---------- DARPA ----------

172 Phase I Selections from the 07.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4892
Dr. Shivshankar Sundaram
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 11/8/2007
Title:Nanoelectrokinetic, Label-free Sensor for Toxic Industrial Chemical Detection
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel nanofluidic, label-free sensor to detect the presence of ultra-low levels of Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) in aqueous environmental samples. The envisioned handheld sensor will be hand-portable, be ruggedly constructed, support remote operation and be UAV-mountable. Our sensor exploits novel features of AC electrokinetics, made possible only when the channel dimensions approach the nanoscale, to detect signatures of TICs in aqueous solution, rapidly and with very high sensitivity. Equally significantly, the label-free approach developed here eliminates critical difficulties associated with reagent logistics and stability. In Phase I, guided by physics- based simulations, we will develop the design of the basic nanosensor element. The design will conform to specifications that are amenable to mass-production-friendly lithographic techniques. The designed nanochannel sensors will be fabricated using US Army AMRDEC facilities. The prototype sensor will be challenged with common hazardous chemicals and the overall sensor response will be characterized. In Phase II, the nanofluidic sensor will be optimized to increase sensitivity. Response to array of other common toxic chemicals will be verified. Finally, the sensor will be integrated with other sample handling components (currently under development at CFDRC) and control/transmission electronics to form a hand-portable or UAV-deployable Toxic Industrial Chemical detector.

ENGENIUSMICRO, LLC
5361 Whitehall Place
Mableton, GA 30126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 289-8272
Dr. Brian A English
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:NanoEnhanced Toxic Industrial Chemicals Sensor
Abstract:The detection and classification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICS) is an important capability to the nation’s defense forces, first responder units, and law enforcement, not to mention the more traditional needs in industrial monitoring and control, construction, and even household applications. First responders, in all levels of government, need to be warned of the presence and type of TICS when first arriving at the scene of plant explosions, fires, terrorist attacks, and other events. Law enforcement organizations also require this capability when reconning and raiding anticipated drug manufacturing and distribution sites, monitoring the nation’s borders, and many other activities. All of these applications may be looking at different types of chemicals, but they may also be acquiring the samples in different ways and may also have different concepts of operation when utilizing a TICS detector.The goal of the proposed effort is to enhance the capability of TICS detection for these applications through advanced nanofabrication processes and realize a small, versatile, and sensitive detector for TICS.

SENSORCON, INC.
125 Main St.
Reading, MA 01867
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 864-9884
Mr. Mark Wagner
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Nanotechnology-Enhanced Sensor for Toxic Industrial Chemicals
Abstract:Toxic industrial chemicals (TICS) include widespread substances, such as ammonia, chlorine, and hydrogen cyanide. In order to help DOD with its efforts to detect TICS in military operations, Sensorcon is proposing to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into its micro electrochemical sensors (MECS) by means of a highly scalable process. MECS is a new platform sensor technology that is smaller, less expensive, and more rugged than traditional electrochemical sensors. CNT-enhanced MECS will have enhanced sensitivities that are at least 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the leading commercial sensors. This will enable the detection of some TICS in the PPT-PPB range, which is highly desirable for urban combat scenarios, where a threat may exist in a nearby vehicle. In Phase I, the processing techniques will be developed to create & test CNT- enhanced MECS. Phase II will refine the process and incorporate additional nanomaterials for further enhanced performance. Testing will focus on TICS of DOD interest, with an initial focus on comparative tests with chlorine & nitrogen dioxide sensors.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 713-1220
Dr. Michael Vogt
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Nanotechnology-Enhanced Sensor for Toxic Industrial Chemicals
Abstract:Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon during World War I and has reemerged as a threat in Iraq compounding the dangers from existing improvised explosive devices. One of the significant challenges with preventing attacks that involve toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) like chlorine, ammonia is that they have genuine civilian uses for water treatment, in refrigeration systems, and others, that makes it impossible to outlaw their sale and possession. In order to address this, Streamline Automation proposes to develop a thin- film voltammetric gas sensor that utilizes nano-scale features to enhance sensitivity to TICs. This will involve doping the sensor materials with catalysts that enhance reactions with specific chemicals of interest through techniques such as ion implantation. The use of thin-film fabrication techniques will enable an array of voltammetric sensing cells to be laid down in a very small area and tailored to the detection of a range of TICs. The Phase 1 effort will focus on demonstrating that a thin-film sensor behaves as expected with the addition of a dopant, and on identifying candidate dopants for several High Hazard TICs.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5926
Dr. Dolly Batra
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 2/7/2008
Title:Nanotechnology-Enhanced Sensor for Toxic Industrial Chemicals
Abstract:Traditionally, concern over warfighter exposure to chemicals has centered on chemical warfare agents (CWAs), due to their acute toxicity and weaponized status. Recently, however, additional concern has arisen regarding toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), which are industrial chemicals that have the potential to cause adverse health effects in people through deliberate or accidental exposure. While they are not as lethal as conventional CWAs, TICs pose a threat to warfighters and civilian populations, simply due to their increased abundance and availability compared to CWAs. We propose to develop reagent-free sensing materials incorporating nanoscale features which will enhance the detection, identification and quantification of various TICs. Interaction between analyte molecules and the nanocomposite sensing material will result in a significant change in measurable properties of the material that can be easily monitored by standard techniques. In Phase I, we will fabricate nanoscale sensing materials, demonstrate their TICs detection capability and illustrate their improved performance brought about by the nanoscale components. The sensing materials will eventually be incorporated into a sensor array (Phase II) which enable the identification and quantification of the TICs.

MAGIQ TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
171 Madison Avenue Suite 1300
New York, NY 10016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-8300
Dr. Michael LaGasse
DARPA 07-002      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Innovative Pulse Programmers for Quantum Computing Applications
Abstract:Scaling up quantum computers is proving difficult due to the need for a scalable precision pulse generating platform. This proposal shows a scalable system architecture that packs 96 high resolution channels of multiple electronic outputs, 1 high speed analog, 1 high speed shaped radio frequency pulse, and digital serializable outputs that are each synchronized precisely in each commonly available commercial chassis. Multiple chassis can be synchronized, allowing an order of magnitude increase in the size of quantum computers from the present state of the art. The phase 1 proposal is for the detailed design of hardware, firmware, and software for such an apparatus.

DXE LLC
4005 Oak Grove Court
Flower Mound, TX 75028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 254-6063
Mr. James T. Plesa
DARPA 07-003      Awarded: 10/30/2007
Title:Crack Nucleation Prediction through Surface Roughness Measurement
Abstract:The "fear of failure" mindset which controls the management, deployment, design and usage of military assets is caused by the lack of understanding of a system's health. DARPA has developed the Prognosis program to study ways for improving state awareness and health prediction in order to address this very issue. One way of accomplishing this is by developing methods to predict fatigue. This study will focus on measuring surface roughness of critical aircraft components and correlating it to fatigue crack nucleation. DXE, LLC. will adapt its state-of-the-art surface profilometry technology for use in aircraft inspections by making it portable and easy to use. Phase I of the study, involves looking at different methods of obtaining surface roughness measurements from existing aircraft. DXE’s profilometer will be used to measure surface roughness both on representative and laboratory samples. These samples will be subjected to accelerated cyclic loading until failure occurs with surface roughness monitored throughout the tests. DXE, LLC. will produce data-driven models based on these measurements for use in developing predictive algorithms in Phase II. The algorithms developed in Phase II will be integrated into the Prognosis system to further enhance its prediction accuracy and reduce inspection intervals.

LUMINIT, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Dr. Jun Ai
DARPA 07-003      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Fiber-Image- Guide Airframe Roughness Profilometer
Abstract:To address the DARPA need for airframe crack nucleation prediction through surface roughness measurement, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new Fiber-Image-Guide Airframe Roughness Profilometer (FIGARP), based on a novel phase resolvable full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a handheld Fiber-Image-Guide (FIG) probe. OCT offers rapid tomographic imaging of strongly scattering materials. The FIG probe offers simultaneous acquisition of a 2D pixel array from a surface without physical contact. The portable FIGARP requires no anti-vibration measures. It can measure the surface topography of a real aircraft in < 0.1 ms, with sub-nanometer depth and sub-micron lateral resolution. The FIGARP will be built with COTS components and packaged in a 19-inch rack-mountable box. Measurement is controlled with user-friendly software on a laptop computer. In Phase I, Luminit will demonstrate the feasibility by studying physics and data-driven models on fatigue crack growth as a function of surface roughness, and developing a proof-of-concept FIGARP for inspecting aircraft Al alloys of varying surface quality. In Phase II, Luminit will develop algorithms and computer programs to simulate and predict crack nucleation as a function of measured surface roughness, and integrate the programs into a commercial FASTRAN software package.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir B. Markov
DARPA 07-003      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Fatigue Crack Prognostics by Optical Quantification of Surface Roughness
Abstract:Reliable and operationally simple methods that can be used in the field are needed for observationally-based prognosis of remaining fatigue life. Previous work in the fatigue literature and at MetroLaser has shown that surface roughness can be a key indicator of the fatigue state of a component and that light scattering measurement is a convenient method for characterizing this roughness. However, there still exists a significant gap in the modeling capability due to the relative novelty of this technique. During Phase I, we will show the feasibility of developing a framework for interfacing between the sensed data and remaining life prediction, as well as to show the feasibility of integrating the sensor with different fatigue monitoring methods. The ultimate result will be a complete prognosis solution for structural health monitoring. If the basic feasibility of this prognostic paradigm can be demonstrated, the Phase I results can be used in a subsequent Phase II effort to refine the sensor design and develop remaining life models. Such a complete solution for sensing and prognostics would enable substantial cost savings in defense and commercial aircraft maintenance particularly. The compactness and low cost of the sensor technology makes it especially attractive.

VEXTEC CORP.
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Dr. Robert Tryon
DARPA 07-003      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Crack Nucleation Prediction through Surface Roughness Measurement
Abstract:Our commercial and military fleets operate safely but at a great cost. Downtime for structural inspections, elaborate sustainment equipment, long maintainer hours, expensive in-depot repair, continuous spectrum monitoring, and extensive component testing have effectively reduced the rates of structure-related accidents, but the costs are overwhelming. DARPA has proposed changing the paradigm of aircraft structural management by creating a new methodology to inspect, diagnose, prognosticate, and manage airframe life. VEXTEC proposes a unique approach to this challenging problem in utilizing pre-existing, non-contact sensor technology for surface roughness measurement coupled with our novel physics-based microstructural crack-modeling simulation tools, materials expertise, and metals-application knowledge base. The means and processes presented here – meant to implement a consolidated prognostics technology that uses structural surface profilometry, materials models, and early crack-progression simulation – will allow for the diagnostics and prognostics of small damage.

BLACK FOREST ENGINEERING, LLC
1879 Austin Bluffs Parkway
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-9501
Dr. Stephen Gaalema
DARPA 07-004      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Ultra-lightweight Infrared Camera
Abstract:Uncooled focal plane array (FPA) technology has evolved such that high performance is achieved in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) band with small pixel pitch. Small pitch, = 17 um, allows reduction in optics size and weight. Innovative folded reflective optics allows further reduction in optics thickness and weight. On-FPA analog-to-digital conversion and custom digital electronics significantly reduces power dissipation. This innovative optics, small pixel high performance uncooled FPA sensor and custom digital electronics on flexible substrates allows development of ultra-lightweight and low power cameras for use on Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Component packaging of thin optics, thin FPA assembly and electronics on flexible substrates creates a thin camera structure. Black Forest Engineering, on Phase I, will conduct a preliminary optics design and feasibility study to package all camera components in size < 10 mm x 30 mm x 30 mm with weight < 10 grams and power < 1 watt. The Phase I research will allow development of a LWIR camera on Phase II and integrated with MAV structural elements.

VERSATILIS LLC
488 Ridgefield Rd
Shelburne, VT 05482
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 985-4009
Mr. George A. Powch
DARPA 07-004      Awarded: 11/14/2007
Title:Synthetic Combinatory Bendable Substrates (CyCoBs) for Ultra-lightweight, Structurally Embedded Infrared (IR) Camera
Abstract:This SBIR effort will show feasibility of very thin, lightweight, integrated FPAs on a novel, flexible substrate which can double as the IR transmissive window and be readily transferred onto curved or conformal surfaces, or structural elements of a Micro-Air Vehicle (MAV). Versatilis will build and demonstrate a simple such (2x2) IR detector array using a ternary lead salt (PbCdSe) from BAE Systems. The technology will enable very lightweight IR cameras ~10g for MAVs for long endurance and higher power payloads (>90 mW-hr). Versatilis has developed a synthetic crystalline substrate material which can be used in such applications, branded “Versulite,” combined with a process for growing heteroepitaxial single crystal thin films atop it. Versulite is an extremely rugged, stable insulating material, fully transparent to visible and SWIR-NIR with a very high melting point (>>1000°C) compatible with Silicon processes, and lattice constants close to Silicon for epitaxy. A lamellar crystal, it can be cleaved into easily transferable, thin, flexible sheets. Package weight should result in an order of magnitude reduction in weight for the FPAs from ~25-50 g (current state-of-the-art). Adoption of such a compliant, flexible, substrate material can ultimately allow for fully integrated FPAs with much of the ROIC circuitry built onto the detector substrate itself, eliminating a whole series of interconnect issues, and decreasing mass and cost while increasing inherent reliability, with broad application in military and commercial applications. Silicon epitaxy on Versulite, in particular, can be an intriguing SOI technology for applications well beyond IR detectors, enabling integrated, flexible electronics for a variety of other applications.

POM GROUP, INC.
2350 Pontiac Road
Auburn Hills, MI 48326
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 409-7900
Dr. Joohyun Choi
DARPA 07-005      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Spatial Control of Crystal Texture
Abstract:Single-crystal blades have proven to have longer thermal and fatigue life, and can be directly fabricated by laser with thinner walls. However, the benefits of single-crystal over conventionally cast and directionally solidified components critically depend on avoiding the introduction of casting defects, such as stray grains, freckles, or deviations from the required crystal orientation. Laser-based direct metal deposition (DMD) process has demonstrated that it can fabricate fully functional metal prototype parts, repair industrial tooling, die casting and forging, and restore wear resistant and corrosion resistant surfaces for turbine blades. The DMD process equipped with proper sensors and numerically controlled devices can help in overcoming those hurdles to fabricate the blades. Not only thermal control to provide uniform heat flow, but spatial control of crystal texture of the blades by feedback control devices is also essential. The goals of proposal are, (1) to establish DMD process conditions and seed grain requirements for secondary grain growth for Ni-based superalloy, (2) to develop and demonstrate a laboratory scale DMD process for spatial control of crystal texture, (3) to develop a process model utilizing phase-field method to describe how spatial control of crystallographic texture affects the performance of Ni-based superalloy turbine blade rotating components.

ADVANCED BRAIN MONITORING
2237 Faraday Ave Suite 100
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 720-0099
Ms. Chris Berka
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Maximizing Sleep Quality and Efficiency using Neurotechnology
Abstract:Military operations require sustained performance in challenging environments where vigilance, memory, decision-making are impaired by sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality. Evidence reveals that “power-naps” (10-20 minutes) taken throughout the day can ameliorate some effects of sleep deprivation. Additionally, the stages of sleep as measured by the EEG have been shown to differentially affect aspects of health, alertness, and memory. This knowledge cannot be applied in environments with non- optimal napping conditions. This proposal addresses this challenge, incorporating state- of-the-art sleep knowledge into a platform technology to facilitate optimal napping. The “NapCap,” designed around the Advanced Brain Monitoring’s (ABM) EEG Headset, incorporates bi-directional gating of sensory modalities to accomplish three goals—decrease sleep latency, increase sleep efficiency, and determine the best time to awaken. ABM’s Headset weighs 3-ounces and is powered by two AAA batteries. The envisioned NapCap will weigh ~8-ounces with battery life for ten 1-hour naps and fold into a small pouch (approximately 7”x3”x3”). The final NapCap will include real-time sleep staging that, in combination with knowledge of nap optimization, will trigger the components to encourage or discourage sleep process and stages. The investigators also anticipate that as new research discoveries are reported, NapCap will evolve to incorporate these findings.

ALPHATRAC, INC.
8670 Wolff Courtf, Suite 120 Sheridan Park #8
Westminster, CO 80031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 428-5670
Mr. C. Reed Hodgin
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:Adaptive Recognition-Primed Emergency Support (ARES) System
Abstract:Crisis decision-making is difficult and error-prone because it usually involves high time- urgency, physical and emotional stress, chaotic conditions and poor data availability / quality. This SBIR project will investigate, develop and employ a hardware/software system to support key crisis decisions for crisis management and battlefield applications. This system will produce a revolutionary improvement in decision performance for experienced and novice decision-makers. Successful crisis decision-making employs a psychology termed “recognition-primed decision-making,” a method that uses event observations to force quick recognition of an analog scenario from a knowledge base. The Adaptive Recognition-primed Emergency Support System (ARES) will support rapid decision-making in operational emergency and battlefield use. The core of ARES will be an extensive relational database of decision scenarios – event / decision pairs tailored to a target decision-maker and decision set. Emulating the recognition-primed decision process, the capability will employ an advanced neural-networking algorithm to “walk” the decision-maker through a limited set of questions to a rapid choice of a scenario. The tool will then adapt the base scenario to actual event conditions, “tuning” the decisions for the specific event. ARES will be demonstrated for CBRNE emergency response, then expanded to battlefield and other crisis decision environments.

AUTOMEDX, INC.
12321 Midlebrook Road Suite 150
Germantown, MD 20879
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 916-9508
Mr. Adian Urias
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Technological Advancements to the Simplified Automated Ventilator (SAVe II)
Abstract:The proposed advancements of the SAVe ventilator will result in an easy to operate, small, lightweight, inexpensive, compressor-driven ventilator well suited not only to military applications and environments such as a battlefield (under the Tactical Combat Casualty Care doctrine), but civilian applications as well. The increased flow rate of a multiple pump design along with expanded control options of Tidal Volume, Respiratory Rate, Positive End-Expiratory Pressure, and Peak Inspiratory Pressure Limit allow the device to be safely used on a much wider patient population. The SAVe II will utilize lithium batteries to increase the operational time of the device up to 8-12 hours depending on the final configuration. The overall design of the SAVe II lends itself well to be used on a day to day basis or stockpiled for use in the event of a major pandemic. Due to lack of resources in a pandemic environment, it should be noted that the SAVe II is completely self-contained and does not require the need of a compressed gas source to operate. However, if oxygen is available, the SAVe II will accept supplemental O2 from a flow- regulated source and deliver an FIO2 range of 21-100%.

BIOMEDICA MANAGEMENT CORP.
760 Parkside Avenue Suite 210
Brooklyn, NY 11226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-2788
Dr. Weiliam Chen
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Tissue Sealant for Intracavitary Non-compressible Hemorrhage
Abstract:ClotFoam is a novel crosslinked polymer designed to stop hemorrhage without compression in severe wounds outside the operating room. ClotFoam’s ability to promote hemostasis in cases severe bleeding is based on the physical and coagulation properties of a fibrin sealant embedded in a gelatin support and enhanced by procoagulants, ions and molecules that increase the affinity to collagen. It is presented in 2 solutions that when mixed form a strong coating over lacerated tissue. CloFoam is delivered through a Veress needle, and distributed throughout the cavity in the form of a foam produced by a non-toxic foam inducer. Studies in rats and rabbits have shown that ClotFoam adheres to the abdominal cavity, even under profuse bleeding, initiating a rapid clot formation. Phase I proposed studies will provide the “proof of concept” for the use ClotFoam in cases of non-compressible hemorrhage by establishing its ability to adhere to lacerated tissue in a pool of blood using a rat aortic model. Phase II studies will establish the efficacy and safety in military relevant models (pigs) with induced intraperitoneal non-compressible hemorrhage secondary to grade IV/V traumatic liver damage. The study will evaluate restoration of vital functions and survival and achievement of hemostasis,

BIOPHYZICA, INC.
307 N. Tioga Street, Suite B.
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 767-8345
Dr. Bashir Zikria
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 2/28/2008
Title:A Biophysical Therapeutic for Traumatic Brain Injury and other Battlefield Injuries
Abstract:Battlefield injuries are unique in terms of severity, types, and combinations. The ability to develop therapeutics designed to treat a broad spectrum of battle injuries is a unique opportunity with significant positive benefits. In particular, increased capillary permeability/leak and ischemia-reperfusion injuries play a significant role in military injuries such as battlefield trauma, hemorrhagic shock, burns/smoke inhalation injuries, traumatic brain injury, sepsis, pulmonary edema induced by chemical/biological agents, or infectious diseases. Therapeutics for traumatic brain injury presents the most pressing unmet need on the battlefield. BioPhyZica is developing an experimental drug, BPZ-302, as a medic deliverable broad spectrum therapeutic against injuries involving capillary permeability/leak and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a preclinical study, we have found that treatment with BPZ-302 results in statistically significant reduction in cerebral edema caused by cardiac arrest-induced global cerebral ischemia. This Phase I, will evaluate if BPZ-302 ability to reduce cerebral edema improves neurological outcomes in for military personnel with traumatic brain injuries

D&P LLC
3409 N. 42nd Pl.
Phoenix, AZ 85018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 518-0981
Dr. Lei Tang
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 11/26/2007
Title:Gas-Kinetic Simulation of Separated Flows
Abstract:This SBIR project proposes to develop a gas-kinetic CFD solver for separated flow simulation. Compared with the traditional macroscopic CFD approach, a gas-kinetic CFD approach is more suitable for turbulent separated flow simulation. This is because a gas- kinetic model with the turbulence relaxation time can represent rich and complex physics when projected onto hydrodynamic variables and the turbulence relaxation time naturally includes both the regular viscous effects and higher-order modifications. Unlike the traditional macroscopic CFD approach, the gas-kinetic CFD approach calculates the hydrodynamics fluxes across the surface near the walls based on the non-equilibrium particle distribution function without invoking any approximation to gradient information. This implementation of the wall boundary conditions has been found as the key for success of the gas-kinetic CFD approach for turbulent flow simulation. In Phase I, we will first systematically investigate the benefits of including the higher-order terms of the Chapman-Enskog expansion beyond the Navier-Stokes level for turbulent separated flow simulations. This will lay a solid foundation for fully development of an innovative gas- kinetic CFD solver for improved separated flow simulation in Phase II.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Michael S. Wilson
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Heat Stable Nanoparticle Amplified Immunoassays
Abstract:The theater of operation for DoD immunoassays typically requires them to be sensitive, stable at temperatures up to 35 oC for up to two years, and be low power or power-free. Although enzyme-based assays are very sensitive, enzymes are usually unstable under such storage conditions. We propose a new photocatalytic nanoparticle-based immunoassay method that provides the amplification associated with enzyme-based assays but without the instability problems associated with enzymes. The method can be readily adapted to lateral flow immunoassays, which provide convenient testing in the field, but often suffer from poor sensitivity. In addition, the technology can also be used in biosensors and lab-based immunoassays.

