DoD SBIR FY07.2 - SOLICITATION SELECTIONS w/ ABSTRACTS
Army - Navy - DARPA - OSD - DLA - DMEA

---------- ARMY ----------

359 Phase I Selections from the 07.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
AEROTONOMY, INC.
117 Herron Street
Fort Oglethorpe, GA 30742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(706) 413-1582
Dr. James Neidhoefer
ARMY 07-001      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:A Small Image-aided Navigation And Path-planning System (SINAPS) for Small UAVs
Abstract:Due to the limitations and power requirements of modern computational hardware and sensors, the central goals of smallness and high-level autonomy (usually associated with higher algorithmic complexity and computational cost) are directly at odds with each other. Current small UAVs often shed weight through the use of limited sensors and rudimentary algorithms, while very high-level autonomy usually comes packaged in a UAV that is by no means “small.” Our proposed project is uniquely situated to tackle this “highly autonomous small UAV” challenge through the innovative combination of high- performance, compact hardware and efficient, advanced algorithms. The proposing team will combine a flight-proven, state-of-the-art miniature avionics system, flight-proven, real-time image processing techniques, and efficient, high-level autonomous guidance algorithms to develop a Small, Image-aided Navigation and Autonomous Path-planning System (SINAPS) for small UAVs. The Phase I result will be a complete flight-proven SINAPS with very high levels of autonomy contained in an extremely small, lightweight package.

SKEYES UNLIMITED CORP.
1660 McElree Rd.
Washington, PA 15301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 260-2625
Dr. Omead Amidi
ARMY 07-001      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Small UAV High-speed Obstacle and Collision Avoidance
Abstract:A major roadblock towards full UAV deployment in urban and mountainous areas is their inability to negotiate obstacles and avoid collision with other aircraft while flying at or near cruise speed. There is an urgent need for UAV obstacle and collision detection and avoidance systems, which won't slow down the UAV significantly while analyzing the world and making decisions as to what is the safest route around obstacles and other aircraft. We propose to design and test a low weight, low power, and low cost UAV obstacle and collision detection and avoidance system. We will pursue an approach based on combining laser-, vision-, and acoustic-based systems. We also propose to develop route deconfliction and autonomous obstacle and collision avoidance methods. We will develop aircraft guidance, or planning, methodologies that take into account the amount and type of information provided by the sensors. To minimize data processing latency we propose to closely integrate the sensors and the corresponding pre- processing algorithms.By developing hardware and software in a modular way, we will be able to provide the maximum possible capabilities for each type of UAV at the right weight, power, and cost levels.

ANASPHERE, INC.
6597 Maltse Lane, Unit D
Bozeman, MT 59718
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 994-9354
Dr. John A. Bognar
ARMY 07-003      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Environmental Sensor for Autonomous UAVS
Abstract:Improved observations of the battlespace are of key and growing importance in today’s combat environment. UAVs are making key contributions in this area, and sensor improvements are a key part of increasing UAV capabilities. However, all sensors are subject to degradation under detrimental environmental conditions. Adding a sensor system to UAVs that enables the in-situ identification and quantification of such conditions will aid in the most effective use of UAVs and their onboard sensors as well as enable more accurate evaluation of the sensor data being returned. Anasphere proposes to develop a highly miniaturized, low-power environmental sensor system – on the order of one to two cubic inches in volume, and with a power consumption on the order of 500 milliwatts – suitable for use on a broad variety of UAVs. Specific quantities to be measured include standard meteorological parameters, visibility, ambient light level, and precipitation rate and type. On-board processing will yield additional value-added parameters of significance. In Phase I, a proof-of-concept system will be designed, fabricated, and demonstrated on a UAV. The Phase I Option will involve definition of Phase II systems and UAV interfaces. Phase II would see iterative design improvements and tests culminating in a production-ready system.

MILSYS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
408 E. Fourth Street Suite 204
Bridgeport, PA 19405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 272-5050
Mr. Glenn Baker
ARMY 07-003      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Environmental Sensor for Autonomous UAVS
Abstract:An innovative multimodal environmental sensor (both LWIR and LIDAR) is proposed. It is accomplished by leveraging COTs technology, advanced optical design and fabrication technology, and commercializing university research. By coupling the two technologies and developing the appropriate algorithms the environmental conditions in front of a UAV can be mapped and communicated and/or used by an autonomous navigation system to control the UAV. The nature of the technology is such that its SWAP will be compatible with some of the smallest UAVs. Overall, this technology will provide capabilities that do not exist in any type of sensor system produced today.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart, FL 34994
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(772) 283-0253
Mr. John F Justak
ARMY 07-004      Awarded: 10/9/2007
Title:A Compliant Outer Air Seal, (COAS)
Abstract:Advanced Technologies Group, (ATG)Inc. proposes to develop a self-acting outer air seal for turbine blade tip clearance control. The Compliant Outer Air Seal (COAS) is based on previous successful non-contacting seal developments at ATG. A single COAS will deliver a 3-5% decrease in SFC and a 30-50°C decrease in exhaust gas temperature.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Mr. Attila Lengyel
ARMY 07-005      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Innovative Systems to Reduce One per Rev Vibrations in Helicopters
Abstract:Significant maintenance activity is required to ensure acceptable 1/rev vibration levels from main and tail rotors. These flight and ground based maintenance activities translate into significant cost and downtime for the helicopter operator. Cost has been somewhat mitigated with the use of on-board systems with computerized diagnostic algorithms. The result is better ride comfort which translates into minimized pilot fatigue, and better helicopter and component life. The rotor tuning adjustments typically used are blade pitchlink length adjustment, trim tab angle adjustment, and rotor weight balance adjustment. These adjustments are manually implemented in a relatively inefficient way that is time consuming and sometimes prone to error. Ultimately an overall system is desired that would enable relation of the results of the computerized diagnostic algorithm to the automated rotor adjustment implementation system in an automated way such that the changes are made in a quick, efficient, accurate, repeatable, and error free manner. Midé proposes to develop two innovative, robust solutions to adjusting the pitchlink length and rotor mass balance. Midé has recently developed an active trim tab and successfully tested it on a whirl stand. These systems will be automated and would ultimately be adjusted in flight.

