---------- OSD ----------

36 Phase I Selections from the 07.1 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
ENERGY CONCEPTS CO., LLC
627 Ridgely Ave.
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 266-6521
Mr. Donald C. Erickson
OSD 07-ES1      Awarded: 05/11/07
Title:Portable Cogeneration of Power and Waste Heat Actuated Cooling
Abstract:As the Department of Defense develops more complex weapons, electronics and computer platforms, there is an increasing demand for both power and cooling. Existing portable means for providing power and cooling in a battlefield environment are too heavy, too noisy, and too fuel-inefficient. A portable cogeneration system is to be conceptualized and designed which meets DoD requirements: 5 kW electricity, and 10 kW cooling in a light weight, low noise package, fueled by JP-8. This effort will integrate an advanced generator with an advanced waste heat actuated cooler. The generator will likely be an external combustion device, e.g. a free piston Stirling engine, and the cooler will likely be an ammonia absorption refrigeration unit. Both of those technologies are sufficiently developed and exhibit the requisite capabilities and characteristics for this application. The Phase I design effort will be based upon levels of performance known to be achievable with the selected technologies. It will produce a design which is ready for fabrication and testing in Phase II.

M-DOT AEROSPACE
3418 South 48th Street, Suite 3
Phoenix, AZ 85040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 752-1911
Mr. Hugh Spilsbury
OSD 07-ES1      Awarded: 04/13/07
Title:Portable Cogeneration of Power and Cooling
Abstract:Proposed is a combined electric power and cooling system that shares a common proprietary working fluid. Employing this fluid enables practical application of both systems in a combined unit. The entire self-contained system will weigh roughly 164 lbs and thus will be 4-person carryable and easily placed in a helicopter or ground vehicle. The only discernable noise is likely to be from the external heavy fuel (JP-8) burner and electric cooling fans all of which will be muffled. In Phase I, thermodynamic analyses will be conducted, power conditioning specified and a preliminary system design generated. Existing hardware will be tested in Phase I to measure performance and noise. M-DOT will be teamed with Arizona Public Service, the largest electric utility in the State, who will provide guidance in system design with the intent of eventually participating in commercial transition of a successful Phase II design. Light Engineering will participate with their advanced alternator design. The low peak temperature, external firing and ultra-quiet operation make the system optimum for transition to solar supplemented power. The Phase I program will provide sufficient design basis to enable fabrication and test of a prototype system in Phase II.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow PlacePines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P. Scaringe
OSD 07-ES1      Awarded: 04/16/07
Title:Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient, Low-Noise Combined Electric Power and Cooling Cogeneration system for Shelters
Abstract:Mainstream is ideally suited for this proposed effort with more than 20 years of experience in the development of advanced environmental control units and more than 15 years of experience in the development of JP-8-fueled generators. This proposal contains a detailed analysis of power generation and cooling alternatives, as well as the identification of the optimum approach if the cooling load is 10 kW and the electrical power load is either 5 kWe as requested or higher such as 20 kWe. The proposal discusses how the desired quantity of electrical power affects the selection. Having already identified the optimum system in the proposal, the goal of the Phase I effort is to experimentally demonstrate that this system will exceed the noise and weight criterion, while dramatically reducing fuel consumption. Since Mainstream has been pursuing this technology on internally funded research and development , the Phase I effort will provide a design of the entire co-generation system, as well as experimental performance data to verify the system design and confirm the performance claims. This will dramatically reduce the risk in Phase II and will allow Phase II to focus on extensive field tests, life-testing, and re-design as needed after field testing.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5438
Dr. Kingston Owens
OSD 07-ES1      Awarded: 04/24/07
Title:Portable Cogeneration of Power and Cooling
Abstract:The escalating use of electronic equipment on the battlefield requires increasing amounts of field deployable electric power. Air conditioning is required when these systems are used in warm environments. A quiet, efficient, and low exhaust emissions electric generator to provide mission power and additional power for air conditioning is needed. TIAX proposes to reconfigure its free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) design to provide sufficient electrical power for the 5 kW of 120 VAC, 60 Hz mission load and reserve power for an air conditioning (AC) unit capable of providing 10 kW of cooling at an ambient temperature of 140 F. The fuel for the power/AC package will be JP-8, leveraging TIAX's existing JP-8 burner technology. A primary concern for military applications is total fuel consumption. We will evaluate system efficiency based on delivered cooling power to input fuel usage. A survey of existing cooling technologies will be performed to identify candidate AC units that are light, efficient, and capable of reasonably efficient operation at 140 F ambient temperature. Based on the results of the survey, a Stirling generator will be sized and designed to meet the electrical load and acoustic emissions requirements.