IONIAN TECHNOLOGIES
3595 John Hopkins Ct.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 642-0998
Dr. Richard Roth
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:The potential for a biowarfare attack looms large in today’s society as terrorist organizations become more sophisticated in their technological means, putting our military, first responders and citizens at high risk. There are a myriad of bacterial and viral pathogens that are well suited for use as biowarfare agents. An ability to detect these agents in an ultra-rapid, sensitive, robust and economical fashion is of vital importance to ensure the safety of our military, first responders and civilians. Although diagnostic systems exist that are able to detect these agents, they are lacking the portability, speed, sensitivity, or robustness to be of real-time use in the field. We propose to develop a field deployable handheld detection device that can be used by the military and first responders to simultaneously detect the presence of multiple biothreat pathogens by using an ultra-rapid and sensitive target amplification approach coupled to a highly multiplexed solid surface probe array detection technology. This is a robust approach that will provide near real-time detection and identification of multiple pathogenic agents in less than 10 minutes using initially prepared nucleic acid or endospores as a target for amplification, even in the presence of environmental contaminants and near-neighbor clutter.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC.
5764 Pacific Center Blvd Suite 107
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 200-2497
Dr. Peter Turner
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Thermoelectric Power System for Body Worn Sensors
Abstract:Recently, the power density of thermoelectric thin film devices has increased by a factor of 15. In the same period, the power needed for wearable physiologic sensors, associated data acquisition and wireless transmission systems has rapidly decreased. We have suddenly reached the point that a variety of wearable soldier health and injury monitoring systems can be powered by the body heat of the person being monitored. In this program, Quantum Applied Science and Research (QUASAR) Inc., a leading innovator in wearable electrophysiologic measurement systems for heart, brain and muscle function, will team with the Research Triangle Institute, the developer of the new thermoelectric materials. We will develop the first truly noninvasive wearable monitoring system, one that needs no action or maintenance by the user, other than to put it on. The system will have immediate application to the soldier ballistic impact detection system being built by QUASAR for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and for cardiac, respiration, body temperature, hydration, and brain monitoring systems being developed by QUASAR and others. In addition, significant opportunities exist in long-term medical monitoring and sports equipment markets, and will be addressed in part via QUASAR's partnerships with Advanced Neurometrics and Adidas.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. David S. Bomse
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 10/24/2007
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:Southwest Sciences proposes the development of an ultra-sensitive optical spectroscopy technique having applications in explosives and chemical agent detection, and rapid health screening/monitoring for warfighter field diagnostics and health care. The technique, called noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS), was invented about 10 years ago, but has remained a research laboratory technique. It was considered too complex for commercial development. We plan to take advantage of recent improvements in enabling technologies to make NICE-OHMS a reliable, field-rugged, and portable method. If successful, we anticipate two- to four-orders of magnitude sensitivity improvement over competing spectroscopic methods at only modestly higher expense. The proposed technology has numerous military and commercial applications. Our approach starts with the detection of ultra-trace (part per billion, or lower concentrations) gases in exhaled breath that are markers for disease and injury. This application has both military and civilian uses. Obvious target compounds include nitric oxide, acetone which is a marker for diabetes and ketosis, ethylene as an indicator for radiation exposure, ethane and higher alkanes as markers for lipid damage, and dimethyl sulfide for kidney function. In addition, numerous metabolic tests involve ingestion of 13C-labeled compounds followed by time-resolved, high precision measurements of 13CO2/12CO2 changes.

VIASIM
519 Interstate 30 #247
Rockwall, TX 75087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 722-9255
Mr. J. Chris White
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Development of a Next-Generation, Simulation-Based Project Management Tool
Abstract:Most project management (PM) tools on the market today use some type of PERT and/or CPM methodology as its primary underlying methodology. PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) was invented by the U.S. Navy in the 1950’s to manage the Polaris submarine missile program. CPM (Critical Path Method) was invented about the same time in the private sector. These two approaches are synonymous and are often interchanged or even collectively called PERT/CPM. To date, improvements to PM tools have been evolutionary and not revolutionary. PM tools are still based on the PERT/CPM approach. The improvements that occur with each round of new PM tools are merely interface “bells and whistles” (e.g., better tracking of resources, uploading from spreadsheets) or perhaps enabling the tool to be used over the internet. Unfortunately, a 50-year old methodology delivered over the internet is still a 50-year old methodology. The purpose of this research effort is two-fold: 1. To demonstrate that common management decision-making processes can be incorporated into a simulation model of a project; and 2. To prove that incorporation of these management activities into a PM tool is a superior approach to current PERT/CPM methods.

C2 INNOVATIONS, INC.
102 Peabody Dr
Stow, MA 01775
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 257-4820
Mr. Arnis Mangolds
DARPA 07-007      Awarded: 2/6/2008
Title:Straight Jacket -Tracked Vehicle Barriers
Abstract:Straight Jacket is a combined effect system laid down as a mat that attacks the running gear of tracked vehicles using a combination of effects. Rather than counter the mass and power of the heavy armor head on, the Straight Jacket system is a subtle approach and uses the running gears design vulnerabilities to its advantage. The system target area is large (9m diameter) and has already been shown to weigh less than 10lbs. The Straight Jacket system can be deployed in 2 minutes and repackaged in 4 minutes by a single person.

EXOGI LLC
3680 Boulder Hwy.
Las Vegas, NV 89121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 845-4582
Dr. Craig Steele
DARPA 07-008      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Object-Accelerated Computational Fabric
Abstract:CPU technology has progressed to a point of diminishing marginal returns in its current direction. The great success of the highly pipelined sequential processor has now become a hindrance to the efficient scalability for the evolutionary escape route of cookie-cutter chip multi-processor (CMP) designs. RISC instruction sets exist because they are easy to decode and pipeline, but they have relatively low information density and operate on similarly primitive data types. If we look at the codes these CPUs are running, they are largely object-oriented languages. The lesson learned in the software world is that programmer productivity is relatively constant number of lines of code per day, whether assembly language or a much higher-level of abstraction in a modern object- based language. The information density and expressivity of the object-oriented language is much greater, as is the computational effort induced by each object method invocation. This is a good thing and should be emulated by hardware designers. We propose a package of novel several hardware-assisted object-based techniques to increase the value of our limited processor-to-network interfaces and the generally useful scalability of future CMP designs.

MYMIC LLC
200 High Street Suite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 391-9200
Dr. Reejo Mathew
DARPA 07-008      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Novel Architectures Development
Abstract:Available parallelism in a computer program, whether Instruction Level Parallelism (ILP) or Task Level Parallelism (TLP), offers the opportunity for improved performance by identifying independent instructions to execute concurrently. At the architectural level, superscalar and Very Large Instruction Word (VLIW) architectures address ILP while multithreaded architectures address TLP. Superscalar and VLIW architectures require no changes in programming paradigms, but multithreaded architectures require threaded applications. It is proposed that by looking at specific problem domains, TLP can be found through enhanced hardware support without changing the programming paradigm. The Discrete-Event Simulation Central Processor Unit (DESCPU) proposed here addresses inherent TLP in discrete-event simulations (DES). DES involves the execution of events at scheduled simulation times, with the potential for concurrent events at the same simulation time. This inherent property of the paradigm opens the opportunity for Event-Level Parallelism (ELP) as a subset of TLP. DESCPU would provide an enhanced Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) acting as an interface between the simulation executive and the hardware for event scheduling and execution. DESCPU would also provide hardware support for maintaining event lists and invoking events for execution. DESCPU would also provide multiple event execution paths to support concurrent event execution, while sharing common functional units.

STREAM PROCESSORS, INC.
455 Deguigne Dr
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 616-3341
Dr. Brucek Khailany
DARPA 07-008      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:Novel Stream Processor Architecture Development
Abstract:Stream processors form a new class of architectures that offers performance scalable to TeraOPS on a single chip, have cost and power efficiency comparable to ASICs, and are completely software programmable from high-level languages. Stream processor technology was developed over 8 years from 1997-2004 of DARPA-funded research at Stanford University that resulted in a working prototype IC, software tools, application software, and evaluation board. Stream Processors Inc. (SPI) has commercialized this technology with the recently-announced Storm-1 product family - with performance up to 112 GMACS at cost and power dissipation levels suitable for embedded systems. This technology provides a 4-20x improvement in GOPS and GOPS/Watt compared to other leading commercially-available software-programmable DSPs. As this architecture is scaled to 45nm and smaller CMOS technologies, it will be feasible to integrate hundreds to thousands of ALUs on a single chip, providing TeraOPS of performance. In this proposal, we intend to explore tradeoffs in how best to scale the architecture from current designs with 80 ALUs on a chip to novel stream processor architectures with over 100s of ALUs at higher clock rates for over 10x the available peak performance. The goal is to design an architecture capable of efficiently supporting thread-level, data-level, and instruction- level parallelism, while retaining the advantages of compiler-managed data movement and storage hierarchy afforded by stream processing. This stands in contrast to typical multi-core architectures which rely primarily on programmer-managed thread-level parallelism for performance, rely on cache-based memory systems for managing data movement, and do not provide the efficiency advantages provided by stream processing.

ARCHINOETICS, LLC
700 Bishop St. Suite 2000
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 221-2131
Dr. J. Hunter Downs III
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Self-Aware Planner Interface and Engine (SAPIEN)
Abstract:Processing systems, while complex, are often static; algorithms that are utilized are selected based on their evaluation in a static environment. However, the performance of an algorithm or algorithmic system is greatly affected by the environment, concurrent processes, and even implementation details. The SAPIEN (Self-Aware Planner Interface and Engine) system is a control platform that adapts a system in real-time based on constant monitoring of system metrics that affect the performance of the system towards its goal, whether it be low power consumption or optimized computing power. SAPIEN consists of a planner engine that utilizes smart heuristics and contingency planning for intelligent system control. Work proposed in Phase I of this project includes the development of the SAPIEN system and implementation of the planner engine with smart heuristics in a sensor network application.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Dr. John Engel
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Self Aware Processing
Abstract:Predetermined, hard-wired processing architectures with static resource allocation and task distributions suffer from single points of failure, inefficient performance or failure in dynamic situations and have little to no run-time decision making ability concerning task redistribution and optimization. By using unique multi-agent system methodologies and leveraging core capabilities, Areté proposes to design a self-aware, agent-based system for development, parallelization, optimization and execution of code on distributed systems with the ability to adapt and re-optimize resources and tasks as situations dictate. Through continuous self-modeling and prediction, self-aware, self-healing systems can enhance current distributed system performance and allow for the deployment of systems in situations never before possible with current fault-tolerant techniques.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Modular Affective Reasoning-based Versatile Introspective Architecture (MARVIN)
Abstract:Robotic vehicles, unmanned systems, and critical command and control networks rely on systems that need to operate effectively in complex, dynamic, and adversarial environments. Currently fielded systems are not up to par—they can be immobilized by simple component failures. Future operations will not tolerate such brittleness, especially given the interconnectivity demanded by future concepts of network-centric warfare. Future fielded systems throughout the military will need more dynamic processing capabilities that can adaptively use resources. Self-Aware Computing attempts to resolve this problem through metacognitive approaches to generating dynamic capabilities based on research into human adaptation. However, these approaches tend to ignore the impact of human emotions in that adaptation. Emotions provide humans with approaches for instantly and broadly adapting to threats, for persisting adaptations across situations, for learning future reactions to similar events, and for effectively communicating those threats to others. We therefore propose to develop the Modular Affective Reasoning- Based Versatile Introspective Architecture (MARVIN) to develop components that enhance self-aware systems by exploiting human affective mechanisms to (1) adapt quickly to time-critical, situations, (2) learn to adapt quickly to new situations and carry learning over to additional situations, and (3) interact with other networked systems in an efficient social manner.

COLORADO ENGINEERING, INC.
1310 United Heights Suite 105
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 388-8582
Mr. Mike Hammel
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Self Aware Processing (LABPM)
Abstract:The problem of reallocating available and appropriate computing resources to a given application has been addressed in many enterprise environments through the use of automated provisioning systems. Commercial solutions such as RLX Technologies Control Tower (now owned by HP) offer blade-server based data centers the ability to re- provision systems based on various criteria predefined by a central manager. This SBIR defines requirements for end-to-end solutions that can migrate mission applications between related remote computing systems given both predefined policies and learned actions. While some commercial provisioning solutions can address application migration, they are generally not designed around learning agents. Instead, they focus primarily on defined policies to apply provisioning and migration actions. CEI proposes a system that utilizes techniques common in enterprise provisioning systems integrated with methods for implementing learning agents that can autonomously make decisions about application migration. These decisions will be based on metadata from remote hosts related to system health, resource utilization, location with respect to application archives, community memberships and defined policies from a central authority.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Self-Aware Processing for Adaptive Resource Optimization of Advanced Computing Systems
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology and our commercialization partner Raytheon, propose to develop and demonstrate a suite of core self-aware processing technologies that can autonomously adapt available computing resources based on the real-time processing requirements and state awareness of the overall computing environment. Building on the team’s expertise in real-time prognostics and health monitoring for digital electronic systems, our proposed approach will integrate state-of-the-art electronic system fault detection with higher level cognitive modeling techniques to provide the constituent capabilities for advanced, reconfigurable computing. The self-aware system will utilize artificial intelligence technologies such as probabilistic neural networks as underlying software agents within a distributed reasoning process similar to cognitive capabilities in human thinking processes. These systems will balance resources, efficiencies, and mission priorities to efficiently use system resources to dynamically and effectively meet changing operational requirements. In doing so, it is anticipated that the performance of the systems can be enhanced several times when compared for such critical metrics as power consumption, fault-tolerance, and reliability.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Mr. Gordon Streeter
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Self-Aware Reconstituion, Reconfiguration, and Repurposing (SAR3)
Abstract:In today’s information-based society, global operation in virtually any domain is significantly, if not completely, dependent upon high-performance processing systems. These high-performance processing systems are complex and frequently composed of heterogeneous processor subsystems. Such systems are typically static in nature, and predetermined prior to deployment. If mission dynamics or system performance change, these systems are limited to their originally pre-determined mode of operation, resulting in inefficient use of resources and performance penalties at best and catastrophic failure at worst. Interruption in operation whether the result of cyber attack or system failure due to inefficient or incorrect usage often leads to catastrophic consequences. System failure and attacks on information systems and infrastructure are everyday occurrences. To address an area that needs immediate attention in the protection of mission critical systems, Sentar proposes a system for Self-Aware Reconstitution, Reconfiguration, and Repurposing (Self-Aware R3). The opportunity exists to develop broadly applicable self- aware systems that are capable of reconstitution after a successful attack or system failure, reconfiguration to balance resources, and repurposing to address dynamically changing priorities.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Michael Quist
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Soar-Longevity: A Sustainable Autonomic Architecture for Organically Reconfigurable Computing Systems
Abstract:Soar Technology proposes the Soar-Longevity autonomic architecture for self-adapting sustainable performance. Soar-Longevity utilizes a two-tiered approach to synergize lower-level organic computing elements and upper-level cognitive supervisory elements. Soar Technology’s Cognitive Layer monitors the organic computing elements with respect to mission performance specifications. The Cognitive Layer also leverages the organic computing elements' reporting capabilities to assist in fault isolation, resolution, and avoidance of undesirable emergent behaviors at the system level. The Organic Layer resides beneath it and is composed of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) containing Functional Elements (FEs) and Autonomic Elements (AEs). Thus, each FPGA is imparted with an independent capability to self-monitor and self-repair using the techniques developed and demonstrated by the University of Central Florida (UCF). Soar Technology, Inc., teaming with researchers from UCF, will design and develop the integrated architecture. Soar-Longevity will be capable of maintaining mission requirements through monitoring and management of functionality to independently sustainable FPGAs, optionally including the FPGAs that comprise components of the Cognitive Layer itself.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 969-3774
Dr. Charles Earl
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:ADisSAS: Adaptive Distributed Self Awareness System
Abstract:We propose to build a platform to support the development of self aware processing systems. There are several contributions that the project makes. First, drawing upon our expertise in developing intelligent systems for system management, we define essential self awareness capabilities and define classes of core computations to support self aware processing. Secondly, we develop an interface that will allow human users to configure and direct a self awareness system. We define an architecture for deploying self awareness processes in an existing system using previous work on secure, self- configuring overlay networks done by ourselves and others. We provide an architecture that permits the coordination of multiple levels of self awareness based on our previous work on distributed workflow management. Finally, we explore how core self- awareness algorithms can structured to leverage multiple-core or reconfigurable microprocessors for acceleration. This will lay the foundation for the development of an appliance or board that could provide self awareness capabilities for many military and enterprise systems. Such a system could be developed as a commercial product during Phase III of this effort. At the conclusion of Phase II, the result will be a system that could be effectively deployed in a variety of important Military and Commercial civilian settings. For example, a version of our system could be deployed for managing a Future Combat Systems (FCS) based network. Alternatively, core self aware processing functions could be packaged in an appliance based upon COTS accelerator hardware and could provide enhanced self aware processing capabilities for blade or rack systems deployed in settings such as Air Operations Centers. We believe that our system, called ADisSAS (Adaptive Distributed Self Awareness System), could provide tremendous advances in system reliability and performance.

ALLOY COMPUTING, LLC
6290 Firethorn Lane
Clarksville, MD 21029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 854-3237
Mr. Donald Davis
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:Effective Multi-core Software Development
Abstract:Multi-core processors pose a significant challenge for software application developers. This is because the vast majority of algorithms and applications have been - and continue to be - developed using methodologies and techniques that assume sequential runtime execution. The key to efficiently and effectively leveraging multi-core processors is the ability to expose, extract, and exploit concurrency at the application level. This requires a profound change in the way that software applications are designed and implemented. Our goal is to provide a compelling, integrated tool suite to address the compute, embedded, and realtime challenges facing multi-core software application developers. Our approach is to focus on a methodology and tools that address analysis, visualization, and automation of multi-core application development. We envision a suite of tools that can ingest a software application written in C or C++ and provide a comprehensive analysis of the program structure, flow, and dependencies. This analysis will provide the developer with the insight needed to make effective choices when creating or adapting applications for concurrent execution. In addition, the tools will automate the implementation of the programming constructs necessary to realize concurrent processing. This tool suite will revolutionize developer effectiveness and application performance for multi-core targeted software.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Dr. John Engel
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Agent-Based Intelligent Parallelization for Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:Processor manufacturers are no longer able to rely on near Moore’s Law like increases in straight line instruction throughput and clock frequency to provide users with the performance increases that they have become accustomed to. Instead, hardware developers have begun to take a different approach to capitalizing on the increasing number of transistors available by developing processors with multiple execution cores. Areté Associates will develop a scalable, agent-based, parallel processing architecture enabling application developers to efficiently utilize multi-core processors in environments including high-end and embedded systems. This object-oriented software architecture will be embodied in a C++ class library that will provide software developers with parallel processing capability while insulating them from details of the processing hardware. The approach used to develop this capability is an extension of an innovative algorithm component framework being developed at Areté for expediting the migration of algorithms to embedded processing systems. This architecture will be extended to provide a framework and tools for developing multi-core processing algorithms through a combination of a multi-agent system coupled with an optimized task mapping algorithm.

CILK ARTS, INC.
12 Waltham St
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 325-0820
Mr. Charles E. Leiserson
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:Multicore technology is forcing concurrency into the mainstream of programming. In general, the application developer will have little control over the execution environment, such as the number of cores. New tools will be needed to help application developers identify parallelism, write correct and scalable code, and analyze performance bottlenecks. We propose to use dynamic instrumentation to build a general framework for implementing such tools for the Cilk++ multithreaded programming environment. Specifically, we propose to build a build a race-detection engine and a performance- analysis engine that can analyze work, span, parallelism, granularity, lock contention, and false sharing. We also propose to explore the feasibility of automatic performance tuners and parallelism estimators within this framework. A key property of our proposed tools is that they operate on the logical dependencies among the threads of a multithreaded computation, rather than on how the computation happens to be scheduled in any specific execution run.