INVERCON, LLC
112 W. Foster Ave.
State College, PA 16801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 876-3609
Dr. Joseph Szefi
ARMY 07-006      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Robust Hybrid Feedforward-Feedback Control and Dynamic Rotorcraft Simulation for Active Vibration Control
Abstract:In Phase I program Invercon will team with Bell Helicopter and PSU to further develop a package of simulation models and analysis tools recently created at Bell for AVC system design and evaluation. The analytical models have been developed in Simulink to accurately replicate various rotorcrafts vibration environment in steady flight and in transient maneuvers. The AVC control approach is introduced into the rotorcraft models via airframe and AVC actuator transfer matrices. Ultimately, the effectiveness of the given control approach can be observed through a time domain airframe response. Invercon and PSU will introduce hybrid feedforward-feedback control approaches into the model which incorporate both a modern control approach, such as the Linear Quadradtic Guassian (LQG) based on identified state space models, while also preserving traditional frequency-based helicopter control approaches, such as adaptive self-tuning regulators for multicyclic control. The control approach parameters will then be optimized so that broadband vibration suppression is maximized while control effort is minimized during both steady state and transient flight conditions. In Phase II, Invercon and PSU will then integrate the control approach into RCAS (Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System), a nonproprietary government analysis tool that is a full-fidelity, comprehensive rotorcraft model.

MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
57 MARYANNE DRIVE
MONROE, CT 06468
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 874-3100
Dr. Yogesh Mehrotra
ARMY 07-006      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Full Band Anticipatory Control Algorithms to Suppress Aggressive Maneuver Vibrations
Abstract:Recent high usage of helicopters in Iraq and Afghan theatres underscores a need for rotorcraft safety and reliability improvements. Rotor induced vibrations cause significant airframe fatigue and electronic component failure. In current generation rotorcraft, vibration attenuation is achieved through either airframe mounted tuned-absorbers or active vibration control (AVC) systems. Typical AVC system uses a number of fixed- system, narrow band force generators to reduce the acceleration measured at multiple locations in aircraft fuselage. Although current AVC systems are effective at reducing vibration in steady-state flight, advanced control algorithms are needed to achieve similar results for dynamic maneuvers. To address deficiencies of current AVC algorithms Materials Technologies Corp. has formed an exceptionally talented team with experience in rotorcraft modeling, modern control algorithm development, and AVC system development. Proposed AVC algorithm development effort balances performance, computational, tractability, and certification complexity, utilizing state-of-the-art control technologies that address known deficiencies in production control algorithms. Phase I will demonstrate the most promising control algorithms in a high fidelity fuselage model developed in coordination with Sikorsky Aircraft. Control algorithms will be evaluated in hardware-in-the-loop testing on Sikorsky AVC test rig in Phase II to identify the best approach for dramatic vibration reductions in maneuvering flight that has the potential to significantly improve component lives and also flight safety by reducing pilot workload and environmental stressors.

FBS, INC.
143 Hawbaker Industrial Drive Suite #102
State College, PA 16803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 234-3437
Mr. Roger L. Royer Jr.
ARMY 07-007      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Innovative Rotor Blade Anti-Icing/De-Icing Technologies
Abstract:FBS, Inc. and the Penn State Rotorcraft Center propose the development of a novel ultrasonic guided wave phased array focusing technology for large area anti-icing and/or de-icing of rotor blade structures from a single sensing position. The concept is unique in that it utilizes a phased array actuation approach for ice prevention/removal. The Penn State Rotorcraft Center has recently shown the ability to use ultrasonic guided waves to de-ice aluminum, steel, and composite plate structures. Penn State’s single actuator approach is only capable of localized de-icing which makes field implementation impractical because hundreds of actuators would be needed to de-ice an entire rotor blade. The phased array approach proposed here will allow large area de-icing by using an array of actuators and phasing them to constructively focus energy to a particular point on the surface of the structure (anti-icing) or the structure/ice interface (de-icing) while using high actuation frequencies that will not harm the structure. The focal point could then be scanned, using software, to focus energy to all points on the rotor blade to remove ice or prevent ice formation over a large area from a single actuating position.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Eric Gans
ARMY 07-007      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Micro and Nano Structured Anti-Icing Coating
Abstract:To address the Army’s need for innovative non-electrothermal rotor blade de-icing systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Micro and Nano Structured Anti-Icing Coating (MANSAC) technology. This proposed technology is inspired by the surface structure of a lotus leaf in nature, which has superhydrophobic and self cleaning behavior that repels ice, water, and dust from its surface, without any electric power. The innovation in design and integration of a micro/nanostructure on the surface will enable the MANSAC to block ice formation on rotor surfaces. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MANSAC by coating the MANSAC onto the surface of the same materials as those similar to a rotor blade, and testing for the anti- and de-icing effect. In Phase II POC plans to identify fabrication processes and develop a prototype for demonstration in a realistic enviroment.

