DoD SBIR FY07.1 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Air Force - Navy - DTRA - CBD - OSD - SOCOM

---------- AF ----------

357 Phase I Selections from the 07.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard Blvd, SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 432-6560
Dr. Matthew Whiteley
AF 07-002      Awarded: 15MAR07
Title:Aero-Optics Beacon
Abstract:MZA proposes development and evaluation of optimal estimation methods for beacon measurement supporting adaptive optics compensation of aero-optics and free-stream turbulence. The proposed method takes into account the modal covariance properties of near-field and far-field beacon sources and their relation to the phase required for HEL correction. Optimal estimation can be adapted to several available options for beacon placement. The proposed methods will be validated through wave-optics simulation using aero-optics and free-stream turbulence with the appropriate beacon sources. To quantify the underlying statistics of the aero-optical disturbances for which there is no theoretical construct, we propose laboratory wavefront sensor measurements of aero-optical flow capitalizing on the expertise of our partner, Notre Dame. We will also perform laboratory characterizations of air-breakdown "laser sparks" from a short-wavelength laser. These measurements will demonstrate the feasibility of forming such a beacon in a follow-on phase of the program and will provide design information to assess our hardware concept. We will develop a preliminary design for a meaningful Phase II laboratory demonstration of the concept advanced in Phase I. This plan will address implementation issues related to beacon formation and beacon measurement supporting application of the optimal estimation methods.

PASSAT, INC.
720 N. Hammonds Ferry Road
Linthicum Heights, MD 21090
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 609-2006
Dr. Guerman Pasmanik
AF 07-002      Awarded: 14MAR07
Title:A Self-Focusing Rayleigh Beacon for the Compensation of Aero-Optic Turbulence in Airborne High Energy Laser Systems
Abstract:The performance of Rayleigh beacons can be substantially improved by using a laser pulse with a peak power close to the critical energy for self-focusing. The self-focusing pulse provides a beacon spot smaller than that can be obtained using diffraction limited optics and provides a more coherent return wave front at the primary telescope. Picosecond lasers are the ideal light source for such a self-focusing beacon. This proposal describes a high-speed, self-focusing beacon system based on a rugged, compact, all-solid state picosecond laser combined with a photodiode-based, high-speed Hartmann-Shack sensor.

GRASSMERE DYNAMICS
774 Bob Stiles Road
Gurley, AL 35748
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 776-7471
Mr. Rodney L Clark
AF 07-003      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Advanced Analog Micro-lens Technology
Abstract:This proposal will demonstrate the feasibility of producing diffraction-limited anamorphic microlens arrays for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors used on very large aperture astronomical telescopes with multiple off-axis laser guide stars. A high-quality lenslet arrays will be fabricated with gray scale mask lithography and reactive chemical etching. Four advanced gray scale photolithographic mask technologies will be evaluated. Two will be selected for gray scale mask fabrication. A selection between the two masks will be made from the quality of the lenslets they produce in photoresist. The best performing photoresist lenslets will be reactive ion etching at our teaming partner's facility, MEMS Optical, Inc. to produce finished micro-lens array.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Dr. Justin D. Mansell
AF 07-003      Awarded: 09APR07
Title:Advanced Micro Optics Technology
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate two different novel process techniques for creating custom micro-optics.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard Blvd, SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Mr. Stephen C. Coy
AF 07-004      Awarded: 15MAR07
Title:Design, Analysis, and Optimization Environment for Directed Energy Systems
Abstract:We propose to develop a comprehensive model-based system engineering environment designed to support the design, development and optimization of directed energy systems, including both high powered microwave (HPM) and high energy laser (HEL) systems. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of this environment by showing how it could be applied in the design, development, and optimization of a DE system to be carried aboard a representative Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with the capability to develop and evaluate both HPM and HEL-based system designs within the same framework. The proposed environment would be designed to support all phases of the design and development process, from the first "what-if" games all the way through concept evaluation, design, implementation, incremental integration, and testing. It would provide powerful integrated facilities for automated system level design optimization based on user-defined requirements, priorities, and constraints. Our ultimate objective is to provide to the DE R&D community a model-based system engineering platform on par with the kinds of virtual engineering environments which have already revolutionized the automotive and aircraft industries.

P.C. KRAUSE & ASSOC., INC.
3016 Covington Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Dr. Eric Walters
AF 07-004      Awarded: 14MAR07
Title:Design, Analysis, and Optimization Environment for Directed Energy Systems
Abstract:The primary objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate proof of concept for a directed energy system analysis and design environment. This analysis and design environment will be based upon Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation (DHS) technology. DHS allows the interconnection of models developed in different simulation languages running on different computing platforms to form an integrated system simulation. The Phase I effort will focus on incorporating high-power microwave device models into a simulation of the electric power system of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The simulation will be used to evaluate the steady-state and transient system performance as well as to carry out system/component design studies. PCKA will collaborate with Lockheed Martin and the Directed Energy Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory to obtain component models and to ensure the effort is directed toward specific Air Force needs.

VOSS SCIENTIFIC, LLC
418 Washington St., S.E.
Albuquerque, NM 87108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-4201
Dr. Clifton Courtney
AF 07-004      Awarded: 16MAR07
Title:Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for Complete Directed Energy Systems
Abstract:To support the Air Force need for a high power microwave (HPM) / high energy laser (HEL) simulation environment, we propose to develop a framework that is based on our existing HPM modeling framework, Mockingbird. Framework development will continue along Mockingbird's original design path, to include support for HPM / HEL system simulation and optimization. The flexible framework will support component models created in a variety of popular simulation applications, by supplying the necessary communication, translation, and synchronization structures required to simulate and optimize a complete system built from those components. Architectural elements to allow distributed computation and communication with other applications throughout the modeling and simulation pyramid will also be examined. All areas of the framework architecture will be developed and specified, including component model interface layers, system simulation and optimization, user interfaces, data display and archival, external application interfaces, and documentation support. A prototype version of Mockingbird will be used to build a system from component models generated by multiple simulation applications. The application's simulation and optimization capabilities will then be applied to that system. Mockingbird prototype software will be delivered to the customer at the conclusion of the Phase I effort.

ACULIGHT CORP.
22121 20th Avenue SE
Bothell, WA 98021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Fabio Di Teodoro
AF 07-005      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Fiber-based, high peak power mid-infrared source
Abstract:We propose the development of a transportable, highly flexible, fiber-based high-peak-power optical source capable of operating at mid-infrared wavelengths.

POLARONYX, INC.
470 Lakeside Drive, Suite F
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 245-9588
Dr. Jian Liu
AF 07-005      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:A compact all fiber-based fs-TW laser system
Abstract:Based on our success in developing the world first commercial 100 micro Joule <200 fs fiber laser system and our leading technology development in ultrashort pulsed fiber laser, PolarOnyx proposes, for the first time, a fs-TW high energy/power (>25 mJ and >1000 W) fiber laser system to meet with the requirement of the solicitation AF071-005. It is a specialty fiber based MOPA incorporating our proprietary technology of pulse shaping, spectral shaping and polarization shaping. These will make the fiber laser transmitter system superior in terms of wall plug efficiency (over 10%), power (>1000 W), pulse width (< 200 fs), size, and cost. A tabletop experiment of 1 mJ energy will be demonstrated in Phase I time frame for proof of the concept. A demonstration of >25 mJ will be given in Phase II.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Dr. Evgueni Slobodtchikov
AF 07-005      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Cr:ZnSe Ultrafast, High-Power, Mid-IR Source
Abstract:Q-Peak proposes to develop a ~100-fs pulse, high-peak-power source based on the combination of an efficient fiber-laser-pumped, Cr:ZnSe master oscillator and a power amplifier. The high-peak-power, femtosecond output pulses at 2.5 microns will be used to pump an optical parametric generator that will convert 2.5-micron radiation into tunable mid-IR between 3 to 5 microns. The technology approach parallels that of Ti:sapphire-laser-based ultrafast systems, but involves operation at mid-IR wavelengths.

AGILOPTICS
1717 Louisiana, NE Suite 202
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 268-4742
Dennis Mansell
AF 07-006      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Low-Cost Compact Adaptive Optics Systems
Abstract:We propose to develop, build and commercialize a compact, low cost adaptive optics system based around existing membrane mirror technology and commercially available curvature sensors

ENIG ASSOC., INC.
12501 Prosperity Drive, Suite 340
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 680-8600
Dr. Harold L. Rappaport
AF 07-007      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Multiphysics Modeling of High Voltage Explosive Flux Compression Generators
Abstract:A program to investigate flux compression generator internal voltage intolerance is proposed. This study will coordinate flux compression generator simulations with gas breakdown theory and simulations. The goal of this work is to show that careful modeling of this system can reproduce the experimentally observed voltage intolerance and then propose and demonstrate remedial actions that can be taken to improve it. Flux compression generator numerical modeling tools will provide time-domain evolution of electric fields, magnetic fields, and current densities. Gas breakdown modeling will show if stray conducting paths through the gas are present for specified gas pressure. The effect of these stray paths on FCG operation will also be modeled. Several hypotheses are advanced in this proposal to explain why FCG voltage tolerance is poor. Both axial and end initiated FCG simulations are given. The theory of breakdown of magnetized electronegative gases is described. Two-dimensional gas breakdown simulation results are also presented. Additionally, it is proposed that a comprehensive flux compression generator (FCG) code development project based on commercially available Multiphysics code package be used to investigate the causes of high voltage intolerance of FCGs and to improve the high voltage performance of FCG.

THE CARE'N LLC
12137 Midway Drive
Tracy, CA 95377
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 749-0241
Dr. Jay Benton Chase
AF 07-007      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:High Voltage Explosive Flux Compression Generators
Abstract:Helical magnetic flux compression generators have been used for five decades to amplify electrical energy and current from high explosives. Although they can now be modeled quite accurately, there are practical limitations, based on internal electrical breakdown, that limit both their compactness and ability to operate at high output voltages. The Care'n LLC proposes to overcome this limitation through careful application of 3D electrostatic and inductive electric field calculations based on magnetic and electric vector potentials. Furthermore, we will assess the heretofore unaddressed issue of MHD field generation due to the motion of insulating gas through the magnetic field. The results of these studies will be incorporated into the FCG modeling code, CAGEN, which already accurately calculates the performance of helical FCGs, without any empirical factors, in the absence of electrical breakdown. The code will then be used to explore optimization strategies that take into account, explicitly, electrical breakdown thresholds.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Dr. Donald Washburn
AF 07-008      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Tactical HEL Weapon Alignment System Architecture Options and Trade Offs
Abstract:This SBIR will create a tactical beam control architecture that minimizes mirror count and complexity for a High Power Tactical Laser System with a 30 cm aperture. In particular we will: 1) generate and evaluate component concepts that form the building blocks for the architecture; 2) generate a preliminary tactical architecture and define the required technology developments; 3) generate a detailed analysis and simulation plan for evaluating and optimizing the architectures; 4) generate risk reduction suggestions based on the architecture.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura Road, Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Dr. Richard A. Hutchin
AF 07-008      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Low Mirror Count Tactical HEL Beam Control Architecture
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will investigate a novel optical control high energy laser (HEL) beam control architecture that has only six high power components between the HEL module and the target. The beamline is considerably simpler, smaller and lighter than what is possible with current architectures. Furthermore, almost every component performs multiple functions, dramatically reducing the part count. There is only one Deformable Mirror (DM), one Coarse Steering Mirror (CSM), and one Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), which all can be integrated into the beam director. Phase I work involves a thorough trade study of candidate HEL architectures, followed by identification of key component technologies required for the selected architecture. Then, the analyses and simulations as well as risk reduction efforts necessary to demonstrate functionality and validate performance will be defined. These procedures will lead to a Phase II prototype design that addresses the broad spectrum of issues that are pertinent in HEL architecture development. Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) of El Segundo, California has provided a support letter. Provided that the Phase I effort demonstrates success, intends to be our subcontractor during the Phase II effort.

REMCOM, INC.
315 S. Allen St. , Suite 222
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-1299
Mr. Gregory Moss
AF 07-009      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Improved Electromagnetic PIC Particle Current Weighting Near Conformal Boundaries
Abstract:The proposed work addresses the need for a comprehensive particle simulation software package which provides advanced geometry meshing techniques to reduce inaccuracies encountered using standard orthogonal Cartesian FDTD grids. Currently there exists a void in commercial PIC software. Government and private researchers of plasma and particle physics find themselves spending many man-hours developing complex computational codes and algorithms to fit their specific needs. The goal of the proposed work is to provide plasma and particle physicists with a comprehensive software package which will provide a full range of numerical solutions with an easy to use graphical user interface and powerful visualization capabilities. The computational approach will be based on the kinetic description of plasmas and use particle simulation techniques such as PIC and Monte Carlo methods. These particle simulation algorithms will be implemented alongside Remcom Inc.'s current full-wave three-dimensional FDTD solver, XFDTD. XFDTD includes advanced CAD modeling and import, accelerated meshing routines, adaptive meshing capabilities, conducting, UPML and periodic boundary conditions, and thorough result visualization. These existing capabilities will provide a strong foundation for the inclusion of the aforementioned particle simulation methods and allow for a quick evaluation of newly developed FDTD/PIC grids.

WAVE COMPUTATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1800 Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway, Suite 204
Durham, NC 27707
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 419-1500
Dr. Tian Xiao
AF 07-009      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:A New Hybrid Method for High-Order EM-PIC Simulations
Abstract:We propose to prototype and test a new 3-D hybrid technique that combines two efficient algorithms, (a) the discontinuous Galerkin pseudospectral time-domain (DG-PSTD) method and (b) the boundary conformal finite-difference time-domain (BC-FDTD) method, as a high-order solver for electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) simulations. This hybrid technique overcomes the well-known limitation of existing EM-PIC solvers due to their stair-stepping approximation. The proposed hybrid method uses domain decomposion to divide the problem into DG-PSTD regions with coarse structures and BC-FDTD regions with fine structures. As the DG-PSTD method has spectral accuracy and the BC-FDTD method has second-order accuracy, the overall convergence of this EM-PIC solver is better than second order. The team has already developed the most relevant techniques for the pure electromagnetics problem in an existing commercial prototype, Wavenology EM Pack, and has worked on plasma simulations. The proposed 3-D hybrid numerical EM-PIC solver will be integrated into this commercial prototype. It promises to effectively mitigate spurious effects caused by the stair-stepping approximation in the EM-PIC simulation.

G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Terry J. Brennan
AF 07-010      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Fast Synthetic Scene Generation for Directed Energy Applications
Abstract:The computational burden of simulating incoherent imaging of large extended objects, through high turbulence, using conventional wave optics simulation techniques is very significant. This simulation capability is crucial for evaluating performance of such systems as the Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL). Several innovative approaches to this problem, that will significantly reduce the computational requirements, are proposed. These approaches are based on rigorous analysis of the imaging problem with certain simplifying assumptions. The applicability of these techniques will be thoroughly evaluated with wave optics codes. A previous technique developed by tOSC, based on fast generation of point spread functions by interpolation through Rytov phase screens, has demonstrated a speed improvement of 25 over conventual techniques. These new concepts will reduce the computational time by another factor of 10.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE, Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Dr. R. Russell Butts
AF 07-010      Awarded: 12MAR07
Title:Fast Synthetic Scene Generation for Directed Energy Applications
Abstract:Some of the analysis and computer simulation tools used to evaluate directed energy target tracking systems must have the capability to generate realistic simulated target and background imagery. The images are often degraded by atmospheric turbulence or other phenomena. For many wave optics simulations, the calculations required to effect the transformation from the target reflectance to the distorted and blurred image as seen by the track sensor dominate the simulation run time. MZA proposes to evaluate three different techniques that hold promise for speeding up generation of synthetic target and background scenes. The first will use an analytic model developed for another project that can rapidly generate the required images. The model needs to be better characterized and optimized. The second will evaluate replacing the interpolation done in the MZA lighttunnel algorithm with optimal estimates to reduce the total number of wave optics propagations required. The third technique, cross section averaging, will pre-compute the tilts introduced by each turbulence screen in a wave optics simulation. This approach may offer dramatic improvements in computational efficiency. The evaluations will rely heavily on the MZA WaveTrain wave optics computer simulation.

TAU TECHNOLOGIES LLC
1601 Randolph Rd SE, Ste 110 S
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 244-1222
Mr. Aaron Birenboim
AF 07-010      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Fast Synthetic Scene Generation for Directed Energy Applications
Abstract:We will prototype a fast-running, accurate pristine scene generation capability that combines the accuracy of modern infra-red (IR) signature generation with advanced bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF) models. The generated scenes will consist of wide-band passive, laser-band (active) and range maps, to support a full suite of electro-optical sensors including coherent imaging laser radar. This will be coupled with a fast-running, accurate propagation methods to predict the beam irradiance at the target, the active return image and the passive return image, all consistent with modern turbulence and atmospheric propagation theory. These methods must preserve the artifacts that degrade both the beam at the target and the returned imagery. To test the developed methods, we will demonstrate atmospherically degraded synthetic scenes using a relevant example such as an Airborne Tactical Laser (ATL) test at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). These scenes will be directly applicable to the development and testing of active tracking and aimpoint maintenance algorithms.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Jack Salerno
AF 07-011      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Moderate Power Mid-Infrared and Infrared Fiber Lasers
Abstract:Agiltron proposes to develop a mid-IR fiber laser having inherently attractive features of high efficiency, high power, good beam quality, single-piece robust construction without the need for optical alignment, large surface to volume ratio for efficient thermal management, lightweight, and compact footprint. The design is closely coupled with our unique expertise in low loss mid-IR chalcogenide fiber fabrication and IR photonics. The approach overcomes the difficulties associated with in-fiber cavity mirror fabrication and relatively low optical power threshold in mid-IR fibers, representing a practical opportunity to realize a new type of rare-earth doped mid-IR fiber laser. The proposed laser adopts recent developments of high performance cladding-pumped fiber geometry and loop based in-fiber mirrors. In Phase I, we will fabricate a proof of concept breadboard fiber laser emitting three wavelengths in the 3 - 5 micron band. Full system demonstration will be realized in the Phase II Program.

IRFLEX CORP.
12019 Heather Down Dr.
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(418) 655-4228
Dr. Francois Chenard
AF 07-011      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Novel Fiber Laser for direct lasing in the Mid-Infrared
Abstract:The current DIRCM laser solutions in the mid-infrared (3-5 micron) suffer limitations and disadvantages such as excessive size and weight, long initial cool-down time (cryogenic temperatures), short operating time, limited duty cycle, complex packaging, low wall plug efficiency, poor beam quality and limited output power. These limitations and disadvantages make it difficult to utilize these lasers on space-limited combat aircraft. IRFlex proposes an innovative solution to this problem that leverages recent advances in mid-infrared fiber technology. The proposed work will demonstrate lab operation of an innovative new fiber laser doped with rare-earth for direct lasing in the mid-infrared. This new fiber laser approach enables the development of next-generation DIRCM lasers with the required power (multi-Watt class), compactness, lightweight, electrical efficiency, room temperature operation, good beam quality and robustness required for future DIRCM systems.

COHERENT APPLICATIONS, INC.
7 Sandpiper Ct.
Hampton, VA 23669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 850-3508
Mr. Diego F. Pierrottet
AF 07-012      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Laser Remote Sensing for HEL Damage Assessment
Abstract:CAI proposes to develop an innovative approach to advance algorithms and system technology for rapid and robust assessment of damage produced by high energy laser weapon systems. Using high speed coherent detection laser radar, a combination of measurement techniques are tied together to produce an efficient sensor for long range damage assessment.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Russell Kurtz
AF 07-012      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Real-time Holographic-Optical-Element-Based Damage Assessment for HEL Weapon Systems
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for rapid, robust, remote real-time damage assessment for HEL weapon systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a Holographic-Optical-Element-Based Damage Assessment (HOEDA) system. The proposed HOEDA fuses data from three laser remote-sensing technologies: laser remote polarimetry, vibrometry, and spectroscopy. The innovative multifunctional HOE-based beam divider will enable the HOEDA to assess the structural and surface damage of the target by measuring the damage-induced changes in polarimetric, Doppler shift, and spectral properties of the collected optical signal from the target. This system offers: 1) rapid, accurate, comprehensive, and robust real-time damage assessment through sensor and data fusion of three laser remote-sensing technologies; 2) compactness and lightweight due to the use of HOE; 3) reliability because of the few moving parts and packaging design; and 4) compatibility with the existing HEL platform. In Phase I POC will analyze the HOEDA system design by computer modeling, fabricate a laboratory prototype, and conduct mock-up experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of HOEDA. In Phase II, an advanced HOEDA engineering prototype will be assembled and tested both at POC and at an Air Force facility.

OASYS TECHNOLOGY, LLC.
25 Sundial Ave., Suite 404
Manchester, NH 03103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 232-8221
Mr. John Hall
AF 07-019      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Untethered Helmet-Mounted Display for Night Vision Goggle Training Systems
Abstract:This SBIR program requires the development of a novel, wireless head-mounted video system which can functionally replace the current night vision goggle simulation headset. OASYS Technology, LLC. will apply expertise in optical and display system design coupled with Pinpoint Solutions, Inc. expertise in wireless video electronics to create a fully compliant 1280x1024 pixel binocular HMD with 40 degree field of view and a battery powered 60 Hz framerate wireless video link in a headset which emulates the look and feel of the AN/AVS-9 night vision goggle.

APPAREO SYSTEMS LLC
1805 NDSU Research Park Drive
Fargo, ND 58102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(701) 356-2200
Mr. Barry D. Batcheller, PE
AF 07-020      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Head orientation sensing system
Abstract:Appareo Systems, LLC, proposes to develop a functional prototype head-mounted position and orientation system (HPOS). The HPOS will be capable of operating in electromagnetic fields of up to 200 volts/meter and will provide at least one degree of accuracy and at least one degree of resolution at a 60 Hz update rate while providing 3 degree of freedom (DOF) information on head orientation, including azimuth from 0 to 360 degrees, elevation from +90 to -90 degrees, and roll orientation from +180 to -180 degrees. The completed HPOS system will include the development of a degradation-resistant GPS solution, which is seen as the key to the success of this project. Techniques including the use of ultra-short baselines and multiple GPS receivers and antennas will be explored to create the GPS reliability needed. Aided, non-GPS solutions simply cannot stand up in the variety of environments in which the HPOS must be deployed. It is believed that a GPS-dependent solution, although not without its own weaknesses, can be successfully implemented using the approach defined herein.

ARCHANGEL SYSTEMS, INC.
1635 Pumphrey Ave.
Auburn, AL 36832
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 826-8008
Mr. William Dillard
AF 07-020      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Head Alignment and Orientation (HALO) System
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a low cost head tracking system to monitor the orientations of an individual's head. This head tracker can be incorporated with a 3-D audio system that will provide cues to operators for increasing situational awareness. This proposed system will be based on Archangel's Inertial Measurement Unit `IM3'. The Head Alignment and Orientation (HALO) system will use QFLASP (Quaternion Fuzzy Logic Adaptive Signal Processing) to compute roll, pitch and yaw angles. This IMU based system will have the option to use a magnetic sensor and/or GPS to compute the head orientation accurately. The `Smart Fuzzy Corrector' in QFLASP can reject the inconsistent GPS or magnetic data and use appropriate proprietary filtering algorithms to compute solutions based on quality of the data.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Anna Galea
AF 07-020      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Head orientation sensing system
Abstract:Hearing protection has advanced to the point where headphones can reliably filter out more than 130 dB of background noise. Coupled with miniature speakers, flight deck personnel can be fed radio transmissions and safe levels of background sound, which allows them to still "hear" dangers such as nearby aircraft. However without knowing the orientation of the personnel's head, directionality is lost, reducing the effectiveness of this feedback in keeping our personnel safe. Our unique biomimetic sensor provides a lightweight, low-power system for accurately tracking head orientation. The immediate application will be to flight deck personnel and other military personnel in a dynamic high-noise environment so that incoming auditory cues can be restored, enhancing personnel safety. Our system is low power and light weight, allowing for easy integration with head mounted hardware. The system provides information in multiple degrees of freedom and is capable of operating in a strong electromagnetic environment. Our team of biomedical and electronic engineers will partner with our academic partner Dr. Jennie Gallimore to prove the feasibility of our approach in a Phase I prototype. Our team is committed to creating a pre-production version of our product ready for immediate deployment in selected applications in Phase II.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5278
Dr. Wei Chen
AF 07-021      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:An Innovative Agent-Based Distributed Framework for Measuring and Tracking Team Performance in Collaborative Environments
Abstract:Training and testing of Air Force distributed mission operations (DMO) post significant challenges on team work and distributed decision making; furthermore, assessing and tracking collaborative team performance in a simple, effective and autonomous way both routinely and in real time is key for trainees to successfully carry out complicated mission tasks and for external observers to keep track of the performance of both individual team participants and the team as a whole by integrating monitoring, feedbacks and situational awareness across all types of mission parameters and observables. A successful performance evaluation system would extend prior arts and practices from multi-agent system collaborations and team performance measurements. Particularly, our proposed distributed team performance assessment and tracking framework will employ the following key areas: knowledge and environment representation, intelligent agent framework and reasoning processes for collaborative environments, human team performance in a distributed training context, and the potential integration of the proposed framework with existing training systems to assist training and testing for mission task operations by providing previously hard to observe, yet vital dynamic information based on a highly expressive representation. Our innovation is an agent-based distributed framework for assessing and tracking team performance in collaborative environments.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
AF 07-021      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:Intelligent, Automated Performance Assessment and Diagnosis for Team Training
Abstract:As the Air Force has moved increasingly towards distributed networked environment for C2ISR missions, teams often operate remotely, and decision-making is distributed. Traditionally team training involved human observers for performance assessment, diagnosis, and after-action review and other training intervention. However, with much of the communication and coordination happening electronically, key aspects of the interactions between team members are no longer accessible to these trainers. Analyzing these communications involves poring over high volumes of raw electronic data. This is infeasible in all but the smallest of scales of operation. We propose to develop an intelligent performance assessment tool to assist trainers by warehousing and analyzing team interaction data and presenting it to them in a user-friendly manner for real time coaching and after-action review. The tool will perform automatic event detection and causal explanation generation. Speech recognition, natural language processing, and plan recognition techniques will be used to analyze to generate diagnostic explanation of events. This information will be sent to desktop, laptop or handheld clients as alerts. A visual tool will facilitate the rapid construction of debriefing. Phase I will result in a limited proof-of-concept prototype that will absolutely illustrate the feasibility and the benefits of this approach.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura Road, Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Dr. Richard A Hutchin
AF 07-022      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Rugged Eye Tracker for the Fighter Jet Pilot
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project will investigate the utility of a proprietary rugged eye tracker design developed at Optical Physics Company (OPC) for the fighter jet pilot. Aggressive maneuvers of the jet result in both buffeting as well as substantial G loading. The OPC eye tracker remains immune to shaking because it uses the reflection from the cornea and thus continues to operate when most standard commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) eye trackers that track reflections from inside the eye and through the pupil fail. High G loading effects are reduced by using a single illuminator and dual sensor geometry, Expected total weight of the eye tracker is less than 10 grams, with total volume smaller than 1 cubic inches. The bandwidth of 100-200 Hz can easily be accomplished. Boeing Phantom Works has agreed to be the subcontractor during the Phase I effort. The OPC team will analyze and experimentally anchor the performance of the eye tracker while Boeing provides assistance in specifying the Phase II prototype and planning for Phase II laboratory and field tests.

ATA ENGINEERING, INC.
11995 El Camino Real, Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 480-2065
Mr. Paul Blelloch
AF 07-023      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Near-field acoustic holography system
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of a practical 3-dimensional near-field acoustic holography system which is capable of measuring and describing the acoustic source characteristics of jet plumes from full-scale high performance military jet engines. This Phase I SBIR has two parts. The first part involves the development of a detailed design specification for a system which can address all of the concerns identified in the solicitation. This design specification will include a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art technology and identification of the current limitations of each method in the context of the desired system performance parameters. The second part involves the design of a system, at a conceptual level, that can meet the design specification. Risks associated with each component will be identified and risk reduction plans will be defined. Development and exercising of prototype signal processing algorithms and other data analysis tools which can meet the design requirements will be the focus of much of this effort.

BLUE RIDGE RESEARCH & CONSULTING
13 1/2 W. Walnut Street
Asheville, NC 28715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(828) 252-2209
Dr. Micah Downing
AF 07-023      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Development of a Near-field Acoustical Holography System for Aircraft Jet Source Noise Measurements
Abstract:The current and next generation military jet aircraft are exposing both ground maintenance personnel and the community to high levels of noise. The DoD is funding research to develop advanced modeling tools for community noise exposure and for noise reduction techniques. As these tools are being developed to address to the overall military jet noise problem, the lack of understanding of the actual jet noise source has been identified as a limiting factor. For these tools to achieve their full potential in addressing the noise problem, innovative measurement and analysis methods are necessary to characterize and map the noise source region in the jet. Near-field acoustic holography (NAH) offers the best general method to measuring the magnitude, directivity, and spectral content as well as the spatial distribution of the noise emitted from a jet. The objective of this proposed effort will be to develop a portable NAH system that can characterize jet noise emissions. To develop the most efficient measurement system, several NAH approaches will be tested using risk reduction laboratory testing and evaluation procedures. These evaluations will determine the NAH approaches that meet the high fidelity data requirements outlined in the SOW while providing practical field system.

SENSOUND, LLC
221 Lewiston Road
Grosse Pointe Farms, MI 48236
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(313) 410-0751
Mr. Manmohan Moondra
AF 07-023      Awarded: 09APR07
Title:Portable Acoustical Holograph System For Visualizing Jet Plumes
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I Project will examine the feasibility of commercializing an innovative technology, known as the Helmholtz Equation Least Square (HELS) based Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH), to visualize the acoustic characteristics of jet plumes from high performance military fighter engines and those from high bypass commercial transport engines. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide engineers with a robust and portable acoustical holography tool to obtain the 3D image and characteristics of the acoustic field produced by full-scale jet engine. Users of this tool will acquire in-depth understanding of jet noise that cannot be obtained by conventional measurements and analyses technologies. Specifically, engineers will be able to overlay 3D images of a sound field produced by a jet engine on top of a jet plume. By slicing a 3D sound field from various angles and viewing it from different perspectives together with a 3D velocity field produced by a jet engine, engineers will be able to correlate jet noise to jet stream. In particular, engineers will be able to identify the sound source frequency dependent spatial distribution, examine the time varying acoustic shock structure in a plume, and quantify the major acoustic radiation angles and strength. The insight and knowledge gained will allow engineers to devise most cost-effective ways to reduce jet noise. The improved designs will lead to a quieter jet engine that can have a significant military advantage and benefit the public in general.

SA PHOTONICS
650 5th Street, Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 348-4426
Dr. Michael P. Browne
AF 07-024      Awarded: 20APR07
Title:Helmet Mounted Display for Joint Strike Fighter Training Simulator
Abstract:The M2DART provides a portable simulator system that can be deployed for a variety of training tasks and at numerous locations around the globe. Although its uncollimated, tiled displays allow for a small footprint, the viewing distance is both close (nominally 36") and varies significantly as a user moves their head from tile to tile. This difference between HMD focus and vergence and the varying distance to the simulator screen can cause human factors issues. These issues can manifest themselves as blurry imagery, doubled imagery or more latent effects such as workload reduction and eyestrain which will not be the same as for the real world, since most of a pilot's real world is at or near optical infinity. Our goal under this program is to test for potential problems with a representative see-through binocular HMD that does not involve using flight hardware. We will use the results of these tests to identify changes to be made to the simulator HMD to mitigate any potential issues. Our extensive experience in the design and development of HMDs, coupled with our experience in performing human factors testing will ensure that we provide the Air Force with an acceptable solution.

ADVANCED COOLING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6073
Dr. Chanwoo Park
AF 07-025      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Fast Response Fabric Test Setup and Dynamic Fabric Model for BURNSIM
Abstract:Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) will develop a Fast Response Fabric Test Setup using hot gas impingement conditions by the jet engine exhaust from the Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircrafts during the Phase I of the proposed SBIR programs. The fabric testing will measure the thermal response and properties of various clothing and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) fabrics. ACT will also develop a Dynamic Fabric Model for transient heat transfer analysis of the fabrics under the jet impingement conditions and validate the model using the fabric thermal test results. During the follow-on Phase II program, ACT will upgrade the fabric test setup of the Phase I to handle the various heating modes of conduction, convection (for permeable or impermeable surface) and radiation and to provide the appropriate factors for designing various components of the aircraft maintainer ensemble. Comprehensive testing will be conducted to build a model library of the thermal properties of various clothing and PPE items that can be used with the BURN SIMulation (BURNSIM) model to evaluate and design protection alternatives. ACT will also develop a fully-validated dynamic fabric submodel to provide the transient heat flux inputs to the BURNSIM model for burn hazard assessment.

COMBUSTION SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, INC.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Dr. Richard J. Roby
AF 07-025      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Apparatus and Method to measure thermal insulation factors for use with BURNSIM
Abstract:New aircraft such as the STOVL present a different thermal risk to personnel then traditional aircraft designs. Personnel operating within the thermal risk areas of these aircrafts wear personal protective equipment (PPE), but current PPE provide insufficient protection against the thermal hazards presented by these aircrafts. Currently, programs such as BURNSIM are used to estimate the hazard present to maintainers, but the BURNSIM program contains the heat transfer characteristics for a limited number of clothing types. Additionally, there is no standardized test method to define the dynamic heat transfer characteristics for the many types of PPE that may be available to protect aircraft maintainers. CSE proposes to develop a methodology and apparatus to characterize the heat transfer characteristics of PPE, especially those used by aircraft maintainers. The apparatus will be able to reproduce the high heat fluxes, both convective and radiative, that maintainers may encounter. The apparatus will also replicate some of the human factors that effect PPE performance - moisture from outside sources, moisture from perspiration and fabric compression. A methodology will be developed to interpret the measured performance of the PPE material, using software such as BURNSIM and other literature sources to assess the protective capabilities of the PPE.

THERMOANALYTICS, INC.
23440 Airpark Blvd, P.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-9560
Dr. Allen Curran
AF 07-025      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Apparatus and Method to measure thermal insulation factors for use with BURNSIM
Abstract:The characterization and measurement of heat transfer through personal protective equipment is important for mitigating the risk to fire fighters, air crew support teams and other personnel working in close proximity to jet exhausts or post crash fires. The main objective of this proposal is to develop a test apparatus capable of measuring thermal insulation values for and heat fluxes through this type of (multi-layer) clothing. The thermal and flow regimes of interest are typified by gas streams with velocities ranging from near zero to 32 meter/s and temperatures up to 100 C. The test scenario envisioned is a hot jet impinging upon a clothing test sample in the direction normal to the sample surface. The primary application of the apparatus and test methodology would be to provide inputs to the BURNSIM computer code. This code, originally developed at the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), is capable of predicting both the time to pain and burn depth expected when either bare or clothed skin is subjected to a time varying heat flux. A second objective of the proposed research is to build upon and extend the existing clothing model in BURNSIM to be applicable to (highly) transient thermal environments.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5260
Dr. Jacqueline Haynes
AF 07-026      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Integrated Aiding and Training
Abstract:Organizations that use a common knowledge base for aiding and training benefit in that (a) one knowledge base is easier to develop (b) updates are more timely, as both training and aiding require only one update, and (c) how aiding and training support complex performance can be clearly specified by the transformations used for aiding and training. Further benefits accrue when experts directly express their knowledge into the common knowledge base: the knowledge is current, and incorporates current job-relevant factors, such as available job aids and training. The primary difficulty in creating a system in which experts enter knowledge directly into a knowledge base used to present aiding and training is that the grain size of units created by experts and later required by automatic transforms differ: experts will naturally express their knowledge in relatively large grain sizes, and automatic transforms require small grain sizes. We will conduct research to try to find a middle grain size with which experts can express their knowledge and automatic transforms can use to create aiding and training. Once studies determine the best grain size, software that supports expert input and required transforms will be designed and developed.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
AF 07-026      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:GATST: A Generalizable Aiding-Training System for Human Performance and Productivity Enhancement
Abstract:While aiding and training systems developed over the last few decade have created a heightened awareness of the complementary nature of aiding and training, there has been little done to bring aiding and training together within a common rubric with shared reusable, repurposable content. In light of this recognition, the goal of this effort is to develop a generalizable, integrated aiding and training system. Phase I of this effort is concerned with providing evidence of the feasibility of an integrated aiding-training system "shell" in the context of selected domains of interest.

CREW TRAINING INTERNATIONAL, INC.
9198 Crestwyn Hills Dr
Memphis, TN 38125
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 240-0827
Mr. Gregg Montijo
AF 07-027      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Real Time Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) Training
Abstract:Identification of the key human factor skill set involved in Situational Awareness, Task Management and Decision Making for focused alternative training. Alternative training that focuses on the practice and improvement those key human factor skills. CTI has received the commitment of three groups to conduct this investigation. The UAV squadron located at Creech AFB, the A-10 squadron located at Davis-Monthan and the F15C squadron located Kinsley Field.

OASYS TECHNOLOGY, LLC.
25 Sundial Ave., Suite 404
Manchester, NH 03103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 232-8221
Mr. Michael Couture
AF 07-028      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:CSAR-X Digital Visionic System
Abstract:This proposal outlines a technical approach for a goggle system that utilizes a SWIR and LWIR imagers to present operators with fused imagery of the two spectral bands in a man portable, head mountable goggle system. Furthermore, as part of this research key avionics information will also be presented to the operators in the eyepiece of the goggle system.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography Division, 20600 Gram
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Iouri Kompaniets
AF 07-028      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Tri-Spectral Image-Fused Binocular Night Goggles
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an innovative digital visionic system (DVS) to aid and improve combat search and rescue operations primarily at night on the ground and for open-door helicopter operations, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop new tri-spectral image-fused binocular night goggles (TSIF-BNVG). TSIF-BNVG fuses images from an image intensifier tube with a CCD (near-infrared 625-930 nm), an InGaAs PIN FPA (short-wave infrared, 1.1-2.5 microns), and a microbolometer (long-wave infrared, 8-14 microns) delivered by a see-through near-eye holographic visor projection system. It is a lightweight, waterproof device with a low profile and compact form factor, with a total mass of ~1.5-2 lb. (<1 kg). The TSIF-BNVG design is based on a flexible optimal spectral image fusion algorithm that picks the best sensors for a given tactical situation and atmospheric conditions, and combines them into fused false colored imagery. The TSIF-BNVG innovations will improve search and rescue operations by increasing target detection/identification probability and shortening search times. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of TSIF-BNVG and by including tradeoff analyses of selected components and human factors. In Phase II we plans to develop an optimized prototype.

SAGE TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.
One Ivybrook Boulevard, Suite 190
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 658-0500
Mr. Wesley Sheridan
AF 07-028      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:CSAR-X Digital Visionic System
Abstract:Abstract. The proposed system is a wide field of view helmet mounted system that will incorporate a visible & short wave infrared (Vis/SWIR) camera technology with dual imaging lenses placed just above the operator's eyes, and fused with a thermal long wave infrared sensor (LWIR). The DEVS will provide high resolution multi-spectral imagery to CSAR-X operational personnel. The design is to provide the combination of wide field of view and personnel signature enhancement that will allow for more efficient search and rescue operations. The Sage team will use recent developments in SWIR digital FPA technology, and combine that with current LWIR micro-bolometer advances, a programmable image processor chip, and a high resolution OLED (organic light emitting diode) display. The result will be a small binocular device that is expected to provide about 105 by 50 FOV with resolution roughly comparable to the GEN IV NVGs. while providing sensitivity for 24/7 vision enhancement capability. The system is fully digital providing image enhancement, fusion potential with SWIR & LWIR, extended FOV, lower power, greater redundancy, and lower weight. Also, covert rescue operations can be implemented by the use of powerful SWIR illuminators not visible to the human eye or conventional IR/I2 devices.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
AF 07-029      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:An Innovative Accurate Predictive 3D Terrain Modeling
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is looking for innovative technologies providing an autonomous helicopter sensor-display system for brown-out landing conditions. In response AGNC proposes to develop and document an innovative Accurate Predictive 3D Terrain Modeling (AP-3DTM) system and software toolsets. The AP-3DTM is based on: 1) on-the-fly 3D model generation deploying stereo-cameras with accuracy estimation and quality assurance; 2) modeling the helicopter position geospatial refinement based on AGNC's coremicro AHRS/GPS/INS Integration Unit sensors measurements; 3) AGNC's robust Kalman-Filter based helicopter position prediction; 3) optimal model visualization on 3D autostereoscopic or pilot-helmet display. Hazards detection is a concern for which AGNC provides an automated pattern recognition solution. The slope of the landing terrain is also computed to aid the pilot in the execution of a safe landing. The AP-3DTM solution, proposed by AGNC, comprises the following major innovations: a) use for the first time of the theory of stereo-perspective for 3D landing models generation in real-time from non-calibrated passive imaging; b) unique landing prediction multi-sensor architecture based on AGNC's robust Kalman filter. The Phase I research will result in identification and feasibility verification of the AP-3DTM's most challenging components. Phase II will culminate in a fully functional working prototype.

TECHNEST HOLDINGS, INC.
10411 Motor City Drive, Suite 650
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 767-2810
Dr. James Wen
AF 07-029      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Autonomous Helicopter Sensor-Display System for Brown-out Landing Conditions
Abstract:Technest Holdings Inc. proposes to develop an autonomous 3D terrain modeling sensor-display system called 3D-Nav for helicopter landings under brownout conditions. 3D-Nav is a complete and integrated hardware and software system based on an innovative GPS/INS aided 3D reconstruction algorithm and our miniature high performance and low power consumption DSP/FPGA based SOS hardware. To ensure safe landings under brownout conditions, the 3D-Nav algorithm conducts accurate 3D terrain modeling before the brownout occurs. The 3D-Nav algorithm intelligently fuses the passive imagery data with the GPS/INS data, generates 3D terrain models, and identifies dangerous 3D terrain features. During the brownout landing process, the 3D-Nav system automatically displays and update the 3D terrain model in real time with the help of the GPS/INS information and generates the navigation control signals to guide the aircraft to avoid obstacles and rollovers. The novel 3D-Nav design proposed herein leverages Technest's extensive expertise and experience in 2D/3D imaging hardware and software system development and its application in ground and aerial vehicle navigation and collision avoidance. The proposed technology has a number of applications including autonomous aircraft navigation and landing control, ground vehicle navigation in temporary brownout conditions, military surveillance, and commercial 3D modeling and reverse engineering.

TERRAMETRICS, INC.
PO Box 270101
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 979-5255
Mr. Gregory A. Baxes
AF 07-029      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Rotorcraft SV Landing Display System with Self-generating 3D Terrain and Obstacle Model
Abstract:We propose a new Synthetic Vision (SV) system architecture for helicopter brown-out landing use. Instead of authoring 3D terrain and feature datasets outside of the flight system and then uploading the prepared data prior to mission use, the proposed solution self-generates a dynamic 3D terrain model using aircraft passive-sensor camera imagery. The approach eliminates the pre-flight data acquisition, processing and uploading operations. The TerraBlocksT "Clear-to-Land" (CTL) strategy builds on our TerraBlocks SV rendering and display engine using the wavelet-encoded, multiple level-of-detail TerraBlocks 3D terrain data structure and run-time methodology. The CTL system pivots around a dynamic implementation of the TerraBlocks 3D terrain model component. The SV component receives the aircraft INS datastream and generates the out-the-window rendering based on aircraft position and attitude. Flight symbology overlays such as flight data, landing corridor and dangerous obstacle cueing are added. As the 3D terrain model is refined based on sensor data availability and quality, the refined model appears in the rendered display. Ultimately, as the helicopter enters brown-out conditions, the model is frozen, or even rolled back to an earlier "last-good" state and used for the rendering and pilot display of terrain and obstacles throughout the landing maneuver.

MYMIC LLC
200 High Street, Suite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 391-9200
Mr. Phillip N. Jones
AF 07-030      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Team decision making training and rehearsal exemplar for the air and space operations center (AOC)
Abstract:Military forces have changed from a train-alert-operate paradigm to a alert-train-operate one. AOCs require a training and rehearsal capability that allows rapid proficiency on Mission Essential Competencies (MECs), supporting competencies, knowledge and skills. MYMIC LLC, teamed with MAK Technologies, proposes providing this training and rehearsal capability through the AOC Lifecycle Training Capability (ALTC). The ALTC will be comprised of three components: a Collaborative Information & Training Environment (CITE) that leverages a collaborative information environment to support training , a Training Management & Collaboration System (TMCS) that is a hybrid between a training management system and a community of practice, and MK's Dynamic Training Cell (DTC) team training simulation environment: QuickStrike. Included in the ALTC will be a scenario-mission hierarchy. Scenario-missions will be recommended to support MEC-related proficiency for various phases of the alert-train-operate paradigm. The hierarchy will allow AOC individuals and teams to choose, based on their training requirements, specific, short or long scenario-missions for execution within the ALTC. MYMIC will investigate use of QuickStrike capabilities to provide performance measures back to ALTC users. In addition, MYMIC will investigate use of social network analysis to provide critical information to AOC leaders and performance measures to ALTC users.

ONTAR CORP.
9 Village Way
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-9622
Dr. John Schroeder
AF 07-030      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Team decision making training and rehearsal exemplar for the air and space operations center (AOC)
Abstract:Computer network defense is only as effective as the training provided to the system maintainers with respect to the tools and procedures at their disposal. Trainees need procedural knowledge and performance exercises in order to properly integrate the two areas seamlessly into a cohesive tool. The system we propose, TENOR-DMT, combines computer-based instruction and text-based courseware to support knowledge acquisition and retention. The result will be focused learning based on a set of objectives. The primary presentation of information will be in the form of text and graphics driven courseware, with knowledge reinforcement being provided by embedded simulations that correspond to the appropriate lessons/objectives. The resulting system will be effective, intuitively usable, and cost effective. At the conclusion of Phase I we will deliver to the US Air Force a proof-of-concept exemplar that demonstrates our ability to meet this SBIR topic objectives.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. Matthew Hull
AF 07-033      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:WINGST--Web-Interfaced Nanotechnology ESH Guidance System for Force Health Protection
Abstract:Luna Innovations proposes the development of a novel Web-Interfaced Nanotechnology Environmental Safety and Health (ESH) Guidance System-WINGST-that will provide Air Force personnel with streamlined access to strategies and tools for managing emerging ESH risks and for exchanging vital information throughout a community of approved peers and `trusted' resources. Comprehensive guidance modules, based in part on innovative ESH `best practices' management strategies developed and implemented by Luna Innovations and the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), will be compiled and made accessible to AF personnel through WINGS, along with a host of other novel features and tools designed to facilitate informed and streamlined ESH management. The Luna and UDRI management frameworks were developed by leading nanotechnology and ESH researchers for use in distinctly different commercial and academic settings, and thus address a broad spectrum of issues likely to occur in virtually any facility where engineered nanomaterials are handled. Many regard the Luna and UDRI models as the first programs to offer comprehensive management strategies that have had their effectiveness demonstrated in actual practice. Throughout Phase I the team will define and prioritize specific ESH data gaps to address during Phase II through targeted scientific studies.

NANOCOMPOSIX, INC.
4878 Ronson CT STE K
San Diego, CA 92111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 890-0770
Dr. Steven Oldenburg
AF 07-033      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:The Impact of Nanomaterials on Occupational Safety and Health
Abstract:The number of products that contain nanomaterials and the associated risk of exposure to DoD personnel is rapidly increasing. This project will identify factors that influence the generation, dispersion, and deposition of nanomaterials in the workplace. The risk of exposure via inhalation or dermal contact will be quantified for benchmark nanomaterials with well defined physical and chemical characteristics. The effectiveness of personal protective equipment for protecting workers from various release events will be evaluated. A comprehensive guide for workers who handle and use nanomaterials will be prepared to assess, avoid, and abate the adverse health and environmental impacts of nanomaterials.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Nina Joshi
AF 07-033      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Identifying Critical Physicochemical Characteristics of Nano-particles that Elicit Toxic Affects on ESH
Abstract:Nanotechnology present new opportunities to increase the performance of traditional products and to develop unique ones. Nanoparticle applications are already becoming more prominent in coatings, computers, clothing, cosmetics and other products and the trends suggest that nanoparticles will permeate a variety of industries. To ensure that this revolution continues, industry must guarantee that nanomaterials do not adversely affect human health but there is currently no systematically methodologies developed to characterize and test nanomaterials. Our goal is to determine the relationship between toxicity and physicochemical characteristics (i.e. shape, size, surface chemistry, etc.) of nanoparticles and establish model systems as well as a battery of screening assays to determine the toxicity of different nanoparticles. In phase I, we propose to test two physicochemical properties -size and hydrophobic/hydrophilic coatings - to determine cytoxicity, inflammation (by assessing cytokine production) and glutathione levels as a marker of oxidative stress in a complex in vitro lung model system. In Phase II, we will expand the type of nanoparticles as well as the physico-chemical characteristics tested. In addition, we will establish an in vitro skin model and for those nanoparticles that elicited toxicity in our in vitro models an in vivo model to determine nanoparticle translocation.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Patrick J. Magari, Ph.D.
AF 07-034      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Advanced In-Flight Rebreather
Abstract:Flight crews require supplemental oxygen for emergency high cabin altitude operations. Some flight crews require a walk-around oxygen supply to move freely throughout the cabin until the altitude is reduced to a safe level. Current low-pressure bottles cannot supply oxygen for an adequate duration in an acceptable cylinder size, and multiple cylinders would be required to meet the mission requirements, adversely impacting logistical and safety issues. Rebreather technology offers the potential to meet the need with a compact system and minimal oxygen storage requirements. Although rebreather technology has been applied successfully to diving and some land-based applications for many years, a high-altitude, walk around system presents new challenges. On the proposed project we will develop innovative technology to adapt rebreathers for in-flight use. In Phase I, we will determine appropriate specifications for an aviation rebreather and conduct proof-of-concept tests to demonstrate the promise of individual technologies or devices needed to meet the requirements for an aviation rebreather. In Phase II we will integrate these advanced technologies into a complete rebreather system.