EVOLVING LOGIC
21280 Colina Dr.
Topanga, CA 90290
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 351-7377
Dr. Steven C Bankes
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 7/10/2008
Title:Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:This proposal describes a software infrastructure called CompX that can usefully generate large numbers of independent threads for a wide range of applications, providing parallel processing capabilities without burdening the application developers with threading issues. CompX would provide an infrastructure layer between applications and the threading facilities of the operating system, and present an interface to application developers that would not require any knowledge of threading issues.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. David Melski
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Static Analysis of Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop a static analysis tool that identifies program flaws that may arise when executing on a multi-core processor. In particular, we will target flaws that arise in lock-free algorithms. Concurrent programs are often plagued by race conditions on shared data. Lock-based solutions to this problem are conceptually simple and work reasonably well. However, they typically do not perform well for the fine- grained concurrency that is often needed on multi-core processors. As the number of processor cores increases, lock contention also increases and many processors are left idle. Lock-free algorithms achieve much greater processor utilization (and better performance) as the number of cores increases. However, lock-free algorithms are difficult to reason about. (To make matters worse, multi-core processors often use a relaxed memory model.) This project will focus on using bounded model checking in order to verify libraries that implement lock-free algorithms.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
4984 El Camino Real, Suite 230
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 967-4408
Dr. David Lindsay Errington
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 2/28/2008
Title:TFX: A System for Deriving Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:The physical and economic limits of processor advances are driving the industry toward multi-core architectures. In a short time, they will find their way into systems ranging from high end servers down to embedded systems. Parallel programming in one form or another will become much more common, because it will become competitively necessary. At present, however, there is inadequate tool support for developing applications that take advantage of the underlying parallel architecture. High-level abstractions and parallelizing compilers rarely yield good processor utilization. Thus developers typically resort to programming at a low-level of abstraction where the complexities of the target architecture are exposed to the application developer. This is time consuming, error-prone, and hard to test: in short, uneconomical. We propose the development of TFX to make a radical improvement in the productivity of developers, while still yielding high-performance and high processor utilization. TFX will be based on a novel, two-pronged approach to developing multi-core applications. Recognizing the benefits of abstraction in improving productivity, TFX will support user-directed refinements from a high level language. Recognizing the importance of specialization, TFX will integrate platform-specific optimization templates for achieving high performance and for making the most efficient use of the resources provided by the architecture.

SEMANTIC DESIGNS
13171 Pond Springs Road
Austin, TX 78729
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 250-1018
Dr. Ira Baxter
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Multi-Core Compilers
Abstract:The coming generations of multicore systems will provide multiple heterogeneous distributed processors with SIMD capabilities. Effective programming tools must address this variety and the fast rate of architecture evolution of such systems, as well as the variety of parallel applications. An existing parallel programming, PARLANSE, presently proven for fine-grain task parallism on SMP systems, will be extended to include additional parallelism paradigms: nested data parallelism and pipelined streaming operations. Semantic Designs (SD) will define an architectural description language to describe specific multicore systems, including multiple instruction sets, memory hierarchies, performance, and communication primitives. SD will build a PARLANSE compiler ecosystem driven from the architecture description. Whole program analysis and optimization will be used to maximize performance; this in turn will require parallel computation on scale to make it practical. A unique internal data flow representation graph will be used to represent whole source programs, enabling optimization and program partitioning across processors. SD will use its DMS system (already implemented in PARLANSE) to implement the tool set, thereby minimizing risk and providing access to large-scale parallelism needed to support the multicore compiler.

ABLELINK TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
528 N. Tejon St., Suite 100
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 592-0347
Mr. Daniel K. Davies
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 2/20/2008
Title:Ai1: A Cognitive Prosthetic to Support Independence in Executive Functioning for Soldiers with TBI
Abstract:Very little research and development has been done to address the unique assistive technology needs of individuals with traumatic brain injuries. In response to the immediate need for executive functioning supports for soldiers with TBI/PTST, an all-in-one (Ai1) system is proposed to provide independent access to message recording, personal schedule maintenance and cellular telephones for soldiers with TBI. The system will be developed on a Pocket PC with a customizable multimedia interface that can be configured to meet the needs of soldiers exhibiting different symptoms and severity of symptoms of TBI/PTST. It will 1) allow users with TBI to create and retrieve voice recordings to aid in information retention and recall, 2) provide a straightforward interface for creating and reviewing scheduled appointments and events, along with simplified review of scheduled activities, and 3) an accessible multimedia cell phone that will provide intuitive access to incoming/outgoing calls and essential features. This will be accomplished by development of a working Phase I prototype system that will undergo usability testing by both soldiers and citizens with traumatic brain injuries. The importance of this project is underscored by the immediacy of the need to provide independent functioning supports for soldiers with TBI/PTST with practical tools that can provide needed benefits within a relatively short research cycle.

ARCHINOETICS, LLC
700 Bishop St. Suite 2000
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 221-2131
Dr. J. Hunter Downs III
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:Context-Aware Independence Recovery Network (CAIRN)
Abstract:Over the past 12 years, the incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) has increased from an annual rate of 500,000 to 1,000,000 new cases a year. This project will focus primarily on people that have sustained a traumatic brain injury and recovered to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) level of 11 or better six months post-injury. With the needs of the target population in mind, the project team proposes the following project to develop the CAIRN, the context-aware independence recovery network to assist people who have sustained a moderate head injury regain an independent lifestyle. The CAIRN project will initially be focused on inferring context from multiple sensors, both worn and environmental, to direct memory cueing and sequencing but it will build the framework to assist, on a number of other axes, the individual on the road to recovery and functional independence.

AT SCIENCES, LLC
160 N. Craig St. Suite 117
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 687-1181
Dr. Edmund LoPresti
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:Cognitive Assistance Tools for Victims of Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:We propose to develop a critical enhancement to an existing interactive task guidance system, integrating the capability to utilize data from sensors and control actuators. The system will allow caregivers or rehabilitation professionals to incorporate sensors and actuators into a task script in order to detect task state; detect user state; detect environmental context; detect safety risks; or partly automate a task. The system will be extensible, allowing arbitrary sensors and actuators to be incorporated into the system as needed for a specific client, or as new sensors and applications emerge. In Phase I, the following subtasks will be achieved: • Develop an infrastructure that supports integration of arbitrary sensors and actuators. • Integrate one representative suite of sensors and actuators as a proof of concept. • Evaluate system usability for a sample of people who have experienced traumatic brain injuries. • Develop a user interface for designing tasks which incorporate sensor responses and actuator control into task plans. • Evaluate the usability of the task design user interface. • Demonstrate interoperability between the task design interface and the cueing system. • Evaluate results from both usability trials and integrate into a design for the Phase II system.

ATTENTION CONTROL SYSTEMS, INC.
650 Castro Street Suite 120, PMB 197
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 773-3017
Mr. Richard Levinson
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Increasing Independence after Brain Injury with Autonomous Sensing, Planning, and Cueing
Abstract:PEAT is an advanced cognitive aid which uses NASA's autonomous planning and control methods to compensate for cognitive impairments due to brain injury, stroke and other disorders. The system is used by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to help Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans with brain injury. PEAT assists users with planning and execution of daily activities, monitors progress and replans when changes occur. PEAT’s monitoring relies on users to self- report progress by pressing Start and Stop buttons, which has obvious limitations. We propose to solve this problem by adding advanced sensor and activity monitoring methods. Sensors will track user location, objects they grasp, and other state properties. We will integrate PEAT running on a cellphone with GPS, experimental RFID reader bracelets, and advanced cognitive sensory interpretation methods developed by Co- Investigator Henry Kautz. This will provide more reliable monitoring, more flexible plans, less intrusive cueing, and assistance that currently requires a caregiver. Our Advisory Board of brain injury experts from the VA, California Department of Rehabilitation, and a county hospital, are all PEAT customers who will provide guidance about clinical and commercial considerations.

MBFARR, LLC
93 Mt. Hamilton Rd
San Jose, CA 95140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 259-2675
Rick L Moncrief
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:High Fidelity Virtual Reality Driving Rehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:Development proposal of a concept prototype for a NEW type of high fidelity virtual reality driving rehabilitation trainer is proposed for brain injured soldiers. The TBI Model T2 rehabilitation trainer will teach a graduated difficulty lesson plan of operational, tactical and strategic driving skills wrapped in a NASCAR race simulation to maximize training motivation and trainee attention. To optimize learning, this system will provide immediate, video playback and summary performance feedback. Pilot testing will provide guidance for development of a production prototype and application of the trainer. A main goal of integrating the engaging NASCAR race simulation with the functions of the trainer is to increase acceptance of and motivation for the long hours of practice needed to optimize rehabilitation. The NASCAR race scenarios will function much like the jacket of a pill that increases the acceptance of its medical payload. In addition to training, the TBI Model T2 will assess one’s readiness to begin rehabilitation, identify the entry level of rehabilitation, and assess the improvements achieved through rehabilitation.

SENDERO GROUP LLC
1118 Maple Lane
Davis, CA 95616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 757-6800
Mr. Michael May
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 2/23/2008
Title:Cognitive Assistive Technology for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:Need. A fully accessible wayfinding device to increase independent navigation and decrease reliance on caregiver support for individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury and other cognitive disabilities. Goal. To develop a prototype utilizing features from both the Sendero GPS customizable software platform and University of Washington (UW) intelligent wayfinding software to address common travel difficulties experienced by persons with TBI. * Short term (Phase I) goal: To fully implement and deploy one function (automatically identifying the mode of transport) in a prototype using the existing Sendero GPS software platform. * Long term goal (detailed in Phase II below): To investigate methods for implementing and deploying 5 functions of UW’s intelligent wayfinding software on a robust, commercial personal GPS platform. Objectives. This project targets 4 specific, measurable objectives. 1. By October 31, 2007, determine the appropriate platform for software. 2. By December 15, 2007, port Sendero GPS software to the platform defined in Objective 1. 3. By March 15, 2008, incorporate mode of transport function into Sendero GPS software and complete functioning prototype. 4. By March 31, 2008, Project summaries and reporting. Work Plan. Capitalizing on the accessible GPS platform created by Sendero Group and the TBI and computer science expertise of the UW and Rochester teams, this project will develop a prototype running Sendero GPS with intelligent wayfinding features added. The project application targets specific wayfinding problems encountered by persons with TBI.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Tricia Mautone
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Game World
Abstract:In spite of the growing interest in developing games designed to target specific instructional objectives, and recent improvements accessibility of gaming technology, designing a game from scratch is still an expensive and time consuming endeavor, particularly for non-programmers working on a limited budget. Furthermore, there are few guidelines about how to design a game that is both fun and has learning value. If the promise of game-based instruction is to be fully met, we need to develop a game design system that provides instructors with the necessary tools to design, create, and evaluate effective instructional games. The primary objective of Phase I will be to analyze the feasibility of developing a web-based system that (1) guides instructors through the game design process and provides a set of empirically-based guidelines that aid in the selection of effective game element variations; (2) takes the game element selection input and interfaces with game engines to create a game; and (3) provides a means to evaluate the learning values of the created games. The long-term goal is to develop a system that enables instructors with little programming experience to design, implement, and assess simple, but effective games in an informed and time/cost-effective manner.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Dr. Matthew D. Lichter
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:Statistical Algorithms for Assessing the Efficacy of Community-Generated Educational Games
Abstract:The strength of the United States military is highly dependent upon the continued superiority of intellectual resources and technology in the battle arena. Emerging trends indicate that fewer students are pursuing education in the sciences and technology. In an effort to reverse this trend, researchers are working to engage students through interactive educational software. However, a recent U.S. Department of Education study suggests that current educational software is no more effective than traditional methods. Barron Associates propose a novel collaborative community approach to educational game development. Within this framework, educators will use an amateur-friendly game development platform to created games that fulfill current educational needs. The games will compete in Darwinian survival of the fittest allowing truly effective games to be set aside for pedagogical use. The centerpiece of this framework, and the focus of this research, will be Barron Associates’ Teaching Efficacy and Skill Tracking algorithm – or TEST. As students interact with video games, TEST will examine player scores and estimate each game’s educational effectiveness and each player’s skill level. This information will be used as feedback to help developers produce better games and to inform players of their progress.

GAMESTHATWORK
620 Lakeshore Drive
Duluth, GA 30096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 806-5428
Dov Jacobson
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Game World
Abstract:Trainers and educators watch the videogame player enviously. Patiently and passionately, the player develops skills to beat the game. He devotes intense hours to exploration, learning and repetitive practice. This same player often neglects schoolwork, or lags in job training. How can the videogame be harnessed, so that the learning that wins the game matches the learning that wins in school and workplace? While many educators agree that games hold promise, few games try to deliver on it. Fewer still are rigorously tested. And clearly, no "killer app" has yet emerged. It may never emerge - without a fertile field of competing products, driven by an active market. Game World uses centralized funding to stimulate decentralized creativity. It puts code-free collaborative tools into the hands of educators, trainers and learners. With proper incentives, many games will flourish, all addressing a single domain, each using a different approach. This topic suggests an elegant model of assessment: If multiple games test the same skill domain, any one game can be judged by the degree to which it elevates first-time performance on all other games. GamesThatWork proposes to implement a full-featured online environment devoted to the emergence of successful game-based learning.

MOSAIC ATM, INC.
1190 Hawling Pl SW
Leesburg, VA 20175
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 405-8576
Mr. Matt Brinton
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Game World
Abstract:In response to the DARPA Game World SBIR solicitation topic, the Mosaic ATM team, including Utah State University, proposes the Instructional Simulation Author and Play System (ISAPS). ISAPS will leverage the passion and creativity of many of our Nation’s educators to create hundreds of free, highly educational simulation games spanning a broad range of science learning. Innovative aspects of this research effort include advanced instructional simulation authoring capabilities for non-programmers, and accurate analysis of game teaching effectiveness based on domain-specific pedagogical models. We will leverage our existing Simulation Learning Platform, developed under funding from the National Science Foundation, to accurately assess the feasibility of these innovations. Our team has extensive expertise and experience in quantitative methodology and research and development of instructional simulation games, spanning fields from science learning to training of emergency responders. Mosaic ATM will deliver commercial products based on our existing technology in the 2007 calendar year which will provide a test bed for future research.

MUZZY LANE SOFTWARE
44 Merimac Street
Newburyport, MA 01950
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 499-9099
Mr. David B. Martz
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Game World
Abstract:Computer games are a unique, powerful medium with great educational potential. Interactive games are the medium of attention for youth, who spend large numbers of hours playing these games. Muzzy Lane and its collaboration partner on this project, The Federation of American Scientists, both identified and appreciated the educational power of games long ago. Over the past four years, both Muzzy Lane and the FAS have separately developed sophisticated educational games, and have the practical experience of implementing educational games. Combined, we represent two of the most significant contributors to the Serious Games space since its emergence four years ago. There is an important opportunity for learning environments that can be used by anyone who want to leverage games as a medium to teach, train or instruct. These individuals have traditional content and instructional materials; want to deliver that information in a game world with built-in assessment – but do not have the engineering expertise, or the resources to build a game from scratch. They need an easy-to-use game development environment – one that puts the power of developing games in the hands of non-game- developers. Muzzy Lane will team with the Federation of American Scientists to develop such a learning environment.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
DARPA 07-013      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Construction and Validation Environment for Social Simulations (CAVES)
Abstract:U.S. political and military decision makers need to make decisions about extremely large, complex socio-political systems. Our objective is to enable these decision makers to evaluate and plan courses of action (COAs) with the aid of computer-based simulations that predict the possible effects (including second and third-order effects) of COAs being considered. We propose to develop a suite of tools to support the development, validation and use of such large-scale socio-political models. We will provide tools based on proven modeling technologies that support the development of a variety of socio-political models that range in scale from nations to individual leaders. We will provide analysis tools that use meta-models to support the debugging, understanding, and validation of such models. Finally, we will provide decision-makers who are using the models with additional insights into both the strengths and weaknesses of the models they are using and the kinds of information that they could gather to improve the predictive performance of the models.

EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH, INC.
1595 Spring Hill Road Suite 250
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 893-6800
Mr. Jimmie McEver
DARPA 07-013      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:Validating Large Scale Simulations of Socio-Political Phenomena
Abstract:There is a growing recognition that simulations representing social and political phenomena are very useful to today’s military to support planning and execution of operations associated with irregular warfare. While many technical challenges are being addressed by DARPA, social science simulations still present an overarching problem: methods and capabilities to show that a simulation is working correctly for an appropriate class of applications are not sufficiently developed for a sponsor/user to confidently apply it in an operational environment. It is EBR’s belief, supported by related experience, that the credibility of such simulations can be established if 1) the use is appropriate for the type of simulation; 2) the simulation has been designed to be validatable for that use; and 3) a complementary set of validation and verification capabilities and techniques are available. This work will provide DARPA with a vision for validatable simulations, including appropriate use classes, simulation capabilities needed to enable validation, and promising tools and techniques to assess the degree to which a simulation is sufficiently credible to support the identified classes of applications. This research will identify technical challenges associated with this vision and selected a set of solution options for development in Phase II.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5242
Dr. Roger Xu
DARPA 07-014      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:A Practical Transcription System for the Hearing Impaired
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose a novel handheld system to automatically identify the current speaker and recognize his/her speech. The system consists of several parts. First, the acoustic signal collected by the commercial off-the-shelf array microphone is first passed through the state machine based speech segmentation module to extract the speech segments. The speech segments are then enhanced by speech enhancement module to compensate the channel distortion and background noise. The enhanced speech is then fed to speaker identification and speech recognition modules. For each recognizable speaker, the speaker adaptation module is continuously adapting its models for both speaker identification and speech recognition.

LI CREATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
30 A Vreeland Road, Suite 130
Florham Park, NJ 07932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 822-0048
Dr. Qi (Peter) Li
DARPA 07-014      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Handheld Transcription Device for the Hearing Impaired
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to present a unique and promising solution for a handheld device for hearing impaired individuals. In a conversation situation with multiple English speakers, the device will display on a screen, “Speaker 1: …,” “Speaker 2: …,” …, “Speaker N: …,” and all the English conversation will be transcribed into English text. Our novel solution consists of both hardware and software. The hardware is a handheld computer with a four-sensor microphone array. The software includes two features: speaker recognition and speech recognition. The microphone array will be modified from this company’s new USB-based microphone array product named CrispMic™ which can give us several advantages. Furthermore, as inspired by the human auditory system, we have proposed a novel, auditory-based feature extraction algorithm, which has the potential to improve the performance and robustness of both speaker and speech recognition significantly. The entire system will be implemented with a low-cost, handheld computer.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Mr. Uday Jain
DARPA 07-014      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:Handheld Transcription Device for the Hearing Impaired
Abstract:We propose the melding of various technologies for our unique handheld transcription device for speech and speaker recognition. Our solution will utilize beam-forming coupled with the POCKETSPHINX speech recognizer to provide transcription on the hand-held device. To achieve further reduction in recognition error rate through robustness to background noise and environment conditions we will combine multi-channel signal enhancement techniques such as blind source separation with single-channel signal enhancement techniques such as spectral subtraction and feature enhancement techniques such as cepstrum normalization. An initial design of our prototype transcription device is also presented.

SPEECHGEAR, INC.
516 West Fifth Street
Northfield, MN 55057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 664-9123
Mr. Robert Palmquist
DARPA 07-014      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Handheld Transcription Device for the Hearing Impaired
Abstract:The team’s long-term mission statement for this program is “to commercialize a handheld device that provides speaker-identified speech-to-text transcription of multiple English- language speakers in noisy environments.” In Phase I, the team will conduct research in the required technical areas and determine the commercial feasibility of achieving this objective. Specifically, the team will identify and investigate design options for the transcription system and select the best option(s) to pursue in making the design a reality. SpeechGear will team with Sail Technologies and Acoustic Magic on this effort. This project will directly leverage the capabilities of all three firms, with significant research being applied to the DARPA-Hard aspect of identification and extraction of each speaker’s voice from noisy environments. The commercial feasibility of this design will be investigated by identifying viability of the product, production and support costs, and user requirements such as interface modes and response times. By combining the technical and commercial elements with the end user’s needs, a complete feasibility study will be generated. At the end of the Phase I effort a final report will be delivered to the government representative(s) that documents the Phase I results and provides recommendations for follow-on research and development in Phase II.

COLE ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
3361 Rouse Rd. Suite 215
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 384-9956
Mr. John Stevens
DARPA 07-015      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Simulation Center in a Box
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a system to provide battalion level training in a single, airline carry-on sized package, without requiring specially trained support personnel. A system, built with portability in mind, consisting of small footprint, yet capable computing platforms, including software interfaces and improvements allowing minimal role players and no support personnel could answer this training need at home station, in transit and in the field.

STACKFRAME, LLC
455 Douglas Ave. Suite 2455
Altamonte Springs, FL 32714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 206-8908
Mr. Gene McCulley
DARPA 07-015      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Simulation Center in a Box
Abstract:We propose to leverage our experience with network administration infrastructure to prototype a system which can perform automatic multi-host configuration and enhance OneSAF to take advantage of this system.

DIGITAL ARTFORMS, INC.
15466 Los Gatos Blvd #214
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 356-9100
Mr. Jeffrey Bellinhausen
DARPA 07-016      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:An HTM-Based C4ISR Visualization Environment
Abstract:THE PROBLEM The modern battlefield has become overwhelmingly complex. The sheer volume of data, its multimodal, rapidly evolving, and often spatial nature dictate a new approach that allows commanders to more quickly and effectively interpret and interact with the data. While techniques are under study to automate the process, they are often ineffective in interpreting noisy, contradictory, or incomplete data. Furthermore, current architectures don't adequately support the delegation of intel gathering among human operators, nor the division of the task between human and programmatic agents. Ultimately, we need better techniques for enhancing or replacing the human operator wherever possible in battle command. THE SOLUTION We propose to incorporate and validate a cortically-inspired approach, Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) [1] , for dynamic pattern recognition in the domain of C4ISR. HTM is showing great promise in complex pattern recognition, particularly where data is incomplete or ambiguous. We propose to build an intuitive and natural visualization environment embodying this technology. The result will be an easy-to-use system that can infer the intentions of hostile forces from their movements, one that can be deployed into real-world C4ISR data environments. The result will be improved decision-making in the field.