BENZ AIRBORNE SYSTEMS
2400 Handley-Ederville Road
Fort Worth , TX 76118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 280-0000
Mr. Bud Coleman
ARMY 07-008      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Smart Autonomous Miniaturized Contamination Condition Sensor with Embedded Prognostics
Abstract:The U.S. Army Aviation Engineering Directorate, Propulsion Drive Systems Branch, has identified the need to replace the antiquated, differential mechanical pressure switch/indicator currently being used in hydraulic system filter applications on all Army helicopters, in favor of newer technology, MEMS based, piezoresistive, solid-state differential pressure transducer with temperature sensing combination for the added benefit of performing self diagnostics and prognostics capabilities to increase aircraft maintainability. The current mechanical design dates back 40 years, does not have temperature sensing capabilities, is incapable of processing information, or from being used for diagnostics and prognostics purposes for condition based maintenance, and it’s inherent configuration makes it unreliable and problematic for users in the field, resulting in numerous false readings and premature component removals. In support of this effort, based on discussions with the U.S. Army’s Aviation Engineering Directorate, Benz Airborne is proposing to develop a multi-platform concept for a diagnostic and prognostic measurement system (DPMS) that, if successful, could be used on all Army helicopters. The Propulsions Drive Systems Branch envisions this pressure transducer with temperature sensor capability, to be a drop in, stand alone replacement for the current mechanical switch. In addition, the pressure sensor shall have provisions for recording data through either a remotely located black box, or electronics incorporated into the head of the transducer, for performing diagnostics and prognostics capabilities. The DPMS will be completely autonomous with no electrical connectors to the vehicle. The DPMS will provide both visual presentation of hydraulic system health (e.g. lights) and recording of the pressure/temperature history. Recorded data shall be retrieved by maintenance personnel using either wireless or wired data link as desired. It is important to note that this pressure sensing device is to be used as a maintenance tool only, and that, it is not intended for pilot usage.

LURACO TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1132 107th Street
Arlington, TX 76011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 633-1080
Dr. Kevin Le
ARMY 07-008      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Smart Autonomous Miniaturized Contamination Condition Sensor with Embedded Prognostics
Abstract:LURACO Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a low-cost, accurate, and smart Multi- tasked Sensor (MultiSENS) that can be used to sense both the filter health as well as the fluid conditions. MultiSENS will directly replace the current Delta P indicator that is being used on current legacy aircrafts without interfering with the current wiring harnesses or system modification. MultiSENS can measure the differential pressure across the filter and determine the filter condition and predict the schedule for filter replacement. The basic function of MultiSENS is to automatically analyze and report the filter and oil condition. The proposed MultiSENS will be a complete, stand-alone sensing device that uses a MEMS multi-sensor chip to measure the pressure, dielectric constant, and temperature of fluid. MultiSENS will monitor the fluid and filter continuously or at scheduled intervals. The data captured by MultiSENS will be available for download via its data port, which implements a military-compatible communication protocol.

APPLIED ULTRASONICS
PO Box 100422
Birmingham, AL 35210
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(205) 951-7747
Mr. Taylor W. Hanes
ARMY 07-009      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Field Repair of Localized Damage on Dynamic Rotorcraft Components.
Abstract:Applied Ultrasonics, Inc. has developed a unique patented commercialized, device that has proven successful in treatment of metals in the automotive and transportation industry. The goal of this SBIR effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of using this technology to improve the repair process of aviation components. The process known as Ultrasonic Impact Technology (UIT) can be compared to shot peening; however with three distinct advantages: 1) It uses a man portable device that can be used in forward deployed locations—eliminating the need to send parts to a specialized repair facility. 2) UIT can be used on aviation components that cannot be repaired with shot peening due to their size or shape. 3) The results of treatment with UIT are significantly greater than shot peening--greater fatigue life enhancement, corrosion prevention, and surface hardness. The goal of this Phase I effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating UIT in the Army's Aviation repair processes. Phase II will provide demonstration and airworthiness qualification on specific components. Commercialization of this technology will significantly reduce aviation operation and maintenance costs.

AVION, INC.
7067 Old Madison Pike Suite 170
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 721-7006
Mr. Gary W. Donald
ARMY 07-009      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Field Repair of Localized Damage on Dynamic Rotorcraft Components.
Abstract:U.S. Army helicopter fatigue sensitive dynamic components are required to maintain structural integrity throughout their operational life cycle. Typical metal alloy fatigue sensitive dynamic components require the presence of surface compressive residual stresses to inhibit the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. However, some of these components are susceptible to localized mechanical and corrosion surface damage that must be removed by blending. The surface blending process results in the requirement to reintroduce compressive residual stresses, normally by shot peening. The shot peening operation is currently performed at military depots and commercial facilities using non-portable peening equipment. Army Aviation has the potential for increasing reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing Operation & Support (O&S) cost by deploying a portable capability to reliably restore the structural integrity of fatigue sensitive dynamic components that have experienced usage related surface defects. Avion (Prime) and Sonats (Sub) have teamed to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a portable, field-deployable ultrasonically activated shot peening capability that reliably reintroduces compressive residual stresses in Army helicopter fatigue sensitive dynamic components that have had localized surface damage blended out.

COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL
2166 N. Salem Street Suite 101
Apex, NC 27523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 363-0883
Dr. Anders Grimsrud
ARMY 07-010      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Computational Fluid Dynamics Co-processing for Unsteady Visualization
Abstract:This research aims first to evaluate current techniques to extract visual information for a large unsteady rotorcraft CFD simulation. Next, the same operations will be performed in parallel using the same CFD data, decomposed on a modern cluster computer. Then, Python-based scripting will be employed to automate these operations. Lastly, co- processing of the same simulation, linking the visualization system to the CFD code through a custom API, will be demonstrated, permitting simultaneous computation and automated co-visualization without archival of intermediate results. All aspects will be of prototype in nature and not suitable for general-purpose application in a commercial software product.

KITWARE
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Dr. Berk Geveci
ARMY 07-010      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Computational Fluid Dynamics Co-processing for Unsteady Visualization
Abstract:Data management is a major bottle neck in exploitation of simulations for predicting and analyzing complex fluid dynamics. We propose creating a co-processing toolkit that extracts significant features from simulation results as the simulation is running. This toolkit will allow analysis of fine temporal features without having to store massive amounts of data required for effective post processing. The proposed toolkit design will allow efficient computation and flexible feature analysis. Kitware is in a unique position to develop the co-processing toolkit because of our existing VTK toolkit and our extensive experience with distributed algorithms.