GREY WOLF INNOVATIONS, INC.
10187 Colonial Industrial Drive
South Lyon, MI 48178
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 446-9569
Mr. David W. Weber
AF 07-034      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:Emergency Oxygen Cylinders with Re-breathing
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to extend the usable oxygen supply of aircrew walk around system with rebreather technology. The current systems provide too little duration (approx. 25 minutes) for aircrews to perform duties at altitude. This limited duration can be a safety and mission compromising as the aircraft may not be able to descend to a flight level where supplemental oxygen is not needed. These current systems function in an open circuit manner where each exhale is vented into the surrounding atmosphere wasting about 90% of the oxygen. Grey Wolf Innovations Inc. rebreather technology will allow the exhale to be captured and recycled to be breathed again, extending the oxygen supply beyond 2 hours. This closed circuit rebreather design packages in nearly the same size as the current system (22.8" x 8.1" x 6.8") and weighs only 12.3 lbs (includes Oxygen Tank, Regulators, CO2 Scrubber, Electronics, Sensors, Dilution System, Counterlungs and Pressure Relief/Venting System).

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2349
Dr. Gokhan Alptekin
AF 07-034      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:An Oxygen Re-Breather System
Abstract:When transport aircraft must operate unpressurized at higher altitudes, the crewmember is required to carry a portable oxygen supply system to move around the cabin. Current low pressure oxygen bottles do not provide enough emergency oxygen for aircrews to perform duties in the cabin/cargo area until the aircraft can attain a safe level where supplemental oxygen is not required. A re-breather technology can extend the duration of the oxygen supply without resorting to larger storage bottles or higher pressure O2 tanks by recycling oxygen in a closed-loop manner. However, it is essential to prevent the carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in these systems. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a high capacity, durable CO2 sorbent as a key component of a lightweight, portable O2 re-breather system to support high altitude operations. In Phase I, we will develop the sorbent and carry out an overall system design.

BLUEFORCE LLC
1919 Commerce Drive, Suite 400
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 788-8441
Dr. Maris McCrabb
AF 07-035      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Effects-based Analyst Support Service
Abstract:Our Effects-based Analyst Service Service (EBASS) will assist operational-level analysts, planners and assessors in determining measures and indicators (M&I) and Requests for Information (RFI) required to support effects-based approaches to analysis, planning and assessment. We acocmplish this through the use of ontology-based information exchange which adds context to data, "smart" RFI technology to enhance collaboration between requester and fulfiller and an RFI parsing, monitoring and tracking system to rapidly match requests to collection task to M&I.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
AF 07-035      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:A Toolkit for the Assessment of Effects-Based Operations (TAE-BO)
Abstract:To address the need for effects-based assessment (EBA) tools, we propose to design and demonstrate a Toolkit for the Assessment of Effects-Based Operation (TAE-BO). Five core components characterize our effort: One, we will perform a Cognitive Tasks Analysis to understand the tasks, tools, and information employed by analysts performing EBA. We will analyze data from these studies to identify and define opportunities for supporting analysts. Two, we will identify and develop composable computational components for filtering, associating, aggregating, and reasoning over incoming intelligence. Three, we will develop complementary visualization methods for these components, and a user interface for authoring tools by combining components, connecting these tools, and using these tools. Four, we will design the TAE-BO toolkit, which will provide the framework and runtime environment for these tools and user interfaces. Five, we will develop a plan for evaluation of analysts' productivity while using the TAE-BO system, including an experimental methodology and specific metrics. We will leverage our team's expertise in data fusion methods and human-centered design to rapidly develop adaptable and composable data integration, management, and analysis tools and to integrate these methods with real or representative data sources.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-9836
Mr. Lee Krause
AF 07-035      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Innovative Aids: Effects-Based Combat Assessment
Abstract:Securboration's innovative approach is centered on the development of a Community of Exchange (CoEx) which represents the operational requirements and semantic dependencies that drive the operators' effective use of information to perform effects-based assessment. The Community of Exchange allows for a robust model that representation the combat assessment domain to be created and used to validate the operational process. The validation includes cognitive aspects, operational usability, and capability-based measures. With an extensive operational background and expertise in Air & Space Operations Center (AOC) operations, effects-based planning and assessment, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and modeling and simulation, Securboration is uniquely suited to "explore the implications of effects-based operations on the conduct of combat assessment" and to provide assessment tools appropriate to EBO. Securboration will leverage existing technologies and previous work on effect-based planning and assessment in the AOC environment to develop these assessment tools. In Phase I of this SBIR, Securboration will "identify and define opportunities for inserting intelligence analyst-aiding technologies appropriate to the conduct of combat assessment tasks in the context of effects-based operations." Securboration's innovative solution will be driven by: 1) "cognitive task analyses" of assessment processes "to identify analyst requirements;" 2) "capability-based measures of effectiveness. to support the evaluation of effects-based assessment performance;" and 3) conceptual models of "intelligence analyst-aiding technologies appropriate to the conduct of combat assessment tasks

OPTIMETRICS, INC.
3115 Professional Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 973-1177
Dr. Brian T. Mitchell
AF 07-036      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Algorithmic Correction of Systematic Error in Eye Point-of-Regard (POR) Data Analysis
Abstract:This project will develop and evaluate algorithms for correcting the systematic point-of-regard (POR) error found in the eye position data produced by modern eye-tracking hardware. The core idea of this project is the registration of graphical realities to the POR data. This registration enables the use of application-specific contextual information to correct systematic eye sensor error in static and dynamic displays. Phase I of the project will systematically develop and evaluate algorithms for POR error correction. The algorithms will detect operator behavior patterns by comparing expected application patterns to observed eye-movement data. The detected patterns will establish confident fixation locations (CFLs). The CFLs will provide the basis for the removal of systematic POR error. Phase II will further validate and implement the algorithms, categorize eye-tracking applications according to correction potential, and develop tools to support the implementation of POR correction in real-world applications.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL, P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Douglas H. Harris
AF 07-037      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Accelerated Skill Acquisition for Intelligence Analysts
Abstract:The proposed research effort recognizes the growing importance of open-source intelligence for evolving military operations, and is designed to enhance the capability of intelligence analysts to develop inferences from open information sources that can be acted on with confidence in the face of future military challenges. Specifically, the objective of the proposed research is to design and develop an innovative training system that will teach intelligence analysts to build critical thinking skills. System development will address the principal cognitive challenges of intelligence analysis, identify the critical thinking skills required to overcome these challenges, apply appropriate training principles and guidelines, integrate practical application with instructional software through the incorporation of simulations and feedback, comply with SCORM and HLA standards, and involve the active participation of the intelligence analysis community.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5260
Dr. Jackie Haynes
AF 07-037      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:BREEZE an innovative web based OSINT trainer
Abstract:IAI will develop an innovative tutor for OSINT analysis. BREEZE will import techniques from speed learning, comprehension training and simulation based instruction disciplines to a set of simulation based vignettes to accelerate OSINT training speed. OSINT work environment is characterized by: (1) Vast amount of available raw information with only a fraction useful; (2) High level of uncertainty. Quality of the intelligence products is a product of 4 vectors: (1) The speed in which the analyst searches the information space available, (2) level of comprehension; (3) ability of the analyst to perform critical thinking tasks; and (4) ability of the analyst to model reality despite amount of information involved. The objective of BREEZE is to extend the analyst ability in any of these vectors and perform Meta cognitive tasks of selecting the appropriate combination of the four for specific tasks. BREEZE will be developed in 2 stages. Phase I will outline the skills required from the students and the types of simulation interactions needed. We will use "Open source" knowledge about tasks and training of Open source intelligence. Phase II will focus on implementation, and creation of actual training tailored to specific needs of the Air Force.

APPLIED VISIONS, INC.
6 Bayview Avenue
Northport, NY 11768
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 754-4920
Dr. John Goodall
AF 07-038      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:SimBLEND: A Simulation-Based Learning Environment for Network Defense
Abstract:We propose to build upon our experiences in developing game-based simulation systems, conducting cognitive task analyses, and authoring product-specific training in the domain of information assurance and computer network defense (CND) to generate a top-level design and proof-of-concept prototype that integrates data visualization, computer-based courseware and game-based simulation to create a training environment that improves the effectiveness of decision making in network defense operations. Our approach will consider architectural alternatives for deploying computer-mediated training and simulation technologies, and for producing a common learning management system that administers and synchronizes the training environment's simulation and training components. We will investigate Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant approaches to content development and delivery to determine if these may be suitable for use in a system that tightly couples training content to simulation. We will also engage CND training providers, and stakeholders in the end-user / trainee community, in continuing to gather needs specification data related to training for effective decision making. We will also investigate how our existing data visualization product line, also developed with the objective of improving CND decision-making effectiveness, can be harnessed within an integrated CND training system.

EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH, INC.
1595 Spring Hill Road , Suite 250
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 869-1658
Dr. Dennis K. Leedom
AF 07-039      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Behavior Signatures
Abstract:The proposed Phase I research will illustrate and assess the feasibility of combining dynamic meaning systems, work control structures, and 4th-generation warfare principles to yield a computational environment for developing behavior signatures of a transnational insurgency movement. This environment allows intelligence analysts and operational planners to develop a functionally-linked framework of hypotheses regarding a transnational insurgency movement's strategic/operational intent and organizational capabilities that can be dynamically maintained as an evidence-supported belief structure, and used to holistically interpret the operational significance of observed objects, events, and conditions and predictively assess and disrupt a future set of contextually-related insurgency behaviors. The research will apply the framework to two case studies involving recent transnational insurgency movements in order to (1) determine if sufficient information exists to create meaningful behavior signatures, (2) identify and illustrate computational methods and techniques that could be incorporated into a Phase II behavior signature system for dynamically maintaining and evaluating a hypothesized model of an insurgency campaign across the strategic-political-operational-tactical spectrum of operations, and (3) identify potential Air Force applications of the behavior signature system for collection management, identification of appropriate operational effects, and the targeting of specific military and interagency actions.

METRICA, INC.
8620 N. New Braunfels, Suite 603
San Antonio, TX 78217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 545-1028
Dr. Brice M. Stone
AF 07-039      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Behavior Signatures
Abstract:The objective of this research project is to develop a new class of multi-attribute behavior signatures to enable the anticipation of enemy activities. Asymmetric warfare and operations against transnational terrorist groups would significantly benefit from a new class of multi-attribute behavior signatures for predicting adversary intent and their likely courses of actions. These behavior signatures could potentially draw upon multiple streams of intelligence data, possibly over long temporal durations, to provide direct and indirect indicators of activities of interest. Conceptually, behavior signatures can be considered to be schemas whose attributes delineate a set of characteristics, or patterns of activity, that define the behavior of potential threat entities (consisting of individuals, groups, organizations, societies, and/or nations/states). The activation or realization of a behavior signature for a particular threat entity can be all or nothing or partial, where some, but not all, of the attributes are matched. Research is needed to define selected initial signature libraries, to explore the type of architecture required to use behavior signatures as a computational system (such as probabilistic neural networks, multinomial logistic regression, etc.), and to identify which Air Force systems would benefit most from behavior signatures technology (such as counter intelligence from influence operations).

MYMIC LLC
200 High Street, Suite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 203-3761
Mr. Steven Aviles
AF 07-039      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Behavior Signatures
Abstract:MYMIC LLC, working with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, proposes a methodology to use behavioral signatures to predict threat actions. The technical approach we propose to use to identify behavior signatures for and predict terror attacks is Bayesian data analysis. This methodology is a collection of practical statistical methods for making inferences from data, based on probability models developed from that data for both observed and unknown quantities of interest. The proposed behavior signature development and prediction methodology is built on two key ideas: a database of past attacks which will be analyzed, and the Bayesian statistical methods for analyzing the database and calculating the probabilities of future attacks. The goal is to analyze the attribute data in the database for predictive patterns, such as: 1.0 Temporal attributes (e.g., time of day, proximity to holidays or political events) 2.0 Causal linkages (e.g., retributions and re-retributions for prior events) 3.0 Location or locale (e.g., city A more likely than B, or terrain type X is more likely than Y)

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Mr. Ryan Houlette
AF 07-039      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Case-Based Behavior Signatures for Prediction of Adversary Behavior
Abstract:We propose the development of a software system to assist analysts with the process of characterizing, monitoring, and predicting adversary behavior. We adopt a case-based approach to the representation of behavior signatures. Based on a variety of possible activities and processes, created by analysts with a visual tool and maintained as a library of cases, the system will monitor intelligence streams for recognizable activity. The representation of a signature, which relates actors to collections of these cases, will be sensitive to the novel attributes of asymmetric adversaries, including decentralized, networked organizations, and non-attritional effects-based operations. Case representation will allow the use of case-based reasoning algorithms to form partial matches to observed activity, providing threat classification and prediction with a quantifiable level of certainty. Furthermore, relationships between cases can yield patterns of broader scope than individual acts: operational cycles, attack campaigns, patterns of methods or targets, and trajectories of adaptation. We will demonstrate the feasibility of the approach on a selected domain.

BLUEFORCE LLC
1919 Commerce Drive, Suite 400
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 788-9179
Dr. Maris McCrabb
AF 07-040      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:CAOC Multimodal Integrated Collaboration Environment (CMICE)
Abstract:CAOC Multimodal Integrated Collaboration Environment (CMICE) is an integrated suite of human-to-human and human-to-information collaboration technology coupled with work-centered tools that provide the information exchange needs discussed in the Joint Battlespace Infosphere and Net Centric vision. The work-centered collaboration environment allows users to interact effectively by making use of the intuitive LiveSpaces environment and allows for the manipulation, tracking and production of objects and attributes during the collaboration. Our ARTEMIS (A Real-Time Effects Management Information Service) is ideally suited to assist in this task by tracking the information flows between the various processes involved.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Ryan Kilgore
AF 07-040      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Collaborative Multimodal Environment for Data Integration and Analysis (C-MEDIA)
Abstract:Warfighters within the modern Air Operations Center (AOC) must successfully integrate and manage dynamic, time-sensitive information from a large number of heterogeneous and multimodal information sources accessed through a variety of software applications, all while collaborating in real-time as efficiently as possible. To address these issues, we propose to design and evaluate a Collaborative Multimodal Environment for Data Integration and Analysis (C-MEDIA). Four core components characterize our approach. First, we will enable AOC personnel to correlate data by building C-MEDIA on a software framework that can fuse heterogeneous information sources and present these sources through a single access point. Second, we will support the manipulation, understanding, and exploitation of correlated data sources by providing users with an integrated view of the data through advanced, human-centered, multimodal display tools within a fully tailorable environment. Third, we will support collaboration between teams of local and distributed AOC personnel by providing a collaborative work environment that lets teams share and manipulate data sources in real-time, then digitally capture collaborative output. Fourth, we will assess the feasibility of our approach by leveraging existing in-house technology and other systems to rapidly design and prototype conceptual information display tools and collaborative capabilities for the C-MEDIA system.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
3100 Presidential Dr , Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Dr. James McCracken
AF 07-040      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Multi-Modal Collaboration Environment
Abstract:We propose our LOCUS program to define and evaluate strategies that demonstrate how data from databases, text, text chat, voice communications, outside sources etc,. can be correlated, presented to and exploited/manipulated by AOC planners for real-time collaboration to support shared situation awareness for development of strategy, plans, and assessments. We proposed evaluation of specific technologies and review of strategies of interaction, coupled with principles of data visualization to accomplish the generation of a single coherent operating picture.

SEHDA, INC.
1153 Bordeaux Dr., , Suite 211
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 747-1010
Mr. Farzad Ehsani
AF 07-041      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:Rapid Development Techniques for Spoken Language Translation
Abstract:Current approaches to building speech translation systems require large amounts of data for building acoustic, language, and translation models. The data requirements lead to high costs and long lead times when building systems for new languages or domains. Sehda, Inc. proposes to dramatically reduce the time and cost to create two-way speech translation systems in new languages and domains by creating new algorithms and approaches to system development that: . Reduce the amount of training data with a divide-and-conquer SMT approach . . Augment existing domain corpora with similar data from the Internet in both English and the target language. . Use acoustic models from other languages to create models in a new language. . Build better translation models from the limited domain-specific parallel corpus. The goal of Phase I is to define a rapid system-building process using these innovations and to deliver a working prototype for a single domain in Korean. In Phase II, Sehda will create a system in another language that is structurally different from Korean and create new algorithms needed for that language, expanding the number of tools that are available to build systems for other languages.

MOBILISA, INC.
191 Otto Street
Port Townsend, WA 98368
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 344-3233
Mr. Craig Bleile
AF 07-042      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Radio Frequency/Microwave Hazard Assessment Tool (RHAZ)
Abstract:Mobilisa and subcontractor Mikros Systems propose to develop the RHAZ analysis tool based on Mobilisa's software package known as AIRchitectr, which already implements several of the key functions required. AIRchitectr was originally developed to model wireless networks onboard US Navy vessels, and incorporates advanced algorithms to simulate RF propagation, model 3D environments and determine ambient RF power levels. The key objective of the proposed program is to modify the baseline AIRchitectr software to provide the additional functionality required for RF hazard analysis. Two types of upgrades will be required. First, the AIRchitectr "front-end" software, which simulates RF propagation, will be enhanced to support geographical and structural models of the environment, and to incorporate indoor/outdoor RF propagation. Second, additional "back-end" code will be developed to implement dosimetry algorithms based on applicable standards and methods (such as IEEE C95.1 and the RFR Dosimetry Handbook). User feedback will be provided using color-coded signal intensity maps and recommended safety actions. The RHAZ Analysis Tool will be developed using standard interfaces and modular methods to accommodate a range of dosimetry methods, and will be able to compare predicted results with empirical survey results to validate operation.

REMCOM, INC.
315 S. Allen St. , Suite 222
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 861-1299
Dr. Stephen A. Fast
AF 07-042      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Radio Frequency/Microwave Hazard Assessment Tool (RHAZ)
Abstract:With the advent of High Powered Microwave (HPW) weapons, it has become necessary to understand the effect of the radiated energy on those persons exposed. Additionally other systems, such as microwave and troposcatter systems, also pose a danger to humans who are exposed to their radiated energy. The U. S. government, the Air Force and other international organizations have developed standards that specify the safe exposure limits. When computing Electromagnetic biohazards, it is necessary to properly consider all aspects of the problem. The aspects are the proper definition of the source and its radiation, proper propagation of the energy to the designated location, and proper computation of the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). The proposed effort extends Remcom's demonstrated Wireless InSite software to treat the prediction monitoring of Radio Frequency and microwave exposure hazards. Thus the focus of Phase I will be to extend WI to compute hazards using key newly developed Remcom technology. In order to meet the run time requirement in Phase I, Remcom will leverage the UPPS and EMPIRE capabilities. This capability, while lower fidelity than what is possible, will, nonetheless, allow the feasibility to be demonstrated in a realistic Phase I prototype. Further, accessing the computational capability via the EMPIRE API will allow the Air Force to incorporate the tools in existing applications. Following successful completion of the Phase I effort, Phase II will focus on enhancing the run time performance of the high fidelity engine using advanced ray tracing techniques.

WAVEPOINT RESEARCH
PO Box 244
Newburgh, IN 47629
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 490-7947
Mr. Eric R. Wandel
AF 07-042      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Radio Frequency/Microwave Hazard Assessment Tool (RHAZ)
Abstract:The proposed effort will result in the development and demonstration of a preliminary prototype capability for a RF Hazard (RHAZ) assessment tool on a PC platform. The RHAZ tool will be designed to be easy and efficient to use by range safety officers or Base Bio-Environmental Engineers in a deployed environment. The user interface for the RHAZ assessment tool will be modeled in part on the existing Laser Hazard (LHAZ) user interface. A prototype developed in Phase I will demonstrate the efficacy of the RHAZ tool. A variety of computational electromagnetic methods will be investigated for implementation, including simple array theory models, method of moments (MoM), geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), finite element methods (FEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD). A combination of selected techniques is anticipated with each selected technique being used as the field solver engine within its respective range of validity.

KNOX ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
PO Box 1507
North Hampton, NH 03862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 319-4640
Mr. William Knox
AF 07-043      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:FastCAL PD-Meter: A Self-Calibrating, Millimeter Wave, Advanced Architected, Power Density Meter
Abstract:Knox Electronic Technologies will develop a power density measurement platform that meets the requirements expressed in SBIR Subtopic AD07-043 with a measurement uncertainty of 0.4 dB at 100 GHz and that can be used in electromagnetic fields that are greater than 1 W/cm2. Existing power density meters can only measure as high as 40 GHz with reported accuracies of 1.0 dB, and they are extremely temperamental. Diode-based sensors can especially be a problem when information is lacking with respect to the signal one is trying to measure. Knox Electronics' approach is to employ vector network analyses using stable, characterized, highly accurate passive transfer standards that are relatively simple to develop, very stable at millimeter wave frequencies, and are immune to temperature drift. In this way, system uncertainties can be treated as systematic errors. This effort will include innovative power measurement techniques, digital receivers and "state-of-the-art" DSP techniques for improving measurement uncertainties, application of reciprocity theory using millimeter wave heterodyne receivers, and a using vector network analysis with a DSP-based single port reflectometer and passive termination to generate a 3-term error- corrected reference plane.

RCA CONSULTANTS, INC.
87 Munson Ave.
West Hempstead, NY 11552
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 538-2449
Dr. Richard C. Augeri
AF 07-043      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:New Directed Energy (Millimeter Wave) Power Density Meters to Determine Dose
Abstract:An accurate method of measuring the millimeter wave power density from 2 GHz to beyond 100 GHz is described. A breadboard demonstration, using a non-convential approach,to accomplish this measurement is described. A design study to develop the breadboard approach in a fully operational meter is described. Notable features of the power density meter include (1) the measurement of power densities as high as 10 W/cm2 (2) frequency independent measurement from 2 GHz to beyond 100GHz (3)remote wireless operation for turn-on, turn-off and scale setings (4) design to operate in a field environment (5) 0.4 dB of accuracy. The proposed program is nine months in duration.

SA PHOTONICS
650 5th Street, Suite 505
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 977-0553
Mr. James F. Coward
AF 07-043      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:New Directed Energy (Millimeter Wave) Power Density Meters to Determine
Abstract:SA Photonics is proposing a program to develop a high speed electro-optic sensor for a high power directed energy power density meter, the SA Photonics' Power density meter (SA-PDM). We will utilize a photonic approach with no active electronic elements in the sensor probe thus allowing detection of extremely high field densities. The innovative approach used in developing Our SA-PDM will improve high Frequency sensitivity by 1000x over current approaches and meets the requirements of this solicitation to measure frequencies up to 100GHz with better than 0.4dB accuracy. Furthermore, this photonic approach with no active electronics in the sensor probe, allow us to meet the field density requirements stated in this solicitation as well.

HEAD REHAB, LLC
801 N. Elizabeth # 2S
Chicago, IL 60622
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 571-4298
Dr. Semyon Slobounov
AF 07-044      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Head Rehab VR System
Abstract:The objective of this project is to develop a conceptual framework, design, produce and preliminary evaluate a HeadRehab's prototype virtual reality (VR) application in order: a) to proper assess functional impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI), via identification of changes in the brain functions, as a first step of patients' rehabilitation protocol; and b) to facilitate re-acquisition of fundamental cognitive and behavioral neural substrates temporary disabled due to TBI. First, we will link TBI symptoms to their underlying mechanisms and will produce VR application (computer graphics modules) to examine how cognitive (i.e., memory, attention and spatial awareness) and behavioral (i.e., visual-kinesthetic sense involved in postural control) neural substrates are interactively affected by the TBI. Second, within the concept of "neuroplasticity" we will ultimately develop a fully immersive VR prototype incorporated with "VR-driven feedback" and suitable interface between TBI patients and computer generated 3-D "enriched environment. Third, an executive task controller will be elaborated allowing a) the rehabilitation therapist to constantly challenge the patients and maintain his or her optimal level of effort and b) the TBI patient to effectively interact with precisely controlled VR environment contingent upon his/her intact physical capabilities. Fully developed HeadRehab's VR prototype may be applied for solders, athletes and ordinary civilians suffering from a wide range of TBI (from mild to severe), and will be most beneficial for patients experiencing long-lasting cognitive-motor and balance residual disabilities.

THE VIRTUAL REALITY MEDICAL CENTER
6160 Cornerstone Court East
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 642-0267
Dr. Mark D. Wiederhold
AF 07-044      Awarded: 11MAY07
Title:A Mixed Reality System for Cognitive Rehabilitation of Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR Phase I project is to plan, design, build, and test a true 3D stereo mixed-reality (MR) system prototype that will enhance cognitive functions in TBI soldiers by inducing neuroplasticity through interaction with an enriched environment. TBI, the signature wound of the Iraq War, is the most common combat-related injury and results in disturbances in attention, memory loss, and executive function. Comprehensive-holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation approaches are effective for remediation of attention deficits and memory impairments, but extremely costly. Finding alternative, cost-effective ways to rehabilitate soldiers would help save the military and government an enormous amount of money. The Virtual Reality Medical Center (VRMC) will work with The Media Convergence Lab (MCL) at the University of Central Florida (UCF) and a TBI expert consultant to create a haptics-enhanced true 3D stereo mixed reality system designed to stimulate and improve cognitive functions in warfighters that suffer from TBI with the end goal of helping them return to service.

ACCACIA INTERNATIONAL, INC.
One Tech Plaza, 2113 Wells Branch Parkway, Suite 6
Austin, TX 78728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 782-8289
Mrs. Eula Sequeira
AF 07-045      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Polyvalent Aptamer Networks
Abstract:Aptamers have been selected against a variety of important biodefense targets, including protein toxins such as ricin and pepocin and antigens from pathogenic bacteria such as Yersinia spp. and F. tularemia. To ensure that reagents can be created for any of a variety of chemical and biological agents, including new biological agents, selection methods need to be streamlined. The cost of chemical and enzymatic synthesis of many RNA or modified RNA aptamers remains prohibitive for their development as therapeutics, which limit their application in diagnostic and biosensor applications. The cheapest and best alternative method is to synthesize short DNA aptamers. Unfortunately, short DNA aptamers frequently do not bind their targets with high affinities and specificities, because the surface area between the aptamer and target is too small to ensure multiple contacts. We propose a novel selection method that will both generate high affinity aptamers in a single step and significantly reduce the cost of synthesis of these aptamers. Deliverables for this project will be short aptamers that can bind as networks to MS2 bacteriophage or B. subtilis with affinities in the nanomolar range. The specificities of these aptamer networks will be measured by determining whether they bind to non-cognate targets.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Vladimir Gilman
AF 07-045      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Rapid Isolation of DNA Aptamers (RIDA)
Abstract:DNA aptamers are promising highly-specific, environmentally-stable threat-detecting molecules. Unfortunately, the current method for generating these materials yields a product frought with a high concentration of ballast aptamers. A laborious, yet automated process is required to isolate the desired molecules, thereby precluding their widespread use. Infoscitex (IST) proposes to develop a rapid aptamer production process that relies upon the law of mass action to make selection of high affinity and selective aptamers after only one round. The Phase I program will focus on demonstrating the approach to be rapid, scalable, and economical. Upon successful completion of Phase I, Phase II/III activities will focus on the continued development and scale-up of the novel technology of aptamer isolation process.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Anton Chestukhin
AF 07-045      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Rapid Development of DNA Aptamers for Agent Identification, Tracking and Neutralization
Abstract:DNA aptamers are artificial nucleotide sequences that bind to target molecules with affinity and specificity similar to those of antibodies. High specificity, stability and low cost of aptamers make them superior modalities for detection of biodefense toxin and biological threat agents. Specific DNA aptamers are selected from combinatorial libraries by series of iterative selection/amplification cycles called SELEX (Systemic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment). Separation of aptamer/target complexes from unbound aptamers is a key step in the enrichment process and a variety of technical approaches have been used. However, all of currently available protocols for selection of aptamers require numerous selection cycles with enzymatic amplification steps that may produce artifacts. Ultimate improvement of both selection time and selection specificity could be achieved by developing a single step selection protocol. We propose a novel NON-SELEX-based approach for single step DNA aptamer selection. The Phase I effort will provide essential data for the proof of methodology concept and will set the stage for identification of specific aptamers. Further evaluation of PSI's novel technology will be carried out by extending it to selection of aptamers against biodefense-relevant targets in Phase II.

ASTRON WIRELESS TECHNOLIGIES, INC.
22560 Glenn Drive, Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Mr. Glenn F. Brown
AF 07-059      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Planar Wideband Phased-Array Element For VHF RADAR
Abstract:The objective of the SBIR Topic AF 071-059, "Planar Wideband Phased-Array Element for VHF Radar", is the development of a single antenna element which can be used for a VHF (25 to 88MHz) Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) Radar Phased-Array. It must also be designed to be able to be placed on the skin (metal or composite) of the aircraft fuselage. The development of novel planar phased-array elements with low profile and wide bandwidth (25 to 88MHz) is the final objective of this SBIR effort.

FIRST RF CORP.
4865 Sterling Drive, Suite 100
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
AF 07-059      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Planar Wideband Phased-Array Element For VHF RADAR
Abstract:Currently fielded VHF FOPEN SAR systems are tailored around large Unmanned Aerial Vehicles such as the Global Hawk platform. The current antenna design is an array of log-periodic monopoles that is permanently installed on the platform. While these antennas deliver the gain and suppress the backlobe at sufficient level, they are large and require permanent installation on the aircraft. There is a need to provide an alternate technology that does not require a permanent installation on a large aircraft. Installation on tactical sized UAVs such as Predator is desired for maximizing the tactical value and flexibility of the system. The FIRST RF solution achieves the critical performance characteristics from a low profile two element array. Many wideband array elements are 3 dimensional and require a minimum spacing of 0.2 wavelengths or more of depth. This is impractical for VHF frequencies on small platforms. The proposed array element technology is capable of meeting coverage and bandwidth requirements while maintaining conformality. In addition, traditional array solutions require a large number of elements to achieve the necessary front to back ratio. The FIRST RF beamforming technology requires a minimum of only 2 elements to achieve the front to back requirement.

MAXIM SYSTEMS
1615 Murray Canyon Road, Suite 400
San Diego, CA 92108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 574-2274
Mr. Tai Seibert
AF 07-060      Awarded: 15MAY07
Title:Multiple Independent Levels of Security/Safety Tools and Processes
Abstract:The Multiple Independent Layers of Security/Safety (MILS) architecture brings the promise of high assurance to embedded systems in numerous DoD communications, intelligence, and avionics platforms. Unfortunately, its widespread adoption for managing single and multi-level classified data has been limited by the various DoD Certification and Accreditation (C&A) processes it must undergo. While MILS has specifically been designed to be highly reusable and automated from the start, DoD C&A evaluations are still performed manually. The result is many months and potentially millions of dollars for even a simple system accreditation. To address this problem, MAXIM Systems and teammates OIS and Ball Aerospace will research the requirements for an automated DoD C&A tool to address the MILS architecture, targeting the B-2 EHF SATCOM program. The MAXIM team will then research methods to generalize this tool for other MILS application platforms as well as non-MILS environments. The team will also define requirements for use of the technology as a Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool for third party developers to ensure C&A compliance and MILS best practices are built into future software from the start. MAXIM will produce a complete development plan and proof of concept demonstration as part of this research.

WW TECHNOLOGY GROUP
4519 Mustering Drum
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-4353
Dr. Chris Walter
AF 07-060      Awarded: 25MAY07
Title:Multiple Independent Levels of Security/Safety Tools and Processes
Abstract:The innovations offered by the WWTG are grounded in our novel work in developing a model-based approach that integrates views and tools for certifying MILS-based systems. Specific advancements are realized through representations of diverse, yet coordinated, behaviors affecting MILS policies and certification as executable models to produce high fidelity, repeatable and readily communicated artifacts. A common modeling hub is used to supports the integration of heterogeneous simulation and modeling technologies through a tool bus technology. The tool offers the potential to integrate methodologies that heretofore were disparate and performed by expert teams (i.e. security, safety, fault tolerance) into a common toolsuite accessible by many stakeholders. Information related to the system description, design and certification follows the system throughout the life-cycle and can be used early in to flag violations/deficiencies and/or used in the optimization of key system operating and design parameters. The combination of policies for MILS separation kernels analyzed with a proven, multi-formalism modeling tool offers a unique opportunity to improve upon the state of the art in the certification of MILS architectures. This will advance the state of the art beyond devising formal processes and practices but will enable application of these concepts to specific implementations.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Mr. Steven Mercurio
AF 07-061      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:GMTI Forensics Analysis Tools
Abstract:Black River Systems Co., Inc. propose to develop a forensic analysis system that provides various levels of data exploitation via tracking and fusion of GMTI and other data sources with a layered approach that provides the analyst with tools to perform data mining, adaptive criteria for event detection, and ultimately moves the analysts from a reactive stance following events such as IED explosions to a proactive or predictive capability. The primary emphasis during Phase I includes development of an architecture that supports existing tools and data archives, and algorithm research with emphasis on forensics and adaptive learning from analyst experience. Proposed for Phase II is the development of a prototype system that is distributed to operational communities with emphasis on testing with real theatre data and fast reaction enhancements and capabilities.

PARIETAL SYSTEMS, INC.
510 Turnpike Street, Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
Dr. Robert B. Washburn
AF 07-061      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Graphical Analysis for MTI Exploitation (GAME)
Abstract:The ability of airborne GMTI radars to observe motion persistently over large regions provides an unsurpassed potential to detect linkages between events or facilities for forensic analysis. However, realizing this potential is currently a time-consuming, manually intensive task requiring days or weeks to produce actionable intelligence. To reduce the analysis time and the analyst workload we propose to develop a family of graphical analysis tools for automated GMTI link discovery. Our approach extracts key track-to-track relationships from MTI (or other INT) data to produce a large directed graph, enabling the application of computationally efficient algorithms which have been developed to perform link analysis on very large graphs. Because our approach transforms the data from tracks to a discrete nodes and links, it simplifies difficult problems of multi-INT correlation and fusion, avoids the need for long track lifetimes, and still retains the information needed for forensic analysis. We also apply recent extensions of scan statistic methods to graphical data to detect interesting relationships from noisy graph data. These methods allow users to incorporate information about data uncertainty and to get back quantitative confidence measures for the discovered linkages, helping users to determine if there is adequate information for making decisions.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5241
Dr. Renato Levy
AF 07-062      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:A Cross-layer Approach for Reliable Communication in Airborne Networks
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose an innovative technical approach for achieving reliable wireless communications in Airborne Network environment based on an integrated cross-layer design on Link layer, Network layer and Transport layer. Our approach has four main advantageous features: (1) a cross-layer framework assists information exchanges between different networking layers, expedites upper layers' response to quick changes of physical links and outside environment, and helps to optimize link selections; (2) the approach considers the broad diversity of link types in Airborne Networks, and implements an distributed agent-based link management scheme to enable network's self-adaptation to link dynamics; (3) a network addressing methodology provides automatic address configuration in Airborne Networks, and easy conversion between Airborne Network addresses and standard IP addresses; and (4) a transport-layer mechanism specially customized for Airborne Networks can provide reliable end-to-end connections on lossy, intermittent and asymmetric paths.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Mr. Wassim Ferzali
AF 07-062      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Collaborative Open Architecture Technology for Reliable Airborne Networking (COATRAN)
Abstract:Mayflower proposes a reliable airborne networking technology, the Collaborative Open Architecture Technology for Reliable Airborne Networking (COATRAN), to meet the Air Force objectives, namely, to develop data-link, network, and transport layer protocols, interoperable with standard Internet protocols, which provide reliable performance over intermittent wireless connections of Airborne Networks. The proposed COATRAN system uses an open architecture for interoperability with standard IP protocols and interconnectivity with space and terrestrial networks, and cross-layer and inter-node collaboration to counter deleterious effects of high-speed mobility, platform dynamics, link heterogeneity and variability. The COATRAN system will increase reliability of communication and networking under adverse conditions by utilizing innovative protocols that foster cross-layer and cross-network collaboration between nodes to form a smart network with smart nodes. The proposed COATRAN system leverages Mayflower's expertise in airborne networking, and builds on technology developed under three Phase II SBIR programs and Internal R&D. The COATRAN system, when proven feasible in the Phase I study for the Air Force application, has enormous potential for military and commercial applications. Mayflower will develop a cost effective COATRAN prototype system in Phase I and II, and ensure its commercialization in Phase III and beyond.

KUTTA CONSULTING, INC.
2075 W. Pinnacle Peak Rd., Suite 102
Phoenix, AZ 85023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 896-1976
Mr. Douglas V. Limbaugh
AF 07-063      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:ATC Position Reports for Unmanned Aircraft (UA)
Abstract:In this proposal, Kutta architects a high-reliable UAV Reporting Schema (UAV-RS). Kutta leverages its experience in developing flight certifiable software, avionics bus schemas, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control stations. Kutta also capitalizes on existing DOD investments and its strategic relationships within the UAV community. These relationships and existing technologies allow Kutta's team to architect a UAV-RS that quickly transitions onto the battlefield and into the National Air Space (NAS). Kutta and their partners use a proven software engineering methodology to derive the schema for the reporting system and evaluate the schemas in their own UAV hardware in-the-loop simulators. Additionally, Kutta tests the high-potential schemas and system architecture against a multitude of UAV use cases to analyze and optimize the UAV-RS. Near the end of the Phase I, Kutta demonstrates many of the preliminary schemas working in real-time 2D and 3D geo-referenced environments. At the end of the Phase I effort, Kutta delivers a System and Software Requirements Document (SSRD) for the optimized schemas and works with FAA Designated Engineering Representatives (DERs) and relevant agencies to start the process for ratification and transition of the UAV-RS onto the battlefield and into the NAS.

VIPMOBILE, INC.
655 Montgomery Street, Suite 540
San Francisco, CA 94111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 837-3201
Dr. Bill Webster
AF 07-063      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:ATC Position Reports for Unmanned Aircraft (UA)
Abstract:Unmanned aircraft (UA) position reports currently cannot be transmitted to air traffic control (ATC) displays by altitude and latitude/longitude of the aircraft. There is no schema for converting position reports for all UA used in theatre into a standard format and to forward this information to ATC and battle management facilities. Our approach will be to implement a simplified XML-based schema using Cursor-on-Target as an initial area of investigation. We will utilize message file reduction methods to improve data throughput over limited bandwidth. The end state is the creation of a ATC Position Reporting System based on a high performance data base engine. The reporting system will be integrated into the ATC Tactical Briefcase currently under development for AFRL/HE and ST BAO.

CAPRARO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
311 Turner Street Suite 410
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 733-0854
Dr. Gerard T. Capraro
AF 07-064      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Managed Information Delivery to Multiple Devices
Abstract:The US military must provide the right information to its warfighters in a timely manner. This must be done securely, to a large variety of mobile devices across different networks, in different formats, and using multiple protocols. Mobile devices should be used to receive information from the network, gather data, and send it to the network. The commercial products for these purposes do not meet many military requirements, such as security and Net-Centricity. The military has a major problem in connecting legacy systems, and adding new, proprietary commercial systems would only exacerbate the problem. We propose a system to manage information from and to a wide variety of mobile devices across networks called a Unified Military Secure Information Mobile System (UMSIMS) that will integrate with the military Net-Centric approach. It is a standards-based, extensible, secure and unified approach to coordinate multiple devices over multiple networks, while minimizing information overload. UMSIMS utilizes commercial products and standards, including Semantic Web technologies, and both new and legacy military communications systems, including airborne networks, UAVs and space assets. It will both forward and gather information to and from a variety of devices, accept new devices and software readily, and be domain independent.

VISION SYSTEMS & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6021 University Blvd, Suite 360
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 418-5555
Ms. Catherine Holmes
AF 07-064      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Managed Information Delivery to Multiple Devices
Abstract:We propose an innovative approach to meet the Air Force's objective of seamlessly delivering information and alerts to the warfighter that accommodates multiple devices, connections, formats, and protocols. In particular, we propose to develop a system that can securely deliver and manage critical information flow to multiple devices utilizing different connections and protocols. We will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by building a proof-of-principle publish and subscribe system utilizing a commercial agent-based messaging platform called AgentLogic as its foundation. VSTI will extend the core capabilities of the messaging platform and integrate FIPA-based ontologies and standards to provide a system that is extensible, secure, easily managed, and domain independent. The resulting system will be able to process data from multiple current and legacy systems, both push and pull information and alerts to users, and automatically modify this information to accommodate device limitations.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue, Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. C. Allen Butler/Dr. Eric C. Butts
AF 07-066      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:Fusion of Airborne Surveillance and Intelligence Information
Abstract:In this project, Wagner Associates will develop a prototype Multi-hypothesis Active and Passive Data Fusion System (MAPDFS). MAPDFS will accurately fuse active data, such as Air Moving Target Indicator (AMTI) reports; with passive data, such as Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) reports. MAPDFS will rely on a sophisticated multiple hypothesis algorithm to allow the ambiguity inherent in contact association, especially when processing passive only detections, to resolve over time. MAPDFS will also use a Gaussian sum tracker to provide an accurate estimate of target location, even when active data is not available. In addition, MAPDFS will use a detailed model of ELINT reports when calculating association scores, thereby increasing the likelihood of obtaining and maintaining the correct associations. In this project we will also design scenarios and produce simulated data that will allow us to demonstrate the benefits of the accurate fused picture produced by MAPDFS.

NUMERICA CORP.
PO Box 271246
Ft. Collins, CO 80527
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 419-8343
Dr. Benjamin J. Slocumb
AF 07-066      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Fusion of Airborne Surveillance and Intelligence Information
Abstract:Airborne ISR platforms generate tactical air picture representations using kinematic information from radar and combat identification information from ELINT. This program seeks to develop a fusion system that is capable of combining airborne MTI (AMTI) radar data and airborne target ELINT (ATE) data to provide a Common Operating Picture (COP). Numerica's proposed fusion approach is formulated within the context of a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) system, and it leverages Numerica's extensive expertise in architectures for a Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP). Numerica's approach specifically addresses the need for an attribute-aided scoring process that uses the target classification information provided by the AMTI and ELINT systems, and it addresses the issue that airborne ELINT systems are unable to geospatially-reference the location of ATE reports. The proposed program also addresses techniques for capitalizing on AMTI-ATE fused data. At each platform, the fusion results can be used for sensor control to improve detection, accuracy, surveillance coverage, and response time performance.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Ms. Marisa Gioioso
AF 07-068      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:The Metadata Security Assertion Framework and Evaluation system (MetaSAFE)
Abstract:Modern Defense strategy and execution is increasingly net-centric and distributed, allowing for new information flows that cross system, domain, and community of interest boundaries. But these new data flows introduce security risk as sensitive information passes outside of the domain where it was created. To mitigate this risk, the originators of information must assert control over the dissemination of sensitive information, and the receivers of information must validate that this sensitive information was disseminated by trustworthy and valid sources. In both cases, detailed and accurate metadata must be provided with the assurance that it cannot be compromised to misrepresent the associated information. ATC-NY, in collaboration with Architecture Technology Corporation, will develop the Metadata Security Assertion Framework and Evaluation system (MetaSAFE) to enable a guard or other security device to manage the creation and validation of security metadata. MetaSAFE will provide secure association of information with its metadata, and a secure trail of assertions, signed by trusted sources, validating the metadata. The metadata will provide assertions about the classification of the information as well as the security pedigree of the information. Building upon existing ATC-NY pedigree technology, MetaSAFE will provide the most balanced volume- and time-efficient representation of these security assertions.

DISTRIBUTED INFINITY, INC.
1382 Quartz Mountain Drive
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 825-8709
Dr. Wendy L. Hamilton
AF 07-068      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Adaptive Metadata Integrity Assurance
Abstract:Information Dominance is the key metric in today's battlefield. Reliance on data and management of data and the accuracy and integrity of that data are paramount to mission success. Metadata enables solutions to many problems of integrity of data. As the data becomes more distributed, virtual, and ubiquitous, current methods of centralized metadata and version control are not responsive to mission needs and are not scaleable to network centric operations. Phase I will extend existing agents to create an evaluation prototype Adaptive Metadata Integrity Analysis (AMIA) system. AMIA will evaluate decentralized development, tracking, and analysis of metadata in a network centric mission environment. This evaluation will be explicitly focused on scalability and responsiveness to the network centric warfare environment. AMIA evaluation will assess integrity of metadata on various objects developed locally and used locally as well as global data usage. AMIA phase I evaluation will provide evaluation of the control signals and risks related to adapting the level and quantity of metadata captured and retained across the network.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Curt Wu
AF 07-069      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:Software Trustworthiness Assessment Tool (STAT)
Abstract:Warfighters are increasingly dependent on systems that must be reliable and secure to perform their missions. There is a growing concern about software system security because many current software systems are neither reliable nor secure. With the possibility of external agents and conditions accidentally or purposefully degrading system performance, software should ideally be secure from these threats. In short the software must be trustworthy. A method is needed for the system administrator to assess the current security level of a system and gain insight into active vulnerabilities, so risk can be actively managed rather than incorrectly assumed to be at a constant level. Also, an approach is needed to learn during runtime what behavior at a system level is "normal" and by extension, trustworthy, and what is unusual and potentially untrustworthy. We are pleased to submit this proposal to design and demonstrate the feasibility of a Software Trustworthiness Assessment Tool (STAT). This effort will investigate techniques for assessing the software trustworthiness of an integrated system during runtime. We anticipate that the results of this effort will be widely applicable to any software system where trustworthiness is a concern and analysis of individual application trustworthiness is not sufficient.

COGNITIVE CONCEPTS
458 E Jackson
Webster Groves, MO 63119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 961-7454
Mr. Peter Lakey
AF 07-069      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:Methodology for Software Trustworthiness Measurement
Abstract:Cognitive Concepts (CC) and High Performance Technologies, Inc. (HPTi) will support the Air Force in defining objective measures of software trustworthiness, not just for embedded systems, but for a broad range of applications. The innovation is to establish measures of the inherent risks in software systems and to provide tools to implement those measures. The measurements we define will be fundamentally sound from a theoretical standpoint and will be practical as well. CC and HPTi will identify measures that are appropriate for all aspects of assurance and integrate these measures to form a coherent, comprehensive theory for measuring software system trustworthiness. Clear guidelines will be provided to the implementers and repeatable results will be obtained by independent applications of the measures. We offer a simple yet highly practical solution to the software trustworthiness measurement problem. It is summarized in this paragraph. Software trustworthiness should be a user-oriented measure. Software reliability is a user-oriented measure. The software reliability definition can be expanded to be applied to the software security and software safety domains. Our software trustworthiness measure will cover reliability, security and safety to provide an aggregate measure of the inherent risk of a software system.

DPRA, INC.
10215 Technology Drive, Suite 201
Knoxville, TN 37932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(865) 777-3772
Mr. Ralph Alexander
AF 07-070      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Timely Decision-Making for Logistics Support
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to conduct research to address problems of inadequate logistics support planning during the contingency or crisis action planning process. The current deployment planning process primarily focuses on the flow of forces into theater and sustainment planning is regulated to a secondary effort, or worse, as an afterthought. The Global Channel Analysis for Logistic Support (GCALS) tool will seek to effectively "optimize" and synchronize the flow of forces, equipment, and sustainment within the Combatant Commander's (CCDR) Operations Plan (OPLAN). Although logistics planning is considered in the overall planning process, there are some drawbacks to the current approach. The sustainment channel moves only sustainment and the forces channel moves only forces. As a result, each channel may have significant unused capacity, which can be used for a better-optimized deployment plan. By performing a channel analysis of second and third order requirements, GCALS will be able to optimize resource usage of available assets. This will result in a more optimized transportation flow for the OPLAN and save significant costs to the using customer. This proposal will research and define optimization strategies within a dynamic environment that focus on resource usage against resource availability.

JXT APPLICATIONS, INC.
2673 Commons Blvd, Suite 25
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 306-5003
Mr. Scott Cone
AF 07-070      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Timely Decision-Making for Logistics Support
Abstract:Logistics planning has traditionally been treated as a support function to military operational planning, even though transportation options are a key enabler and limiter of any military operation. However, the need for greater mobility, flexibility, efficiency, rapid response capabilities and effective joint operations dictates a new approach in which deployment planning is better integrated into core mission planning processes. New technologies are needed to enable the rapid identification of feasible transportation options; enhance shared awareness of the commander's intent and available transportation options and constraints; and enhance collaboration among the supported and supporting commands. This effort focuses on improved algorithms for determining optimized transportation solutions in a matter of hours or minutes rather than days. Our solution will extend state of the art methods involving Tabu search algorithms and adapt them into a decision support tool that can produce more effective Airlift transportation solutions in significantly less time than current models. It will also incorporate human guidance and collaborative components in order to enhance algorithm performance, accommodate dynamic requirements and priorities, and facilitate shared transportation situation awareness. The resulting system will be a powerful decision tool that can be easily integrated into current planning processes.

DATASOFT CORP.
7669 S. Myrtle Ave.
Tempe, AZ 85284
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 763-5777
Mr. Larry Dunst
AF 07-072      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:End-to-End Performance Management for RF Networks
Abstract:The needs of the future Airborne Network present unique challenges for performance monitoring, beyond the capabilities of conventional approaches: a fast-moving, dynamically adapting, heterogeneous RF network in need of real-time, end-to-end performance monitoring. We propose to research and develop innovative approaches that will help to ensure high quality performance throughout the Airborne Network. Our simulation study will indicate the approach most capable of operating efficiently, adapting to changing network conditions, and reporting accurately on current network performance.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Dr. Michael O'Connor
AF 07-072      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:ADMS
Abstract:Systran Federal Corp. (SFC) proposes to develop innovative techniques for providing end-to-end (E2E) performance management in Airborne Networks. Airborne Networks are envisioned to play a critical role in establishing a new paradigm for network-centric warfare. Due to the dynamically changing topologies and time-varying link qualities of Airborne Networks, it is very difficult to ensure reliable E2E connectivity. We propose a novel management solution for Airborne Networks that is adaptive, distributed, reliable, and scalable. SFC has assembled a distinguished team to address these problems and to develop a solid approach to commercializing these technologies to COTS solutions that are deployable throughout the Global Information Grid. At the end of Phase II, we plan to have a pre-production version of our technology ready for immediate deployment in selected applications.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Joao B. D. Cabrera
AF 07-074      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:RARANET: A Routing Architecture for Airborne Networks
Abstract:Due to the characteristics of Airborne Networks (ANs), where end-to-end routes are not always available, current wireless routing technologies cannot be used on them. Similarly, new metrics are required to describe ANs accurately so that routes that use the ANs resources efficiently can be calculated. We propose to develop RARANET, a Routing Architecture for Airborne Networks, which will enable routing to be performed in ANs. It will be a flexible, modular architecture with interchangeable components so that the different Quality-of-Service traffic requirements of varying ANs can be met. We will study the metrics, such as Expected Transmission Count (ETX) or Weighted Cumulative Expected Transmission Time (WCETT), that can be used to describe the specific characteristics of links in ANs. We will also investigate new routing algorithms, such as multi-criteria routing, that utilize one or more of these metrics to meet the Quality-of-Service demands of the AN. Topology control and routing will be performed by Hazy Sighted Link-state (HSLS), a novel routing algorithm that scales with network size. It will also be responsible for disseminating Entity Capability Profiles (ECPs), data structures which contain a detailed description of the nodes' characteristics. It will also use disruption tolerant routing schemes to overcome connectivity issues caused by intermittent links. The routing architecture will be Link-layer agnostic to permit it to work with any technologies that can be found in an AN. BBN Technologies will serve as a subcontractor, providing unique expertise on routing in the wireless environment and support for prototyping in Phase II.

UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORP.
11150 Olympic Blvd., Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Dr. Abhishek Tiwari
AF 07-074      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Mobility Aware Routing for Airborne Network
Abstract:Airborne network is absolutely critical for the information superiority of the US armed forces as it will form an integral and inseparable part of the global information grid. The link characteristics of the airborne network are very different from those of fixed internet and the terrestrial mobile ad-hoc wireless networks, which make the routing problem for airborne network a unique and challenging one. The nodes of the airborne network are highly sophisticated airborne platforms with precise control and have the capability to compute optimal flight plans in advance. We propose a mobility dissemination/mobility aware routing protocol suite which leverages the advantages offered by the computational and sensing equipment on board airborne platforms. In this proposal, we outline the benefits offered by the proposed MDP/MARP protocol suite over existing routing protocols for fixed internet and mobile ad-hoc wireless networks. We propose the development of an AirborneNetEmulator which captures the link characteristics and other issues pertinent to airborne networks, for testing, evaluation and comparison of the proposed protocol suite. We have provided preliminary simulation examples in this proposal to validate our methodology. The Phase I effort will focus on developing AirborneNetEmulator, MDP/MARP protocol suite and comparison with existing routing protocols.

EXPAND, INC.
5728 Major Boulevard, Suite 232
Orlando, FL 32819
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 351-1553
Dr. John Woodring
AF 07-075      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Innovative Mixed-time Resolution Technologies for Integrated Discrete Event and Continuous System Simulations
Abstract:The use of High-Level Petri Nets for developing executable architectures, and simulations of these architectures, has become increasingly more accepted over the past decade for several reasons: they are based upon formal mathematics that provides proven methods for their verification; they are relatively easy to learn and use; they can be used to describe asynchronous concurrent systems; they are supported by tools that simplify the process of composing and executing them. However, Petri Nets, as originally formulated in the early 1960s, did not include the concept of time. Since then, several extensions of the basic Petri Net methodology have developed to address timing; however, none meets all of the requirements for describing complex military and commercial architectures. The proposed investigation will identify a comprehensive methodology for describing timing and provide a strategy for implementing it in an executable architecture tool. Two specific timing problems will be addressed. Architectures that integrate communications and operations are difficult to describe and execute because these components evolve on significantly different time scales; therefore, a mixed-time resolution strategy is required. Many systems and operations are better described as continuous rather than discrete process, and thus cannot be well described by the current generation of tools.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Michael Graul
AF 07-075      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Mixed-mode Simulation-based Executable Architectures (MiMoSEA)
Abstract:KBSI proposes to develop a novel methodology and supporting technology to facilitate the verification, validation and quantitative assessment of DoDAF models for systems specification and subsystem integration using mixed-mode (discrete and continuous) simulation techniques. Currently, there exists a modeling gap between the DoDAF architectural specification and the mixed-mode simulation-based representations. We propose to bridge this gap by developing an intermediary mixed-mode Simulation-based Executable Language based on Bond Graphs, Hybrid Bond graphs and Colored Petri Nets. These representations will then be used along with a set of user-specified execution goals to generate a mixed-mode simulation model that can be targeted to different mixed-mode simulation engines. Additionally, the representation will be amenable to the use of rule-based and automated reasoning techniques for qualitative verification and validation. We will elaborately document the Mixed-mode Simulation-based Executable Architectures (MiMoSEA) methodology for model developers, strategic military analysts and systems analysts to develop, modify, validate, and publish DoDAF-based architectures that are quantifiably verifiable and validated and hence useful in DoD systems procurements.

FANTASTIC DATA LLC
207 Prospect Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 643-9555
Mr. Thomas Hammel
AF 07-077      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Network Services for a Dynamic Wireless Airborne Network
Abstract:The Department of Defense is planning to develop an IP-based Airborne Network (AN) to interconnect mobile airborne platforms with existing and planned space and terrestrial networks. Network services, such as, name to address translation, dynamic address assignment, and time synchronization are essential to the smooth operation of the internet and are normally provided invisibly by protocols such as, Domain Name Service (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), and Network Time Protocol (NTP) respectively. Unfortunately, these existing IP based protocols are ill-suited for use in the airborne environment which is characterized by lossy and intermittent connectivity. We explore the use of shared information spaces to provide the fundamental coordination and caching of data for a novel implementation of DHCP and DNS. This new implementation works on the lossy airborne network because that is its natural environment.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5250
Dr. Leonard Haynes
AF 07-077      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:An Integrated Robust and Auto-Configurable Network Service Protocol Suite for Wireless Airborne Networks
Abstract:The envisioned Airbone Network (AN) is expected to provide seamless connectivity for operators and a large number of applications. All these applications require proper network service support, including auto-configurable addressing, human usable naming, and support for service discovery. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI), in collaboration with Prof. Dharma P. Agrawal at the University of Cincinnati and Dr. T. McAuley at the Telcordia Technologies Inc., proposes an Integrated Robust and Auto-Configurable Network Service Protocol Suite (IRAC_NSPS) to enable a variety of network services in ANs. The proposed IRAC_NSPS exploits existing technologies and makes them more applicable to the dynamic ANs. First, the network service functionalities are formulated in a distributed hierarchical manner, which improves the protocol scalability, reliability and robustness. Second, an auto-configurable address assignment approach is proposed to provide bandwidth-efficiency and robustness. We also adapt terrestrial domain name service to dynamic AN environments by adding dynamic configurations. The Logical Name System is also proposed to further enhance the robustness and efficiency of the name service. Finally, the service architecture generation and maintenance mechanisms as well as the service discovery protocol are integrated to mitigate the overhead due to the constrained-bandwidth nature in ANs.

PARIETAL SYSTEMS, INC.
510 Turnpike Street, Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
Dr. John J. Fox
AF 07-078      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Geo-Statistical Analysis, Modeling and Simulation for Behavioral Motion Patterns
Abstract:The Air Force has collected a large repository of Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) data from a variety of sensors. This wealth of data offers an unprecedented opportunity to perform comprehensive statistical analyses of surface vehicle motions under a variety of conditions and to better understand the correlations between these vehicle patterns and operationally significant events. To date, a comprehensive analysis of this data utilizing modern time-series analyses and geo-statistical analysis based tools has not yet been performed against this data. In this research, we propose to perform this analysis with a specific goal of estimating the relationship between traffic models and various parameters of interest (including time of day, location, proximity to other events, etc). The insights gained into the statistical behaviors will then be applied as the basis for generative models to create a large-scale simulation capability suitable for producing scenarios several orders of magnitude larger in terms of both time and space than current capabilities.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Allan Corbeil
AF 07-078      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:GMTI Exploitation Modeling: Deriving Behavior and Characteristics from Data Sets
Abstract:TSC proposes to extend proven techniques that extract traffic parameters from GMTI radar measurements and tracks for input to mathematical models that characterize target behavior. TSC will adapt an existing MIT traffic model that has been developed to estimate the vehicle flow between specific origins and destinations from real-time sensors. Historical GMTI data will be incorporated using a fuzzy logic approach to supplement real-time, multi-sensor data to compensate for terrain shadowing and other sensor limitations. In Phase 1, TSC will employ our high fidelity GMTI radar simulation and military target / commuter traffic models to generate test data to demonstrate our concept. TSC will extract vehicle sources and sinks, estimate travel-time and determine route choices for a representative military scenario. TSC will also incorporate intelligence reports and other ancillary information to improve the models. In Phase II, TSC will fully implement and evaluate the traffic modeling approach, and apply it to collected data, as available. TSC will then process operational GMTI radar databases or other Air Force simulation scenarios to show its benefit to exploitation. In Phase III, TSC will customize and integrate our algorithms into an existing multi-sensor ground station for further testing and operational use.

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway, Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Dr. Matthew McClain
AF 07-079      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:AALF: Adjustable Adaptive Language speech Filter
Abstract:The ability to efficiently process intelligence data is critical to fighting the global war on terror. A major source of this data is recorded speech. Therefore, the performance of speech processing applications (speech recognition and speaker identification applications, for example) depends on pre-processing to find the regions in the recording where speech is present. Although current methods have had success isolating human speech from interfering background noise, these methods have not addressed non-language speech sounds (NLSS), i.e., sighs, coughing, and backchannel sounds ("un-huh", "hmm", etc.). 21st Century Technologies (21CT) proposes Adjustable Adaptive Language speech Filter (AALF) as a robust NLSS filtering system that combines a signal processing feature extraction component, an adaptive machine learning mechanism that provides robustness to various input conditions, and a post-processing component that includes a user-specified detection threshold to tune AALF's performance for specific speech processing applications that follow. AALF will improve the generation of actionable intelligence by decreasing the cost of creating speech training databases and improving the performance of speech processing applications.

ADVANCED ACOUSTIC CONCEPTS, INC.
425 Oser Avenue
Hauppauge, NY 11788
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 273-5700
Dr. Bruce Stewart
AF 07-079      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Biologically Based Non-Language Speech Sound Detection
Abstract:This proposal addresses the application of new acoustic processing technologies to automatically identify and eliminate non-language speech sounds as a pre-processing stage to improve audio processing. Non-language speech sounds make up a large part of natural human language use, but contemporary speech recognition data preparation relies on hand-labeling of non-language speech sounds. The proposed work will extend the capabilities of a computational model of auditory processing based on multiscale spectro-temporal modulation features to the automated detection of non-language speech sounds. Advanced Acoustic Concepts and the University of Maryland have extensive experience applying the computational model to a variety of sound recognition and sound stream segregation problems. One particularly relevant application involved distinguishing speech from non-speech sounds consisting of animal vocalizations, music, and environmental sounds. Using a sound database to be provided by the sponsor, algorithms will be trained and tested in a similar fashion to distinguish non-language speech sounds from language. Algorithms for exact segmentation of the sound stream will be designed and demonstrated.

DISTRIBUTED INFINITY, INC.
1382 Quartz Mountain Drive
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 825-8709
Mr. Samuel N. Hamilton
AF 07-080      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Network Attack Damage Assessment
Abstract:Current network defense tools and solutions focus on situational awareness within single enclaves without regard to network mission or multi-enclave dependencies. This perspective is insufficient for supporting military networks, where time-critical mission objectives must be supported regardless of network conditions. We propose to develop a real-time cyber damage assessment tool designed to allow users to see network conditions as they change from the perspective of how it affects mission, and quickly combat threats to network or mission effectiveness.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5275
Dr. Jason Li
AF 07-080      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Integrated Graphical Models for Efficient and Practical Network Attack Damage Assessment
Abstract:We propose integrated graphical models for automatic network attack damage assessment. Graphical models can be powerful in representation, analysis and visualization. The model development is divided into two levels. At the lower level, the focus is on network/system security analysis, and the unique graphical models we will develop are called attack graphs. State-of-the-art attack graphs are either extremely unscalable to be practical or too simplistic to be powerful, and they only support static security analysis. Our proposed attack graph model, in contrast, is scalable, practical, powerful in analysis, and can efficiently provide situational awareness, prediction into the future, and optimized action planning. At the higher level, the graphical models capture the inherent dependency relationship of applications on networks/systems, and of missions on applications. By separating the modeling process and introducing the interfaces for integration, our proposed approach enables independent graphical model development at different levels and at the same time ensures interoperability. To our best knowledge, this is the first work that supports dynamic security analysis and integrates different levels of graphical models for coherent enterprise-wide network attack damage assessment. The developed models will be implemented into an automated software tool to aid the administrators in normal and attack situations.

ZEL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
54 Old Hampton Lane
Hampton, VA 23669
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 722-5565
Dr. James K. Williams
AF 07-080      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Network Attack Damage Assessment
Abstract:Zel Technologies proposes to provide a proof-of-concept prototype and demonstration of a system for mission-oriented network attack damage assessment and impact analysis based on top-down predictive analysis and modeling of potential effects-based adversary behavior. We will use results from application of the Automated Course of Action (COA) Modeling system, a Phase II SBIR effort, to represent adversary goals and objectives as enemy COAs with temporal information, observable manifestations and countermeasures for each enemy goal and sub-goal. This information will enable Command-level decision makers and subordinate organizations to determine the effects of network cyber attacks on the mission and organization. Without a developed science, discipline, or doctrine for Cyber Battle Damage Assessment, this approach may be the only method whereby decision makers can perform damage assessments and take prevention, response, and recovery actions to assure continuity of operations.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 663-9746
Mr. Andy Breeden
AF 07-081      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Information Trustworthiness, Integrity Non-Language Speech
Abstract:Securboration, working with Dartmouth University researcher Dr. Eugene Santos Jr., proposes the Semantic Integration Environment for Determining Information Trustworthiness (SIEDIT). The key barriers to effective information utilization is that analysts either use information with no underlying knowledge of its pedigree, or they disregard information in its entirety due to a lack of confidence in the data. SIEDIT will provide a formal basis for processing and validating incoming net-centric data to standardize information and verify information trustworthiness and integrity in a distributed computing environment such as the Air and Space Operations Center (AOC). Securboration's innovation is to employ a unique combination of models and technologies to standardize, weigh, and present information to the user to significantly improve the user's access to the right data and confidence in that information. User's can perform tasks more efficiently because they will focus on the data that matters most. SIEDIT uses a powerful Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) matrix algorithm that allows the user to rank the importance of structured and unstructured datatypes with respect to a specific task or situation. This information, along with quality and confidence metadata, is fed to a SIEDIT-created Bayesian Knowledge Base (BKB) that assesses data integrity and trustworthiness in real-time.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-7371
Mr. Tony Stirtzinger
AF 07-082      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:Advanced Self-Learning Ontologies
Abstract:Securboration, Dartmouth College, and George Mason University has created a uniquely qualified team to develop solutions in support of self-learning ontologies. Securboration's innovative approach called Ontology Generation and Evolution Processor (OGEP) directly attacks the main barrier which prevents the self-learning of ontologies: the ability to understand the meaning of artifacts and the relationships the artifacts have to the domain space. OGEP leverages existing lexical to ontological mappings integrated with Securboration's proven Semantic Grounding Mechanism (SGM) and Semantic Processor Engine (SPE) resulting in an innovative approach to user assisted semantic-based ontology generation. Ontologies generated with OGEP will provide capabilities to discover and evolve semantic relationships breaking through the barrier that prevents self-learning ontologies. The team's extensive experience in ontology development will ensure the ontologies generated by OGEP will support automated reasoning within the fusion/uncertainty domain as opposed to ending up as a `paper' document on a shelf. Securboration is currently involved with JFCOM Joint Deployment Program Owner (JDPO) program office on developing ontologies to support operational readiness. The ontologies are leveraged in the service oriented architecture based "J3 Readiness Application", which provides an excellent program to test out the OGEP concept and provides a transition plan for the technology.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd., Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 738-6295
Dr. Stephen Kaisler
AF 07-082      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Advanced Self-Learning Ontologies
Abstract:This proposal proposes a system, CLEO - Collective Learning Environments for Ontologies, for supporting adaptive, self-learning of ontologies. It addresses three challenges: the design of an adaptive system, tracking lineage of new information, and ontology fusion. The system will implement a collective learning environment for developing new ontologies and extending existing ontologies. Collective learning harnesses the learning abilities of multiple learning cells organized topologically to conform to the natural meshlike structure of domain concepts. CLEO will be a rule-based system that will use rules to reason about new and existing concepts, determine relationships between them, and create or extend the mesh representing the problem domain's concepts. It will also track the lineage of new or refined concepts and their attributes as they are added to the ontology KB and provide for versioning and visualization of the ontology mesh over its evolution.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Mr. Steven Mercurio
AF 07-083      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Intelligent Integration of Human Cognition into the Fused Reasoning Process
Abstract:The goal of this Phase I effort is foster human interaction with automated systems via a collaborative learning environment to benefit from the collective and dynamic knowledge of a team of experienced analysts. This will be accomplished by applying proven commercial collaborative learning technologies to the challenge of adapting and defeating the ever-changing tactics of today's adversaries. Collaborative techniques, such as collaborative filtering, have been successfully implemented in dynamic commercial environments with impressive results. For example, Amazon.com has implemented its own unique collaborative filtering algorithm which is responsible for an amazing 35% of its sales as a result of recommendations from other customers with similar preferences and experiences. With today's systems moving towards a Service Oriented Architecture, it will be possible to continuously communicate in real-time with a population of analysts that can provide valuable and timely feedback to allow an automated system to adapt itself to a constantly changing environment This effort will apply collaborative techniques to the challenge of Smart Data Association (SDA) using multi-INT sources which will allow the development of new Motion Pattern Analysis (MPA) techniques that will automatically detect and recognize both the known and evolving patterns of the dynamic adversary.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court, Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Alan Vayda
AF 07-083      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Cognitive Fusion
Abstract:Soar Technology is teaming with Lockheed Martin to integrate Lockheed Martin's IFS (Intelligent Fusion System) with Soar Technology's BINAH (Battlespace Information and Notification through Adaptive Heuristics) system as the base for the development of BINAH-CF (Cognitive Fusion), a cognitive fusion system that will capture and apply analyst knowledge for advanced data fusion tasks. BINAH-CF will enhance BINAH's visualization and data management capabilities with new capabilities for control of the IFS, integration of context data, capture of the analyst's knowledge, and modeling of the analyst's knowledge. It will leverage the analysts's domain knowledge and cognitive power to produce superior fusion results and will facilitate automation of some of the analyst's cognitive tasks through learning of knowledge-based algorithms. The system will be developed with a focus on data and tasks relevant to the Air Force. This effort includes both a basic research component and an integration component that will produce a prototype demonstration.

ALTUSYS CORP.
P O Box 245
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 878-4876
Dr. Lewis Lundy
AF 07-084      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Situation Awareness and Impact Assessment for Cyber Network Defense
Abstract:The work proposed under AF071-084 will investigate a new method and technology for solving the problems of situation awareness, cyber impact assessment, and attacker prediction. The new technology is couched in the Situation Management paradigm and is a variation of the case-based reasoning method used for situation assessment, assessment, and prediction. The work will follow the same architectural principles and evaluation methodology outlined in "Realizing Situation Awareness within a Cyber Environment" by Dr. John Salerno's team at AFRL. Salerno's paper describes three distinct approaches to Cyber Situational Awareness: (i) multi-entity Bayesian networks, (ii) a combination of finite state machines and hidden Markov models, and (iii) entrophy based on Information Theory. What is lacking in these approaches is an additional level 3 fusion technology that makes up for the problems of false positives, scalability, detection of complex attacks, and adaptability to new types of attacks. Current approaches are not inherently capability of solving these problems, but can be enhanced with level 3 fusion technology to overcome them.

WEBWISE SECURITY, INC.
1565 W. Valerio Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 563-4538
Dr. Giovanni Vigna
AF 07-084      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:CORSA: A Comprehensive Toolset for CORrelation and Situation Awareness
Abstract:Cyber-networks have evolved into a ubiquitous infrastructure, and the Internet has become a mission-critical infrastructure for governments, companies, institutions, and millions of everyday users. To protect mission-critical cyber-networks, it is necessary to develop technologies and tools that will enable situation awareness of the current defense status of large-scale networks. This includes assessing the impact of attacks and predicting future adversary intentions. To address these issues, we propose to develop a comprehensive toolset that will assess the system health and mission impact of attacks and will allow one to explore the possible impact of future adversary actions. Our toolset relies on innovative models for the description and management of asset information and mission data. We will develop tools to update the model data with timely information about the status of the assets and the missions. This information is directly integrated into the intrusion correlation process. By doing this, it is possible to determine how a cyber-attack could influence the ability of the infrastructure to support critical missions. Our analysis tools will also support "what if" analysis on the models in order to determine the impact of future actions of the attacker.

JANYA, INC.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-0401
Dr. Thomas L. Cornell
AF 07-085      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Advanced Time-Stamping of Events from Unstructured Text for Battlespace Awareness
Abstract:Current state-of-the-art in text extraction technology can associate a time with an event only if a time mention occurs in the same sentence as the event mention, or in an adjacent sentence with an overt temporal connective. This is a serious drawback because many events in unstructued text, including HUMINT, are not associated with explicit time information. A knowledge-rich solution entails using world knowledge resources with many levels of analysis (e.g., discourse parsing) in order to construct an Event/Time Network, which connects and partially orders all temporally related event mentions and time expressions in the document. This is unfeasible in the context of information extraction systems, which rely on relatively shallow structural analyses to rapidly process large volumes of text. As an alternative, in Phase I, we propose to develop a knowledge-light solution for automatically constructing the Event Network for an input document. By means of corpus-based empirical research, our goal is to identify surface features that may correlate with the presence and type of an event-event link. Such features may then be used in a machine learning approach or, where the correlation is strong enough, in the development of pattern-based solutions to the Event/Time Graph construction problem.

LANGUAGE COMPUTER CORP.
1701 North Collins Blvd., Suite 2000
Richardson, TX 75080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 231-0052
Mr. Andrew Hickl
AF 07-085      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Advanced Temporal Reasoning for Precise Time-Stamping of Events (ARTEMIS)
Abstract:Our work in Advanced Temporal Reasoning for Precise Time- Stamping of Events (ARTEMIS) addresses two challenges faced by systems which seek to enhance analysts' awareness of event information. First, while today's text processing systems have greatly increased the amount of temporal information available from a document collection, most systems have focused on extracting only the temporal information that is overtly mentioned in a text. We demonstrate that our approach can acquire all of the essential temporal information associated with events. In addition to a state-of-the-art TERN system, we use a combination of approaches to acquire the knowledge needed to infer implicit forms of temporal information. Second, in order to take advantage of the explosion of temporal information that we will make available, event we will provide temporal reasoning capabilities which will allow event visualization systems to "make sense" of complex situations automatically. The cornerstone of our Phase I work will be a graph-based temporal reasoning component which can track changes in reference time throughout a document, estimate the duration of specific events, identify the likely order of a sequence of events, and compute an exact time-stamp for events which are not associated with overt time or date information.

OCEANIT LABORATORIES, INC.
828 Fort Street Mall Suite 600
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 531-3017
Luke Joseph
AF 07-086      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Antenna Array Structures for Composite Airframes
Abstract:Described herein is a proposal for the design and fabrication of a novel, low-cost, low-profile nanotube antenna that can be conformed to the skin of composite airframe structures and potentially be integrated with nanotube active devices. Carbon nanotubes conformed to composite structures create radiating surfaces that can be configured as antennas and coupling these with nanotube active devices will create the potential for them to operate as reconfigurable antenna arrays with power combining capability. A customized nanostructure material with superior electromagnetic properties will enable high speed switching conditions to support embedded nanotube active devices. Conformal nanotube antennas replacing conventional antenna apertures mounted to the exterior of an aircraft will reduce drag and weight and could be reconfigured dynamically while still in flight to provide frequency coverage for multiple communication systems accessed through a software defined radio(SDR) like JTRS (Joint Tactical Radio System).

RF NANO CORP.
232 Trafalgar Lane
San Clemente, CA 92672
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 388-3582
Dr. Steffen McKernan
AF 07-086      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Integrated RF Systems Enabled by Nanotechnology
Abstract:The Phase I objective is to build and demonstrate a prototype AM radio at a carrier frequency of 1 GHz using an antenna made of dense aligned nanotubes and a classical diode as the demodulator.

ADVANCED MEDIA RESEARCH, INC.
3 Whitehouse Way
Ringoes, NJ 08551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 240-8196
Dr. Minkyu Lee
AF 07-087      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Voice Transformation and Detection
Abstract:Voice transformation is altering one person's voice such that it sounds like from another speaker. This can be done by mapping the voice quality and speaking style of the source speaker to that of the target speaker. In this proposal for Phase I, we will investigate state-of-the-art technologies based on the source filter model. For vocal tract modeling and mapping, we will test the linear prediction model and the harmonic noise model. For excitation modeling and mapping, we will consider using the LF model and sinusoidal models. For speaking style mapping, various intonation and speaking rate mapping methods will be examined for the feasibility. This includes various statistical models such as the CART, multiplicative or sum-of-products models. The transformation results will be evaluated using human listeners as well as automatic speaker identification algorithms. We will also investigate methods on how to detect when voice transformation software is employed. The final report of Phase I will include the recommended mapping algorithms and preliminary speech samples transformed using the algorithms. It will also contain requirements and specifications for the voice transformation system that will be implemented during Phase II. Finally, potential risk factors that may affect the performance will be described.

SENTIENT CORP.
850 Energy Drive
Idaho Falls, ID 83401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 876-3100
Mr. Sean D. Marble
AF 07-087      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Voice Transformation and Detection
Abstract:Research into voice transformation has been ongoing for over twenty years. In addition, there are many commercial products available. There has been very little research, however, into techniques for detection of voice transformation. Furthermore, objective metrics for the quality of transformed speech - which could serve as a basis for the detection of transformed speech - are practically nonexistent. All discussions of the quality of voice transformation algorithms use subjective terms, though there is tacit acknowledgement that artifacts exist. This proposal describes research into the application of conventional signal processing techniques to the identification of the artifacts that result from voice transformation, and into the implementation of objective criteria for automatic blind-detection of voice transformation.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5241
Dr. Renato Levy
AF 07-088      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:Semantics-based Authorization and Access Framework for the Virtual Enterprise (SAAFVE)
Abstract:Different organizations or groups may come together to form the Virtual Enterprise (VE). Information and data with the Virtual Enterprise resides on host computers that are geographically scattered yet comprise part of the IT of the VE. The members of one organization, when acting in a certain role, may have access to certain data categories that are owned by another organization. A new organization, such as a Coalition partner, may join a Virtual Enterprise for a specific mission. While network technology in general and the Internet and Web technologies such as Web services in particular are allowing Virtual Enterprises to come together and share data, the Information Assurance techniques that mirror the distributed, net-centric enterprise are not yet deployed. The issue is not simply to deny information access to members of one organization; rather, the challenge is to have the right people obtain the right information at the right time. We propose an innovative solution to this challenge, the Semantics-based Authorization and Access Framework for the Virtual Enterprise (SAAFVE). SAAFVE is comprised of Ontologies with which to annotate information stores, Policy instances, Meta-policy constructs, and User Profiles, associated support tools, and an agent-based implementation of the infrastructure.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Dr. Richard Hull
AF 07-088      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:WaveSPHERE
Abstract:Recent initiatives such as the Knowledge Management Framework (KMF) at the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) of the AF Space Command seek to make data visible, available, and useable when needed and where needed. The KMF accomplishes these goals by federating data from multiple "silos" with an ontology model that unifies at the conceptual, business object level. While unification greatly increases user efficiency and productivity, it also comes with risks related to security. The KMF in effect creates a virtual enterprise where data is combined in new and unforeseen ways-thus providing an opportunity for unauthorized access to and/or misuse of information assets. The perceived value of the KMF to end users is directly related to the security of the information assets it integrates. Modus Operandi's proposed Wave Security Policy Harmonization, Enforcement, and Reliable Evolution (WaveSPHERE) capability will provide net-centric environments such as the KMF with a robust solution to security policy definition and enforcement in the virtual enterprise. WaveSPHERE will provide semantic-based security policy definition and enforcement at both the Community of Interest (COI) level and at the enterprise (multiple COIs exchanging information) level. The overall result will be reduced security risks when sharing information.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 591-7371
Mr. Bruce McQueary
AF 07-088      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:Policy Definition and Enforcement for Virtual Enterprises
Abstract:Securboration, working closely with Dr. Raymond A. Liuzzi, creates a world-class team to develop the next generation of access control policy for information exchange across virtual enterprises. Securboration's extensive experience in ontological modeling, semantics-based policy enforcement, service oriented architecture, communities of interest, and semantic-based data integration position this team to greatly advance the state-of-the-art in access control policy. Securboration will leverage existing technology and previous and ongoing research in these areas to develop the "Semantic Policy Broker" (SEMPBro) with the key innovation being the use of semantic technologies to dynamically infer access control policy based on semantic meaning of integrated enterprise data. This approach overcomes the limitations of current lockout policies based on static data structures and ensures warfighters in a netcentric environment have expedient and appropriate access to information needed to perform their duties. As described in this Phase I proposal, and evidenced by endorsements from JFCOM (Section 5 of this proposal), Securboration is well positioned to demonstrate the advancements of this SBIR in an operational environment with immediate contributions to the warfighter.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
12152 Windsor Hall Way
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 457-4244
Mr. Mike Luginbuhl
AF 07-089      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:RPAT Technicians
Abstract:Our adversaries understand the need to limit their exposure time to preying USAF eyes. The enemy hides, exposes only during the briefest of time and then hides again. As the enemy adapts to our technology and finds methods to minimize their exposure, the F2T2EA process had to be compressed from hours, to seconds. An obvious impediment to fast Time Sensitive Targets (TST) engagement is that aircraft must travel to and strike the target before it disappears from view. Just as important is the administrative delay in the kill chain. 21st Century Systems, Incorporated is pleased to propose to research and develop our concept RPAT Technicians that compress the F2T2EA timeline for support to near-instantaneous planning assessment and airborne weapons assignment for a team distributed in a ground control center and airborne control platform. Reactive planning against TSTs requires prior lists of "what-if" and "what-to-do" which will naturally accelerate the manual decision process. RPAT Technicians work inside the human decision loop to support the need for immediate answers. The technicians, at the high end, maintain engagement decisions for each target type and, at the low end, maintain an access list for immediate human input and direction.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Dr. Neelakantan Kartha
AF 07-089      Awarded: 18APR07
Title:Automating Planning Against TSTs via a Novel Combination of Ontologies and Rules
Abstract:Effectively targeting and engaging time sensitive targets (TST) is an important part of modern warfare. However, doing so remains challenging because of the various considerations that go into deciding whether a given popup is a TST and whether to pursue it. Systems for supporting such mission-critical decision making are crucial in helping to decrease the time for decision making, and to increase the reliability and robustness of the decision making process. We propose an innovative system called Sentinel for helping support the human decision making process in planning against TSTs. Sentinel combines the technologies of ontologies and rule bases in a novel way to address the problems of representation of decision analysis and automation of decision support. In addition, it provides visibility into the steps of the decision making process and takes into account feedback received from the human decision maker. Careful consideration has been given in Sentinel to issues critical to user adoption, namely its usability and its maintenance over time. Phase I prototype development will provide a solid foundation for complete implementation in Phase II.

JANYA, INC.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-0401
Dr. John Chen
AF 07-091      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Customizable Text Extraction for Warfighters
Abstract:Current state of the art information extraction (IE) systems are able to automatically extract specific types of information object such as entities, relationships, and events, that are known to be relevant to a particular domain. In order for these systems to achieve state of the art accuracies, however, it is typically necessary for human experts to spend much effort in tuning the system for the target domain, whether it be in annotating training data or writing grammars and lexicons. We propose to investigate techniques to significantly reduce the amount of effort required by human experts in order to port an IE system to a new domain. The focus of our efforts is Semantex\texttrademark, a state of the art IE system. In particular, we will explore various approaches including bootstrapping and active learning in order to ease training of entity detection, relationship detection, and event detection without incurring a huge penalty in accuracy.

LANGUAGE COMPUTER CORP.
1701 North Collins Blvd., Suite 2000
Richardson, TX 75080
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 231-0052
Mr. Paul Aarseth
AF 07-091      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:High-Precision Agile Active Learning for Domain-Customizable Information Extraction (HALCYON)
Abstract:The dynamic operational environments in which Air Force users operate today require information extraction systems that can be rapidly - and easily - customized to new and challenging domains. In order to address operational demands for textual information, Language Computer Corporation (LCC) has developed a customizable information extraction system, known as CiceroCustom, which enables military and intelligence personnel to extract information from sources of unstructured textual information (including OSINT and HUMINT) quickly and efficiently. In this Phase I SBIR effort, called High-Precision Agile Active Learning for Domain-Customizable Information Extraction (HALCYON), LCC will extend the customizable information extraction capacity provided by CiceroCustom with a new framework which can be used to enhance the quality and accuracy of domain customizations performed by users. We plan to build an enhanced prototype which incorporates (1) an agile customization framework which leverages a novel paradigm for active learning, (2) a context-driven mechanism for customizing extractors to specific domains that allows for the incorporation of diverse forms of user input, (3) a novel method for integrating domain-specific knowledge into an information extraction system, and (4) a robust textual reasoning capability which leverages a state-of-the-art textual entailment system in order to reason about domain knowledge for extraction.

APPLIED KNOWLEDGE SCIENCES, INC.
652 Solitude Lane, Suite 100
Boyce, VA 22620
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 837-2969
Mr. Thomas Beckman
AF 07-092      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Innovative Technologies for Knowledge Capture and Transfer in Space Systems Product Development
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to research and develop advanced multi-modal information technologies for knowledge capture and transfer that can feed a lessons-learned knowledge base for life cycle product development. In order to overcome the obstacles associated with current lessons-learned systems, the proposed approach shifts the current paradigm from the management of documents, to the management of knowledge. The new paradigm recognizes that knowledge is exchanged primarily in sensory-rich stories, conversations, and actions, rather than in documents. To accomplish this shift, key concepts, methods, practices, constructs/mechanisms, and technologies will be identified and developed. The approach provides a process for managing knowledge that will enable the user organization to capture, elicit, refine, create, share, apply, and discover knowledge before, during, and after each project life cycle phase. Tacit project knowledge, experience, and expertise are drawn from domain experts and senior practitioners, using multi-modal knowledge elicitation techniques and knowledge representation schema. Knowledge about performing everyday tasks, research and analysis, problem-solving, and decision-making is modularized, organized, and refined into re-usable knowledge "nuggets" employing a variety of modalities, making critical knowledge available in forms that can be readily accessed, shared with others, and applied to enhance mission performance and broaden organizational capabilities.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street, Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2458
Dr. Enio Velazco
AF 07-092      Awarded: 20APR07
Title:Aerospace Systems Knowledge (ASK)
Abstract:The Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) has a large number of employees that are close to retirement. With their departure a great deal of expertise, wisdom, and institutional knowledge will be leaving the workforce. This loss could lead to inefficiency and higher costs in engineering the future of national-security space. A method of capturing and transferring this experience and knowledge to junior employees would reduce the impact of the departure of the experienced employees. ASK, the envisioned product of this SBIR, is a unique tool that will accelerate the training of junior employees by facilitating the transfer of knowledge from experienced employees even years after their retirement. The core of the tool is a knowledge framework based on topic areas within the aerospace systems design process that are known to affect productivity. Two interfaces will touch the knowledge framework: a knowledge capture interface and a knowledge transfer interface. The knowledge capture interface will systematically elicit the experiences and lessons of the retiring workforce. The knowledge transfer interface will allow the junior employee to access these lessons when in need of guidance or training.

FIDELITY COMTECH, INC.
2400 Trade Centre Ave
Longmont, CO 80503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 678-8876
Dr. Robert Weaver
AF 07-095      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Advanced Radio Frequency Monitoring for Wireless Network Security
Abstract:In this SBIR Phase I Fidelity Comtech will develop an architecture and high level design for monitoring the RF spectrum directly using a network of low cost Software Defined Radios (SDRs) with phased array antennas. By monitoring the spectrum directly, we will be able to detect threats and interference issues that are otherwise not apparent using today's commercial wireless devices. To take on this challenging project, Fidelity Comtech has assembled a team of experts in RF signal processing, Signals Intelligence / DSP and distributed computing.

GIRD SYSTEMS, INC.
310 Terrace Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 281-2900
Mr. Bruce Hart
AF 07-095      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Advanced Radio Frequency Technology for Wireless Network Security
Abstract:Unlike a wired network, all communications in a wireless network is broadcast by nature, therefore prone to malicious attacks. Wireless information assurance (IA) is therefore of paramount importance to the healthy development of wireless technologies. Various forms of wireless information assurance and security measures have been proposed and implemented. They mostly rely on Layer-2 and above techniques only. In this proposal GIRD Systems proposes to develop and implement an innovative physical layer wireless IAS method and associated algorithms. By physically mitigating intrusion into a wireless network, this new physical layer method has the potential of achieving a higher wireless IA level. Further integration with the current and near future upper layer IA measures enables this new system to provide even a higher overall level of wireless IA.

MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
616 Brookmeade Ct.
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-1434
Dr. Lang Hong
AF 07-095      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:High Performance, High Security Wireless Network via Space Time Coded Carrier Interferometry Spreading Spectrum
Abstract:The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative high performance, high security wireless network based on space time coded carrier interferometry spreading which is capable of unprecedented information assurance in military wireless communications. Specifically, a novel spectrally coded (namely carrier interferometry code) waveform is employed in current OFDM technology to spread the information across all OFDM transmission subcarriers. The spreading of the information over all subcarriers introduces frequency diversity and leads to higher BER performance in multi-path wireless channels. Furthermore, the information spreading equips the wireless network with an anti-jamming capability. Additionally, the carefully chosen carrier interferometry code combines the benefits of single carrier transmission with multi-carrier transmission and provides a much lower peak to average power ratio (PAPR) than that of current OFDM systems. Most importantly, the carrier interferometry spreading is naturally integrated with permutation cypher and polyphase linear feedback shift registers stream cipher to provide RF watermarking capability and extremely high security to current wireless networks. The carrier interferometry spreading is also combined with space time coding and multiple input/output antennas to adaptively adjust the waveform design to obtain better information assurance in a dynamic environment.

DATA DRIVEN DECISIONS, LLC
Technical Innovation Center, 20140 Scholar Drive,
Hagerstown, MD 21742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 865-4058
Mr. Joel Penelon
AF 07-102      Awarded: 14MAY07
Title:Scratch Repair Material for Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Coatings
Abstract:Data Driven Decisions (D3) will demonstrate the feasibility of using atmospheric pressure plasmas with novel chemical precursor systems to repair scratched indium tin oxide ITO surfaces. D3 will use the proven atmospheric plasma pencil technology it has developed. No vacuum chambers are required so atmospheric pressure plasmas are well suited for rapid repair of in service aircraft equipment. During Phase I, D3 will: 1) identify a precursor system capable of applying ITO to a surface using atmospheric plasma at low temperature; 2) optimize the application process to obtain the target electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and adhesion characteristics; and 3) demonstrate the repair of a 1" X 1/16" scratch on an ITO surface using the atmospheric plasma and precursor system. D3 will also evaluate the safety considerations related to the chemical precursors, plasma effluent, and potential application process hazards. The process developed under Phase I will be refined in Phase II to repair ITO scratches on real world aircraft surfaces by developing the needed plasma handling and robotics systems. An ITO scratch repair system based on our technology will eliminate replacement of expensive parts and improve the operational availability of Air Force resources.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division, 20600 Gramercy
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Eric Gans
AF 07-102      Awarded: 02MAY07
Title:Laser-Assisted Coating Repair
Abstract:To address the U.S. Air Force need to repair scratches in ITO-coatings on aircraft canopies and lamp housings, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Laser-Assisted Coating Repair (LACR) system. LACR is based on the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of coating thin films without the need for a controlled environment. The novel use of interchangeable focusing adaptive lenses and the new transparent layered repair patch (LaRP) enables the LACR system with its handheld Nd:YAG laser to quickly repair scratches to ITO coatings of a variety of shapes and sizes without the removal of the damaged assembly. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of LACR by repairing polycarbonate coupons with scratched ITO coatings, restoring their optical and electrical properties. In Phase II we plan to develop a self-contained laser assembly for direct mounting of the LaRP repair patch for quick repair of any damaged ITO coating.

ACREE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1900 Bates Ave., Suite G
Concord, CA 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 798-5770
Dr. Mike McFarland
AF 07-103      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Production of New Durable, Transparent Conductive Coatings
Abstract:Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is currently used as a transparent electrically conductive coating on aircraft canopies to provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding for electronic components. The problem with ITO is that it is relatively soft and scratches easily, requiring frequent replacement of the windscreen, leading to high maintenance costs and aircraft downtime. In addition, ITO is applied by custom equipment using extremely laborious vapor deposition processes, which are expensive, complicated to operate and tend to produce low yield rates. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a specialized process to deposit aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) and indium zinc oxide (IZO) transparent conductive coatings as a replacement to ITO. The advantage of both AZO and IZO is that they have hardnesses that are significantly greater than that of ITO and are thus much more scratch resistant and durable than ITO. The deposition process that will be used in this project is much simpler and more forgiving than vapor deposition, producing higher yield rates and less expensive coatings.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
626 Whitney Street
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Mr. Jason Wright
AF 07-103      Awarded: 04MAY07
Title:Production of New Durable, Transparent Conductive Coatings
Abstract:Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings are used on the canopies of certain USAF aircraft for a variety of electromagnetic functions. However, the aircraft canopies suffer from short service lifetimes and must be replaced often because today's ITO coatings exhibit poor mechanical durability and scratch resistance as aircraft fly through rain and dust. The need for frequent replacements results in highly reduced mission capable rates. In Phase-I of this effort, Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation will use its highly energetic deposition technology to synthesize indium zinc oxide (IZO) transparent conductive coatings with improved durability, while maintaining >80% transmissivity from 400 - 1200 nm and <25 ohms per square. The overall goal of this research is to extend the service life of aircraft canopies by tenfold over existing ITO coating materials.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Neil Goldfine
AF 07-104      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:NDE and Real-time Process Monitoring for Residual Stress Inducing Treatments
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for reliable quality assessment and real-time process monitoring for residual stress-inducing surface treatments. The Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate the use of JENTEK's MWM-Array eddy current technology for high resolution imaging and nondestructive assessment of engine components after Laser Shock Processing (LSP) and Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB), as well as after conventional shot peening. Also, for LSP and LPB, real-time process monitoring of subsurface stresses and other properties, using MWM-Arrays, will be investigated. MWM-Arrays and MWM sensors have proven capability to inspect complex components for damage and process quality. For example, the MWM is used at Air Force and Navy depots for cold work quality assessment of C-130/P-3 propellers. The MWM-Array has inspected over 3,000 engine disk slot inspections at a Naval Air Station and proved to be far superior to conventional eddy current testing and liquid penetrant. This Phase I will adapt this proven technology to deliver near-term benefits for post-process assessment, and will investigate real-time process monitoring for turbine engine components. Phase II will demonstrate a fully integrated solution suitable for production environments. The Phase I team includes LSP Technologies and Lambda Technologies, as well as a major engine OEM.

LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6145 Scherers Place
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 718-3000
Dr. David W. Sokol
AF 07-104      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Quality Control for Advanced Residual Stress Inducing Surface Treatment Processes
Abstract:Since the inception of production processing of parts for improved fatigue life using laser peening, increasing emphasis has been placed on methods and techniques to assure that the correct stress wave was applied to the part to impart the desired residual compressive stress. There are no reliable NDE techniques which are generally applicable to monitor surface enhancement processes, so it is critical for high value parts to have a high level of real-time process controls and monitors in place. Currently, for laser peening there are several quality control measures in place to ensure the correct laser pulse energy, temporal pulse width, and fluence spatial profile are delivered to the process cell for each location on each part. A higher level of quality assurance can be obtained by employing sensors which detect physical phenomena associated with the actual delivery of the laser peen stress wave. By adding advanced sensors which monitor the laser beam interaction or stress wave generated, the probability of a substandard processed area would be greatly reduced. Several technical approaches to the quality control sensor problem have been investigated in the past and recently some new sensor concepts have been identified for further evaluation in this program.

3TEX, INC.
109 MacKenan Drive
Cary, NC 27511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 481-2500
Dr. Keith Sharp
AF 07-105      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:CMC Structures for Exhaust Nozzle Components Based on 3-D Woven Preforms
Abstract:In Phase I of the proposed program we plan to demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing bladetrack components using an approach that will result in substantial reductions in cost and cycle time compared with conventional 2-D lay-up methods. The approach involves use of a 3-D fiber preform with the shape of the final component, produced by an orthogonal weaving process developed at 3TEX, which is then infiltrated with a pressure infiltration method developed at TSC. The processing steps are amenable to a controlled manufacturing environment with minimal adjustment by hand labor. The use of 3-D woven preforms is also the most reliable method for ensuring adequate through-thickness properties, allowing process control during manufacture, and eliminating delamination as a failure mechanism during manufacture or during component service. It also eliminates the risk of processing defects due to incomplete bonding between layers or lay-up errors.

EVISIVE, INC.
8867 Highland Rd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 769-2780
Mr. Bob Stakenborghs
AF 07-105      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Structures for Vanes and Exhaust Nozzle Components
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the application of a patented microwave scanning device as an NDE technique to be used in streamlining and optimizing the Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) manufacturing process. The scanning process (U.S. Patent numbers 6,359,446 and 6,653,847) utilizes microwaves as an interrogating beam to penetrate a dielectric material. This method has been used successfully in preliminary NDE studies of CMC components for jet engine vane and exhaust nozzles. This method is capable of providing a quick and accurate measurement of CMC porosity, which represents a significant time savings over the current Archimedes principle porosity measurement method. This investigation will be supported by a CMC manufacturing company (ATK) and a jet engine manufacturer (Pratt & Whitney). Currently, the parts are submerged in a liquid and the density is calculated using the weight and the change in water volume. The porosity is then determined as the ratio of the non-porous material density versus the measured density. This process is repeated multiple times during the manufacturing process, which results in multiple drying cycles for the part. Additionally, the method only measures "open" porosity and not porosity which is closed off from the surface.

ADIABATICS, INC.
3385 Commerce Drive
Columbus, IN 47201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 372-5052
Dr. Philipe Saad
AF 07-106      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Low Temperature Limits for Gas Turbine Engine Oils
Abstract:Viscosity and low temperature lubricant characteristics determine turbine engine starting capability, and lubricant motion with respect to the contact surfaces at low ambient temperature. Low ambient temperature influences the oil viscosity and also the variation of its curve shape versus the low temperature. According to the aforementioned research method, the requirements for accuracy and reliability increase for predicting the work of contact surfaces (bearings) over a wide range of speeds, temperatures and loads. The purpose of this proposal consists of a complex study of physical and mechanical processes between the contact surfaces (bearing), which includes oil viscosity at low ambient temperature [-40 0F], shear stress, shear rate, friction coefficient, and oil film thickness, to develop a modeling tool and associated methodology to effectively and accurately determine the maximum allowable viscosity for engine oils. For determining the effectiveness of oil lubricity during the start up period between contact surfaces, and the influence of the low ambient temperature [-40 0F], we have to test different gas turbine engine oils under no stationary process. The no stationary process in particular start and stop has significant influence on the reliability and longevity of bearings under the low temperature conditions. Recording tribology parameters (oil viscosity, shear stress, shear rate, oil film thickness, friction coefficient, and wear) in this non stationary process requires a new approach about the classification of lubricants concerning their starting properties, and their allowable viscosity under low temperature conditions.

SPECTRA GROUP LIMITED, INC.
27800 Lemoyne Road, Suite J
Millbury, OH 43447
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(419) 837-9783
Dr. Alex Mejiritski
AF 07-107      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Rapid Cure, Environmentally Acceptable Liquid Shim
Abstract:The combined need for performance, safety, as well as the requirement for zero VOC calls for an innovative approach for formulating a liquid shim resin that can be cured in less than 1 hour. A dual cure system hybrid system is proposed. A UV or near-UV visible light source will trigger a curing process by a free radical reaction. The parts will then be assembled (bonded) and an anionic process will continue in the dark until the final cure is achieved. The initial instant cure will cut the curing time but not compromise the final properties of the adhesive. Further acceleration of the anionic cure can result from subsequent photorelease of a second, basic species.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2317
Dr. Silvia Luebben
AF 07-107      Awarded: 08MAY07
Title:Rapid Cure, Environmentally Acceptable Liquid Shim
Abstract:During aircraft assembly, a liquid shim is applied before joints are mechanically fastened to make the joined surfaces fit tightly and to strengthen the joints. Current liquid shims provide excellent physical properties but typically require 8 hours or more to cure and 5-7 days to develop full strength. Unfortunately, this long cure time results in a bottleneck in the aircraft assembly flow. To remove the bottleneck, the U.S. Air Force is looking for a new liquid shim that cures in 1 hour and can be machined in less than 4 hours. Further, it is looking for a more environmentally friendly formulation. During previous work TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) developed a new shim curing chemistry that allows for a reasonably long application time (60 minutes), but short times to machinability (4 hours). The objective of this project is to use TDA's chemistry to develop a formulation that meet Air Force requirements in terms of curing kinetics and physical-mechanical properties of the cure material. TDA's formulation will contain no crystalline silica and no VOCs.

