for frontline troops (RAFT) that provides an easy interface for mission planners as to the risk associated with particular mission profiles, and can also suggest alternate profiles. Our system is first and foremost based on what is truly needed in the field, and this approach will be rooted in our work in Phase I. Anticipating the need for rapid path analysis, our RAFT system has at its core a heuristic approach to risk assessment that is based on past and recent incident reports and field intelligence. Our team is experienced in all aspects required to make the RAFT system a useful and usable device in the hands of the end users in the near term; and comprises engineers with extensive knowledge in injury analysis, data mining, data analysis, human factors, user interfaces, and complex system design.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5214
Dr. Kaizhi Tang
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Experiment Exploited, Simulation based, and Distributed Tool for Injury Assessment
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative tool for injury assessment that will systematically analyze and model huge amounts of experimental/simulation data in biodynamics by exploiting established injury models and criteria currently used. Our proposed tool will be developed from synergistic combination of experimental exploitation, simulation approximation, and distributed computation. Experimental exploitation tries to utilize the experimental data to the largest extent. Exploitation of this data includes the validation of some biomechanical simulations and interpolation inside the space of experimental data/extrapolation outside that space. Simulation approximation uses sophisticated artificial intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks to fit the experimental/simulation datasets between the scenario inputs and injury levels under various impacts. For computational efficiency, web wide access, generation of portable systems, will use a three-tiered distributed computational architecture whereby web browsers and portable devices will perform as clients, databases and large amount of caches as web servers, and parallel computers as computational servers empowering the web servers. The envisioned end-product of this SBIR effort will be distributed, accurate and rapid injury assessment tool which utilizes experimental data, different computer simulation programs, and various injury criteria and models which offer the capability of effective decision making in the battlefield.

MIGMA SYSTEMS, INC.
1600 Providence Highway
Walpole, MA 02081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 660-0328
Dr. Michael Zeifman
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 07FEB07
Title:Integrated Risk Injure Software (IRIS)
Abstract:Migma Systems, Inc. and Professor Cynthia Bir of Wayne State University propose an innovative technology to quickly and accurately predict the probability and severity of potential injuries caused by vehicle crashes, blasts, aircraft ejections and other impact events as appropriate for users employing personnel in military vehicles. The proposed approach integrates two classes of predictive tools, the kinematic models predicting the mechanical human body response to the impact and the criteria of probability and severity of the injures or Human Injury Tolerance (HIT) criteria. In Phase I, we consider head-, spinal and thoracic injuries, as these are the most frequent injuries in the military crashes and impacts. The impact conditions will be the automotive crash, blast and aircraft ejection. To validate the accuracy of this approach, the selected mechanistic models will be tested against the Air Force Biodynamics Database. The injury criteria will be selected manually in Phase I, and will be automatically selected based on their domain of validity in Phase II. The integrated model will be verified using the available crash data of NHTSA.

SIMQUEST, LLC
1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 940
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 587-9440
Dr. Howard Champion
OSD 06-H07      Awarded: 31JAN07
Title:Computerized Impact Injury Risk Assessment Tool
Abstract:SimQuest proposes to use existing data from civilian and military sources to populate an existing software tool to produce a predictor of probability and severity of injury and death during military vehicle crashes and explosive events. A key feature will be the ability to update the data to keep current and to add additional modules for different types of injury scenarios such as aircraft ejection. During Phase I, we propose to identify the variables for the analysis and the scores that would represent the output/results of the analysis, and to determine how the existing software tool would need to be modified to meet project goals. SimQuest proposes to use subject-matter experts from each of the services and the Special Operations community with expertise in military operations, military medicine, vehicle crash biomechanics, and blast to ensure relevancy and applicability at each step of the process. The expertise of the principals and use of existing tools wherever possible will greatly expedite the development process, to the point that we expect to be able to provide a Web-based prototype in Phase I instead of Phase II.

CAMRIS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
1801 Rockville PikeSuite 410
Rockville, MD 20852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 770-6000
Dr. Maria F Trujillo
OSD 06-H08      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:Global Profile Database to Blood Donor's identity, Health,Travel History
Abstract:CAMRIS International will develop a global profile software technology to provide universal access to donor identity, previous deferrals, and travel history to assist data filing continuity of the blood bank collection facilities. Even though software systems to track donor identity, previous deferrals and travel history are commercially available, the knowledge management needs of the Air Force and the Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP) will require software development. With proper deployment, these software systems provide continuous and universal access to information in a secure setting, ensure data integrity, reliability and proper record management -so that data are filed continually with each donor visit, each blood collection, each infectious disease test, each component manufactured from every donation and the final disposition of every blood component. CAMRIS has established a partnership with Wyndgate Technologiesr, so that we already begin with a donor management information system (SafeTracer) already approved by the FDA. In short, the ASBP global profile database of blood donors will be powered by the SafeTrace system. CAMRIS International understands the challenge for Phase I as the development of the necessary software layers that will meet the ASBP knowledge management, needs while maximizing the proven benefits of Wyndgate's donor information system (SafeTrace).

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5206
Dr. Sung Jung
OSD 06-H08      Awarded: 09FEB07
Title:Secure Web Interfaces to Database
Abstract:The food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the responsible agency for ensuring the safety our nation's blood supply. CBER with the Public Heath Service (PHS) identifies potential errors or threats to blood safety through developing adequate technical standards to implement zero risk transmission of infectious disease. Blood donors are asked very specific and direct questions about multiple risk factors and the answers must be carefully documented and filed appropriately. The current system at all blood facilities keep individual files that correspond to a particular time of donation and when the same donor is reevaluated for next blood donation eligibility a new file is created and data is filed separately. There is no system to evaluate the continuity of donor's data with multiple blood donations over the time. To solve the problem, a secure web interfaces to a new database is proposed. The new database contains all donor information by unique donors, and the database is connected to an internet web interface. The SSL enabled internet web provides easy data access from anywhere, and the SSL offers secure data transmission. Using web with SSL ensures communication security and maximizes global data access.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Madhav Erraguntla
OSD 06-H08      Awarded: 05FEB07
Title:Universal, Integrated Donor Profile Database (DPD)
Abstract:We propose a Universal, Integrated blood Donor Profile Database (DPD) to capture and maintain information about blood donor identity, deferrals, health and travel history, and responses to blood donor eligibility questionnaires across multiple donor visits, different geographic locations and blood establishments. DPD will enable establishments to maintain global connectivity, consistency and integrity of information, and efficient utilization of donor history for global screening and deferrals. DPD promotes safety and improve efficiency by ensuring consistency of donor history and profile across multiple visits and across diverse geographic locations. DPD enables facilities to both identify donors deferred permanently, and allow quicker processing of donors with no history of deferrals or whose temporary deferral criteria are satisfied. Phase I will research the required data structures and constraints, model those structures, and demonstrate a donor profile database consistent with that model. Phase I will research and demonstrate interfaces to DPD adaptable to the application and security requirements of different clinical environments. Phase II will extend and validate the research in multiple clinical settings to ensure that the results are scaleable, robust, secure, produce accurate and consistent information, and provide a user friendly interface for the key user roles in different facilities with different requirements.

MEDICAL DECISION LOGIC, INC.
1216 E. Baltimore St.
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 828-8948
Dr. Allen Tien
OSD 06-H08      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Global Profile Database to Blood Donor's identity, Health,Travel History
Abstract:The Phase I Technical Objectives are designed to create a prototype Web-application software system that meets the needs of the Armed Services Blood Program (ASBP) to integrate and centralize donor information, and to automate various aspects of data collection, management, and documentation. At present, all ASBP facilities keep individual files that correspond to a particular time of donation. When the same donor is reevaluated for next blood donation eligibility, a new file is created and data is filed separately. At present there is no system to ensure the continuity and consistency of a donor's data across multiple blood donations over time. For example, a discrepancy can occur when a donor does not remember, at different donation times, the exact number of weeks of overseas travel. If the donor reports different numbers at different times, the discrepancy can lead to a permanent deferral, resulting in loss of an otherwise productive donor. The planned software will allow users to: 1) Identify and protect the correct donor's identity; 2) Access previous data on donations; 3) Access temporary or permanent deferrals; and 4) Oversee travel history that can be updated and verified with each blood donation.

MEDLEE APPLICATION TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
382 Central Park West, Suite 12D
New York, NY 10025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 793-8884
Dr. Lawrence Fagan
OSD 06-H09      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Automated Extraction and Encoding of Information in Armed Forces Health Records
Abstract:This proposal employs an existing medical language processing and encoding system called MedLEE (Medical Language Extraction and Encoding System), and will adapt it to be fully compatible with the Armed Forced Health Longitudinal Technology Application. MedLEE is ideally suited to perform this task because it has comprehensive coverage of the clinical domain, has a proven ten year record of effective performance in diverse clinical areas and applications, and is already integrated and used operationally in a complex clinical environment in a major medical center. MedLEE can readily be adapted to different coding systems, is easy to extend, and has successfully undergone numerous independent evaluations. Notably, MedLEE has been used to provide clinical data for important tasks such as i) data mining to find correlations between medical conditions, ii) medical error detection to automatically find errors that should be reported, iii) surveillance and alerting to detect specified clinical conditions, and iv) clinical research to automatically find variables for research databases. The research and development effort of this proposal will be led by a team of well-known and highly respected international leaders in the fields of Medical Informatics, Natural Language Processing, Data Mining, and Evaluation.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 368-6107
Mr. Gary Sikora
OSD 06-H09      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Natural Language Processing
Abstract:We propose a hybrid NLP solution: a medical ontology system from Mayo Clinic, the Mayo Vocabulary Server (MVS) based on SNOMED- CT, MEDCIN and many other UMLS terminologies; and a machine learning system from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), the Scone semantic knowledge-base that represents knowledge from numerous ontologies and corpuses. Out-of-the-box, the MVS far exceeds the Phase I goals, with a proven recall sensitivity of 99.7%, precision of 99.8% and specificity of 97.9%, using a 5,000 inpatient and the outpatient published data sample set. While the MVS provides a great vertical depth within the medical domain, the Scone horizontally broadens the knowledge into other domains, increasing the realm possibilities. For example, an NLP input to Scone linked to a news feed can automatically understand an event such as a "forest fire in Alaska" and the concept that "fire causes smoke". The MVS then can be used to inference about smoke and return the concept that "smoke triggers asthma". This and additional inferences about health and local information can conclude expected inpatient volume, helping first responders in natural and homeland security scenarios. NLP input from speech recognition systems are also addressed to provide real-time prompts to improve medical form inputs.

DATA BLUEPRINT
501 E. Franklin StreetSuite 414
Richmond, VA 23219
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 521-4056
Mr. Peter Aiken
OSD 06-H10      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Civilian Medical Records Interface tool for AHLTA and VISTA
Abstract:A data transformation interface based upon a standards-based data architecture will enable AHLTA (and eventually VistA) to receive, store, and view patient health records of TRICARE beneficiaries from civilian medical providers who utilize a variety of electronic health record (EHR) solutions. This will solve the problem of moving unstructured and structured data into the structured format of AHLTA from the vast multitude of EHR's and non-digital systems. The Data Blueprint design of an architecture, built on standards (e.g., CDA-R2, HL7) will also be extensible so that additional components can be "plugged in" as required and reused across multiple document sources. Thus, components such as Natural Language Processing, Rules Engines, Digital Signature Systems, Ontology and Taxonomy engines, and other algorithmic translation technologies can be optimized and used as necessary. The Data Blueprint team includes data, AHLTA development, healthcare and research professionals who possess the expertise from a design, interface, business process and AHLTA integration standpoint to conduct the feasibility research and design required for an interface suite that will not only lead to a successful prototype to production solution to move data from civilian medical providers to AHLTA, but have the potential for data movement to VistA.

SYSNET INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2930 Oak Shadow Drive
Oak Hill, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 855-2029
Dr. Odysseas Pentakalos
OSD 06-H10      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Civilian Medical Records Interface tool for AHLTA and VISTA
Abstract:In response to SBIR solicitation OSD06-H10, SYSNET International, Inc. is pleased to propose the design of an interface tool that will allow for the transfer of medical records from diverse commercial or government medical information systems to the DOD Military Health System AHLTA and the Veteran Administration's VISTA medical information systems. As part of the Phase I effort, we will research and design a flexible integration framework that is platform and language agnostic and that will allow civilian providers to incorporate the consults that result from patient visits to civilian provider facilities into the patient's Electronic Health Record. Key elements of the design of the proposed integration framework are its ability to support the widely varying capabilities of the providers' medical information systems, its ability to incorporate various components that both the DOD and VA have already invested money in, and its compliance with health IT industry standards, thereby increasing its commercialization potential.