YANKEE SCIENTIFIC, INC.
93 West St.
Medfield, MA 02052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 359-7999
Mr. David L. Brownell
OSD 07-ES1      Awarded: 05/09/07
Title:Portable Cogeneration of Power and Cooling
Abstract:A program is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of a Steam Powered Electricity And Refrigeration (SPEAR) system for powering and cooling military electronic equipment shelters. The SPEAR system will utilize a scroll steam expander in a Mesoscale Steam Engine Generator (MSEG) to produce electric power. Yankee Scientific developed the MSEG power cycle for the Army through a DARPA sponsored program. A Steam Jet driven chiller will provide the cooling capability. Yankee has direct experience with the use of Steam Jet chiller technology to provide refrigeration for perishables in Army field kitchens. Steam Jet refrigeration has been used for over a century for large scale cooling processes but small scale use has been limited due to the requirement of a steam supply. The normal operation of the MSEG produces the proper waste steam supply that is needed to implement Steam Jet refrigeration, thereby minimizing the additional hardware required. This proposed program will investigate the feasibility of integrating these power and cooling technologies into a compact, lightweight and quiet package. Sized to deliver 5 kW of electric power and 10 kW of cooling, the SPEAR system will provide load following power, cooling and heating capability for military electronics shelters.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2163
Mr. Joseph Hartvigsen
OSD 07-ES2      Awarded: 06/15/07
Title:JP-10 Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for UUV Applications
Abstract:A cold plasma fuel processor developed as a fuel processor air breathing JP-8 solid oxide fuel cell APU systems, will be evaluated for suitability for UUV application with JP-10 and Navy logistic oxidizers. The system uses the waste heat from the fuel cell in the reformer, to reduce oxidizer demand and improve overall system efficiency and energy density. The combined JP-10 SOFC system has the potential to exceed by a factor of two the target of 150W-hr/lb system energy density on long duration UUV missions.

FUELCELL ENERGY, INC.
3 Great Pasture Rd.
Danbury, CT 06813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 825-6048
Dr. Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh
OSD 07-ES2      Awarded: 04/03/07
Title:JP-10 Based SOFC Power Generator for Undersea Vehicles
Abstract:This project addresses the development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for converting the chemical energy in JP-10 fuel to electric power. The system will be designed to support the deployment of next generation unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) and undersea weapons. The power plant will integrate a fuel-processing unit with an SOFC and an electrical/mechanical drive-train to accommodate the vehicle's needs for propulsion and hotel loads. The proposed system is anticipated to provide a superior range compared to conventional battery or combustion based propulsion systems as the mission power will be provided by the much more efficient SOFC. The results of the proposed project will lay the foundation for low-cost, high energy density, reliable, safe, long-duration, and easily refueled power sources for UUV propulsion. Phase I research activities are focused on SOFC system concept development utilizing innovative approaches and a state-of-the-art anode supported SOFC technology with a proven track record for durability and performance. High power density SOFC stacks will be a key stepping stone in reducing the size and cost of the power generator.

INFINIA CORP.
6811 West Okanogan Avenue
Kennewick, WA 99336
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 737-2105
Mr. MAURICE A. WHITE
OSD 07-ES2      Awarded: 04/04/07
Title:Energy Conversion of JP-10 Fuel
Abstract:Most unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) have been traditionally powered by batteries. However, the longer missions and sustained higher-power operations described in the U.S. Navy's UUV Master Plan require increased energy density and specific energy on the order of 150 Wh/lb for large vehicles. Estimated power requirements range from less than 2 kW for a light-weight vehicle (LWV) at 5 kts to nearly 9 kW for a heavy-weight vehicle (HWV) at 15 kts and up to 40 kW for large-class UUVs such as the 48-inch diameter SeaLion. Infinia Corporation proposes to design an efficient JP-10 fuel-conversion system that would also offer lower fuel cost and a rapid logistical refueling capability. These qualities enable more sustainable operations that can provide reconnaissance, deliver payloads or mine countermeasures, relay communications, or even deliver remote time-critical strike capabilities without endangering or revealing the location of manned platforms.

INNOVATEK, INC.
350 Hills StreetSuite 104
Richland, WA 99354
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 375-1093
Dr. Patricia Irving
OSD 07-ES2      Awarded: 04/06/07
Title:JP-10 FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEM FOR UNDERSEA VEHICLES
Abstract:Underwater vehicles will serve as strategic factors in integrated operations of future surface ships and submarines, providing a range of support functions. The Navy has specified that unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) act as force multipliers and risk reduction agents in the future. UUVs require high-energy sources that can be quickly replenished so that vehicle down time and labor time are minimized. For almost all U.S. UUVs onboard energy is commonly carried in the form of batteries. However, batteries generally fall short on range and stamina, imposing a constraint on the mission endurance and the payload. A solution for UUV power problems is a fuel cell that operates from hydrogen generated by fuel reformers from high energy density liquid hydrocarbons such as JP-10. InnovaTek proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of using its proprietary JP-10 InnovaGenr reforming technology tightly integrated with a Topsoe planar solid oxide fuel cell and a Lockheed Martin UUV platform to provide propulsive energy to power unmanned undersea vehicles. InnovaTek's proprietary catalysts and novel micro-structured designs will be used to achieve the Navy's challenging goals of energy capacity and specific energy for UUV applications.