SOMMER MATERIALS RESEARCH
587 North Main Street
North Salt Lake, UT 84054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 397-2000
Dr. Jared L. Sommer
AF 07-108      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Novel High Temperature Geopolymer for Spall-resistant Pavement Materials
Abstract:During the past couple of decades, there has been considerable interest and research in inorganic polymers ("geopolymers") for high temperature and for rapid-setting concrete materials. Geopolymers are manufactured by combining aluminosilicates powders with highly alkaline water through polycondensation. The resulting cured geopolymer exhibits high compressive strengths after only four hours of set time. Since geopolymers have no chemically-bound water that can vaporize and cause spalling, the inorganic polymers can be stable up to 1200oC. The mechanical properties of inorganic polymers can be improved significantly if the water content is minimized during mixing, while maintaining good workability of the cement. The proposed optimization technology, along with the use of superplasticizers, will allow the fabrication of low-viscosity geopolymeric pavement materials that will cure to higher densities and compressive strengths and show excellent spall resistance at high temperatures.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Dr. George Hansen
AF 07-108      Awarded: 06JUN07
Title:Pavement Material for Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Vertcal Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) Operations
Abstract:Joint Strike Fighter vertical takeoff and landing operations are expected to exert significantly harsher conditions on pavement materials than existing VTOL aircraft. It has been known for several years that during normal lift or landing, concrete has been shown to spall and age prematurely. A new, durable and low-cost material or design is required that can be used in place of or retrofit to existing concrete pavement areas specifically for VTOL training. TRI/Austin has developed an alternative design that will provide high thermal resistance and insulate the surrounding concrete pavement, and have a textured surface to provide traction for aircraft while sitting or moving on the surface. The idea will involve a top-level metal grate providing nonskid traction and allow liquids and lubricants to drain away from the wheels. Underneath this grate will be a stack of ceramic refractory insulating bricks to absorb or reflect the incident heat from the jet blast exhaust. The bricks will be spaced with gaps between them, and stacked in an alternating layer at least two deep, to allow space for thermal expansion and drain through of undesirable liquids.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Arthur Gavrin
AF 07-109      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Nickel-free Conductive Fillers(1001-030)
Abstract: Modern fighter aircraft incorporate conductive materials to control radar signature and lightning strike resistance of the vehicle. The conductive materials are incorporated in chopped fiber, fiber mat, or woven form. Unfortunately, current conductive materials are in the form of a nickel-coated graphite fiber. While nickel has advantageous conductivity and environmental resistance, nickel is considered a hazardous material that requires extra safety and health restrictions. This impacts both the handling and the utilization of the materials. Triton proposes to replace the nickel with another conductive, environmentally resistant coating that does not have the safety and environmental issues of nickel. In Phase I, Triton will show the feasibility of coating graphite fiber with the alternative coatings. In Phase II, Triton will optimize the coating and qualify the conductive filler for use in LO materials.

HENTZEN COATINGS, INC.
6937 WEST MILL ROAD
MILWAUKEE, WI 53218
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(414) 353-4200
Dr. Robert Chiang
AF 07-110      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Zero Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Aircraft Coatings
Abstract:The solvent-based epoxy primers per MIL-PRF-23377 and urethane topcoats per MIL-PRF-85285 Type I are widely used on military aircraft. The primers currently are allowed to have a maximum volatile organic compound (VOC) emission of 340g/l and 420g/l for the topcoats. The solvents used in the coatings are the primary source for the VOC. Some solvents are also classified as hazardous pollutants (HAPS). The increasingly stringent federal, state and local environmental regulations restrict the VOC content of all the coatings used in all areas. Both military and aerospace are included. The objective is to study and identify fast cure and low viscosity resins/curatives for zero VOC epoxy primers. Also, attempt to use UV cure technology for zero VOC urethane topcoats.

RESODYN CORP.
130 North Main Street, Suite 600
Butte, MT 59701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 497-5229
Mr. Scott Coguill
AF 07-110      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Zero VOC Coatings for Aircraft Grade Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:The Air Force is actively pursuing a reduction and eventual elimination of the volume of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions generated during aircraft coating operations. Resodyn Corporation proposes the development of the zero VOC (ZCOV) coating system that consists of thermally applied engineered thermoplastics. The enabling technology will be Resodyn Corporation's Low Temperature Powder Coating (LTPSC) process which has the capability of applying low melt temperature polymers without causing thermal degradation. Preliminary testing demonstrates the ability to create adherent coatings while maintaining low temperature exposure to the aluminum alloy substrates. This technology has the potential for use in either aircraft repair, maintenance or manufacturing facilities. The process is environmentally friendly (i.e., VOC free) when creating protective coatings directly from dry powder. The process is intrinsically safe and does not depend on an open flame or flammable gasses.

INHIBITROL, INC.
19332 Rich Roy Court
Parkton, MD 21120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 357-4962
Dr. J. Anthony von Fraunhofer
AF 07-111      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Nonchrome Corrosion Protection for Conductive Coatings
Abstract:Conductive coatings are required for military (and civilian) aircraft to control electrostatic discharge and provide protection against lightning strikes. These coatings, typically based upon polyurethane or epoxy polymers, rely upon silver, nickel, copper or carbon particles for electrical conductivity and are applied over an aluminum or composite substrate and a chromate-containing primer for corrosion protection. While chromate inhibitors are effective in reducing corrosion, they are toxic and the current trend is to replace them for health and environmental reasons. There is a need for nonchrome based primers that protect both the aluminum and composite material airframe substrates and inhibit corrosion within conductive coatings. Inhibitrol Inc proposes to undertake studies addressing these problems and to evaluate the use of tobacco extracts, comminuted tobacco leaf and dust as additives for conductive coatings since studies show these materials to be highly effective corrosion inhibitors. In some situations, tobacco extracts can be as effective as chromates in preventing corrosion but without the toxicity issues of chromates, as shown in independent toxicity studies. The use of tobacco dust/leaf has several advantages, including absence of toxicity, derived from a renewable source, low cost and demonstrated efficacy for many metals in a wide variety of media.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Dr. Fritz Fiedersdorf
AF 07-111      Awarded: 04MAY07
Title:Nanocomposite Inhibitors for Corrosion Resistant Conductive Coating
Abstract:Conductive coatings and adhesives are used on composite aircraft structures to control electrostatic discharge and provide lightening strike protection. Contact of these metal or carbon filled coatings with alloy components creates the potential for significant corrosion problems. These corrosion problems have been controlled historically with chromate inhibitor containing primers, but as these materials are eliminated, a need exists to control corrosion of both the conductive metal fillers and the aircraft structure in contact with these coatings. To address the need for improved corrosion protection of aircraft structures coated with conductive coatings, Luna will develop a tailored inhibitor package that mitigates the complex processes associated with the corrosion of these conductive coatings and aircraft materials. Luna has selected a nanocomposite compound as the basic platform for tailoring inhibitors specifically for this application. The nanocomposite can be intercalated with a range of anodic or cathodic inhibitors, permitting significant design latitude for engineering inhibitors that satisfy the application requirements. A further advantage is that the inhibitor release is moderated by an ion exchange process. Finally, these inhibitors are base on low cost raw materials and are amenable to existing production processes, so that these materials will be competitive to other commercial inhibitors.

AEROBOTIX, INC.
351-F Electronics Blvd
Huntsville, AL 35824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 772-9035
Mr. Kirk McLauchin
AF 07-112      Awarded: 11MAY07
Title:Automated Sanding of Aircraft Coatings
Abstract:Current survivability and engineering requirements for airframe platforms necessitate the automated application of numerous specialty coatings onto critical surfaces. One such critical surface is an airframes inlet duct OML surface. These specialty coatings have tight specification tolerances for the final thicknesses and surface finish. Sanding is required to meet the final thickness and surface finish requirements. The current process for sanding and masking is entirely manual, comprising 60-70% of the process labor associated with coating the inlet ducts. Coatings such as MagRAM (Magnetic RADAR Absorbing Material), which are typically highly loaded with fillers, require extensive sanding process time to achieve specification thicknesses for field areas and tapers. Due to the shape and geometry of the inlet ducts, ergonomics associated with performing the sanding process are substantially reduced, resulting in awkward operator positions, reach issues, inability to provide the best possible tool control, and others. Sanding processes and equipment need to be developed and tested to reduce the process time for coatings application. Robotic sanding of the multiple specialty coatings provides a controlled sanding process which can repeatably produce the intended results while reducing process time, labor, rework, and safety and environmental issues. A new prototype sanding tool can be developed which will incorporate force control, compliancy, speed control and vacuum recovery into a robotic end effector which can be interchangeable with other end effectors on the same robotic tools in use on existing systems.

MILLENNIUM DYNAMICS CORP.
5860 Bridgemont Place
Acworth, GA 30101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 425-3338
Mr. Aaron Harcrow
AF 07-112      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Automated Sanding of Aircraft Coatings
Abstract:A cost effective and low risk automated sanding system that utilizes an innovative and extensible system architecture for removal of aircraft coatings is proposed. Elements of the Integrated Product/Process Development and robust design methodology will be applied in a systematic and exhaustive qualitative and quantitative assessment to identify the technologies, architecture and design concept that provides the best solution to meet the automated sanding requirements. The basic elements of this system are: . multi-spectral sensors to determine coating thickness on various substrates, . industrial robot with precision movement control, . intelligent control algorithm, . sanding subsystem having interchangeable sanding tools, . coating containment system. The system will be cost effective and low risk by taking advantage of many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components A proprietary control algorithm will provide communication and control between the several subsystems. Measurements of coating thickness and sanding logic will be demonstrated on test coupons fabricated from coatings and substrates representative of the subject aircraft.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. B. Matthew Michaelis
AF 07-113      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Novel Automated Masking System
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for improved masking technology used in the aircraft manufacturing and maintenance facilities, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new High Speed Automated Arbitrary Masking (HiSAAM) system. This proposed device is based on an automated deposition of masking composition to aircrafts in the droplet form that allows for the precise targeting of nanoscale droplets on the protected surface. The innovation in HiSAAM technology will enable the system to apply masks of any complexity quickly, accurately, and with high resolution and can easily be integrated with automated coating applicators to provide masking and coating in one step. In addition, the novel masking material deposited with this system is easily removed once coatings have been applied with no residue left. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of HiSAAM by building a proof of concept mask applicator and demonstrating masking, coating and demasking. In Phase II POC plans to build a full scale masking head and demonstrate system accuracy, resolution, and speed.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. John Bulluck
AF 07-113      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Improved Masking Aides Technology
Abstract:There is a need for new masking technologies for aircraft manufacture. Military aircraft have specialty coatings applied to the outer mold line. Maskants must be used for protection against tooling, and to avoid overspray and accurately meet engineering edge of part requirements. Current technologies are inefficient; for an advanced military aircraft, masking and demasking operations alone currently take 200 hours. Complex curvatures and ergonomic restraints further slow this tedious process. TRI/Austin proposes the use of sprayable temporary maskants that cure under ultraviolet light to solve this problem. The maskants can be applied to an area to be protected, cured within seconds by UV light, and cleanly peeled off by hand after use. The perimeter of the area to be masked can be outlined in tape where necessary. We propose to formulate maskants, test and optimize the physical properties and application properties, and develop a cure procedure to provide the Air Force with a broadly applicable new technology for the manufacture of its aircraft. Preliminary research has a yielded maskant that can be applied and cured in seconds, provides excellent surface protection, and is easily removed in seconds. This technology will significantly increase efficiency in aircraft masking and demasking operations.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4760
Mr. Dan Xiang
AF 07-114      Awarded: 04MAY07
Title:Calibration Standards for Thermosonic Nondestructive Evaluation
Abstract:Laser shock peening (LSP) provides a means to the surface treatment for metals by inducing compressive stress, and prevents fatigue cracks on foreign object damage (FOD)-prone areas such as the leading edges of compressor airfoils in a modern gas turbine. While LSP is a mature and reliable manufacturing process, slight anomalies during the process or variations in material ductility can cause small subsurface cracks to form in the resultant LSP processed material. Most existing NDE techniques are not sensitive enough to detect these cracks. The emerging Thermosonic imaging technique has proven to be capable of detecting very small surface and subsurface cracks formed during the LSP process. To validate the test results and enable the instrumental calibration of a thermosonic imaging system for specific components, calibration standards with real cracks must be produced. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) outlines an innovative approach for the development of calibration standards for thermosonic NDE. The key innovation of the proposed approach is the calibration standard development process, including standard specimen design, real subsurface crack fabrication, calibration, validation, verification, and standard traceability, etc.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division, 20600 Gramercy Place, B
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Pauline Paki-Amouzou
AF 07-114      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Simulated Turbine Airfoil Calibration Standards
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for calibration standards for measuring small flaws in turbine airfoils during thermosonic nondestructive evaluation, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Simulated Turbine Airfoil Calibration (STAC) standards process. This proposed development is based on the laser shock peening technique and a simulated control analysis process. The innovation in the LSP process control for small flaw induction will enable STAC to reliably and repeatably produce high quality reference standards that could be used on any component where very small surface or subsurface flaws exist. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of producing calibration standards that will be validated by nondestructive evaluation and by simulation. In Phase II POC plans to further optimize the process and integrate it into a fully functioning platform that will include thermosonic NDE for defects validation.

E PAINT CO.
25 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 540-4412
Mr. Alex Walsh
AF 07-116      Awarded: 25APR07
Title:Ice-Phobic Clearcoat to Improve Aircraft and Pilot Safety
Abstract:Ice-shedding clearcoats are proposed based on transparent materials having large solid-solid phase changes. Phase I develops candidate coating formulations and evaluates their performance as military topcoats for aircraft. Tests are planned to demonstrate concept feasibility. These include of elimination of ice adhesion, compatibility with current coating systems, meeting technical performance requirements for aircraft, as well as environmental friendliness. Phase II further develops those novel coatings for aircraft by characterizing service life and determining service life protocols of the developed coating on panels as well as actual aircraft surfaces.

SEASHELL TECHNOLOGY LLC
3252 Holiday Court Suite 115
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 638-0315
Dr. Sheldon Schultz
AF 07-116      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Novel Aircraft Anti-Ice Coating Material
Abstract:Accumulation of ice on aicraft wings and structural elements is a significant safety concern during cold weather conditions. Monitoring of ice formation and subsequent removal also requires a large investment of resources and has negative environmental effects. The development of novel strategies to minimize ice accretion and removal time from aircraft would greatly benefit both civilian and military aviation industries. In the Phase 1 research program we propose the creation and testing of novel nanocomposite coatings that minimize both ice accretion and adherence to military topcoat surfaces. These coatings are designed as multi-functional composites for enhanced activity. A first component of the coating is a ultrahydrophobic activity to prevent ice droplet adherence and minimize adhesion strength. A second active component in the coating can depress the freezing point, or facilitate the removal of adhered ice. Coatings will be formulated and characterized for ultrahydrophobic activity, mechanical integrity, stability and water freezing point depression activity. The promising icephobic coatings will be further tested in static ice adhesion assays and ice accretion studies using an icing wind tunnel. This study will provide a foundation for field testing of icephobic coating candidates during the Phase II research program.

PICOMETRIX LLC
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 864-5636
Dr. David Zimdars
AF 07-117      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:In-Process Cure Monitoring of Specialty Material Coatings
Abstract:We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of a fiber optic coupled pulsed time domain terahertz (THz or T-Ray) instrument to measure aircraft specialty coatings during in-process curing. The method employed will be capable of measuring the complex dielectric constant and thickness of the coating during and after the curing process. We will experimentally investigate a polyurethane coating, and develop a method to predict the post-cure dielectric properties from the pre-cure measurements. The proposed method will be able to measure these properties on a wide variety of coating and paints. The T-Ray measurement process is suitable for both composite and metallic substrates. The reflection T-Ray sensor will have non-contact operation, with working distances adjustable from less than 1 cm up to 100 cm. Measurement will be real time, with waveforms acquired at rates up to 100 Hz. In phase II, we will construct an on-line capable prototype T-Ray coating measurement system, based on specifications determined in the Phase I project. The system will be tested under realistic conditions and delivered to the Air Force for field-testing. The proposed T-Ray reflection sensor will be freely positional, suited for hand-held use or mounted on a robot.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Russell Austin
AF 07-117      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:In-Process Cure Monitoring of Specialty Material Coatings
Abstract:Radar Absorbing Material coatings are a necessary part of modern military aircraft. Such coatings greatly reduce aircraft radar signature, but there is currently no effective way to monitor the cure process, measure wet RAM thickness, determine the optimum time to apply the next layer or predict cured thickness while the RAM is still curing. Texas Research Institute Austin Inc (TRI) proposes to develop a sensor to make these measurements. The sensor will be developed based on a novel, patent pending dual waveguide millimeter wave system developed under a previous SBIR. The University of Missouri Rolla will subcontract, and Boeing and CAAP Co are supplying no cost support in Phase I. Lockheed and PRC-DeSoto have been briefed, and are interested in Phase II involvement. The proposed approach requires only a calibration sample, and no complex equipment (e.g. network analyzers) or data analysis. To change the type or thickness of the coating being monitored, simply change the calibration sample. The sensor is handheld, affordable, real time and operation requires little training.

MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC.
5395 West 700 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 530-4987
Dr. Feng Zhao
AF 07-118      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Low-Cost IR Windows and Lenses made from Polycrystalline YAG
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I proposal from Materials and Systems Research, Inc. (MSRI) and University of Utah (subcontractor) seeks to fabricate single-phase, polycrystalline yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) with a density greater than 99.95% and a mean grain size less than 1 micron. Polycrystalline YAG with these properties will have optical transmittance comparable to that of single crystal YAG in the midwave (3-5 micron) and long wave (8-14 micron) infrared windows. The high density and small grain size will be achieved by a fabrication route that will combine the following steps: preparation of a stable suspension of submicron YAG powder, forming a green compact by colloidal isopressing, and a two-stage densification by pressureless sintering followed by hot-isostatic pressing. The proposed fabrication route has two distinct advantages over conventional powder processing methods: (a) it eliminates microstructural inhomogenities that limit strength, durability and optical transmittance in conventional powder processing, (b) it eliminates a number of steps involved in conventional processing and leads to a lower cost. Research in Phase I will fabricate disks 100-150 mm in diameter and 3-6 mm in thickness. Measurements of fracture strengths, fracture toughness, and optical transmittance will be done by University of Utah under a subcontract.

NANOCEROX, INC.
712 State Circle
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 741-9522
Dr. Anthony C. Sutorik
AF 07-118      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Transparent YAG Ceramics for IR Windows Produced from High Purity YAG Nanopowders
Abstract:Nanocerox proposes to use our custom formulated, high purity yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) nanopowder for the production of YAG plates (100 mm diameter and 6 mm thick) with 82-84% transmission to demonstrate their utility as IR transparent windows. YAG is a high strength ceramic which, with proper processing, can achieve the optical quality required for this application. The challenge for successful development lies in that very narrow specifications of purity, composition, and processing must be strictly maintained for YAG to achieve transparency. Nanocerox has recently demonstrated its ability to overcome many of these challenges by repeatedly producing YAG ceramics (1~2 mm thick) with 82-84% transmission at 1000-3000 nm. This achievement was made possible by the optimized sintering of high purity nanopowder, prepared by Nanocerox's patent synthesis method of Liquid-Phase Flame Spray Pyrolysis. The optimized method produces YAG nanopowders with high purity (<200 ppm volatiles, < 50 ppm transition metals), uniform particle size (~ 40 nm average), and strict composition control ( 0.003 variation in stoichiometry). Our Phase I goal will be achieved through a series of specific technical tasks: (1) production of 4 x 2 kg batches of high quality YAG nanopowder; (2) processing trials at an interim size of 40 mm dia. x 6 mm thick to resolve key issues; (3) optical and physical characterization of trials to confirm the performance specifications; and (4) production and characterization of YAG parts in the final target size. Success in Phase I will set the stage for further Phase II development including establishing quality control on large scale nanopowder production; optimized sintering control for maximum physical properties; characterization of physical properties under extreme environments; and fabrication of larger prototypes under consultation with Air Force technical officers.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Mr. Wei Shih
AF 07-119      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:Compact Hybrid Liquid/Air Heat Exchanger
Abstract:High conductivity (Hi-K) Carbon foam and Carbon-Carbon (C-C) composites are light-weight and offers the highest specific thermal conductivity (conductivity/ density) among engineering materials. Carbon foam and C-C have also been identified as ideal core materials for advanced high temperature heat exchangers achieving up to 50% weight saving. Under this program, we propose to design, fabricate and test hybrid full-size heat exchangers using carbon based material as the core materials for advanced Air-Liquid heat exchanger applications, such as hot fuel/ram air and hot air/fuel or polyalpaolefin (PAO) heat sink. Both fin-fin and fin-foam design configurations will be considered using either metal or carbon-carbon parting sheets. Technical issues, such as joining of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion and leakage & sealing of C-C composites will be fully addressed under this proposed program. Heat exchanger core and manifold will be integrated with support structures. The heat exchanger will be fully tested, both performance and structurally in heat exchanger test facility.

MATERIAL INNOVATIONS, INC.
15801 Chemical Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 373-3070
Mr. James Calder
AF 07-119      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Affordable Manufacturing for Compact Hybrid Carbon Liquid/Air Heat Exchanger
Abstract:An affordable carbon composite core and manifold heat exchanger will be developed for high heat transfer rates with zero leakage between high and low pressure streams. The design will incorporate ease of manufacturing with a scalable assembly process that is production friendly. This innovative concept will use prefabricated, emphasizing waterjet cutting, plate-based composites to create a plate/fin and composite fluid tube construction. End-cap manifolds will be compression molded composite. For heat transfer regions, composite materials will be pitch-based graphite epoxy with fiber conductivities nominally 650 W/mK with an option for fiber at 1100 W/mK in critical thermal designs. Low-cost carbon-carbon with unique sealing technology will be used for a fluid channels. Exchanger design will be applicable to both graphite/epoxy and laminate/woven carbon-carbon systems. The carbon-graphite/epoxy exchanger developed in Phase 1 will be suitable for inlet temperatures up to 350F and 80 psi. Weight will be reduced by >40% with an increase in heat rejection relative to baselined designs. Phase 2 will expand the design for exclusive use of carbon-carbon when service temperatures exceed 500F. Analysis will be used for optimization. Phase 1 will build and test a complete exchanger prototype that will establish the production path carried into Phase 2.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Bryan Koene
AF 07-120      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:Appliques for the Assessment of Damage on Composites
Abstract:Luna Innovations will develop impact and thermal damage indicator appliques for polymer matrix composites (PMCs) used in aircraft and support structures. This smart applique system will produce a visual signal in response to an impact or thermal event capable of damaging the underlying composite. This system will allow maintenance personnel to rapidly identify potential composite damage in the field without the use of expensive equipment or extensive training. Areas of damage highlighted by the applique can then be more closely inspected with traditional NDE methods to determine if repair is required. This indicator system is inexpensive, scalable, and will operate with currently used applique systems to show prospective impact and thermal damage. The technology developed on this program will decrease life cycle costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment down-time.

NIMBUS TECHNOLOGIES
515 Schoolhouse Road
Kennett Sqaure, PA 19348
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 444-2383
Dr. William Biter
AF 07-120      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Magnetoelastic Fiber-Filled Appliqu for Detecting Structural Damage
Abstract:A new appliqu is proposed consisting of a film filled with stress sensitive magnetic fibers. This film, applied over the structure, can be imaged to measure stress concentration and/or anomalies resulting from an impact. This would be a valuable tool to provide warning of structural distress/damage. This proposal will design the appliqu, evaluate two different readout systems for measuring the strain measurements and select and demonstrate measurements on the selected approach. The appliqu will use polymer filled with small diameter magnetoelastic fibers, with the readout made with either a microwave scanning system based on reconstruction of the stress sensitive dielectric profile or an inductive coupled detector, using the fibers formed into small loops. The Phase 1 will select the most promising of these two advanced readout techniques and also do preliminary experiments, primarily on fill of the magnetic fiber and required stiffness of the appliqu so it can detect and remember the damage.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW, Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Dr. Adam Goff
AF 07-121      Awarded: 11MAY07
Title:Nanocomposite for Electrically Conductive Structural Adhesives and Bolt Hole Fillers
Abstract:Existing electrically-conductive structural adhesives utilize large amounts of silver particles to achieve their desired electrical properties. There unfortunately exists a limit as to how much an adhesive's electrical properties can be enhanced using this approach due to mechanical property degradation past a certain loading of the electrically-enhancing phase. It is therefore difficult to achieve both significantly enhanced electrical and mechanical properties in one adhesive system that cures within the desired time. Luna Innovations proposes to achieve this required electrical conductivity with enhanced mechanical properties (adhesive strength) through the unique dispersion of novel functionalized carbon nanotubes. Luna's approach is to use commercial off the shelf (COTS) epoxy adhesive/filler systems that are currently in use with the Air Force and disperse unique inorganically-modified carbon nanotubes within them using existing COTS dispersing aids. Promising systems will be characterized both electrically and mechanically.

MATERIALS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, LLC
1321 Research Park Drive
Beavercreek, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-4640
Dr. Chyi-Shan Wang
AF 07-121      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Nanocomposites for Electrically Conductive Structural Adhesives and Bolt Hole Fillers
Abstract:This Phase I program will use metallized carbon nanofibers to develop a class of electrically conductive structural adhesives and bolt hole fillers to improve the electrical and thermal transport properties of organic matrix composite structures. Metallized carbon nanofibers have the beneficial large aspect ratio of the carbon nanofiber and high electrical conductivity of the metal. They can confer significant electrical conductivity to polymer resins at moderate concentrations. In Phase I, MRI will produce silver- and copper-metallized carbon nanofibers of varying metal compositions. The metallized carbon nanofibers will be integrated with structural adhesive resins to formulate the electrically conductive structural adhesives and bolt hole fillers. An initial screening test will be employed to identify the most promising candidate materials. More elaborate electrical, thermal, mechanical, and lightning strike characterizations will be carried out on samples of selected candidate materials to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Donald Bigg
AF 07-122      Awarded: 17MAY07
Title:Flexible Conductive Caulking Material
Abstract:METSS proposes to develop a conductive caulking material that operates between -65F and 250F. The unique aspect of the proposed development will be the resistance to corrosion of the conductive filler and underlying bonded substrate. This corrosion resistant electrically conductive sealant will also resist exposure to common organic aircraft fluids and provide appropriate bonding to both aluminum and carbon-epoxy composite surfaces. METSS intends to impart corrosion resistance by the addition of selected additives that protect the sealant base from degradation caused by the presence of a metal filler, contact with a metal substrate, and contact with the salts in seawater. In prior programs, METSS has shown that this approach prevents deterioration of the conductive polymer integrity and prevents corrosion from developing in a conductive elastomer and adhering aluminum substrates. These protective additives are used in synergistic combinations and their exact nature and relative concentrations depend on the sealant base polymer and specific filler used as the conductor. Based on its previous work METSS has narrowed the selection process for the target sealants to a few materials.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. JH Lalli
AF 07-122      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Highly Elastomeric Metal RubberT Sealants with Superb Electromagnetic Integrity
Abstract:NanoSonic has developed Metal RubberT, a revolutionary nanocomposite with bulk resistivity (up to 2 x 10-5 ∙cm) that can be repeatedly strained and maintain electromagnetic integrity. Unlike typical nanocomposites that require 20-80 volume % filler (Ag flake) or 1-5 volume % for carbon nanotubes; NanoSonic uses novel processing methods to achieve electrical percolation with <0.01 volume % of non-corrosive Au or Ag nanoparticles. Lightweight (0.98g/cc) Metal RubberT may be used as electromagnetic shielding sealants for the outer mold line of aircraft, soldering and durable lightning strike protective materials. The nanostructured yet macroscale materials are available up to 48" squares. Metal RubberT is not a conducting polymer or a sputter coated polymer film, rather a free standing nanocomposite formed by chemically reacting monolayers of nanosized components with advanced copolymers. Extremely durable materials result; provide maximum adhesion and EM shielding over a wide dynamic thermomechanical environment (> 1000 % strain, up to 450 C, and after swelling for 7 days in harsh solvents). The proposed nanocomposites have demonstrated shielding effectiveness up to 70 dB measured from 250MHz to 18GHz. NanoSonic would work with Northrop Grumman on performance metrics, materials property evaluation for possible integration on aircraft such as the F-35 and N-UCAS.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James C. Withers
AF 07-123      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Improved Material Fabric Systems for Construction of Advanced Life Rafts
Abstract:Novel textile construction for inflatable components with exceptional puncture, cut, tear and abrasion resistance with high strength, light weight and low bulk for small volume storage which are inflatable and can be manufactured at low cost are enabling for a variety of defense applications. The goal is a significant improvement over state-of-the-art inflatable textiles that also eliminates cracking on exposure to hot dry environments for the fabrication of advanced life rafts. Hybrid multilayer composite textiles for space applications already meet many of the requirements defined for defense inflatable applications such as strength, puncture resistance, and absence of cracking under hot and dry environments. Modification of the hybrid multilayer composite textile developed for space applications to enhance robustness can readily meet defined requirements for fabricating seamed advanced life rafts at considerable weight savings. The advanced state of development of the hybrid multilayer composite textile permits conformation testing to demonstrate meeting requirements that provides the capability to also fabricate demonstration prototype inflatables during Phase I.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Apoorva Shah
AF 07-123      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Advanced Life Raft Fabrics (1001-050)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc proposes to develop new life raft fabric materials which is composed of nanoparticle filled outer coating layers laminated to a core fabric. The nanoparticle filled coating layers will provide improved abrasion and puncture resistance while providing exceptional gas barrier properties, while the strength will be provided by the nylon fabric. This technology, together with innovative seaming techniques is expected to yield a lighter weight life raft with improved durability and operational characteristics in hot/dry environments.

INORGANIC SPECIALISTS
P.O. Box 181, 720 Mound Ave.
Miamisburg, OH 45343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 865-4491
Dr. David Firsich
AF 07-124      Awarded: 16MAY07
Title:Carbon Nanofiber Paper Composites for Lightning Strike Protection
Abstract:The military's interest in replacing current lightning strike protection materials stems from a desire to reduce weight and cost, improve ease-of-repair, facilitate lay-up on contoured surfaces, and add the mechanical and shielding benefits of nanocomposites. We describe how this can be addressed with a type of carbon nanofiber paper that incorporates a limited content of nickel nanostrands. The two materials exist as an intertwined porous network within the paper, and this network can be infused with polymer as part of a layered composite structure. The key to achieving high conductivity in this system is a low-temperature sintering that connects the nickel nanostrands within the paper while leaving the overall paper flexible. The proposed effort will create large sheets of highly conductive nanofiber paper, and then use them to prepare composite panels that will tested for their lightning strike behavior. This is a collaboration between the nanofiber papermaker and a University of South Alabama research group with an extensive program in nanocomposites. The University organization has direct experience in converting nanofiber papers into nanocomposite panels, and they can provide mechanical, structural, and electrical characterization as well.

NANOTECHLABS, INC.
409 W. Maple St.
Yadkinville, NC 27055
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(336) 849-7474
Dr. Richard Czerw
AF 07-124      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:High Conductivity Nanoscale Modification for Electrically Conductive Organic Matrix Composites
Abstract:Traditionally, conductive paths in composite structures to mitigate the effects of lightning strikes have been established by bonding aluminum or copper mesh to the structure either as the outside ply or embedded one ply down or incorporating strands of conductive material into the laminate. For external surface protection, a number of metal and metallized fiber products have been developed, typically woven and nonwoven screens and expanded foils. These materials add weight, can corrode, and are difficult to repair. In this Phase I, NanoTechLabs will incorporate highly conducting carbon nanotube buckypapers into composite laminates for lightning strike protection. Buckypapers will save more than half the weight and are immune to corrosion.

BERKELEY MATERIALS RESEARCH
431 Linda Avenue
Piedmont, CA 94611
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 593-1196
Dr. T. Calvin Tszeng
AF 07-125      Awarded: 02MAY07
Title:Physics-Based Shock Spallation Prediction Tool for Laser Shock Processing
Abstract:Fatigue life of aerospace components is greatly enhanced by planting compressive residual stresses or favorable microstructure in the shallow surface by various processing techniques, including laser shock peening (LSP). In some situations, there are shock-induced defects in the subsurface and other area in the component; spallation can occur in severe cases, particularly in think sections. These defects are very undesirable from the standpoint of structural integrity as they defeat the purpose of using LSP in enhancing fatigue resistance. Unfortunately, existing studies and models on the nature of these defects are very limited in predicting their formation and the eventual spallation. There are strong needs to circumvent the appearance of defects in a LSP processed components. The goal of the present SBIR project is to fulfill these critical needs by developing such physics-based computational tool capable of predicting the defect formation in LSP processed components, thereby significantly reducing the efforts required to develop a new LSP applications. The centerpieces of the tool include a FDM and FEM models for dynamic stress prediction and a defect growth model that accounts for the loading history in a LSP process.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-6232
Dr. You-Hai Wen
AF 07-125      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:A Physics-based Model for the Prediction of Laser Shock-Induced Spallation
Abstract:In this SBIR phase-I proposal, a physics-based modeling approach is proposed to predict the spallation in Ti-6Al-4V coupons induced by laser shock peening (LSP). Although LSP can dramatically improve the fatigue strength, life and resistance to crack propagation in materials and parts, small subsurface flaws due to spallation can be induced in certain conditions, which are considered extremely undesirable and may affect the full functionality of the particular component. No physics-based approach is available today for the robust prediction of LSP-induced material failure. Motivated by this knowledge gap, we propose to 1) establish a physics-based model for the shock pressure generated by LSP and 2) develop a nonlinear damage-based constitutive material model that is capable of describing the key physics associated with LSP spallation. By incorporating the models into the commercial nonlinear finite element code (ABAQUS), extensive parametric study will be performed on processing parameters (pulse input energy, pressure, spot size, duration) and coupon configurations (size, shape, boundary conditions) implementation includes modeling of the LSP-induced shock pressure. The results obtained will be correlated to the experimental data to establish a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among the process parameters, stress evolution, and material failures.

LSP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6145 Scherers Place
Dublin, OH 43016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 718-3000
Dr. David W. Sokol
AF 07-126      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Develop a Tool to Measure Bonded Joint Strength for Primary Load Bearing Aircraft Structures
Abstract:To reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency, composites are being adhesively bonded into integral structural elements of aircraft at an accelerating rate. Once a bonded structure is assembled, there is no conventional NDI method available to assure that bond strength is adequate for service. The presence of weak regions in bonds can lead to disastrous failure of the structure under flight loads. Laser Bond Inspection (LBI) offers a practical solution to locating weak regions in laminate-adhesive bonds in aircraft structures. It is a local proof-testing method that applies a well-controlled dynamic stress to the composite structure, and senses the failure of weak adhesive bonds in response to the stress. The controlled stressing of the composite material has no effect on the material or bond if it is not damaged, defective, or substandard. In order for LBI to be widely applicable, however, advanced technology needs to be developed to inspect thick multilayer composite structures (0.5-1.0 inch thick), bonded structure with non-parallel surfaces (e.g., tapered flange to skin composite), and mixed material joints (e.g., metal-to-composite). The innovative aspect of the proposed SBIR Phase I program is to perform key experiments to demonstrate new LBI technical approaches to these difficult inspection problems.

SONIPULSE, INC.
4919 WINDPLAY DR, SUITE 1
EL DORADO HILLS, CA 95762
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 941-7600
Mr. Robert Cribbs
AF 07-126      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Develop a Tool to Measure Bonded Joint Strength for Primary Load Bearing Aircraft Structures
Abstract:This is a proposal to develop the technology to detect "kissing bonds" (adhesion bonds that are not broken but are well below design strength). The approach is to use a novel ultrasonic transducer that is capable of generating pulse amplitudes that produce strains just below the required bond strength. If the bond survives the pulse it is considered good. Previous work has shown the feasibility of this approach. The new approach sends an extended signal from a piezoelectric into a "broadband resonator". By selecting the correct input signal all frequency components arrive at the output in phase at some later time to produce a pulse of the required amplitude to break kissing bonds. A portable, battery powered system could be developed to handle a wide range of material thickness with hand-held transducers spanning a broad range of center frequencies. The experimental plan is to fabricate specimens containing bonds of various strengths, subject the bonds to pulses just below the bond strength, note any failures, and then test the strength of any intact specimens with destructive tests.

PICOMETRIX LLC
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 864-5639
Dr. David Zimdars
AF 07-127      Awarded: 04MAY07
Title:Health Management of High Temperature Polymer Composites
Abstract:We propose to investigate the feasibility of using time domain terahertz (THz or T-Ray) imaging to detect and map aging of high temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs) used in advanced aerospace structural systems. We will experimentally demonstrate the ability of T-Ray measurement and imaging to provide rapid, quantitative, non-contact measurements of aging behavior in neat resin specimens. This recognition ability will be further detailed into the separate measurements possible with a single T-Ray image: porosity, cracking, densification, spectroscopy, and layer determination. We will describe the accuracy of each of these measurements, and specify the critical design parameters for a lightweight, field usable instrument for composite aging characterization, based on Picometrix' commercialized fiber optic driven T-Ray non-destructive evaluation systems and components.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. John Lock
AF 07-127      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Embedded Optical Sensor for the Health Monitoring of High-Temperature Composites(1001-036)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc., is responding to the need of the Air Force to develop a service life monitoring system for high-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs) used in jet engine and exhaust wash structural applications. Triton will develop a high-temperature sensor to measure oxidation and signal composite degradation. We will validate the sensor performance with accelerated aging tests of HTPMC samples incorporating the technology.

APPLIED SCIENCES, INC.
141 W. Xenia Ave., PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 766-2020
Mr. David J. Burton
AF 07-128      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Lightweight, Low-cost Insulation Materials for Hypersonic Vehicles
Abstract:Future hypersonic vehicles are being designed to travel at speeds approaching Mach 25. At these speeds, the temperature at the exterior surface is expected to exceed 3000F. Advanced materials are needed to thermally protect the munitions in the interior of the vehicle as current materials are too dense, difficult to join, too conductive, non-structural, too expensive, or not rated for these temperatures. New insulating materials that build upon current efforts at GrafTech International, LLC to develop graphite foams and work at NASA Glenn Research Center to develop aerogels are proposed, in conjunction with nanomaterials from Applied Sciences, to meet the Air Force targets for density, service temperature, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and cost. The new insulating material will be designed to provide structural support to the aeroshell. Also proposed is an innovative joining technology based on in situ polymerization of wetting monomers, a recently developed low-cost process capable joining carbon based materials, to address thermal and structural issues at the insulation / aeroshell interface.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Mr. Victor M. Arrieta
AF 07-128      Awarded: 02MAY07
Title:Advanced Foam Core Composite Insulation for Extended Range Hypersonic Vehicles
Abstract:Hypersonic flight requires the development of insulating materials with a combination of thermal conductivity, density, and structural integrity that is beyond the capability of materials currently in use. In previous thermal protection system work for DoD and NASA, Ultramet developed a highly insulating and lightweight material by combining an open-cell foam skeleton with an ultralow-density aerogel filler material. The foam serves as an easily machinable structural reinforcement for the low-strength aerogel insulator and defines the shape of the component. The combined density of the foam/aerogel composite insulator is <0.07 g/cm3 (4.4 lb/ft3); processing is economical and is readily scalable to 2 x 2 x 12" thick flat and curved shapes. The material has a thermal conductivity of only 0.25 W/m.K at 2000F and 0.8 W/m.K at 3600F, and has demonstrated the ability to maintain large thermal gradients for extended periods. Equally as important for hypersonic vehicle applications, the foam/aerogel insulator has a use temperature approaching 4000F, nearly 1000F greater than conventional oxide-based insulators. The previous work has focused on enclosing the insulator within a free-standing structural shell. The potential exists to increase the strength and stiffness of the foam reinforcement such that it can be integrated with a carbon-based aeroshell, creating a load-bearing sandwich structure, while still maintaining acceptable density and thermal conductivity. In this project, Ultramet will team with Materials Research & Design (MR&D) for thermal-mechanical modeling and attachment design methodologies, and Ocellus for aerogel insulation processing, to develop and demonstrate a sandwich panel core insulator.

MIKRO SYSTEMS, INC.
770 Harris Street, Suite 104
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 244-6480
Mr. William Randolph
AF 07-129      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Manufacturing Process Development of High-Performance Treated Honeycomb Core for Radar Absorbing Application
Abstract:Current methods for manufacturing treated honeycomb core involve flow coat and dip processing of honeycomb core blocks. These processes yield low-performance parts due to limited capability to control process parameters and tolerances. Moreover, these processes limit the opportunity to incorporate edges with desirable radar-absorbing characteristics. Mikro Systems, Inc. (MSI) proposes to adapt its patented Tomo Lithographic Molding (TLMT) process to the manufacture of super-lightweight, intrinsically radar-absorbing, isogrid cores that will enhance system survivability, flexibility, and affordability. TLMT is derived from established, photo-lithographic technology; it is very accurate and highly repeatable (low variation). Each cell of an isogrid core sheet can be a unique architecture combining polymer matrix composite materials and secondary geometric features; e.g., chines and corrugations. Collectively, these cells can be arrayed in a global architecture that optimizes strength-to-weight ratio while creating a multi-frequency (including sub millimeter), electromagnetic camouflage scheme. This Phase I SBIR project will design, fabricate, and test materials systems, hardware elements, and a Technology Demonstration Article ( 2' x 4' x " sandwich panel ) that will evidence Mikro Systems' capability to scale-up and control all desired performance attributes. MSI cores composed of conventional ("non-stealthy") materials and simple isogrid geometry have "dual-use" application in commercial products.

PATZ MATERIALS & TECHNOLOGIES
4968 Industrial Way
Benicia, CA 94510
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(707) 748-7577
Mr. Nicholas Patz
AF 07-129      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Manufacturing Process Development of High-Performance Treated Honeycomb Core for Radar Absorbing Application
Abstract:Patz Materials and Technologies proposes to develop a new manufacturing method to fabricate treated core by a modification of their existing production process. Their unique process consisting of dispersing a conductive particulate into a resin system, impregnating that resin system into a reinforcement and then corrugating that reinforcement into a cellular core to create a multifunctional composite core. This is core specifically designed to increase survivability while decreasing weight in airborne platforms. The end result will be a production methodology in which the radar-absorbing characteristics of the cellular core material will be predetermined and controlled before the fabrication of the core. This production methodology will yield consistent core properties and can utilize new materials in orientations unachievable through the standard dip or flow coat processes.

AKRON POLYMER SYSTEMS, INC.
2990 Gilchrist Road, Suite 2100
Akron, OH 44305
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(330) 794-6359
Dr. Dong Zhang
AF 07-130      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Develop High-Temperature, Low-Humidity Aromatic Hydrocarbon-based H2/O2 Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells
Abstract:The development of proton exchange membrane (PEM)(also known as polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cells has been limited by the availability of suitable membrane materials. In order to achieve acceptable performance at low cost, such fuel cells are required to work at elevated temperature and low (near 0) relative humidity (RH) for extended periods of time. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy has established performance guidelines for PEMs for automotive applications, which include a proton conductivity of 100 ms/cm under operating conditions of 120 C and 50 % RH. To date, no commercial PEMs or publicly reported PEMs can meet these performance requirements. In this proposal, general guidelines for the design of polymers for PEMs that can perform under even more stringent conditions have been established and used in the design of several series of polymers. A key feature of these systems is the use of proton carriers other than water. Another unique feature of a series of sulfonated polymers is their designed resistance to desulfonation at elevated temperatures. In Phase I, several of these new polymers will be prepared and evaluated. The overall goal of this work will be to identify one or two promising candidates for extensive study and eventual commercialization.

DAYCHEM LABORATORIES, INC.
970 Industrial Park Drive
Vandalia, OH 45377
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 264-1000
Mr. Ram Sharma
AF 07-130      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Develop High-Temperature, Low-Humidity Aromatic Hydrocarbon-based H2/O2 Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells
Abstract:Development of efficient fuel cells technology, especially based on H2/O2 fuel cells as an alternative energy/power source, has assumed a sense of global significance. From the viewpoint of minimizing water management issues and to provide for fuel cells with a simplified design, high durability and reduced costs, there is an ever-growing demand for a new generation of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) that can operate successfully at temperatures > 120C and at low relative humidity (< 25 %), ideally requiring no external humidification. During Phase I, this proposal aims at generating a novel class of PEMs, especially based on sulfonated polybenzimidazoles (SPBIs), with flexible linkages in the backbone. The premise is that, in contrast to the PEMs based on a relatively rigid heterocyclic polymer backbone, the flexible thermoplastic benzimidazole polymer backbone can facilitate the sequestration of the proton conducting domains more effectively, potentially increasing the proton conductivity to 50-100 mS/cm at high temperatures and at low relative humidity. Nanostructuring via the formation of PEM composites, incorporating ionic liquids and organically modified nanoclays in SPBIs, will also be explored in Phase I, from the viewpoint of enhanced hydrophilicity and proton conductivity of the PEMs.

ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
244 Sobrante Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8302
Dr. John T. Kelly
AF 07-131      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Compact and Reliable Burner that Operates on Military Logistic Fuels
Abstract:Compact burners, capable of using a range of logistics fuels, are needed in support of fuel cell reformer systems. High efficiency, rapid startup and long term reliability are key criteria. Current spray burner and other designs have difficulty in meeting these objectives as a result of heat driven fuel transformations that clog small passages and cause flame instability, and even burner shutdown. Altex has identified the Compact and Reliable Burner that can address heat capacity needs from 0.5 to 15 kW, without the degradation problems associated with conventional burners. Preliminary tests have shown the potential of the concept. Under the proposed effort, the innovative burner technology will be adapted to the Air Force application of interest, and feasibility will be proven through analysis and tests on several military fuels, including JP-8. Lastly, the performance and cost benefits of the concept will be quantified and the advantages of the concept over alternatives will be determined.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Darin A. Knaus
AF 07-131      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Microburner for Deployed Energy Systems
Abstract:Compact, efficient, and sustainable electric power generators are needed to provide mobile electric power for deployable military bases. Fuel cells with fuel processors that run on logistic fuel are attractive candidates due to inherent efficiency, practicality, sustainability, and safety. In these low-power devices (0.5 kW to 15 kW), fuel atomization and evaporation prove to be limiting factors for heavy liquid fuels such as JP-8. To replace volatile fuels such as propane or gasoline in these small-scale applications, improved atomization and vaporization techniques for heavy liquid fuels are needed. In Phase I, Creare will demonstrate a novel, low-power, robust, fuel atomization technique capable of producing droplets with 10 m mean diameter at a fuel flow rate appropriate for burners in the 0.5 kW to 15 kW class. We will demonstrate operation with a variety of fuels including JP-8, biodiesel and ethanol. We will characterize output (equivalent thermal power) capability, turndown, and aerosol size via laser diffraction PSD measurement. We will integrate the atomizer in a burner configuration to demonstrate combustion. In Phase II, we will optimize the atomizer/burner design and integrate it with a reforming technology to produce syngas suitable for a deployable fuel cell application.

CALDERA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
3491 Trinity Drive, Suite B
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 661-2420
Dr. Eva Birnbaum
AF 07-132      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Generation of Peptide-Based Ligands for Chemical and Biological Agent Identification
Abstract:Caldera will use its R&D 100 award-winning Reagentless Pharmacoproteomic Measurement (RPM) technology to develop chemical/biological (C/B) agent taggants for incorporation into a portable read-out device. RPM technology was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and licensed to Caldera. We propose: (1) to generate selective peptide-based capture agent molecules which form highly specific complexes with C/B agents, thereby eliminating the false positive problems that plague current sensors, (2) to develop the ability to "report" binding events, and (3) to produce a prototype sensor device. RPM offers direct chemical measurement of analyte-ligand binding affinity and analyte-ligand selectivity. Caldera will incorporate reporter functional groups into these ligands, to provide for optical reading of C/B agent presence and concentration. We offer a highly novel approach for the generation of non-antibody, peptide-based capture agents, performed by a team with proven expertise in developing label-free reporter methodologies and C/B sensors. RPM technology is extremely rapid and adaptable, which are both attributes necessary due the ever-changing threat situation.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Melanie M. Tomczak
AF 07-132      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Generation of Protein- and Aptamer-Based Ligands for Chemical and Biological Agent Identification
Abstract:Detection of chemical and biological warfare agents in a real-world setting is an increasingly urgent problem. Many of the current state-of-the-art sensors are aqueous based and require large biomolecules, such as antibodies, to achieve binding of the target molecule and subsequent reporting of the binding event. Antibodies and other large biomolecules are labile under ambient conditions over time due to aggregation, which renders them inactive. This instability is a drawback when considering deployment of these technologies to a battlefield situation. Here, we propose a sensor that is based on short peptide and nucleic acid sequences that act as ligands for the target(s) of interest. Due to their small size, these ligands are not susceptible to conformational instability and the sensors should have a long lifetime even when deployed. Additionally, we propose a "dry" signal transduction mechanism that only requires the binding of the target of interest in order to relay that event. No washing or blocking steps are required. After deployment, the sensor on which the binding takes place can be interrogated, either locally or remotely, by a reader to determine if the target of interest has bound.

KONARKA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
116 John St, Suite #12
Lowell, MA 01852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 569-1410
Dr. Russell Gaudiana
AF 07-133      Awarded: 25MAY07
Title:Organic Photovoltaics--Flexible Light Weight Multi-junction Cells Based on Polymer/fullerene Active Layers
Abstract:During the initial stages of Phase I of the Air Force program, Konarka Technologies will formulate solutions for all of the layers that comprise a single junction cell, and we will sequentially coat these layers on top of one another using the roll-to-roll, process development coating machine. The purpose of these experiments is to prevent de-wetting and large scale intermixing of the layers during coating. In addition, the area occupied by the active layer will be increased and that of the in-active, interconnect and edge seal area will be decreased. In the final stage of the program, all of these results and information will be used to produce modules comprising multi-junction cells. The efficiency of these modules is expected to be at least 6%.

NSCRYPT, INC.
2100 N Alafaya Trail, Suite 200
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 275-4727
Dr. Kenneth H. Church
AF 07-133      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:Low Cost Nanoparticles/Organic Hybrid Photovoltaic Cells
Abstract:The proposed Phase I project is focused on the development of the novel low cost efficient nanoparticles/organic hybrid photovoltaic cells using the direct write method. New polymers and combinations of dye and polymer materials will be explored. The device will convert light in a wide spectral range to electricity. Nanoparticles/organic hybrid photovoltaic cells are thin, lightweight, flat and relatively inexpensive to produce in large quantities. The use of direct write technology is an elegant alternative to traditional fabrication methods of semiconductor electronics such as photolithography, vacuum deposition techniques, masking, high processing temperatures, etc. This project will develop an efficient, inexpensive and reliable method of manufacturing novel nanoparticles/organic hybrid photovoltaic cells capable of stable and extended service under a wide range of environmental conditions.