SIMQUEST, LLC
1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 940
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 587-9440
Dr. Dwight Meglan
OSD 06-H11      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Simulation-based Planning and Training Tool for Infectious Disease Outbreak, i.e., Pandemic Influenza
Abstract:Medical experts and public health officials agree that the nation is overdue for an infectious disease outbreak, most probably through pandemic influenza. Because of the relative rarity of pandemic influenza (three times in the 20th Century, with the most recent in 1968), there is a severe lack of experienced responders to these types of events. It is therefore critically vital for medical treatment facility (MTF) personnel to have the opportunity to practice developing and deploying plans prior to an actual occurrence. A strategic simulation-based game environment that allows MTF administrators and supervisors to understand the causal relationships that strategic planning and tactical decision-making have on the spread of disease will enable them to respond quickly and effectively. The PC-based real-time strategy game proposed here will evaluate users' ability to recognize early warning signs and track their strategic planning and decision making when presented with actual events. This simulation-based planning and training tool for infectious disease outbreak will allow practice of mitigation strategies at the local medical treatment facility (MTF) level, which will likely reduce the spread of disease in the event of pandemic influenza.

TOTAL IMMERSION SOFTWARE, INC.
1080 Marina Village ParkwaySuite 205
Alameda, CA 94501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 400-3447
Mr. Wendell Lunceford
OSD 06-H11      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Simulation-based Planning and Training Tool for Infectious Disease Outbreak, i.e., Pandemic Influenza
Abstract:PandemicWorld (PW) will be designed as a tool to aid hospital and other medical treatment facilities staffs in managing the influx of a large number of patients that would result from an unexpected major outbreak of some form of contagious disease. PW will be designed as an analysis tool and real-time strategy game like simulation focused on hospital/medical treatment facility (MTF) resource management (traffic, triage, treatment management). Its objective is to allow hospital/MTF personnel to develop plans for how they will manage the influx of patients (pandemic victims or people with everyday needs such as accident victims, labor and delivery patients, etc.), space, medical supplies, treatment personnel, services, and so forth from the moment potentially infected people begin arriving through the time of their release. PW will provide the necessary scenario development tools to create an initial plan of action, analyze the plan to "harden" it, and to train on the plan. PW will be based upon the simulation builder's toolkit created under DARPA's RealWorld program. More important is that Total Immersion Software intends to use technology and program management techniques it has evolved out of the commercial computer game community, modified to meet the needs of the Federal Government.

ARCHIEMD, INC.
1602 ALTON RD , SUITE 126
MIAMI BEACH, FL 33139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 981-4830
Dr. Robert Levine
OSD 06-H12      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:A 3-D Multimedia Battlefield Trauma Training System
Abstract:ArchieMD, Inc. proposes to develop a 3-D Multimedia Battlefield Trauma Training Kit. We propose to integrate visual 3-D computer models, video recording of the actual treatments, and an interactive virtual patient to develop a comprehensive, effective training tool for Army, Air Force, and Navy medical personnel. The proposed system should be highly effective given the nature of the visual component This system will include state of the art medically correct and realistic interactive visualization of patients at multiple levels (whole patient, organ systems, individual organs, etc.) superimposed upon video and still images of actual procedures. The superimposed internal anatomy, visualized during the procedure reinforces the identification of critical external anatomical landmarks and illustrates the proper guidance of instruments within the body. Additionally, a virtual patient will allow additional instructor led training simulation. The resultant system will include the input of subject-matter experts and be rigorously evaluated to determine its didactic value throughout the development process.

PELAGIQUE
2545 Cordeila Rd
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 472-5162
Ms. Koren Shelton
OSD 06-H12      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:Multimedia Combat Injury Management Training
Abstract:The severity and spectrum of battlefield injuries seen in military conflict is rarely encountered in the civilian sector. It is exceedingly difficult to achieve adequate training for these complex battlefield injuries (e.g., blast injuries) in the civilian sector. There exists a need for a situation-specific training tool for physicians deploying to combat zones. We propose a low-cost, widely deployable, scalable multimodal training solution. A personal computer (PC)-based, multimodal training system to promote skill acquisition and maintenance in life saving resuscitative, procedural, and operative management of battlefield injuries would provide deploying careproviders a relevant, vivid, and concise training tool. This Combat Injury Training System would comprise digital video footage of actual complex battlefield injury care, three-dimensional (3D) interactive image visualization of patient anatomy, digital media and interactive game elements, motion sensor, and force-feedback technologies. This multimodal trainer will provide a level of instruction not possible using traditional and mannequin-based teaching methods. It will also provide users with an independent learning tool providing real-time feedback and performance tracking. The structure of the educational platform will meet SCORM compliance standards and be compatible with future ADL systems.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-8019
Mr. Barry A. Trent
OSD 06-I10      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Commodity Auxiliary Processors for Enhanced Software Tamper Protection (CAPESTAR)
Abstract:Software plays an ever-increasing role in modern weapons systems. The consequences of enemies capturing and reverse engineering the software in these systems pose a real risk for the DoD. Anti-tamper technologies protect these assets by increasing the costs associated with extraction of this information by enemy forces. "Out-of-band" protection measures (involving trusted hardware modules) are considered to be most effective, with "in-band" protection measures (implemented only in software) being considered less effective. Increasingly, COTS systems include special-purpose auxiliary processors, such as dedicated graphics processors. These auxiliary processors can substitute for proprietary trusted hardware modules in a hybrid approach to increase the effectiveness of anti-tamper protection. To enhance existing "in-band" protection measures, Architecture Technology Corporation will leverage its extensive experience in software Anti-Tamper technologies to design and build a novel, hybrid anti-tamper approach: Commodity Auxiliary Processors for Enhanced Software Tamper Protection (CAPESTAR). CAPESTAR will move anti-tamper functionality off the main CPU onto COTS auxiliary processors within the system, providing increased resistance to tampering and also "locking" the software to a particular hardware configuration. CAPESTAR will function automatically and will not require any specialized programming knowledge, expertise, or experience related to the specifics of the COTS auxiliary processors used.

BLUERISC, INC.
28 Dana St.
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-0599
Mr. Kristopher Carver
OSD 06-I10      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Software Protection through TPM Co-execution
Abstract:This project proposes the research of an approach that leverages Trusted Platform Modules (TPM) to protect software. It utilizes the TPM as a security co-processor to the main application processor: instead of executing the software entirely on the main application processor, small fractions of the application code are executed on the TPM as secured code snippets. The strength of the approach comes from the fact that (1) the software application is securely tied to the TPM security chip through these snippets, (2) the "holes" or "voids" that the snippets create in the original binary make it very difficult to reverse engineer the overall application code, (3) the application software can be protected against unauthorized execution, and (4) the TPM snippets provide integrity checking against modifications of the binary. This project focuses on the software technologies and tools necessary for software protection and will use the BlueRISC TPM as a vehicle to demonstrate the approach.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. David Melski
OSD 06-I10      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Software Protection through Specialized Commodity Processors
Abstract:The protection of intellectual property is a key problem being addressed both in public and private research. However, even with the amount of resources given to further research into the state-of-the-art, existing technologies are far short of being sufficiently protected against reverse engineering. Of particular concern is the use of software-only techniques, which are susceptible to a variety of known attacks through emulation, debugging, and disassembly. Additionally, hardware-only defenses are vulnerable to mimicry and circumvention; the most effective solution to the problem will evolve as a hybridization of both software- and hardware-based methods. Modern computing systems are not monolithic devices, and contain several commodity processors that perform various operations such as network, sound and graphics processing. Monolithic software protections are limited in their effectiveness due to relatively low complexity; that is, the reverse engineer has a single program to attack, and must only emulate known system architectures and behavior if necessary. The work proposed herein will demonstrate the feasibility of offloading software protections to commodity processors using the existing anti-tamper framework at GrammaTech. In doing so, it will be possible to establish stronger and more efficient software protections due to the expanded computational abilities afforded by commodity hardware.

SI GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS, INC.
4450 W. Eau Gallie Blvd.Suite 240
Melbourne, FL 32934
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 259-4221
Mr. Terry Gillette
OSD 06-I10      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Low Cost Cryptographic Coprocessing (LC^3) For Software Protection
Abstract:As the dependence on more complex and powerful software constantly grows, so does the need to protect that software from tampering and reverse engineering. A major problem of securing software is the challenge of staying one step ahead of the attacker by developing new technologies that defeat the efforts of available reverse engineering tools. Recently software protection mechanisms have evolved at a faster rate than the computers on which they run, and as a result the protection often comes with greatly decreased performance. The computer industry is constantly looking for new ways to improve performance and enhance the user experience. In modern systems, more processing power is being added to traditionally less sophisticated IO components. Of these components, the video card in particular is interesting because the video card manufacturers have provided developers a standard interface to enable customized, sophisticated graphics processing to be executed directly on the video card. This proposal introduces the innovative concept of using the programmable graphics processor on a video card as a low cost, widely available cryptographic coprocessor for the purpose of efficient software protection.

PIKEWERKS CORP.
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Ms. Sandra Ring
OSD 06-I11      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Software Situational Awareness for End-node Authentication
Abstract:The foundation of software protection is built around guarding against reverse engineering, tampering, privacy/theft, and unauthorized execution. One means of preventing a malicious attack is to use software-hardware locking to "bind" an application to a specific computer or set of computers so it cannot be used on an unauthorized system. Pikewerks believes it has uncovered new methodologies to relate an application to its approved host system(s) that could strengthen security. As part of this effort, Pikewerks will examine current binding research and couple that with its own unique solutions to create and test new and innovative approaches. One proposed solution will look at weighted system/environmental attributes. Pikewerks will also examine history-based protection mechanisms to determine if a program is running on the correct platform by looking at residual information. The output of the research and analysis will be a prototype capable of differentiating between a valid and an unauthorized host and that can apply penalties in the case of malicious intent.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Mr. Thomas Johnson
OSD 06-I12      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Light-weight Virtualization as a Defense against Reverse Engineering
Abstract:The victor in a conflict is often the party that can gain the "upper hand". In the battle between software protection and reverse engineering, however, the victor is the party that gains the "lower hand". We propose a novel software protection system based on hypervisors that gives the advantage to the defended application by lowering it below the operating system, effectively making the application inaccessible to attackers.

PIKEWERKS CORP.
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Ms. Sandra Ring
OSD 06-I12      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Dynamic Secure Virtualization Co-Processor
Abstract:Software critical to National Security and essential to a corporation's survival can be exploited through reverse engineering and unauthorized access. Without innovative protection initiatives, these vulnerabilities can be leveraged to distribute programs or critical information without proper authority. One of the best methods to prevent such malicious attack is to maintain critical elements of the program and data encrypted, even when it is being used, with specialized hardware. However, this can come with undesired side effects such as increased cost, processor dependency, and the break-one, break often syndrome. One way to overcome these limitations is to incorporate a virtual machine, an executing operating system that is encapsulated into a single process thread, into the solution. Given the recent support that major hardware companies have given to virtualization, including Intel's 64-bit Dual-core and the AMD's AMD64 processors, this can now be implemented with performance at or near native speed. Through the use of a dynamic secure virtualization co-processor and an innovative processing algorithm, Pikewerks plans to prototype a cost-effective system that will suffer minimal, if any, performance degradation and allow the software protection scheme to run on a multitude of hosts.