NEXT CENTURY CORP.
7075 Samuel Morse Drive, Suite 250
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 545-3151
Mr. Clark Dorman
DARPA 07-016      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Hierarchical Situation Visualization
Abstract:Next Century is proposing to research, design, and build the Command Hierarchical Intelligent Portrayal (CHIP) system, a system that will dramatically increase the complexity and scaling of the neocortical model as applied to the problem of interpreting and displaying battlefield data for commander situational awareness. We have teamed with Group W, Inc, to use STORM, a campaign-level simulation widely used across the military community, to provide data for developing and testing the CHIP system. Next Century has experience developing advanced algorithms and distributed systems, and has staff members with experience in neural modeling. Group W has experience developing and using military analytical tools, including running large-scale simulations of complex military operations. Our Phase I technical objectives focus on the design and prototyping of innovative algorithms, infrastructure, and paradigms for the application of the Memory- Predication Framework (MPF) to hierarchical visualization. Our Phase I work plan culminates with delivery of a proof-of-concept prototype that interactively demonstrates our innovative techniques and methodologies. Key innovations include: 1) multi-level, Memory-Prediction Framework application; 2) application of CHIP to a proven campaign- level simulation; 3) dynamic, intuitive display of results; and 4) improved MPF nodes and processing, including the addition of feedback mechanisms.

LOGOS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 621-9345
Dr. Geoff Hazel
DARPA 07-017      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Contextually Adaptive False Alarm Mitigation
Abstract:Logos Technologies proposes to develop a processing chain that creates local background models based on spectral and texture based features to improve the detection and false alarm performance of change detection, tracking, and target detection systems for wide area persistent surveillance. Our innovative approach extends proven methods in hyperspectral image processing to provide updatable context-dependent models that support mitigation of important sources of false alarms and track misassociation for wide area persistent surveillance data. It does not need a detailed urban model and/or complex rules for target behavior but builds models based on intrinsic properties of the scene. These rules can be combined with other context dependent factors, such as pre-existing traffic or proximity to buildings. We will provide analytic support for the approach, develop all key elements of the processing chain, and demonstrate improved performance using relevant data from EO sensors. We will develop this concept in a form applicable to sensor architectures that provide only limited spectral information, including the anticipated ARGUS-IS system. As part of our commercialization strategy, will demonstrate its applicability to future variants of the Light Hawk wide area persistent surveillance and exploitation system.

OBJECTVIDEO
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Dr. Khurram Hassan Shafique
DARPA 07-017      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:A unified framework for false alarm reduction using scene context from airborne sensors
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of utilizing scene and geometric context to improve target detection in aerial videos. The key innovation in this effort is a unified framework to place localized target detection in the context of the overall 3D scene, its constituents, and activities by modeling the interdependence of targets, scene elements, scene and sensor geometry, and target-movement patterns. In addition, enabling technologies will be developed to extract relevant scene and geometric context directly from the scene observables. These include extraction of scene elements (such as, roads, vegetation, buildings), scene geometric properties (e.g., rough surface orientations, relative depths, parallax motion field), and models of spatio-temporal properties of the targets in the scene (e.g., positions, scales, traffic patterns, etc.). Extraction of context directly from videos will ensure the independence of proposed architecture from prior knowledge regarding the scene. The proposed framework will be able to ingest the output of any target detector and apply contextual information to reject detections inconsistent with the extracted context model. The Phase I effort will include: development of enabling algorithms, implementation of the framework, demonstration of proof of concept, and quantitative evaluation of the proposed technologies.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Tony Falcone
DARPA 07-017      Awarded: 11/21/2007
Title:Contextually Adaptive False Alarm Mitigation
Abstract:In aerial images collected by wide-area sensors, targets of interest such as vehicles and dismounts are extremely small compared to the footprint of the image. The limited information that can be extracted from few pixels on target often means the targets of interest can be easily confused with other objects. Commonly used target detection systems in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platforms can provide high detection rates but at the cost of high false alarm rates. Fortunately, potential objects of interest need not be viewed in isolation. Rather, when they are considered in the context of other information, many of the false alarms can be mitigated. In this effort, we propose a Machine Learning based approach to Contextual Rule Discovery for False Alarm Mitigation. A Learning Classifier System will be used to discover contextual rules of the form IF THEN , which can then be used to determine if a potential target flagged by an unreliable low level detector is indeed a true target. The Learning Classifier System must be trained to derive these rules, but we propose a method to conduct on-line automated training of the LCS without any human-in-the-loop. Contextual information is modeled through the automated generation of background class information. The system will be adaptive, in that background classes and contextual rules can be updated to deal with changes in environment during a mission. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. will be joined in this effort by Mercury Computer Systems and Dr. Robert Smith.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Andrew P. Brown
DARPA 07-018      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Computationally Efficient Parallax Processing
Abstract:Automated video processing for airborne surveillance applications requires accurate registration of the video frames. For example, change detection processing for moving target detection requires accurate frame-to-frame alignment of the image plane projections of world points. When the surveillance platform is moving, significant parallax effects are observed due to the varying ranges to and orientations of objects and surfaces in the scene. Thus, advanced algorithms are required to accurately model, estimate, and apply the registration transformations. Toyon’s approach to computationally efficient parallax processing is based on a detailed understanding of projective imaging geometry and robust statistical estimation. Besides frame registration, Toyon’s algorithms can be used to provide additional parallax mitigation capabilities, including identification and, optionally, filling in of missing data due to occlusion effects. All this is achieved with computational complexity that is linear in the number of pixels. When fully developed in commercially available hardware, this technology is expected to provide significant improvements in exploitation of aerial video surveillance data, in real time.

KITWARE
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Mr. William Hoffman
DARPA 07-019      Awarded: 11/17/2007
Title:Wide Area Video Image Storage Techniques
Abstract:Very large aerial video collectors (VLAVCs) are of increasing interest, such as Constant Hawk, Sonoma, Angel Fire and the planned ARGUS video sensor. These sensors can generate tremendous amounts of data. This proposal addresses the issue of how to efficiently compress video streams from such sensors. The proposed approach is to represent the area under surveillance as a virtual world by automatically constructing 3D surface geometry, where VLAVC frame images are used to texture the surface. Vehicles and dismounts will be automatically tracked and placed in the virtual world creating a very low bandwidth portrayal of the video stream. The compression rates from this approach could reach 10,000:1, allowing for an increased ability to store and disseminate the data from these sensors.

LOGOS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 621-9345
Dr. Geoff Hazel
DARPA 07-019      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Wide Area Video Image Storage Techniques
Abstract:Logos Technologies (Logos) will design an innovative imagery compression system capable of coding and storing airborne Wide Area Persistent Surveillance (WAPS) imagery at 20 Gigapixel/second rates (2 Gigapixel frames, 10 Hz frame rate). The proposed Logos system will co-register and combine frames from the WAPS image sequence into reference imagery, which will represent the stable background scene used by the compression coder/decoder (codec). Salient scene motion (moving vehicles, humans, etc.) will be detected by differencing frames from the reference data, and this data will be filtered, compressed, coded and stored. Frame data will be reconstructed using the reference data, frame to reference registration parameters, and the coded residual difference data. The Logos team will validate its design by building a prototype system and evaluating codec quality with standard image and motion imagery quality metrics, as well as measures based on imagery analysis tasks. Concurrent to the codec design and experimentation, Logos will specify and validate an airborne processing and storage system properly sized to the WAPS 20 Gpixel/second stream.

RNET TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
555 Bryant Street #578
Palo Alto, CA 94301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Dr. Gerald Sabin
DARPA 07-019      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:PAVO: Petascale Storage for High Resolution Wide Area Video
Abstract:Gigapixel cameras can generate petabits of data every hour, requiring vast bandwidth and storage in order to store the entire video sequence for offline forensic analysis. Realtime compression techniques will be developed to greatly reduce the storage requirements. Key requirements of the compression algorithm are computational power, such that the system is power and space efficient, high compression ratios and minimal artifacts. The compression algorithm will operate in a data parallel manner, allowing for very good scalability. RAID partitions will be used inorder to create large storage volumes, and to allow a configurable level of data reliability. Embedded processing elements (e.g., FPGA, FPOAs, GPUs) will be used to implement the compression algorithm in a cost and power efficient system.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Mr. Jeffrey Brandstadt
DARPA 07-020      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:Anomaly Detection and Intelligent Sensor Resource Management
Abstract:Recent DoD programs have furthered intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) objectives by advancing the state-of-the-art in sensor resource management and target tracking. The majority of this work, however, has focused upon the problem of tracking a handful of high value targets for lengthy periods. There is a need to develop systems that detect anomalous activities that have the potential to be threatening or to be militarily significant. Such detections may result in high value target tracks, but the objective of this effort is to manage a constrained set of ISR assets to detect anomalous events. This requires the an automated resource manager to actively command sensors and modes, and to do so in a manner that de-conflicts parallel, competitive tasks. The sensor suite must simultaneously build normalcy models, detect anomalies, command sensor timeline to evaluate anomalies, and manage concurrent, high value tracks. Black River Systems proposes to develop a system architecture that manages sensor resources to execute four concurrent objectives: normalcy monitoring, anomaly detection, anomaly interrogation, and high value target track. Leveraging our tracking, sensor resource management, and simulation and modeling experience, we will demonstrate and analyze system performance through trade studies and simulations.

PARIETAL SYSTEMS, INC.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
Dr. Robert B. Washburn
DARPA 07-020      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Motion Pattern Anomaly Detection System (MPADS)
Abstract:The basic goal of this research is to improve the capability to detect, locate, and characterize emerging abnormal activities in cluttered environments based on motion pattern analysis. Parietal Systems, Inc. (PSI) proposes to do this by developing novel closed-loop pattern detection and sensor management algorithms to detect significant motion anomalies in normal background activity and to manage sensor resources to optimize anomaly detection performance. The anomaly detection algorithm will utilize techniques and results of scan statistics to process large MTI data sets efficiently without requiring well-formed tracks. This statistical approach works equally well with MTI radar, video, or other types of sensors capable of detecting moving objects. The sensor resource management algorithm will employ an innovative approach based on generalized multi-armed bandits to develop an online algorithm with minimal processing requirements. Because this approach accounts explicitly for future sensor observations, it is able to generate non-myopic resource decisions that achieve near-optimal performance. The research will also apply innovative performance analysis methods to characterize the expected anomaly detection and resource management performance of this approach as a function of sensor capabilities, resource usage, and the contrast between anomalies and normal background activity.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Allan Corbeil
DARPA 07-020      Awarded: 12/3/2007
Title:Anomaly Detection and Intelligent Sensor Resource Management
Abstract:Advanced UAV-based GMTI radars such as AACER and VADER offer the potential to reliably detect the anomalous behavior of both military vehicles and dismounted troops in real-time to cue narrow field-of-view EO/IR sensors and identify enemy targets amongst civilian vehicle and foot traffic. In Phase I, TSC proposes to explore a GMTI surveillance radar concept for adaptively allocating radar resources to efficiently learn specific regions and schedules of human activity. Models of normal human movement and measured human characteristics will be employed to recognize anomalies. TSC plans to exploit contextual information on populated areas and take advantage of cues including stopped vehicles to control radar waveforms and coverage areas. In Phase I, TSC will develop algorithms to operate in a challenging high density and dynamic target environment such as urban / suburban areas. TSC will extend our innovative anomaly detection algorithms, which were originally developed to recognize unusual vehicle behaviors, to find groups of dismounts which present threats. TSC will modify our existing GMTI radar simulation and scenario generator to develop and test these algorithms, and will then conduct computer experiments to evaluate their performance. In Phase II, TSC will develop a radar resource manager and prototype software for field testing using available GMTI sensors.

GOLETA STAR LLC
24085 Garnier St
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Mr. Cheng Pao
DARPA 07-021      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:Ultra-Light Interlaced Active Electronically Steerable Antennas (ULI-AESA)
Abstract:Goleta Star LLC with support from academia, Quinstar and other supporting businesses proposes to develop an Ultra-Light Interlaced Active Electronically Steerable Antennas (ULI-AESA) at two frequencies to support dual shared aperture usage. There are a number of alternative solutions that will be traded off in Phase I. The baseline proposed approach balances front-end innovation and advanced back-end processing techniques to evolve a cost-effective product for relatively small size UAV applications, with weight and power goals of < 10-lbs and < 100-watts respectively. The target system provides wide FOV coverage, with wide bandwidth for high resolution SAR and potentially wideband directive communications. The Phase I tradeoff effort will enable DARPA to select a preferred approach, from among the candidate options presented, for detailed design, development and evaluation in a Phase II. Limited lab testing and demonstration will be performed during the basic Phase I effort to assist in the tradeoff analysis and option formulation.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Christopher Hay
DARPA 07-021      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Conformal, Ultra-Light Interlaced Active Electronically Steerable Antenna (UL-AESA) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radar and COMINT(2007026)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop a small, light-weight, interlaced AESA to provide ground surveillance radar and COMINT capability from a small UAV. The development will focus initially on the Ka-band radar antenna. This thin (e.g., 85 mil), 256-element (8 x 32) 35 GHz radar array will conform to and be structurally integrated with a 1.35” x 5.4” x 0.06” section of the bottom of the fuselage. The array itself will weigh about 0.17 # and consume 36 W. Including power conditioning increases the weight to 0.4# and the power consumption to 43 W. The array will radiate 9 W average power and provide a sensitivity of 21 dB. Beams will scan at least +- 60o will sufficient agility to compensate for UAV maneuvers. The L-/S-band COMINT antenna will span 1 – 4 GHz, although only a small portion of the band will be observed at any one time. The notional 64-element array will measure 7.4” x 20.7” x 0.06” and consume less than 40 W. Its 4:1 frequency range requires evolving, wideband radiator techniques to minimize its weight. If the technology proposed for the Ka-band antenna applies to the L-/S-band antenna, then it will weigh about 4#. The active T/R circuitry will be realized in MHEMT technology for low noise figure and high PA efficiency and low power dissipation. Digital beam former circuits will be built in SiGe BiCMOS technology at IBM through DoD’s ITAR-compliant, Trusted Foundry (TF) agreement. Digital Sub-Arrays (DSAs) realized with wafer-scale antenna (WSA) technology will contain all the site-specific electronics for 64 radiating elements plus data conversion and digital beam forming. True-time delay beam forming will minimize squint. The Phase I effort will focus on a Ka-band AESA. The feasibility of realizing the AESA within the size, weight, and power (SWaP) constraints of a small UAV will be assessed. Critical circuitry will be developed during Phase II prior to fielding a complete antenna in Phase III. Interleaving the L-/S-band antenna will be considered separately.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Michael P. Grace
DARPA 07-021      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Ultra-Light Interlaced Active Electronically Steerable Antennas (ULI-AESA)
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a very lightweight, power-efficient Ku- band AESA antenna to meet the needs of small UAVs performing ISR missions over the battlefield. The antenna utilizes a space-feed to minimize antenna mass as has been proven on previous space-radar programs. The AESA electronics also utilize state-of- the-art MMICs that have been optimized for power-efficient operation. Nestled within the Ku-band antenna structure is a SIGINT/COMINT interferometer array covering most of the commercial communications bands. A series of low-frequency adjunct antennas that can be easily integrated into the UAV wings and control surfaces is also provided, allowing small swarms of similarly equipped UAVs to cooperatively geolocate tactical military radios, walkie-talkies, etc. The Ku-band arrays can then be used to image the suspected target area or to track moving emitters. The Ku-band array can also be used to communicate target data via satellite link, for maximum multi-functionality. A clever low- power digital receiver design based on COTs components is integrated into this antenna system providing scalability to various classes of UAVs.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Dr. Y. Kevin Zou
DARPA 07-022      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Optical Localization Techniques for Micro-Sensor Network Devices
Abstract:Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has been envisioned to revolutionize the way humans perceive and interact with the surrounding environment. The sensor nodes form a network and collaborate (to compensate for the extremely scarce resources available to each of them: computational power, memory size, communication capabilities) to accomplish the mission. Through collaboration, redundancy and fault tolerance, the WSN is then able to achieve unprecedented sensing capabilities. The exploitation of wireless sensor networks very often requires knowledge of the location of each device within the network. In this proposal, Boston Applied Technologies, Inc. (BATi) proposes to develop an optical wireless ad hoc localization technique for wireless sensor network. This free space optical link offers a viable alternative to RF sensor network localization and communications where wireless high performance and high security links are necessary. High data rate, small antenna size, narrow beam divergence, and a narrow field of view are characteristics of free space optical link that offer a number of potential advantages for system design.

DELLA ENTERPRISES, INC.
3425 North County Road 3
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 686-6898
Dr. Chris Wieland
DARPA 07-022      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Optical Localization Techniques for Micro-Sensor Network Devices
Abstract:We present a novel approach to the optical localization of remote sensors. Using a proprietary solution, we are able to determine longitude, latitude and altitude of a randomly placed remote sensor by purely optical means or by a combination of optical and RF communications techniques. Our approach is low-cost, eye-safe, stealthy, and minimizes or eliminates the need for human involvement in the localization process. Further, our approach easily handles hundreds of sensors spread over many miles of difficult terrain. Localization is quick and reliable. Our technology is easily integrated into existing and new designs for remote sensing.

OMEGA ADVANCED SOLUTIONS, INC.
1223 Peoples Avenue
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 387-4138
Dr. Nezih Pala
DARPA 07-022      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Optical Localization Techniques for Micro-Sensor Network Devices
Abstract:In this project, we introduce novel free-space-optical (FSO) components and localization algorithms to improve the localization in MANETs to very large scales. We propose to leverage directionality of FSO communications in a cross-layer manner, to construct a virtual coordinate system, despite sparse interconnectivity of the network. A crucial benefit of FSO components is the “directional” communication capability. FSO directionality provides a way of estimating orientation of communication taking place with a neighbor. Given this orientation in addition to range estimations, it becomes possible to localize nodes of a network as long as it is connected, as only one localized neighbor node is needed. In comparison to traditional triangulation methods requiring at least three localized neighbors, this method of using both range and orientation information simultaneously achieves localization a lot more efficiently with the cost of requiring “orientation” information. We propose to use a novel 3-D spherical “optical antenna” to offer rapid, automatic discovery and tracking of line-of-sight (LOS).

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Andrew P. Brown
DARPA 07-022      Awarded: 11/21/2007
Title:Optical Localization Techniques for Micro-Sensor Network Devices
Abstract:Wireless networks of micro-sensor devices have numerous military, scientific, and commercial applications. In many cases, accurate knowledge of the locations and orientations of the devices is essential; applications include efficient packet routing, target tracking, and generally for providing context to measured data. To meet the need for accurate localization and orientation estimation, Toyon proposes to develop and demonstrate advanced technology based on controlled optical transmission and reception between the micro-sensor devices. The location and orientation estimation algorithms are based on optimal Bayesian considerations, which integrate information from multiple inter- device angle measurements, and which take into account the effects of statistical correlation between the estimation errors of the multiple devices. Notably, the algorithms are formulated to distribute the computation throughout the network to provide significant improvements in computation and communication efficiency. Ultimately, the resulting developed technology is expected to provide significant added value in micro-sensor wireless networks through improved power efficiency and localization accuracy.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5255
Dr. Wilbur Peng
DARPA 07-023      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Frameworks for Semantic Integration of Intelligent Sensor Processing Systems
Abstract:The problem of unifying symbolic knowledge and concept representations and systems with the sensor inputs from the external environment is fundamental to the development of autonomous sensor-to-symbol systems. Existing approaches do not provide ways for allowing systems to rapidly incorporate new knowledge. The proposed sensor-to-symbol framework addresses the following key capabilities: • Provides a unified approach to representation that encompasses sensor data, features, similarity representations, and classes/categories/types. • Defines an integrated architecture and system engineering approach that focuses on iterative development, adaptation, and knowledge acquisition. • Support for integration of heterogeneous computation models through model-driven system development approaches. The Phase I effort will focus on defining the key technologies, requirements and design approaches of the sensor processing framework. A key innovation of the proposed approach is that it aims to provide a unified knowledge and concept representation across all abstraction layers, paving the way towards semantic integration of large-scale machine intelligence systems. Semantic integration is a promising approach because it facilitates a system’s ability to model and describe itself and hence provides the means for adaptation and learning competencies to interact with the competencies that perform processing and reasoning.

TRACLABS, INC.
8610 N. New Braunfels, Suite 110
San Antonio, TX 78217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 461-7884
Dr. David Kortenkamp
DARPA 07-023      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Building a coherent world view from sensory data
Abstract:The number of sensors mounted on unmanned vehicles, satellites, surveillance cameras, etc. continues to grow. These sensors offer a wealth of data, but converting these sensors into a coherent, symbolic world view that is relevant to the task-at-hand is a challenge. TRACLabs Inc. is proposing to integrate the Polyscheme cognitive architecture with an agent-oriented architecture to produce a complete system for providing task- relevant, symbolic data to human stakeholders. Polyscheme is a cognitive architecture for implementing more robust intelligent systems by combining multiple kinds of data structures and algorithms. TRACLabs' agent-oriented architecture is called DCI and was developed via NASA funding to aid distributed human teams in working with autonomous systems. Our integrated system will have the capability to combine a variety of sensory data into a coherent, symbolic world view that is made available to human stakeholders and is defined by a ontology. The symbolic world view is flexible and the cognitive aspects of our system allow for new symbols and categories of symbols to be created with minimal human involvement. The result is a system that easily ties multiple human stakeholders into the cognitive system while at the same time relieving these human stakeholders of routine cognitive tasks.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
16115 SW 117th Ave. A-15
Miami, FL 33177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. David D. Li
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Novel Integrated Waveguide Optical Isolator Based on Nonreciprocal Mode Conversion
Abstract:Optical feedback into semiconductor lasers can have detrimental effects to laser stability. Optical isolators with high forward transmission and very low return are used to ensure laser stability. Conventional optical isolators including fiber coupled ones consist of a Faraday rotator, a permanent magnet, and other optical components. They work exclusively based on the non-reciprocal Faraday polarization rotation principle. These isolators and their modified waveguide version cannot satisfy monolithic integration requirement with laser array chips owing to the incompatibility of the fabrication processes and packaging (need magnet). New Span Opto-Technology proposes to develop a novel waveguide optical isolator based on nonreciprocal mode conversion rather than using magneto-optical materials. The new waveguide isolator can be fabricated on any waveguide substrate including glass, polymer, and semiconductor materials. The concept of the isolator is supported by the mode conversion theory and has been verified by the beam propagation simulation and our preliminary experiments. The Phase I research will design and develop a prototype waveguide optical isolator. The successful demonstration of the waveguide optical isolator without using Faraday effect will have significant impact to optical science and engineering, and to variety of military and commercial applications using photonic lightwave circuits for computing and communications.