BERRIEHILL RESEARCH CORP.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. , Ste. 1001
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-1016
Dr. Jeffery A. Berrie
AF 07-134      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Improved Radio Frequency (RF) Polymer Substrates for Antennas
Abstract:In this SBIR proposal, BerrieHill Research Corporation working with the ElectroScience Laboratory and the MicroMD Facility at The Ohio State University shall identify and develop novel magnetic RF polymers that have relatively high permittivity and permeability while exhibiting low loss at frequencies above 1 GHz, yielding proof of principle data to substantiate the potential of these materials to yield large area films or structures (15 by 15 inch minimum) that are suitable for use as antenna substrates and superstrates. Emphasis shall be placed on two key technologies. The first involves recent advances in hexaferrite magnetic materials, and the second involves recent advances to systematically arrange, three-dimensionally, material inclusions in a polymer matrix. Newly developed high permeability, low-loss hexaferrites shall be obtained and state-of-the-art 3-D fabrication methods shall be used to form magnetic RF polymers that are superior to conventional antenna fabrication materials (e.g. Duroid, Teflon, etc.). This team shall provide an integrated effort in the development, testing, and application of these new materials for specific uses in microwave devices, with fabrication of a spiral antenna to be demonstrated to show the potential for conformal antenna miniaturization.

SPECTRUM MAGNETICS, LLC
318 Mourning Dove Dr.
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(484) 319-7949
Dr. Guixiang Yang
AF 07-134      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Improved Radio Frequency (RF) Polymer Substrates for Antennas
Abstract:Leveraging Spectrum Magnetics' expertise in large scale fabrication of nanomaterials by gas phase aerosol technologies, supported by University of Delaware's leading edge research in magnetodielectric materials with simultaneously large permittivity and permeability in GHz, we propose to fabricate and optimize RF polymers that promise applications in antenna with much improved loss tangent, without sacrificing its benefit in impendence match, bandwidth and miniaturization. Other significant technology applications also exist such as microwave devices, filters, and DC/DC converters that have sizable market shares. Our on-going work confirmed our proposed concept that magnetic materials with low energy loss above 1 GHz must first be developed. Guide by the material physics behind high frequency materials; we choose and modify materials to achieve high magnetization, high resistivity, but work against high demagnetization factor; subsequently embedding the as developed low loss GHz magnetic core in suitable polymers will achieve RF polymers with desirable properties. Our approach will provide a convenient manufacturing route for making RF polymers at a lowered cost. In Phase I, we will demonstrate RF polymers with permittivity and permeability larger than 3 above 1 GHz frequencies with loss tangent less than 5x10-3.

TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT CO., INC.
2500 Louisiana NE, Suite 300
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 412-3598
Dr. Vivek R. Dave
AF 07-135      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Weld Repair of Titanium Alloys for Turbine Engine Applications
Abstract:IBRs represent a great advance for military aero-engine performance. However increased performance has its price: high manufacturing costs and difficulty with in-service repair. Linear friction welding (LFW) and/or high speed machining have reduced manufacturing costs, but service repairs are still significant cost and technical challenges. Current technologies under development include LFW, laser processing, and electron beam processing. These methods can produce metallurgically acceptable welds but are very costly, complex, and not generally compatible with cellular operations. This proposal involves gas metal arc welding - GMAW -with two important innovations: modern adaptively controlled power supplies and a novel in-process quality assurance (IPQA) method that stabilizes the GMAW welding of titanium enabling superior weld properties, minimal spatter/porosity, and control of fusion zone geometry. This advanced GMAW for Titanium is currently being implemented by us for US Army static structural applications, and therefore initial risk reduction work is already in progress. Furthermore, we have successfully applied this method to high rate GMAW processes in aluminum alloys virtually eliminating porosity and spatter. The successful development of this technology for Ti-IBR weld repair would decrease weld repair costs by an order of magnitude, thereby realizing a truly cost-effective IBR repair allowing wider use of this technology.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Thomas McDonald
AF 07-135      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Laser Powder Deposition Repair of IBRs/Blisks(1001-020)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc (TSI) proposes the use of laser powder-deposition (also known as LAM and LENST) to repair aircraft engine blisks and integrally bladed rotors (IBRs). For repair materials TSI proposes the use of original materials of manufacture (Ti-64 or Ti-6242), as well as alternate engineered MMC hybrid materials. In addition to determining the feasibility of fatigue life improvements resulting from the use of these two repair process elements, both of which have previously demonstrated superior performance in similar applications, it is proposed that the repair test matrix also include the evaluation of the use of surface treatment in the repair areas to enhance fatigue life. Surface treatments have demonstrated significant improvement in the fatigue life of aircraft engine components that are subject to high cycle loading. It is believed that each of the three proposed elements has the potential to individually demonstrate improvements over current repair methods, and if used in combination could increase blisk repair life to an even higher level. Considering the individual performance of each of the proposed repair process elements in other similar applications, the life of a repaired blisk could conceivably be greater than the original (as manufactured) life.

MATERIALS RESEARCH & DESIGN
300 E. Swedesford Rd
Wayne, PA 19087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 964-6130
Mr. Kent W. Buesking
AF 07-136      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Low Cost Fabrication of Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Aeroshells for Hypersonic Vehicles
Abstract:Future Air Force hypersonic vehicles will employ complex shapes and fly extended maneuvering trajectories. Since the flight times may increase by an order of magnitude or more, existing ablative thermal protection systems will not be practical due to their excessive surface recession and high density. The future Air Force vehicles will employ wave rider shaped carbon-carbon aeroshells over multiple insulating layers to protect the payload. The present manufacturing method employed for these aeroshells is hand lay-up of two-dimensional fabric in which substructures are tediously formed and debulked to create a carbon/phenolic precursor aeroshell. Even with this time-consuming process, the aeroshell often delaminates during carbonization so the part must be scrapped. This leads to an expensive, trial and error process to develop an acceptable carbon-carbon part. In order for carbon-carbon aeroshells to serve as a practical component for future hypersonic vehicles, it is necessary to develop less expensive fabrication methods, and more reliable, well understood processing techniques. One attractive fabrication method uses a tape-wrapping technique in which a bias-ply C/Ph tape is wrapped over a mandrel, cured, carbonized, and graphitized to form a carbon-carbon aeroshell. Tape-wrapping has been recently applied successfully to the development of erosion-resistant carbon-carbon exit cones. A second attractive fabrication technique is to replace the flat 2D lay-ups with an involute, or rosette construction. The involute plies spiral from the inner to outer diameter of the carbon-carbon part providing through-thickness reinforcement to reduce the potential for delaminations. Involute technology was used throughout the 1980s and 1990s to build carbon-carbon exit cones for Air Force missile systems such as the Peacekeeper. Furthermore, processing techniques can also be improved significantly using models that address pore pressures and shrinkage stresses during carbonization. These processing models have been applied successfully to the recent fabrication of carbon-carbon exit cones. The goal of the proposed program is to demonstrate low cost fabrication methods for carbon-carbon aeroshells that are based upon well understood, physics-based processing models. The specific objectives include definition of a representative aeroshell, development of a processing model, optimization of an involute ply pattern, design of an aeroshell subcomponent, and fabrication of two or more carbon-carbon aeroshell subcomponents. The proposed Phase I effort will be performed by a team of Materials Research & Design (MR&D), ATK Launch Systems, and Mr. H.O. Davis. MR&D will develop the process model, define the involute ply pattern, and design the subcomponents. ATK will fabricate the subscale carbon-carbon aeroshells, and Mr. H.O. Davis will guide the process modeling and involute design. This team offers a state of the art skill set, which is uniquely suited to the Phase I program.

OCELLUS, INC.
450 Lindbergh Avenue
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 955-6646
Scott C. Brown
AF 07-136      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Low Cost Fabrication of Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Aeroshells for Hypersonic Weapon Systems
Abstract:In future conflicts, it is projected that there will be a need for new weapon types that can strike targets around the globe within minutes. The development of hypersonic vehicles is one response to this need. Future requirements for hypersonic vehicles demand advanced thermal and structural materials. Significant effort has been invested in developing an array of composite materials for use in aircraft, spacecraft, and hypersonic vehicles. For high temperature applications like hypersonic vehicles, carbon-carbon is a composite material of choice. Although, the origins of carbon-carbon composites can be traced back to the 1960's, many critical problem areas still exist which have limited their application. Many of these problems can be traced to manufacturing process-induced defects and failures. Despite clear advantage in physical properties, a robust, low-cost manufacturing approach will be required to enable the use of carbon-carbon composite structures in hypersonic vehicles. To meet this need for reliable, efficient, and cost-effective carbon-carbon manufacturing, we propose the development of a carbon-carbon manufacturing method that relies on the integration of a process environment model that can be used to both predict optimum processing parameters as well as provide real-time control of the process operation.

ADVALUE TECHNOLOGY LLC
3149 S. Chrysler Avenue
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 514-1100
Dr. Tao Luo
AF 07-137      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:High-Power 2 Micron Fiber Lasers
Abstract:Thulium doped fiber laser near 2 micron is of great interest because of the potential possibility of combining high efficiency, high output power, and retina safety together. This proposal is for the development of new Tm-doped glass fiber for efficient high power 2Ym fiber laser capable of generating an output power of up to thousands watts. The doping concentration of the proposed glass fiber can be very high, which will result in the so-called cross relaxation energy transfer of thulium, dramatically improving the quantum efficiency. In Phase I, we will design and develop new Tm3+-doped glasses, measure the spectroscopic properties of thulium ions, characterize the cross relaxation energy transfer, demonstrate quantum efficiency of approximately 200%, fabricate fiber perform and single mode fibers, and demonstrate efficient near 2 micron laser pumped with multi-mode 800nm laser diodes. Successful development of such highly efficient high power 2Ym Tm3+-doped glass fiber laser with output power of kilowatts level would revolutionize the fiber laser development and enable many new applications.

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Dr. Kurt J. Linden
AF 07-137      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:New, Mid-IR Rare Earth Chalcogenide Glass Fiber Laser
Abstract:This Phase I Small Business Innovative Research project will develop the most promising rare earth-doped chalcogenide glass materials for high-power mid-IR (2-5 um) emission, and demonstrate laser action with samples of cladding-pumped fiber drawn from two candidate materials. There has been and continues to be strong military interest in high power mid-IR lasers for optical countermeasures, ranging, remote sensing, target designation and free space and satellite communications. Cladding pumped fiber lasers are advantageous for high power operation because of their high efficiency and relative immunity from thermal effects. Furthermore, microstructured (photonic lattice) fibers have demonstrated strong potential for power scaling and immunity to fiber bending artifacts, thus enabling continual future development of improved high power, mid-IR fiber lasers. Phase I will develop a double-clad rare earth-doped chalcogenide glass synthesis technique for achieving mid-IR fiber laser operation, and will evaluate sample fiber material batches with two different rare earth-dopant materials for excitation efficiency and photon lifetime. Co-doping for improved electron energy transfer will be investigated. The fibers will be optically pumped to obtain mid-IR fiber laser emission. Phase II will further develop these materials, generate commercial fiber manufacturing processes, and demonstrate fiber materials for commercial and military laser products.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Bauke Heeg
AF 07-138      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:A Glass-Ceramic Optical Thermal History Sensor for Extreme Environments
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal outlines a plan to evaluate the feasibility of several innovative aspects of a wireless thermal history sensor based on thermally activated crystallization of glass-ceramics. In particular, this proposal is concerned with the analysis and optimization of accuracy, reliability and manufacturability of the sensor array and readout system. The work plan consists of: (1) developing a prototype design for a scanning laser system for interrogation of thermal history sensors; (2) performing an experimental demonstration of several optical sensor interrogation approaches; (3) selection and testing of a promising glass-ceramic; (4) developing a forward devitrification model based on known parameters in order to simulate the sensor performance as a function of time and temperature; (5) developing a model that reconstructs average thermal exposure from a given sensor reading, in order to estimate the optimum accuracy and temperature resolution under typical operating conditions; (6) the outline a Phase II strategy.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Michael A. White
AF 07-138      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Thermal History Optical Readout (THOR) System for Condition Based Maintenance
Abstract: Physical Sciences Inc. proposes a novel and highly robust Thermal History Optical Reader (THOR) system concept capitalizing on mature optical, processing, and software technology developed by PSI and proven in the condition based maintenance field for both DoD and commercial applications. The proposed portable battery operated system will allow the enabling technology for wirelessly recording a fingerprint of the thermal history of an array of glass-ceramic substrates developed by the Air Force to effectively and rapidly enter field evaluations and provide benefits for life prediction and health monitoring of components in extreme environments. Proven optical instrumentation and pattern recognition tools developed at PSI are presented that allow rapid development and demonstration of the THOR concept within the Phase I program.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4760
Dr. Dan Xiang
AF 07-142      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Time-Resolved Acoustic Microscopy for Nondestructive Evaluation of Silicon Carbide (SiC) Optics
Abstract:Polycrystalline SiC-based materials are being considered for the next generation aerospace mirror structural substrates due to their low density, low thermal expansion coefficient, high strength, and high fracture toughness. Conventional NDE techniques for optical components, which usually involve polarized light birefringence measurements to enable both defect identification and internal stress estimation, can not be applied to the polycrystalline SiC because it is non-transparent. X-ray stress analysis is a standard nondestructive stress-measurement technique, but its use is limited in the sense that only a surface layer is surveyed. Ultrasound has been used to measure stresses through the thickness or on the surface of a sample, because the speed of sound in a solid is altered in the presence of mechanical stress (as often referred to as acoustoelasticity). However, conventional ultrasonic stress measurements suffer from low sensitivity and thus yield limited applications in the field. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes novel time-resolved acoustic microscopy to detect internal trapped stresses as well as defects at the surface and through-the-thickness of polycrystalline SiC-based optics.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Xiaoning Jiang
AF 07-142      Awarded: 27APR07
Title:Advanced NDE for SiC Optics Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Composite Transducers with Broad Bandwidth and High Sensitivity
Abstract:TRS is pleased to propose an advanced NDE system for SiC mirror defect and stress measurement using single crystal piezoelectric composite transducers with broad bandwidth and high sensitivity. The broadband HF transducers are expected to contribute to high spatial resolution in both the lateral and axial directions as well as deeper penetration depth in NDE imaging, which will greatly benefit in-situ detection of SiC mirror SD, SSD and trapped internal stress measurements. The goal of this program is to develop a NDE imaging tool for in-situ SiC mirror subsurface damage detection with minimum detectable lateral dimension < 10 microns and minimum detectable axial dimension <100 nm, and with detection depth ranging from sub-micron to > 10 cm. Internal stress measurement using single crystal composite transducers will be studied and compared with the conventional transducers used in LCR stress measurements. In Phase II a high frequency transducer array and LCR stress measurement probe will be integrated for in-situ NDE for SiC optics.

XINETICS, INC.
115 Jackson Rd.
Devens, MA 01434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 772-0352
Ms. Shoko Yoshikawa
AF 07-142      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Large Silicon Carbide (SiC) Optical Structures
Abstract:It is increasingly apparent that silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the preferred next-generation mirror-substrate materials for space telescope applications because of its superior material properties and the relative ease with which it can be utilized to fabricate lightweight structures. However, to take full advantage of these attractive SiC characteristics, there is a need for a rapid method of non-destructive evaluation or testing (NDE or NDT) to verify the integrity of the completed mirrors. Xinetics proposes a collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory to develop NDE methodology applicable to large SiC optical structures for the characterization of surface/sub-surface defects, internal defects, and internal stress. Sample SiC structures will be carefully fabricated with well-controlled defects or stresses, Laser Back Scatter and Phase Array Ultrasound will be used to examine the samples for defects, and Laser-Generated Ultrasound, employing Rayleigh and Lamb waves, will be used to measure the internal stresses of the samples.

PROPULSION RESEARCH, INC.
651 Southview Court, Unit H
Culpeper, VA 22701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 644-2316
Mr. Carl W. Anderson
AF 07-150      Awarded: 01JUN07
Title:Multi-Pulse Adaptive Thrust Control Solid Rocket Motor Technology
Abstract:This proposal outlines a Phase I program to define and develop a multi-pulse solid rocket motor (SRM) with enhanced performance capability and minimum 15:1 thrust turndown on command that will provide total thrust management capability for future Air Force tactical missile applications. The program will focus on demonstrating multi-pulse capability while maintaining high delivered motor performance. The primary approach will use a new type of pintle nozzle system that shows promise in vastly reducing the low thrust coefficient efficiency that is characteristic of sonic pintle nozzle systems. Other performance improvements will include the addition of multi-pulse ignition capability into the pintle controller software and the design and development of multi-pulse ignition system hardware capable of conventional safe/arm hardware. The adaptive control techniques will interface with the variable area pintle nozzle system to provide closed loop control capability with the built in intelligence necessary to provide "on-demand" thrust control to the missile. PRI will use its "smart-thrust" adaptive control technology to achieve optimal control during the ignition transient phase as well as all other areas of motor operation. Multiple static tests will be conducted during Phase II to validate the delivered performance of the SRM's in multi-pulse mode using class 1.3, IM, minimum smoke, high performance propellants. Consensus will be sought between the sponsor, prime missile contractor, SRM manufacturer, and PRI to arrive at the test objectives to be demonstrated that will best benefit future Air Force tactical missile systems.

VALLEY TECH SYSTEMS
221 S. Cloverdale Blvd Suite #B5
Cloverdale, CA 95425
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 996-9220
Mr. Michael Oberth
AF 07-150      Awarded: 01JUN07
Title:Dual Pulse Motor advanced bulkhead
Abstract:Advanced future missions have specified pulse motor requirements to include initial boost thrust, a variable coast time up to 120 sec, and a second boost "end game" thrust. The industry has been successful in demonstrating dual pulse systems with limited interpulse coasting, typcally < 50 sec, using a soft barrier pulse technology. The long interpulse coast, however, has historically been the "Achilles heel" using the a soft barrier pulse techniques where unreliable pre-mature second pulse ignitions have occureed. To successfully meet long interpulse missions Valley Tech Systems is proposing developement of an innovative dual chamber bulkhead design that enables a unique dual chamber motor system. Results will be a pulse motor design that delivers desired performance while exhibiting first and second pulse ignition reliability while providing the long inter pulse coast.

ADVANCED COMPONENTS & MATERIALS, INC.
1360 HIGH HAWK ROAD
EAST GREENWICH, RI 02818
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 885-5064
Dr. Amitava Datta
AF 07-172      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Improved Bearing Compartment Sealing for Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:Carbon seals generlly used for bearing compartments will incrasingly become unsuitable for future gas turbine engines with higher buffer air temperatures, higher pressur and rotor surface speeds.Phase I effort will focus on a synergistic approach including advanced materials and design.Three materials including a (Ti,Mo)(C,N) cermet, B-C composite and a current high temperature grade carbon MAT-1200 will be characterized for wear, oxidation resistance, impact strength and corrosion resistance in bearing oil. Both (Ti,Mo)(C,N)cermet and B-C composite have a much lower dry running wear rate, superior thermal stability and impact resistance compared to carbon.Advanced materials will be complemented with two non-contacting film riding design concepts; one based on hydrosttic arch-bound and another radial groove circumferential seal to furher minimize wear and degradation of leakage performance. Based on Phase I results, Phase II will focus on further design optimization using a comprehensive design code and performance testing of the down-selected design and material combination.

M-DOT AEROSPACE
3418 South 48th Street, Suite 3
Phoenix, AZ 85040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 752-1911
Mr. Hugh Spilsbury
AF 07-172      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Improved Bearing Compartment Sealing for Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:A technical approach to gas path seal design is described that provides a unique combination of benefits. It has broad application to gas seals including those applied to bearing sumps and gas paths. It is a direct replacement for conventional carbon face, labyrinth, brush, and similar gas seals. It prevents all leakage flow between rotating and static structure without the requirement for a contacting interface. As a result, it can accommodate large excursions due to shaft modes and thermal differentials with very loose interface tolerances. It uses no buffering gas, thus eliminates the parasitic losses of buffering air as well as eliminating the direct leakage losses. Its primary application is in medium to large gas turbine engines and is equally applicable to both military and commercial configurations. What makes it particularly unique is that it has the potential to accomplish these benefits with a design that is lower in acquisition cost and requires no maintenance.

STEIN SEAL CO.
1500 Industrial Blvd, PO Box 316
Kulpsville, PA 19433
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 256-0607
Mr. Manik Vasagar
AF 07-172      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Improved Bearing Compartment Sealing for Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:The Stein Seal company will select carbon materials for advanced high speed, high displacement and high temperature bearing compartment seals. Selections will be validated through wear, exudation, oxidation and fluid compatibility testing. Preliminary designs of robust bearing compartment seals will be completed with capability to operate at 450 ft/s interface speeds, 2 to 85 psid pressure differentials, and accommodate radial motions up to 0.1 inches. Analysis and preliminary designs of counter-rotating intershaft seals that can operate at an interface velocity of 1200 ft/s will be established. Possibilities of using seal housing inserts or coatings in conjunction with titanium will be determined.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Ms. Karin Karg
AF 07-172      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Wear Resistant and Lightweight Oil Seals for Turbine Engines(1001-027)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. (Triton) proposes a material and systematic approach to prolong seal life for improved turbine engine efficiencies and operating life. Maintaining turbine engine efficiency is critical with growing industry demands for reliability, improved performance, and reduced cost and maintenance. Current impregnated carbon seals are lightweight and inexpensive; however, are susceptible to damage during installation and operation in turbine engines. An improved seal material is needed that can meet the increasing demands encountered in the operation of newer turbine engines. Triton's proposed fiber reinforced aluminum offers the benefits of a lightweight aluminum metal, with increased wear resistance, strength at elevated temperatures and a tailorable coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). In this Phase I effort, Triton will demonstrate a fiber reinforced metallic oil seal can survive and improve component life over the existing impregnated carbon seals.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 255-3115
Dr. Sukesh Roy
AF 07-173      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Nonintrusive Augmentor Sensors
Abstract:The primary objective of this Phase-I research effort is to perform a feasibility study of the femtosecond (fs) laser-based frequency comb pair and CW Raman fiber comb pair for measuring temperature and H2O concentration at data rate greater than 10 kHz near 2.5 m. Tomographic reconstruction using proper orthogonal decomposition will be used in conjunction with multiple beams to obtain coarse temperature images. A key attribute of the proposed solution is the use of advanced hyperspectral sources (rather than diode lasers) to monitor H2O absorption features. Despite using absorption spectroscopy for determining the temperature and H2O concentration from hyperspectral frequency comb, this technology is fundamentally different from typical diode laser-based absorption sensors and has many advantages, specifically, allowing the acquisition of many spectral lines covering wide spectral range at very high speeds (>10 kHz, typically 30 kHz) and thereby providing better temperature accuracy and power spectral density (PSD) functions. This feasibility study will pave the way for designing the optimum source for the implementation in an augmentor test facility at WPAFB during the Phase-II research effort along with user-friendly software for tomographic reconstruction of the flow field.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Richard Wainner
AF 07-173      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Laser-Based Sensor for High-Speed Heat Release Rate Measurements
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes an optical sensor to infer local heat release rates in a gas turbine engine augmentor via measurement of the major reactant concentrations (fuel and O2) and temperature. The sensor is based on recent advances in high-speed tunable diode laser spectroscopy techniques developed by PSI for automobile engine applications. The sensor uses a short-path fiber-coupled probe to resolve fuel and temperature fluctuations at ~1cm spatial scale and up to 7.5kHz continuous output bandwidth for all three parameters. The goal is to resolve heat release fluctuations at scales that can be correlated to problematic acoustic modes that are often generated via combustion instabilities. Phase I of the program will include an experimental investigation of jet fuel absorption characteristics in a vitiated air stream at afterburner temperatures and will demonstrate the ability to measure effective fuel vapor concentration and vapor temperature. The Phase I effort will also include the empirical and analytical construction of an algorithm to yield heat release rate from the measured parameters, as well as the designs of the probe and overall sensor architecture. Phase II will focus on the development and construction of the sensor system, concluding with its delivery to the Air Force.

SPECTRAL ENERGIES, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 286-5711
Dr. Magan Paciaroni
AF 07-173      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Investigation of Combustion Instability in Augmentors Using High-Speed PIV and PLIF
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase-I research effort is to assess the feasibility of performing high-speed (1-5 kHz) particle-image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for understanding combustion stability and related phenomena in gas-turbine augmentors. Initial demonstration measurements will be performed in cold and heated air flows using PIV and acetone/biacetyl PLIF at 1 kHz, with the goal of capturing coherent structure dynamics and understanding their role in affecting combustion stability in augmentor flows. Extension of such measurements to higher repetition rates and for species such as the hydroxyl radical (OH) will also be evaluated. This research effort will be used to design a second generation system for application of high-speed PIV and PLIF of fuel and OH in a realistic augmentor test rig during the Phase-II period. Successful Phase-I and Phase-II efforts will lead to the development of a prototype high-speed diagnostic system for PIV and PLIF of fuel and combustion products, to be installed within an augmentor test facility of AFRL's choice.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Jason Cline
AF 07-173      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Fast Passive Optical Sensors for Measurement of Augmentor Combustion Dynamics
Abstract:We propose to develop and optimize a novel system of fast passive optical sensors for in situ monitoring of combustion dynamics in a thrust augmentor system. Passive optical probes inserted into the combustor will provide multiple views of the flow field. A novel high-speed readout will provide statistical metrics of fluid-dynamic parameters for direct comparison to dynamic models. The sensors' spectral acceptance will be tailored to emphasize measurement of heat release, while rejecting interfering radiance from other sources. In Phase I, we will develop a conceptual design based on forward simulation of optical signals using high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics models and radiation transport calculations. The analysis will enable selection of probe positions and matched wavelength filters to reveal the evolution of transient combustion phenomena in confined regions of the unperturbed flow. The potential data products, which can be compared directly to Large Eddy Simulations, include measures of the intensity and frequency spectrum of dynamic fluctuations along with spatially resolved heat release. The Phase II instrument will provide a sensor readout and probe tip that can be integrated with existing augmentor probe systems.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Darin A. Knaus
AF 07-174      Awarded: 29MAR07
Title:Improved Heat Release Models for Augmentors
Abstract:Combustion stability is critical to the operational performance and safety of military jet engines. Dynamic instability results from positive feedback coupling that can occur between heat release (combustion) and pressure oscillations (acoustics) in the augmentor. Dynamic instabilities are poorly understood and present designers with a particularly challenging problem when they arise. It is not currently possible to simulate dynamic instability with highly-resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For this reason, reduced-order models are typically used to study dynamic instability. A key component of these models is the heat release model. Most existing heat release models are based on flame-sheet models that predict the mean location of the flame. The heat release model is derived by perturbing the flame with small-amplitude velocity perturbations. Many of the assumptions used to reduce existing models are unsatisfactory for augmentors. In augmentors, heat release is distributed, and vorticity (i.e., large-scale perturbations of the flame) can play a key role in determining stability. We will develop improved heat release models that are tailored specifically for augmentor flows. These models will lead to an improved understanding of augmentor flame dynamics and will also be used to develop models for predicting dynamic instability for augmentor conditions.

ENERGY RESEARCH CONSULTANTS
23342 South Pointe Drive, Suite E
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 583-1197
Dr. Vincent McDonell
AF 07-174      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Improved Heat Release Model for Augmentor Screech Characterization
Abstract:The Air Force has identified a need for improved design tools for augmentor performance. In the near term, it is apparent that reduced order models are needed in order to assist in the design process. One key area that requires effort is the area of screech modeling. A critical aspect of any model that attempts to predict screech is the correct representation of the dynamic heat release rate. In this Phase I SBIR, Energy Research Consultants and its partner, Georgia Institute of Technology will join together to 1) develop a formulation for a reduced order heat release model, and 2) conduct experiments in augmentor like conditions to validate the model. Georgia Tech's experience with combustion oscillations combined with unique experimental facilities at ERC will provide the right combination of resources to efficiently develop the design tool needed. In Phase I, the effort will be limited to homogeneous mixtures for validation, but the model formulation will be general enough to allow variation in fuel/air ratio and variation in the average mixture temperature to be evaluated.

ENGINEERING RESEARCH & ANALYSIS CO.
340 SENTINEL OAK DRIVE
DAYTON, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 291-3800
Dr. Mohammed A. Mawid
AF 07-174      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Improved Heat Release Model for Augmentor Screech Characterization
Abstract:A new unique reduced order heat release model is proposed for development in this SBIR. The proposed reduced order heat release model is derived based on the prevailing local flow conditions and it expresses the complex relationship between the fluctuating heat release and the fluctuating local variables. The reduced order heat release model will be developed independent of the pressure-acoustic model used to model screech acoustics and as such it can be integrated with any acoustics model. The reduced oreder heat release model will be based on finite-rate chemical kinetics which can be either global, reduced, or detailed. In addition, limited experimental work will be carried out to provide data on the fluctuating heat release and pressure behind a bluff-body type flame holder. The data will be used to validate the reduced order heat release model.

CASCADE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1330 Charleston Road
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 691-6067
Dr. Shoreh Hajiloo
AF 07-175      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Flame Ignition/Extinction Model for Static Stability Prediction
Abstract:Ensuring static stability of the flame is of utmost importance in augmentor systems. It is proposed to develop an optimum set of models that will numerically simulate turbulent combustion in augmentors and help in the detailed understanding of the physical processes affecting the static stability of the flame. Research will be done on scalar mixing models for scalar variance and dissipation rate for multiphase flows, modification and updating of available chemistry models to include auto-iginition chemistry, combination of unsteady flamelet/progress variable (UFPV) and level set methods to capture both premixed and non-premixed regions in the augmentor, and the formulation of all these models for compressible flows. The entire development and all the computations will be performed in a large eddy simulation (LES) setting. The complete suite of the models will be extensively tested and validated against experiments in a wide range of operating augmentor conditions. For this, an experimental configuration will be chosen in collaboration with our industrial partners and successive LES computations will be performed and the results compared against the experimental data for continued development of the chosen models.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 883-1905
Dr. William Calhoon
AF 07-175      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Augmentor Ignition/Extinction Modeling
Abstract:The technical objective of this program is to develop a fast running, subgrid scale turbulence-chemistry interaction model for large-eddy simulation (LES) of aircraft augmentors that can accurately capture extinction and ignition effects. To accurately capture extinction and ignition, this model will be based upon a parameterization of the linear-eddy model (LEM). The LEM is a comprehensive mixing model that separately treats molecular diffusion, small scale turbulent stirring and complex, finite-rate kinetics. Because the model resolves the microscale flame structure, extinction and ignition may be accurately captured. Under this program, statistics from this mixing model will be parameterized to form a computationally inexpensive run time model. This parameterization will be accomplished using the artificial neural network (ANN) data modeling technique. The resulting computational model will be a fast running ANN network to estimate the LES filtered reaction rate required by CFD flow solvers. The key advantage of this LEM based ANN modeling approach is that the filtered reaction rate will include within it the effects of subgrid diffusion, turbulent stirring by a range of eddies below the grid size and the response of the chemical composition to these effects.

COMBUSTION SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, INC.
8940 Old Annapolis Road Suite L
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-3266
Dr. Michael Klassen
AF 07-175      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Flame Ignition/Extinction Model for Static Stability Prediction
Abstract:As maintaining a stable combustion process is a major challenge associated with augmentor design and operation, numerical simulations are necessary to understand the combustion process and develop control strategies. Thus, it is essential to have reliable reduced kinetic models that are capable of predicting transient combustion phenomena such as ignition and extinction under augmentor operating conditions. Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc. proposes to develop a robust reduced kinetic modeling strategy for aviation fuels that can be coupled with unsteady flow models such as LES to simulate static stability limits in augmentors. In this approach, the fuel molecule will decompose into CH2O and H2 that will be represented by a global reactions step, while a detailed reaction sub-set will be used for CH2O/H2/O2 scheme for accurate predictions of non-equilibrium phenomena such as ignition and extinction. Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc. has successfully used a similar approach to predict stability phenomenon in cavity flameholders under scramjet conditions. In the present work, various turbulence/mixing models will be evaluated and optimum set of models will be chosen to couple with reduced kinetic model for CFDC simulation to predict flame propagation and static stability limits (i.e., ignition and extinction) under augmentor operating conditions.

FLORIDA TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
100 Marquette Road, Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6212
Mr. Brian Potter
AF 07-176      Awarded: 27MAR07
Title:Airfoil Replaceable Leading Edge (ARLE) for Integrally Bladed Rotor (IBR) Sustainment
Abstract:Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT), Inc. proposes the development of an Airfoil Replaceable Leading Edge (ARLE) for Integrally Bladed Rotor (IBR) fan blades that will increase sustainment. The proposed technology will allow the low-cost repair of FOD damaged leading edges without the need to subject the blades to detrimental thermal stresses associated with conventional welding methods. The technology has additional benefits for High Cycle Fatigue. The phase 1 program will prove the mechanical integrity of the structure using analysis and laboratory testing and define the maintenance advantages.

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Mark Windoloski
AF 07-176      Awarded: 29MAR07
Title:Reliable MWM-Array Inspection and Condition Assessment for IBRs
Abstract:JENTEK's conformable MWM-Array eddy current sensors are proven and uniquely suited for automated inspection of Integrally Bladed Rotors (IBRs). Recent implementations for U.S. Navy disk slot and blade dovetail inspections have clearly demonstrated the MWM-Array versatility. Over 3000 engine disk slots have been inspected at one Naval Air Station with cracks detected and verified (by fractography or other means) on nine of these disks, with no false indications. Most of these cracks, in shot peened regions with fretting damage, were missed by conventional eddy current testing (ET) and liquid penetrant inspection (LPI). This Phase I SBIR will adapt this proven technology to deliver a near term solution for IBR inspection. Furthermore, the Phase I will investigate the use of time sequenced, high resolution MWM-Array images of complex IBR surfaces (e.g., leading edges, airfoils, double curvatures) with novel space-time filtering methods, to provide earlier damage detection capability, residual stress relaxation imaging, and foreign object damage (FOD) repair assessment. MTU Aero Engines North America, a manufacturer of IBRs for several U.S. military and commercial engines, will provide access to available components and engineering guidance. Delivery of practical near term capabilities, as well as development of fundamental advances in inspection technology, is addressed.

VEXTEC CORP.
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Mr. Richard Holmes
AF 07-176      Awarded: 29MAR07
Title:Integrally Bladed Rotor (IBR) Sustainment
Abstract:Integrally bladed rotors (IBRs) have become prevalent in new military gas turbine engines. IBRs replace rotors with inserted blades. As with other types of unitized structures, IBRs greatly reduce part count and thus improve assembly and maintainability. This SBIR proposes innovative advanced physics based life modeling techniques to accurately determine the probability of failure of undamaged, damaged and repaired IBRs. System reliability techniques will be developed that recognize that an IBR is an advanced component with many geometric complexities and many active failure mechanism. Because the IBR is a single piece of hardware, the loading and failure mechanism at different locations on the IBR are not independent and can't be treated that way during life analysis. VEXTEC has developed patented system reliability methods to assess the risk of failure of complex machines such as automobiles and heavy machinery. These methods will be extended to IBRs. Validation testing will performed to verify the analysis methods. . The ultimate goal of this SBIR will be to show that a modeling method can be established to predict the life of a repaired IBR with a high degree of accuracy. VEXTEC will conduct both computational IBR modeling and scaled physical testing within Phase I Uniquely, VEXTEC has developed and constructed a scaled turbine test rig which will be used to prove-out modeling feasibility through direct comparison with an IBR that was fielded and then repaired and then returned to the field until failure.

SIGMA TECHNOLOGIES INTL, INC.
10960 N. Stallard Place
Tucson, AZ 85737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Dr. Angelo Yializis
AF 07-178      Awarded: 28MAR07
Title:High Performance, Compact Capacitors for Pulse Forming Networks
Abstract:This project proposes the development of a solid-state, polymer, multilayer capacitor composed of thousands of nano-dielectric layers and self-healing aluminum electrodes. Unlike conventional self supported polymer capacitor films that are limited by thickness and polymer chemistry, the proposed capacitor system makes use of a family of cross-linked amorphous polymer dielectrics that have dielectric constants in the range of U=2.5-13, breakdown strength >1000V/Ym and are integrated with aluminum electrodes using a non-contact process in an environment free of particulate contaminants. This results in defect-free polymer dielectrics that have low dielectric absorption due to their amorphous character and breakdown strengths higher than any self-supported film dielectric, due to the combination of the intrinsic polymer properties and their submicron thickness. Small area polymer dielectrics produced in this manner have exhibited energy densities up to 20J/cc at their breakdown limit, suggesting that multilayer capacitors may be possible with energy densities of about 50% of this value. This phase I program will be designed to demonstrate the properties of such solid-state polymer aluminum capacitors produced in the form of large sheets of polymer/aluminum composites with 3000-8000 -dielectric/electrode pairs. Capacitors with different dielectric constants and dielectric thickness will be produced and tested for basic capacitor properties including energy density, dissipation factor and capacitance at different temperatures, and dV/dt charge and discharge characteristics.

STRATEGIC POLYMER SCIENCES, INC.
200 Innovation Blvd., Suite 237
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7400
Dr. Shihai Zhang
AF 07-178      Awarded: 08MAY07
Title:High Performance, Compact Capacitors for Pulse Forming Networks
Abstract:We propose to develop high-performance, state-of-the-art polymer dielectrics by combining the high energy density (>25 J/cc) of PVDF"Cbased copolymers and terpolymers and the low dielectric loss, high-temperature poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide), polyimides, poly(phenylene sulfide), and/or polysulfones (0.05%~0.2%). We emphasize that the thermodynamic miscibility of these polymer blends is critical to the performance of large area thin-film capacitors since immiscible polymer blends have phase separation in micrometer scale. Miscible polymer blends will be identified by theoretical estimation following the Flory-Huggins model and systematic screening of commercially available low-loss polymers. In addition, multilayer structure with each layer thickness down to 10-100 nm will be fabricated using plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With the miscible polymer blends and/or multilayer structure, high-performance compact capacitors will be fabricated with energy density higher than 5 J/cc, dielectric loss less than 1%, delivery rates less than microseconds, improved thermal performance, and graceful failure feature.

TRS CERAMICS, INC.
2820 East College Avenue
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 238-7485
Dr. Edward Alberta
AF 07-178      Awarded: 28MAR07
Title:High Energy Thin Film Capacitors for Pulse Power Systems
Abstract:In this Phase I effort, TRS Technologies Inc (TRS) proposes to develop high energy thin film metal oxide capacitors that exhibit high energy density (>5J/g). TRS will develop these high energy capacitors using a novel approach for increasing the surface area of metal oxide thin films. Additionally, TRS will develop the thin film capacitors on flexible polymer substrates to enable scale-up of the high energy capacitor fabrication.

FLORIDA TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
100 Marquette Road, Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6235
Mr. Mark Harris
AF 07-179      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Advanced Combustor Designs Utilizing Inlet Swirl for High Acceleration of Gravity (G) Combustion
Abstract:Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. is working to become a first-tier supplier of small gas turbines for military and commercial use. In this effort FTT will study concepts for a modified "high-g" combustor concept for ultra-low-volume, highly capable engine systems. Key features of this system will include ultra-low volume, high external and internal swirl. Concept development would be focused on extension of FTT's existing miniature combustors to allow scale-up to larger engines. FTT would limit its main effort to smaller engine sizes (typically with radial compressor stages) which fit within FTT's overall business strategy: to develop engines for UAV and missile airframes. Goals for the combustor concept include 1) stable operation at high combustor loadings, 2) maximum use of swirl from the compressor at the same, or lower, system pressure loss as today's miniature combustors and 3) scalability to larger engines. At the end of the program, FTT's goal is to have a solid design concept that can be put into hardware and tested at its on-site test facility. The hardware would be small in size so it remains compatible with FTT's existing military engine development efforts

SPYTEK AEROSPACE CORP.
450 Frontier Way, Unit D
Bensenville, IL 60106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 595-9133
Mr. Christopher Spytek
AF 07-179      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Advanced Combustor Designs Utilizing Inlet Swirl for High Acceleration of Gravity (G) Combustion
Abstract:The recent incorporation of high g combustor designs in gas turbine engines at Spytek Aerospace has presented the need for the further optimization of the compressor/combustor interface (i.e. diffuser). Legacy combustor designs remove the inherent swirl out of the gas stream at the compressor exit, introducing aerodynamic losses and structural weight penalties. High g combustors utilize circumferential flows to decrease main combustor size ultimately allowing for the implementation of inter-turbine burners (ITB's). Spytek Aerospace plans to utilize its operational ATG-2 high g combustor design as a basis for optimizing two `swirl-maintained' diffuserless concepts. The major areas of study will include the efficient splitting of combustion/dilute flows directly into the combustor I.D. and flow lead-in into the entrainment region.

ARKANSAS POWER ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Dr. Roberto Schupbach
AF 07-181      Awarded: 29MAR07
Title:20 kW High Temperature (300+ C), Rad-Hard Silicon Carbide (SiC) DC/DC Power Converters
Abstract:In this Small Business Innovation Research project, APEI, Inc. and TRS Technologies are partnering to develop rad-hard high density DC/DC power converters functional to temperatures in excess of 300 C. Expert utilization of the now emerging silicon carbide (SiC) power devices will allow for high efficiency and high junction temperature operation, leading to increased power density, reduced thermal sink mass, reduced system size and weight, and improved modularity. This will of course lead to significant savings in launch costs, greater platform payload capacities, improved system performance, and improved reliability. APEI, Inc. will prove the feasibility of the design approach through the high-temperature 300 C hardware demonstration of a complete 1000 watt SiC DC/DC converter at the conclusion of Phase I of the program. In particular, by the conclusion of Phase II of this program, APEI, Inc. will develop high-temperature, high power (up to 20kW) SiC DC/DC converters with the flexibility to operate in a number of military and aerospace platforms. The power converters will be fully integrated and modularized, operate at junction temperatures in excess of 300 C, operate at frequencies greater than 250 kHz, and operate at power densities greater than 150 W/kg. APEI, Inc. will build upon its high-temperature SiC power electronics expertise to push the state-of-the-art systems, as required by these Air Force applications.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
4415 Euclid Avenue, Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Mr. Mike Willett
AF 07-181      Awarded: 27MAR07
Title:High Temperature Electronics for Spacecraft Power Management and Distribution
Abstract:High temperature and radiation-hardened electronics will benefit Power Management and Distribution in a spacecraft by saving space, weight and power that would otherwise be needed for heat extraction and shielding. Orbital Research Inc. proposes the development of one or more high temperature DC - DC Converters for use in future spacecraft designs - that will consist of the following: A single ASIC chip, a custom transformer designed with high temperature materials, and high temperature capacitors resistors and pcb substrates. The Phase I effort will be primarily to collect data on existing DC - DC converters in spacecraft, and analyze the potential increase in power density by replacing low temperature circuits with high temperature substitutes. Following the identification of optimal high temperature substitutes, Orbital Research Inc. will design a DC - DC converter, using a custom-designed transformer which will serve as a high temperature replacement for most, if not all, of the existing DC -DC converters that are presently in use in various spacecraft. Phase II will take the designed circuit and build a breadboard for testing. The critical test parameter is power density >70W/kg.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0527
Mr. Mourad Manoukian
AF 07-182      Awarded: 27MAR07
Title:Nano-Engineered Carbon Ultracapacitor for Satellite Energy Storage
Abstract:The United States Air Force (USAF) has identified the need for an advanced and reliable ultracapacitor to prolong the operational life of military satellites that use batteries for their energy storage. Based on the requirements of the USAF, Giner, Inc. proposes the development of an innovative Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC) device that has low overall Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR), high capacitance (>10,000 farads) and high energy density to meet the demands of the USAF. The innovative concept is to combine high-surface-area (greater than 2500 m2/g) nano-porous carbons with organic electrolytes and improved current collector/ultracapacitor active material interface conductivity for a high-capacitance and high-energy-density device. The proposed innovative concept will optimize nano-porous carbon synthesis parameters to result in powder material with large fraction of its pore volume in pores of diameter 1-5 nm to be fully accessible to the organic electrolyte, and will improve the conductivity of the current collector/ultracapacitor active material interface resulting in high capacitance and high energy. The proposed novel EDLC will operate in the temperature range of 40C to +80C and will be capable of operating through greater than 500,000 charge-discharge cycles.

LITHCHEM INTERNATIONAL
1830 Columbia Avenue
Folcroft, PA 19032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 627-3299
Dr. Novis Smith
AF 07-182      Awarded: 28MAR07
Title:High Voltage (4 V ) Electrochemical (Ultra) Capacitor for Satellite Energy Storage
Abstract: Satellite mission life is limited by the life of its batteries which are significantly limited by the amount of pulsing, peak loads or spikes which occur during discharge cycles. A capacitor is coupled with the battery in order to reduce or eliminate these damaging current demands and thereby prolonging the lifetime of the battery and the satellite mission. The electrochemical capacitor (EC) is the type of capacitor of choice for this weight critical application which requires the maximum energy storage capability (energy density) which is currently at 5.7 Wh/kg. LithChem has developed a series of new EC non-acetonitrile electrolytes which have shown twice the energy density (>11 Wh/kg) by operating at higher voltage (>3.4 V) and at a higher ion concentration than the best ECs available. LithChem proposes to maximize the performance of this new EC by optimizing the following: electrode material including carbon nano tubes; operating voltage (3.4-4.0 V); molarity; and capacitor cell configuration. It appears that an energy density of >15 Wh/kg may be achievable with a corresponding power density of > 12 KW/KG. This new electrochemical capacitor (EC) could reduce the size, weight and cost of the current EC by more than 50%.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. J. Michael Cutbirth
AF 07-183      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Demonstration of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Nanofluids
Abstract:Historically, plate-fin heat exchangers with heat transfer fluids such as poly -olefin have been used for the majority of heat removal and heat transfer within advanced military aircraft. However, with the continual increases in thermal loads due to advancements such as high-powered solid-state electronics within the next generation weapon systems, improvements to the current industry standard are required. In addition to novel heat exchanger configurations, improvements in the thermal properties of the heat transfer fluid have been proposed using solid-liquid suspensions based upon nanoparticles. Although a wealth of research data exists for the thermal conductivity improvements with the addition of nanoparticles, experimental demonstration within practical application has been lacking. To address this shortcoming, Mainstream will rely on its expertise in nanotechnology, heat transfer fluids, and thermal management systems to demonstrate the thermal transport improvement using nanofluids within an aircraft-suitable single-phase heat exchanger. The Phase I effort will characterize the thermal/physical properties of the nanofluid, demonstrate the heat transfer coefficient augmentation, and assess candidate aircraft heat exchangers for replacement of the heat transfer fluid.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Richard S. Sapienza
AF 07-183      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Enhancement in Aircraft Systems
Abstract:The Air Force is seeking new cooling technologies that will provide improved heat transfer performance that results in a significantly lighter and smaller heat exchange system to support the increasing demand for heat removal in modern engineering designs used in military aircraft systems. METSS proposes an approach it has used successfully in SBIR programs previously sponsored by the Air Force to successfully develop a stable, easily prepared, aircraft nanofluid coolant with significantly better thermophysical properties that will become an integral component of future thermal management systems. METSS plans to build upon its extensive experience with heat transfer fluids and knowledge gained from an on-going Air Force radar coolant program along with previous nanomaterial efforts. This approach emphasizes commercial participation and the use of commercially available products to develop synthetic fluid formulations with improved performance relative to conventional fluids. The enhanced heat transfer performance of these nanofluids will be clearly quantitated relative to the conventional heat transfer carrier fluid. Other key properties of the nanocoolant will also be evaluated and compared to the base heat transfer fluid.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2341
Dr. Brian Elliott
AF 07-183      Awarded: 29MAR07
Title:Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Enhancement in Aircraft Systems
Abstract:Get thisThe Air Force has a desire to investigate the use of nanofluids as a means to reduce the size and weight of thermal management systems used in advanced aircraft. Nanofluids, traditional heat transfer fluids containing dispersed metal oxide nanoparticles, have up to a 50% increase in thermal conductivity compared to regular heat transfer fluids. Therefore, heat exchangers can be designed with less weight and volume. However, the nanofluid must be stable over long periods of time and not clog small passages, damage pumps, or corrode aluminum. Also, the heat exchanger design must consider the effects of increased viscosity and thermal conductivity on the characteristic length of the entry region laminar flow regime. The heat transfer coefficient is dependant on flow regime and in some regimes it is dependant on viscosity and/or thermal conductivity. This project will investigate a method for promoting a long-term stable nanofluid and test it's performance in a compact heat exchanger. The project will culminate with a detailed analysis on using nanofluids in compact heat exchangers for aircraft thermal management. It will estimate the potential size reduction for compact heat exchangers that are designed to operate in either the entry region laminar flow, fully developed laminar flow, or the fully developed turbulent flow regimes.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Mr. Wei Shih
AF 07-184      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Enhanced Fuel-Lubricated Bearing for Turbine Engine Applications
Abstract:There is a constant need to reduce the size and part counts of state-of-the-art (SOA) turbine engines. One already demonstrated solution, which offers significant weight and cost payoffs, uses advanced fuel-lubricated (fuel-lubed) bearing. The challenge associated with fuel lubrication is that the fuel does not provide nearly as much lubricity to the bearing components as the traditional oil lubrication does. As a result, fuel-lubed bearings typically use advanced self-lubricating, fuel compatible C-C cages and Si3N4 rolling elements to reduce bearing heat generation and to improve overall bearing performance. To further improve the bearing performance, particularly when the engine bearings are required to operate at extreme conditions of load, speed, and temperature, antiwear additive has to be added to fuel to enhance its tribological properties. In phase I, we propose to first better understand the fundamental tribological behavior of friction pairs under fuel lubrication, and then to develop technological concepts and demonstrate feasibility of technologies that address performance and lubricity issues related to fuel-lubricated bearings. In Phase II, we propose to further optimize our approaches and then to develop, test, and demonstrate an operable prototype in real engine test beds

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Dr. Sanford M. Dash
AF 07-185      Awarded: 29MAR07
Title:General Hypersonic Propulsion
Abstract:The proposed effort focuses on fuel/air mixing in scramjet environments, as well as on optimization of fuel injector designs and patterns. Turbulence model upgrades will focus on predicting Prandtl and Schmidt number variations using a scalar fluctuation model (SFM) validated for a limited number of cases. A GUI-driven tool containing both solution data and digitized experimental or LES data will support validation. Run sequences can be automated. Additional data sets will be added, including those of specific interest to the Air Force. Extensions to permit this tool to operate with other CFD codes will be defined. Fuel injector design work, to be performed with Prof. Schetz/VT, will examine optimizing injector designs and patterns for a generic, round IT combustor to see if we can achieve adequate mixing in reasonable lengths with flush wall injector arrays (round/diamond). Performance will be compared to that of well-designed in-stream injectors. Optimization work will evaluate how designs optimized for one set of conditions/fuels, perform for other conditions/fuels, and what design modifications are needed to improve performance. Experiments of Schetz in Phase II to support the SFM upgrades and the fuel injector optimization work will be planned and an experimental matrix will be defined.