SI GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS, INC.
4450 W. Eau Gallie Blvd.Suite 240
Melbourne, FL 32934
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 259-4221
Mr. Terry Gillette
OSD 06-I12      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Highly Efficient Virtualized Execution
Abstract:As the dependence on more complex and powerful software constantly grows, so does the need to protect that software from tampering and reverse engineering. The software security industry is locked in a constant arms race between reverse engineers and security engineers. Therefore, security engineers must meet the challenge of staying one step ahead of the attacker by developing technologies that defeat the efforts of available reverse engineering tools. A recent development in the effort to thwart reverse engineering is the use of virtual machines in software protection mechanisms; this technique has proven to be quite effective in protecting secrets in applications. Attempting to reverse engineer the protected code requires first reverse engineering the virtual machine used. Unfortunately, the use of virtualization incurs a hefty penalty on execution speed, with the performance of the protected application reduced by orders of magnitude. This document proposes a solution to create a virtual machine protection technology that will greatly improve performance of the protection and increase the difficulty of reverse engineering the protection. This will be accomplished through taking advantage of our existing state-of-the-art static and dynamic analysis tools to automatically craft a unique virtual machine architecture for each application protected.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-8019
Mr. Barry A. Trent
OSD 06-I13      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Steganography for Tamper-Resistant Software (STARS)
Abstract:The DoD has valuable and sensitive software which it must protect from use, exploitation, or attack by other countries or organizations. Anti-tamper technologies protect these assets by increasing the costs associated with extracting this information by enemy forces. A variety of techniques have been and are being developed to address specific aspects of anti-tamper protection. These techniques frequently include methods for obfuscating the algorithms and data of the program, and typically include data encryption functions. Encryption techniques require that both decryption keys and the corresponding decryption algorithms are present in the end-system being protected. These decryption components on the end-system are prime targets for reverse-engineering, de-activation, and other forms of tampering. To protect these encryption/decryption components it is desirable to obscure or hide them within the end-system. Architecture Technology Corporation will leverage its extensive experience in software Anti-Tamper technologies to design and build a novel anti-tamper data-hiding approach: Steganography for Tamper-Resistant Software (STARS). STARS will enable hiding of arbitrary data within the executable code of the end-system itself. Hidden data could include both decryption keys and algorithms. To enhance both information hiding and the tamper-resistance of the protected software, STARS will combine steganographic techniques with other anti-tamper obfuscation techniques.

ARXAN RESEARCH, INC.
3000 Kent AvenuePurdue Technology Center
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 775-1004
Dr. John Rice
OSD 06-I13      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Improving "Trusting the Edge" Through Cryptographic Key Hiding
Abstract:The Security to the Edge strategy identifies a growth area in the development technologies to enable Trusting the Edge; particularly, two research areas are specified: i) hardening an edge node against physical attack; and ii) facilitating the ability of an edge node to monitor and communicate the state of its integrity. The thrust of this proposal is twofold: i) to describe a technique for hiding cryptographic keys in software---including the development of stealthy encryption/decryption techniques; and ii) to build on this capability to implement a challenge/response mechanism for the purposes of i) improving resistance to a class of physical attack (i.e. replay attacks); and ii) interrogating/evaluating an edge node for its status/integrity.

RESERVOIR LABS., INC.
632 Broadway, Suite 803
New York, NY 10012
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(212) 780-0527
Dr. Jonathan Springer
OSD 06-I13      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:An Architecture for Software Obfuscation
Abstract:Modern devices of all kinds are increasingly dependent upon software, and that software increasingly constitutes a distinct military assert and battlefield advantage. To protect that software, a layered defense in desirable. A key component of a defense-in-depth is obfuscation, which inhibits understanding of and subversion of software even when physical access to the code is obtained. Current obfuscation technology is generally ad-hoc, however, lacking power, system integration, and/or flexibility to adapt to future threats. We seek to devise an architecture for obfuscation based on traditional compiler technology. The compiler can provide a framework for devising and organizing multiple obfuscations, which can then be composed to work in concert. Furthermore, the use of an architecture facilitates modularity, allowing obfuscations to be easily swapped in and out, leading to a flexible and adaptable overall system. We expect that our approach can be the basis for an obfuscation infrastructure that can have wide applicability and long endurance.

SI GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS, INC.
4450 W. Eau Gallie Blvd.Suite 240
Melbourne, FL 32934
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 259-4221
Mr. Terry Gillette
OSD 06-I13      Awarded: 30JAN07
Title:Hypervisor Advanced Robust Protection (HARP)
Abstract:There has been a significant push in recent years to move more and more critical infrastructure onto the Internet. Unfortunately, this network-centric model creates real security risks. A successful compromise of these network systems can lead to disclosure of sensitive information or even direct manipulation of critical resources. The threat of attack is ever increasing due to the ongoing arms race between malware authors and protection technology vendors. Both sides are constantly innovating in order to defeat the other side's new technologies in a self-perpetuating manner. This document proposes a solution that will prevent sensitive program code from being reverse engineered or tampered with using the tools available to an attacker today through the development of a hypervisor (a hardware-assisted virtual machine technology being introduced into the latest x86 processors). The developed hypervisor will allow, from the point of view of the operating system and a protected application, encrypted code to be executed directly by the processor. Decrypted code will not be available outside the hypervisor, and since the reverse engineering tools available today do not support hypervisors, this protection technology will significantly increase the difficulty of any attack on protected code.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Ryan C. MArotz
OSD 06-IA1      Awarded: 07JUN07
Title:Sandtrap
Abstract:The Army has identified a need for a Cross Platform Digital Rights Management (CP-DRM) system that provides a data owner the ability to control the flow of sensitive digital information even after it has been released. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes Sandtrap that allows sensitive information to be packaged into a distributable self-contained package. Sensitive data is protected using Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). The self-contained package uses the recipient machine's default application for the data type to display the information to the user. The default application is executed in a separated environment which restricts its ability to print, copy, or transfer sensitive information as specified by the Original Classifying Authorities (OCA).

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd.Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
OSD 06-IA1      Awarded: 07JUN07
Title:DataSentryT: A Cross Platform Digital Rights Management Technology
Abstract:Cross Platform Digital Rights Management (CP-DRM) is essential for protecting sensitive digital information even after it has been released to a third party. What is needed to achieve this goal is a cross-platform, non-intrusive Digital Rights Management technology that can achieve this end with minimal restriction of the receiver's rights. This Phase I SBIR effort is devoted to studying available and potential methods to implement a non-intrusive, platform-independent DRM technology. The findings from this work are expected to set the stage for developing the design and architecture requirements documents that will inform downstream implementation.

KEYWAY SECURITY
142 Parker Road
West Long Branch, NJ 07764
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 506-6019
Ms. Kat McFarland
OSD 06-IA1      Awarded: 31MAY07
Title:TrustShare- An innovative approach to Digital Rights Management (DRM) and Assured Information Sharing.
Abstract:The objective of this study is to make recommendations on the best approach(s) for the Defense and Intelligence Communities to adopt in relationship to Digital Rights Management (DRM). We will explore how to apply DRM technology to help achieve assured information sharing. Our emphasis will be in the areas of rights expression (i.e., the expression of permissions: constraints, requirements, and conditions, over the data assets) and the digital management of the aforementioned rights. Our goal is to identify a solution to support assured information sharing that will allow data producers, such as Warfighters, to dynamically share information while still retaining responsible control over who sees it and how it is further used and/or redistributed. We will seek to modify and adapt Rights Expression Languages (REL) such as Extensible Rights Markup Language (XrML) and Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) to fit the taxonomies of the Defense and Intelligence communities. In Phase II a prototype/Engineering Development Model (EDM) called TrustShare would be developed on laboratory systems to demonstrate the feasibility of the design to meet the use cases identified in Phase I. Phase III will productize the technology to meet both military and commercial needs.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center ParkwaySuite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Steven Hilderbrand PI
OSD 06-IA2      Awarded: 14MAY07
Title:Document Classification and Summarization System (DOCS)
Abstract:21st Century Technologies (21CT), is proposing the development of DOCS (Document Classification and Summarization System), a document management system which applies natural language processing (NLP) techniques to provide a cross-domain solution (CDS) for document dissemination. DOCS will utilize document classification, summarization, reasoning, and other advanced NLP techniques to provide documents at multiple security classification levels. The fully realized proof-of-concept DOCS application will provide a robust and secure document management system that classifies, summarizes, stores and disseminates information in cross-domain environments, allowing analysts to focus on analysis, rather than document classification and management.

BCL COMPUTERS
990 Linden Dr.Suite 203
Santa Clara, CA 95050
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 249-4126
Mr. Hassan Alam
OSD 06-IA2      Awarded: 08MAY07
Title:Artificial Intelligence Technique Applied to Cross-Domain Solution
Abstract:BCL proposes researching an AI/Natural Language Processing based Information Classification and Filtering System that finds and extracts relevant concepts from free text. The proposed approach utilizes syntactic-semantic information from input text to come up with 'semantic classifications' of themes that get tagged to a particular category such as NATO, CIA, FBI, ISI etc. In its Phase I research, BCL will evaluate COTS CDS systems and methods, and AI methods such as NLP, Machine learning, pattern recognition, and translation systems to provide sanitization techniques in Cross-Domain Solutions. In its Phase I efforts, BCL will develop a proof-of-concept design for a syntactic-semantic based CDS system in a particular domain (e.g. terrorism). The proposed system rests upon the extensive research BCL has conducted in Natural Language Processing. At the end of Phase I, BCL will recommend a combination of the best methods that promise to provide an information filtering and classification methods for CDS systems.

POTOMAC FUSION
4460 Brookfield Corporate DriveSuite H
Chantilly, VA 20151
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 669-2226
Ms. Kathleen Lossau
OSD 06-IA2      Awarded: 01JUN07
Title:Artificial Intelligence Technique Applied to Cross-Domain Solution
Abstract:Most of todays cross domain solutions allow only well structured text to be automatically parsed and shared at a different security levels. Unstructured text must be released by a human. While dirty words searches and classification markings are helpful, the human still needs to spend an inordinate amount of time reading the document. Often documents contain very similar text and there is no reliable method for comparing this document to what has been previously released/denied. The user must critically re-evaluate the entire document before releasing. The focus of this effort is reduce the amount of time the human has to spend on a document and increase the level of assurance (accuracy) in sharing information across security domains. Our effort will focus on developing a complete approach for reducing the humans workload by: using NLP techniques to parse and tag a document, summarize (distill) the content of the unstructured data, categorize the document, use word/phrase checking and machine learning techniques to compare to previously released documents. Provide a phase I, initial prototype, that assists the human in identifying areas of the document s/he should focus on. A robust and complete prototype will be implemented in phase II.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center ParkwaySuite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Sherry Marcus
OSD 06-IA3      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Impact Modeling and Prediction of Attacks on Cyber Targets (IMPACT)
Abstract:Data fusion techniques applied to intrusion detection and network defense have recently shown promise in multi-stage attack detection and network situation assessment. However, to provide full situation awareness, cyber attack impact assessment and future attack prediction must be addressed. 21st Century Technologies presents Impact Modeling and Prediction of Attacks on Cyber Targets (IMPACT) as a solution to these issues. The specific capabilities provided by IMPACT are four-fold. First, IMPACT will identify the actions and targets that would maximize an attacker's effectiveness, given a particular goal or intent. Second, IMPACT will provide rapid assessment of the progression of an attack toward a particular goal or set of goals, which will enable efficient prioritization of attack strategies for analysts. Third, IMPACT will locate particular hosts or services within the network that are mostly likely to be future targets of an attacker, thereby increasing the effectiveness of an attack response. Last, using the knowledge gained in the prior steps, IMPACT uses a highly innovative approach to determine plausible attack vectors on the system. Together these capabilities will provide the means for rapidly assessing the impact of a series of events and predicting the future actions an attacker may pursue to further his/her intention(s) on the network.

APPLIED VISIONS, INC.
6 Bayview Avenue
Northport, NY 11768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 754-4920
Mr. John Goodall
OSD 06-IA3      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Situation Awareness and Impact Assessment for Cyber Network Defense
Abstract:The Secure Decisions division of Applied Visions, Inc. proposes to fill a technology gap in determining how mission and client/host configurations can be analyzed and used to identify the impact of cyber attacks. We will develop an asset-to-mission model that represents the complex relationships that exist between network nodes, network services, mission-critical cyber capabilities, and organizational missions. The model will include how factors such as redundancies among network assets and timing of mission tasks affect the operational impact of cyber attacks. Because populating such a model with real enterprise data is a laborious process, we also propose to identify methods to automatically collect network data to estimate critical dependencies between nodes, services, capabilities and missions. We will develop a conceptual prototype that incorporates the results of a populated model into an information display that maps network nodes to the services they support, maps the services to the mission-relevant capabilities they support, and maps those capabilities to the organizational missions that depends on them. An important part of our proposed work will be our exploration of current network mapping, attacker modeling, and mission planning systems to determine integration opportunities for Phase II development and transition of this research.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5218
Dr. Genshe Chen
OSD 06-IA3      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:A Game Theoretic Approach for Cyber Situation Awareness and Impact Assessment
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose a highly innovative information fusion approach for detection and prediction of multistage stealthy cyber attacks. Our approach unifies INFERD/TANDI (successfully used in cyber network situation awareness) developed by University at Buffalo team and Markov Game theoretical threat intent inference developed by IAI team to provide a better solution. There are two main parts: data fusion module and dynamic/adaptive feature recognition module. Various log file entities Alters generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusion Prevention Sensors (IPSs) are fed into the L1 data fusion components. The fused objects and related pedigree information are used by a feature/pattern recognition module to generate primitive prediction of intents of cyber attackers. High-level (L2 and L3) data fusion based on Markov game model, Hierarchical Entity Aggregation (HEA) are proposed to refine the primitive prediction generated in stage 1 and capture new unknown features. Markov (Stochastic) game method is used to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack graph. The captured unknown or new cyber attack patterns will be associated to related L1 results in dynamic learning block, which takes deception reasoning, trend/variation identification, and distribution model and calculation into account.