PHOTODIGM, INC.
1155 E. Collins Blvd. #200
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 725-8772
Mr. David Bour
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/21/2008
Title:A1GaInAs/InP based Integrated Waveguide Optical Isolators at 1.5 microns
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project is to demonstrate an integratable optical waveguide isolator in the InP alloy material system that can be integrated with a semiconductor laser and other photonic components. The structure of this isolator is designed to exhibit a non- reciprocal resonant loss in the presence of a magnetic field. This device can provide an isolation of 30 dB with an insertion loss of 1.56 dB with a length of 1.25 mm. A number of devices including polarizers, filters and modulators can be made and/or improved by using this Resonant-Loss-Layer Effect (RLLE). Diode lasers and amplifiers used in communication, signal processing, and computing benefit greatly if used in conjunction with isolators capable of preventing reflections from reentering the laser or amplifier. Integrated isolators would also greatly benefit a number of semiconductor lasers, laser arrays, optical amplifiers, and optical amplifier arrays that have been developed for high power application in the last few years. The biggest impact of the proposed isolator technology is that it is a key enabling technology required for large-scale photonic integrated circuits and chip-scale optical systems.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Juan Montoya
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Surface Plasmon Enhanced Integrated Optical Isolator
Abstract:Integrated photonics offer the promise of combining many optical devices on a substrate, leading to miniaturization and increased functionality on a chip. Isolators are critical elements for optical systems, since backscattered light creates noise and laser source instability, particularly in integrated platforms where the potential for backscattering increases with device density. Despite the need for integrated optical isolators, practical realization of such devices is challenging due to the lattice mismatch between materials, such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG), utilized to fabricate bulk magneto-optic isolators and materials, typically InP or GaAs, used for photonic chips. To address this need, we propose to design, model, and demonstrate an optical isolator capable of producing <3dB insertion loss and >30dB isolation that can be integrated with standard III-V semiconductor materials. Our approach exploits the known property of surface plasmons waveguides to enhance the magneto-optic response in a magnetically doped III-V semiconductor.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
201 Circle Drive North Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Mr. Bruce I. Willner
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Integrated Waveguide Recuperative Optical Isolators
Abstract:Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI) and the Cornell Nanophotonics Group propose to develop and commercialize a new form of optical isolator which can be incorporated into integrated photonics platforms. The Recuperative Optical Isolator is of a completely new design based upon waveguide birefringence allows directionally dependent scattering, optical properties not previously used for optical isolation. Our design takes advantage of the effects of waveguide birefringence for semiconductor optical waveguides, and does not require exotic materials with strong magneto-optical properties. The recuperative optical isolator can be fabricated using standard semiconductor fabrication materials and processes. SMI proposes developing this isolator and implementing it on our silicon CMOS-compatible integrated photonics platform currently under development. In Phase I of the program we will model and refine the isolator design and in Phase II the isolator will be fabricated at a commercial CMOS foundry.

TIPD, L.L.C.
5507 N. Paseo ventoso
Tucson, AZ 85750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 626-0936
Dr. Robert A. Norwood
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:Integrated Waveguide Optical Isolators
Abstract:A waveguide optical isolator is proposed based on ultrahigh Verdet constant s. Prelminary measurements on these materials indicate Verdet constants with magnitudes ranging from that of YIG to that of BIG. Verdet constant measurements and waveguide loss measurements on the magneto-optic polymers will be performed to confirm feasibility for both high isolation (>30 dB) and low loss (<3 dB) operation. Excellent transparency at 1550nm is evident from thin film UV-VIS measurements. Both Faraday rotation and non- reciprocal Mach-Zehnder designs will be explored with both BPM and mode solver software. These designs will take advantage of photopatternable sol-gel cladding technology that allows for low loss coupling to optical fiber (< 0.5 dB per interface), refractive index tuning to eliminate waveguide birefringence, and increased photostability for high power applications. Wafer manufacturing economic analyses will be performed and a waveguide Faraday rotator demo will be prepared to demonstrate feasibility prior to Phase II.

APPLIED QUANTUM TECHNOLOGIES
4602 Sycamore Shoals Rd
Durham, NC 27705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 969-7571
Dr. Jungsang Kim
DARPA 07-025      Awarded: 2/5/2008
Title:Wide Field of Regard Imaging System using MEMS mirrors
Abstract:We propose an optical imaging system utilizing a pair of MEMS mirrors to achieve a wide field of regard and zooming characteristics. This system is anticipated to meet the challenging constraints put forth in this program: a total field of regard of up to 80 degrees, fast scanning speeds, and up to 5x optical zoom.

HOLOCHIP CORP.
1009 Bradbury SE, Rm 05
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 906-1064
Dr. Robert Batchko
DARPA 07-025      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Micro-Actuated Optics for Wide Field-of-View (FOV) Imaging with Random-Access Optical Zoom Capability
Abstract:Presently, scanning and zooming of imaging optics is achieved with bulky mechanical gimbals or using multiple focal plane arrays and associated optics to cover the wide field of view. These approaches are not only expensive in terms of power, size and weight, but also costly. Alternatively, the use of liquid crystal (LC) lenses, LC spatial light modulators and LC scanners in zooming and scanning systems have been extensively researched but LC’s suffer from drawbacks in terms of speed, aberrations and transmission. These limitations in zoom technology have been largely overcome with the development of Adaptive Polymer Lenses by Holochip Corporation. Holochip Corporation, in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories, has previously demonstrated compact adaptive optical zoom and aberration correction, using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLMs), LC lenses, and deformable mirrors. We have realized the benefit of eliminating the mechanical motion of static lenses and mirrors, demonstrating a significant reduction in the power and footprint of the system, and an increase in the speed of scanning/zooming. Further improvements will produce a high-speed, random-access, wide field-of-view, low-power zooming and scanning technology.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
16115 SW 117th Ave. A-15
Miami, FL 33177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. Jame J. Yang
DARPA 07-025      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Non-mechanical Scanning Dual-Imaging-Mode Optical Sensor
Abstract:Wide field-of-view (FOV) imaging sensors with high resolution ability have significant applications in military and commercial fields. Current methodology of employing FLIR or video imaging sensors to search and acquire potential targets is time and power consuming since continuous scanning in a wide FOV and zooming in a local interest area is performed using a gimbaled or moving mechanism. Various efforts have been placed on development of innovative imaging optics or architectures to enable rapid and random access scanning of a FPA over a wide field of regard, while reducing the size, weight, and power compared to conventional scanning technologies. These developments include micro-electro-mechanical focusing mirrors, programmable 2-axis scanning imaging micromirrors, and active pixel sensors, et al. Each technology demonstrated its advantages and weaknesses. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes a new method to implement wide FOV imaging sensor by the use of simple Electro-Optical components. This is a real-time, non-mechanical scanning, and reconfigurable imaging system. It allows wide FOV surveillance with localized high resolution in interested areas. This reconfigurable system realizes fast target detection in one compact system and also overcomes the typical image-processing data throughput bottleneck. In phase I, the feasibility study of the concept design will be performed.

ZIVA CORP.
6160 Lusk Blvd C-206
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 735-2496
Dr. Anis Husain
DARPA 07-025      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:Micro-Actuated Optics
Abstract:Ziva with team member UCSD propose a ground-breaking new micro-scanning technology capable of rapid scanning over a wide Field of Regard while reducing the size, weight, and power by 10 – 100x compared to conventional scanning technologies, making it ideally suited to micro-vehicle applications, unattended ground sensors, and man-portable applications. The proposed meso-hydraulic-based technology is unique because it: • Represents a breakthrough in realization of a robust and precise pump/valve via a new 3D molding process using precision lithographic processes, enabling nL volumes to control mL volumes of liquid in a minute size and at a low cost. • Exploits “muscle wire” actuation technology which brings weight down to < 20g. • Uses a closed system filled with an incompressible fluid where volume displacement is transmitted at speed of sound, enabling fast saccades between targets/views. In Phase I, Ziva/UCSD will conduct a feasibility study for the concept design for micro-actuated optics which has the capability of 80x80 degree scan angles, with 5X optical zoom and weight of < 20g and scan time for the 80 degrees in < 30ms. We will assess the feasibility to achieve these goals by mechanical (ANSYS) and optical (ZEMAX) simulations and a demo of the principle.

INNOVATIVE MICRO TECHNOLOGY
75 Robin Hill road
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 356-4717
Dr. Jaquelin Spong
DARPA 07-026      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Reliable MEMS Ka-Band Filters
Abstract:We plan to use an innovative cantilevered MEMS switch design developed at MIT- Lincoln Labs in a tunable Ka band filter component, which performs according to the requirements of this SBIR solicitation. In conjunction with MIT and subcontractor Dr. Andy Brown, we plan to design and develop the tunable filter component and present the design to a prime DoD contractor Raytheon, L-3 or Rockwell for inclusion into their radar arrays.

MEMTRONICS CORP.
3000 Custer Road Suite 270-400
Plano, TX 75075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 552-7055
Dr. Charles Goldsmith
DARPA 07-026      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Reliable MEMS Ka-Band Filters
Abstract:In today’s dense electromagnetic environment, proper allocation and management of spectrum is an overriding concern for US military forces. The migration to higher microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies has made much needed bandwidth available for military radar and communications. This migration, however, has also highlighted the need for high-performance filtering to mitigate jamming and co-site interference. This has translated into the need for frequency-agile filters with narrow fractional bandwidth that still possess reasonable losses. To this end, this proposed program will marry the highest performance MEMS technology, that of microencapsulated, capacitive MEMS switches, with the lowest loss transmission media, that of metal waveguides. these two technologies- one old and one new- will enable tunable filters at Ka-band frequencies which overcome the present limitations of tunable filters with unloaded Qs in the range of 50-150. This novel component technology will usher in a new generation of MEMS-tuned filters with narrow bandwidths, low loss, and high intercept point. This will be of great benefit to next generation military radar and communications systems where adaptive frequency management is required.

ACREE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1900 Bates Ave. Suite G
Concord, CA 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 798-5770
Dr. Mike McFarland
DARPA 07-027      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:MEMS/NEMS High Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using Micro-Electro- Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (NEMS) technologies to create high performance thermal barrier coatings (TBC) that will improve the performance, efficiency and lifetime of gas turbine engines. The goal is to produce TBCs that have better thermal barrier properties, lower diffusion rates for impurities, and better mechanical stability than today’s TBCs. Additionally, innovative design approaches will be developed that incorporate, for example, micro-cooling channels into the TBC layer using High Aspect Ratio Microscale Structures (HARMS).

SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC.
15 WARD STREET
SOMERVILLE, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-1122
Dr. ALLEN FLUSBERG
DARPA 07-027      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:MEMS/NEMS High Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings
Abstract:We propose to develop a potentially revolutionary technological innovation that will significantly increase the efficiency, lifetime and reliability of gas-turbine engines. Despite the tremendous improvements in coating technologies to enable huge increases in operational temperatures, continued advances using conventional, purely materials- science approaches have resulted in diminishing marginal returns in the last 25 years. The problem is that the turbine blades heat up as a result of conductive and radiative heat transport. Using MEMS-fabrication methods, we will develop a technique to imbed structure within the thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) currently bonded to turbine blades that will decrease the thermal conductivity by a factor of 2, thereby attenuating phonon transport of heat and providing the means to (1) increase turbine-blade lifetime and (2) attain considerably higher operating efficiencies by operating the engines at significantly higher temperatures. In Phase I we will (1) fully characterize and design the requisite imbedded structure; and (2) fabricate test samples and measure the decrease in their thermal conductivity. In Phase II we will demonstrate an optimal system—fabricated utilizing MEMS technology—that is designed to minimize phonon heat transport in materials that are appropriate for TBCs.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Dr. Vladimir Kochergin
DARPA 07-028      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Superlens for 193nm Lithography
Abstract:Luna Innovations proposes to design and develop a superlens structure that will achieve 30nm resolution at 193nm wavelength for high resolution photolithography used in IC production in military and commercial applications. The unique design of the proposed superlens provides a means to overcome the problem of the absence of natural high- quality metal and sufficiently transparent dielectric materials with close absolute value of the real part of dielectric permittivity. Careful selection of the materials and fabrication processes will ensure the development of a manufacturable superlens structure. In Phase I, Luna will design the superlens and will prove the feasibility through Finite Different Time Domain modeling. A concept of the photolithography system utilizing the designed superlens will be developed. In Phase II, Luna will revise the superlens design, will fabricate a 193nm superlens and will experimentally demonstrate the resolution significantly exceeding the diffraction limit. The key components of the photolithography system employing the developed superlens will be demonstrated. The cost-effective fabrication of the superlens will be shown. By the end of Phase II a prototype superlens and an acceptable quality photolithographic process with resolution approaching 30nm will be demonstrated. In Phase III Luna will team with primes to commercialize the developed technology.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 471-9700
Dr. Ravi Verma
DARPA 07-028      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:Non-contact lithography based on optical superlensing at 193 nm
Abstract:We are proposing the development of a “negative-index” material at 193 nm for use as a “superlens” for high resolution lithography. Superlensing has already been demonstrated at 365 nm, and this work will simply extend the demonstrated principles to 193 nm with a new set of materials.In Phase I, we will demonstrate this superlens with 30 nm half-pitch features, while restricting ourselves to a contact mask. In Phase II, we will extend the scheme to non-contact lithography based on superlensing at 193 nm.

IONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
2161 O'Toole Avenue Unit H
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 435-2680
Dr. Roand M. Kubacki
DARPA 07-029      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:High efficiency EO directional coupler modulator
Abstract:We have a unique approach to forming non linear optical materials. Also known as poled polymers, they are unstable and have severe and rapid degradation. We will use unique materials and a poled plasma process to produce a stable EO material with greater than 100 pm/V sensitivity and less than 1 dB/cm loss. We are able to use these low cost and highly efficient materials to fabricate a variety of devices including optical switches to direct optical data streams, optical modulators for impressing data on the light stream, or combining them with other photonic planar waveguide devices to provide wavelength agility for increased bandwidth and functionality. In photonics significant advances will require new materials and processes to achieve higher performance and lower costs. The proposed material is a new approach to DWDM providing superior performance with higher electro-optic susceptibility to reduce operating voltages and power consumed making integration to digital devices more successful than lithium niobate devices requiring hundreds of volts. We are striving for losses in the 10 dB per meter range or less in Phase 1.

LUMERA CORP.
19910 North Creek Parkway Suite 100
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 398-6528
Dr. Raluca Dinu
DARPA 07-029      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:Electro-Optic Polymer Based Ultra-Linear Directional Coupler
Abstract:EO polymer modulators have been demonstrated to operate with very low switching voltages (~0.4 V) due to the high activity of EO polymers. EO polymers also utilize spin-on fabrication processes and semiconductor like processes that allow precise device fabrication at high volumes. However, the optical loss in the state-of-the-art EO polymer material is somewhat high (3-4 dB/cm). Lumera is motivated and confident that if selected, we will develop and/or collaborate with University of Washington (UW) scientists to modify the current materials systems to demonstrate and validate EO polymer materials with high EO activity and relatively low optical loss, and develop ultra- linear, multi-sectioned directional couplers incorporating state-of-the-art, stable, high EO coefficient polymers with low optical loss.

OMEGA OPTICS, INC.
10435 Burnet Rd., Suite 108
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 996-8833
Dr. Alan Wang
DARPA 07-029      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:EO Polymer-based Bias-Free Highly-Linear Domain Inverted Directional Coupler
Abstract:provide a linear modulation curve good enough for a high spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) for RF photonics. In Conventional Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulators achieves a low driving voltage V to 1 volt but fails to this program, Omega Optics proposes a 1x2 Y-fed directional coupler together with a multiple domain inversion poling technique, which is exclusively available for EO polymer thin film. The 1x2 Y-fed configuration provides us with a bias-free approach while the multiple domain inversion provides the linear transfer curve with SFDR well above 121 dB/Hz, which is well above that can be provided by MZ modulator. With the availability of MORPH EO polymer having an ?33 as large as 300pm/V at 1.3 m, V < 1 volt can be easily achieved. More importantly, more sections of domain inversion can be realized to further upgrade the linearity of the transfer curve which creates significant improvement of the SFDR that is not achievable through other competing technologies. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a domain inverted polymer waveguide modulator with projected linearity and device insertion loss with a detailed plan of phase II demonstration. A traveling-wave MORPH EO polymer based modulator with 40 GHz bandwidth and fiber to waveguide coupling loss at <0.7 dB/facet will be demonstrated in phase II.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Matthew J. Miller
DARPA 07-030      Awarded: 2/15/2008
Title:TimeScan: A Scalable Wireless Imaging Sensor Network
Abstract:Wireless automated threat detection networks currently concentrate on non-imaging technology such as acoustic, seismic, and magnetic data. This proposal details our innovative “TimeScan” solution to fully enable video imaging devices to become a powerful yet economical addition to the arsenal of automatic threat detection sensors. Our solution encompasses the end-to-end goal of achieving reliable, high probability threat detection via image processing immediately at the sensor and subsequently at the network base station, with strong consideration for the networking and data distribution in between. With a systems-level perspective, we offer a powerful, practical capability to achieve very low false alarm and very high detection probability via a modular, layered, time-buffered solution that concurrently optimizes in-network data processing, cross- sensor correlation, and communication bandwidth. Modular components yield obsolescence-proof high performance at low cost. Multi-stage processing yields scalability with high system-level threat detection reliability.

WAVETEK ENGINEERING, INC.
2465 Centreville Road J17 Ste. 208
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 310-7195
Mr. RICHARD KRINSKY
DARPA 07-030      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Scalable-Network Wireless Imaging Sensors for the Battlefield
Abstract:The capability of instantly transmitting images of interest from video sensors deployed in the battlefield back to the commander’s base station is an important combat operational advantage. To be able to have “extra eyes” in a combat zone is indeed the goal of any surveillance network. However, design and development of such a functional video network involves solving many technical issues. Some of these issues are day-night vision capability, power conservation, image resolution, range, line-of-sight, stealth- camouflage, robust transport protocols, video packet transmission integrity, bandwidth availability, anti-tampering and finally, an integrated video sensor system that is cost effective, as some of these components are necessarily disposable in a combat zone. In order to cover various area sizes, the video network needs to be able to expand, i.e., scalable, to meet the changing demands. This proposal presents a cohesive wireless video sensor network that would provide real-time battlefield situation awareness by instantly transmitting target surveillance images to the base station on demand or when triggered. This video sensor network can function alone, or in combination with sensor systems such as seismic, acoustic, magnetic and thermal. This network will also be scalable to meet changeable coverage requirements.

HITRON ASSOC.
12154 Darnestown Road Suite 202
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 789-1770
Dr. H. E. CHAN
DARPA 07-031      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Physically Small Superconducting Antennas
Abstract:This proposal presents a feasibility study and design of a small high temperature superconducting (HTS) antenna employing SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) technology that serve to target origination of RF energy and therefore provide accurate direction finding in a dense interference environment. The technical objectives are to design a HTS antenna that employs Josephson Junction SQUIDs. 3 devices will be formulated under this proposal for accomplishing the objective of locating RF emanation and directional finding operation in a dense environment scenario. These devices are: 1. Single SQUID Magnetometer, 2. Multiple SQUID Magnetometer, and 3. Small HTS SQUID Antenna.The HTS-SQUID antenna design concept is to use three co-located loops orthogonal superconductor loop antennas with a common center point, each connected to suitable signal processors. These processors would analyze and calculate the signals received by each of the three antennas. By measuring Hx, Hy and Hz of an incoming signal, one can deduce the amplitude and direction of arrival of the incoming signal. The concept is that the three orthogonal loops would occupy a much smaller volume, in the range of several cm. on each edge and thus could be deployed on an airborne platform.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. Oleg Mukhanov
DARPA 07-031      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:HF Direction Finding
Abstract:HYPRES is pleased to propose is to develop the physically small antenna Direction Finding (DF) subsystem capable of environmental noise limited reception based on SQIF technology and implemented using HTS materials. In this phase I project, we will focus on the analysis and design of the integrated SQIF antennas and low-noise amplifiers configured for HF DF applications. We will analyze and optimize DF antenna configurations capable of achieving high direction estimation accuracy of <~2 degree. The analysis will also be focused on achieving high gain, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, and spur free dynamic range. Detailed test plans will be prepared for full evaluation of these devices at a field test range

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Alex Feinman
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Gradual Revelation of Organized Information via Interactive Transmission (GROKIT)
Abstract:PowerPoint™ is ubiquitous within government, military, academic, and commercial organizations, yet has many drawbacks that impair knowledge transfer. Authors must fit information into a linear array of slide-size chunks, built from generic primitives like bullets and clipart. This organization can obscure information, and ignores the human capacity for “visual cognition.” There is no interaction support for the briefer or the audience, nor is there any support for maintaining the presentation as an evolving representation in an organization. The proposed system for Gradual Revelation of Organized Knowledge via Interactive Transmission (GROKIT) directly addresses all of these problems. GROKIT employs complementary representational levels; a structural level that establishes a nonlinear “briefing map,” and a feature level that embeds domain-specific artifacts. GROKIT simplifies the creation of quality briefings, provides the briefer with a way to monitor audience comprehension, and provides the audience with a way to annotate and explore the briefing map. GROKIT briefings will be made web-accessible so domain- specific artifacts can be reused and adapted, and so that the briefing can serve as an organization’s evolving “knowledge receptacle.” These features are informed by research on visual communication, and will improve the accuracy of representation, efficiency of transfer, and recollection of knowledge.