PRIME RESEARCH, LC
1750 Kraft Dr Ste 1000-B
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2200
Dr. Dan Kominsky
ARMY 07-011      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Differential Focus Optical Blade Tip Clearance Probe
Abstract:Prime Research, LC, in proposes to develop a new photonic blade tip clearance sensor which can operate at temperatures in excess of 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. This project will fill a dramatic shortfall in the current measurement capabilities for turbine engines. Existing blade tip clearance measurements are generally limited to much lower temperature operation. The small and robust single crystal sapphire transducer is optically excited by a remotely located interrogation system. Using the differential response of a dual channel system the radial blade tip location is ascertained through two separate phenomena.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James C. Withers
ARMY 07-012      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:A Process to In-Situ Form Cooling Channels in SiC/SiC Composite Turbine Blades and Nozzles
Abstract:Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) such as silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) extends the temperature capabilities of turboshaft engines thru higher temperature capabilities and reduced weight which provides improved horsepower-to-weight ratios. However, even uncooled ceramics can extend the capabilities of the engine to a certain plateau. If effective cooling channels could be incorporated into CMC (SiC/SiC) blades and nozzles even further increases in temperature capabilities at reduced weight and subsequent improved horsepower-to-weight ratios are achievable. A unique in-situ fabrication processing approach can produce cooling channels in controlled architectures within a SiC/SiC composite cross section. The processing will be developed and validated with establishing the mechanical properties and cooling effectiveness of SiC/SiC specimens containing multiple cooling channels which will be coordinated with engine OEMs.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Ms. Kathy Sabolsky
ARMY 07-012      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Innovative CMC Preforming for Molding Turbine Vanes with Integral Cooling Cavities(1001-102)
Abstract:Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) materials have the potential of improving engine performance by lowering emissions and enabling higher cycle efficiency. The benefits of CMC turbine engine components may be extended by development fabrication process that integrates cooling system similar to the one currently used for the metallic counterparts. Triton Systems Inc (Triton) proposes to demonstrate a unique CMC preform construction enabling production of complex-shaped CMC components with integral, internal cooling passages. Triton will team with the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. (CCAT) Laser Applications Laboratory to machine cooling holes to connect the internal cavity with the composite exterior. Configuration design guidance and future component test recommendations will be contributed by turbine engine contractor LibertyWorks - Rolls Royce North American Technologies (LibertyWorks). Triton’s Dispersed Filament Preforming fabrication technology, a novel ceramic matrix composite (CMC) preforming approach, will allow for effective reinforcement of tight corner and bend radii prevalent in gas turbine hot section components. In combination with the development of new molding process which incorporates sacrificial male mandrel for internal cavity and development of novel machining methods for introduction of cooling holes, a unique fabrication technology for effective cooling system for complex-shaped ceramic based turbine engine components will be advanced.

ADVANCED ROTORCRAFT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1330 Charleston Rd
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 968-1464
Dr. Hossein Saberi
ARMY 07-013      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Dynamic Blade Shapes for Improved Helicopter Rotor Aeromechanics
Abstract:With the increasing demand for higher performance rotorcraft that will carry heavier payloads, travel longer distances, and hover at higher altitudes in warmer climates, more advanced and novel rotor designs have become necessary. The fixed configuration blade design has reached its optimum performance improvements. However, there is the potential to use a dynamic blade shape approach to significantly increase rotorcraft performance. Using the comprehensive tools to accurately model the new actuation systems and to analyze the new design in a more realistic manner has the potential to enable the creation of the next generation of rotors in a cost effective manner. With advancements in Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) in structural loads prediction, the accurate airloads predictions by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) programs, and the successful CSD/CFD coupling in both steady and maneuvering flights, the achievement of the above goal is within reach. ART proposes to use Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System (RCAS) to model and analyze promising dynamic blade shape candidates and to create a database relating the performance parameter to the different morphing approaches over the entire flight envelope. Where necessary, enhancements will be made to produce the most accurate results.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
31255 Cedar Valley Drive Suite 327
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 865-3710
Dr. kuo-yen Szema
ARMY 07-013      Awarded: 10/9/2007
Title:Dynamic Blade Shapes for Improved Helicopter Rotor Aeromechanics
Abstract:HyPerComp Inc. is teaming with NextGen Aeronautics and the Rotorcraft Center at the University of Maryland to explore the use of dynamic blade shapes (morphing) for improved rotor performance. Team members complement HyPerComp’s core expertise in modeling and simulation of the rotors, NextGen’s vast experience in actuator design and fabrication, and consultation from University of Maryland on dynamic blade shapes and smart materials. We propose a high-fidelity CFD-based investigation of five different dynamic blade shape concepts for rotor performance improvement: (1) camber variation; (2) trailing edge deflection; (3) leading edge droop; (4) blade twist distribution; and (5) tip geometry (sweep, anhedral, and planform taper). The Phase-I study would be performed for the Black Hawk UH-60A rotor. Hovering, steady-level high-speed forward, and high- thrust forward flights will be studied. Loosely coupled CFD-CSD (aero-elastic) simulations of the isolated rotor (no fuselage) will be performed to compute trimmed solutions and rotor performance. Phase-I study would conclude with the documentation of the effect of the different dynamic blade shapes on rotor performance and the down-selection of the most effective ones. For those concepts, a preliminary study of the physical realizability in terms of actuation mechanism concepts, power, stroke, and frequency will be performed.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 345-5777
Dr. Lee M. Goldman
ARMY 07-014      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:Precision Optics Manufacturing of Large Hemispherical Domes
Abstract:There are currently three different approaches under consideration for construction of multi-layer hemispherical multi-mode domes: (1) The bonded shell method – in which an inner and an outer dome shell are fabricated out of either ALON or Spinel, and bonded together, using a transparent adhesive, with a metallic grid at the interface, (2) The alternate dielectric method- in which an outer shell is fabricated out of either ALON or spinel, a grid is applied to its inner surface, and then an alternate dielectric (i.e., glass) material is directly bonded to the outer shell to create the desired structure, and (3) The Co-fired ceramic method- in which the metal grid is applied to green ceramics, and fired in such a way as to create the multi-layer structure within the as fired blank. The Phase I effort will combine a trade study of the preferred assembly method with a study of deterministic finishing techniques to determine the optimized manufacturing path toward producing a 7-in hemispherical dome with ¼ wave transmitted wavefront uniformity over any 4-in aperture. The Phase II effort will then consist of optimizing the selected method with a feasibility demonstration for producing up to 250 domes per month.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-1656
Mr. Keith Rozenburg
ARMY 07-014      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:Precision Optics Manufacturing of Large Hemispherical Domes
Abstract:In previous work supported by the DoD SBIR program TA&T demonstrated an effective manufacturing route for spinel dome blanks. As discussed in the previous section, however, creating an effective process for the surface conditioning of the dome is essential to manufacturing them on a large scale. This Phase I will focus on an analysis of the manufacturing steps for a multi-layer dome to identify those steps which have the greatest contribution on the transmitted wavefront error of the finished dome. The feasibility study will propose techniques or processes which minimize the introduction of errors into the wavefront and evaluate deterministic polishing as a means correct the dome transmitted wavefront to meet the specification. To produce the feasibility study an investigation into current practice will highlight where wavefront error is being introduced and in the second portion of the study deterministic polishing, focusing on magnetorehological methods, will be investigated as a method for removing wavefront error.