LI CREATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
30 A Vreeland Road, Suite 130
Florham Park, NJ 07932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 822-0048
Dr. Qi (Peter) Li
OSD 06-IA4      Awarded: 22JUN07
Title:Multi-Level Voice Over IP (VOIP) Security for Army Environments
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to describe a unique and promising solution for multi-level voice over IP (VoIP) security for Army environments. The proposed secure VoIP solution utilizes state-of-the-art technologies and will fully meet the Army's requirements and NIST's security recommendations. In this proposal, the special security requirements, such as "liveness" verification, keyword stripping, key exchange, and cross domain solution are addressed with feasible solutions. A prototype of secure VoIP will be delivered in the end of this project.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee HighwaySuite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 388-1261
Ms. Anna Monastyrsky
OSD 06-IA4      Awarded: 16MAY07
Title:Multi-Level Voice Over IP (VOIP) Security for Army Environments
Abstract:The military is transitioning to a fast reaction mobile strike force with increasing reliance on unmanned, autonomous systems. As part of this, IP networks at various sites are now handling an increasing number of voice calls using Voice over IP (VoIP) in different security domains. Further, there is a need to capture and archive the voice collaboration data for subsequent analysis. This key capability provides added security for auditing purposes. Emerging XML technologies that provide enhancements to voice collaboration may be applied toward this problem space. Trident System proposes to leverage industry technologies and innovations to develop a Secure Inter-Domain VoIP Architecture (SIDVA) that will provide the architectural foundation to support the intra- and inter-domain secure VoIP requirements. Trident Systems will also conduct continuous, in-depth examinations of emerging technologies that may be utilized to implement the required capabilities. The SIDVA system will make use of standards as put forth by W3C Voice Browser Working Group, IETF and ITU-T Internet telephony standard bodies. Adhering to these standards also ensures that the proposed solution is interoperable with existing VoIP applications. Trident Systems will insure that the proposed architecture is a high assurance solution that can be certified for deployment in DoD environments.

3 SIGMA RESEARCH, INC.
503 S. River Oaks Dr.
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 674-9267
Mr. Michael Winburn
OSD 06-IA5      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Defensive Cyber Craft Systems
Abstract:The primary focus of this investigation is to develop techniques to bring all the "parts" together by creating the models that comprise the cybercraft system and to investigate methods that support commanders in deploying cyber assets to achieve a specific mission task. This effort fills an important niche in the evolving concept of cybercraft.

ADVENTIUM ENTERPRISES, LLC
111 Third Ave. S., Suite 100
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 295-7136
Mr. Todd Carpenter
OSD 06-IA5      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Cyber Craft System Scaling
Abstract:Many technical challenges will need to be surmounted to create practical cybercraft: assurance, control, rules of engagement, representation and discovery of the target environment, among others. However a serious challenge lurks behind all of these: scaling solutions to fleets of up to a million craft. New approaches are needed to deploy and control the craft at this scale. Failure to come to grips with this will risk mishaps such as fatal host resource exhaustion, accidental overrun of a node by thousands of cybercraft, and communications gridlock. This project will develop techniques to analyze very large fleets of cyber craft, associated operational constraints, and changing situation to enable deployment, command and control, and situation assessment. Adventium will evaluate and employ the latest research in large scale collaboration systems to craft an architectural solution tailored for the special needs of DoD cybercraft. We believe it is important to address these issues early in the cybercraft development and in parallel with other research efforts to ensure scalability solutions are part of cybercraft design.

CYBER DEFENSE AGENCY, LLC
3601 43rd Street South
Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54494
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 694-7542
Mr. Richard Feiertag
OSD 06-IA5      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:Trust-Enabled Cyber Craft
Abstract:Cyber Defense Agency sees cyber craft as a potentially powerful distributed security enforcement mechanism performing a variety of functions from intrusion detection to policy enforcement. To realize the great potential, the elements require a means to establish trust or else the cyber craft could be hijacked as a powerful attack vector. Without a means to establish trust, the risks of using cyber craft for defense will be too high, system owners will be reluctant to employ defensive cyber craft, and the vulnerability to certain types of attacks of networks and systems will remain high. This proposal describes a program that will develop techniques and tools to enable cyber craft and host systems to establish mutual trust and to use dynamic risk assessment of alternative cyber craft workflows to determine the lowest risk means to accomplish its mission by most effectively using the established trust.

DISTRIBUTED INFINITY, INC.
1382 Quartz Mountain Drive
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 825-8709
Dr. Wendy L. Hamilton
OSD 06-IA5      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Representation Agnostic Cyber Knowledge (R.A.C.K.)
Abstract:Context affects the systems' ability to comprehend its environment and to make effective decisions based on that understanding. It is a natural tendency for independently generated reasoning systems to use separate representations, which makes each reasoning system, its inputs, and its conclusions, incompatible with others. What is needed is a knowledge representation that supports backward compatibility, can efficiently support numerous reasoning methods, and enable information exchange between systems, even legacy systems where compatibility was not originally envisioned in the design. We propose to build Representation Agnostic Cyber Knowledge (R.A.C.K.), a fuzzy linguistic context construct that can efficiently support use by a wide range of technologies, and maintain compatibility between independent adopters of R.A.C.K. despite selection of separate sets of linguistic representations for context reasoning. With R.A.C.K., multiple independent enclaves using independently developed and maintained network defense tools can coordinate to provide mutual defensive support.

ASHTON SECURITY LABORATORIES, LLC
12530 Rock Ridge Road
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 570-6695
Dr. Gary Grainger
OSD 06-IA6      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Kernel-mode Software Protection to Prevent Piracy, Reverse Engineering, and Tampering of End-Node Applications
Abstract:We propose to develop a secure niche from which to run integrity management or other OS and application monitoring software on COTS PCs running popular COTS operating systems. The security of the proposed environment will have no dependency on the correct operation of the host operating system. The security model will assume that the operating system and its kernel have been compromised. The design of the secure niche will be capable of being formally modeled, proved, and evaluated under the Common Criteria at a high assurance level. Our approach is to use the Security Management Mode (SMM) that is part of every Pentium processor as the core of the mechanism, using it to implement a new security ring (call it Ring -1) below the Ring 0 kernel. Various payloads can then be run in this niche, such as integrity monitors and virus checkers, to protect the OS and user applications and data from corruption. The secure niche protects the payload so the payload can protect the system.

PAC, INC.
1660 International DrSuite 400
McLean, VA 22102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 288-5251
Mr. Carl Geary
OSD 06-IA6      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Kernel-mode Software Protection to Prevent Piracy, Reverse Engineering, and Tampering of End-Node Applications
Abstract:Building on key hardware technology developed by the Trusted Computing Group we propose to develop a powerful system that will significantly raise the bar for software piracy and tampering. Prior attempts at solving this problem have generally relied on security- through-obscurity which offers little deterrence to a sophisticated attacker. Our approach integrates a sophisticated hardware module that is already widely deployed in personal computers with an augmented kernel leading to an unprecedented level of protection against piracy, reverse-engineering, and tampering. This integrated approach builds a chain of trust beginning with the hardware and ending with application software which is to be executed. This chain of trust is secured with state-of-the-art cryptographic algorithms. During Phase I, we will develop software modules which will demonstrate the efficacy of the system. Phase II will build on the results of the Phase I work resulting in a high-quality product ready to be integrated into application software by customers around the world with minimal effort.

PIKEWERKS CORP.
105 A Church Street
Madison, AL 35758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 325-0010
Mr. Michael Nordfelt
OSD 06-IA6      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Kernel-mode Software Protection to Prevent Piracy, Reverse Engineering, and Tampering of End-Node Applications
Abstract:Traditional software developed for most general-purpose computing platforms conforms to some pre-determined standard file structure. This standardized structure is important because it allows files to be efficiently loaded by the operating system, easily debugged and analyzed, and makes them portable. While this feature is beneficial for the distribution and sharing of software, it runs counter to the basic tenets of computer and information security. Some of the most popular file formats for x86 based operating have little or no capabilities to protect the software from reverse engineering, tampering, and access by unauthorized individuals. To counter these weaknesses, Pikewerks will employ an existing proprietary software algorithm and conceptual data protection methodologies to develop and test a Windows based data security system called WinEA (Windows Electronic Armor). The solution, based on a proven methodology (Electronic Armor) that was developed to protect high-performance super computers from insider threat and hackers, will supply protection for programs and information in a wide range of environments including end user applications.

AFCO SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT, INC.
200 Finn Court
Farmingdale, NY 11735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 424-3935
Mr. Godfrey Vassallo
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Hardware-assisted Software Anti-Tamper
Abstract:Computer systems are lacking adequate security properties as demonstrated by the increase in system failure and service disruptions over the last few years. In response to an evolving threat environment AFCO Systems Development (ASD) proposes an adaptable and field upgradeable Global Information Grid (GIG) System Security Monitor (SSM) that contains a PCI co-processor card, reconfigurable hardware, firmware, and host-based software to accomplish its mission. The SSM represents a hybrid system monitoring architecture that can be tailored to a large assortment of platforms. This flexibility is especially important within the context of DOD兼s net-centric warfare concepts where autonomous decision-making has moved into the battle space. In this vision every device becomes a potential threat as an attack vector or intelligence tool. The SSM provides a chain of trust that starts with its own secure boot and extends to the host operating system, applications and data. Its reconfigurable logic provides a self-defense mechanism as well as secure functionality that can be quickly upgraded and extended. Edge nodes that are fortified with the SSM will be able to protect themselves, respond to interrogations relative to the node兼s trustworthiness and protect its host. The SSM provides Security to the Edge.

BLUERISC, INC.
28 Dana Street
Amherst, MA 01002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 549-0599
Mr. Kristopher Carver
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Hardware-assisted Software Anti-Tamper
Abstract:In this proposal, we outline a project to develop a hardware-assisted in-memory software protection solution that is independent of the trustworthiness of the operating system (OS). Protection of software with software-only solutions typically relies on at least some components of the OS being correct - this assumption can be invalid during sophisticated attacks. The innovation in this proposal is a hardware-assisted tamper-detection system based on a special add-on card containing a BlueRISC security microprocessor, and a host-resident virtual-to-physical mapping/monitoring and extraction tool (VPMET). This system verifies the integrity of selected software applications during execution by checking their physical memory signatures. The approach has three distinct advantages compared to prior art: (1) it works on operating systems with sophisticated virtual memory schemes; (2) the proposed software-protection technology would protect against both in-wire security as well as physical tampering; and (3) a reactive mechanism can be added to prevent compromised software executing in the host. This project primarily focuses on the software technologies and tools necessary and will use BlueRISC's hardware platform as a vehicle to demonstrate the approach.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Colin Van Dyke
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Hardware-assisted Software Anti-Tamper
Abstract:Defense research and development is increasingly using software to perform critical roles. It is important that these assests be protected. Great progress has been made in providing in-band protection of software, including on-going work at GrammaTech. However, strong protection requires defensive measures at both the hardware and software levels. By adding additional reconfigurable hardware components to a system, a reverse engineer is confronted with additional devices to decipher, more hardware requirements for analysis, and the added complexity of additional inter-device communication to understand. We expect our Phase I effort to result in a prototype that will: (1) identify portions of a software executable that can be translated to an FPGA hardware environment; (2) perform sound binary-to-binary transformations to lift software algorithms out of a sensitive program and onto an FPGA.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. James Inge
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Co-Processor Secure Software Platform with Instruction-Set Emulation
Abstract: The art and science of software reverse engineering have matured to the point that their methods, tools, and philosophies are well defined and commonly known. Robust fault injection, debugger, disassembly, and de-compilation tools are available to assist efforts to reveal the details of software intellectual property and steal once-secret code and data. As unacceptable as this is the commercial sector, the importance of defeating such practices becomes magnified when protecting DOD embedded software applications responsible for maintaining technological superiority on the battlefield. Luna Innovations proposes to protect sensitive software code and data through an innovative integration of Luna's Secure Software Platform (SSP) with other higher layer anti-tamper protections. By tightly integrating Luna's hardware-based software protection platform with higher layer protection schemes, we will provide protection from, detection of, and response to both over-the-wire, remote user attacks and attacks where the user has physical observability and controllability, while still providing the user with a high performance computing resource.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento ParkwaySuite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Dean Mumme
OSD 06-IA7      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:PCI-based Trusted Platform Security Manager for Hardware-Assisted Anti-Tamper
Abstract:The Anti-Tamper-Software Protection Initiative (AT-SPI) Technology Office is charged with preventing piracy, reverse engineering, and malicious alteration of critical national security software and data. Software protection involves developing a defense-in-depth strategy using out-of-band defenses that complement traditional in-band information assurance defenses, such as network firewalls and operating system access controls. This proposed Phase I effort describes a suggested architecture for a Trusted Platform Security Manager (TPSM) running on a coprocessor with security services. Specifically, this effort will focus on providing services that support the authentification of software files, configuration files, and other high-value files; the management of agent-based security; the management of secure communication protocols; vulnerability monitors and user files; and, and hardware fingerprinting mechanisms. This effort will collect performance benchmarks for computation-intensive applications with and without an active security system. The results will be compared to ascertain the performance costs of the security manager and conditions under which they are greatest.