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD.
404 Enterprise Dr.
Lewis Center, OH 43035
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 842-6606
Dr. Paul H. Matter
OSD 07-ES2      Awarded: 04/04/07
Title:Energy Conversion of JP-10 Fuel
Abstract:The United States Navy has a critical need for improved power systems for unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) systems. Power and energy density are critically deficient in current UUV platforms, and limit mission time and capability of current systems. Tethered systems and battery powered systems will not meet the mission profiles of next generation UUVs (including persistent surveillance, mine detection and anti-submarine missions). Achieving high power density at all levels will greatly enhance future UUV capabilities. In this SBIR project, NexTech Materials and its subcontractor (Plug Power) will design, develop and demonstrate a compact solid oxide fuel cell system that will provide kilowatts of power for UUV propulsion and other mission needs. For mission durations of at least 60 hours, the power system will have an energy density of more than 150 W-hr/lb and will utilize JP-10 and liquid oxygen as fuels. The goal of Phase I is to validate the proposed approach and complete an entirely specified and detailed system design that meets the goals set by ONR.

ASCENT SOLAR TECHNOLOGIES
8120 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5135
Dr. Lawrence Woods
OSD 07-ES3      Awarded: 06/08/07
Title:CdSe Top Cells Enabling CdSe/CIGS Tandem Junction Photovoltaics
Abstract:Ascent Solar Technologies (ITN) proposes to take the next step in spacecraft solar array development, building upon previous development to make the definitive thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) device for high-efficiency (> 20%) and high-specific power (greater than 2000 W/kg) when combined with lightweight and flexible substrates. ITN will develop wide-bandgap cadmium selenide (CdSe) as a high-efficiency top cell for monolithic (two-terminal) tandem-junction photovoltaics. CdSe has the optimum bandgap (1.72 eV) for a top cell when sharing the solar spectrum with a high-efficiency, but low-bandgap CuInGaSe2 TFPV bottom cell. Tandem-junctions offer the biggest potential for increasing TFPV efficiencies in addition to lower module related losses, higher voltages and better temperature coefficients than low-bandgap single-junction devices. ITN's innovative approach to achieving high-efficiency top cells is to fabricate CdSe devices leveraging a newly developed proprietary process to convert normally n-type CdSe, to p-type, while also improving material quality. This process should enable CdSe to take advantage of high-efficiency enabling structures and processes demonstrated in lower bandgap CdTe TFPV, but are not yet tested with CdSe solar absorbers. The process also enables the CdSe to have the correct polarity for monolithic connection to the p-type CuInGaSe2 bottom cell tandem devices.

ASCENT SOLAR TECHNOLOGIES
8120 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 285-5135
Dr. Lawrence Woods
OSD 07-ES3      Awarded: 06/08/07
Title:Conductive ZnMgO Enabling High-Efficiency Wide-Bandgap Photovoltaics
Abstract:Ascent Solar Technologies (AST) proposes to develop atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of zinc-magnesium-oxide (ZnMgO) as an n-type transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for the top contact that will match the material properties of new buffer and window layers being developed for new wide-bandgap devices. AST's innovative approach proposes to make the definitive light-absorber layer for high-power, lightweight and flexible thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV). The baseline AST product utilizes single-junction devices with low-bandgap CuInSe2 (CISe) alloys, however better TFPV module performance is predicted through the use of wide-bandgap alloy variations of the CISe based solar absorber. AST has been developing wide-bandgap alloys of CISe based solar absorbers using both aluminum and gallium for simultaneous optimization of the bandgap and material properties. To date, most wide-bandgap device development has used traditional device layers that are optimal for low-bandgap solar absorbers, but are not well matched for wide-bandgap absorbers. In addition, AST will utilize novel lightweight and flexible substrates that are also being developed at AST. Ultra-high TFPV device efficiencies and specific power (> 1500 W/kg) could result from the combined device and substrate technology, exceeding state-of-the-art terrestrial TFPV module efficiencies (at operational temperatures), and enabling terrestrial, spacecraft, balloon and unmanned aircraft technologies.

EIKOS, INC.
2 Master Drive
Franklin, MA 02038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 528-0300
Dr. David Britz
OSD 07-ES3      Awarded: 05/17/07
Title:High Performance Hole Conducting Electrode for Transparent Thin Film PVs
Abstract:Eikos, Inc proposes using Invisiconr, the world's only high performance transparent hole conductor, to increase the performance of flexible thin film photovoltaics (TFPVs). The most efficient TFPVs have an active layer of Copper Indium diSelenide doped with Gallium (CIGS). These devices have reached 19.5% efficiency at AM1.5 illumination on thick glass substrates. CIGS cells on heavy, rigid substrates have lower power densities than crystalline silicon (c-Si) PVs. To displace c-Si for terrestrial applications and multi-junction PVs for space applications, TFPVs must be highly efficient, lightweight, flexible, and low cost. The most technologically feasible way to achieve these characteristics is to stack a wide bandgap TFPV on top of a narrow bandgap TFPV to absorb both high energy and low energy light from the solar spectrum to make a "tandem" device. Eikos will partner with Ascent Solar Technologies (AST) to improve the efficiency and transparency of AST's wide bandgap TFPV by incorporating Eikos' hole conducting transparent electrode. Eikos-Ascent Solar Technologies devices will exceed 15% efficiency and 70% sub-bandgap transparency, enabling high efficiency, high power density tandem PVs. We will fabricate the devices on flexible substrates, which will increase manufacturability and reduce cost.

INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY (ISET)
8950 Lurline Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 882-8687
Dr. Vijay K. Kapur
OSD 07-ES3      Awarded: 07/03/07
Title:Low Cost CIGS Solar Cells on Lightweight Titanium Foil
Abstract:ISET is proposing to fabricate CIGS solar cells on lightweight and flexible titanium foil using its patented low cost ink-based process. The ability to encapsulate titanium foil in an appropriate protective and insulating coating has made it compatible with our low cost process and has also enabled us to fabricate modules via monolithic integration. Specific power densities >1000 W/kg are now achievable on metallic foil substrates.

INTERPHASES RESEARCH
741 Lakefield Rd, Ste E
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 497-2677
Dr. Shalini Menezes
OSD 07-ES3      Awarded: 06/18/07
Title:Low-Cost Thin-Film CIS Photovoltaic Technology for DOD Applications
Abstract:This SBIR project proposes a new flexible lightweight, high-specific power, photovoltaic technology to address the DOD electric power generation need for terrestrial, near space, and space platforms. It seeks to raise the efficiency and lower the cost of flexible modules with a new solar cell configuration, based on a high performing n-copper-indium-selenide (n-CIS) thin film. It seeks to simplify high-volume manufacturing with continuous roll-to-roll electrodeposition. Phase I aims to identify the cell components and processing steps to produce solar cells with electrodeposited n-CIS films. Phase I will adapt the electrodeposition approach to flexible substrates, deposit compatible buffer and window layers, fabricate and characterize CIS solar cells. The results will provide a strong foundation for Phase II prototyping, increasing its efficiency and advancing the technology for low cost high-throughput manufacturing. Project success will lead to flexible CIS PV modules with better efficiency, reliability, consistency and power density even in adverse environments.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Paul Boieriu
OSD 07-ES4      Awarded: 05/23/07
Title:Advanced Multijunction Solar Cell & Concentrator System Development for DOD Terrestrial and Space Applications
Abstract:The objective of this Phase I effort is to investigate the feasibility of using quaternary alloys based on the established II-VI compounds HgTe, CdTe and ZnTe to generate crystals with the desired bandgaps for solar cells and the use of additional down-converting glass plates to allow for enhanced absorption. A number of theoretical calculations predict efficiencies that are significantly higher than current state-of-the-art results. Monolithic two-terminal cells that offer advantages in terms of weight and interconnect simplicity will be investigated. We will develop this system, first by modeling photon absorption and electrical carrier transport in the proposed 2-junction structure. Subsequently, we will fabricate a single-junction II-VI HgCdZnTe solar cell. In parallel, we will develop and test transparent, rare-earth doped fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics for UV photon down-conversion. Finally, we will work on fusion techniques of the two systems. Previous experience in developing HgCdTe for infrared detection and glass-ceramic plates for radiation detection has given us the experience to develop the proposed system.

INTEGRATED MICRO SENSORS, INC.
10814 Atwell Drive
Houston, TX 77096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 743-3621
Dr. Nasr-Eddine Medelci-Djezzar
OSD 07-ES4      Awarded: 05/18/07
Title:High Efficiency InGaN Solar Cells
Abstract:Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) has the potential of forming optoelectronic devices - including solar cells - covering a range of 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV. This energy range matches closely the usable emission present in the solar spectrum as seen from space (AM0). Beside the inherent thermal ruggedness of the III Nitrides which make them fit for high temperature applications such as in solar cells used in high terrestrial concentrator systems, it has recently been determined that these Nitride materials can offer exceptional radiation tolerance that is well beyond what can be achieved with conventional solar cell materials that are currently flown into space. Although InGaN as a solar cell would be a less mature technology than other III-V semiconductors, and hence will not likely have as high efficiency as its III-V counterparts, the important factor is that it will degrade far less over the its lifetime. Two critical issues need to be addressed for the realization of InGaN-based multijunction solar cells, namely adequate minority carrier lifetimes and high p-type doping. A key to a monolithically integrated InxGa1-xN multijunction solar cell is the availability of a crystallographically compatible tunnel diode whose feasibility will be investigated.

MICROLINK DEVICES
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 588-3001
Dr. Noren Pan
OSD 07-ES4      Awarded: 05/31/07
Title:Advanced Multijunction Solar Cell on Misoriented GaAs Substrates
Abstract:The significance of the innovation in this Phase I SBIR is the development of a low cost compound semiconductor material for high efficiency and high specific power solar array technology. This will be accomplished by the development of a production worthy Multiple-layer Epitaxial Lift Off (MELO) process. Focus will be given to GaAs based solar cells including lattice-matched InGaP materials for dual bandgap devices. This technology will provide high conversion efficiency and cost effective solar cells for terrestrial concentrator systems in addition to high specific power density for Space applications.

ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
244 Sobrante Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8302
Dr. John T. Kelly
OSD 07-ES5      Awarded: 11/09/07
Title:Modular and Efficient Compact Syngas Production System
Abstract:The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process, combined with feedstock pretreatment and gasification reactors, can be used to produce logistic fuels from a range of feedstocks, in combat theaters where military fuels are not available or too costly. However, current pretreatment and gasifier reactors are too large and heavy for the mobile fuels production application of interest. Altex has identified the Modular and Efficient Compact Syngas System that uses a compact dryer and gasifier to increase output per mass that is more compatible with the mobile requirements of the system. Preliminary tests at reduced scale have shown the potential of the concept. Under the proposed effort, the innovative gasifier technology will be adapted to the Army need, and feasibility will be proven through analysis and tests on several feedstocks. Lastly, the performance and cost benefits of the concept will be quantified and the advantages of the concept over alternatives will be determined.

DIVERSIFIED ENERGY CORP.
2020 W Guadalupe RdSuite 5
Gilbert, AZ 85233
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 507-0297
Mr. Jerry Stephenson
OSD 07-ES5      Awarded: 11/19/07
Title:Intensified Unit Operations and Lightweight Plant Design for Mobile Synthetic Fuel Plants
Abstract:Diversified Energy Corporation and Velocys Incorporated have created an industry team that combines a breakthrough gasification approach with an innovative Fischer Tropsch reactor to provide an integrated, compact, portable, robust, process intensified, modular, end-to-end Fischer Tropsch fuel solution that achieves the 3 t/b/d OSD stated objective while producing 50 - 500 b/d of product. HydroMax (gasification), based on molten-metal technology, achieves size and weight reductions due to the large thermal inertia of molten-metal and rapid kinetics, and resultant reaction rates, associated with steam/carbon injection profiles. HydroMax produces hydrogen and CO-rich syngas in separate/distinct streams which is ideal for a Fischer Tropsch reactor. Velocys' FT technology incorporates a microchannel carbon-hydrogen combiner approach that reduces the mass and footprint required by 90%. During SBIR Phase I, the team will focus on four objectives: 1) Bench-scale test data integration analysis 2) Plant conceptual design, layout, and simulation 3) Economic assessment 4) Modularity and logistics assessment. Independent laboratory and bench-scale tests of both technologies will form the basis for the analysis. Anticipated results of this effort include a feasibility/economic assessment of the integrated approach, a conceptual design of an operational plant, and feedstock/output analysis trades that will establish the foundation for a Phase II demonstration.

ELTRON RESEARCH, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. James H. White
OSD 07-ES5      Awarded: 12/13/07
Title:A Fuel Flexible, Process Intensified Gasifier for Mobile Fuels Synthesis
Abstract:The American military is currently seeking to develop a mobile synthetic fuels plant. This requires process intensification, i.e., extensive reduction in plant weight and size. A key unit operation is at the gasification stage, where both process intensification, and fuel flexibility are sought. The ability to process carbon sources including natural gas, biomass, wastes, coal, crude oil, and petroleum products into synthesis gas is essential. An approach for process intensified, fuel flexible gasification of several such carbon sources has been demonstrated at Eltron The technology is based on partial oxidation of feed by an oxygen carrier which can alternately adsorb oxygen and catalyze partial oxidation of fuels. The proposed system offers significant advantages over conventional gasification and reforming systems in terms of fuel flexibility, reduced size and weight, reduced operating temperature and pressure, elimination of tar or coke deposits, and sulfur tolerance. This project addresses development of a compact gasification system based on Eltron=s cyclic partial oxidation (CycloFormingTM) technology for generating syngas. Phase I will identify catalysts, design and fabricate a bench scale gasifier, and test using appropriate feeds. On the basis of Phase I data, a prototype system will be designed, fabricated, and tested during Phase II.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2349
Dr. Gokhan Alptekin
OSD 07-ES5      Awarded: 11/07/07
Title:A Novel Syngas Purification System to Support Mobile Synthetic Fuel Plants
Abstract:The military is interested in the development of mobile systems to produce Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthetic fuels from local resources in the combat theater (natural gas, crude oils, biomass, coal, etc.) and has supported the development of various high throughput FT reactors, gasifiers and FT upgrading systems that could accomplish high conversion per unit volume. The mobile FT plants will require many supporting operations to be intensified to attain the major weight and size reductions. One key need is to remove impurities and diluents from the syngas feedstock to the FT process to ensure long life and stability of the FT catalysts. The reduction of diluents, particularly CO2, will also intensify the synthesis process and thereby increase the product yield and purity. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a syngas clean-up and purification unit to remove potential catalyst poisons and diluents from the syngas to ensure long life, stable operation of the FT catalyst and to achieve a high yield from the FT synthesis reactor.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Michael G. Izenson
OSD 07-ES6      Awarded: 06/13/07
Title:Compact, Efficient Water Recovery for Advanced Fuel Cell Power Systems
Abstract:Fuel cell power systems that run on common, high-sulfur logistics fuel have the potential to meet future demands for distributed, shipboard power generation and generate power at forward deployed bases. A key practical problem with this technology is the need for a continuous supply of high-purity water to the fuel reformer. We propose to develop a compact, efficient, and simple water recovery system that can separate high-purity water from the reformate stream without the need for phase change and complicated purification equipment. In Phase I we will prove the feasibility of our approach through proof-of-concept experiments that demonstrate the key performance aspects of our system, chemical process modeling of the power system that calculates system performance in key operational modes, a 3-D system layout, and specification of interfaces for a range of power system sizes. In Phase II we will build and demonstrate a prototype water recovery system sized for a 50 kWe fuel cell generating system.