GOHYPERSONIC, INC.
714 E. Monument Ave, Suite 201
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 531-6678
Dr. Lance Jacobsen
AF 07-185      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Combined Cycle Nozzle Base Drag Reduction Methods
Abstract:In the last few years, the renewed development of inward-turning scramjets with vehicle conformal nozzle shapes for both cruise vehicle and accelerators has led to the need for new combined cycle integration strategies for both turbine and rocket engine systems. Strategies must be developed which can potentially mitigate the level of base drag within the existing engine hardware during combined cycle operation. The strategies proposed for study here by GoHypersonic Inc. (GHI) involve the burning of the dual-mode scramjet duct flow, defined here as core burning, and the utilization of variable geometry within vehicle conformal nozzle shapes, currently under development by GHI. The successful development of viable base drag reduction methodologies will be of significant importance to the DARPA Falcon and related programs as well as to the combined cycle engine programs within the Air Force and NASA. Feasible technologies could lead to further business opportunities for GHI with the DOD agencies, NASA and the larger engine and airframe manufacturers in the U.S. aerospace community.

ELECTRO ENERGY, MOBILE PRODUCTS, INC.
3820 S Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs, CO 80911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 392-4266
David Pickett
AF 07-186      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:Advanced Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of an ultrahigh energy density rechargeable lithium battery chemistry. A novel cathode material is chosen that when fully developed is expected to provide packaged batteries with specific energies of 400-500 Wh/kg. The proposal identifies a new type of nanocomposite rechargeable lithium battery cathode material to provide high specific energy and a proprietary cell design to provide high rate capability and compact packaging. The proposal identifies the steps for preparing and identifying optimum electrode compositions, fabricating and evaluating laboratory test cells and developing and characterizing fully packaged rechargeable lithium cells.

MOHAWK INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1037 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Albany, NY 12205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 862-4290
Dr. Hooshang Heshmat
AF 07-187      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Advanced Large Diameter Air Seals
Abstract:The challenges facing seals for large diameter rotor systems is the requirement to accommodate centrifugal and axial growth of 0.150 inches or more due to loads on the rotating engine components; accommodate surface speeds in excess of 1200 ft/sec; and be capable of operating reliably at temperatures in excess of 800 F. MiTir proposes the development of its close clearance, non-contacting, compliant, axial face seal that overcomes the limitations of existing seals. This seal technology can sustain large excursions, high surface velocities and temperatures while minimizing leakage and without loss of performance. The overall objective of this program is to develop an advanced propulsion engine compliant foil seal that has improved life and performance relative to seals currently in operation. The seal will also have to ability to accommodate large misalignment/distortion. Phase I objectives are to conduct parametric analyses to assess the influence of the design parameters on seal performance, Identify a seal configurations based on results of the parametric analysis that will be tested statically under Phase I. Using the test data the preliminary seal design for Phase II dynamic verification testing will be established.

P.C. KRAUSE & ASSOC., INC.
3016 Covington Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Dr. Benjamin Loop
AF 07-188      Awarded: 02APR07
Title:Optimization of Stator Tooth Geometry and Magnetic Material Properties for Enhanced Torque Production in Electric Machines
Abstract:The primary objective of the proposed work is to investigate design techniques to improve torque density, power density, and efficiency in wound-rotor synchronous machines. The underlying principle of the proposed design technique is to alter the flux path in the machine to increase torque production. This will be achieved through optimally altering the stator tooth geometry and magnetic material properties. The design process is automated by an evolutionary optimization algorithm that employs a finite element analysis program as an objective function evaluation engine. A partnership with Smiths Aerospace will provide PCKA with guidance for and evaluation of the manufacturability of the proposed machine design techniques. When a knowledge base has been built from experience with the optimization of wound-rotor synchronous machines, the design techniques will be applied to other types of electric machines, such as induction machines or switched reluctance machines.

SATCON APPLIED TECHNOLOGY, INC.
27 Drydock Avenue
Boston, MA 02210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 897-2447
Dr. Ed Lovelace
AF 07-188      Awarded: 28MAR07
Title:Hybrid PM Aerospace Generator
Abstract:High speed generators for future aircraft with dramatic improvements in power density while retaining or enhancing the functionality of current solutions. SatCon proposes to develop a new technology generator that up to 300kW in the same envelope as existing 50kW wound-field generators resulting in significantly greater power density. This will be achieved by transitioning from wound-field to hybrid PM generator technology with a novel voltage control design resulting in a compact generator control unit (GCU) with improved short circuit protection.

VEXTEC CORP.
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Mr. Richard Holmes
AF 07-189      Awarded: 27MAR07
Title:Optimal Durability and Reliability Testing of Gas Turbine Components
Abstract:Through the traditional design and development cycles, prototype hardware components are built, tested, and the design is then modified for unforeseen shortcomings revealed in testing. These cycles are both too time consuming and costly. The cost of physical tests is rising while the cost of computer cycles is plummeting. It seems only common sense to replace the former with the latter. This Phase I will demonstrate feasibility of developing a integrated framework to demonstrate the durability and reliability of turbine engines. This will be accomplished through the use of physics based probabilistic simulations, scaled turbine engine testing and statistical evaluation. The combination of scaled testing and Weibull-based probabilistic analysis, full scale testing can be dramatically reduced to a highly cost effective function unlike today. The modeling approach proposed herein will highlight issues and problems well before any actual full-scale testing takes place. The envisioned framework will consider the inherent uncertainty that exists in real world systems through the combination of multiple engine tests to provide a sound statistical database of component durability and Weibull analysis and Bayesian techniques to minimize uncertainty at the system level.

MESOSCRIBE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
25 Health Sciences Drive, Suite 125
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-6691
Mr. Christopher Gouldstone
AF 07-190      Awarded: 27MAR07
Title:Harsh-Environment Sensors for In-Flight Hypersonic Engine Tests
Abstract:MesoScribe has developed a suite of sensors suited to measuring mechanical and flow properties in harsh environments, such as hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems. The sensors have been previously demonstrated in airborne and industrial gas turbines, exposed to high temperatures, pressures and g-loading. Using proprietary Direct Write fabrication, a high-precision derivative of thermal spray technology, MesoScribe has the capability to manufacture multilayer sensors, circuit elements, antennas and interconnects directly onto engineering components without clean rooms, lithography or post-processing. The devices produced boast low mass, low profile, high adhesion and high temperature operability. Direct write strain gages are proposed for monitoring duct geometry and flow area. Thermocouples and multilayer thermocouple arrays can measure wall temperature and heat flux, respectively. Thermal-based sensors can measure skin friction through convective power dissipation. Distributed sensor arrays can locate shocks by identifying discontinuities in thermodynamic states within the core flow. Locating these discontinuities and quantifying changes across them further characterizes flow properties along the engine duct. Compatibility of direct-write with thermal spray enables multifunctional coatings to be produced, which comprise discrete sensor layers embedded within thermal barrier or ablative coatings. The flexibility of direct-write allows sensors to be fabricated onto bare substrates with equivalent performance.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. Shin-Juh Chen
AF 07-190      Awarded: 26MAR07
Title:In-Flight Gas Imaging Sensor for Scramjets
Abstract:The development of scramjet engines for aerospace vehicles requires testing of engine components in wind tunnels and, more importantly, in flight. These tests provide valuable information for developing a viable engine and means for deciphering some of the complexities inherent in such a system. The short flow residence time inside the combustor poses a tremendous challenge in achieving appropriate mixing of the fuel and air, and maintaining flame stability within the combustor. Moreover, current wind tunnels cannot fully replicate the flow conditions expected to be encountered during flight or provide meaningful test times for current diagnostic tools. Southwest Sciences proposes to develop a compact, high speed, in-flight scramjet imaging sensor to measure local temperatures, pressures and gas concentrations. The key characteristic of this sensor is a very high speed imaging array detector that provides an unprecedented combination of temporal and spatial resolution for measurement of combustion gas properties.

DIVERSIFIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9444
Dr. Ian Roth
AF 07-199      Awarded: 30MAR07
Title:Affordable Pulse-Power Module for Nonthermal Ignition and Plasma Surface Modification
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory needs new technology to reignite conventional and future scramjet engines at high altitudes where the air density is low. Otherwise, in the event of an engine flame-out, the jet must descend to low altitude in order to reignite. The problem exists because conventional igniters cannot couple enough energy into the air-fuel mixture before the air arcs, which prevents further energy input. The solution is a fast ignition pulser, a device which significantly increases the energy coupled into the fuel-air mixture, enabling re-ignition at much higher altitudes. In this SBIR, DTI will extend and simplify its solid state pulser technology to meet the requirements of the ignition pulser. In Phase I, we will demonstrate three approaches to meeting the ignition pulser requirements, and assess their suitability for the USAF's requirements for performance, cost, reliability, and size. One or more of these approaches will be selected for full scale development in Phase II. In Phase III, we will pursue the qualification and production of this pulser to enable its fielding on future Air Force engines.

OPTISWITCH TECHNOLOGY CORP.
6355 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 452-8787
Dr. David Giorgi
AF 07-199      Awarded: 30MAR07
Title:Solid-State Pulse-Power Module for Transient Plasma Generation
Abstract:OptiSwitch Technology Corporation (OTC) in collaboration with the University of Southern California (USC) proposes the development of a compact, high voltage, and high repetition rate solid-state pulse generator for nonthermal ignition and for other applications including plasma surface modification. The fully solid-state pulse generator module will be based on a design successfully tested in a Pulse Detonation Engine and other combustion ignition and control experiments. This unit will generate a variable 75ns-150ns wide pulse at 10kV-50kV, easily extendable to higher voltages. To satisfy the short pulse requirement of 30ns-50ns an innovative diode opening switch (DOS) stage, initially using commercially available rectifiers, will be seamlessly added to the base unit. Using a 2D silicon process and device simulation program the final DOS will be of a unique and innovative design that does not exist at present. The DOS package of series devices will allow for proper thermal management to meet the 3kHz requirement. In a follow-on Phase II program the DOS devices will be fabricated and packaged by OTC in OTC's silicon foundry.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Dr. Ashvin Hosangadi
AF 07-204      Awarded: 12JUN07
Title:Turbopump Cavitation Tools
Abstract:The next generation liquid rocket systems envision novel designs for turbopumps that can operate at high suction speeds (i.e. low inlet pressures), and can be throttled over a wide range of low, off-design flow conditions. This is an extremely demanding flow regime where performance loss and damage from cavitation instabilities can be catastrophic since they can generate large amplitude pressure fluctuations. However, the ability of current analytical or CFD tools to reliably predict unsteady cavitation dynamics is not mature particularly for cryogens where temperature fluctuations can couple with the pressure variations.. The innovation proposed here is to extend current capabilities to analyze mean solutions and head drop-off, to an unsteady framework that can predict amplitudes and frequencies of dynamic pressure loads within a cryogenic fluid environment with temperature fluctuations. A key aspect of this proposal is an extensive testing program that will be conducted in the Phase II effort to provide dynamic load magnitudes in a regime where thermal effects are important Hence, the resulting product will be a well-validated and reliable analysis tool, CRUNCH CFDr, that can be used predict unsteady, off-design performance of liquid rocket turbopumps.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Mr. James Utt
AF 07-213      Awarded: 07JUN07
Title:False Alarm Rejection (FAR) Techniques for Missile Warning Systems (MWSs)
Abstract:False alarms are the primary technical issue with nearly every passive target detection system ever developed, including missile warning systems. This problem prevents these systems from being used to their full potential. The three conventional classes of discrimination algorithms, spatial, spectral, and temporal, have been pressed nearly to their potential limits. DRA developed a more advanced background cancellation algorithm called P-Score Passive Moving Target Detection (PMTD), which is more robust in the presence of noise and less subject to numerical errors than previously tested background cancellation techniques. At the same time, DRA has been studying mixed mode active/passive sensor systems for reducing false alarms. This involves adding a low-cost, optically steerable laser device pointed to the angular bearing of a track and used to confirm target presence and measure its range. Until recently, this was not practical because such a laser device would require a fine tracker system and a very precise gimbal housing. The optimal solution to the false alarm problem combines advanced a background cancellation algorithm with an optional active element to confirm tracks are not false alarms.

DEFENSE RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
3915 Germany Lane, Suite 102
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-1644
Mr. James Utt
AF 07-214      Awarded: 11JUN07
Title:Directing Monopulse Jamming Toward Antenna of Semiactive or Antiradiation Missile
Abstract:An EO/IR sensor with the angular accuracy and dynamic response capabilities to point a RF jammer does not exist. To perform a pointing function, the EO/IR sensor system must be capable of tracking relatively small objects at the stand-off distances that Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) typically operate. DRA proposes to solve this challenging technology limitation by developing an integrated solution consisting of two or more sensors. The integrated sensor design will have the capability to obtain both high resolution spatial and spectral information, but will still have a flexible architecture that will enable the development of advanced sensing technologies that will meet the requirements for pointing a RF jammer. The integrated design solution that DRA proposes will provide a path to develop prototype hardware for demonstration that will meet those requirements. During Phase II, DRA will develop a prototype system and demonstrate key performance characteristics. The Phase II effort will provide a building-block capability for producing an integrated threat protection system that has the required functionality

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
2790 Indian Ripple Road, Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
Mr. James Riddell III
AF 07-215      Awarded: 11JUN07
Title:Sensor Architectures for Radar Combat Identification
Abstract:Advanced radar signature modeling and signal processing techniques are required to support evolving radar technology in non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR). Modeling to produce NCTR techniques in both air-air and air-ground radar modes are required. The proposed research will first utilize the radar target modeling capability at Spectra Research and Georgia Institute of Technology to generate math models of the detection of targets with wide band signals typical of high resolution radar (HRR). Target models will be developed in the context of the radar technology known to be used for target detection and subsequent NCTR by radar manufacturers. Analytical models of radar implementation parameters such as calibration and alignment will then be statistically characterized and their functionality to handle target motion and signature visibility determined. Finally, radar signature signal processing will be defined that will optimize radar performance for target recognition and identification for NCTR, over the gamut of radar typed identified. Our goal for the models and target signatures developed will be a completely portable data set for use by all radar manufacturers. Imbedded in X-Patch, these universal signature models will enable sensor optimization within a specific radar system and also benchmarking of different systems for valid comparison.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Dr. George Bohannon
AF 07-215      Awarded: 13JUN07
Title:Sensor Architectures for Radar Combat Identification
Abstract:An effective noncooperative target recognition (NCTR) system relies on the successful integration of three critical components: sensor, signature database, and classifier. These three components must be addressed concurrently and optimized in a mutually consistent manner to arrive at an effective NCTR solution. TSC proposes to develop a high-fidelity, coherent, voltage-level radar model to support the sensor component of such an analysis. This proposal describes a testbed for developing and testing potential NCTR systems, with major testbed modules representing each of these three critical NCTR components. In Phase II, the radar model will be realized in software suitable for such a testbed, validated against field data, and used in NCTR system trade studies.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Jing Zhao
AF 07-216      Awarded: 10MAY07
Title:Precision and Stable Fiber Optical Gyroscope Made of Air-Core Fiber
Abstract:Agiltron proposes to systematic study the un-stable mechanisms, leading to the establishment of space qualification procedure for fiber optic gyros (FOGs). The approach leverages our industry experiences in satellite FOG component and sensor system fabrication. This program will lead to development of a certification service for the air-core photonic band-gap fiber components and navigation-grade FOGs with high performance. In addition, we propose to develop a new generation of fiber optic gyro components that has high thermal stability and are fundamentally resistant to space radiations, incorporating new breakthrough in engineered optical designs. Phase I will identify the critical technology challenges, synthesize advanced architectures, perform concept feasibility analysis and define the Phase II approach in collaboration with Honeywell.

WADDAN SYSTEMS
8801 Encino Ave
Northridge, CA 91325
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 257-4172
Dr. Mahendra Singh
AF 07-216      Awarded: 14JUN07
Title:Precision Navigation Grade Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (FOG)
Abstract: Development of a Precision Fiber Optic Gyro (PFOG) is proposed. The precision in the proposed PFOG is obtained by basic design and physical construction. It is a closed loop gyro where instead of measuring the Sagnac phase shift, we drive it zero continuously, thus, this driving effort becomes the measure of the angular rate. It is made up of fiber spool and a single chip hybrid. This eliminates many interfaces, and puts all the key components together, thus, reducing the errors introduced thermal gradients across the gyro. It also makes the gyro easy to assemble (only two guided splicing) and rugged in construction. The single chip hybrid consists of a LiNbO3 and silicon substrate bonded together via a strain relieved interface. Optical paths and components are micro machined in substrates using surface diffusion and bulk micromachining. Detailed design, analysis of a potential PFOG including some hardware experiments will be performed in Phase I to demonstrate the feasibility of the gyro. The device has many defense and commercial applications. It can be used in the emerging munitions systems to sense the high rates and to improve their guidance and control.

NETWORK SENSING TECHNOLOGIES LLC
P.O. Box 268
Crestview, FL 32536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 496-4731
Mr. Michael Chaloupka
AF 07-218      Awarded: 14JUN07
Title:Network-Centric Warfare Radio-Frequency (RF) Real-Time Hardware-In-the-Loop (HITL) Synthetic Battlespace Research Capabilities/Technologies
Abstract:The objective of the proposed effort is to perform the research necessary to develop generic system of systems (SoS) hardware-in-the-loop (HITL) interfaces for evaluation of early warning receiver (EWR) geolocation technologies with respect to network centric warfare (NCW) connectivity. NST presents innovative interface connectivity and real-time test technologies necessary to support laboratory testing of Airborne Electronic Attack (AEA) suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) network enabled sensors and electronic combat systems in synthetic battlespace environments. NST proposes a Real-Time NCW Evaluation Test System (RTNETs) to achieve a reconfigurable, multi-terminal network to interface single / multiship RF stimulators, GPS RF simulators, advanced geolocation receivers and high fidelity platform avionics navigation systems (fighters, UAVs) including network-centric warfare interfaces to platform and weapon data links with emphasis on single and multiship geolocation testing. The proposed research will address the HITL transition and application to low cost weapons of opportunity utilizing advance third party targeting techniques. Issues regarding multiship geolocation receiver test mechanization, network timing, latencies, trajectories, multiple platform position handoff errors and data link / messages will be addressed as well as proposed test environment changes. Ultimately, the resulting research will support concept demonstrations necessary to test interfaces prior to flight testing.

KYMA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8829 Midway West Road
Raleigh, NC 27617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 789-8880
Dr. Drew Hanser
AF 07-223      Awarded: 08JUN07
Title:Homoepitaxial GaN-based Devices for RF Electronics
Abstract:In this Phase I proposal, Kyma Technologies will examine the epi properties and device performance of homoepitaxial GaN-based device layers grown on semi-insulating GaN substrates, targeting metrics that will help characterize performance at high frequency and correlating device performance with material properties. High frequency GaN devices will theoretically benefit from a lower dislocation density through improved thermal performance and improved dispersion performance. Device performance improvements will target high efficiency and bandwidth at high frequency, and the Phase I effort will assess the feasibility of the approach by measuring initial device performance and showing trends for high frequency device performance.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Travis Simpkins
AF 07-224      Awarded: 14JUN07
Title:Continuous No-print-through Bipolar Phase-Sheet Wavefront Corrector
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR Phase I program is to demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost, large-bipolar-stroke, high-resolution, VLSI-chip-driven, continuous phase-sheet deformable mirror (with no support-posts) for adaptive-optics wavefront correction for below-the-weather unmanned aerial vehicle satellite communications systems. The proposed device architecture integrates a high-voltage VLSI driver chip with a free-standing reflective membrane-mirror sheet with no support posts, so that the possibility of print through from support posts is eliminated. This MEMS-on VLSI design approach is expected to lead to compact, low-cost, low-weight and low-electrical-power-consumption devices. The ultimate program goal is a device with 10,000 pixels, framing at 5 kHz and costing $5,000 in small quantities.

SEQUOIA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4210 Padden Hills CT
Bellingham, WA 98229
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 232-4300
Mr. Claus Danielson
AF 07-224      Awarded: 04JUN07
Title:Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-Based Adaptive Optics Systems
Abstract:Free-space laser communications is an important element of the Translation Communications initiative. However laser communication is inherently limited by atmospheric disturbances and other aberration sources that degrade the quality of the communication link. Adaptive optics systems can reduce signal degradation by rapidly measuring and compensating for these optical aberrations. Sequoia will develop an adaptive optics system for free-space laser comm. The system consist of four elements; the static optical system, the wavefront sensor, the wavefront actuator and the control algorithm. Sequoia will develop a custom adaptive optics control algorithm optimized for the laser communications application. Our advanced control methods directly optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of the communications signal rather than performing brute force phase-conjugation as is done in traditional image recovery adaptive optics control systems. This reduces the sensor requirements of the adaptive optics system resulting in reduced size, weight, and complexity of the overall system. Wavefront correction will be performed using a MEMS-based deformable mirror. MEMS mirrors are an inexpensive and compact alternative to piezoelectric mirrors. Sequoia Technologies will develop a deformable mirror actuator geometry that is optimized for the laser communications application. Pointing of the laser communication system will be performed using Sequoia's proprietary gyro-stabilized gimbal technology.

GITAM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9782 Country Creek Way
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 885-9767
Dr. William S. McCormick
AF 07-231      Awarded: 16MAY07
Title:Network-Centric Urban Vigilance
Abstract:Air Force needs relatively low cost, real-time, and automated systems to continuously track, tag, and locate (TTL) dismounts and vehicles by employing multiple layers of surveillance and reconnaissance sensors operating in tandem at macro and close-in levels. In this proposal Gitam Technologies, Inc. (GTI) in collaboration with Prof. John Kerekes at Rochester Institute Technology (RIT) propose coordinated and queued sensing using Airborne and ground-based hyperspectral, EO and IR sensors for 24/7 monitoring and detection of ground objects. GTI's hyperspectral detect/ID/Track expertise joins forces with RIT researchers and leverage their ongoing hyperspectral and EO/IR airborne sensing, vehicle tracking and sensor modeling research. Both archived imagery and possible new collections will provide data for algorithm development and testing under this proposed research. In addition, DIRSIG simulated imagery will be used to provide test data with precisely known truth. The real and synthetic data sets include urban scenarios with specific vehicles in known truth locations and their movement tracked between images. Complementary high resolution EO imagery will be used in conjunction with lower resolution hyperspectral imagery to develop and test cueing concepts. Empirical analyses will also be further extended through use of the FASSP analytical modeling tool.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd., Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-5401
Dr. Ronald Dilsavor
AF 07-231      Awarded: 25MAY07
Title:Network-Centric Urban Vigilance
Abstract:SET Corporation proposes to develop layered sensing concepts for tracking insurgents in urban scenarios. In particular, we develop joint cross-platform RF/EO-IR tracking concepts. RF sensor systems are being developed to track dismounts from ranges of 10km or more. Such radars use multiple along-track channels to suppress stationary clutter and may use multi-resolution waveforms to characterize dismount signatures in range and Doppler. A typical limitation of such standoff RF systems is cross-range location accuracy; a CEP90 > 15m is not uncommon. This leads to serious track ambiguities when several dismounts are traveling together. We explore the use of a closer-range video EO-IR platform, working cooperatively with the standoff RF platform in a layered sensing construct, to mitigate the RF cross-range location limitations. In particular, we consider a narrow field of view EO-IR video platform operating at ranges of 3km - 6km that can position itself so as to resolve, in angle, the dismounts that are range-doppler ambiguous to the RF platform. We formulate a joint cross-platform multi-hypothesis tracking framework in which the dismount state vector consists of both kinematic parameters and micro-doppler features. We estimate these features from both RF data and EO-IR video and use them to enhance tracker performance.

MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
616 Brookmeade Ct.
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-1434
Dr. Shan Cong
AF 07-232      Awarded: 08MAY07
Title:Integrated Fusion Performance Evaluation Theory and Applications
Abstract:Currently the Air Force is seeking theoretic support for the evaluation effort on fusion based surveillance systems. This evaluation will not be limited to isolated tracking or ATR functions; rather it will cover all the fusion functions in a unified manner. MRLets Technologies proposes an integrated fusion performance evaluation theory as a solution to this request. As the framework of the integrated fusion evaluation, 24 possible fusion architectures are analyzed in order to formulate the distribution of fusion result. Based on this development, we propose to approximate the distribution of the fusion system under evaluation with a multi-mode fusion performance model. As part of the model, a Markovian Urban System Transition Model (MUSTM) is proposed to represent the dynamics in a fusion environment. Along this line, we also propose a novel multispectrum sensor model to represent the sensor suite operating on spreading wave bands. The proposed fusion performance model also enables a set of new performance metrics that are invariant in nature and can better illustrate the trend of the performance of a fusion system. The proposed evaluation theory will be implemented into a software package so that it can be integrated into the fusion evaluation systems and sensor information exploitation programs of the Air Force, such as SAVig and FITE.

BERRIEHILL RESEARCH CORP.
240 W. Elmwood Dr. , Ste. 1001
Dayton, OH 45459
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 435-1016
Dr. Jeffery A. Berrie
AF 07-233      Awarded: 13JUN07
Title:Efficiently Computing and/or Compensating for Object Variability for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) Applications
Abstract:Variability exists in all objects considered in ATR data sets. The two most important sources of this variability are (1) added or removed objects (example: object attached to the back of a tank) or (2) a part displaced relative to other parts, sometimes referred to as "articulation" (the classic example is a tank's moveable turret and gun). These can cause severe difficulties in comparing measured data from an operational system with computed data sets. The turret example provides the case in point: there are essentially an infinite number of combinations of turret rotations and gun angles; computed data sets to cover all angles and frequencies are simply out of the question. As the SBIR description outlines, the two approaches are to simplify the data set (somehow) or to alter the ATR algorithm itself to ignore or compensate for the variability. This SBIR program will examine both aspects, although the main focus will be on examination of data sets and computational techniques with an eye on simplifying the data generation process by ignoring all but the essential elements of the scattering to examine errors from "full" signatures.

SIGNAL INNOVATIONS
1009 Slater Road, Suite 200
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 323-3450
Mr. Jonathan Woodworth
AF 07-233      Awarded: 05JUN07
Title:Efficiently Computing and/or Compensating for Object Variability in Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) Applications
Abstract:There are numerous targets of interest to the Air Force that may be manifested in many different forms. For example, many ground targets may be configured with or without particular subcomponents, and such subcomponents may also be situated in different locations on a given target. Moreover, the same target may appear differently to a radar as a function of specific articulations even when the same components are present. Target variability poses a significant challenge to current ATR systems, which may be addressed from two different perspectives: (i) the ATR algorithm may be designed to address such target variation by diminishing the importance of target details that are susceptible to change, or (ii) by yielding a database of sufficient diversity such that a trained algorithm is capable of addressing the variations in actual data. In the proposed Phase I research, SI will investigate both (i) and (ii), examining their relative merits. The issues associated with choosing between these two options, or perhaps merging components of each, motivate the research proposed here for Phase I. In Phase II we will pursue the appropriate balance of these two approaches based on AFRL input and results from Phase I.

GITAM TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9782 Country Creek Way
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 422-7504
Dr. William S. McCormick
AF 07-235      Awarded: 18MAY07
Title:Advanced Signature-Matched Hyperspectral Change Detection
Abstract:Gitam Technologies Inc. (GTI) in collaboration with Professor John Kerekes of Rochester Institute of Technology, propose to kernelize the Covariance Equalized Change Detection algorithm for Hyperspectral imagery. The primary focus will be to develop signature-based change detection with the capability to locate particular signatures in an observation scene, where prior knowledge about the target or the background is available from previous pass. Over the past decade, Kernel-based learning concepts have established as a powerful optimization tool when gaussian and linearity assumptions are invalid. In kernel-based methods, learning is implicitly performed in a high-dimensional feature space where high order correlation or nonlinearity within the data is exploited. The kernel concept has seen vast applications in wide variety of detection and recognition problems, including traditional detection and classification, change detection and anomaly change detection. However, although Covariance Equalized Change Detection (CECD) has seen several useful applications, the CECD concept has not been formalized within the Kernel framework. Hence, the main goal of this project is to study the effectiveness of the entire class of Kernels for CECD for HSI data. The Kernelization approach will be initially applied to the chronochrome algorithm and the covariance equalization algorithm both with and without matched filtering.

INNOVATIVE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
733 Bishop Street, 28th Floor
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 441-3640
Dr. G. Gina Ling
AF 07-235      Awarded: 30MAY07
Title:Advanced Signature-Matched Hyperspectral Change Detection
Abstract:NovaSol is pleased to present a program to improve the utility and performance of existing and future hyperspectral reconnaissance sensors. The development of approach to signature-matched hyperspectral change detection will address the Air Force's specific interest in lowering false alarm rates while maintaining or increasing probability of detection. NovaSol's novel approach improves the existing state of the art in hyperspectral matched-filter change detection by directly targeting shortcomings in current covariance-based methods that have been identified by the military and research community. Use of simple data conditioning steps and a spectral distance based matched filter detection metric make our algorithm computationally efficient and amenable to implementation in low power and weight parallel processing hardware. In addition, by employing object-based change detection, the proposed algorithm will offer greater tolerance to image misregistration than currently deployed pixel-level subtraction schemes.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. Daniel J. Kane
AF 07-237      Awarded: 2MAY07
Title:Monolithic Quantum Dot Mode-Locked Laser for Arbitrary Waveform Generation
Abstract:In the past, passively mode-locked semiconductor laser sources, which require no synchronization by external driver circuits, were greatly preferred for their simplicity, but were plagued with large timing jitter, > 10 ps that restricted their usefulness as short pulse devices. These passive devices also had limited power output in the pulses due to mode competition above threshold and non-linear gain effects. With the introduction of the quantum dot gain media to semiconductor lasers, the ability to tailor the active region to the passively mode-locked laser cavity and thereby produce a low threshold, low noise condition, has lead to superior performance and to a re-evaluation of the monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor laser as an ultrashort pulse optical source. The challenges, however, for quantum dot mode-locked lasers are to identify fundamental limitations to the pulse width such as non-linear gain and dispersion and to make the operation more robust. In this Phase I SBIR, we will develop the tools required to move toward optimization of key device parameters. The ultimate goal is to develop the quantum dot mode-locked laser technology to the level where it is useable for an ultrashort pulse optical source for arbitrary waveform generation.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 471-9700
Dr. Ravi Verma
AF 07-239      Awarded: 04JUN07
Title:High speed, high resolution foveating multispectral and polarimetric sensors
Abstract:A high speed, high resolution sensor system capable of simultaneously providing spectral and polarization information would greatly enhance the ability to detect muzzle flash and other high speed events in the battlefield. Such a system requires successful integration of technologies for spectral filtering, and for high speed readout (among others). Here, we are proposing the use of Tanner's CRC technology & Nova's VASI technology. The technologies will be combined and integrated with other components to build the multispectral/polarimetric sensor system.

TECHNEST HOLDINGS, INC.
10411 Motor City Drive, Suite 650
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 767-2810
Dr. Steven Yi
AF 07-239      Awarded: 18MAY07
Title:Spatially Registered Multispectral Polarimetric Sensor
Abstract:Funded through several Navy programs, Technest Holdings, Inc. (formerly Genex Technologies, Inc) has successfully developed mutispectral/hyperspectral imaging sensors for long range target tracking/classification and multi-modal wide FOV (Field of View) flash detection. Leveraging this experience, Technest proposes in this SBIR Phase I effort to develop an innovative, high frame rate, multiresolution/multispectral (visible and MWIR),and spatially registered polarimetric sensor called SmartEye for fast frame rate target classification and muzzle flash detection. SmartEye has modularly designed multispectral polarimetric optics, Technest's miniature DSP/FPGA sensor control, data processing hardware or SOS (Smart Optical Sensor), and a long life (>100K hours) cryocooler. Two other key elements of our system are the MWIR and visible foveal camera sensors. Foveal camera sensors, such as the ones from Nova Sensors, use biologically inspired multi-resolution sensing mechanisms. This is important because like human vision, foveal cameras reduce (through low resolution) the amount of irrelevant information such as unwanted background but keep high resolution imaging on the interested targets.

X-COM SYSTEMS
12345-B Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 390-1087
Mr. David Erisman
AF 07-247      Awarded: 15MAY07
Title:Wideband Radio Frequency (RF) Data Recorder and Playback System
Abstract:X-COM Systems' proposed solution is a comprehensive system for data acquisition, storage and playback of wideband RF signals. This design utilizes advancements in FGPA technology, A/D, D/A, and storage circuitry to create a Wideband RF recorder with well-defined communication interfaces for three major subsystems - acquisition, storage and playback. Scalability is emphasized throughout the design to ensure that newer components derived from technological advances can be easily integrated. For time-critical, real-time functionality, dedicated hardware will be recommended over processor-intensive solutions with shared-bus architectures, which can throttle performance. X-COM's knowledge and experience from previous similar R&D efforts will be detailed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this innovative solution.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Mr. Walter Szczepanski
AF 07-249      Awarded: 09MAY07
Title:Innovative Sensing Techniques for Urban Operations
Abstract:Black River Systems Co., Inc. and EnerLab, Inc. propose to investigate and develop advanced signal processing techniques necessary for radar detection, imaging and characterization of dismounts in urban environments. We will investigate the feasibility of developing, testing, and implementing a conceptually new signal processing technique, Spatial-Temporal Differential Analysis, which will reliably detect weak, slowly moving targets and to extract unique characteristics in extremely hostile urban environments. This technique provides significant additional sensitivity, flexibility in bandwidth and polarization, and time occupancy benefits for existing GMTI radar systems, as well as for future distributed radar architectures. The developed technique will provide a rapid insertion capability into existing, stand-alone radars, including coarse resolution monopulse radars, featuring computationally efficient, parallel digital signal processing. The technique does not require changes to existing radar designs, utilizes existing A/D digital outputs, is considered as a complementary technique to existing radar signal processing and can be implemented in parallel with existing signal processing. Based on preliminary results, the STDA technique promises to be fully robust to a wide variety of environments. We propose a comprehensive program to analyze and model dismounts and to apply STDA techniques to ensure detection and characterization of their signatures in urban environments.

SIGNAL LABS, INC.
1950 Roland Clarke Place, Suite 120
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 391-9771
Dr. Braham Himed
AF 07-249      Awarded: 29MAY07
Title:Innovative Distributed Sensor Network System (DISENS) For Urban Operations
Abstract:Traditionally, a network of distributed radar sensors, consisting of multiple radars netted through data communication links, is known for its capability to achieve enhanced performance in target detection and recognition via data combination or information fusion among the multiple spatially-separated sensors. This is because the multiple echoes from the same target are available for data processing at a central processing unit, which greatly enhances the available signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR). This in turn, improves considerably target detection probability and target recognition performance. In this effort, an innovative distributed multi-radar sensor system referred to as DIstributed SEnsor Network System (DISENS) will be developed. This sensor system will be able to maximize the number of echoes received from targets of very small cross sections such as dismounts. A DISENS consists of multiple netted identical pulse compression radar sensors, each of which uses a distinct coding waveform available from a bank of orthogonal coding waveforms. All radar sensors in a DISENS are assumed to operate at different carrier frequencies and are coordinated and controlled by a central processing unit referred to as the Central Processing Center. Each sensor in a DISENS can operate in a monostatic, bistatic, or multistatic mode.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2210
Mr. Donald N. Woods
AF 07-249      Awarded: 31MAR07
Title:Innovative Sensing Techniques for Urban Operations
Abstract:Algorithms will be generated to discriminate among humans, land animals and surface vehicles and to characterize dismount activities in advanced radar systems that can detect and track low RCS, slowly moving targets. These algorithms will utilize both micro-level features (e.g. Doppler spectra, short-time Fourier transforms, independent components and principal components) and macro-level features (e.g. movement pattern, speed, location, time of day). The algorithms will be designed to operate in waveform-agile radars and to exploit urban phenomena such as multipath reflections form surfaces such as flat walls. The algorithms will be developed using a mixture of data that: 1) has been identified and is available, 2) is being collected by TSC for DARPA with an ultra-high resolution radar, or 3) will be synthesized using TSC's commercially available Radar Image Generator software in conjunction with videos that characterize the size and kinesiology of humans and animals. The discrimination algorithms will be developed using Bayesian classifiers and neural networks. The algorithms will be designed for use in radars operating from UHF to Ka-band, and to work within each radar's parameters (e.g. signal-to-noise ratio, range and Doppler resolutions, target revisit time).

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
AF 07-256      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Improving Weapons Bay Acoustical Environments
Abstract:The F/A-22 main weapons bay experiences severe acoustic loading when exposed to the freestream. The severity and attenuation of this loading is exacerbated by the flight envelope of the F/A-22 aircraft, as well as the requirement to carry and release "smart" weapons throughout this envelope. This extremely harsh environment can also impact components that are mounted within the bay itself, including carriage stores that contain sensitive electronics and control surfaces. CRAFT Tech proposes the development and demonstration of a robust flow control strategy that effectively lowers the tonal and broadband dynamic loading of the F/A-22 main weapons bay, while minimizing additional aircraft weight. This strategy (referred to as the "Hybrid Acoustic Suppression") will employ flow control techniques applied to both the forward and aft portions of the bay, producing attenuation over the entire flight envelope and as the cavity characteristics switch between tonal and broadband. Phase I will involve technology maturation through high-resolution Large Eddy Simulation (LES), complemented by comprehensive wind tunnel testing with PIV flow visualization. The existing F/A-22 leading edge spoiler and aft wall ramp will serve as benchmarks from which acoustic benefit can be traded against any weight, cost, and/or aircraft/mission penalties.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive, Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8143
Dr. Robert Tramel
AF 07-256      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Improving Weapons Bay Acoustical Environments
Abstract:The ultimate aim of this program is to experimentally demonstrate the ability of a passive, light weight flow control device to successfully produce acceptable acoustic noise levels in the main cavity of the F/A-22 aircraft during a flight test. The goal of the Phase I effort is to perform both state of the art CFD analysis and complementary small-scale wind tunnel tests to assess the ability of a rod-in-crossflow (RIC) to perform this task. Phase II will build on these results and consist of analyses of both RIC and porous spoiler flow treatments on both subsonic and supersonic cavity flows.

FLIGHT SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1130 Ten Rod Road, Suite E102
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 667-7254
Mr. Robert L. Cooperman
AF 07-257      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Enhanced, All-Weather Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Sense and Avoid (SAA)
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal requests $99739 for Flight Safety Technologies, Inc. to investigate the feasibility and all-weather capability of a novel radar concept as an active, non-cooperative SAA sensor for UAVs. The concept radar, which we call Unicorn, is a narrow-band pulsed radar operating around a center frequency of 5.145 GHz in the aviation C-band, which has been approved for this developmental use by the FAA and FCC. In this proposed Phase I effort, we will perform concept and preliminary design trade-off studies to support application of the Unicorn architecture to the Global Hawk UAV as an all-weather sensor, while using existing field test data to validate the modeling and simulation tools used in the design effort.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5228
Dr. Alex Davydov
AF 07-257      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Multi-functional Sensing Platform for UAV With Dual-polarization and Microphysics-based Hazard Monitoring
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc (IAI) and its subcontractor, the University of Oklahoma, Norman propose an innovative sensing platform, which employs an X-band airborne weather radar. This adds significant enhancement to existing airborne weather sensors in detecting-avoiding a broad range of external hazards, and an integrated L-band transponder for communications with cooperative aircrafts/ground stations. By incorporating a simple monopulse beamforming technique, the proposed system has capability of detecting both weather hazards and air-traffics while avoiding complicated antenna array architecture. By leveraging dual-polarized antenna and transceivers, the system is able to identify and classify the atmospheric hazard types (especially for hydrometeors); a capability has been proven critical for ground-based weather systems. Furthermore, the architecture is able to support cross-beam turbulence and windshear measurements, thus 2-D or 3-D wind-field with associated hazard identifications can be displayed to remote pilots.

DESIGN INTELLIGENCE, INC.
330 West Gray St., Suite 511
Norman, OK 73069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(405) 307-0397
Mr. James Grimsley
AF 07-258      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Energy Harvesting (EH) for Small Air Vehicles
Abstract:Technological advances in energy harvesting (EH) offer significant benefits to powering micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) by extending mission length and range. Currently, batteries limit the range and mission time of MAVs since the batteries contain a finite supply of energy. The proposed research is unique in that it considers the use of multiple EH sources along with both batteries and supercapacitors to store energy. Supercapacitors represent a highly reversible storage mechanism and can be used for energy buffering, primary storage for low-power subsystems, and parallel operation with batteries to reduce peak current demands on batteries. The proposed power supply functions are isolated from other vehicle subsystems by the use of a separate energy-efficient supervisory power control system so that the duty cycles of other subsystems can be optimized based on mission needs and availability of energy. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is accomplished by efficient computational techniques so that maximum efficiency is obtained from the EH sources. The supervisory control system also directs EH sources to either recharging functions or to direct application of power to other subsystems. The proposed Phase I project will investigate the use of solar, power line inductance, and mechanical vibration as EH sources.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
4415 Euclid Avenue, Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Dr. Matthew Birch
AF 07-258      Awarded: 10APR07
Title:Energy Harvesting (EH) for Small Air Vehicles
Abstract:Orbital Research will develop a tightly integrated photovoltaic cell and battery energy storage subsystem and flight test the system on a micro air vehicle (MAV). This energy harvesting (EH) technology, efficiently packaged, will also save weight by serving as a structural element of the MAV's airframe.. By using high efficiency photovoltaic cells packaged with high energy density batteries the mission capability of MAVs will be dramatically increased. A power management system will also be integrated into this structural package to manage the health of the system and to report on its condition to the MAV's global power management system. The EH system's tight integration of solar cells and batteries will provide enough added power to significantly extend the MAV's mission duration beyond the capability of batteries alone. Upon successful completion of this program, Orbital Research envisions the integrated photovoltaic cells, battery and power management will be a plug-and-play subsystem for multiple MAV platforms. Thus, MAV integrators will be able to include this technology into their MAV airframes to optimize power management and mission flexibility.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Scott Morrison
AF 07-258      Awarded: 10APR07
Title:Innovative Energy Harvesting System for Micro-UAVs(1001-038)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc. and its partners propose a lightweight, flexible, rugged, and modular energy harvesting power system for micro-UAV applications. This concept utilizes commercial, off-the-shelf technology and microprocessor-based power management to provide photovoltaic-based regenerative power for micro-UAVs in a `fly' and `perch' mission profile. In the Phase I, Triton will demonstrate the system in flight on a subscale platform. In the Phase II, Triton will work with our partner to produce a full-scale prototype of the power system and demonstrate its functionality.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES CORP.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 225-4381
Dr. James Paduano
AF 07-259      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Bio-Inspired Sensing and Hierarchical GN&C for Traversing Urban Clutter
Abstract:Aurora proposes to develop a cluttered navigation and control solution, which uses specialized sensing and processing to provide commanded body rates, velocities, etc. to a traditional MAV inner-loop stability augmentation system, thus enabling the MAV to fly urban and other cluttered-environment missions. Three elements make up our approach: (1) Methods based on Wide-Field Integration (WFI) to enable vision-based negotiation through a near-field environment of relatively large obstacles, maintaining a path through the cluttered environment: (2) Active sensing of imminent collisions using bat-inspired echolocation sensors (ELS), and (3) Hierarchical application of behavioral and automaton-based navigation and maneuvering strategies. We believe our approach is the best combination of technologies and algorithms because (1) The components and algorithms have been proven suitable for low size, weight, and power applications; (2) robustness to sensor inaccuracies, environmental factors (wind, fog, leafless trees, etc.), and vehicle state deviations will be achieved through the complementary properties of the optical and acoustic devices; and (3) Aurora will take a system-level perspective, applying its vehicle integration expertise to focus the effort on an appropriate and balanced combination of technologies - weaknesses in one technology will be mitigated by overlapping capabilities.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Kenan O. Ezal
AF 07-259      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:System for Robust Navigation of Micro Air Vehicles
Abstract:It is clear that autonomous navigation, guidance, and control of micro air vehicles (MAV) in cluttered environments while detecting and avoiding objects is highly challenging. MAVs and small unmanned aerial vehicles place severe size, weight, and power constraints on avionics and sensor payloads. Although current systems have collocated navigation, guidance and control electronics, they are not fully integrated for optimal navigation and control. Toyon proposes to develop a Software-Defined Navigation(TM) (SDN(TM)) system with Integrated Guidance and Control (IGC) specifically for small platforms. The integrated design will eliminate redundancy while improving robustness and performance. The plug-and-play SDN/IGC system will accept inputs from a variety of sensors including gyros, accelerometers, magnetometers, and several novel sensors currently under development at Toyon. These include a very small GPS-based attitude sensor, an ultrasonic ranging device, and an optical-flow sensor with reduced computational requirements. The system will provide robust guidance and control under disturbances such as wind gusts while enhancing the operational envelope under GPS-denied or jammed conditions. While ambitious, the proposed SDN/IGC system is realizable and will significantly improve the performance of small, autonomous platforms. Toyon will design the system during Phase I and build, test and demonstrate a prototype during the Phase II effort.

ARMADILLO AEROSPACE L.P.
18601 LBJ Freeway, Suite 460
Mesquite, TX 75150
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 475-1360
Mr. Neil Milburn
AF 07-260      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Hardware Component Prototyping for Operationally Responsive Space Access
Abstract:Armadillo Aerospace has designed, built and flown a first generation rocket powered vehicle (The QUAD) that has demonstrated the core concepts of - rugged reliability, low cost of design and operation, rapid turn time and insensitivity to weather. This vehicle was flown at the X-Prize Cup 2006 in the NASA Centennial Challenge Lunar Lander competition and was the only vehicle to qualify. We believe that this core concept can be expanded in a modular design to accomplish a wide variety of tasks, up to and including small payload orbital insertion, and still retain all of these desirable features. However, there are numerous design choices to be evaluated in the light of high potential commercial applications that we have been made aware of. This Level I SBIR proposal details the concepts to be evaluated using this successfully demonstrated test bed as the basis for future vehicle designs.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mrs. A. Hill
AF 07-260      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Hardware Component Prototyping for Operationally Responsive Space Access
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Air Force SBIR program is to develop prototyping capability for the design integration of long length scale structural health monitoring (SHM) sensors with reusable launch vehicle (RLV) structures to enable quick analysis and turnaround. NanoSonic would work with Lockheed Martin to 1) design, fabricate and evaluate a spatially-integrating sensor that can operate from cryogenic to 450C, to detect damage caused by mechanically and thermally-induced changes in material and structural properties, and 2) analyze how such sensors can be designed as part of the RLV structure to reduce turnaround time. Changes in integrating sensor output are shown to be directly related to the reduction of the ability to support mechanical load. The sensing approach uses an integrating optical fiber sensor supported in an extended temperature polymer carrier appliqu that may be integrated with or adhesively applied to the structure. The results of Phase I program would be 1) an integrating sensor capable of determining loss of material stiffness and withstanding the extended temperature environment, 2) support optics and electronics, and 3) experimental demonstration at the sensor on a structural test article. A complete sensor system would be delivered to AFRL during Phase I for additional evaluation.

XCOR AEROSPACE, INC.
1314 Flight Line, P.O. Box 1163
Mojave, CA 93502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 824-4714
Mr. Dan DeLong
AF 07-260      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Hardware Component Prototyping for Operationally Responsive Space Access
Abstract:XCOR's proposal is to build and fly a rocket powered vehicle that will fly near space, and measure its operational responsiveness. We are proposing to build the simplest possible all-rocket powered vehicle that will get to 200,000 ft altitude and supersonic speeds. We plan to complete vehicle fabrication during Phases I and II with matching private investment money. This vehicle will build on a legacy of XCOR's previous private and government technology investments, including reusable liquid rocket engines that are capable of hundreds of restarts, piston propellant pumps, low cost highly reliable valves, rapid propellant filling techniques, and proven reliable ignition systems.

AVIONICS SPECIALTIES, INC.
PO Box 6400
Charlottesville, VA 22906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-3311
Dr. Frank H. Gern
AF 07-261      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Micro Air Vehicle(MAV) Flight Data Sensors for Practical Flow Control
Abstract:The proposal investigates the use of an array of MEMS based artificial hair cell sensors (AHC) for flow detection. The output from the AHC array is processed through an artificial neural network (ANN) to perform airflow diagnostics and compute air data parameters. The proposed air data system uses artificial hair cell sensors as the primary air data source, mimicking the functionality of the hair cells on insect wings. Like the hair cell arrays on insect wings, an array of artificial hair cells will be used to detect the airflow on the MAV lifting surfaces. Similar to a biological nervous system, the raw signals of the AHC array are processed by the ANN to compute freestream dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. Together with the static reference pressure from a miniature pressure sensor, the complete set of air data parameters can be computed from this data. Due to its architecture, the proposed ADS will also be capable of detecting the development of laminar separation bubbles on the lifting surfaces and to provide suitable output for the operational flight program to suppress or preclude the development of an LSB.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Mrs. A. Hill
AF 07-261      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Micro Air Vehicle(MAV) Flight Data Sensors for Practical Flow Control
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed Air Force Phase I SBIR program is to demonstrate the feasibility of ultra-lightweight conformal sensor elements and patterned arrays based on Metal RubberT gossamer nanocomposite materials. The small size, low weight, conformability and simplicity of these sensors make them suitable for MAV and other small vehicle applications. Metal RubberT is formed by the layer-by-layer self-assembly processing of advanced polymers with selected metal nanoclusters. This allows the combined control over multiple constitutive properties and mechanical transduction behaviors at the molecular level. By proper design, the Young's modulus and mass density may be made very low, and the electrical conductivity near the percolation threshold made very high. Such a combination allows the transduction of pressure-induced compression and skin friction-induced tangential strains into electrical signals. NanoSonic would use such novel, low weight materials to design, fabricate and evaluate the performance of conformal single-element and multi-element sensor pressure and skin friction sensor arrays. The conformal MEMS-type sensors would be evaluated through fundamental laboratory tests and airflow analysis during the Phase I program. NanoSonic has an Alliance Agreement with the Lockheed Martin Corporation and would work in cooperation with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics colleagues during Phase I and Phase II.