AVENDA SYSTEMS
2855 Kifer Rd, Suite #102
Santa Clara, CA 95051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 748-1993
Mr. Krishna Prabhakar
OSD 06-IA8      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Software Protection for Embedded Applications
Abstract:Avenda Systems proposes to research and build an effective protection mechanism called Elimination of Side-Channel Attacks from Exploitation (E-SAFE). E-SAFE solution will consist of methods and techniques for detecting control-flow side channel attacks and transforming the source code of embedded applications to eliminate such attacks. E-SAFE provides many of the protection mechanisms needed to protect embedded applications. The technologies employed in this product are practical and innovative and have not been implemented in commercially available comparable products. Research and analysis in Phase I will provide the knowledge and foundation for building a complete solution in Phase II, and a commercially viable product in Phase III.

CODETRONIX LLC
5940 Buena Vista Avenue
Oakland, CA 94618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 282-1108
Dr. Per Ljung
OSD 06-IA8      Awarded: 26JAN07
Title:Software Protection for Embedded Applications
Abstract:Several FPGA compatible mechanisms are presented to minimize data remanence, power glitch analysis, glitch attacks and reverse engineering of bitstreams. The explicit distributed control and data signals of handshake circuits are exploited to allow data encoding, on-demand autonomous partial reconfiguration, and diversity.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. James Inge
OSD 06-IA8      Awarded: 08FEB07
Title:Advanced Software Protection for Embedded Applications
Abstract:Software reverse engineering has become a science of well-defined methods, tools, and philosophies. Known approaches - such as white-box, black-box, and gray-box attacks - and highly-intricate tools - such as debuggers, decompilers, and disassemblers - can be combined to reveal the secrets of software intellectual property and to steal once-secret code and data. Current approaches to software anti-tamper protection that utilize software mechanisms for security have proven largely ineffective when attacked by a well-funded enemy. The complexity of software anti-tamper approaches often lead to coding errors that have been exploited by disciplined attackers. In the case of embedded software utilized by the DOD, the attacker could be a wealthy foreign government with a great deal of expertise, personnel, and resources. Luna Innovations proposes to augment its Secure Software Platform (SSP), which protects embedded software through robust hardware-accelerated software anti-tamper mechanisms. By leveraging the advantages of a hardware-assisted approach - better performance, better security, and reduced overall complexity - the Luna SSP significantly increases the required cost and time for a software reverse engineering effort. This effort will augment the SSP's functionality to include advanced hardware and software attack detection/response techniques, data remanence solutions, and internal key generation concepts.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. Michael McDougall
OSD 06-IA9      Awarded: 29JAN07
Title:Software Protection to Deter Malicious Forensic Data Collection and Exploitation
Abstract:Distributing applications across networks brings both new power and new risks. Mission-critical applications are increasingly spread over national or global networks to enable information gathering and sharing on an unprecedented scale. The Global Information Grid envisions diverse end-to-end information flows to enhance military effectiveness. While this large-scale information sharing promises new efficiencies, endpoints in these networks must be armored against attacks that exploit their new autonomy. Distributed applications must cope with the possibility that some network endpoints have been compromised and are gathering forensic data for malicious ends. We propose mimicry protection as a technique to make safety-critical applications indistinguishable from low-security applications for observers using forensic tools. This technique leverages techniques for automatically creating mimicry attacks that elude intrusion detection systems. By adapting mimicry techniques in the literature, we can offer mimicry protection that allows a security-critical application to mimic uninteresting applications, eluding all but the most intrusive and expensive forensic measures.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt Baum
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 11JUL07
Title:Novel Propellant Ingredients Containing Trinitromethyl Groups
Abstract:Improved solid performance is needed to meet Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program goals. The principal objective of this program is to synthesize new hydroxy-terminated oligomers for use in polyurethane binders. These novel oligomers will contain trinitromethyl groups to provide major performance advantages compared to currently used propellant components. The materials are expected to have good low-temperature properties, acceptable high-temperature properties, and to be compatible with nitroplasticizers.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt Baum
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Improved HTPB Propellants
Abstract:Advanced HTPB propellant formulations are needed to improve specific impulse and density impulse with improved cold temperature operation and storage capability. A problem is that most energetic plasticizers are insoluble in HTPB. Under this program, a series of energetic plasticizers will be designed to be compatible with HTPB. The plasticizers will be synthesized and tested.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt baum
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Novel Propellant Ingredients Containing Gem-Dinitro Groups
Abstract:Improved solid performance is needed to meet Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program goals. The principal objective of this program is to synthesize new hydroxy-terminated oligomers for use in polyurethane binders. These novel oligomers will contain gem-dinitro groups to provide performance advantages compared to currently used propellant components. The materials are expected to have good low-temperature and high-temperature properties, and to be compatible with nitroplasticizers.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Mr. Brant White
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 11JUL07
Title:High Energy Binders for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:ORBITEC and SRI propose to develop high-energy binders to replace conventional binders commonly used in solid propellants. The proposed binders will enjoy higher enthalpy, higher density, greater tolerance for impurities while curing, and greater range of compatibility with other propellant ingredients compared to the conventional binders, such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene. The use of the proposed high-energy binders will produce solid propellants with higher energy and energy density, acceptable hazards, and desirable mechanical and processing properties. In Phase I, physical properties and performance of the specific identified binders will be measured or determined using modeling approaches to provide data for ranking the candidate binders. Initial synthesis of selected binders will begin in Phase I. Plans for Phase II characterization and synthesis scale-up will also be developed.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Ana Racoveanu
OSD 06-PR1      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Novel Energetic Binder for Solid Propellants
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), and its team member Aerojet, propose to synthesize and evaluate a novel energetic binder for solid rocket propellants with high energy and low sensitivity. The proposed polymeric binder is a candidate that is expected to perform better (higher Isp, density, oxygen balance, and heat of formation) than the currently used energy-releasing binders. The PSI-Aerojet team has developed a synthetic approach to produce the binder PGDNMA in 2 stages: monomer synthesis followed by polymerization. PSI will provide Aerojet 25 grams of the energetic binder for testing of its energetic and thermal properties. On a potential Phase II program, PSI will scale up the synthesis. Aerojet will formulate the binder in a propellant mixture and provide enhanced properties characterization. Also, in a Phase II effort PSI and Aerojet will investigate similar polymeric binders.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Bryan V. Bergeron
OSD 06-PR2      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Novel Nanoscale Ingredients as Solid Propellant Burn Rate Modifiers
Abstract:Physical Sciences Incorporated (PSI) and Aerojet propose to synthesize, characterize, and formulate new nanoscale ingredients as burn rate modifiers in solid rocket propellants. The compounds will be shown to be sufficiently insensitive to ESD, friction, and impact to ensure their safe handling, storage, and use. Compatibility testing of the synthesized burn rate modifiers and plasticizers will be performed to guide the proper selection of formulations. Various solid rocket propellant formulations will be developed that contain the innovative burn rate modifiers and standard burn rate modifiers at low mass loadings. Strand burn rates will be obtained over several thousands of psi pressure. A survey of currently used metal-based burn rate modifiers, their formulations, and corresponding systems will also be performed. The applicability of the innovative nanoscale burn rate modifiers to these systems and their advantage over standard burn rate modifiers will be evaluated.

REACTIVE METALS, INC.
294 Hana Rd
Edison, NJ 08817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 261-4876
Dr. M. Trunov
OSD 06-PR2      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Nanocomposite Metal-Based Ingredients for Use as Solid Propellant Burn Rate Modifiers
Abstract:It is proposed use Arrested Reactive Milling (ARM), a "top-down" synthesis approach to produce energetic nanomaterials optimized to serve as burn rate modifiers for solid propellants. Boron-based B-Ti and B-Zr nanocomposites will be evaluated as candidate materials for the Phase I work, while other boron and aluminum based compositions will be addressed later. Such nanocomposite powders are expected to boost ignition rates and eliminate agglomeration of unignited aluminum particles in aluminized propellants. They will also increase the bulk burn rate of the metal fuels by modifying the temperature profile in the solid rocket motor. The overall result will be a 10% or greater increase in the experimental specific impulse. Proposed research will demonstrate the feasibility of this concept by evaluating the effect of burn rate modifier additives on agglomeration and burn rate of aluminum powders with and without the propellant binders. Compatibility of the nanocomposite burn rate modifier materials with different propellant binders will also be addressed. Finally, electrostatic discharge sensitivity of new materials will be quantified.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Debasis Sengupla
OSD 06-PR3      Awarded: 12JUN07
Title:Development Novel High-Performance Solid Propellants
Abstract:CFDRC proposes to develop some novel high performance solid propellant that will meet the requirement of Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Phase III goals. The propellants will enhance the performance of space access vehicles, strategic, tactical and missile defense systems. A number of triazole, tetrazole, and tetrazines based solid energetic ionic salts have been proposed as potential candidates. The salient feature of these salts is that that both cations and anions contain heterocyclic rings with energetic groups as substituents. In Phase I, we estimate the physical and chemical properties (such as heat of formation, density, specific, and density impulse and sensitivity) computationally prior to their synthesis. The two most promising candidates, as predicted via theoretical calculations, will then be synthesized in laboratory scale (in collaboration with Professor Jean'ne Shreeve of University of Idaho) and characterized for physical and chemical properties, including crystal structure, density, melting point, and sensitivity. In Phase II, synthetic procedures will be scaled up in partnership with chemical companies, such as Aerojet, Thiokol, and 3M. The propellants will be formulated with a binder and tested for ageing, compatibility, stability, and sensitivity. The performance of the propellants will be evaluated with small-scale rocket engine firing test at CFDRC.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Allan Dokhan
OSD 06-PR3      Awarded: 15JUN07
Title:Advanced Coatings for Alane with Enhanced Stability
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a higher performing solid propellant fuel by enhancing the stability of Aluminum Hydride (AlH3) by developing a novel coating around the energetic ingredient. Careful selection of the coating ingredient around the AlH3 will allow for revolutionary advances in a stable insensitive higher performing solid propellant fuel for use on space access launch vehicles, strategic tactical and missile defense systems. The proposed investigation will focus upon a group of pre-selected coating materials and synthesis methods that can increase the thermal stability and potentially reduce the sensitivity of AlH3 particle. The study will also involve characterizing the coating around the AlH3, thermal stability surveillance, sensitivity characterization, thermal-chemical analysis, and chemical compatibility.