ENSER CORP. THE
5430 70th Avenue North
Pinellas Park, FL 33781
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 520-1393
Mr. David Harney
ARMY 07-015      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Cathode Improvements for Thermal Batteries
Abstract:Thermal batteries are mission critical components which provide power to military weapon systems for electronics, fusing, sensing and actuation. Today’s thermal battery packaging and performance requirements are being pushed to the limits. System designers are demanding higher power levels over longer operating times (hence, higher usable energy output) in smaller, lighter packages. To meet this demand, we propose to demonstrate significant improvements in energy density, power density and operational lifetime using a new cathode material. The particle size range of the new material will cover micrometer to nanometer particle range. Material composition and processing will be optimized and performance improvement will be demonstrated in Phase I by means of single cell testing. In Phase II, ENSER will demonstrate the performance of the new cathode material in a selected PAC-3 battery.

US NANOCORP, INC.
74 Batterson Park Road
Farmington, CT 06032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 487-3838
Dr. Jinxiang Dai
ARMY 07-015      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:High Energy Density Thermal Battery with Nanostructured Cathode Materials
Abstract:The U.S. Army is seeking a technical innovation to thermal batteries with significant improvements on specific energy and operation life for weapon systems. One-time- thermal activation batteries have advantages compared with other types of reserved batteries in terms of long reserve-time, high reliability, maintenance free, high specific power, wide application temperatures, and good mechanical properties. The low voltage cathode and thermal life limit improvement on energy density and operational time of thermal batteries. US Nanocorp, Inc (USN) proposes a new high voltage nanostructured composite metal oxide and a new compatible electrolyte with a low melting point to address Army’s request on performance improvements of the current state-of-the-art thermal batteries. Coupled with LiSi/LiAl anode, the new nanostructured composite metal oxide cathode will operate at 3V and have higher specific capacity compared with the current FeS2 cathode working at 1.7V. The application of the new cathode will increase the energy density 100%. The new electrolyte with a melting point <250oC and good chemical compatibility with high voltage cathode, will increase the active working time of the thermal batteries by increasing their thermal life (10X). The increment on active working life will also increase the energy density and reduce the battery’s surface temperature.

SURMET CORP.
33 B Street
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 345-5777
Dr. Lee M. Goldman
ARMY 07-016      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Manufacturing Issues for Multimode Seeker Domes
Abstract:There are currently three different approaches under consideration for construction of multi-layer hemispherical multi-mode domes: (1) The bonded shell method – in which an inner and an outer dome shell are fabricated out of either ALON or Spinel, and subsequently bonded together, using a transparent adhesive, with a metallic grid at the interface to create the desired structure.; (2) The alternate dielectric method- in which an outer shell is fabricated out of either ALON or spinel, a grid is applied to its inner surface, and then an alternate dielectric material is directly bonded to it to create the desired structure; and (3) The Co-fired ceramic method- in which the metal grid is applied to green ceramics, and then fired to create the multi-layer structure within the as fired blank. This Phase I will analyze the processes used in each of these approaches, and select the method most likely to produce a cost effective multi-layer dome in quantities up to 250/month. At the conclusion, any remaining process steps not mature will have a cost/risk reduction analysis presented. The Phase II effort would then consist of optimizing the selected method and demonstrating the feasibility of producing these domes in large quantities.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT & TRANSFER, INC.
133 Defense Highway, Suite 212
Annapolis, MD 21401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 987-1656
Mr. Evans A. LaRoche
ARMY 07-016      Awarded: 11/21/2007
Title:Manufacturing Issues for Multimode Seeker Domes
Abstract:TA&T has demonstrated the capability to produce 7” diameter, hemispherical domes of transparent spinel by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) of spinel powder, followed by sintering without application of pressure, and finally followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). TA&T has exercised its dome manufacturing process sufficiently to have solved many process problems. At the same time, TA&T has gained a qualitative understanding of where the greatest costs are incurred and where the greatest risks remain. The proposed program will study the manufacturing process in greater detail in order to confirm current cost/risk reduction priorities and to quantify anticipated cost savings. A plan will be developed for scaleup to full manufacturing mode and to clarify opportunities for process improvement and substantial cost reductions. Value Stream Mapping and Theory of Constraints analyses will be used to identify/confirm the process steps that must be improved, by way of cost reduction or increased throughput. A revised manufacturing process that incorporates the needed improvements will be developed. Risk assessments will be performed for the revised process to assure that product and process objectives will be met.