FILTRATION SOLUTIONS, INC.
432 Sand Shore RoadUnit 8
Hackettstown, NJ 07840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(908) 684-4000
Mr. Peter Yu
OSD 07-ES6      Awarded: 07/03/07
Title:Modular High Power Fuel Cell System Design
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop an innovative single stage water vapor recovery device that utilizes the polar nature of water molecules to separate water vapor from the reformed gaseous fuel mixture in a fuel cell system. The removed water vapor from the proposed design can be fed back to the fuel reformer without the need for condensing it to liquid water. The proposed water vapor separator will significantly increase the overall fuel cell efficiency, and reduce the capital and operation costs of a fuel cell system. It is a safe, robust, user-friendly, compact, low maintenance, and continuously operable highly efficient water recovery device

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Kang-Bin Chua
OSD 07-ES6      Awarded: 06/26/07
Title:Electrophoretic Water Extractor
Abstract:To address the OSD need for a high density water recovery subsystem for advanced fuel cell systems (FCS), operating on logistic fuel without the need for phase change and with minimum purification equipment, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Electrophoretic Water Extractor (EWE) based on electrophoresis in a nonuniform electric field system. The innovative EWE system design uses electrophoretic force on water to recover water vapor from steam and autothermal reformate stream (ATR) without the need of phase change, thus it has an energy efficiency of >70%. The electrophoretic force selectively extracts water versus other gases at a ratio of 1500:1 or better. As a result, it has the potential to separate water from the gas stream with better than 95% purity with no consumables used and has a small number of components. Its simplistic design allows it to be easily optimized and integrated into any FCS which uses ATR, eliminating dependency on a continuous supply of water. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of EWE by developing a small-scale laboratory system prototype to demonstrate its technological feasibility. In Phase II POC will develop a scaled-up system capable of supporting a 50 kWe FCS.

POWER & ENERGY
106 Railroad Drive
Ivyland, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 942-4600
Dr. Peter Bossard
OSD 07-ES6      Awarded: 07/19/07
Title:Modular High Power Fuel Cell System Design
Abstract:An energy efficient method to achieve a constant source of pure water is required for steam or auto thermal reforming of high sulfur logistic fuels. Presently, this includes use of a significant number of auxiliary components to separate and clean the recovered water to high purity levels which add to the total complexity and cost of the system. This system will recover enough pure water from the raffinate stream so that, when combined with the pure water recovered from the fuel cell, there will be sufficient quantities of high quality water to support either advanced steam reforming or auto thermal reforming. In order to achieve high efficiency and high density we will use a fuel cell system integrated with an advanced micro channel fuel processor. The fuel processing system comprises a micro channel steam reformer integrated with a micro channel heat exchanger and a micro channel hydrogen separation system. This model for fuel reforming process significantly increases the energy efficiency and compactness. The projected water recovered and purified from the raffinate / fuel processor when combined with water recovered from the fuel cell will exceed the water needed to operate advanced steam or auto thermal reformer systems by 10%.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2349
Dr. Gokhan Alptekin
OSD 07-ES6      Awarded: 06/08/07
Title:Modular High Power Fuel Cell Design
Abstract:Fuel cells operating on high sulfur logistics diesel fuel (NATO F-76, JP5, JP8) offer a viable means to provide distributed ship service and forward deployed base electrical power. However, a major drawback to the use of fuel cells as electric generators by deployed forces is their inability to directly use battlefield fuels. Low temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells require a relatively pure, concentrated hydrogen (H2) stream. The hydrogen needed for operating the PEM fuel cell can be generated by reforming the logistics fuel, but the reforming process must be provided with a constant supply of high purity water. TDA proposes a novel fuel cell water recovery concept that complements the operation of a hydrogen membrane-based fuel cell fuel processor. The proposed approach achieves water recovery with very high efficiency. In Phase I, we will conduct a preliminary design of the system components and demonstrate the key aspects of the technology.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun DriveSuite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5242
Dr. Roger Xu
OSD 07-ES7      Awarded: 11/28/07
Title:Hierarchical Management System for Tactical Power Grids
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI), and Georgia Institute of Technology detail an intelligent hierarchical power management system that provides self-diagnostics, plug-an-play capability, and a set of practical, integrated software and hardware tools for efficient power system management with a minimum of required hardware. In the proposed system, power management is conducted at two levels, grid level and load center level, in a distributed fashion using a high fidelity system model. The grid level management is conducted at local nodes. Each node has its own model and intelligence to perform analysis and take local decisions. Each node is implemented on low-cost reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), is located close to, but does not require integration with, the (legacy) load. The "brain centers" perform the load center level power management using all the models of connected components of the system in real time and assemble the integrated model of the entire tactical grid. The proposed system will be scalable, highly reliable, and flexible with "plug and play" capabilities by virtue of its distributed nature, and capable of managing efficient utilization of energy sources and maximizing the reliability of the power supply.