FLUOROCHEM, INC.
680 S. Ayon Ave.
Azusa, CA 91702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 334-6714
Dr. Kurt Baum
OSD 06-PR4      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Solid Propellant Oxidizers for Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:Improved solid performance is needed to meet Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program goals. Oxidizers more energetic than currently available materials are needed to meet these goals. The objective of this program is to prepare new nitro-substituted heterocyclic oxidizers using a novel synthesis approach. If the method is successful, it can lead to structures that can be used to meet IHPRPT goals.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Ana Racoveanu
OSD 06-PR4      Awarded: 10MAY07
Title:Novel Furazan Oxidizer for Solid Propellants
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), and its team member Aerojet, propose to synthesize and evaluate a novel organic furazan based oxidizer for solid rocket propellants. Models of the furazans predict a class of oxidizers with high performance (high energy, high oxygen balance, high density, low sensitivity) and clean combustion (chlorine free). The proposed team has developed a synthetic scheme to produce the oxidizer molecule in three synthetic steps. PSI will provide Aerojet with 25 grams of the furazan oxidizer for testing of its energetic, sensitivity and thermal properties. On a potential Phase II program, PSI will scale up the oxidizer synthesis and Aerojet will formulate the oxidizer in a propellant mixture and provide enhanced characterization. Also during a Phase II effort PSI and Aerojet will investigate similar chemistries within this furazan class.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Debasis Sengupla
OSD 06-PR5      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Model Independent First Principle Method for Prediction of Heat of Condensation/Sublimation of Solid Propellant
Abstract:Prediction of accurate heats of formation of solid propellant has tremendous implication in theoretically evaluating the performance of new generation solid propellants. While state-of-the-art quantum mechanical methods can accurately calculate the heat of formation in the gas phase, heat of condensation (HC) is required to convert this gas phase quantity to solid phase. To our knowledge, all existing methods for computing HC are based on fitting the experimental data for a set of model compounds using some descriptors, such as molecular groups or molecular electrostatic potentials. These methods, although useful, suffer from their inability to estimate HC for molecules containing chemical functionalities that are non-existent in the model set, thereby limiting their use for development of new propellants. In the proposed work, CFDRC plans to apply the Conductor-like Screening Model for prediction of heat of condensation. This method is truly first-principle, and combines quantum chemically computed molecular screening charge density and statistical thermodynamics to calculate heat of condensation. In Phase I, this method will be applied to compute heat of condensation for a set of compounds, and its performance will be evaluated. In Phase II, it will be extended for solid mixture, and combined with thermochemical code to compute specific and density impulses.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Robert Shroll
OSD 06-PR5      Awarded: 10JUL07
Title:Theoretical Estimation of New Propellant Ingredient Heats of Condensation
Abstract:A critical concern in the manufacture of rocket engines is the development of new propellants to increase performance. A fundamental measure of rocket engine performance is the specific impulse, which is the force delivered per weight of propellant consumed. Due to the potentially high cost of laboratory experiments, the development of new rocket propellants is often guided by computational methods for estimating specific impulse. These methods are based upon accurate knowledge of the heat of condensation. Quantum chemical methods are not currently capable of accurately predicting condensed phase heats of condensation. The current empirically based methods are limited to interpolating between molecules that are chemically similar. For many propellants, experimental measurements of chemically similar molecules do not exist. Thus, a computational procedure capable of extrapolating to these molecules is needed. Spectral Sciences, Inc. proposes to address this need by developing an innovative semi-empirical method of relating fundamental molecular interactions to heats of condensation. In Phase I, we propose to test our strategy on a well characterized reaction set. In Phase II, novel methods of chemical modeling techniques based on the results of Phase I will be developed into a software toolkit.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd AvenueSuite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. W. Reynolds Monach
OSD 06-UM1      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Unmanned Water Vehicle Maneuver Recommendation (UWVMR)
Abstract:In this project Wagner Associates will develop an Unmanned Water Vehicle Maneuver Recommendation (UWVMR) system that processes all available data, dynamically generates a SA Picture and a maneuver recommendation plan, and provides this information to the UWV control system (and potentially alerts a UWV operator). A key capability provided by UWVMR will be the ability to fuse data obtained by off-board systems (e.g., friendly aircraft and ship radars and E-O systems, Digital Nautical Charts (DNCs), detections of mines or mine-like objects) with UWV sensor data in real-time. To minimize the risk and cost of developing UWVMR, we will leverage algorithms and software developed in our Object Avoidance for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (OAUSV) project for Naval Surface Warfare Center-Dahlgren Division (NSWC-DD). The primary algorithmic techniques that will be utilized in UWVMR are non-Gaussian and multiple hypothesis data registration and fusion, Bayesian inferential reasoning, and non-Gaussian route optimization. In Phase I of this project we will show the feasibility of creating the UWVMR, and we will also describe how we will interface to the UWV control system, and provide both the UWV control system and its operator (if desired) with recommendations concerning how to avoid potentially threatening objects in the water.

ROBOTIC MARINE SYSTEMS LLC
139 Cottage RoadPO Box 1359
Gray, ME 04039
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(207) 408-5879
Mr. Joseph Curcio
OSD 06-UM1      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Littoral Navigation Autonomy for Unmanned Surface Vehicle
Abstract:Unmanned underwater and surface vehicles are increasingly being used to provide persistent littoral surveillance and a wide array of autonomous operations. Autonomous maritime navigation with obstacle avoidance requires adherence to the U.S. Coast Guard and International Maritime Organization (IMO) collision avoidance regulations (COLREG), a.k.a. "Rules-of-the-Road". Robotic Marine Systems (RMS), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Newport, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ocean Engineering (MIT) have jointly developed and demonstrated baseline algorithms and multi-behavior control technologies to implement optimal safe navigation. Results from this research will also provide the critical maritime situation awareness required for Littoral Navigation Autonomy for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV). General Dynamics Robotics Research (GDRS) have developed and demonstrated maritime situation awareness with passive video camera arrays. Automated maritime situation awareness technology will also transition to the thousands of sensor systems required for the Sea Power 21 initiatives: Sea Base Force Protection and Maritime Domain Awareness.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Mr. Alon Yaari
OSD 06-UM1      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:The Autonomous Helmsman: Algorithms and Sensors for Unmanned Littoral Navigation
Abstract:The Navy is currently developing an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) program. Currently operating systems require human operators for each USV. Manual operation of USVs results in an inefficient use of labor and complex staffing requirements over a long-term deployment. SARA proposes the "Autonomous Helmsman," a modular system that allows USV navigation according to COLREG Rules and without human intervention. The Helmsman is based on "subsumption architecture", a behavior-based model derived by robotics expert Rodney Brooks. Subsumption architecture provides a biomimetic decision basis for a state machine, resulting in "reflex" actions (reactive) such as obstacle avoidance and "cognitive" (deliberative) actions such as navigation behaviors. The system allows for evolution of abilities through by an innate ability to subsume new behaviors. The Helmsman realizes behaviors by modifying an initial path, accounting for moving vessels, obstacles, and COLREG Rules. Path modifications are made using an evolution-based path planning algorithm. As part of Phase I, SARA proposes to demonstrate Helmsman operations on our set of unmanned kayaks. Supporting the Helmsman is a localization system and a sensor array capable of detecting obstacles and dynamic vessel characteristics. The proposed trade study identifies the ideal suite of sensors for detecting the environment and vessel attitude.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center ParkwaySuite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Thayne Coffman
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 16APR07
Title:Human and Unmanned Teams for Tracking Elusive Dismounts (HUNTED)
Abstract:The autonomy of Unmanned Systems (UMS) must increase if they are to be fully leveraged by small military units. Current unmanned systems require at least one human operator per platform to function in a combat environment, preventing small military units from deploying UMS teams for collaborative target acquisition and pursuit. We present the Human and Unmanned Teams for Tracking Elusive Dismounts (HUNTED) system, which will fill this functionality gap and enable teams of UMS to cooperatively acquire and maintain tracks on elusive human dismount targets with minimal oversight by a single warfighter. Our novel approach combines 3D models of the environment with game theory models of the interaction between target and pursuer to react to and shape target behavior by proactive UMS placement. Superior track maintenance is provided by actively driving and hunting targets instead of simply following them. The approach leverages 21st Century Technologies' capabilities and expertise in 3D scene understanding, visual target acquisition and tracking, predictive planning, target behavior prediction, and dynamic tasking of surveillance assets in response to targets of opportunity. The resulting HUNTED system will drastically reduce the operator oversight needed to field UMS teams that provide superior track maintenance through cooperation.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott K. Ralph
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Parameterized-Agents Collaboratively Tracking (PACT)
Abstract:The need for mostly-autonomous robotic systems to perform robust tracking and identification of dismounts is especially acute in urban asymmetric scenarios where the possibility of losing track of a potentially armed dismount makes the risks to an organic asset too large. The constraints of line-of-sight sensors coupled with urban canyons and tree canopies makes loss of track inevitable, meaning that more than one tracking agent, cooperating in a tightly-coupled fashion, must be used to get acceptable tracking performance. Using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) allows the composite system to observe the dismount using very distinctive viewing geometries, which are robust to different types of occlusion. We propose a system called Parameterized-Agents Collaboratively Tracking (PACT), which incorporates a UAV with a UGV in a cooperative tightly-coupled system, enabling improved tracking performance by combining the capabilities of the two platforms. Leveraging our expertise in image stabilization, target detection, particle filter tracking, and sensor fusion, PACT will combine observations from multiple vehicles into a global scene description and choose appropriate actions for vehicles in the system to maximize track continuity and focus agents on targets of particular interest.

IROBOT CORP.
63 South Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 418-3291
Dr. Brian Yamauchi
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:Sagittarius: A Human-Assisted UAV/UGV Team for Cooperative Tracking of Elusive Dismounts
Abstract:iRobot Corporation and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) propose to develop the Sagittarius UAV/UGV team for tracking elusive human dismounts in complex urban terrain. iRobot will develop the UGV; CMU will develop the UAV; and iRobot and CMU will jointly develop techniques to enable the UGV and UAV to cooperate. The UAV will be equipped with multispectral cameras on a gimbaled, downward-looking mount. Active vision algorithms developed by CMU will separate the target from the background. Predictive tracking algorithms will determine the optimal path for the UAV to minimize occlusions between the UAV and the target. The UGV will be equipped with stereo FLIR cameras on a pan/tilt base that will enable the UGV to track human targets based on their temperature, size, and a target tracking vector supplied by the UAV. iRobot will use its extensive experience with behavior-based robotics to develop a control system to enable the UGV to robustly track elusive humans. During Phase I, we will demonstrate the UGV thermal vision system tracking a human target, the UAV active vision system tracking a human target from the air, and simulated UAV/UGV coordination techniques. We will also design the Phase II prototype UAV/UGV system.

PERCEPTEK
12395 North Mead Way
Littleton, CO 80125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 344-1037
Dr. Mark Allmen
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:Collaborative UAV-UGV Tracking of Elusive Dismounts
Abstract:Unmanned Systems (UMS) provide increased battlespace awareness and act as a force multiplier in operations today and in the future. However, there are several enabling technologies that need to be further developed in order to provide the forces with effective UAV - UGV collaborative operation to get and keep "cross hairs on target." Currently, UAVs are performing autonomous tracking and surveillance of ground threats with some success in relatively open terrain where the onboard sensors can easily and continually view ground objects of interest. However, this tracking capability is critically needed in urban environments, where many of today's conflicts take place. Automated trackers applied in urban environments have shown poor performance due to a number of factors: Occlusions, Confusors, and Tracking reliability. In order for UMSs to effectively track elusive dismounts operating in an urban environment, fundamental changes have to be made to the way that threats are tracked autonomously. We are proposing an active vision approach that provides Geometric Modeling, Geometric reasoning, Collaborative Threat Modeling, Track fusion, Vision Based Control to improve tracking performance in complex environments

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd4th Floor
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 738-6278
Dr. David Coombs
OSD 06-UM2      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Human Assisted UAV-UGV Cooperative Tracking of Urban Dismounts
Abstract:A new set of technologies must be developed to enable UAVs to collaborate with UGVs and cooperatively search, detect, track, and ID elusive humans operating in complex urban settings. SET Corporation, a world leader in sensor exploitation and human signature analysis, proposes to develop a refined urban tracking CONOPS and to synthesize an advanced system design for human-assisted cooperative UAV-UGV tracking. Critical technology innovations in active sensor manipulation, pose-invariant human target verification, and adaptive modeling will enable entirely new capabilities in pervasive sensing and persistent tracking of human targets. Feasibility analyses and risk reduction studies will be used to confirm the viability of our Phase II plan for development and demonstration. SET has teamed with Brigham Young University, a leader in autonomous air vehicle technology and multi-vehicle cooperative control. BYU's UAV / UGV testbed provides a unique opportunity for rapid prototyping of candidate architectures and real world data collection. Together, SET and BYU's expertise span the full scope of technologies required to develop tightly-coupled on board sensing, tracking, and control algorithms that allow a small UAV and small UGV to cooperatively track an elusive dismount through spatially complex urban clutter.