DEAL CORP.
266 Xenia Avenue, Suite 202
Yellow Springs, OH 45387
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 767-1900
Mr. Steven V Deal
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:CogniBrief; A Structured Presentation Tool for Rapid Knowledge Transfer
Abstract:The poor representation and communication of ideas impedes progress and can result in direct threats to life and property. It is well known that tools impact the way in which work is performed. Popular presentation support tools lend themselves to poor conceptualization and superficial analysis. They offer a poor means of transmitting knowledge even when the underlying analysis is solid and the presentation well prepared because they encourage a focus on the presenter’s ideas at the expense of the audience’s knowledge needs. Our strategy for improving knowledge transfer builds on the cognitive fundamentals of how ideas are assimilated naturally and discourages over reliance on poorly structured and mind numbing detail as induced by the linear, didactic style of current presentation tools. With our proposed approach, which is based in well- researched principles underlying the development of expertise, authors will be able to populate their presentation with considerable detail but will be encouraged, through product functionality, to base that detail on a systematic and careful analysis and to structure it so that it is contextualized to become meaningful to others during the brief and in later interactive exploration of the briefing material.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Dr. Marc Abrams
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer
Abstract:Using our 50+ person-years of experience with presentation briefing for Fortune 500 companies and DoD, XML processing, and HCI tool design, we aim to dramatically improve the effectiveness, analytic quality, and accuracy of conveying complex ideas, plans, quantitative analysis, and concepts through asynchronous or synchronous briefings. We make a major departure from the linear slide model of presentation that predates computers. Through a notion of domain-specific vocabularies – visualization components that are matched to information needs either manually through best practices or automatically via cognitive learning – we provide uAuthor, a tool to create a network of briefing components described in an XML meta-language, BriefM. The next innovation is to provide an interactive briefing agent, called uExchange, which both the briefer and the audience run on their own machines. Different audience members can see their own view of the doc. Briefings can be annotated with uExchange, so that the briefing is a living document available that records the thought process and any decisions from the community exposed to the briefing. Vocabularies can be designed that are specific to the Army, Navy, companies, industries, and so on, to provide standard and proven components as the basis of all briefings.

INTELLIGENT MODELS, INC.
10303 Sweetwood Ave
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 401-9746
Dr. Yuri Levchyk
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Strategic Interactive Narration and Presentation Tool (SINAPT)
Abstract:In a world of increasingly complicated ideas, stakeholders need to rapidly, accurately, and effectively communicate ideas to audiences. Three main types of problems detract from this communication. First, the neural structure of the brain inhibits learning through several mechanisms. Second, audience understanding is partly dependent on interaction with the presenter and other members and buy-in to the contents of the presentation. Presentation tools often fail to provide this. Third, presentations often fail due to a presenter’s failure to account for attributes such as culture and preferred modalities. To these three problems, SINAPT will present a three-pronged functionality: (1) algorithms to evaluate and improve presentations to conform to cognitive learning principles such as flashbulb memorization and memory consolidation; (2) it will allow both presenter and audience to interactively navigate through a modified and extended concept map of the presentation, so that participants aree able to alter the presentation in real-time and take home a interactive copy of the presentation at the end; (3) it will allow one to automatically test a presentation against a simulated or real audience and provide feedback to improve the presentation. Through these three functionalities, SINAPT can greatly assist both presenter and audience with communication of ideas.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd. Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:RAIDER™: Rapid and Accurate Idea Exchange and Retention
Abstract:Current presentation-oriented methods of communicating complex ideas, plans and analysis results are not conducive to rapid idea transfer and retention. In particular, the way office productivity tools such as PowerPoint are used today violate the human’s cognitive style, processing limitations, and tenets of the learning sciences. This project is concerned with dramatically enhancing the transfer and retention of complex ideas, plans and high quality analyses by exploiting information design principles to replace a presentation only paradigm with a combination of mass briefing and active essay usage paradigm. Phase I of this effort will result in: novel, realizable information design concepts that are sensitive to the needs of authors, briefers, and audiences; a focused prototype that conveys solution approaches to the most challenging aspects of the problem; and a feasibility, usability and utility validation through illustrative use cases and operational concepts.

KITENGA CO.
2195 Tahoe Circle
Tracy, CA 95376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(209) 834-1270
Mr. Mark Davis
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Ofamind Informer: A New Information Design for Briefings and Presentations
Abstract:PowerPoint has emerged as the de facto tool in military, business and academic briefings and presentations. Still, organizations have increasingly called into question PowerPoint’s limitations even as its usage has become widespread. The technology has been criticized for being overused, for simplifying complex ideas, and even for contributing to Space Shuttle failures. Overcoming these limitations requires radically rethinking the way that briefings and presentations are authored, disseminated and reused. We have developed a new model for authoring presentations and briefings called Ofamind Informer that has the potential to improve the speed and quality of those presentations by enhancing the authoring process and preserving the information context that informed the author. The methods we plan to use build on deep research in cognitive psychology, human-computer interaction and information design, and will result in early proof-of- concept designs and prototypes that demonstrate key functions of the proposed system.

PERIGEAN TECHNOLOGIES LLC
8108 Lee Jackson Circle
Spotsylvania, VA 22553
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 429-8126
Mr. Brian Moon
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer
Abstract:This proposal offers a revolution in the way that we think about capturing and sharing human thought. We submit that improvements in the rapidity and accuracy of transfer of human thought will follow naturally when the initial transfer is done right – that is, when knowledge is first made meaningful and objective. Concept Maps are a graphical display of knowledge that is comprised of concepts connected by directed arcs encoding brief relationships between pairs of concepts. These relationships usually consist of verbs, forming propositions or phrases for each pair of concepts. Drawing on the basic characteristics of concept mapping, new approaches for the presentation of human thought are currently being developed by our team. This proposal seeks to build upon the current capabilities for creating Concept Maps offered by CmapTools, and through this research our team will develop revolutionary ways to improve rapid and accurate idea transfer. Most importantly, we have already identified a Commercialization Strategy and are working closely with a commercialization partner.

SMART INFORMATION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, D/B/A SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 716-4015
Dr. Christopher A. Miller
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Kulit – A Workflow for High Resolution Communications
Abstract:The Kulit communication software breaks free of the foil on an overhead projector model, with an efficient flexible workflow that goes from the author to the audience. Kulit emphasizes a tactical approach to creating an effective communication, by thinking about what message needs to be communicated, brainstorming about the message content, and then providing the author expert guidance to ensure all the important points are covered in a logical order. Kulit guides, but never limits what an author can do. The final Kulit document is embedded with hyperlinks to original sources, and semantic markers. The semantic markers are a byproduct of the brain-storming stage, but the markers allow Kulit to “know” about sections of the document without forcing the author to enter obscure markup language. The markers allow Kulit to present the document differently based on need. Kulit can present one version on a screen for an audience, and a synchronized high-resolution version on the audience’s laptop customized for their role and task. Kulit ensures the audience gets what it needs out of the communication, before during and after the presentation. Kulit allows meeting time to be spent on tactical interaction with the speaker.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. Terrance Goan
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Aggregating Presentation Design Knowledge to Improve Idea Transfer
Abstract:Rapid and effective knowledge transfer is essential to timely and effective decision making in organizations of all types and sizes. We propose an innovative approach that will overcome the primary challenges to the rapid and accurate presentation of ideas, analysis, and plans. At the core of the proposed PresentWell system is a just-in-time authoring aid that will support users in the selection and application of principles and patterns for briefing design. Through a natural human-system dialog, this aid will incrementally elicit the user’s intent as well as gather important contextual information (e.g., available presentation time and the profile of the target audience). With this information the aid will be able to guide the user in the selection of appropriate presentation elements as well as the overall organization of the presentation. During the briefing PresentWell will provide real-time guidance to the presenter regarding how to best utilize their remaining time. Finally, we will explore the potential for judiciously collecting real-time feedback as a means for providing the presenter with an awareness of the uncertainties of the audience. In Phase I we will build a prototype to prove the feasibility of this approach.

SYSTEMIC MANAGEMENT SCIENCE CORP.
P.O. Box 4283
Charlottesville, VA 22905
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 249-3012
Mr. Jae W. Pak
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer
Abstract:The consequences of inaccurate idea transfer in the armed forces as well as diplomatic and commercial realms can be quite dire with loss of lives and assets of national and international significance. Thus, an innovative R&D effort is proposed to investigate the feasibility of a briefing software program that can be used to rapidly and accurately communicate complex ideas, plans, and high-quality analyses. Within the timeframe of this phase, this firm will complete its existing prototype and test it for efficacy and preference with graduate students as the presenters and college students as the audience. The prototype software will be compared against Microsoft PowerPoint 2007. Phase 1 feasibility will be claimed if the prototype demonstrates measureable efficacy improvement over PowerPoint.

Teknowledge Corporation
1800 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 578-5350
Neil Goldman
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Presentation Webs
Abstract:The predominant mode of presentation in most government, business, and academic settings confines itself to limitations originating in the technology of the overhead projector and hand-drawn transparency. Although software applications, such as PowerPoint, have facilitated the creation of such presentation material, and electronic projectors have eliminated the use of a physical medium, format and content of the material presented are dominated by assumptions from the overhead era: that all audience members are viewing the same material at the same time; that they are viewing the material projected at a distance far greater than ordinary reading distance; and that audience members will view material in the order predetermined by the presenter. Our presentation paradigm takes advantage of technology widely available in today's meeting venues: audience members with laptop computers with high-resolution displays, communicating over a high bandwidth network. Electronic presentation materials can be actively navigated by audience members during the presentation, as well as after the presentation ends. The presentation tool will be aware of the presentation's content, allowing purpose-guided navigation and reorganization to produce dynamically determined comparisons of interest.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
DARPA 07-033      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:A Linked, Integrated Visualization System for IO (LIVIO)
Abstract:Numerous advances have been made to provide the Commander with visualizations of the physical spatio-temporal battlespace, but efforts to visualize Information Operations (IO) concepts are lacking. While physical, kinetic operations map naturally to particular visual elements (e.g., maps, symbols, timelines), the factors (and the relationships among factors) considered in IO do not have such straightforward visual analogues. One promising approach is to provide an accessible interface for the Commander to visualize patterns of causal relationships between ill-defined IO concepts and their observable, kinetic effects. We propose to design and demonstrate a Linked, Integrated Visualization System for IO (LIVIO) to represent causality within IO and integrate those representations into kinetic visualizations. Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a work domain analysis on a specific scenario to develop a structured categorization of unobservable concepts in IO that warrant symbolic representation. Second, we will develop a symbology for the identified IO concepts. Third, we will design accessible user interfaces to enable the visualization of causal patterns and integrate these causal visualizations with existing kinetic visualizations. We will leverage our team’s expertise in UI design and the development of empirically validated visualization systems to rapidly design the proposed system.

PERCEPTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 461-9150
Dr. Amos Freedy
DARPA 07-033      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Common Operating Picture for Information Operations
Abstract:A growing challenge for Joint Forces commanders concerns the integration of information operations (IO) capabilities and resources into an overarching campaign strategy relevant to the full spectrum of operations, from the strategic down to the tactical level. Perceptronics Solutions, Inc. and the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories, joined by consultants Dr. Robert Jacobs and CPT Jesse Sellars (USA Ret), are pleased to present this proposal to develop an innovative, cognitively-based methodology for providing a common digital operating picture (DICOP) for information operations (IO). Our technical objective is to apply recent advances in cognitive engineering, cultural modeling and command and control display technology to create a new information display infrastructure that meets the pressing needs of IO planning, monitoring and evaluation. The Perceptronics Solutions team is uniquely qualified to execute a well-planned and executed SBIR project that has both sound scientific grounding and the technology necessary to assure a successful proof-of-concept demonstration, with subsequent full development and transition to operational systems –in both the military and non-military applications. Our team has already made significant progress toward achieving the project goals, and our technical approach is based on innovative research and development products already contributed by our team members.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Dr. Pi-Ling Huang
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Upconverting Films
Abstract:Recent advances in the single wavelength excitation to induce upconversion emission in transparent colloids of Lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals provide the opportunity for significant performance in biological tagging applications. For many military missions, a cost-effective, ultra-compact, passively infrared detection is also required to take advantage of the weak fluorescence. Upconversion has been shown to be an efficient way to generate visible radiation because high pumping density is not required. Boston Applied Technologies, Inc. (BATi) proposes a multi-wavelength up conversion responsible material made by rare earth-ions co-doped SiO2 glass film that can fulfill the requirement of this solicitation and also provide a method to explore how to improve photon collection and conversion efficiencies, dynamic range, sensitivity, image formation, and resolution, and would enhance efforts in developing tactical optical systems.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Dr. De Yu Zang
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 3/26/2008
Title:2D OLED Array Using High Upconversion Efficiency Nanoparticles for Directly Converting IR to Visible Light
Abstract:Based on recent advancement in high upconversion efficiency rare-earth-element (REE) nanoparticles and their application in organic polymer LEDs (OLED), IPITEK, teamed with Prof. Andrew Steckl of the University of Cincinnati, proposes a novel two-dimensional OLED Array (2D-OLEDA) to address dual use infrared (IR) sensing and detection needs. The 2D-OLEDA represents a new generation IR detection system, incorporating novel REE-nanoparticles with high upconversion efficiency into OLED device structures. The proposed 2D-OLEDA system will combine many attractive new features: a) ultra- compact and light weight compatible with a goggle-type lenspiece in less than 50 grams; b) low-power consumption; c) highly transmissive at visible wavelengths; and d) cost- effective. Phase I will address feasibility and assess detection sensitivity, selectivity, spatial, temporal and radiometric resolution, visible spectrum transmissivity, and fabrication technology. Phase II will develop the materials and methods to demonstrate a proof of concept lenspiece.

MESOLIGHT, LLC
4301 West Markham Street
Little Rock, AR 72205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 799-3368
Dr. Yunjun Wang
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Upconverting Films
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will develop highly bright and stable doped nanocrystal/polymer nanocomposite thin film as light up-converting medium for infrared light visualization applications. Upconversion of higher energy light from lower energy radiation are realized through the use of trivalent lanthanide ions, actinide ions, or transition metals doped in a solid-state host. Oxides and halides are the two commonly used hosting materials for upconversion ions. In halides, the nonradiative rate is low and the upconversion luminescence efficiency is high. However, many halides are sensitive to moisture and unstable in air. Oxides are stable in air, but the upconversion of oxides is usually very low due to the rapid relaxation induced by large phonon energy. In this SBIR project, several doped semiconductor nanocrystals with the high upconversion efficiency and stability will be developed as the upconversion medium. These nanocrystals will be dispersed into optically transparent polymer matrices through an in situ polymerization process to form an upconversion thin film that can be used in infrared visualization instruments.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Parfenov
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Infrared to Visible Light Upconversion by Nano-Structures Confined in Microporous Alumina
Abstract:To meet the DARPA need for innovative technologies to directly convert infrared incident light into visible bands, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop new advanced Infrared to Visible light Upconversion by Nanostructures (IRVUN) upconverting material and fabrication technology. IRVUN contains a microporous alumina film with luminophore nanoparticles impregnated into pores and transparent electrodes on both sides of this film, connected to a bias voltage source. One electrode creates Schottky contact with the luminophore material, while the other creates ohmic contact. Because of its unique material structure IRVUN will be very efficient and sensitive in upconversion from the IR (2-3 microns) into the visible and can be tailored to be spectrally selective in desired IR and corresponding visible bands with high spatial, temporal, and radiometric resolution. The material will also have 70 percent visible transmission in a thin film form, applicable to a curved substrate. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the IRVUN for IR-to-visible light conversion by analysis and by fabricating IRVUN samples. In Phase II we will advance the development of IRVUN materials and methods of fabrication, and demonstrate IRVUN as a lenspiece for ballistic protective goggles.

QUSEMDE (FORMERLY MESO.D)
101 Industrial Road, Unit 14
Belmont, CA 94002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 551-0328
Dr. Wayne Richardson
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Detection of Infrared Radiation and Upconversion using Semiconductor Nanostructures
Abstract:The goal of this investigation is demonstration of the feasibility of a new class of extremely sensitive detectors of infraRed (IR) radiation. As is well known, it has proven to be very difficult to improve the sensitivity of IR detectors. In the last few years there have been tremendous advances in the fabrication of silicon nanostructures and arrays of nanotubes. Single-electron transport effects, and the infrared properties of nanotubes have been measured. There has also been progress in the theory and modeling of electrical and optical properties of nanoscale mosfets and nanotubes. Here we propose to use the unique characteristics of carbon nanotubes to design sensitive detectors and detector arrays for the IR. In addition the IR to optical conversion characteristics of arrays of nanotubes will be specified. A novel IR detector that is based on silicon nanoscale mosfets will also be presented. And the feasibility of IR to optical conversion using nanoscale silicon devices will be investigated. In phase I, the contribution of the different detection mechanisms will be determined. Analysis of the detector's noise, bandwidth, and detectivity will be included. The design will be specified as well as the steps in the fabrication process.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. David Schut
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Upconverting Films
Abstract:In this Phase I program, an infrared-sensitive visibly-clear, optical-grade material, capable of upconverting (UC) infrared (IR) scene information into three visible wavelengths will be developed. Ballistic protection goggle-compatible laminates, easily incorporated into swappable lenses, will be made from visibly-transparent semiconductor nanostructures that are sensitized with infrared upconverting additives. In order to generate a thin film for IR detection, nanostructure surface functionalization will be performed to provide matrix- element compatibility and promote UC efficiency. To optimize detectivity and UC efficiency, in Phase I, we will synthesize the nanocrystals and UC materials. Using an orthogonal design experiment, the detector sensitivity, spectral response, optical clarity, visible- spectrum transmissivity, and fabrication technology of the thin-film IR-sensitive UC appliqué will be optimized. Working with an industrial glass laminate manufacturer, we will design the materials to be compatible with optical grade polycarbonate lens that can be can be interchanged quickly for increased situational awareness, yet provide best-in- class protection. The appliqué will have a total weight less than 50 grams and will provide greater than 70% visible transmission, while converting at least three non-visible spectrum bands into different visible spectral wavelengths. In Phase II, these materials and will be demonstrated in a proof-of-concept goggle lens.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8167
Mr. Mark Fowler
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Design of Negative Index Metamaterials for the Visible Spectrum
Abstract:Optical imaging systems are used extensively in everyday life for military and civilian applications. Just like any other technology there is always a push to improve the performance over what is the current state of the art. Unfortunately, all optical systems are constrained by the fundamental limit of diffraction. This constraint limits the resolution of a system to approximately half of the illumination wavelength. One can adjust design elements of a system to increase resolution however, due to operating specifications these parameters are not available to change. A new class of materials, called negative index of refraction (NIM), is being developed to overcome the diffraction limit. Digital Fusion Solutions, Inc. proposes to develop a negative index of refraction material that is designed for the visible spectrum using transparent metallo-dielectric photonic band gap technology coupled with a far-field superlens grating.

DMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2905 Westcorp Blvd. Suite # 220
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 536-4346
Dr. Aniruddha Achari
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Metamaterials Lens
Abstract:We provide a novel approach to realizing negative index lenses and lenslet arrays at optical frequencies using a naturally occurring material such as cis-vitamin A, a constituent in some commercially available cod-liver oils. This form of vitamin A has been recently found in the eyes of lobsters and hypothesized to be responsible for negative index lensing in their superposition eyes. The proposed work will comprise devising simple experiments to determine propagation of light through a mixture of positive and negative index material, fabrication of lenses and lenslet arrays using a periodic deformable wire mesh, and evaluating these lenses using a novel z-scan technique recently developed for linear PLZT microlenses. In the process, we also aim to determine the role of possible chirality which may be responsible for the negative index in such biological materials. We also propose to use the method to determine the amount of negative index material in a mixture, which may be important in testing available forms of naturally occurring materials for their cis-vitamin A content, recently hypothesized to treat autism.

DYMAS RESEARCH, INC.
22 Pond View Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-4464
Dr. Wei Hu
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 2/23/2008
Title:Metamaterials Lens
Abstract:Scientists have made a lot of efforts to achieve subwavelength imaging or super- resolution imaging with a slab of metal film. It is very hard to obtain far-field super- resolution image in the visible range. In this SBIR program, we will carry out theoretical and experimental study on super-resolution imaging using novel transparent structures. We are confident that this proposed study will provide a promising solution to achieve far- field super-resolution image in the visible range.

GALILEO SYSTEMS
2229 Larimer St.
Denver, CO 80205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 984-7490
Mr. Wil McCarthy
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Metamaterials Lens
Abstract:Through the use of nanopatterned metal electrodes on top of semiconductor quantum wells, it is possible to produce tunable quantum dot arrays that operate at room temperature, and at energies appropriate for absorption and emission in the NIR-optical range. Such devices have unique application as both tunable upconverting films and tunable metamaterials, as well as tunable emitters (e.g., LEDs) and absorbers (e.g., filters).