INTELLIGENT POWER & ENERGY RESEARCH CORP.
PO Box 616
Fort Montgomery, NY 10922
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 781-0023
Dr. Darrell Massie
OSD 07-ES7      Awarded: 12/11/07
Title:Develop plug and play architecture for Tactical power grids
Abstract:Executive Summary This proposal describes the methodology for applying architecture and intelligent control algorithms to enable plug-and-play capabilities for tactical power grids. The Intelligent Power & Energy Research Corporation (IPERC) and Infotility have developed a modeling system specifically designed for facilitating the implementation of sophisticated control for power generating systems with interdependencies. The software will demonstrate an ability to make repeatable decisions based on complex relationships between large amounts of measured and estimated data; a task difficult, especially when the relationships can consist of multiple pieces of equipment where one piece of equipment can influence "downstream" devices. The software will be able to represent the steady-state and dynamic performance and can rapidly evaluate different operating configurations to determine the best mode under a variety of operating conditions.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Mr. Kartik Moorthy
OSD 07-ES7      Awarded: 11/19/07
Title:Develop plug and play architecture for Tactical power grids
Abstract:In response to the need for increased grid reliability and versatility, Williams-Pyro, Inc. proposes to develop a modular, portable, inexpensive Intelligent Energy Control System (IECS) that can plan deployments as well as measure and manage demands for requested services (e.g., location, targeting, and mobility). IECS will enable "plug and play" features through intelligent power grid control algorithms for load prioritization and shedding, mission equipment identification and mission profile integration, multiple sensors to measure the load condition and power quality for diagnostics and prognostics, high speed broadband wireless network communication (WiFi) and/or broadband over power line (BPL) for (near) real time situational awareness and reaction, and commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. The modular system architecture will manage energy decisions across the entire unit and will scale completely to flexibly cover various electric power generation units, storage devices, etc. Our IECS will be able to operate on different DoD operating platforms, be rapidly reconfigured, accommodate third-party interests, integrate into existing control systems and protocols, track energy as a resource at all levels of deployment, and provide logisticians with better information for re-supplying the force.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Thomas E. Wilmoth
OSD 07-ES8      Awarded: 11/19/07
Title:Intelligent Control System for Soldier Power
Abstract:Cybernet proposes to develop a methodology for distributing and managing the power supply voltages required by each electrical load in a soldier's battle environment. Modern man-portable electronics include diverse systems, each having their own power source, which multiplies the battery weight and power conditioning hardware required by the number of units deployed per individual. These electronic systems include communications, tactical, defensive and weaponry, many with differing power requirements, individual energy densities, and varying sensitivities to outside environmental influence. The proposed energy management system would provide the electrical power requirements of each piece of equipment, and offer an improved weight to energy density ratio, yielding better overall performance and decreased pack weight.Multiple power system requirements and differing energy profiles can all be managed from a single robust high-density power source, providing any voltage value or polarity, (including 120 VAC if necessary), by programming a power port to generate the necessary output voltage / waveform profile. Each power port would be a pulse width modulated Class D amplifier, capable of reproducing any required waveform by simply loading the necessary power profile for the specified electrical load. Over-current protection and feedback monitoring would insure that each electrical load was optimally managed.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mr. Kang Lee
OSD 07-ES8      Awarded: 11/14/07
Title:Hierarchical Intelligent Energy Resource Controller
Abstract:To address the need for an "intelligent" control system, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a Hierarchical Intelligent Energy Resource Controller (HIREC) wearable personal area network. The proposed system will comprise both monitoring/control hardware and analysis/control firmware to minimize the dismounted soldier's load weight, maximize comfort (by means of the POC WEARNET), and optimize energy management. The HIREC sensors and power control circuitry will be interfaced via POC's Universal Sensor Interface Module (USIM), which consists of a signal-conditioning unit, a POC wearable snap connector for universal connection to the WEARNET, an interchangeable, configurable sensor interface (electrical/optical/mechanical) unit, and an optional wireless WEARNET interconnect module. The innovative intelligent power controller (IPC), in the form of the HIREC firmware and power sensing and control electronics, will enable HIREC to optimize power levels both automatically and in accordance with manually set preferences. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of HIREC with prototype hardware and software based on our WEARNET system. In Phase II we plan to integrate advanced military electronics into the system to ensure proper interfacing with such equipment as long-range RF antennas, laser rangefinders, and portable computers.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee HighwaySuite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7780
Mr. Dan Bindbeutel
OSD 07-ES8      Awarded: 11/26/07
Title:Intelligent Control System for Soldier Power
Abstract:The effectiveness of dismount soldier systems is currently limited by reliance on inflexible and inefficient body-worn power infrastructures. These systems, made up of multiple electronic components, would be greatly enhanced by the development an efficient, consistent architecture that provided monitoring and control over both power storage and soldier system devices, which can include CPUs, displays, radios, targeting devices, sensors, and navigation aids. To address this need, Trident Systems plans to develop a comprehensive architecture-the Adaptive Soldier Power Energy Control Toolkit, or ASPECT-that leverages appropriate commercial paradigms & standards in power awareness and efficient system control. Trident will begin with an analysis of system requirements, including study of functionality, operational usage, and external interfaces, as well as electrical, mechanical, and power requirements. This will be followed by a survey of existing soldier system devices and configurations, with the development of operational profiles to guide development, along with analysis of commercial standards-based approaches to power management. Architecture and system design efforts will then apply these standards to the soldier system environment, developing a complete solution that is modular, open, and scalable. A proof-of-concept system will then be implemented that demonstrates the validity of the ASPECT architecture.