AUTONOMOUS SOLUTIONS, INC.
1946 South 1600 West
Young Ward, UT 84339
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 755-2980
Dr. Matthew Berkemeier
OSD 06-UM3      Awarded: 16AUG07
Title:Enhanced Manipulator Control Through 3D Visualization & Autonomy
Abstract:Autonomous Solutions proposes to increase the speed, accuracy, and overall effectiveness of currently fielded EOD robotic manipulators through 3D visualization and arm automation. ASI will integrate a 3D Flash Ladar camera onto an EOD robotic platform to enable the creation of a 3D model of the object of interest at the user interface. ASI will also implement autonomous arm control which will enable the user to specify an arm path without having to actuate individual joints. The ultimate goal is to enable point-and-click functionality for remotely picking up and handling objects using existing manipulators.

ENERGID TECHNOLOGIES
124 Mount Auburn StreetSuite 200 North
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 547-4100
Dr. John Hu
OSD 06-UM3      Awarded: 21AUG07
Title:Human-Robot Manipulation for Complex Operations
Abstract:The use of improvised explosive devices on our forces has been increasing at an alarming rate. And though there has been significant technological progress to combat this threat, more needs to be done. One of the most effective ways to combat IEDs is with teleoperated robotic technology. Current technology is good, but it presents two problems: 1) Remote control of the robot arm using existing Operator Control Unit (OCU) technology is often unintuitive and cumbersome, and 2) for more complex manipulations the operator may require force (or haptic) feedback. Energid Technologies proposes developing an enhanced OCU that is more accurate and easier to use than any existing technology. It will provide robust, accurate end-effector control (using Energid's patented Actin control software) and a novel haptic feedback device that presents force feedback to the operator using magnetic force. During Phase I, we will focus on the UGV PackBot platform developed by iRobot, one of our partners on this SBIR.

OPEN TECH, INC.
2000 Kraft DriveSuite 1101
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 239-1863
Mr. Patrick Roye
OSD 06-UM3      Awarded: 09AUG07
Title:Human-Robot Manipulation for Complex Operations
Abstract:In order to provide better control of existing manipulator arms, Open Tech proposes to develop software for the Automatic Calibration and Intuitive Control of Manipulator Arms (from here on referred to as the AIMs System). The purpose of the AIMs System is to provide simulation, visualization, and advanced kinematic software tools that are reusable between manipulator arms that vary in complexity and configuration. The AIMs system will calibrate itself to a new manipulator arm, so the system could be rapidly deployed on new hardware with little or no manual configuration. As a result, the AIMs System could be used to enhance a multitude of existing unmanned manipulator arm-based systems. The AIMs system would provide manipulator arm operators with: spatial awareness of the arm, haptic feedback, natural and intuitive controls, and adaptive learning algorithms for repeating common tasks.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Emily K. M. Stelzer
OSD 06-UM4      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Command & Control Robotic Assets Display (C2RAD)
Abstract:The Army's Future Force will transform human warfighting units into distributed teams of human and robotic assets. These robotic assets are envisioned to dramatically improve real-time situational awareness (SA) for human troops, and increase mission success. Aptima has tested these claims for DARPA, ONR, and others in computational and human factors experiments. We have identified several challenges at the interfaces between the human and machine, and between human commanders and operators. Aptima and Lockheed Martin propose to address these challenges in a manner that leverages new science concerning human-robot and human-human collaboration. The product of this work will be the Command and Control Robotic Assets Display (C2RAD). To create C2RAD, the team will: conduct a Cognitive Work Analysis of human-robot missions in the Future Force; develop requirements for system models, and draft a system architecture; develop and demonstrate a C2RAD user interface; and plan a full evaluation of the prototyped product in Phase II.

FSCX, INC.
511 S.W. ''A'' Avenue, Suite 2
Lawton, OK 73501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(580) 353-4030
Mr. Vance Miller
OSD 06-UM4      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Command and Control of small robotics assets
Abstract:The Army is using robots in ever increasing number to execute it mission across its spectrum of operations. Although these robots provide significant operational benefits, the Army currently lacks an adequate, automated Command and Control (C2) systems to communicate relevant information from them to leaders in a timely manner without overwhelming or distracting these leaders from their overall mission. FSCX, Inc.'s proposed concept will result in a design for a near-real time system to overcome the C2 deficiencies. Our Common Operational Picture-Robotic (COP-R) design will: 1) enable leaders to utilize filtered, robot-provided information without causing leaders to neglect competing responsibilities; 2) automate data flow between robot operators, the small unit leader, and Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I) networks to maintain a Common Operational Picture (COP); 3) provide the capability for one leader or robot operator to control multiple robots; 4) provide the ability to capture information pertinent for during and After Action Review (AAR) purposes. The resulting product will help soldiers and leaders improve the quality and timeliness of their decisions to positively affect their operations. COP-R's design will allow it to either reside on or embed in an operator's Robot Control Station and a leader's C4I platform.

NATURAL INTERACTION SYSTEMS, LLC
821 Second AveSuite 1150
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 428-0800
Dr. Paulo Barthelmess
OSD 06-UM4      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Command and Control of small robotics assets
Abstract:This SBIR proposal investigates a solution for Command and Control of Small Robotic Assets. Because of the location and tempo of military activities, standard computing equipment and their interfaces fail to support small units in their use of robotic assets. Current requirements for command and control of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs) do not take into consideration the highly dynamic and mobile conditions of use, or the potential impact on the workload of the warfighters striving to use them. The proposed work (including Phase I and Phase II) will develop technology to provide a small unit Commander (CDR) and his Robotics Operator (ROP) with multimodal collaboration and automated assistance tools that will allow them to coordinate their work to make effective and timely use of UV-provided information for enhanced situation awareness.

PERCEPTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 259-4278
Dr. Amos Freedy
OSD 06-UM4      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Technology for Enhanced Command and Control of Small Robotics Assets (TECRA)
Abstract:Perceptronics Solutions, Inc., with the George Mason University Arch Lab and consultant Nathan Schurr of the USC Computer Science Department, presents this proposal for Technology for Enhanced Command and Control of Small Robotics Assets. Our approach will use adaptive display methodology to enhance commander-operator shared situation awareness and structured language to facilitate efficient commander-operator communication, reducing command workload and increasing operational effectiveness. Our technical objective is to apply recent advances in cognitive engineering, information display automation and structured human robot communication to create a command and control infrastructure that allows more effective operation of small UAVs and UGVs. An additional objective is to provide team performance measurement and feedback capabilities for training and after action review. Our team has already made significant progress toward achieving these project goals, and our TECRA system is based on innovative technology products contributed by our team members; these include: George Mason University's adaptive interface concept for effective human-system performance in the control of robotic assets, USC's OmniView display concept, Perceptronics Solutions' Composable Command Language (CCL) and Mixed Initiative Team Performance Assessment System (MITPAS) a complete simulation environment and methodology to measure and assess the performance of teams involving both human and robotic elements.

IROBOT CORP.
63 South Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 418-3495
Dr. Chris Jones
OSD 06-UM5      Awarded: 15FEB07
Title:Peer-to-Peer Embedded Human Robot Interaction
Abstract:iRobot Corporation and the Brown University Robotics Lab propose to develop a system allowing natural interactions between human operators and robots. The goal of the Natural Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) project is to utilize different verbal and non-verbal modes of communication between humans and robots, and ultimately demonstrate a more natural, less stressful, and more fully integrated method for control of robotics resources. During Phase I, we will 1) evaluate the use of gesture and speech recognition to provide the operator with an intuitive means of communicating to the robot, 2) evaluate the use of dialogue-based communication systems and humanlike gestures or character representations to provide the robot a naturally-understood way of communicating with the human operator, and 3) we will enlist the discussion and comments from end-user robot operators on our proposed HRI, including their usability and their utility for use in typical field operations.

MOBILEROBOTS, INC.
19 Columbia Drive
Amherst, NH 03031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 881-7960
Dr. William P. Kennedy
OSD 06-UM5      Awarded: 15FEB07
Title:Peer-to-Peer Embedded Human Robot Interaction
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is develop a concept for embedded peer-to-peer human/robot interaction that will allow a robot to work side-by-side with a person or a group of people in contrast to more traditional deployments of robotic hardware which keep the robots and humans very far from each other. MobileRobots Inc and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) will exploit advances in dynamic perception and probabilistic reasoning techniques to develop a concept for robust human robot interaction (HRI) that will provide a robot with the necessary situation awareness to achieve a high level of peer-to-peer interaction. In the proposed concept, humans will interact with the robot in a natural fashion using speech, gestures, and verbal dialog. To facilitate such understanding of the human's activities and communicative acts, we will exploit the state of the art in computer vision techniques (both monocular and stereo) to detect and recognize the presence of humans, monitor and understand their gestures, and track their activities over time. This multi-modal situation awareness will allow the robot to monitor the actions and speech of a human in order to interactively learn to execute a state sequence for rudimentary joint plans with the human.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill StreetSuite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2436
Dr. Michael Patterson
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:COSMIC: Collaborative Optimization System for Mixed-Initiative Control
Abstract:We propose to produce COSMIC (Collaborative Optimization System for Mixed Initiative Control), a unique collaborative environment allowing multiple operators of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles to coordinate their efforts in accomplishing multiple high-level missions. Building on the work of the MiDAS (Mission Displays for Autonomous Systems) project, this environment will integrate an existing Aptima product called MOST (Model of Organizations, Systems, and Technologies) for optimally planning human team behavior with Lockheed's ICARUS (Intelligent Control and Autonomous Replanning of Unmanned Systems) testbed and its local autonomy planning algorithms to ensure maximally effective mission performance. The same CWA (Cognitive Work Analysis) approach applied to constructing the interaction design of MiDAS will be extended to the multiple watch-station domain of COSMIC. The result will be a collaborative environment and operator interface that ensures optimal team behavior in coordinating autonomous vehicle resources. In Phase I, we will define collaborative interaction in this domain; design COSMIC functionality, architecture, interface to ICARUS, and interface to the user; develop a computational team model; and plan evaluations and formative assessments. In Phase II, Aptima will fully implement COSMIC for a broad set of missions, including complete functional integration with the ICARUS testbed.

ITERATIVITY, INC.
3236 17th Ave. S.
Minneapolis, MN 55407
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 871-4514
Dr. Robin R. Penner
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Collaborative Control of Unmanned Vehicles
Abstract:Iterativity, Inc. will create a flexible information and interface system allowing multiple users to collaboratively control multiple unmanned vehicles with variable levels of autonomy. Collaboration is provided implicitly by a shared situation representation, and explicitly by user interface tasks allowing distributed users to communicate with other users and unmanned systems.

PERCEPTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 259-4278
Dr. Amos Freedy
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:Automated Mission Scheduling by Distributed Constraint Optimization for Collaborative and Shared Control of Unmanned Vehicle Systems
Abstract:Perceptronics Solutions, Inc., with the USC Computer Science Department Teamcore Research Group and Charles River Analytics, and supported by Professor Mary (Missy) Cummings of MIT presents this proposal to develop an Automated Mission Scheduler (AMS). The AMS will automatically create a mission plan for heterogeneous, multiple unmanned vehicles performing joint actions under the control of collaborating operators. The objective is to support dynamic mission scheduling in response to high-level mission objectives, priorities, constraints. Accordingly, the plans will include allocation of required mission tasks, including specific assignments to vehicles as well as sequencing of individual vehicle and mission tasks to achieve the collective objectives. Output of AMS will be used as a decision aid to the collaborating operators as well as for direct control as a component of evolving mixed initiative interface modules concepts. Our team has already made significant progress toward achieving the project goals, and our proposed system is based on innovative technology products contributed by our team members: USC's ground-breaking work to apply Distributed Constraint Optimization to optimally allocate multi-vehicle tasks in collaborative control of UVs, Charles River's advanced Human/UV interface technology, and Perceptronics Solutions' Tactical Group Decision Analysis System and Mixed Initiative Human-Robots Team Performance Assessment System.