LUTRONICS
1236 Lawn Lake Trl
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 387-9685
Dr. Yalin Lu
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Negative Refraction Superlattice Super Lens
Abstract:A new superlattice negative index material concept is proposed. Such a NIM superlattice offers the uniqueness toward realizing the negative refraction in optical frequencies, a planar architecture for making future super lens, and a great frequency tunability for making other tunable photonic components.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Richard O. Claus
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 2/23/2008
Title:Bottom-Up Self-Assembly of Visible Wavelength Metamaterials
Abstract:This program would investigate the feasibility of molecular-level “bottom-up” chemical processing to form metamaterials for operation in the visible and near-IR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processes would be used to pattern multilayer arrays of straight and curved conducting segments dimensioned to resonantly absorb electric and magnetic field components. ESA has been used through prior work to manufacture multilayered and patterned materials with controlled multiple constitutive properties, specifically high electron transport efficiency. Resonant segments would be formed from sparse arrays of individual metal nanoclusters. Electron transport in such arrays occurs by quantum mechanical electron hopping rather than by conventional drift field mechanisms such as those in bulk metal conductors; NanoSonic’s Metal Rubber™ is an example of a material that exhibits such behavior. Two “top-down” photolithographic patterning methods would be studied for integration with the self- assembly process, as an alternative to strictly patterning at the molecular level. The bottom-up and top-down processes would be compared in terms of resonant element patterning resolution and array periodicity, and the ability to potentially transition to large area spatial formats. Measurements of material properties, patterning resolution and far- field propagation would be used to downselect the optimal process for further development.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Xiaowei Xia
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 3/13/2008
Title:Tunable Achromatic Metamaterials Imaging Lens
Abstract:To address the DARPA need for a metamaterials-based lens capable of imaging beyond the diffractive limit in the far field at visible wavelengths, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Tunable Achromatic Metamaterials Imaging Lens (TAMIL) based on a metamaterial slab of periodic layers of polymer and liquid crystals (LC). The innovation in the design, nanostructured metamaterials layers incorporating LC, will enable the device to achieve achromatic imaging of far field objects with subdiffraction resolution. The device will operate over the tunable visible wavelength range with a simple application of low voltage to the device within microsecond time. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of TAMIL by completing a theoretical design, identifying a fabrication process, and fabricating and testing a conceptual prototype. In Phase II POC plans to further refine the TAMIL design to develop a reliable, practical metamaterials-based lens for super-resolution civilian and military biomedical imaging and other applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Keith Higginson
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:3-Dimensional Isotropic Metamaterials Lens(1001-124)
Abstract:Triton Systems’ team proposes to identify and develop a metamaterials-based lenses system capable of imaging beyond the diffraction limit in the visible spectrum. The use of negative index of refraction to resolve features beyond the diffraction index limit has been demonstrated for wavelengths outside of the visible. Triton’s team will expand the theory and experimentally demonstrate metamaterials-based systems that will allow far-field resolution of features beyond the diffraction limit in the visible spectrum. Phase I will demonstrate the theoretical capability supported by experimental results, while in Phase II the lens system will be further refined and developed to show an array element.

ASHWIN-USHAS CORP., INC.
206 Ticonderoga Blvd.
Freehold, NJ 07728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 462-1270
Dr. Prasanna Chandrasekhar
DARPA 07-036      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Unique, Highly IR- and Visible-Reflective, Highly Stretchable Membranes For Reflective Sights, Adapted From IR Electrochromics Technology
Abstract:In prior, unrelated work at this firm in IR electrochromics, unique, highly flexible/stretchable Au-coated membranes have been developed which have very high IR reflectance (nearly 100% in the 2.5 to 25 micron region) as well as Vis-NIR reflectance (ca. 99% in the 0.5 to 2.5 micron region). These membranes show no effects of extreme physical abuse (bending, flexing, stretching, dropping, shock) and have very wide operating temperature ranges ((-) 70 to (+) 175 C). A proprietary property of these membranes gives them the unique metal adhesion and high IR reflectance. This technology will be adapted in the present work to highly flexible, stretchable, membranes based on polysiloxanes or similar polymers. Preliminary work done specifically for this proposal (data herein) shows highly flexible, durable, highly IR-reflective Au/PDMS membranes that retain all their properties on > 70% flexure. Proposed Phase 1 work will fabricate, optimize these membranes, with Au, other metals (e.g. Ag, Pt), using a number of variables. An optical device (reflective telescopic sight) will be fabricated and its projection of an image at various F numbers, focal lengths and apertures recorded in the Visible and IR. A detailed design, including control electronics for optical and electronic zoom, will also be arrived at.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8117
Dr. Michael W. Jones
DARPA 07-036      Awarded: 2/6/2008
Title:Optically Reflecting Flexible Membrane
Abstract:Military imaging optics, such as rifle scopes, spotter scopes, and optics found on unmanned vehicles could be substantially better if the mechanical movement of optics for focus and zoom could be eliminated, without creating new problems associated with the rugged and harsh environment. The technology of liquid lenses has surfaced as a possible solution, but these lenses have problems with environment and limited wavelength range. Other materials and techniques must be investigated in order to meet the environmental requirements and spectral requirements simultaneously. For a single optic to cover the broadband range desired (0.4 to 5 µm), the idea of reflective optics comes to the forefront. The optic must be physically flexible in order to change its shape (curvature/focus), and be actuated by some non-mechanical means. This leads to the investigation of several classes of materials such as magnetostrictive and electrostrictive substrates and films to accomplish this task.

LUMA SYSTEMS, INC.
171 Clouse Lane
Granville, OH 43023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(740) 587-1600
Dr. William C. Dickson
DARPA 07-036      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:Optically Reflecting Flexible Membrane
Abstract:Luma Systems proposes the development of a novel autofocus and zoom technology for telescopic imaging systems. The proposed technology is designed to address the increasing need in military optical and imaging systems for a rapid autofocus and zoom capability spanning the visible and IR wavelengths from 0.4 μm to 5.5 μm. Applications include riflescopes, spotter scopes, imaging for missiles, UAV-based overhead surveillance, land-based surveillance for unattended sensors/motes, robotics, and laser pointing and designating. Currently, autofocus and zoom are performed by moving bulky lenses mechanically. The proposed technology would satisfy the military need for a rapid autofocus and zoom capability from visible wavelengths to far IR with no moving parts.

GEOPHEX LTD.
605 Mercury Street
Raleigh, NC 27603
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 839-8515
Dr. Stephen Norton
DARPA 07-038      Awarded: 10/25/2007
Title:Wireless Power Transmission with Electromagnetic Inductive Coupling
Abstract:This project addresses the problem of the wireless transfer of power between a source and nearby mobile platform such as a robotic vehicle. The primary objective of this research will be to design and evaluate, by analysis and computer modeling, an inductively-coupled system consisting of an optimally-designed configuration of transmitting coils to maximize the coupling efficiency though a target receiving coil. In particular, the concept of “inductive focusing” or “flux focusing” will be explored. Briefly, this is the idea of controlling the currents in a set of concentric transmitting coils to “concentrate” the magnetic flux through a receiver coil. That is, the transmitter is designed to maximize the flux linkage through the receiving coil while minimizing the flux elsewhere. This can be done by selecting the currents in the coils to reinforce the field linking the receiving coil while simultaneously canceling the fields outside of this coil. This can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem. The advantage of this approach is that minimal power is wasted due to the induction of currents in conducting material outside the target coil.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. James Goldie
DARPA 07-038      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:Wireless Power Transmission with Electromagnetic Inductive Coupling
Abstract:DARPA topic DARPA 07-038 initiates development of devices that will employ inductive electromagnetic coupling to efficiently transmit power wirelessly over “short to medium” distances, citing a number of advantages relative to other methods, including (1) no requirement for an unobstructed line-of-sight or precision tracking between the transmitter and receiver, (2) reduced vulnerability to interference, (3) reduced size and weight relative to directed radiation, and (4) the ability to simultaneously distribute power to multiple receivers. Phase I will evaluate the feasibility and performance possible with the inductive power transmission over distances as large as 10 m. Specific applications will be considered, including small clustered satellites that range from nano- and pico- satellites (< 10 kg) to mini-satellites (< 500 kg), with corresponding characteristic dimensions of 10 cm to 1m, respectively. During Phase I the project team will (1) develop a parametric analytical/computational model for efficiency and transmitter/receiver sizing; (2) perform size/weight vs. efficiency tradeoffs to find optimum transmitter and receiver geometries for two disparate satellite cluster applications; (3) identify the practical system elements necessary to achieve optimized performance, and (4) perform prototype testing to demonstrate performance under realistic conditions, including the presence of nearby ferromagnetic and conductive materials and motion of the receiver.

RADIO-HYDRO-PHYSICS LLC
364 Patteson Drive, Box 287
Morgantown, WV 26505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 384-6602
Dr. Douglas G. Currie
DARPA 07-039      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:A Sensor for Relative Position and Attitude Determination
Abstract:Design miniaturized sensor based on Dispersed Fourier Transform Spectrometer ("DFTS") technology to provide 3-space position and attitude determination between host and target satellites. The DFTS has demonstrated a capability to establish orbital accuracies in near-real-time at an accuracy of 0.5 meters in range as well as position against the plane of the sky. Even higher accuracies are anticipated using the DFTS without the encumbrance of the turbulent atmosphere. An active laser illuminator, and CCD camera will complement the Michelson-interferometer, metrology sub-system, and diffraction grating of the DFTS to achieve these positional accuracies.

TETHERS UNLIMITED, INC.
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 486-0100
Mr. Nestor Voronka
DARPA 07-039      Awarded: 11/8/2007
Title:Multi-Axis Doppler Direction Finder System for Relative Position and Attitude Determination
Abstract:The interest in formation and cluster-based satellite applications has grown considerably in recent years, especially as launch costs have dropped and the availability of secondary rides have increased. Unfortunately, the realization of these applications has proven difficult because of challenges such as station keeping and collision avoidance. In this proposed Phase I effort, TUI will demonstrate the performance of a relative attitude and position sensor that uses a unique combination of omni-directional antennas, Doppler direction finding techniques, and a deeply integrated ranging channel. Previous experiments done by TUI indicate that angular accuracy will easily exceed +/- 0.5 degrees while ranging measurements are expected to be at least +/- 10 cm. Because of the short distances typically used in formation-based micro-satellite applications, the power requirements—and hence the mass and volume requirements—will be relatively small. The performance-to-cost ratio of the proposed sensor is also expected to be quite high due to the use of readily available, low power RF components and high-speed digital logic. This will allow easy integration of the sensor into nano and micro-satellite platforms, facilitating the development of clustered spacecraft systems such as formation flying synthetic apertures and fractionated spacecraft architectures.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Mr. Nathan D. Richards
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 10/18/2007
Title:Novel Actuation and Control for Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC) Shallow-Water Behavior
Abstract:Military operations in littoral and riverine environments are increasingly important, and unmanned underwater riverine craft (UURC) are likely to play a key role in such operations providing surveillance, delivering payloads (including human divers), etc. Operation in the riverine environment, however, presents a number of unique difficulties, including tidal variations, complex currents and turbulence, suspended sand and particulates, changing bottom conditions, moving obstacles, etc. To perform complex missions in this environment, UURC systems will require innovative effectors, intelligent control methods, and advanced sensors. The proposed plan of research seeks to develop (a) novel effectors and combinations of diverse effectors suitable for maneuvering in the riverine environment, (b) intelligent control methods that learn about the vehicle and environment, adapt to changes, and coordinate action among the diverse effectors, and (c) intelligent path-planning methods that can string together key behavioral primitives (swim, crawl, hover in turbulence, sleep, etc.) in a way that minimizes power consumption and maximizes the probability of successful completion of the UURC mission. It is anticipated that the result will be a set of key enabling technologies that can be applied to a wide range of future UURC systems.

INTELLITECH MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
4931 Tesla Drive Suite B
Bowie, MD 20715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 860-0825
Dr. Prashanth Krishnamurthy
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:An Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC) with Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance Capability
Abstract:In this Phase I effort, two key technologies in developing an Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC) are targeted. The first key technology is the vehicle and the second key technology addressed is the navigation, path planning, and obstacle avoidance system for the vehicle. IntelliTech Microsystems, Inc. is teaming with the BAE Systems proposing an innovative and proprietary navigation and obstacle avoidance system for a recently developed state of the art vehicle by BAE Systems. During the Phase I effort, the UURC navigation, path planning, and navigation, situational awareness, and obstacle avoidance technologies, including the overall system architecture, sensors and sensor data processing algorithms, obstacle avoidance rules, logic and computational algorithms, and interfaces with the auto-pilot will be considered. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept by model development and extensive simulation studies performed for the actual vehicle by BAE Systems. Phase II will involve validation and testing of the complete navigation and OAS system in sea trials in shallow water utilizing the UURC by BAE Systems.

LEEOAT CO.
2631 Colibri Lane
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1439
Dr. Eli Wiener-Avnear
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Micromachined Forward-Looking Sonar Sensor for Unmanned Shallow Underwater Vehicles
Abstract:In Phase I of the SBIR program, LEEOAT Company will develop the autonomous forward looking sensor for unmanned shallow underwater vehicles. Based on its patented micromachining processes and aerospace technologies, LEEOAT Company will design, simulate and reduce to practice the crucial elements of the ultrasound forward looking sonar camera (FLSC), for surveillance/reconnaissance in shallow waters. Finally we will estimate the cost/effort for the fabrication and testing the FLSC prototype during Phase II of the SBIR program.

NEXTGEN AERONAUTICS
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8652
Mr. Dana Howard
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Smart Materials and Adaptive and Novel Technologies Applied to Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (MANTA-UURC)
Abstract:Our basic concept consists of a bio-mimetic manta ray like autonomous underwater vehicle which incorporates SMA actuated mechanical structure surrounded by compliant skins to duplicate the efficient and silent movement of a manta ray for use in shallow, riverine, or sensitive marine environments. Several beneficial features of the concept include: stealthy operation through low / zero noise actuation / propulsion, low- obserability through resemblance of a marine animal, and ability to carry relatively large payloads. At the end of Phase I, the following will be completed: (1) definition of optimal propulsive movement through CFD and analytical modeling of the flexible manta drive structure design, (2) simulation of the SMA actuation system, vehicle structure, and control systems, (3) a proof-of-concept laboratory underwater test of an actuated segment of the Phase II vehicle wing, (4) preliminary design of the proposed Phase II demonstration vehicle, and (5) roadmaps established for vehicle scaling and technology transition. Phase II will focus on the fabrication and testing of the proposed demonstration craft in an operational environment.

SEALANDAIRE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1510 Springport Rd Suite C
Jackson, MI 49202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 784-8340
Mr. Brian Montague
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC)
Abstract:There is an operational need to carry out clandestine surveillance tasks in Riverine and shallow water environments. Successful execution of these tasks will require an Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC) with specialized capabilities. This response to SBIR072-040 will initiate development of a UURC capable of: Navigating submerged in rivers, inlets, and harbors as well as in coastal and shallow water areas Providing persistence in these areas and of providing surface and underwater surveillance with onboard and deployable sensors under low visibility conditions Autonomous operation and evasion procedures underwater including hostile bottom conditions Communicating surveillance and positional data to remote operators Deployment by air-drop, surface launch and subsurface launch Propelled motion and bottom locomotion Energy harvesting and entering “sleep” and “hibernation” modes for sustained endurance Phase I will identify various UURC enabling and/or critical technologies that support persistent underwater surveillance/reconnaissance missions in riverine and other shallow water operational environments. Define technical concepts and provide analysis to support performance projections and current maturity. Assess their feasibility and investigate how they contribute to the overall operational capability and mission effectiveness of the UURC.

DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS CORP.
10 Technology Drive
Wallingford, CT 06492
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 678-2128
Mr. Luke Dalton
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 2/6/2008
Title:Passive Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell for Very High Altitude Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:Practical use of a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) for solar powered aircraft and similar applications has been limited due to a lack of proven technology designed for the mission requirements. The concept of the static feed unitized regenerative fuel cell, successfully demonstrated in the laboratory in the DARPA/NRL Water Rocket program and two NASA SBIR contracts provides a strong basis for a derivative technology for the high altitude long endurance (HALE) aircraft application. Three critical technology areas need to be addressed before a URFC can be applied to the HALE platform. First, the membrane-electrode assembly must be demonstrated that allows the URFC to operate with little or no performance penalty compared to the discrete electrolyzer and fuel cell components. Second, a thermal management system internal to the cell stack must be developed to allow the cell area and number of cells to be scalable to the power ranges required by the HALE application. Third, the passive water management technology must be demonstrated to be stable over extended durations of continuous operation.

ENRG, INC.
155 Rano Street
Buffalo, NY 14207
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 465-0558
Mr. James Newkirk
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 9/25/2007
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems are forecast to achieve excellent energy efficiency and performance targets, and to be able to achieve commercially viable economics through the next decade. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been working on SOFC technology for the aeronautics’ industry for several years and their approach is significantly different than the approaches being pursued by the Department of Energy’s Solid Energy Conversion Alliance companies. The NASA Bi-Electrode Supported Cell (BSC) SOFC technology has the potential to provide a significant increase in power performance per weight (W/kg) and increased reliability of the fuel cell stack. ENrG has an agreement with NASA to continue development and commercialization of the technology. For applications such as very high altitude, very long endurance solar aircraft, the BSC technology offers the potential to significantly reduce the weight of the fuel cell stack compared to PEM technology and increase the conversion efficiency of both the fuel cell and electrolyzer. In addition to the direct savings from the use of the NASA SOFC technology, the use of SOFCs has enabled our team to identify several other significant weight reductions from the balance of plant needed to operate the fuel cell stack and fuel storage system.

EXCELLATRON
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Dr. Prabhakar Tamirisa
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:The Lithium-oxygen electrochemical couple has the potential to form the basis of a very high specific energy, rechargeable battery for the very high altitude, very long endurance solar aircraft. Recent progress in the application of non-aqueous electrolytes to realize the benefits of this chemistry has resulted in limited success in terms of providing a long endurance, regenerative system. We propose to investigate a variety of approaches to improve the cycle life, reliability, and safety of the Lithium-oxygen battery, both in an oxygen atmosphere and in an “air breathing” mode. Our work on improving the performance characteristics of the Lithium-oxygen/Lithium-air battery will focus on the implementation of a solid state, Lithium ion electrolyte in the battery to provide a stable interface with both the anode and cathode to control passivation phenomena at the electrodes, promote good morphology of redeposited Lithium metal during charging, and protect the anode from chemical reaction with the cathode reactant. Polymer(s) or ceramic/glass electrolytes will be the choice for the solid state electrolytes, and may be used in conjunction with liquid electrolytes. In addition, the application of ionic liquid based electrolytes in the Lithium-oxygen battery technology will be explored. Furthermore, we will maintain adequate power density in the battery despite the introduction of solid-state Li+ conductors in the battery through interface engineering.

FUCELTECH
11 Glengarry Way
West Windsor, NJ 08550
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-9696
Dr. Renee Hou
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:Electric propulsion aircrafts such is HALE (high altitude, long endurance) would need medium power fuel cells of high efficiency with very high specific energy. The fuel cells should also act as electrolyzers to convert the solar cell energy during daytime operation into fuel for the system for the night time operation. The system should be operational for many years delivering power over a long duration. A specific energy of >2kW-hr/kg would be very desirable for such a system. Fuceltech proposes a radically new technology approach for fuel cells which offers the potential for very high specific energy of >3kW-hr/kg. The cell is over 10x lighter weight and smaller volume compared to conventional technology fuel cells because of its architecture as it avoids the materials which contribute to most of the weight of the conventional fuel cells and uses very lightweight materials for its construction. The concept of the fuel cell has already been demonstrated and can be developed into long duration fuel cell/electrolyzer with a specific energy of over 3kW-hr/kg.

VERSA POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
8392 S Continental Divide Rd. Suite 101
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(403) 204-6146
Mr. Casey Brown
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 3/4/2008
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a high specific power (1000 W/kg) SOFC stack capable of operating both as a power generator and an electrolyzer while achieving high electrochemical efficiency (approximately 70%) and long operating life (one to two years). A SOFC stack achieving these performance characteristics enables the development of a regenerative power system with a system average specific energy of over 2000 W-hr/kg for use in a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) aircraft with multi- month endurance. Based on Versa Power Systems’ well-established SOFC technology baseline, the approach for demonstrating feasibility is based on deconstructing technical issues into deterministic engineering problems while avoiding fundamental changes to the technology baseline. The work encompasses a preliminary design of a high specific power stack, an empirical evaluation of innovative interconnect materials, and an empirical evaluation of the impact of electrolysis on component durability. Subsequent development will focus on the physical implementation of the components identified in Phase I, including ground-based functional stack and power system testing and eventual incorporation into a flight-test vehicle.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Arthur Dobley
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:One of the major challenges of developing aircraft is the development of an appropriate energy system. The energy system ideally has a large amount of energy with a very low weight. This equates to a high specific energy (Wh/kg). Lithium-air batteries offer the greatest theoretical specific energy for batteries at 13 kWh/kg. Yardney has extensive experience in requirements for battery power and metal-air cells. We specialize in lightweight batteries used in aerospace applications. We also research, develop, and sell high energy density metal-air cells. Yardney will research a Rechargeable Lithium-Air Storage System by creating an advanced rechargeable air cathode, and testing these cathodes in actual lithium-air cells under various environmental conditions. These batteries will provide a lightweight high energy storage device for military applications.

ADHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 346-1685
Dr. Andrea E. Hoyt Haight
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Inflatable, UV Rigidizable Wings for High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:DARPA is seeking technologies that will enable the production and use of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) aircraft. Requirements for this application include a light weight and low storage volume to allow easier delivery of the vehicle to such altitudes. Ultraviolet (UV) light rigidizable inflatable wings offer a means of achieving the high packing efficiency required as well as offering the capability of higher L/D that is required for HALE applications. Rigidization of inflatable wings is the key, providing several potential advantages, including reduced vulnerability to punctures, increasing stiffness and load-carrying capability, allowing a higher aspect ratio for high altitude efficiency and longer missions, and reducing weight by eliminating the make up pressurization supply. In the Phase I program, an initial inflatable, rigidizable design for a high L/D wing will be conducted, fabricated, and wind tunnel tested. The design will incorporate UV LED lights and rigidization on command (TM)resins for low temperature, rapid cure.