ADVANCED PROJECTS RESEARCH, INC.
1925 McKinley AvenueSuite B
La Verne, CA 91750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(909) 228-9950
Dr. Thomas H. Sobota
OSD 07-ES9      Awarded: 05/15/07
Title:Inter-Turbine Burner Technology Demonstration
Abstract:The development of an Inter-Turbine Burner (ITB) for improving the part power performance of small gas turbine engines is proposed. An Inter-Turbine Burner is a second combustor placed between the gas generator exit and the power turbine to "reheat" the engine gas stream before it enters the power turbine. The Inter-Turbine burner is used to increase engine power at the maximum power setting, permitting the core engine to be run closer to its design condition while at part power settings. Cycle analysis shows significant improvement in engine power at the full power condition with an improvement in specific fuel consumption at part power conditions. These characteristics are very beneficial in certain military missions. In order to be effective, the ITB must exhibit low pressure loss and several other components of a gas-turbine engine must be modified to optimize performance. In the proposed effort APRI will work with Honeywell Aircraft Engines to identify relevant missions and engines that can benefit from this technology, optimize engine cycle and other engine components, and detail ITB designs and their integration into small gas turbine engines. These designs will be based, in part, on APRI's prior work on compact trapped vortex combustors.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Roger W. Hill
OSD 07-ES9      Awarded: 05/17/07
Title:Demonstration of Inter-Turbine Burners for Part-Power Improvements
Abstract:Conventional gas turbine engines are often optimized for a specific narrow range of the flight envelope and perform much less efficiently at off-design conditions. Introduction of an inter-turbine burner (ITB) into a gas turbine design can add a level of adjustability to the engine performance that in turn provides improved operating efficiency over a wider range of the operating envelope. In the proposed project, we will identify jet aircraft and missions that could benefit from part power fuel efficiency improvements brought about by incorporation of an ITB into the engine. ITB and engine design concepts will be developed, analyzed, and tested. During the Phase I, the potential benefit will be quantified with cycle analyses, and design concepts will be analyzed for aerodynamic, thermal, and structural performance. Preliminary design concepts will be chosen and a Phase II test program scope will be defined.

SPYTEK AEROSPACE CORP.
450 Frontier Way, Unit D
Bensenville, IL 60106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 595-9133
Mr. Christopher Spytek
OSD 07-ES9      Awarded: 05/11/07
Title:Demonstration of Inter-Turbine Burners for Part-Power Fuel Efficiency Improvements
Abstract:Gas turbine engines using multistage turbine sections have the inherent disadvantage of temperature loss through the turbine section. This occurs when each successive turbine stage extracts energy from the superheated mass airflow. The result is limited energy potential due to the first stage turbine temperature limits. An inter-turbine burner (ITB) would be able to utilize constant temperature burning through the turbine module by adding burners between the turbine stages. ITB's improve part-power efficiency while allowing for high fuel efficiency at maximum power through the use of its reheat cycle. ITBs' used in low cost UAV type engines allow for the use of less expensive lower temperature materials, in multiple stages, yet extract more energy from the airflow. Spytek Aerospace plans to demonstrate the feasibility of adding an ITB to an existing Spytek Aerospace engine. The ITB will be adapted from the Ultra-Compact combustor developed by the Air Force Propulsion Directorate. The major areas to be addressed will be the ability to provide air into the primary burn zone of the ITB to sustain combustion and the ability to successfully entrain the combustion products from the ITB combustor into the main stream flow without causing undue restrictions or hot streak problems.