ROBOTIC RESEARCH LLC
814 W. Diamond Ave.Suite 301
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 631-0008
Mr. Charles Shoemaker
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:Collaborative and Shared Control of Unmanned Vehicle Systems
Abstract:Technologies for Human-Robotic Interactions (HRI) currently are not designed for, and do not adequately support, dynamic teaming and Command & Control (C2) interaction paradigms in distributed, manned-unmanned teaming environments to a degree routinely exhibited by well-trained and experienced manned-manned operations or by highly autonomous hierarchical intelligent control systems. Interaction protocols do exist for highly trained collaborative teams or cooperative co-habitants in a purely manned environment. Interaction protocols also exist for highly autonomous systems employing a hierarchical intelligent control architecture capable of integrating distributed autonomy. However, the equivalent interaction protocols are not well defined and matured for human-robotic (manned-unmanned) for the collaborative teams and cooperative co-habitants cases. Our over-arching objectivefor this SBIR effort is to use our team's expertise in human system integration and autonomous control to develop HRI protocols capable of achieving similar levels of integration between the manned-unmanned systems as currently exist between the manned-manned or unmanned-unmanned.

SA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3750 Palladian Village DriveBuilding 600
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 565-9859
Dr. Mica Endsley
OSD 06-UM6      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:Collaborative and Shared Control of Unmanned Vehicle Systems
Abstract:The Navy is evolving into a force that will project power, assure access, and protect and advance America's interests worldwide within an environment of reduced shipboard manning and increased operational efficiency. This confluence of events has resulted in an increase in the number and types of unmanned systems. In order to maximize the potential of these systems, there is a critical demand for technology which supports the operators, sensor specialists and commanders as they coordinate activity among multiple heterogeneous unmanned systems. Technological solutions that allow warfighters to rapidly and easily command and monitor the operation of unmanned vehicles (UVs) in a highly unpredictable world and receive needed situation awareness from UV sensors will facilitate this force transformation. Our goal for this SBIR is to develop and integrate technologies that support high levels of SA for distributed teams, built on a backbone of proven technology for UV mission planning and control. We will apply leading edge methods for designing systems to support SA, with specific attention to the critical factors that make SA challenging in UV operations, and have a solid foundation for ensuring high levels of shared SA across the distributed team.

CHI SYSTEMS, INC.
1035 Virginia DriveSuite 300
Fort Washington, PA 19034
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-1400
Dr. Wayne Zachary
OSD 06-UM7      Awarded: 06MAR07
Title:Motive and Affect-based Robotic Control (MARC)
Abstract:Wider use of robotic and uninhabited vehicles is limited by needs for UxVs to be intermittently out of direct operator control and thus operate under relative autonomy, and for a simple and efficient human controller interface. This proposal addresses both issues by using human-human interaction and communication as a metaphor. Specifically, it seeks to achieve UxV control/autonomy through an on-board cognitive architecture that is not merely purposive, but also based on human-understandable motives and affective states. This forms the basis for a more robust UxV autonomy and, in turn, allows a more abstracted form of control from the human controller (in terms of motive and affective states). This concept is called MARC (Motive and Affect-based Robotic Control). Phase I will adapt a motive/affect-based cognitive architecture called PAC to use as MARC. Three key Phase I objectives are: adapting PAC to the UxV control/autonomy problem; defining a realistic interface to the existing (and typically low-level) UxV control mechanisms, and defining a MARC-based human controller interface based on motives, affective states, and lower-level mission goals/objectives. Feasibility is established through an evaluative human-in-the-loop experiment comparing control of MARC-based simulated UxVs with UxVs with more traditional control mechanisms.

MOBILE INTELLIGENCE CORP.
33150 Schoolcraft RoadSuite 108
Livonia, MI 48150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 367-0430
Dr. Douglas C. MacKenzie
OSD 06-UM7      Awarded: 06MAR07
Title:Affect-Influenced Control of Unmanned Vehicle Systems
Abstract:We propose applying recent research in cognitive models of affective behavior to create a system able to modulate the actions of unmanned vehicles in both gross and subtle ways. Using the new interface, instead of simply specifying controller parameters or cost functions, the operators will adjust affective parameters, which will influence the performance of the vehicle(s) over the life of the mission. These intuitive, high-level affective settings such as aggressiveness, stealthiness, and tenacity will allow the operator to set the mission characteristics at a very abstract level. A major thrust of this project will be to develop approaches and techniques to convey a clear and valid understanding to the operator and embody them in the form of a transparent graphical user interface and performance simulator. The software architecture will consist of two major systems, an operator interface component and an embedded control component which can be added to existing unmanned vehicle autonomy system. Both long- and short-term time-varying affective phenomena, such as traits, moods, attitudes, and emotions, will allow the system to provide performance consistent with varying situations. An initial prototype will be developed during Phase I to allow evaluating the overall feasibility of the approach.

ROBOTIC RESEARCH LLC
814 W. Diamond Ave.Suite 301
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 631-0008
Mr. Charles Shoemaker
OSD 06-UM7      Awarded: 06MAR07
Title:An Affective-Computing Control Paradigm for Autonomous Systems
Abstract:Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs) are assuming an increasingly important role in military operations. They provide effective platforms for performing missions while reducing risk to military personnel. Ultimately, the level of success achieved by UGVs and USVs will be dependent upon the ability to develop autonomous behaviors that are on par with human behaviors. Behavior of current autonomous systems is based on hundreds (or thousands) of programmed parameters. Essentially, these parameters control how a mission is achieved, but are too complex to be easily manipulated in a field environment. The challenge is that the parameters that control the behaviors are buried into a mass of software particularities. Therefore, we propose to develop a series of human understandable abstractions that allow a human operator to easily control how an unmanned system completes a mission and to what extent it uses its capabilities. Example abstractions include aggressiveness, stealth, inquisitiveness, urgency, safety, success and unpredictability (each of these will be further explained in the work plan). It is anticipated that these would be implemented as a set of sliders that allows an operator to control the level of each trait.

APPLIED SYSTEMS INTELLIGENCE, INC.
11660 Alpharetta HighwaySuite 720
Roswell, GA 30076
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 518-4228
Mr. Kyle Snyder
OSD 06-UM8      Awarded: 01MAR07
Title:UAV - Combat Medic Collaboration for Resupply & Evacuation
Abstract:Applied Systems Intelligence proposes to design an intelligent control architecture based on our associate system technology to provide a UAV-equipped medic team the ability to autonomously coordinate activities in a combat environment. In Phase I, ASI will document the specific demands on this type of system, design an architecture that includes associate system software for integrated combat intelligence, and model the command and control knowledge base for operating a UAV medevac system. ASI will develop a set of use cases that capture the role of associate system technology in various stages of the combat evacuation process. Each stage features a different primary team member, but still demonstrates the ability of the integrated intelligence to share relevant information during the evacuation. The five primary elements of the UAV medevac team are: the Field Medic, the UAV Dispatcher, the UAV, the Combat Support Hospital, and the Virtual Nurse in the casualty bay of the UAV. ASI will identify potential teammates for demonstrating the system design in future phases. This effort will easily transition into Phase II where we will integrate this associate system C2 architecture and software to demonstrate the autonomous collaboration capabilities between a representative human medic and surrogate UAV.

DRAGONFLY PICTURES, INC.
PO Box 202West End of Second Street
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 521-6115
Mr. Jim Hacunda
OSD 06-UM8      Awarded: 01MAR07
Title:UAV - Combat Medic Collaboration for Resupply & Evacuation
Abstract:Dragonfly Pictures Inc. (DPI) has been developing, vertical take off and landing (VTOL), unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for the past 14 years and has a record of excellence within the UAS industry. In response to the requirement for a UAS to carry the LSTAT DPI recommends the DP-5XT. The DP-5XT is a tandem rotor VTOL UAS that has been developed in response to the Future Combat Systems (FCS) UAS Class III requirements. DPI leveraged the technology for the design of the DP-5XT from the successful DP-5X program. The DP-5X is a DARPA funded, fully autonomous VTOL UAS. DPI proposes to complete the following five tasks as the Phase I work on the LSTAT project: 1) DPI will develop CONOPS that articulate a vision for a VTOL UAS delivering an LSTAT that integrates the vision of the USAMRMC, DARPA, and SOF. 2)DPI will define the functional requirements based on the concept of operations from Task I, FCS Class III requirements, requirements of the autonomy system, and the LSTAT User Guide, DPI will derive requirements and constraints for the UAS designers. 3) DPI will also identify key enabling technologies to meet the system requirements identified in Task II and then develop a technology plan. 4) DPI will develop a specific concept design that will provide a solution to meet the requirements for a Phase 2 demonstration. 5)DPI will identify design drivers for a universal payload interface to the LSTAT system providing the capability to readily integrate the LSTAT into a variety of emerging automated platforms enabling them to function as a UAS Combat Medic, flying the LSTAT mission. DPI will determine candidate UAS platforms (Army, Marine, Commercial, and future platforms) that may function as UAS Combat Medics. For the candidate platforms, DPI will assess published platform information and available data from platform providers with which DPI has access (e.g., Boeing - Vertol, DARPA, FCS, Piasecki Aircraft Corporation, Northrop Grumman) and generate a comparison matrix of the systems.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 213-8585
Dr. Dr. Gregory D. Sweriduk
OSD 06-UM8      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:Combat Medical Assistance UAV
Abstract:There is a need within the military for a light aircraft that is capable of medical re-supply and evacuation in order to fully exploit the Army's Life Support for Trauma and Transport litter. In light of recent advances in technology, it is now plausible to consider the use of an Unmanned (or Uninhabited) Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for this mission. UAVs are already in service for other missions such as reconnaissance, communications, and strike, and their use is expected to grow in the coming decades. UAVs can be sent into hostile areas without the risk to air crews. A UAV with a high degree of autonomy can also reduce manpower requirements since it would not require a full-time pilot or remote operator. This proposal will address the design of a UAV for medical resupply and evacuation. Key issues include autonomous guidance, including landing and takeoff, and communication and coordination between the UAV and personnel on the ground. UAVs offer the possibility of a more flexible response to the medical needs brought about by the type of warfare that has emerged in recent conflicts, as well as the potential to reduce costs.

PERCEPTEK
12395 North Mead Way
Littleton, CO 80125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 344-1037
Dr. Chris Debrunner
OSD 06-UM8      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:Autonomous Medical Resupply and Evacuation Collaborative System
Abstract:PercepTek, Inc. proposes the development of the Autonomous Medical Resupply and Evacuation Collaborative System (AMRECS), an unmanned rotorcraft with autonomous takeoff, navigation, and landing capabilities that will act as a robotic team member in military medical resupply and evacuation operations. The AMRECS will communicate with the combat medic using a variety of methods, including voice and gestures, which allows operations under a wide range of battlefield conditions. In Phase I, PercepTek will design a Phase II system that autonomously delivers an LSTAT and other medical supplies to an Echelon I location, and retrieves an LSTAT with a casualty to an Echelon II medical facility. For its baseline design, PercepTek has selected the Boeing Unmanned Little Bird, one of the only VTOL aircraft capable of carrying a large payload (3100 pounds). The Boeing Company has agreed to support PercepTek's Phase I design effort. The baseline system design presented in this proposal is drawn from a wide range of previous projects, including PercepTek's Army-funded Unmanned Autonomous Collaborative Operations program and a number of PercepTek's previous and ongoing perception, navigation, surveillance, 3D modeling, and unmanned vehicle programs. PercepTek's subcontractor, AFDD, brings expertise in automated takeoff and landing as well as sensing and navigation.

PIASECKI AIRCRAFT CORP.
West Terminus of Second StreetP.O. Box 360
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 521-5700
Mr. Fred W. Piasecki
OSD 06-UM8      Awarded: 28FEB07
Title:UAV - Combat Medic Collaboration for Resupply & Evacuation
Abstract:A conceptual design study is proposed for the development of a Combat Medic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CM-UAV). This Phase I effort will conduct a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) analysis of the mission requirements for a CM-UAV for timely delivery of medical supplies and LSTAT systems for treatment, stabilization, and subsequent evacuation of critically wounded. CM-UAV functional requirements and design concepts will be developed using QFD trade study methodology. The CM-UAV system design will leverage ongoing UAV, Collision Avoidance (CA), and autonomy development efforts to minimize technical, cost, and schedule risk. A test plan will be developed to validate the selected design and demonstrate the assigned mission tasks of the CM-UAV system in Phase II.