PIONEERING DECISIVE SOLUTIONS, INC.
20641 Flat Iron Rd. PO BOX 205
Great Mills, MD 20634
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8642
Dr. Ion A. Neag
ARMY 07-017      Awarded: 12/8/2007
Title:Applying Technologies for Managing the Parallel Test Problem
Abstract:The Army, as well as the DoD and Industry are not facilitated with software that provides the ability to perform Coherent Parallel Test utilizing high input/output (I/O) density test instruments and systems. Current test systems have been designed to perform sequential test which drive throughput limitations and affect the time spent testing and repairing Units Under Test (UUTs). Instrumentation hardware advancements are providing the ability to perform multiple (I/O) stimulus and measurement (with extreme increases in I/O density), as well as, increased parametric capability. There is currently no suitable software available to fully exploit the ability of this high density phenomenon to perform asynchronous, synchronous, concurrent and/or parallel testing. This innovative research program will focus on determining and developing the best available technologies necessary to allow the Army and Industry to enable higher throughput rates (faster tests), true parallel testing(in many cases true functional testing), advanced programming & visualization and improved diagnostics.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Ralph
ARMY 07-018      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:Learning and Mining using Bagged Augmented Decision Trees (LAMBAST)
Abstract:Standoff weapons like seeker missiles enable strikes at targets of opportunity in limited- access areas while minimizing risk to warfighters. However, seekers cannot be deployed quickly enough for these short-notice missions because of two limitations of their onboard ATR systems: 1) ATRs cannot learn from novel, mission-specific data after initial training is complete; and 2) ATRs cannot identify pertinent, non-redundant information from large training databases. These limitations make it impossible to train a seeker’s ATR in a feasible timeframe for short-notice missions. To remedy these problems and make short-notice seeker missions a reality, we propose LAMBAST, or Learning and Mining using Bagged Augmented Decision Trees. LAMBAST examines large databases and extracts sparse, representative subsets of target and clutter samples of interest. For data mining, LAMBAST uses a variant of decision trees, called random decision trees (RDTs). RDTs are immune to overfitting and can incorporate novel, mission-specific data after initial training via perpetual learning. We augment these trees with a distribution modeling component that eliminates redundant information, ignores misrepresentative class distributions in the database, and stops training when decision boundaries are sufficiently sampled. These augmented random decision trees enable fast construction of reliable, mission-specific ATR and make short-notice seeker missions possible.

UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORP.
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 473-1500
Dr. Jacob Yadegar
ARMY 07-018      Awarded: 3/27/2008
Title:Intelligent and Adaptive Decision Forests for Perpetual Knowledge Assimilation
Abstract:Army perceives precision guidance and battlefield awareness as crucial technologies for the future and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) forms an important component of these technologies. Specifically, tactical target recognition in air-to-ground infrared imagery will increase the lethality of precision guided missiles and reduce fratricide. However, recognition is difficult when the variations in atmospheric conditions and background cause the clutter/target models to behave significantly different from their statistical patterns. Thus, there is a need to constantly update and modify the representative knowledge base with information from new target and clutter samples while retaining non-redundant information. Based on advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence and their sophisticated applications to intelligent imaging solutions, we propose an Incremental Knowledge Assimilation system to optimally incorporate new and relevant data samples into the knowledge base (adaptive bagging based decision forest classifier) in an incremental fashion with minimal memory and computation requirements. Since the goal of the system is to learn perpetually, it lays higher stress on learning the patterns the each mode of the distribution (or each class) rather than focusing merely on the separation of classes. We present preliminary performance results to validate our methodology.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Ross Eaton
ARMY 07-019      Awarded: 12/16/2007
Title:Measure of Realness for Target Image Scoring (MORTIS)
Abstract:One obstacle to the increased use of smart weapons and unmanned air vehicles is a lack of appropriate data to train current or contemplated onboard automatic target recognition (ATR) systems. Generating synthetic data is an appealingly simple solution, but this requires a simulator that can generate data (image/non-image) of sufficient fidelity to ensure correct ATR training. Unfortunately, synthetic and real data can vary widely, and there is no data validation mechanism that determines when synthetic data is sufficiently “real” to serve as training data for an ATR that will classify real data. Measure of Realness for Target Image Scoring, or MORTIS, is an automated data validation system that identifies data that can be used for ATR training by scoring data “realness”. MORTIS uses a predictive approach to data classification, using many features and stepwise discriminant analysis. MORTIS attempts to learn to distinguish between real and synthetic data during a training phase and subsequently predicts if new data are real. When MORTIS identifies real data correctly, the synthetic data looks different than the real data, but when MORTIS fails to distinguish between the two types of data, the synthetic data is sufficiently real for ATR training.

SYSTEM DYNAMICS
400 S. Woodlawn Ave.
Kirkwood, MO 63122
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 724-8652
Mr. Steven P. Smith
ARMY 07-019      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Techniques for Comparison of Actual Target Signatures to Rendered or Synthetically Generated Models
Abstract:In the development of modern sensor systems it is necessary to supplement actual performance testing with both digital and hardware-in-the-loop simulations to speed development and offset field test costs. The evaluation of signal/image processing algorithms along with sensor performance is often the primary goal of these simulations. The value of these simulations is only realized when the fidelity of the synthetic target and clutter models used is sufficient to provide an acceptable assessment of performance. As sensors attain higher resolutions and weapon systems become more advanced the requirements on synthetic target and background models become more difficult to meet. Some statistical methods, which have been used in the past to assess the fidelity of synthetic models compared to actual field measurements, have not provided the necessary understanding of the quality of the synthetic models. The objective of this research is to improve synthetic model verification capabilities by developing techniques to quantitatively compare synthetic models with data collected during field tests.

KALSCOTT ENGINEERING, INC.
PO Box 3426
Lawrence, KS 66046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 979-1113
Mr. Tom Sherwood
ARMY 07-020      Awarded: 3/20/2008
Title:Virtual Sensor Wiring Harness for Hazardous Environments
Abstract:Continuous environmental health monitoring is a growing requirement for missile systems to ensure their long-term reliability while being stored, transported and operated in harsh environmental conditions. While several sensors currently exist for measuring temperature, relative humidity, shock/vibration, and other key parameters, the wiring required for such a network of embedded sensors, specially for munitions, would be difficult to install and maintain. The wiring harness adds weight and complexity to the missile system, which could be avoided by using a wireless network. But the wireless system would have to work in the complex RF environment within a missile system, and not cause unintended intitiation of electro-explosive components within the missile. Also, such a wireless system would have to be low power, to maintain safety in a potentially explosive environement, and for long-term functioning. The goal of the proposed effort is to develop such a low-power, long-life, safe wireless network for embedded sensors in a missile system, which provides remote end-users with accurate, near real-time health status awareness information for munitions.