ANDREWS SPACE, INC.
505 5th Ave S Suite 300
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 438-0630
Dr. Dana Andrews
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Low-Stored-Volume Wings for a Very High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:Andrews Space proposes an inflatable rigidizable wing that can be stored folded or rolled up, and deployed at altitude via an inflation system, and will then cure to form a rigid wing improving the reliability and reducing the risk of an inflatable wing. It will also be much lighter and have a much smaller storage volume than a mechanically folding wing. A high altitude, long endurance aircraft can be delivered to high altitude by either flying it up from the ground or by deploying it at altitude by rocket. For rocket deployment the wings must have a low storage volume, so it can be packaged into a payload fairing. Inflatable wings are ideally suited to this mission since they provide the smallest storage volume possible. An inflatable rigidizable wing has the advantage that once rigid it would no longer need internal pressure to support it, thereby greatly improving the reliability and reducing the risks. Since it will only need internal pressure for a short duration, a small leak will not pose a significant threat to the mission. The longer the intended duration the more important it is to have a rigid wing that doesn’t require internal gas pressure support.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
10F GIll Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Mr. Nate Gravelle
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:High Altitude, Deployable, Carbon Fiber Composite Wing Kit with Very High Lift to Drag Ratio
Abstract:A difficult challenge for high altitude, long endurance aircraft is the structural design and packaging of very high aspect ratio wings. Trade studies have identified a requirement for deployable wings which are far too long for the conventional solution of simply pivoting outward from the wing root. KaZaK proposes to develop an alternative wing deployment design that can roughly double the span of the deployed wing compared to a conventional pivoting solution. The proposed technology is derived from similar Air Force SBIR funded development work performed by KaZaK for much smaller wings. Deployable wings provide attractive aerodynamic, structural and packaging characteristics that increase aircraft range while requiring comparatively little pre-launch volume. KaZaK’s deployable wing concept will allow increased wing span and aspect ratio compared to current technologies, resulting in improved aerodynamic efficiency (L/D) and greater range. In Phase I, KaZaK will develop and demonstrate a pultrusion-based technique for making low cost composite airfoils. The proposed pultrusion process is ideally suited for making lightweight, low cost, high strength, low signature, high aspect ratio composite wings that will not corrode during storage. The key to this performance is an extremely lightweight and aerodynamically efficient cross section.

LGARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Mr. David Lichodziejewski
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 9/19/2007
Title:Low Stored Volume Deployable Wings for High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:Of great interest and strategic advantage to the military is the rapid deployment of surveillance assets to monitor a point of interest or quickly changing situation. An ideal solution would be a rocket deployed unmanned air vehicle (UAV) able to be accurately positioned and then capable of long endurance over the point of interest to relay critical information. This technology hinges on packaging a highly efficient flight vehicle within the confines of a small shroud, and reliably deploying the vehicle over the target. For long endurance this vehicle must have high aspect ratio wings to achieve the high lift to drag ratios required for efficient high altitude long duration flight. Inflatables have long enjoyed the advantages of flexible packageability and robust deployment. Recently, through advances in design and materials, these advantages can be focused on the needs of deployable flight vehicles. The use of inflatables in space, for the above advantages, has received much attention and L’Garde intends to bring that expertise and development to the area of deployable flight vehicles. Using our patented conical deployment technique for booms to sequentially and reliably deploy wing sections, and advanced materials technology to allow high strength high aspect ratio wings, we intend to develop a system design to meet the challenges of rapid deployment of long duration air vehicles.

NEXTGEN AERONAUTICS
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 891-2814
Dr. Jay Kudva
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 10/31/2007
Title:Stowed Unmanned Air Vehicle Engineering (SUAVE)
Abstract:NextGen Aeronautics has teamed with Dr. Jamey Jacob of OSU and Dr. Suzanne Smith of UK on this program entitled ¡°Stowed Unmanned Air Vehicle Engineering (SUAVE),¡±in response to SBIR Solicitation No. DARPA 07-042. The NextGen team has in-depth experience and expertise in morphing and inflatable wing design, development, and flight testing. The goal of our effort is to develop viable, low-stored volume wing designs for high-altitude, long-endurance (HALE) aircraft and validate the design by conducting wind tunnel and laboratory experiments in Phase I and a balloon launched flight experiment in Phase II. At the end of Phase I, the following will be completed: (1) aerodynamic design of a high- aspect ratio wing with a lift/drag (L/D) ratio ¡Ý30 at a nominal altitude of 90,000 ft; (2) structural design of a ¡®hybrid¡¯ wing providing an aspect ratio of around 24; (3) wind tunnel tests on suitably scaled models to quantify L/D; (4) actuation and deployment tests of the expandable/inflatable wing section; and (5) analytical trades studies to guide scaling-up to an operational vehicle and establish roadmaps for technology transition. The focus of a potential Phase II program will be to conduct a balloon launched flight test experiment to validate aerodynamic performance as well as wing deployment

VERTIGO, INC.
20590 Cereal Street, Suite 100 P. O. Box 117
Lake Elsinore, CA 92531
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 425-5147
Mr. Glen Brown
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 9/25/2007
Title:Low-Stored-Volume Wings for a Very High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:This research addresses a deployable wing for a rapid response high altitude long endurance aircraft that is delivered to a high altitude over a location of interest in a low volume stowed configuration. The challenges are multi-disciplinary and relate to aerodynamics, structures, materials and manufacturing technology. The proposed technical approach is a high L/D inflatable wing with a number of innovations, including: the use of thin film materials for low volume storage, the use of structural fiber reinforcement for tailored strength and stiffness characteristics, a design that transfers of tension from the inflatable spar to the wing skin to promote airfoil accuracy, inflatable ribs, and compatibility with a Hydrazine-based inflation subsystem. A feasibility assessment is made, based on a baseline configuration that uses a high-TRL propulsion system to remain at 90,000 ft altitude for 24 hours. The feasibility assessment is supported by analysis and by a subscale demonstration article. A development plan is created that addresses all technical challenges necessary for a full scale flight demonstration with wing deployment at 90,000 ft. altitude.

4POWER LLC
PO Box 416
Windham, NH 03087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 304-9440
Dr. Tom Langdo
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Photovoltaic Cells for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:We propose a research and development path that leads to the creation of triple-junction, high efficiency (30%, and greater in time) III-V cells on 200mm Si substrates, manufactured in a volume-scalable 200mm silicon manufacturing infrastructure. This combination of efficiency, weight, and cost is not possible with any other technology. Our estimates show that specific weight, cost per W, and specific cost of >2000 W/kg, $50/W, and 8x10^4 $/kg, respectively, are achievable within a 5-year time frame. In addition, this advance would alter the business models for delivering high efficiency solar. By being able to access low cost silicon manufacturing infrastructure, scaling demand requires much less capital and time. Thus, demand spikes and access to high volumes of cells can be accommodated using this technology platform for high efficiency solar.

BANPIL PHOTONICS, INC.
2953 Bunker Hill Lane Suite 400
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 282-3628
Dr. Achyut k. Dutta
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Photovoltaic Cells for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:For next decadal space appalications, space-borne systems require power system with long life capability and high reliability and offering significant mass and volume savings and significantly improved conversion efficiency compared to the state of art devices. Photovoltaic cell (a.k.a.“Solar Cell”) where light is converted into electric power, has been prevailing in a wide range of application fields such as consumer electronics, industrial electronics and space exploration. High-efficiency solar cell are required for various ground-based, air-borne, space-borne, and commercial systems, including remote sensing, surface topography, range detection, security, communication, and real-time monitoring of biological systems etc. The existing solar cells especially for space applications, are currently limited in efficiency by the complexity of adding more junctions to increase absorption of the solar spectrum. It is highly desirable to develop solar cell that has higher conversion efficiency (>40%) and cost-effective for numerous applications. The proposed project overcomes the limitations of achieving efficiency and can provides an affordable, power rich environment utilizing the conventional material and process technology. A goal of Phase I is to design and optimize solar cell structure for conversion efficiency of > 40%, utilizing the standard material such as CdS-CdTe for space application. Also, other goal is to fabricate the test structure to achieve conversion efficiency over 30% and comparing with the standard cell. The design, performance simulation, and also physical parameters optimization will also be carried out as a part of the Phase I activity.

LUMINIT, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Dr. Fedor Dimov
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Wideband Holographic Solar Concentrator based on Substrate-guided Holograms
Abstract:To address the DARPA need to collect solar energy in a system with minimal mass that can meet the electrical, physical, design life, and environmental requirements suitable for use on a solar HALE aircraft at relatively low cost, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new Wideband HOLOgraphic Solar COncentrator based on substrate-guided holograms and flexible off-the-shelf thin film Photovoltaic cells positioned on the Edge of the hologram (WHOLOSCOPE). This proposed thin film solar concentrator is based on flexible highly efficient multiplexed substrate-guided holograms (SGH) recorded for the wide band of solar light with a PV cell attached to the edge. The device will enhance solar energy conversion more than 300-fold and will withstand the temperature and pressure typically encountered by HALE aircraft. In Phase I Luminit will demonstrate the feasibility of WHOLOSCOPE by presenting a proof-of-concept laboratory system with output power of ~500 W/m^2 at the cell level. In Phase II Luminit plans to demonstrate a 0.5m^2 thin film solar concentrator capable of meeting all of the requirements (except design life goal) in a simulated environment.

MICROLINK DEVICES
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 588-3001
Dr. Noren Pan
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 9/25/2007
Title:Photovoltaic Cells for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:The significance of the innovation in this Phase I SBIR is the development of a technology which will enable the manufacture of a light weight, low cost cost , multi-band gap compound semiconductor material containing high efficiency compound semiconductor multijunction solar cells suitable for deployment for in very high altitude, very long endurance (HALE) solar solar aircraft. This will be accomplished by applying a production production-worthy Epitaxial epitaxial Lift lift-off (ELO) process to a multi- band gap junction solar cell structure fabricated on a large area GaAs substrates. These efficient solar cell structures will be removed from the substrate in the form of a thin film and will be attached to lightweight, flexible carriers suitable for mounting on an aircraft wing. Low cost can be achieved due to the recycling of the GaAs substrate after the lift- off is performed Our focus will be focus will be given to GaAs-based solar cells and , in particular lattice-matched and highly disordered InGaP materials, because of the demonstrated efficiency of these structures. We will provide a clear path towards realizing develop a solar cell design capable of >30% efficiency target under AMAir Mass 1.5 illumination at 1 sun conditions. We will also define design a process where by which thin epitaxial layers will be transferred onto very a flexible conductive or non- conductive substrates. The resulting solar cell structures are expected to have an array mass density of <325 g/m2, and to be capable of operating for long durations in a 60 knot airflow at 100,000 feet.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Peter Chow
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:High Efficiency Multi-Junction Photovoltaics on Silicon Substrates
Abstract:SVT Associates proposes a 6-month Phase I investigation to create high efficiency photovoltaic cells on silicon substrates through the use of multiple junction absorbing layers. The key technology to be investigated is the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductor on Si. Si substrates are favored for the low density, low cost, large area and mechanical robustness.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Scott Morrison
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 9/20/2007
Title:Innovative Ultra Thin Flexible Solar Technology(1001-101)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. and its partners propose to develop an Ultra Thin Flexible Solar (UTFS) technology using an innovative process that combines the high efficiency of crystalline- based photovoltaics with the low cost, flexibility, and light weight of thin-film photovoltaics. The proposed UTFS photovoltaic technology has the potential for significant savings in materials costs, as well as achieving a flexible, lightweight system with >22% AM1.5 efficiency in the Phase I, and >35% efficiency in the Phase II.

ANDREWS SPACE, INC.
505 5th Ave S Suite 300
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 438-0630
Dr. Dana Andrews
DARPA 07-044      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Reduction of Structural Mass Fraction for Extreme Solar HALE Flying Wings
Abstract:Andrews Space, Inc. proposes an innovative high altitude, long endurance (HALE) wing structural concept. The approach will be a careful optimization of the flexible and rigid structure to minimize mass. Additionally, a manufacturing feasibility study will be undertaken in order to determine if current industry tooling and methods are adequate. The effectiveness of HALE aircraft is highly dependant on mass fraction. A new structural concept is necessary to provide any drastic increase in mass fraction. By combining a new fabric technology with an innovative rigid structure, a new generation of HALE aircraft can be developed. In order to complete the atmospheric satellite missions that modern HALE aircraft strive to meet, a new type of structural design is necessary.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES CORP.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4800
Mr. Joel Pedlikin
DARPA 07-044      Awarded: 8/16/2007
Title:Reduction of Structural Mass Fraction for Extreme Solar HALE Flying Wings
Abstract:Extreme HALE (high-altitude, long-endurance) aircraft typically require very long and thin wings. These super-lightweight wings tend to be highly susceptible to elastic instability (i.e., buckling). The maximum load such wings can sustain before buckling is generally much lower than the maximum load they can experience before yielding. Furthermore, for the critical high-altitude portion of a mission, the gust loads are very small, and the characteristic dimension of the gusts is large compared to a HALE aircraft. However, during ascent and descent, the aircraft must handle much stronger gusts as well as gusts that may be small compared to the aircraft wingspan. Designing for these peak gust loads can substantially increase an aircraft’s structural mass fraction. The goal of this proposed effort is to use inflatable technology to either provide a temporary increase in strength to a flying-wing aircraft that is structurally optimized for the low loads of high- altitude flight, or, alternately, to allow the structure to deliberately buckle and self-recover when it encounters a wind gust. Aurora Flight Sciences, teamed with Vertigo, Inc., proposes to develop wing structures suitable to HALE flying wings that use inflatable components to achieve this goal with no degradation in aircraft performance or reliability.

BALLY RIBBON MILLS
23 North Seventh Street
Bally, PA 19503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 845-2211
Mr. Leon Bryn
DARPA 07-044      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Reduction of Structural Mass Fraction for Extreme Solar HALE Flying Wings
Abstract:The VULTURE Air Vehicle Program is an exploratory development program with the overall goal to develop and demonstrate the ability to deliver and maintain an airborne payload on station for an uninterrupted period exceeding 5 years using a heavier-than-air platform system. It is envisioned that this program will, at a minimum, develop and demonstrate advanced reliability technologies for air vehicles. Bally Ribbon Mills and Lockheed Martin have been developing lightweight, low cost structural concepts that apply three-dimensional woven pi-shaped woven preforms under IRAD and CRAD programs that when bonded into integrated composite structures offer significant reductions in airframe weight for High Altitude Long Endurance aircraft. The VULTURE Air Vehicle Program will research and develop technologies and systems which will enable the Military to deliver and maintain a 1000 lb, 5 kW airborne payload for an uninterrupted period exceeding 5 years with a 99+% on station probability.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Christopher D Hemmelgarn
DARPA 07-044      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Passively Adaptive Wing Structures for High Altitude, Long Endurance UAVs
Abstract:Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop and demonstrate a passive, adaptive structure technology that will permit a HALE UAV wing structure to respond to gust loads by temporarily modifying its shape to reduce the gust load effects and maximum load requirements driving structural sizing. This response is a “step-wise” response that will only occur when a specific loading condition is reached and will be tailored to prevent overcompensation and avoid introduction of secondary, dynamic loadings associated with aeroelastic responses.

ERISTECH, INC.
656 22nd Street
San Diego, CA 92102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 342-2517
Dr. Mauricio de Oliveira
DARPA 07-044      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Reduction of Structural Mass Fraction for Extreme Solar HALE Flying Wings
Abstract:This topic seeks a new technology for very low mass wings for HALE aircraft. Our target is a wing weighing less than 0.5 lbs/sqft of wing area. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of using tensegrity technology to build wings that can meet the weight objectives while satisfying HALE requirements for performance and robustness under expected operational conditions. Tensegrity structures are a connected network of rods in compression and strings in tension. Very low mass/strength ratios are a fundamental property of such structures. Also, feedback control systems allow dynamic manipulation of rod lengths and string tensions for adaptive morphing of the structure to meet changing requirements and loading conditions. While the tensegrity concept has been known for a long time, practical application is enabled by our success in developing the analytical and computational tools needed for the structural design and optimization.

AURORA FLIGHT SCIENCES CORP.
9950 Wakeman Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 500-4800
Mr. Tim Dawson-Townsend
DARPA 07-045      Awarded: 8/22/2007
Title:Very-High-Altitude Propulsion System (VHAPS)
Abstract:There is interest in an unmanned aircraft that can be deployed to a target via unconventional means and operate at very high altitudes for very long periods of time. These aircraft are envisioned to be stored in a sealed container for many months at a time, possibly folded up, stowed or deflated in a fashion more similar to a zodiac marine craft than an aircraft. A key technology required for such an aircraft is an engine capable of providing the required thrust at altitude and also meeting stringent weight and volume requirements. Deployment options may mean that traditional multistage- compressor jet or internal combustion engines are not appropriate for the aircraft. Alternative, non-traditional options must be investigated. Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to address the need for compact, highly efficient aircraft propulsion at very high altitudes by analyzing the engineering of the Mini-Sniffer engine and looking for ways to improve upon it. The Mini-Sniffer is an attractive starting point for research into very-high-altitude aircraft propulsion because of its relative simplicity, leading to reduced system mass and volume. In the 35 years since the Mini-Sniffer work was done, there have been technology advances that might increase the engine thermal efficiency without impacting the attractive simplicity of the system, in areas such as propellant, material and mechanical improvements.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Thomas R. Brogan
DARPA 07-045      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Evaluation of a Conceptual High Altitude Valveless Internal Combustion Engine Fueled by Green Monopropellant
Abstract:Busek Co. Inc. proposes to conduct critical studies and experiments to establish the feasibility of a novel High ALtitude Endurance aircraft (HALE) engine called MICE for Monopropellant Internal Combustion Engine. The reference fuel is the hydroxyammonium nitrate (HAN) based monopropellant AF-M315E developed by AFRL for small thrusters in space applications. The heat of combustion of AF-M315E is 4.52 megajoules/kg, or 2.76 times greater than the heat release of decomposed hydrazine used previously by NASA for the engine of its “Mini Sniffer” HALE. Thus, the MICE concept promises a reduction in specific fuel consumption from 4.7 lb/brake horsepower hour (bhph) to 1.7 lb/bhph, a decisive improvement. Unlike hydrazine, HAN is a green monopropellant thus simplifying handling. The basic MICE engine has no valves, no catalyst, no external combustion, and requires no air. Its performance improves with altitude. In Phase I, Busek will design and carry out critical Proof of Concept (POC) experiments to establish feasibility of the MICE concept, and, from the results, estimate performance and other critical factors for the MICE engine. Also, using Company resources, Busek will establish a team with an engine company to carry development of the MICE concept through and beyond Phase II.

FIRESTAR ENGINEERING, LLC
557 Burbank St. Unit J
Broomfield, CO 80020
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 439-2698
Mr. Greg Mungas
DARPA 07-045      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Very High Altitude Aircraft Propulsion Engines
Abstract:Firestar Engineering proposes a compact 4 cylinder, boxer style, piston engine that uses a NOFB3x series monopropellant to facilitate extreme altitude flight for long durations. This 4 cylinder engine will require substantially less fuel than other monopropellant based engines, will be non-toxic, could be stored for long periods of time, and will eliminate the additional mass and complexity associated with bi-propellant engines.

M-DOT AEROSPACE
3418 South 48th Street, Suite 3
Phoenix, AZ 85040
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 752-1911
Mr. Dennis Barbeau
DARPA 07-045      Awarded: 9/26/2007
Title:Very High Altitude Aircraft Propulsion Engines
Abstract:Proposed is a power system suitable for operation to altitudes of 100K feet or more and capable of operating for 12-20 hours at a time. The system will be storable for years in a sealed container. It will have thermal efficiency sufficient for meeting the 20-hour endurance requirement while still being storable within the required size envelope. It will feature turbomachinery and technologies already demonstrated in previous programs and will have flexibility to meet power requirements at a variety of altitudes from sea level to deep space. Within Phase I, a feasibility study will be conducted of several system architectures and weight, form factor and performance at the required power will be estimated. All system architectures will feature similar components as major elements. The government will be presented with results of trades along with justification for the selected system. Upon concurrence with the government on the best go-forward system, required materials and sub systems will be identified and a Phase II (and subsequent activity) plan will be generated for further development of the system. Subsequent development of this system in Phase II will likely be in conjunction with activities supporting the end use program office.

VAPORCOR LLC
1044 SE Paiute Way, #101
Bend, OR 97702
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 678-5215
Mr. Ken R. Spence
DARPA 07-045      Awarded: 9/18/2007
Title:Very High Altitude Aircraft Propulsion Engines
Abstract:Vaporcor has been developing an engine technology that enables a means to implement a Humphrey thermodynamic cycle. In this SBIR, we propose an innovative technical concept and an aggressive business development plan that will take advantage of Vaporcor’s unique engine technology and exploit Vaporcor’s existing strategic partnership for the development of a technology base that will enable very high altitude aircraft (VHALE) and will advance HALE platforms. In Phase I, we propose to not only to perform the expected feasibility study for a very high altitude (~90 kft) aircraft propulsion engine capable of meeting the stability, reliability, and environmental requirements suitable for use on an VHALE aircraft with 12-20 hour endurance that must be stored for months, we propose to build a prototype engine and perform feasibility demonstrations of this engine’s capability within the schedule of Phase I. If this engine proves acceptable to DARPA, in Phase II we will build a flight article of this engine in conjunction with our partnering VHALE company.