INNOVATIVE RESEARCH, INC.
3025 Harbor Lane N, Suite 300
Plymouth, MN 55447
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(763) 519-0105
Dr. Kanchan M. Kelkar
AF 07-262      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Computational Modeling of Two-Phase Cooling Systems for Future Generation Electronics
Abstract:The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a comprehensive, efficient, and well-validated computational method for the prediction of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic performance of various types of two-phase cooling systems for next generation electronics. In order to address the unique features of two-phase systems, the computational method will use a novel two-level approach that involves a system-level solution with an embedded component-level calculation. The component-specific solution of the conservation equations subject to the prevailing inlet conditions and thermal boundary conditions will be used for determining the overall flow and thermal characteristics. The system-level solution will utilize these component characteristics along with mass balance constraints to predict the system performance in a generalized manner. Component models will be developed for Tube Flow components (such as finned-tube condensers, evaporators, cold plates, and microchannel heat sinks), Spray Cooled Devices, Compressors and Pumps, and Phase Separation Valves. The method will also address non-ideal fluid properties. The accuracy of the method will be validated with reference to experimental measurements. Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of developing the computational method and its utility through its application to the analysis of practical Refrigeration and Microchannel-Heat-Sink-Based two-phase systems.

CLEAR SCIENCE CORP.
PO Box 233, 663 Owego Hill Road
Harford, NY 13784
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 844-9171
Dr. Henry A. Carlson
AF 07-263      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Feedback Flow Control for a Three-Dimensional Turret
Abstract:Clear Science Corp. proposes to design wind tunnel and computational experiments for testing feedback systems that control flow over a three-dimensional turret, motivated by the relationship between flow dynamics and the performance of an optical system housed in the turret. The closed-loop control system that will be developed in Phase I consists of a reduced-order model of the flow, measurement-based estimators, and control input-performance output algorithms and regulators that relate variables in the low-dimensional model to actuator inputs and the control objective. The measurement system will utilize a small array of sensors located on the turret to estimate the flow dynamics above the turret. Several representations of performance output will be evaluated beginning with direct relationships between flow dynamics and the low-dimensional model variables. A computational platform will be developed for designing control systems through control-in-the-loop CFD simulations. The experimental test design will consist of two stages: controller design through off-line data acquisition and control-in-the-loop wind tunnel runs. In the first stage, three-component Particle Image Velocimetry measurements and surface measurements will provide data for constructing the low-dimensional model and measurement-based estimator. In the second stage, the estimators, input-output algorithms, and regulators will be integrated into a command-and-control system for controlling flow over the three-dimensional turret in a series of wind tunnel tests.

SPECTRAL ENERGIES, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 286-5711
Dr. Magan Paciaroni
AF 07-264      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Schlieren Based Seedless PIV for High Frequency Cavity Flow Control Applications in Large Scale Wind Tunnel Facilities
Abstract:Flow control using high-frequency actuation to reduce acoustic and vibrational loading from weapons bays and sensor apertures requires a diagnostic approach that can capture instantaneous flowfield data at rates of several kHz. Moreover, large wind tunnel facilities suffer the difficulty that particle seeding is problematic for techniques such as Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). The opportunity addressed by this proposal is that of extending a focused Schlieren "PIV" technique for high-speed imaging of density gradients and seedless velocimetry for studies of high-frequency flow control. Sharp-focusing optics will be employed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving near-planar imaging of density gradients and velocity. Another important challenge that will be addressed in the current work is the extension of Schlieren "PIV" to non-turbulent freestream flows away from wall boundary layers and shear layers. This may be accomplished by combining Schlieren "PIV" with techniques such as jet injection or laser-energy deposition. Alternatively, plasma actuation for flow control would naturally lead to local density gradients that could be tracked using the proposed approach. Proof-of-concept shakedown tests will be performed in an axisymmetric helium jet and on the center-plane of a supersonic wind tunnel facility in preparation for studies of high-frequency actuation in Phase II.

INDUSTRIAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS, INC.
2760 Beverly Dr., #4
Aurora, IL 60502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 236-5901
Dr. Donald E. Yuhas
AF 07-265      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Innovative Flight Instrumentation for Hypersonics
Abstract:In this proposal we exploit the remote sensing attributes of ultrasound to non-intrusively measure temperature, transient temperature and heat flux in both insulating and metallic aeroshells. In previous work, we have demonstrated the capability to non-intrusively measure the local temperature at the inner surface of large caliber Navy guns using sensors attached to the external gun barrel surface (2.5" from the measurement point). In the proposed effort, we modify the measurement methods to apply to relevant aeroshell materials and configurations found in hypersonic flight. Analytical methods to accurately treat thermal transients and extract heat flux from the ultrasonic data are also developed. The ultrasonic methods are non-intrusive and do not require breeching the aeroshell. The ability to locate sensors on the interior surfaces removes the sensor from the chemically reactive environment of hypersonic airbreathing propulsion systems which allows operation of the test facilities at extreme temperatures. Acquisition of localized and instantaneous temperature data from previously inaccessible regions will improve the Air Force's ability to control, understand, and optimize hypersonic vehicle performance. The ability to perform such measurements without breeching the interior or exterior surfaces of hypersonic vehicles is critical for flight vehicles.

ACREE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1900 Bates Ave., Suite G
Concord, CA 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 798-5770
Dr. Mike McFarland
AF 07-266      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Innovative Control Effectors for Common Aerovehicle (CAVs)
Abstract:Acree Technologies Incorporated (ATI) has demonstrated the effectiveness of using an innovative Cathodic Arc Plasma Source (CAPS) to produce high-density plasma for control of supersonic air flow. ATI proposes to use its CAPS system for actuation on the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV). The purpose of this proposal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of using the CAPS to produce high-density plasma for active aerodynamic flight control for the CAV. The goal of the Phase-I is to design an efficient CAPS system and use computer modeling to determine the actuation effects within the speed range of interest, namely Mach 20 - Mach 4. In previous wind tunnel tests the CAPS system has demonstrated a greater than 100% pressure change at Mach 5. The Acree Technologies CAPS has set the standard for pressure changes in a supersonic flow. The CAPS system is light and robust with no moving parts. It is capable of being energized in a matter of microseconds compared to at least milliseconds for mechanical systems, which allows for increased accuracy of the CAV.

PHYSICS, MATERIALS & APPLIED MATH RESEARCH, L.L.C.
1665 E. 18th Street, Suite 112
Tucson, AZ 85719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 903-2345
Dr. Kevin Kremeyer
AF 07-266      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Energy Deposition to Sculpt Upstream Densities and Control Common Aerovehicle, Strongly Reducing Drag and Ablation
Abstract:A versatile technique will be applied to preferentially reduce drag on different CAV designs, serving as an innovative approach to control effectors. Once air is accelerated by a high speed vehicle, strong drag forces are generated which must be countered by control surfaces. This requires tremendous actuator force and ablation resistance by the surfaces. Our approach will control the distribution of air ahead of the vehicle, to not only minimize the drag and ablation experienced by the CAV, but also to ensure that the drag forces steer the body as desired. This application allows additional embodiments, including total drag-reduction and munition deployment that can be explored in follow-on phases.

TECHNOLOGY IN BLACKSBURG, INC.
2901 Prosperity Rd
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-4401
Mr. Stephen Guillot
AF 07-270      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Microphone Sensing of Fan Face Distortion
Abstract:The use of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) embedded engines offers a significant benefit to the performance of Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft in the form of decreased ram drag and increased propulsive efficiency. However, in order to realize the benefits of embedded engines, effective serpentine inlets must be designed to properly ingest the incoming boundary layer without creating excessive fan face distortion. The concept of using jet-type vortex generator arrays to manage the secondary flows in BLI serpentine inlets has been proven to be quite effective. However, in order to implement these flow control techniques in an active control system, an accurate and non-intrusive inlet distortion measurement technique must be available. The team of Techsburg, Inc. and AVEC, Inc. are proposing a novel, non-intrusive microphone based, inlet distortion sensing package that offers the potential to provide this capability. This technology will be tested in Techsburg's transonic, variable Reynolds number, BLI inlet test facility. As a final demonstration of the technology, the sensors will be incorporated into a closed-loop flow control scheme. In addition to the microphone sensors, the control package will include a PID controller and an array of vortex generator jets previously developed by Techsburg to control distortion.

SPACE PHOTONICS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd.
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 251-8229
Dr. Terry Tidwell
AF 07-276      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Geolocation and Attitude Determination from Laser Communication Systems
Abstract:To realize the benefits of formation flying multi-spacecraft clusters, four key elements must be present: 1. Broadband inter-spacecraft communications to enable the transport of high resolution sensor data. 2. Precision inter-spacecraft timing synchronization to enable precise multi-sensor sampling throughout the cluster. 3. Precision inter-spacecraft relative range to enable the determination of spacecraft and sensor spacing within the cluster. 4. Precision inter-spacecraft relative position and attitude determination to enable geolocation of cluster craft and sensor planes. An inter-spacecraft laser communications network is the only integrated subsystem that can provide all four of these key elements. The proposed SBIR Phase I effort will leverage several existing SPI programs to extend the resulting models, analyses, and designs beyond the normal scope of a Phase I effort, and--should a follow-on Phase II be awarded--produce fully-functional prototype hardware at a minimum cost. Space Photonics and its subcontractors will develop the analytical models, algorithms, calibration processes, and VHDL code for the inter-spacecraft ranging, timing synchronization and inter-spacecraft position and attitude determination; and will (sub-scale) demonstrate these functions in our gimbal-less, free space optical, lasercom testbed (LaserFirer testbed). However, the algorithms, calibration processes, and VHDL code developed for this SBIR Phase I program can be applied to any gimbaled or gimbal-less lasercom crosslink system. These functions can even be applied to RF crosslink systems (the RF implementation will suffer significant loss of inter-spacecraft position accuracy due to the larger RF beamwidths).

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division, 20600 Gramer
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Yunlu Zou
AF 07-277      Awarded: 22MAR07
Title:Polarization Diversity in situ Lidar for Cloud Particle Mapping
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a cloud particle mapping system capable of measuring particles in place, to be used for designing better lasercom systems for transmission through atmospheric layers with cloud particles, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Polarization Diversity in situ lidar (PDI-LIDAR) system. This proposed system is based on polarization diversity coherent heterodyne detection implemented in a lidar. The key innovation in PDI-LIDAR, the use of intrinsically frequency-locking of optical local oscillator, will enable the system to overcome the limited sensitivity, FOV, dynamic range, laser power of current direct detection methods. Compact and power efficient, the PDI-LIDAR can be deployed on UAVs or balloons, to non-intrusively map the 3D distribution of cloud particles with large sample volumes for various types of clouds. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of PDI-LIDAR by designing, modeling, and assembling a laboratory prototype for cloud particle mapping. In Phase II POC plans to fabricate and demonstrate a prototype high sensitivity and high-dynamic-range in situ cloud lidar for cloud particle mapping to Air Force personnel.

STARFIRE INDUSTRIES, LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 390-2784
Dr. Robert A. Stubbers
AF 07-278      Awarded: 01JUN07
Title:High-Efficiency Multi-Mode Power-Processing Units for Hall-Effect Thrusters Using Electronically-Adjustable Step-Up Transformers
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will address the technical and commercial feasibility of developing a dc-dc power processing unit with an electronically-adjustable step-up ratio (i.e. no moving parts) to achieve high conversion efficiencies (>94%) over a broad range of operating voltages (100-800V) and power levels (2-10kW). Plasma propulsion systems with dual-mode capability are currently under development for: (1) the ability to rapidly perform orbital transfers for protection and satellite repositioning, and (2) high propellant utilization for station keeping and attitude control. In order to become cost effective, a flexible power processing unit that can operate across a broad range, while remaining small in both size and volume (<3kg/kW), is needed. Starfire Industries has been researching Hall thruster technologies with improved efficiency, robust modeling capability and also new techniques for multi-mode operation across voltage ranges from 100-800V. Thus, Starfire is well aware of the needed capabilities and system requirements and is ideally suited for conducting additional research into PPU subsystem design. This SBIR proposal will explore the intellectual merit of the novel adjustable dc-dc converter concept and quantify its impacts on satellite design, mission planning, and overall cost. If successful, the broadband dc-dc converter could enable high-performance systems with significantly lower launch costs.

COMPUTER OPTICS, INC.
120 Derry Road, P.O.Box 7
Hudson, NH 03051
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 889-2116
Dr. Jonathan S. Kane
AF 07-280      Awarded: 02MAY07
Title:Wide-Field-of-View Collection Optics for Infrared Surveillance from Geosynchronous Orbit
Abstract:Computer Optics Inc proposes to leverage its existing technology portfolio towards producing a lens for a 10 year mission into geosynchronous orbit.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. Mark S. Dombrowski
AF 07-280      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Wide-Field-of-View Collection Optics for Infrared Surveillance from Geosynchronous Orbit
Abstract: A program to develop a dual-band SWIR/MWIR wide-field-of-view optical system for use in space-based surveillance systems is proposed. The proposed Dual-Band Infrared Detection System (D-BIDS) builds upon Surface Optics real-time multi-spectral and hyperspectral imaging activities, including the DuoChrome SWIR/MWIR imager, QuadraChrome 4-band wide-FOV threat sensor, and the Multi-band Identification and Discrimination Imaging Spectroradiometer (MIDIS). Providing a 20X field of view and capable of supporting a 4K x 4K focal plane with 18 Ym pixels, this optical system provides full-earth viewing from geosynchronous orbit. The design also allows for additional spectral bands with reduced spatial resolution. For example, eight spectral bands can be provided with a 2K x 2K spatial resolution. Active exclusion of arbitrary numbers of bright objects (sun, sun glint, fires, flares, etc) is also incorporated into the system. Based upon requirements for simultaneous SWIR/MWIR imaging over a 20X FOV, SOC will conduct a preliminary design of the D-BIDS optical system. Continuing work under Phase II will produce the optical system, ready for integration with a large format FPA. The proposed effort represents an extension of Surface Optics 16 years experience in multispectral and hyperspectral imager design. By building on Surface Optics Corporations experience in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging system development, sensor development, and algorithm development, the proposed program will produce a new sensor system which will greatly augment space-based surveillance systems such as SBIRS

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 501-2880
Dr. Douglas Twisselmann
AF 07-282      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Advanced Space Radar Algorithm Suite for Detection, Tracking, and Characterization
Abstract:For the Space Radar system, the ability to detect, track, and characterize targets of interest, whether stationary or moving, is of critical importance. Operational performance and functionality in open ocean, littoral, and ground environments can be significantly enhanced in these areas by developing advanced signal processing techniques that go beyond the current state of the art. Aret Associates possesses a set of such algorithms which, under this proposal, will be brought together to improve detections in Space Radar applications while simultaneously providing for target imaging and characterization. These algorithms have been shown to be the optimal signal processing approach and will enable exploitation of the data on three key radar time scales - fast time (speed of light pulse roundtrip time - translates to range estimation), slow time (intra-CPI pulse-to-pulse separation - translates to line-of-sight Doppler frequency), and very slow time (CPI-to-CPI separation - translates to kinematic motion.)

INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORIES, INC.
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 880-3159
Mr. Jamie Bergin
AF 07-282      Awarded: 28MAR07
Title:Space Radar Signal Processing Algorithms
Abstract:Space radar offers the potential for all-weather day-night persistent detection of surface targets over the entire earth. For space radar to achieve its true potential, however, advances in radar signal processing will be required that address various issues associated with operating over a wide range of clutter environments including land, littoral, and open-ocean. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a suite of signal processing algorithms that meet the SMTI mission requirements for space radar across all of these environments.

APPLIED OPTIMIZATION, INC.
714 E Monument Ave, Ste 204
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-5100
Dr. Anil Chaudhary
AF 07-283      Awarded: 19MAR07
Title:Unresolved Resident Space Object Characterization Using Time-Frequency Analysis
Abstract:Applied Optimization, Inc., in working with Boeing-LTS and Space Dynamics Laboratory, proposes to demonstrate that full-feature characterization of small and faint unknown RSO in real-time is feasible by using the spectral-temporal features of its signature. Time-resolved spectrometer data in the visible or infrared will be considered as the input. In addition to enhancing existing methods for RSO classification and characterization, we propose to identify new time-frequency methods based on the use of Radon transform and convex inversion techniques. Utility of a data catalog for RSO time-frequency behavior will be demonstrated by the comparing the ability for RSO characterization and anomaly detection with and without the use of the catalog. A verification plan will be prepared using historical data, leveraging RSO observations from other USAF programs, and new data collections.

ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, INC.
131 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 761-2288
Mr. Charles Carrano
AF 07-283      Awarded: 30MAR07
Title:Unresolved Resident Space Object (RSO) Characterization Using Time-Frequency Analysis
Abstract:Defense of U.S. space assets depends on the successful detection and monitoring of potential threats, including the ability to recognize abnormal spacecraft activities. Although work has been done in this area using resolved images from ground- and space-based sensors, methodologies to characterize unresolved resident space objects (RSO) have received little attention. We propose to develop techniques using both one- and two-dimensional wavelet analyses applied to time series of sensor data to allow the characterization and cataloging of RSO. The advantage of wavelet analysis is that it provides a measurement of the local frequency content of the signal or image. This property allows us to characterize the normal operations of the RSO and to detect rapid changes in the intensity signatures caused by orbit and attitude maneuvers, microsatellite deployment, and stealth operations. We will generate simulated observational data sets for a variety of high-interest, unresolved RSO scenarios and convolve these with an appropriate sensor effects model. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of our wavelet algorithms, using both the spatial 2-D intensity distributions from the images and the temporal 1-D intensity light curves, for the characterization and cataloging of the unresolved RSO.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Mr. Timothy Perkins
AF 07-283      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:Spectral Power Estimation and Characterization of Unresolved Resident Space Objects
Abstract:Part of the Air Force space situational awareness mission includes the characterization, identification and real-time tracking of man-made resident space objects (RSO) orbiting the earth. Even with space-based observation, geostationary satellites will be dim and unresolved against a cluttered star or earth limb background. It is critical, therefore, to develop techniques specialized for these conditions. The key required elements include special-purpose time series analysis, a signature database, and physical radiance modeling. For this situation, an extensive database of model signatures is necessary to detect the spectral features of a measured signal and relate them to real physical characteristics. Radiometric accuracy is necessary to generate an effective RSO catalog for target ID and assessment. Spectral Sciences, Inc. proposes an innovative, real-time satellite identification and characterization algorithm based on digital spectral analysis of passive multi/hyperspectral VIS/IR observations of dim and unresolved RSOs. A key innovation of the proposed Spectral Power Estimation and Characterization of Transient Radiance Events (SPECTRE) algorithm is the use of a fast, proven target signature simulation code in conjunction with modern signal processing techniques. Through improvements in satellite identification and characterization, this proposed effort would enhance the overall Air Force SSA mission.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. James Szabo
AF 07-284      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:ESPA On-orbit Maneuvering System (OMS)
Abstract:Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a low-cost, multi-mode propulsion module that can be added to an EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA), turning it into a self-propelled free flying spacecraft (S/C). This Orbit Maneuvering System (OMS) is enabled by the availability of Busek's high Isp electric propulsion technology. The baseline system includes four BHT-200 Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) currently flying on TacSat2, a COTS hydrazine resistojet, and eight flight qualified hydrazine monopropellant thrusters for attitude control. This 800 W propulsion system can deliver deltaV >1000 m/s to a 500 kg S/C. Most or all of the deltaV is provided by the HET. Responsive, high thrust deltaV<300 m/s is provided by the resistojet and ACS thrusters. The proposed OMS is modular and scalable. A 1200 W version using a single BHT-1000 thruster could deliver deltaV >1000 m/s to a 1200 kg system. In Phase I, the propulsion system and OMS architecture will be defined and the selected system will be developed into a preliminary design. To assist, Busek will subcontract CSA Engineering, which builds the ESPA ring, and include MicroSat Systems Inc. in its integrated product team. In Phase II, MSI will be an explicit subcontractor to Busek.

MILLENNIUM SPACE SYSTEMS, INC.
3601 Aviation Blvd., Suite 3800
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 727-5608
Mr. Vince Deno
AF 07-284      Awarded: 17APR07
Title:Modular, Scalable Propulsion Module for ESPA-Based Satellite Dispensing Systems
Abstract:In response to this engineering challenge, Millennium Space Systems (MSS) and its partners are pleased to present a proposal to develop an Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) based on the flight proven propulsion system and an AFRL Operationally Responsive Space Modular Bus avionics architecture. Our EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) -based OMS design incorporates flight proven and reliable propulsion components into a common propulsion module provide a high performance and low risk propulsion solution. A utilitarian spacecraft bus based on flight-proven hardware and software provides a low risk solution at minimal non-recurring and recurring cost. Given the substantial body of technical design and experience we are able to offer meets or exceeds OMS requirements at a fraction of traditional satellite solution.

NAVSYS CORP.
14960 Woodcarver Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 481-4877
Dr. Jacob Griesbach
AF 07-284      Awarded: 20APR07
Title:Modular, Scalable Propulsion Module for ESPA-Based Satellite Dispensing Systems
Abstract:Current GPS technologies for satellite navigation are costly, heavy, and utilize high amount of power. This makes such systems difficult for microsatellites to support. Under this Phase I SBIR, we propose to develop a low-cost, low-weight, low-power GPS navigation system to support micro/nanosatellites. A key component of our solution involves our patented TIDGET based receiver design, which takes a brief snapshot of GPS data and powers off until the next position fix is desired. Also, we plan to implement our software defined radio (SDR) GPS waveform technology to process the recorded snapshots onboard using the existing avionics processor, or as an option, downlink the data, when convenient, for ground-based processing. An important aspect of the TIDGET is it's modular size, which allow multiple TIDGETs to be placed on the satellite shell for full GPS visibility and robustness to satellite spin. Under this Phase I SBIR, we propose to construct a prototype TIDGET receiver to collect representative simulated GPS RF data. The data will be processed via MATLAB for analysis. Furthermore, we propose to develop a Phase II design for possible follow-on development of a ruggidized, space-qualified TIDGET with embedded avionics processing for the ESPA module.

DATA FUSION & NEURAL NETWORKS
1643 Hemlock Wy
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 469-9828
Dr. Christopher Bowman
AF 07-286      Awarded: 17APR07
Title:Decision Support System for Defensive Counterspace
Abstract:The DF&NN Team has the unique combination of technology and experience to develop an affordable automated decision-support-system that will improve the operator situation awareness and response decision making since it is the same Team that is delivering the JSpOC real-time SSA capability under CP-3. The Team will apply the DNN DF&RM technical architecture to provide affordable and extendable DCS response capabilities. This effort will provide a resource management capability demonstration that will be installed on the AFRL/VS laptop now being used to give the CP-3 level 0/1/2 fusion demonstrations. The RM role optimization task will select the specific RM role to be demonstrated where the baseline is for improving ALPS-related 22 SOPS operational capability with considerations for the following alternative capability demonstrations depending upon RM data availability and demonstration utility: . JSpOC Operations Decision Aids for SCC operations, level 2/3 fusion process refinement, net-centric adjudication of SSA picture for distributed consistency, modifying communications roles, relevant data collection, space environment alerting, and visualization knowledge management. . SOC-96 Operations Decision Aids for improving DSCS or DSP space operations by satellite mode changes, satellite maneuvering, sensor cueing, and mission modifications . AFRL Responsive Space Testbed (RST) for improving RST resource operations at AFRL.

DESIGN_NET ENGINEERING LLC
10311 Hampden Ave. Suite A107
Lakewood, CO 80227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 462-0096
Mr. Wayne Boncyk
AF 07-286      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Data Processing and Storage for PnP Spacecraft
Abstract:Design_Net Engineering will develop an "Application Configurable Radiation Hardened Processor/Memory Node" for use in high end control, sensor processing, and sensor fusion applications. DNet will build on an existing design developed under other MDA and AFRL contracts, add the Wafer Scale Signal Processor capable of Gflop/watt performance to our Modular Reconfigurable Avionics (MRA) system and create an extended memory module to act as data storage in the system. The unit is compatible with the newly developed SPA interface standards for Plug-n-Play avionics and will be flight qualified as part of the PnPSat program. At the end of Phase II DNet will have built a flight ready unit, available to the AFRL PnP technology satellite test program. Once flown in PnPSat the processor/memory node will be ready for use in real world applications for ORS. The product is unique in its use of state of the art components, in its compactness, its ready configurability, and its ability to adapt to both highly DSP intensive processes, and high-end control applications or Command and Data Handling (C&DH) work.

DESIGN_NET ENGINEERING LLC
10311 Hampden Ave. Suite A107
Lakewood, CO 80227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 462-0096
Mr. Gerry Murphy
AF 07-286      Awarded: 24APR07
Title:Power Management for PnP Spacecraft
Abstract:This research work will produce an innovative Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system design that can support both heritage satellite components and the new power compatible plug-and-play (PnP) methodology. The proposed PMAD system design will support a significant range of power requirements for satellites with fewer power switches, fewer current monitors and simpler hierarchical management. In addition, a sophisticated simulation tool will be developed to assist design engineers at the AFRL Testbed with component selection, confirm power system is sized correctly and mission requirements are met. Anticipated benefits of PMAD system are reduced design time, simpler integration, rapid mission configuration, more autonomous operation, and reduced mission operations as well as decreased cost and schedule. This study will define standards for both PMAD and PnP power components to assure compatibility during integration, enhance mission and systems design tools, implement PnP power standards for xTEDS, develop a PMAD "smart" architecture design that supports the PnP principle and the power management tools that allow autonomous on-orbit operation, as well as demonstrate utility and efficacy of those tools with "day in the life" simulations and provide a mature design for a prototype flight-like device for Phase II efforts.

DESIGN_NET ENGINEERING LLC
10311 Hampden Ave. Suite A107
Lakewood, CO 80227
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 462-0096
Dr. Ken Center
AF 07-286      Awarded: 17APR07
Title:Applying New Approaches in Platform Autonomy to Satellite Protection for Defensive Counterspace
Abstract:Developing a more efficient and capable decision support system for defensive counterspace can be accomplished in part by implementing several core capabilities at the space platform level. Threat detection, identification, and response implemented in autonomy on individual spacecraft allows each member of a constellation to participate in a distributed network, and the use of higher-powered processing on-orbit allows lower level signal fusion (and even higher level fusion with coordinated data exchanged on the space-space link between satellites) to be conducted without the latencies incurred by ground contact opportunities - thus improving space situational awareness. Our current work with AFRL has led to the development of data-centric software techniques and configuration tools that facilitate the rapid assembly of modular spacecraft assets to provide desired operational capability. These capabilities embody the Space Plug&play Avionics (SPA) standards designed to facilitate rapid call-up of tactical space capability. We will extend these tools and develop code and algorithms to implement a satellite "protection agent" to demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach. The core architecture and applicable numeric engines of the demonstrated autonomy framework will be migrated toward higher level fusion and decision support at the space operations center as part of phase II efforts.

PRINCETON SATELLITE SYSTEMS
33 Witherspoon Street
Princeton, NJ 08542
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 279-9606
Ms. Stephanie Thomas
AF 07-286      Awarded: 17APR07
Title:Model Based Decision Support System for Defensive Counterspace
Abstract:Defensive counter space requires spacecraft operators to make decisions based on remotely collected data in rapidly evolving situations. This proposal is for an innovative model-based automated resource management system that combines data, both raw and processed through data fusion algorithms, in an evolving model based framework. Emphasis is placed on stealth threats when an opponent tries to mimic spacecraft failures. The model based framework both gives operators physical intuition into the dynamical system and also helps them evaluate the incoming data to facilitate decision making and reduce response time. The framework is presented graphically to the operators through a variety of tools designed to speed situational awareness, leveraging PSS experience in satellite operations and their newly developed data visualization and command application, VisualCommander. The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) will be used as a basis for the numerical models. The UKF employs a full nonlinear simulation of the spacecraft, spacecraft subsystem, threat spacecraft or other system and updates the state and parameters using telemetry data. In this way the parameters and states are tuned to the operating spacecraft. Phase I will result in a working prototype of resource management tools for JDL Levels 0 and 1.

MEVICON, INC.
1121 San Antonio Rd, Suite B-100-B
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 965-4912
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 07-287      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:Distributed, Low Impact, Solid State Actuated, Curvature Stiffened Thin Film Louvers Upgrade to Harden Solar Arrays
Abstract:This proposal is targeted at providing innovative near term transitionable methods of hardening solar arrays from hostile beamed energy threats through the use of curvature stiffened, space heritage thin film based, solid state actuatable shutters to control reflectivity in a time dependent manner. The concept builds on Mevicon Inc's actuator design heritage and "Strength Through Curvature" concepts, and team partner ATK-SpaceSystems-Goleta expertise in deployable solar array panel hardware (the patented flight-tested CellSaver concept in particular). When not in use reflecting/blocking light, the louver can function in standard CellSaver concentrator mode thereby delivering significant cost savings for the same power level inherent in the CellSaver approach. In the Phase I we will refine system level analysis to derive threat assessment driven requirements to impose on the combined CellSaver/louver design, perform detailed component architecture, material, and actuator studies, perform critical path experimental tests to validate behavior and close with a detailed point design. This prepares the way for a PII focused on protoflight hardware development and the subsequent PII/PIII transition to flight demonstration opportunities. The potential likelihood of this transition occurring is indicated by the interest and teaming of a leading deployable solar array system integrator, ATK, in this PI effort.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 323-4900
Mr. Gregory V. Mehle
AF 07-288      Awarded: 17APR07
Title:Structural Attachments for Rapid Assembly of Satellites
Abstract:The objective of this study is to develop low cost, modular, multi-functional, primary spacecraft structures using a "plywood and two-by-four" approach for rapid assembly. These structures are comprised of aluminum facesheet/honeycomb-core sandwich panels (plywood) bonded to aluminum extrusions (two-by-four). The structures require simple hand tools to assemble and leverage nomograph based design guides for the required structural/thermal sizing for rapid response missions. The flat sandwich panels are integrated into hexagonal (box) structures by using basic extruded shapes which are structural connections between panels. This approach allows open architecture structural designs with scalable sizing. The bonded assemblies include fastening hard points for attachment of flight sensor payloads (200kg class) and supporting subsystems. Since these structures are aluminum the basic assembly provides inherent damage robustness; EMI and radiation hardened capability; and allows for multiple levels of thermal management. These thermal management levels are: - The basic thermal continuity of the bonded aluminum panels and extrusions - Easily added custom heat straps to augment thermal paths within the bonded the assembly or at attached components - Direct interfacing to heat pipes at the mechanical hard points of the attached components. This study targets Air Force warfighter missions with satellite build processing within 8 hours.

HONEYBEE ROBOTICS
460 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10001
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(646) 459-7806
Mr. Roopnarine
AF 07-288      Awarded: 09APR07
Title:Structural Attachments for Rapid Assembly of Satellites
Abstract:A goal of the Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) thrust is to enable turn around of a tactical satellite within six days, from mission call-up to on-orbit operation. The ability to produce such a spacecraft would be a vast departure from the norm of large, complex, costly custom spacecraft that require a period of years to deploy. Considerable attention has been paid to modular architectures for standardizing spacecraft. Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation, in partnership with leading small spacecraft provider AeroAstro, proposes to develop a rapid assembly system for the quick completion of structural, electrical, and thermal connections between modular satellite panels. The system will build upon Honeybee's patented "Quick Insertion Nut" fastening technology, which has the benefit of being similar to the standard bolted joint typically used in the aerospace industry. The system will enable reduced satellite build time, and will facilitate the rapid assembly and disassembly of panels to keep pace with the possibility of changing mission requirements. The proposed Phase 1 effort will include requirements derivation, concept development, detailed design and analysis, and iterative breadboarding and demonstration testing. The demonstration will consist of assembling and subsequently disassembling 3 panels with the attachment mechanism to form a representative "corner" of a spacecraft and verify electrical and thermal continuity across the joint. This breadboard will demonstrate the feasibility of the attachment concept itself for fit, speed and ease of assembly and disassembly, stiffness, and electrical and thermal connection.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Paul G. Gonsalves
AF 07-289      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:Market-based Optimization of Space Sensors (MOSS)
Abstract:Future space-based sensors have more complex data processing requirements and thus need more efficient sensor management tools to ensure their effective operation. Moreover, the dynamic, real-time nature of the domain requires a solution capable of adaptive scheduling. Here, we propose a system that treats the sensor system as a whole, including the network resources and computational power that support sensor tasks. Our market-based optimization approach applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to the resource allocation problem by creating an artificial market for sensor information and computational resources. Intelligent agents are the buyers and sellers in this market, and they represent all the elements of the sensor network, from sensors to sensor platforms to computational resources. These agents interact based on a negotiation mechanism that determines their bidding strategies. This negotiation mechanism and the agents' bidding strategies are based on game theory, and they are designed so that the aggregate result of the multi-agent negotiation process is a market in competitive equilibrium, which guarantees an optimal allocation of resources throughout the sensor network. This approach was chosen in large part for its superior computational efficiency, based on the mathematical foundations of economic theory.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Adel El_Fallah
AF 07-289      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Optimal Joint Search and Sensor Management
Abstract:Sensor management of disparate sensors presents a daunting theoretical and practical challenge. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. of Woburn MA and its subcontractor, Lockheed Martin MS2 Tactical Systems (LMTS) of Eagan MN, propose a foundational, control-theoretic approach to sensor management that draws upon basic research previously completed by us for AFOSR. It is based on four innovations: (1) a multisensor-multitarget likelihood function that encapsulates all relevant information regarding the characteristics of the various sensors; (2) a "dynamic situational significance map" that mathematically specifies the meaning of "tactical significance" for a given theater at a given moment; (3) an intuitively meaningful and potentially computationally tractable objective function, namely the expected number of targets of interest (ToIs); and (4) integration of these two concepts with approximate multitarget filters (multitarget-moment filters and multi-hypothesis correlator (MHC) engines). Specific Phase I tasks are (1) determine the unique sensing characteristics of various EO/IR sensors; (2) develop the necessary theoretical extensions; (3) develop the necessary computational approximations; (4) implement a concept-feasibility prototype algorithm; (5) test this algorithm in simulated, reduced-complexity scenarios; and (6) develop a detailed plan for further analysis and implementation in a Phase II effort. Phase II will emphasize development of a prototype sensor management algorithm to be tested using real data. The project team includes Dr. Ronald Mahler of Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin will provide both technical and commercialization support in the application of sensor management technologies during all phases of the project.

ALO, INC.
17 Whispering Lane
Weston, MA 02493
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 358-3570
Mr. James L. Tom
AF 07-290      Awarded: 30MAR07
Title:Advanced Ionospheric Monitor using a High-sensitivity Imager (AIM-HI)
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to conduct a detailed design study in Phase I for the next generation space-based FUV imaging sensors that will yield key ionospheric parameters necessary for use with the forecasting models. At the end of Phase I, the design of Advanced Ionospheric Monitor using a High-sensitivity Imager (AIM-HI) is expected to be matured to a point that an engineering model could be manufactured in Phase II. AIM-HI is a highly sensitive (higher than TIP), small (~5inx5inx10in), lightweight (~5Kg), modular (and flexible) sensor that demands very little spacecraft resources (~5 watts). We are aware of no other wide-field sensor that can perform narrow band imaging proposed by AIM-HI. It can easily be extended to other wavelengths for ionospheric and upper atmospheric remote sensing applications. The proposing team has over 70 years of combined experience with space instrumentation. Most of the experience centers around the detection, imaging, spectral analysis and modeling of very low light level UV emissions. The team is ideally suited to develop the miniature space based sensor for ionospheric and upper atmospheric remote monitoring.

ATMOSPHERIC & SPACE TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH ASSOC.
11118 Quail Pass
San Antonio, TX 78249
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 834-3475
Dr. Geoff Crowley
AF 07-290      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Advanced Miniature Optical Sensors for Space-Based Monitoring of the Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere
Abstract:As the Air Force moves toward the deployment of many smaller satellites, it would be useful to develop smaller versions of SSUSI and GUVI imagers to take advantage of these multiple platforms, so that global measurements could become an operational reality. The goal of the Phase I effort proposed here is to develop a concept and design for a low-cost, high sensitivity optical sensor to provide remote sensing of the ionosphere and/or upper atmosphere from space platforms. Our focus will be on developing a new UV spectrograph with the optical performance of GUVI or better, yet having significantly smaller mass, and power requirements, so that it can fly on nano-satellites or micros-satellites. The name of the new instrument is GUVI-Lite.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
3100 Presidential Dr , Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Dr. James McCracken
AF 07-291      Awarded: 17APR07
Title:Data Fusion Visualization Development for OCS/DCS SSA Operations
Abstract:We propose to develop an integrated visualization suite for analyzing large heterogeneous data sets generated by varying data fusion techniques; we base the approach on our existing STEED technology; we plan to extend its capability with additional interaction technology and adapt the visualizations to add offensive counter space and space situation awareness capability.

AEROASTRO, INC.
20145 Ashbrook Place
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 798-2121
Mr. Jay Wilson
AF 07-292      Awarded: 06APR07
Title:New Sensing Capabilities for Space Situational Awareness
Abstract:AeroAstro proposes to develop a wideband, broad area coverage RF sensor (antenna and receiver) capable of detecting the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated during a spacecraft's nominal operations. This EMI is an exploitable form of RF MASINT, specifically unintended radiated emissions (URE), and could provide useful information if detected, identified, and characterized. Development of a wideband RF sensor could allow detection of space objects and could cue or tip-off more capable imaging sensors for focused characterization. In addition to detecting presence, a wideband RF sensor could also be used to evaluate a spacecraft's health and on-orbit status and provide characterization information of its hardware, equipment, and components. AeroAstro's extensive research into terrestrial URE collection and our initial testing against actual spacecraft components has revealed that an effective small size, low weight, power, and cost space-qualified sensor could be developed and potentially integrated as a standard payload to future high value space assets or as an anomaly characterization payload on small microsat/nanosat class satellites.

QMAGIQ, LLC
One Tara Boulevard, Suite 102
Nashua, NH 03062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 821-3092
Dr. Mani Sundaram
AF 07-292      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Sensitive Longwave Infrared Sensors Based on P-on-N Type-II Strained Layer Superlattices
Abstract:We propose to develop high-sensitivity longwave (cutoff ~ 10-12 microns) infrared sensors for space situational awareness applications from Type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattices (SLS). One novelty of our approach lies in using a P-on-N photodiode design (in contrast to the usual N-on-P) to leverage the excellent low-noise readout multiplexers available to drive P-on-N diode arrays. In Phase 1, we will develop material and passivation and measure their quality via test diode arrays that we will fabricate and test. Quality permitting, a companion 320x256 array will be hybridized to a readout, post-processed into a focal plane array (FPA), and tested for imaging performance. In Phase 2, we will further develop growth and processing with the aim of achieving FPAs with high quantum efficiency, low noise, and high pixel uniformity and operability. Several FPAs will be delivered.

AEROPHYSICS, INC.
30981 Woodbush Road
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 370-2376
Dr. Alex Kieckhafer
AF 07-293      Awarded: 09MAY07
Title:Semi-autonomous Local Space Imaging System
Abstract:Aerophysics, together with subcontractor Raytheon Missile Systems, proposes to develop a Local Space Imaging System (LSIS) based on the proven AIM-9X Sidewinder missile gimbaled seeker. The LSIS will combine an AIM-9X-derived imager with an autonomous attitude determination system to provide pointing/tracking/imaging capability independent of host vehicle orientation and without interface with the host vehicle attitude control system. The LSIS instrument will employ a low-power, compact star tracker, sun sensor, and three-axis magnetometer to measure the instrument's inertial attitude. An on-board command and data handling subsystem will coordinate imager pointing and host vehicle data interface. The proposed development effort integrates proven technology in a low-mass, low-power, bolt-on sensor for defensive space situational awareness.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive, Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8169
Dr. Greg Finney
AF 07-293      Awarded: 01MAY07
Title:Local Area Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Optical Sensor System for Satellites
Abstract:Digital Fusion, Inc. (DFI) proposes to design a compact, lightweight space situational awareness (SSA) sensor using polarimetry as a novel sensing approach. Polarimetry has been shown to provide information on surface orientation and material classification. For SSA, it contributes to reduced data processing requirements to distinguish objects of interest from the background as well as provide important additional information about targets. The proposed effort involves improving the understanding of phenomenology of PI with respect to spacecraft materials, reviewing customer requirements and constraints relative to CONOPS, completing the development of an optical registration device to improve image quality, developing specifications, and completing a concept design for the sensor. The sensor is anticipated to use a novel off-axis parabolic reflector as the primary, significantly decreasing mass compared to a refractive objective. During Phase II, the concept design will be expanded to define the interface with the satellite bus, optimize the design for performance, and fabricate a flight-traceable prototype sensor.

IRVINE SENSORS CORP.
3001 Red Hill Avenue, Building #4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 444-8826
Mr. James Justice
AF 07-293      Awarded: 26APR07
Title:Local Area Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Optical Sensor System for Satellites
Abstract:Recent advances in SWIR fiber lasers, very high sensitivity, high bandwidth detector mosaics, high speed readouts to support mosaic detector arrays, and innovative scanning techniques for rapid search of large volumes can be combined to produce a local area space situation awareness sensor suite that can detect and identify space objects that are approaching US space assets. This concept employs two sensor installations on opposite faces of a satellite that can provide 4 Pi steradians of space observed out to a minimum of 10 km. A pair of sensors on each installation create a 270 degree fan that is 5 degrees wide. Mounting on a turning azimuth table rotates this fan thru 360 degrees and thus creates an over 2 Pi steradian search volume. The sensor installation searches this volume every two seconds. Resolution on an approaching target is 20 cm at the 10 km range. This concept has been called GEMINI. This Phase 1 effort will build a performance model for the GEMINI concept, will evaluate specific designs, and develop a manufacturing and test program plan which can lead to a high TRL level for this class of application.

K TECHNOLOGY CORP.
2000 West Cabot Blvd., Suite 150
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-6580
Mr. Mark Montesano
AF 07-294      Awarded: 18APR07
Title:High Conductance Thermally Stable Panels and Structures
Abstract:High conductivity materials, which minimize temperature gradients, can be designed as high efficiency lightweight radiators, conductive heat distribution panels, and other thermal management components. By increasing efficiency and reducing the complexity of thermal control systems, dramatic reductions in vehicle mass can be achieved. k Technology Corporation (kTC) has developed a family of high performance thermal management materials, named k-Core, with specific conductivity (k/density) values up to seven times that of aluminum (440 [W/mK]/[g/cm3] vs. 64 [W/mK]/[g/cm3]). Fielded k-Core material solutions are engineered to provide high conductance under the severe space environments. This material system is a highly conductive (>1000 W/mK) macro-composite comprised of annealed pyrolytic graphite (APG) encapsulated within an aluminum shell. APG is highly aligned crystalline graphite with an in-plane thermal conductivity of 1700 W/mK. This proposal offers an approach to expand the applications of this material through the development of materials and processes to enable the design and production of thin k-Core panels (< 0.5 mm). kTC will develop the technologies necessary to allow the affordable production of large thin (.5 to 1 mm) encapsulated APG panels with high APG thickness fractions (above 70%).

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-8988
Mr. Walter Zimbeck
AF 07-294      Awarded: 24MAY07
Title:Satellite Modular and Reconfigurable Thermal System - SMARTS
Abstract:To achieve the Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) goal of a "six-day" satellite, the traditional flight thermal design paradigm must be fundamentally changed. A drastically simpler paradigm must emerge that uses elemental (COTS-like) thermal control modules that can be rapidly and reliably linked to enable a wide range of missions irrespective of the satellite and the orbital environment. This proposal describes a generalized thermal control architecture consistent with smallsats that need to be conceived, configured, launched, and brought on-line very quickly. Our proposed architecture is called the Satellite Modular And Reconfigurable Thermal System (SMARTS). The Phase I effort will assess the requirements, select component options and develop an analytical methodology for evaluating thermal elements are preferred for different missions. Non-functional subscale models of SMARTS will be built and their rapid configurability demonstrated in Phase I.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 853-6597
Dr. Bradley Ratliff
AF 07-302      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Enhanced Star Tracker (EST)
Abstract:Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop an Enhanced Star Tracker (EST). This radiation hardened miniature star tracker will meet the key goals for accuracy in a compact package by combining the best of proven star tracker designs with the critical component and packaging advances necessary to reduce system radiation susceptibility. ATA has received a letter of support from Boeing Space and Intelligence Systems regarding the EST (see pg. 19). Current Air Force, MDA, and DoD applications require smaller, lighter, low-power, rugged, and radiation resistant star trackers as part of their IMU packages. Precision pointing of instruments requires a star tracker to update exact position periodically against the stellar reference frame. Ideally these star trackers accommodate multiple optical heads to ensure a continuous reference, yet are small enough to be coupled tightly to and move with the instrument. Radiation tolerance is also a key factor in these applications since they will be designed for long mission life operating in space regimes and missions exposed to severe radiation. The desired degradation in performance due to radiation exposure of all electronic components as well as the optical coatings of the star tracker subsystem should not exceed 30% after absorbing 300kRad(Si). The desired "End of Life" performance goal should provide inertial pointer measurement errors of less than one (1) arc-second.

MICROCOSM, INC.
4940 W. 147th St.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 219-2700
Dr. James Wertz
AF 07-302      Awarded: 23APR07
Title:High Accuracy, Radiation Hard Star Sensor
Abstract:Based on an existing miniature star sensor called MicroMak currently in development, Microcosm will design a derivative star sensor with sub-arcsecond attitude accuracy, radiation tolerant to 300kRad, maintaining high performance for the life of the sensor. The high performance requirements demand a modified version of the baseline MicroMak design, including: 1) a larger optical head with greater aperture to detect dimmer stars, 2) smaller fields-of-view to yield higher inherent angular accuracy, 3) radiation-hardened focal plane arrays, 4) processing electronics suited for high radiation tolerance, and 5) structural modifications to minimize the total radiation dose impinging on electronic components, and to mitigate potential thermal distortion due to the increased size. The baseline MicroMak design incorporates inherent radiation-tolerant features such as all-reflective optics and CMOS focal planes. The proposed high performance sensor will build on current development efforts and provide a truly unique, high accuracy, long-life star sensor for systems requiring high accuracy and long life, applicable for both government and commercial systems. Phase I focuses on required design modifications to MicroMak. A key aspect of the work will include identifying appropriate electronics to meet the radiation requirements, and validating the modified larger design in terms of optical performance, and thermal considerations.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
AF 07-303      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:Multi-Interceptors Multi-Targets (MIMT) Interception System Simulation
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is seeking innovative technologies to provide a simulation tool for multiple interceptors against multiple targets capable of executing random evasive maneuvers. In response AGNC proposes to develop and document innovative and comprehensive Multi-Interceptors Multi-Targets (MIMT) Interception System simulation tools incorporating: (1) Multiple Interceptors Cooperative Control Procedures involving realistic scenarios and models, robust decentralized multi-layer architecture for enhanced fault-tolerance, communications and resource management; (2) efficient computational schemes integrating planning of tasks and trajectories versus real-time demands and optimal solutions; (3) goals evaluation metrics; (4) evasive maneuvers evaluation against flight profiles, miss-distances, flight times, controls and g-load histories; (5) Interceptor Optimal Trajectory Shaping Guidance for Acquisition, Tracking and Endgame Strategy Approach. The Phase I research will result in identification and feasibility verification of the most challenging components. Phase II will culminate in a fully functional working prototype.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Dr. John D. Schierman
AF 07-303      Awarded: 09APR07
Title:Strategies for Intercepting Multiple Missiles Exercising Evasive Maneuvers
Abstract:A simulation tool will be developed to study multiple pursuit/evasion problems. The approach will be hier-archical, with a central command element that communicates with sensor components to process surveil-lance modes, implement target tracking, direct interceptor assignments, and command launch se-quences. Once airborne, the interceptors will continually communicate with the central command for direction and possible changes in their assigned targets. Studies will focus on scenarios in which there are a greater number of incoming threat missiles than interceptors. Under this situation, the objective of the missile defense system will be to minimize damage, protecting the most important assets while as-signing engagements with the greatest probability of kill. A two-phase guidance approach will be devel-oped. First, the interceptor will home in on an estimated/predicted "mean" path of its assigned adversary, based on past position/velocity observations and the most likely ground target of the attacking missile. This reduces unnecessary control effort far from the target. The interceptor will not needlessly expend propellant to track the actual random and spiraling evasive maneuvers of the target missile. Once close enough, the interceptor will then switch to a terminal guidance phase where it will home in on the target missile's actual maneuvering path.

FBS, INC.
143 Hawbaker Industrial Drive Suite #102
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-3437
Dr. Joseph L. Rose
AF 07-325      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Improved inspection of Bonded Repairs
Abstract:Bonded joints are used extensively for both civilian and military aircraft applications, especially for corrosion damage mitigation via patch bonding. Assessing the quality of these bonds is typically performed using NDE techniques such as bulk wave ultrasonics or thermography. These methods cannot reliably differentiate between a good bond and a so-called "kissing" bond. A kissing bond has no mechanical integrity existing between one or both of the substrates that sandwich the adhesive. Shear wave energy concentrated at the substrate-adhesive interfaces will certainly provide the necessary kissing bond detection capability. Bulk wave techniques could be designed to introduce shear waves into a bond structure but they would be impractical and tedious to implement. Guided waves, on the other hand, provide the resource to easily introduce shear waves into the bond interfaces. FBS, Inc. proposes the development of a guided wave technology that will be capable of determining the mechanical integrity and strength of bonded structures to solve the famous "kissing" bond problem. The guided wave technique, which has shown promise in previous work, will take advantage of recent advances in guided wave sensor technology and feature based detection algorithms to finally provide a solution to the "kissing" bond problem.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4760
Dr. Dan Xiang
AF 07-325      Awarded: 21MAY07
Title:Low-Cost Hybrid Tap-Echo Technique for Kissing Bond Inspection
Abstract:Kissing bonds are those bonds maintaining intimate contact but carries no load. The kissing bond is undetectable with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques because intimate contact allows sound and heat to transfer normally. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes to develop an innovative low-cost technique to inspect kissing bonds. This technique utilizes the shock waves to detect the strength of a bonded joint for a variety of repair materials and substrates in a rapid and reliable fashion. This system will be suitable for field testing of bond strength of varying materials and thickness by offering significant improvements in bond repair inspections through sophisticated image generation and analysis capabilities.