LEWIS INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. 624 534 Lawrence Street
Moulton, AL 35650
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 905-0775
Mr. James Lewis
ARMY 07-020      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Virtual Sensor Wiring Harness for Hazardous Environments
Abstract:LIT proposes developing a HERO-Safe communication protocol to allow the use of RF transceivers to meet the requirements of a Virtual Wiring Harness for Hazardous Environments. LIT is teaming with Texas Instruments (TI) and will utilize TI’s Chipcon family of RF components to achieve the low power and long battery life required to make the Virtual Sensor Wiring Harness a reality. LIT’s teaming relationship with TI provides the Government Customer improved access to TI’s low power processor and RF technology. The LIT HERO-Safe Protocol will address network registration and registration delay, node synchronization, data transfer, low duty cycle operation, and hierarchical networks in which the superior network that may not be static. In Phase I LIT will develop the HERO safe RF Protocol with the understanding that the sensor network, composed of sensor nodes and Data-Logging control node, is static. Size, mass, and power are especially important in this embedded sensor system. The long range goal of a one cubic inch system with a ten year battery life is realistic. LIT’s team member, Texas Instruments, possesses state of the art low-power processor and RF technology which makes the ten-year battery life a realizable goal.

DMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2905 Westcorp Blvd. Suite # 220
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 536-4346
Dr. George Nehmetallah
ARMY 07-021      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:High-Speed Non-Intrusive Measurement Techniques for the Visualization of Droplet Clouds
Abstract:In Phase I we will develop a lab-scale prototype system of digital/analogue 3-d static as well as dynamic single droplet holography. We will also develop algorithms to visualize and determine the particle size, shape, and velocity of a droplet in a lab setup/gun tunnel. We will demonstrate the methodology for extending from single drop to multiple drops in a cloud. By building on the experimental knowledge gathered in Phase I, we will extend the work to Phase II where we will have many droplets in a cloud with a mixture of water, ice, dust and sand particles. In Phase II we will develop a full scale device with off-the- shelf hardware to record 3-D holograms of single droplet shape, velocity and density. Also in this phase we will study particle size distributions and velocities. We will build a friendly user interface for calculating the various parameters that our theoretical study can determine such as average and standard deviation of the particle sizes, their average and dynamic velocities, and the corresponding distribution laws. In Phase III we will help in integrating our device with the aviation and missile test setups to measure particle characteristics.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Hansheng Zhang
ARMY 07-021      Awarded: 12/1/2007
Title:Dynamic Holography Droplet Clouds Analysis System
Abstract:To address the Army need for a high-speed measurement instrument to record and display water droplet demise through vehicle-induced shocks, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Dynamic Holography Droplet Clouds Analysis System (DHDCAS) with the capability of measuring 3D volume domains, particle velocity and size distributions, shape, and mass as a function of time. The proposed DHDCAS is based on dynamic holography with an enhanced photorefractive semiconductor material. The innovation in DHDCAS will enable the system to record holograms at a very high speed, which will allow recording and visualization of dynamic events and provide 3D information of water droplet demise. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of DHDCAS by designing, analyzing, and fabricating a breadboard setup. In Phase II POC plans to develop a prototype to test its capabilities of high-speed recording, displaying water droplet demise due to vehicle-induced shocks, and measuring particle velocity and size distributions, shape, and mass as a function of time in 3D volume domains.

COSTVISION
1472 North St.
Boulder, CO 80304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 539-9312
Mr. Charles W. Stirk
ARMY 07-022      Awarded: 3/4/2008
Title:Decision aide for affordability risk identification, management, and optimization of tactical missile manufacturing
Abstract:Army Science and Technology (S&T) managers need a decision aide to identify and manage manufacturing affordability risks to lower costs and increase the transition success rate to tactical missile systems. This program leverages an existing web- based, secure, and modular costing framework that is being developed for strategic missile programs with involvement from leading contractors. The innovations of the proposed research are to enhance this framework with capabilities needed by Army tactical missile S&T managers such as: user interfaces and workflows tailored for ease of use on their specific tasks; and a database of historical tactical missile cost elements with common issues in their manufacturing, integration, assembly and test. Another innovation is to leverage an emerging systems engineering data model standard to enable cost, schedule constraint and performance parameter trade space analysis; and to support established risk assessment and management techniques that can be applied to Manufacturing/Technology Readiness Levels and Assessments. The path to commercialization will be for use on S&T programs, initially for tactical missile programs such as NLOS and EAPS by the Army and contractors, then later expanding to cruise missile, aviation and other military programs.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
ARMY 07-022      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Automated Risk Assessment Tool to Optimize Missile System Affordability Management
Abstract:In recent years, there has been a strong emphasis on addressing affordability during Army Science and Technology (S&T) efforts to reduce the life-cycle cost of missile systems. Studies have shown that considering technology and manufacturing maturity, in conjunction with affordability principles during development yields significant benefits in several important area, including lower total costs and improved quality. Although progress has been made to incorporate this concept early in technology development, there are no automated, decision-aide tools available to help Army managers and analysts understand the impacts of the risks and cost trades associated with technology investments. This Phase I research will examine the feasibility of the type of affordability analysis toolset. This capability will enable developers and planners to estimate the cost impact of designs quickly and with credibility, enabling life-cycle cost, and the maturity of technology and manufacturing to be used as key elements in “best-value” design trades. The integration of technology maturity and manufacturability considerations into the cost- estimation methodology will provide a capability acknowledged by the Defense Science Board as an important issue in systems acquisition. The Phase II program will fully develop a prototype computer-analysis tool, and validate its functionality with Army-specific missile systems.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Carl S. Byington
ARMY 07-023      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:A Comprehensive, Embedded Vibration Management System for In-Situ Missile Evaluation
Abstract:In response to SBIR topic ARMY 07-023, Impact Technologies, collaborating with Allient Techsystems, Incorporated (ATK), proposes to develop and demonstrate a modular embedded vibration management platform for the collection, signal processing, real-time analysis, and reduction of vibration data. The proposed asset-mounted sensor will be capable of long term autonomous collection and analysis of vibration data from an integral multi-axis accelerometer. The author’s significant vibration experience will be used to modify existing analysis techniques for the sensor’s real time processing. All saved data and processing results will be transferable to an external system via an onboard USB port for further post processing. The authors will adapt existing Impact-developed embedded data acquisition systems for use in this program or utilize COTS components whenever possible. Impact is well positioned to leverage their experience and knowledge of vibration measurement systems in order to develop a commercializable product for application on a variety of systems, including unmanned aerial and ground vehicles. The proposed design will be demonstrated via prototype tests during Phase I.