FEDERAL FABRICS-FIBERS
45 West Adams Street
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-3037
Dr. Fred Geurts
AF 07-328      Awarded: 22MAY07
Title:Air Force Self Sufficient Tent
Abstract:Enter Abstract here

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place, Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. R. Paul Roth
AF 07-328      Awarded: 22MAY07
Title:High Efficiency, Integrated Self Sufficient Tent
Abstract:Deployed Basic Expeditionary Airfield Resource (BEAR) bases not only require tent power to operate equipment, but also to provide environmental control since they are often located in regions having extreme ambient conditions. Environmental control for current Air Force BEAR bases is supplied by JP-8 fueled heaters or grid powered air conditioning systems. Requiring a power grid for tent power and environmental control complicates the set-up of individual tents and limits the ability to quickly set-up an individual tent in a remote location. An ideal tent design would be completely self-sufficient, with the ability to provide power to- or draw power from- an existing grid while maintaining a satisfactory tent environment and supplying airmen with desalinated water. Currently, there is no integrated system that meets all of these requirements. Mainstream Engineering has a preliminary system design capable of meeting all of these requirements while providing significant fuel savings. The fuel savings is a result of utilizing the renewable energy that is available is addition to storing any generated power that is not needed for later use.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography, 20600 Gramercy Plac
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Xiaowei Xia
AF 07-328      Awarded: 22MAY07
Title:Flexible Air Force Self-Sufficient Tent Technology
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an innovative integrated energy system to support airmen's environmental and electric power needs when deployed to remote BEAR (Basic Expeditionary Airfield Resources) tent city bases, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Flexible Air Force Solar Self-Sufficient Tent (FASST) and a low-cost production process to manufacture it. The proposed system is based on a hybrid of flexible highly efficient plastic photovoltaic solar (Flex-HEPPS) panels and flexible thermoelectric generators (Flex-TEG). This innovation and integrated design incorporating hybrid energy sources will enable the system to generate >10 kW for a 25 ft. by 75 ft. tent. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of FASST by fabricating and testing prototype flexible solar photovoltaic and thermoelectric generator foils and fibers that could be incorporated into tent fabric as a limited-scale demonstration of the FASST concept and manufacturing process. In Phase II we plan to refine the FASST design and develop a draft design for full-scale manufacturing equipment that will reduce tent energy generation cost significantly.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Ms. Deborah K. Charan
AF 07-349      Awarded: 03APR07
Title:6-Synch
Abstract:This proposed SBIR effort will develop 6-Synch, a tool for monitoring NCW assets, based on agents that are "Network Health" aware, and act appropriately given the "Health" of their links. 6-Synch utilizes routing protocol derived network connectivity information for the placement of the agents. Intelligent agents will be dynamically and optimally placed in the network based on the current network topology. A minimal set of agents will provide complete reporting to the upper levels of managers. Managers will spread the collection analysis and consolidation task around to the entire system, so that any one node only handles local and/or child information. 6-Synch combines intermediate level controllers placed to gather information, and master controllers to combine information. The controllers would be used to look at data flow and to alert users to bottlenecks and other network problems. Controllers would not know the exact location of the other agents and/or mid-level controllers, but will use intelligent algorithms to gather data at all levels. The agents will be bandwidth aware, and will be self-limiting as far as reporting status and information up the hierarchy. Synchronization of nodes will be done by placing GPS receivers at key locations.

ETONNET, INC.
67 ELENA CIR
SAN RAFAEL, CA 94903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 497-1232
Mr. Michael Zhao
AF 07-349      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:NCW-Inspector - A Distributed Area Network Management & Control System
Abstract:DoD is transforming to net-centric warfare (NCW) operations. Etonnet, Inc. is in the forefront of the internet evolution and uniquely qualified for the next generation NCW network management task. Based on our unique experiences, we propose an innovative IPv6 based NCW-Inspector software suite to establish a network management system using next generation internet protocol and techniques to integrate encrypted data/voice/video sources, to provide interoperability, security, and data sharing across geographically diverse platforms. We envision the NCW-Inspector software system will have numerous functions to proactively monitor the NCW Links to ensure network health and high availability. It will provide real-time graphs, reports and alerts to track peak daily usage records, anomalous traffic spikes, while proactively mitigating any negative impact on network performance. It enables operators to quickly resolve any potential problems, monitor router interfaces with real-time visibility into the health of the NCW links and routers. A media center will allow operator to display multiple video/voice/data channels. We propose proprietary error correction check, multi-casting redundancy, and Transaction Time Stamp tag techniques to significantly boost the robustness and quality of service of the NCW networks. It will provide Security, Scalability, Reliability and Optimal Performance of the NCW networks.

ETONNET, INC.
67 ELENA CIR
SAN RAFAEL, CA 94903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 497-1232
Mr. Michael Zhao
AF 07-351      Awarded: 30MAR07
Title:Hybrid Neural Network Augmented Kalman Filter for Real-time Multiple Target Tracking
Abstract:AFFTC has a compelling need for the development of an advanced Kalman filtering technology to enable real-time tracking of multiple targets in highly dynamic environments. The key to achieve this goal is to augment the State-of-the-art (SOA) Kalman filter (KF) with an adaptive learning capability such that it can accommodate the tracking complexity imposed by the turbulent environment, dynamic 2-D motion detection and quantification. The on-line learning capability will also eliminate the need for time-consuming manual selection of tracking parameters. Etonnet proposes to develop an innovative Hybrid Neural Network Augmented Kalman Filter (HNN-KF) technique that will utilize an Etonnet proprietary Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) algorithm and integrate it into KF to provide high-speed self-learning capability for adaptive feedback to the KF to minimize the tracking error. Etonnet will develop a HNN-KF software tool and demonstrate multiple targets tracking capability.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway, Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Dean Mumme
AF 07-351      Awarded: 16APR07
Title:Augmentation of the IMKF with KF-Trained Neural Networks for Adaptive Multiple Target Tracking
Abstract:The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) has a compelling need for innovative research to develop on-line intelligent learning algorithms for Kalman filtering for tracking multiple highly dynamic targets. Even for the case of single-target tracking, challenges include the reduction of bias-errors, filter divergence, and the selection of error-states. Turbulent environments and other physical factors can contribute to nonlinear target motion thereby confounding standard Kalman Filter approaches. The proposed effort includes the investigation of means for extension of the Identity Management Kalman Filter (IMKF) by extending the model to associating tracking models to targets for robust target tracking of multiple highly dynamic targets. This includes extending the IMKF to enhance its performance for nonlinear tracking. The candidate systems shall employ neural networks for adaptive target-model enhancement and adaptive selection of the target model (for each target) that is fast enough for online near-real-time performance. The effort shall seek solutions that are applicable to both online tracking and offline trajectory reconstruction and also improve performance in cluttered sensor data so that they are robust enough to automate track reconstruction normally performed manually by engineering staff.

SYSTRAN FEDERAL CORP.
4027 Colonel Glenn Highway, Suite 210
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Andrew DeCarlo
AF 07-351      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:INNRTS
Abstract:Reconstruction of a target's location in time and space is crucial to the functionality of a tracking system used in warfare. One commonly-used approach to position and velocity estimation is Kalman filtering; however, the traditional Kalman filter has problems relating to bias errors, filter divergence, and filter parameter tuning. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can be used to solve these problems through covariance estimation of input noise or by making predictions from a training set. Phase I of this research and development effort is to analyze the feasibility of an ANN-based online adaptive Kalman filter and its alternatives; a variety of solutions will be developed in order to optimize the target-tracking problem for different criteria. In Phase II, a working prototype using one or more of these solutions will be implemented to track multiple targets in near-real-time. Systran Federal Corp. (SFC) has assembled a distinguished team to address this proposal. In conjunction with our research partner, University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), we are proposing a novel and innovative approach to meeting the demanding requirements listed in the solicitation. At the conclusion of Phase II, we plan to have a pre-production version of our product ready for immediate deployment in selected applications.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Mr. Michael Painter
AF 07-352      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:Spectrum Management Optimization and Deconfliction Enhancements (S-MODE)
Abstract:Despite the rapid development of innovations supporting advanced communications and other uses of the electromagnetic spectrum, comparatively little progress has been made in the technology base supporting the management and scheduling of limited spectrum resources. The proposed effort will break new ground in the domain of frequency scheduling and management by advancing the science and practical capability to measure and improve the efficiency of frequency scheduling. The key products of the Phase I effort include a set of frequency scheduling optimization methods, scheduling algorithm evaluation results, and a collection of Integrated Frequency Deconfliction System (IFDS) technology augmentation tools targeted at addressing key voids while providing for rapid IFDS capability expansion. The proposed products and approach thus serve to complement Department of Defense (DoD) investments in related frequency management and mission scheduling support technologies. If the proposal is awarded, the Phase II effort will extend upon these developments to refine and harden a comprehensive capability enabling frequency managers to more effectively define, analyze, and generate optimized frequency management strategies, both for advanced planning and real-time metrics adjustment.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Mr. Alec J.D. Bateman
AF 07-354      Awarded: 16APR07
Title:Tools for Analyzing Flutter in the Presence of Aeroelastic Uncertainty
Abstract:Because flutter can lead to catastrophic failure of the aircraft structure, reliable prediction of the aeroelastic behavior of the aircraft is vitally important to provide information about the boundaries of the flight envelope outside which the aircraft is susceptible to flutter. In spite of major progress in computational methods in recent years, particularly in computational fluid dynamic (CFD), there is still little reliance on using computational models to certify aeroelastic stability. One of the key difficulties is that the aeroelastic models are normally represented in a deterministic way, while in real-world fluid structure interactions, many uncertainties exist. Assessing the effects of uncertainties using traditional approaches such as Monte-Carlo analysis is impractical because of the computational complexity of high-fidelity aeroelastic models. The highly nonlinear nature of these models creates problems for other typical approaches such as linearization and worst-on-worst testing. The goal of the proposed research is to develop uncertainty analysis tools based on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion approach that can be effectively applied in the context of aeroelastic modeling. The tools will provide insight into the sensitivity of the flutter boundary with respect to various uncertainties, and will provide confidence interval estimates for the flutter boundary.

CLEAR SCIENCE CORP.
PO Box 233, 663 Owego Hill Road
Harford, NY 13784
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 844-9171
Dr. Henry A. Carlson
AF 07-354      Awarded: 16APR07
Title:Uncertainty, Sensitivity Analysis, and Design of Experiments in Flutter Testing
Abstract:Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop and demonstrate the technical merit and feasibility of software that quantifies uncertainty in predictions of the aeroelastic stability of aircraft. The computational tool will accommodate three main sources of uncertainty in the aeroelastic response of an airframe design: 1) uncertainty or variability in structural properties, 2) uncertainty or variability in flight conditions, and 3) uncertainty or errors in the computational and experimental models that are used to determine aeroelastic response. The Uncertainty Analysis (UA) software will be designed to extract an optimal amount of information from a limited set of simulations, facilitating the use of high-dimensional, high-fidelity aeroelastic models in determining flutter boundaries and nonlinear responses. The proposed tool will consist of three sequential components or steps: 1) design-of-experiment (DOE) algorithms that optimize the space-filling properties of initial samples, 2) construction of metamodels that represent input-output relations in compact forms, and 3) global sensitivity analysis techniques that quantify uncertainty propagation and rank the importance of all sources of uncertainty, based on the metamodels. Development and testing of the UA algorithms in Phase I will utilize CFD-based aeroelastic simulations of flutter associated with a two-dimensional airfoil with two degrees of freedom (pitching and plunging).

ATA ENGINEERING, INC.
11995 El Camino Real, Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 480-2030
Mr. Kevin Napolitano
AF 07-356      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Optical Ground Vibration Test
Abstract:This proposal addresses the development of a new ground vibration system which can improve the speed, reliability and accuracy of Ground Vibration Tests (GVTs) of military aircraft ranging in size from micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to fighter jets and larger. The intent of the Phase I research is to develop a conceptual design for a GVT system that uses a combination of the latest hardware technologies, combined with advanced software solutions, to create a tightly integrated state-of-the-art working system within the next 2 years. In addition to developing practical hybrid measurement systems which may include combinations of optical, digital, and wireless sensor technologies, consideration will also be given to automating other aspects of the GVT including shaker setup and reconfiguration and standardization of soft support systems for different classes of applications.

CSA ENGINEERING, INC.
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 210-9000
Mr. Brad Allen
AF 07-356      Awarded: 16APR07
Title:Optical Ground Vibration Test System
Abstract:An acquisition system that will greatly reduce the time to perform ground vibration tests (GVT) on military aircraft is proposed. The system will automate GVTs, enabling rapid acquisition without requiring setup of nearly all sensors and cabling. Segments of the wireframe geometry and acquisition setup will also be generated automatically. Aircraft down times will be reduced dramatically. The system will utilize one or more robotic carts with gimbal-mounted laser vibrometers, wireless accelerometers for degrees of freedom that are not line of sight, and potentially mobile shaker carts. A soft suspension system is also proposed for applications requiring low-frequency isolation. Custom software will drive robotic assemblies and port data from sensors to modal acquisition and/or reduction software.

FREENT TECHNOLOGIES
340 Usher Rd.
Madison, AL 35757
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 651-5673
Mr. Herbert U. Fluhler
AF 07-357      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Efficient High Gain 100 to 300 MHz Horn Antenna
Abstract:A quad petal wide band horn is proposed with improvements over prior similar designs to meet all the requirements of the solicitiation. The horn offers dual independant polarizations with high cross pol. isolation so the antenna does not need to be rotated for multi-pol. measurements. The improvements help to minimized back and side lobes while meeting the high gain requirements. The horn is made of light weight materials resulting in a unit weight potentially less that 30 pounds and volume 1/9th of the solicitation's allowable volume. The horn may be arrayed to provide in excess of 30 dBi of gain at cutoff while adding the unique feature of being able to generate nulls on high multipath scatters that could cause interference problems.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Michael A. Gilbert
AF 07-357      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Highly Directive 100 to 300 MHz Super Gain Antenna
Abstract:The Air Force currently has a strong need to conduct antenna gain tests over the 100-300 MHz frequency band. It is desirable to conduct these tests indoors utilizing an anechoic chamber, to control the environment and reduce EMI from external sources. Unfortunately, the walls of anechoic chambers at these low frequencies have relatively high reflectivity that can cause unacceptable levels of multi-path. This issue is compounded by the fact that commonly available source antennas at these low frequencies (i.e. log-periodic antennas) have wide beamwidths and high sidelobes that heavily illuminate the chamber walls. Use of a more directive source antenna with reduced sidelobes and backlobes will help alleviate the mult-path problem. Toyon recently designed, built, and delivered a 300-1500 MHz, dual-polarized source horn for the Bistatic Anechoic Chamber at the Radar Reflectivity Laboratory at Pt Mugu. This design achieved a VSWR of less than 2:1, polarization isolation greater than 35 dB, and reduced sidelobes. The reduced sidelobes were achieved by utilizing a resistive film inside the horn to provide an amplitude taper across the aperture. Under this Phase I SBIR, Toyon proposes to re-optimize its dual-polarized, low sidelobe horn design specifically for the Air Force requirements.

---------- NAVY ----------

280 Phase I Selections from the 07.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. Robert Mulligan
NAVY 07-001      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Lightweight Ballistic Exhaust Grille with Directional Capabilities and Reduced Thermal Signature
Abstract:The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) has two aft mounted exhaust grilles that interface the heat exchangers to the external environment. The current grille design suffers from competing requirements which render its performance less than optimal. In this Phase I project, Infoscitex proposes to conduct research into innovative composite materials and fabrication methods that will enable a grille to meet weight, airflow, ballistic and thermal emissivity requirements, as well as allowing directional capabilities. Following materials selection and evaluation, a first generation design will be created. Subsequently, a cost-benefit analysis will be performed on the design that analyzes the projected performance and costs of ownership. A design will be pursued that allows the new grille to be integrated with the existing housing and mounting flanges.

NEW WORLD ASSOC., INC.
641 Prince Edward Street
Fredericksburg, VA 22401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-1435
Dr. Carl Pates
NAVY 07-001      Awarded: 14MAY07
Title:Ballistic Exhaust Grille
Abstract:New World Associates proposes to develop an exhaust grille for the Marine Corps EFV (Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle) that improves performance and maintains required ballistic protection. The issue with the current design for the EFV is that the exhaustgrille is a heavy system that does not allow flow control (IR signature suppression) with adequate ballistic protection. The modified design will evaluate several design options and will focus on the following primary design criteria: A) Obtain specified ballistic performance; B) Optimize airflow vs. pressure drop characteristics; C) Reduce vehicle infrared signature; D) Minimize weight and manufacturing costs. During Phase I of the proposed program, tasking will include research into available materials that optimize weight reduction and ballistic protection requirements. During this phase, several design concepts will be proposed and evaluated with respect to the EFV performance specification (EFV S/SS Specification Rev J. dated 10 August 2006). New World will utilize its extensive background of ballistic protection of vehicles and airflow design and analysis to solve the proposed problem.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. James Gorman
NAVY 07-001      Awarded: 10MAY07
Title:Dual Mode Controlled Ricochet Low Loss EFV Cooling Grille(1001-046)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. in collaboration with the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory will develop a controlled multiple ricochet ballistic grill for the USMC EFV that minimizes the required vane thickness and associated pressure drop through the grille. Two-stage baffling of the incoming threat allows the flow direction to be modified while still ensuring at least three strikes and downward exiting fragments. Advanced high hardness Titanium and Stainless Steel alloys are used to tailor the ricochet angles of the threat projectiles, while maintaining integrity against corrosion degradation in the salt air and water environments. Low emissivity coatings on the metallic elements minimize the vehicle IR signature increments. The controlled ricochet design will allow reductions of at least 50 pound in each of the (250 lb.) current ballistic grilles aboard the EFV. During the Phase I project, Triton will fabricate and ballistic test samples of the projectile baffles to validate the threat protection performance, while C.S. Draper Laboratory will perform extensive CFD and thermal response tradeoffs on the strawman grille design to guide the grille design and validate throughput and thermal performance. During the Phase II Triton will fabricate a prototype ballistic grille for installation and operational testing aboard an EFV.

GENEXPRESS INFORMATICS, INC.
13091 Ponds Springs RoadSuite 150
Austin, TX 78729
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 219-8588
Dr. Robert Chin
NAVY 07-004      Selected for Award
Title:Development of Biological Obscurants
Abstract:The DoD has funded a number of nanotechnology based obscurant projects. Recent studies have shown the potential health and environmental risk associated with nanoparticle exposures. Development of biologically based obscurants could eliminate these shortcomings by providing multi-spectral capabilities, environmental-friendly (i.e., biodegradable), non-pathogenic constituents and non-toxic by-products. GXI and Dr. James P. Chambers of the University of Texas at San Antonio propose to develop biological obscurants for battlefield applications based on the use of bacteriochlorophylls. In Phase I, GXI and Dr. Chambers will conduct spectroscopic investigations of bacteria containing bacteriochlorophyll b with tetrapyrrole pigments to demonstrate the feasibility of using chlorophyll compounds as obscurants. We will also investigate the use of combinatorial techniques to alter the protein microenvironment near the tetrapyrrole ring and thus tune the absorption spectra to provide multi-spectral capabilities. The rational for use of chlorophyll compounds as an obscurant is based on the broad range of spectral absorption using chlorophyll derivatives. Absorption peaks coincide well with specific areas of military interest including: (1) the visible range; (2) night vision ranges of 700 to 800 and 900 nm for 3rd generation imaging technology; and (3) the 1064 nm range for most smart bomb and missile laser guidance systems.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Dr. Robert Woodman
NAVY 07-004      Selected for Award
Title:Shelf-Stable Red Phosphorus
Abstract:Smoke-producing munitions such as mortars, smoke pots, and hand grenades are an important class of ordnance employed by the US military in both training and mission scenarios. These devices serve a number of vital functions including smoke screening for vision obscurance and marking of targets. A number of smoke-producing munitions used by the USMC rely upon red phosphorus (RP) to generate a smoke that provides screening in both the visible and IR spectra. Although RP performs exceptionally, its susceptibility to degradation during storage to form phosphine and other hazardous materials has risen concerns for personnel health. In this Phase I SBIR program, Infoscitex Corporation (IST) proposed to enable the continued use of RP through development of a novel coating system that will render it shelf-stable. IST will develop an inorganic coating system that will address shortcomings of previous attempts to stabilize RP, and will ensure that performance of existing smoke-producing munitions is maintained.

POWDERMET, INC.
24112 Rockwell Drive
Euclid, OH 44117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 404-0053
Dr. Michael Dowell
NAVY 07-004      Selected for Award
Title:Replacement of Red Phosphorus in Smoke Producing Munitions
Abstract:Future combat scenarios requires a red and/or white phosphorus alternative as a multi-role munitions filler for obscuring, screening, marking, incendiary and thermobaric applications. Currently, red and white phosphorus filled munitions are successfully being deployed in combat, especially in "shake and bake" missions in Fallujah. However, processing, deployment, storage and overall safety concerns primarily limit the utilization of red and white phosphorus. Especially when stored, phosphorus decomposes to phosphorus pentoxide and then phosphoric acid in moist environments. In lieu of safety concerns and cost ineffectiveness in producing red and white phosphorus, Powdermet Inc. proposes to use reactive fuel/oxidizer microcomposite obscurants with "nanolaminate" fuel/stabilizer/thermite coatings produced by Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition (FBCVD) and fluoropolymer press coatings as a suitable/superior alternative for red and white phosphorus fillers for current and future munitions. The particle size, composition, and intimate mixing of fuel and oxidizer during spray drying, FBCVD, and fluoropolymer press coatings will yield favorable combustion and reaction rates in order to maximize smoke production, colored smoke production, exothermicity, and blast/expansion pressure. Complete characterization will be performed to ensure that the correct properties are achieved.

VENTANA RESEARCH
831 North Camino Miramonte
Tucson, AZ 85716
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 882-8772
Dr. John L. Lombardi
NAVY 07-004      Selected for Award
Title:Replacement of Red Phosphorus in smoke producing munitions
Abstract:Current smoke producing munitions posess significant total obscuring power (TOP) but suffer from the drawbacks taht they are both toxic and corrosive towards military personnel and hardware respectively. A burgeoning need therefore exists for alternative obscurants which are benign as well as posess high TOP properties. Polyphenol derivatives represent one such promising class of materials meeting this criteria and will be developed and characterized during this proposed Phase I SBIR research program.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Ashley Nunes
NAVY 07-005      Selected for Award
Title:ADaptive Augmented Reality based Assistance System (ADARAS)
Abstract:Augmented Reality (AR) has been proposed as a means of assisting technicians tasked with maintaining weapons platforms. Despite its various benefits, the effectiveness of AR as a means of improving performance dictates that the traditional challenges associated with scene recognition and information presentation be addressed. Hence, we propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of the ADaptive Augmented Reality based Assistance System (ADARAS), which utilizes unique scene recognition capabilities coupled with customized information presentation techniques to significantly improve the troubleshooting capabilities of the junior maintainer. ADARAS uses intelligent agents to customize the information presented in AR space, which maximizes the utility and effectiveness of the presented information based on the cognitive limitations and learning capacity of the individual maintainer. The proposed system also encompasses unique scene recognition algorithms that jointly work to ensure that the maintainer's attention is allocated to the relevant problem space thereby maximizing the probability of success.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Douglas Haanpaa
NAVY 07-005      Selected for Award
Title:Advanced Equipment Maintenance Using Revolutionary Augmented Reality Technology
Abstract:The Terrestrial Augmented Reality Maintenance Assistance (TARMA) will leverage Cybernet Systems existing Shipboard Wireless Maintenance System (SWMA), head mounted display systems, and gesture recognition software to create a portable computing platform for augmented-reality based vehicle maintenance. This system will use small, magnet-mounted, light emitting diodes (LEDs) beacons as reference points for the projection of schematics into the viewing region of the head mounted display. In addition to schematics and Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs) and condition-based maintenance systems the head mounted display will present data from a suite of peripheral devices including digital multi-meters, bar code scanners, and RFID readers. Cybernet will also apply our gesture recognition system to the system's forward looking camera to provide a maintainer aptitude evaluation. This aptitude evaluation could potentially be used in level IV and V by IETMs to provide tailored maintenance specifications. Using the SWMA's existing collaboration suite our system will be able to provide remote support from subject matter experts to in-field maintainers.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6800
Mr. Timothy C. Tiernan
NAVY 07-005      Selected for Award
Title:Augmented Reality Maintenance System (ARMS) for Complex Military Assets
Abstract:Currently, equipment maintenance requires highly trained individuals and is labor intensive, expensive and inefficient. The Marine Corps and DOD use written technical manuals and Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM) to direct technicians through complex maintenance procedures for land vehicles, radar systems, radio communications systems, and ground-based weapon systems. Recently, the internet has made it possible to retrieve relevant maintenance data more quickly using computer search programs. However, technical manuals are still time consuming and tedious to use, and substantial training is needed to extract the appropriate data, understand the technical details for troubleshooting defective components, and the performance of critical maintenance and repairs. RMD, in collaboration with Dr. Steven Feiner at Columbia University, proposes a revolutionary new technology for equipment maintenance based on Augmented Reality (AR). The AR-based maintenance system will guide the equipment maintainer through the entire maintenance process, from the identification of defective components to the detailed repair methodology and the functional test sequence. The Augmented Reality system will be graphics intensive and interactive, making it simple and highly intuitive to use. It will augment the abilities of the technician by providing the type of guidance normally associated with an expert human trainer.

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Dr. Edward N. Bachelder
NAVY 07-005      Selected for Award
Title:Fused Reality(tm) Maintenance System
Abstract:The solicitation for this topic stresses the need for alternative approaches to conducting equipment maintenance. A PC-based technology called Fused Reality(tm) created by Systems Technology Inc. (STI) currently employs live video capture, real-time video editing, and virtual environment simulation to enable the fusing of physical images into a virtual scene, which can then be moved within that scene. Fused Reality(tm) uses chromakey to identify areas of interest in the physical scene. One of the key innovations of the proposed Fused Reality Maintenance System (FRMS) is modifying Fused Reality(tm) to use machine vision for identifying real objects so that they can be fused into and moved within the virtual environment. Other novel innovations include the integration of novel 3D interfaces (such as image-based head tracking) with a 3D modeling software tool such as Solidworks, and using Solidworks to generate the virtual scene layer for use with Fused Reality(tm). In order to provide an integrated solution for the maintainer's challenges, the system will employ state-of-art technologies including: machine vision recognition, voice recognition, neural networks, and knowledge-based expert systems. Novel design in human-machine interface design will balance cognitive workload with task execution. Key issues pertaining to diagnostics, component replacement, and logistics are addressed.

DIRECTED VAPOR TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2 Boar's Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 977-1405
Dr. Derek D. Hass
NAVY 07-006      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:Non-Line-of-Sight Coating Of Turbine Airfoils
Abstract:Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are desired to improve the durability of hot-section engine components. Currently, TBC top coats are applied onto turbine components using an electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process. A key drawback of this approach is that it can only effectively coat surfaces in the line-of-sight of the vapor source. The advent of advanced engine designs containing complex components with many hidden surfaces have resulted in a need for TBC deposition techniques which can effectively deposit high quality coatings onto the non line-of-sight (NLOS) regions of components. In this work, we will use novel coating techniques that increase the growth rate of TBC coatings in NLOS regions and also result in the required coating microstructure. The proposed Phase I effort will demonstrate the key performance attributes of the process by applying TBCs onto superalloy substrates aligned NLOS to the vapor source. This will lead to a follow-on Phase II program focused on using the new deposition process to apply TBC coatings onto real aircraft components having NLOS region. The end result will be process the can apply next generation TBC coatings onto a wider range of complex engine components in a cost effective manner.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. J. Michael Cutbirth
NAVY 07-006      Awarded: 30APR07
Title:Demonstration of Non-Line-of-Sight TBC
Abstract:Advances in turbine materials resulting in high strength and lightweight metallic and ceramic components have allowed for high efficiency, high power density, compactness, and low emissions. Current technology turbine blades are comprised of single crystal nickel superalloys in combination with ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Typical TBC composition consists of an aluminum rich bond coat, thermally grown oxide (TGO), and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). These coatings have limited durability and constrain peak engine temperatures due to non-uniform coating thickness and susceptibility to crack propagation. Non-uniformities within the thickness are caused by line-of-sight coating applications typical of current industry standards. To address these shortcomings, Mainstream will rely on its expertise in nano-technology and chemical vapor deposition techniques to demonstrate a non-line-of-sight method for producing a strain-tolerant thermal barrier coating. The Phase I effort will characterize the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite coating, demonstrate the feasibility of the inclusion of nanostructures within a ceramic matrix, and validate the strain tolerance via thermal fatigue and thermal shock experiments.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Amarendra K. Rai
NAVY 07-006      Awarded: 19APR07
Title:Non-Line-of-Sight Coating Of Turbine Airfoils
Abstract:The current state-of-the-art techniques for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically line-of-sight. Therefore the achievable coating thickness distributions on complex shaped parts are limited and inconsistent. The geometry of the turbine airfoils is getting more complex with each design making the line-of-sight processes for TBC less desirable. UES Inc in collaboration with Penn State University proposes to design a hybrid hydrothermal-electrophoretic process as a non-line-of-sight technique for TBC. The feasibility of the proposed technique will be demonstrated in a laboratory environment. Durability of the TBC fabricated from the proposed technique will be evaluated and compared with the state-of-the-art TBC coating. In Phase II, a prototype hybrid hydrothermal-electrophoretic system and the related process capable of producing TBC coating on engine hardware will be developed.

AURIGA MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS LLC
650 Suffolk StreetSuite410
Lowell, MA 01854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 441-1117
Dr. Yusuke Tajima
NAVY 07-007      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Solid-State High-Efficiency Radar Transmit Module
Abstract:Demonstration of highly efficient 1000W amplifier (405-450 MHz) is proposed in the two-phase program. The first phase is a feasibility phase where a 100W 70% efficiency block amplifier will be demonstrated using GaN HEMT devices and Class F circuit design technology. In phase 2 of the program, the block amplifier performance will be enhanced to 300W. Four of these block amplifiers will be combined to achieve the Phase 2 goals. In parallel to the technical efforts during Phase 1, we will establish a commercialization plan where necessary steps will be identified to manufacture the products from Phase 2. Auriga Measurement Systems will team with experts in Raytheon Advanced Devices Center to bring the best possible results to the customer. Raytheon brings GaN technology and Radar system experience. Raytheon is one of the pioneers in GaN device development. Its world-class device performance is leading the industry. Auriga Measurement Systems is a small business with a large experience. Auriga maintains a leading edge in device measurement and characterization systems as well as device modeling and circuit designs. Its proprietary GaN models have been used to support commercial applications of high power GaN HEMT devices with a very successful results.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. David Helms
NAVY 07-007      Awarded: 09MAY07
Title:Solid-State High-Efficiency Radar Transmit Module
Abstract:The primary objective of Phase 1 is to establish a design baseline for a very high power and highly efficient GaN amplifier. Design objectives for the Class E/F power amplifier are to achieve 100 watts power output at >60% PAE over 405-450 MHz. Hittite will synthesize Class E, Class F and inverse class F and then select the optimum load and source networks to achieve highest reasonable efficiency. Hittite will use a very thermally conductive hybrid package. That packaging is a highly cost effective proven mass production packaging technology. Hittite will identify the optimum process for MMIC implementation of the amplifier, and then provide modeling results of the core technology demonstrating the RF, DC and thermal characteristics of the amplifier. From this selected MMIC core technology we will build and demonstrate a hybrid version of this amplifier. The hybrid version will use proven 50V GaN devices and a proven design approach. In the option Hittite will also design a high K dielectric power combiner, and the first iteration of the GaN 100 watt PA MMIC. Hittite has designed over 20 GaN PA's for numerous DOD customers demonstrating > 70% PAE GaN PA's.

CHIRP CORP.
8248 Sugarman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 453-4406
Dr. Richard Altes
NAVY 07-008      Awarded: 05APR07
Title:High resolution SAR detection/estimation in alpha-stable interference
Abstract:Ambiguity function analysis of a new design concept for side-looking synthetic aperture radar (SAR) indicates that range-rate resolution can be improved by at least a factor of ten while removing range-rate/azimuth ambiguities, and that azimuth-rate resolution can be improved by at least a factor of five. The proposed work is (1) to further verify these improvements via a realistic simulation based on actual SAR data for upwind and downwind conditions, (2) to investigate the effects of nonlinear, alpha-stable detection/estimation procedures on the improved system, and (3) to mitigate the deleterious effects that are likely to occur when nonlinear operations are applied to a system that relies heavily on linear superposition for range compression, azimuth compression, and velocity hypothesis testing operations.

ROBUST ANALYSIS, INC.
6618 Allegheny Avenue
Takoma Park, MD 20912
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(954) 349-2889
Dr. Juan Gonzalez
NAVY 07-008      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Stable signal processing for improved-performance real-life radar
Abstract:Robust Analysis has pioneered the development of extremely efficient algorithms for radar signal processing in heavy-tailed clutter, based on cutting-edge numerical methods derived from the theory of stable distributions. Robust Analysis is the developer of STABLE, the first commercially available software library for stable data processing. STABLE incorporates a Signal Processing Toolbox with comprehensive filtering solutions for impulsive signals. This toolbox is at the core of one of our most important innovations: the stable matched filter. Although still preliminary, STABLE already has a Radar Systems Toolbox which incorporates a suite of stable matched filtering routines, and a battery of applications of these routines in SAR imaging and radar target detection. The goal of this SBIR is to extend the reach of the STABLE software and its Radar Systems Toolbox to provide a comprehensive industrial-quality solution for radar engineering in heavy-tailed environments. For Phase I, we will develop an adaptive version of the stable matched filter that ensures real-time applicability of the technology in real-life challenging scenarios of interest to the Navy. We will also develop speed optimizations that accelerate the algorithms and enable real-time performance. SAR and STAP applications of the technology will also be investigated.

TORCH TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4035 Chris DriveSuite C
Huntsville, AL 35802
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 319-6000
Mr. Terry Thomas
NAVY 07-009      Awarded: 13APR07
Title:Modeling Algorithms for Unmanned Aircraft/Weapons Management Systems
Abstract:Unmanned Aerial Systems are rapidly evolving in each of the armed services from their traditional Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance missions to platforms with a mix of payloads and weapons. All indications are that this evolution will continue and the future of Fire Scout will include an assortment of weapons and other mission payloads. Each of these future integration programs would be time consuming and expensive if traditional acquisition and integration approaches from the era of manned aircraft were adopted. Torch Technologies, Inc. has partnered with General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems to propose a robust and credible approach to weapon and mission payload integration that is based on the Object Management Group (OMG) Model Driver ArchitectureT (MDA) Initiative. the Torch Team proposes a complete systems engineering approach that is based on the principles of MDA. It is a solution that separates functionality from architecture so that it can be maintained and reused, even across multiple architectures. It is a solution that will map the functionality to the platform processing architecture based on the Fire Scout Program Manager's safety, reliability, security, real-time and resource consumption requirements, and permit early and cost effective verification and validation that those requirements will be met.

WINTEC, INC.
220 Eglin Parkway SESuite 4
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 664-6203
Mr. Fred Benedick
NAVY 07-009      Awarded: 04APR07
Title:Modeling Algorithms for Unmanned Aircraft/Weapons Management Systems
Abstract:Current methodologies for integration of weapons on unmanned and manned aircraft platforms and the associated control software development/integration typically result in a lengthy and expensive integration process. Problems are frequently discovered in the hardware/software prototyping or flight test program phases, when they are difficult and expensive to fix and likely to result in significant program perturbations. Potential safety issues that were not forecast can also be encountered. Recent studies by both U.S. and NATO organizations have identified structured modeling technologies and processes (including the evolving Model Driven Architecturer, or MDAr, process supported by commercial industry) as having a high potential to significantly mitigate the identified problems, if appropriately adapted and incorporated into the platform avionics and weapon integration design approach. To support such a model-based process, flexible modeling algorithms for weapon control systems and associated weapon employment functionality need to be developed in languages such as the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) and Executable Unified Modeling Language (xUML). The effort proposed here would investigate the requirements and feasibility of a set of appropriate modeling algorithms for this purpose, and define a proposed approach for development and demonstration of prototype algorithms in a follow-on Phase II program.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 277-8396
Mr. Gary Key
NAVY 07-010      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Advanced Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) and Model Based Prognostic Useful Life Remaining Capabilities for Aircraft Tactical Information and Communication Systems
Abstract:Frontier Technology, Inc. (FTI) will demonstrate the feasibility of developing prognostic models that can predict current health state, future failure and remaining useful life (RUL) for electronic systems with focus on aircraft communication, navigation and identification systems (CNI) and their components. FTI will combine principles of real-time prognostic health management that analyze system health states with Reliability Centered Maintenance that estimate RUL and recommend appropriate corrective action. FTI's research adapts successful system-level prognostic and RCM technologies to installed electronics systems using data-derived statistical models that function with existing data sources and are easily extended to varying system configurations. The research will: * Maximize use of existing sensors, parameters and data sources from installed systems. * Create models of healthy systems using variances from optimum system conditions to detect incipient faults. * Identify the fault to failure progression and estimate component or system RUL. * Notify system users of fault detection, RUL and suggested action/areas of investigation This Phase I effort extends FTI's research into prognostic assessment of system health. Phase II will demonstrate prototypes of the models developed during Phase I and will identify limitations and areas requiring investigation in applying the technology to specific electronic system configurations.

GLOBAL STRATEGIC SOLUTIONS LLC
12801 Worldgate DriveSuite 500
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 871-3990
Mr. Luis Hernandez
NAVY 07-010      Awarded: 07MAY07
Title:Advanced Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) and Model Based Prognostic Useful Life Remaining Capabilities for Aircraft Tactical Information and Communication Systems
Abstract:Prognostics and health management technologies are critical for detecting impending equipment failures and enabling a proactive decision process for maintaining or replacing components before actual failures occur. This capability is particularly critical to the Joint Strike Fighter given the goals for high affordability and mission readiness. Achieving the gains in maintenance decision making, safety, system availability, productivity, and cost savings, depends on the PHM system's ability to predict accurately the remaining useful life of the aircraft mission systems at any time. This effort investigates the development of advanced prognostic models to enable the predictive capability of the JSF PHM system. The effort considers the application of real-time, sensory- updated, residual life based models for estimating and predicting the remaining useful life of the JSF Communication, Navigation and Identification systems. The effort researches and characterizes the detectable impeding faults, and the physical phenomena, of the system and component degradation processes. The expected patterns in the sensory information and the techniques required to model the evolution of the component degradation process, in order to predict the remaining useful life of a system, are identified. A system definition, capability implementation plan, and a proof-of-concept demonstration of the approach are part of this effort.

RIDGETOP GROUP, INC.
6595 North Oracle RoadSuite 153B
Tucson, AZ 85704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 742-3300
Mr. John Pattison
NAVY 07-010      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Advanced Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) and Model Based Prognostic Useful Life Remaining Capabilities for Aircraft Tactical Information and Communication Systems
Abstract:Ridgetop will create algorithms and models for Prognostics/Health Management (PHM) on radio-frequency (RF) components used in Communication, Navigation, and Intelligence (CNI) systems. A key focus of this work is adaptation of proven time-domain statistic analysis techniques - Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) and Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) - to the frequency domain, exploiting the increased sensitivity and robustness of the statistical approach with the computational economy achieved with Fourier-transform or frequency-space algorithms. These models will be proven on representative CNI hardware chosen by Ridgetop's Prime Contractor Partner (Raytheon) with input from the JSF Program Office. The chosen hardware will have a history of high failure rates and intermittent faults, and the prognostic models will be driven by existing parameters and measurands. Ridgetop's proactive IRAD for this proposal indicates that subject components can be chosen which represent both legacy (ageing aircraft) and emerging technology, to maximize return-on-investment (ROI) to the warfighting customer. An optional effort will focus on one complex, high-failure rate CNI component such as the Traveling-Wave Tube (TWT). Ridgetop's proposed work plan includes demonstrated detection of intermittents which complicate the diagnosis of faults and prediction of remaining useful life for critical aircraft systems.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Mr. William J. Kessler
NAVY 07-011      Selected for Award
Title:Compact Diode Laser-based Magnetometer
Abstract:This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project will combine ultra-sensitive absorption spectroscopy detection techniques and alkali atom optical gas pumping to produce an innovative Compact Magnetic Detection Set (CMDS). The CMDS will utilize a self oscillating magnetometer to produce a robust, compact, light weight and low power sensor for Navy applications of air anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and land-based IED detection. Current CMDS systems are too large, heavy and consume too much power for many aircraft platforms, including the MH-60R Romeo helicopter and the FireScout VTUAV. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) will create a system design for an optically based alkali atom CMDS that will achieve performance specifications equivalent to the AN/ASQ-233 and AN/ASQ-508 systems using innovative, ultra-sensitive detection techniques packaged into a compact, light, low power architecture. During the Phase II effort the CMDS will be fabricated and tested to verify operation and performance limits. The proposed effort leverages PSI's experience demonstrating sensitive magnetometers with PSI's successful line of commercial, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy hardware systems. PSI has an extensive and proven history of developing and delivering optically based sensor solutions for demanding commercial and Navy Mil-Spec applications.

POLATOMIC, INC.
1810 N. Glenville Dr. Suite 116
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 690-0099
Dr. Douglas D McGregor
NAVY 07-011      Awarded: 17APR07
Title:Compact Magnetic Detection Set (CMDS) for Air Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) and Land-Based Use
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I proposal describes the development of a conceptual design for a Compact Magnetic Detection Set (CMDS) for air ASW. The CMDS laser magnetometer is an innovative light-weight, compact, low-power, high-sensitivity instrument capable of measuring scalar DC and ELF magnetic fields with sensitivity better than 0.3 pT/?aHz in the frequency interval 0.01-100 Hz. A design goal of the CMDS is to reduce the system volume, weight and power by a factor of two with respect to DT-704/ASQ-233 system parameters. The CMDS is intended for use on UAVs (vertical take-off and fixed wing) employed for shallow water ASW and land-based target detection such as buried weapons caches and IEDs. An approach to reduce system size and weight is the use of Optically-driven Spin Precession (OSP) instead of conventional Magnetically-driven Spin Precession (MSP) to induce and observe magnetic resonance in the helium cell. OSP technology is attractive for a compact system because it eliminates the need for resonance drive coils and reduces the number of cells required for omni-directional operation. An OSP single-cell digital locked-oscillator scalar magnetometer was demonstrated for the first time under a recent NASA Phase I Project. The Phase I effort will include developing the CMDS specifications that will achieve the size, weight, power and performance requirements, and evaluating the applicability of CMDS to small UAV/VTUAVs and manned ASW platforms. The Phase II effort will involve fabrication of a CMDS laboratory breadboard based on the Phase I design.

TWINLEAF
59 Snowden Lane
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 921-6126
Dr. Thomas W. Kornack
NAVY 07-011      Awarded: 12APR07
Title:Compact Magnetic Detection Set (CMDS) for Air Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) and Land-Based Use
Abstract:A new scalar magnetometer design enables measurement of magnetic fields with sensitivity down to 10 fT/Hz^(1/2), more than ten times better than existing devices. The Phase I effort will focus on bringing this recently proven technology into the field in a compact, robust, low-power implementation.

DELCROSS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
223 East Sixth StreetPO Box 676
Neoga, IL 62447
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 895-2067
Mr. Matthew C. Miller
NAVY 07-012      Awarded: 15MAR07
Title:Antenna to Antenna Coupling and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Tool for Air Platforms.
Abstract:One of the most important problems encountered in an electromagnetic environment is that of providing compatibility between radiating and receiving RF equipment within the environment. This problem is a type of EMI and the goal of RF system designers and analysts is to achieve EMC where no interference problems exist between the various RF systems. The cost of providing numerous modifications to operational systems and the losses in efficiency resulting from the presence of interference represents a serious problem to numerous military and commercial organizations. Our team proposes to develop a software tool named Electromagnetic Interference Toolkit (EMIT) for predicting interference between radiating and receiving RF systems. The tool will consist of a graphical user interface (GUI) and underlying computational engines. The GUI (iEMIT) will pass user specified inputs to the computational engine (EMIT), will provide visualization of data, and will interface with a full wave solver for the generation of coupling data. During the Phase I, we will develop the architecture and implementation plan for the EMIT software, develop proof of concept modules for the computational engines, and validate those modules. The Phase II will focus on developing a GUI and implementing the proof-of-concept codes developed under the Phase I as robust engineering codes.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Jack Salerno
NAVY 07-013      Awarded: 27FEB07
Title:Variable Color Ratio Window for IR Simulator Source
Abstract:Agiltron, Inc proposes a dynamic color ratio window of IR simulator source array for the open-air test and evaluation of missile warning and directional infrared counter measurements. The proposed device is innovative to utilize the variable IR absorption of window approach, achieving the desired performances by effectively changing the transmission coefficients in the interest IR wavebands, such as (3.8~4.1Ym) and (4.5~4.7Ym). This windows functionalities will enrich the major performances of the current open-air test IR source systems. The proposed IR window device is in standalone, enabling the operation flexibly with the present and under developing open-air test IR sources. This device offers intrinsic advantages of color ratio change in speed, large dynamic range, capability of operation in the outdoor severe environment, and great potential of profiling multiple spectrum bands. In the Phase I program, we will demonstrate a functional prototype of dynamic IR absorption type attenuation window with fast response and continuous ratio change. This experimental result will define our innovative system design concept, leading to a fully functional system in Phase II.

AMBP TECH CORP.
201 Circle Drive No., Suite 102-103
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 469-1591
Dr. David H. Strome
NAVY 07-013      Awarded: 15MAR07
Title:Dynamic Color Ratio Infrared Simulator Source
Abstract:AMBP Tech's concept for a dynamic color-ratio infrared simulator source is based on technology related to large-area deformable mirrors. For spatial resolution it builds on the example of the state-of-the art ISTAR system, but with respect to spectral content it incorporates more than one sub-source per source, each operating, in conjunction with additional optical elements, so as to radiate independently in each of two infrared wavelength bands.

KLAB CORP.
5 Ilene Court, Building 7, Unit 10
Hillsborough, NJ 08844
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 904-1400
Dr. Kaiyan Zhang
NAVY 07-013      Awarded: 11APR07
Title:Dynamic Color Ratio Infrared Simulator Source
Abstract:Typical threat missile signatures have a definitive characteristic color ratio signature. Infrared (IR) missile warning systems currently under development use two-color processing to discriminate missile threat signatures from non-threat signatures. It is necessary to have a dynamic color ratio capability to more realistically simulate various threat missile signatures. K Lab Corporation proposes to develop a robust IR simulator source that provides continuum spectrum between 2-5 micrometer, with controllable power intensities over the entire MIR radiant band, over one narrow pre-selected wavelength band, as well as the dynamic color ratio between two selectable wavelength bands. This IR source can be easily scaled up and integrated into an open-air surface-to-air missile simulator system.

OPTRA, INC.
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 887-6600
Mrs. Julia Rentz Dupius
NAVY 07-013      Awarded: 07MAR07
Title:Two Color Dynamic Scene Generator
Abstract:OPTRA proposes the development of a fieldable two-color infrared (IR) source simulator based on fused projected images of two digital micromirror devices (DMDs), one for each IR spectral band. Our approach employs a broadband thermal IR source with a series of spectral filters to flood the DMDs with characteristic "red spike" and "blue spike" IR energy, respectively. The relative intensities of the two spectral bands are controlled through the duty cycle of the "on" image reflected by each DMD. We fuse the two simulated images and project the composite with a telescope of aperture diameter chosen to meet the radiant intensity requirements of this application. The overall approach offers a realistic IR source image of characteristic spectral, temporal, and radiant intensity properties of an actual missile plume.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda BlvdSuite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 954-2200
Dr. Randy van Daalen Wetters
NAVY 07-013      Awarded: 15MAR07
Title:Dynamic Color Ratio Infrared Simulator Source
Abstract:The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Weapons Division, China Lake, has a requirement to develop a Dynamic Color Ratio Infrared Simulator (DCR-IRS) source for open-air test and evaluation (T&E) of missile warning and countermeasures systems. "Two-color" IR sensors employed by missile warning systems are used to discriminate against false threats by examining the "color ratio" of the signature, more specifically, the relative power in two mid-IR bands. Since the spectral (mid-IR) signatures of missile plumes can change significantly during the missile flight, an IR simulation with a dynamic color ratio capability is required for realistic T&E of these two-color missile warning systems. Technology Service Corporation (TSC) is proposing three innovative solutions to the DCR-IRS requirement. The primary solution, based on technology employed in the Infrared Simulator and Target Array (ISTAR) system at NAWC, uses flame sources configured to dynamically control the power levels in two mid-IR bands. Additional solutions use lasers and lamps to generate the required spectral signature. Under Phase I, TSC will investigate these solutions and others, performing tradeoff studies to establish feasibility; then, in Phase II, TSC will develop and demonstrate a proof-of-concept system that will provide ISTAR with an initial DCR-IRS capability.

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Dr. Joshua Wilson
NAVY 07-014      Awarded: 03MAY07
Title:Sonobuoy System and Concept of Operations for Time-Reversal-Based Target Detection
Abstract:Existing multistatic airborne ASW systems require high power sources and are unable exploit the significant forward scattering target strengths due to the blinding presence of the direct blast. Time reversal (TR) is a recent method for focusing acoustic energy at a point using a pair of vertical line transducer arrays and offers the opportunity to exploit forward scattering from submarines. TR focusing can provide a measure of propagation channel stability, which provides a means for determining when the medium is disrupted as would occur when a scatterer such as a submarine passes between the two arrays. Moreover, because there is significant spatio-temporal focusing gain to be had with TR, there exists the opportunity to use lower power transmissions. Here we propose to determine the feasibility of a TR sonobuoy system for airborne ASW in the frequency band of a DICASS (AN/SSQ-62) sonobuoy and using vertical line ar