LEWIS INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. 624 534 Lawrence Street
Moulton, AL 35650
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 905-0775
Mr. James Lewis
ARMY 07-023      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Embedded Vibration Monitoring and Real-Time Data Analysis and Reduction
Abstract:LIT proposes using Actel "Live at Power Up" (LAPU) FPGA to design an Embedded Vibration Monitoring and Real-Time Data Analysis and Reduction System with a Low Power, Continuous Monitoring Sub-system and a fast-waking signal processing sub- system.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
181 Gibraltar Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Mr. Richard Foedinger
ARMY 07-024      Awarded: 12/1/2007
Title:High Strength, High Modulus Nano-Composite Missile Structures (MSC P7017)
Abstract:The Army has expressed a need for developing lighter weight alternatives to replace the aluminum structural components currently used in high performance missile systems. While advances have been made in formulating chopped carbon fiber composites with improved mechanical strength and stiffness at much lower densities than aluminum, current state-of-the-art chopped fiber reinforced composites do not provide the desired strength and/or stiffness properties. Newer material formulations and processing approaches using carbon nanotube reinforced composites and tailored, oriented fiber reinforcements are proposed to offer the potential for improving mechanical properties. The proposed innovation involves the formulation and characterization of improved CNT- reinforced molding compounds, and high stiffness/high strength structural components, that are produced using tailored reinforcement forms and material constructions rather. This processing approach allows the use of higher concentrations of CNT and chopped fiber reinforcements for improved properties at “processable” viscosities. Structural components fabricated using customized oriented molding compounds will be developed and evaluated to achieve increased properties and improved processing characteristics over more conventional chopped fiber moldng compounds. An Integrated Product Team has been assembled to ensure successful transition of the material and processing technology to viable military and commercial products.

NANOLAB, INC.
55 Chapel St
Newton, MA 02458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 581-6747
Mr. David Carnahan
ARMY 07-024      Awarded: 12/4/2007
Title:High Strength, High Modulus Nano-Composite Missile Structures
Abstract:Over the past ten years, it has become increasingly clear that carbon fiber composites can replace more common engineering materials such as aluminum in weight critical, structural components, such as those found in missile systems. Nanoscale materials, such as carbon nanotubes, can impart superior mechanical properties to these composites, and thereby allow composites to replace more components. However, they require careful optimization before the properties inherent in nanomaterials are manifested in the bulk composites. In the proposed Phase-I investigation, NanoLab will apply our expertise in nanotube catalysis, growth, and chemical functionalization to chopped carbon fibers and the preparation of composites with them. NanoLab will work in this Phase I effort to identify the optimal length, site density, and functionalization scheme to optimize the properties of chopped fiber based, epoxy filled carbon composites, with the goal of matching the properties of aluminum alloy 7075 at a lower density.

NEXTGEN AERONAUTICS
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8365
Dr. Terrisa Duenas
ARMY 07-025      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Nanocomposite for Impact Mitigation in cOmposite missile skins (NIMO)
Abstract:The goal of the proposed research by NextGen Aeronautics, the University of Nebraska Lincoln and Penn State is to develop an impact resistant carbon-fiber composite missile skin using a fracture toughening self-repairing nanocomposite technology. NextGen will demonstrate substantial increase in interlaminar fracture toughness as well as matrix crack resistance by combining ultra-thin continuous nanofibers with nanostructures to reinforce layers and impart self-healing properties into the composite matrix. The matrix consists of a mendomer self-healing polymer combined with a low (<5%) volume fraction of nanostructures. The objective of Phase I is demonstration of impact damage mitigation. The cost and weight of composite structure are kept low by using nanostructures to accomplish increased impact toughness while not decreasing payload. Improvements in fracture and impact properties will be shown experimentally. We will also develop analytical models that can easily be incorporated into software used by system integrators. In Phase II, the NextGen team will demonstrate automated composite manufacturing techniques using a filament winding approach and perform component level testing. The team will also incorporate the technology into a working prototype and partner with Raytheon Missile Systems to transition the technology to military munitions and advanced airframe structural platforms.

LEWIS INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. 624 534 Lawrence Street
Moulton, AL 35650
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 905-0775
Mr. James Lewis
ARMY 07-026      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Cheap Miniaturized Intelligent Wireless Missile Sensor Platform
Abstract:The proposed solution is to leverage LIT’s experience in designing and fielding military hardware and sensor-related technologies and teaming with Texas Instruments, a major manufacturer of related technologies, to develop a soundly engineered miniature intelligent wireless missile sensor platform by utilizing an evolving approach to size reduction and power management. Key areas to be addressed: • Advance manufacturing technology to chip-scale packaging, including: Chip-on-Board technology, Hybrid technology • Stackable or Flexible PCBs (Form Factor) • Power-saving protocols • Teaming with Texas Instruments (TI) for access to the following: Lowest power components, Smallest chip-scale components, Application Support, Reference designs LIT is uniquely qualified to design a miniaturized intelligent wireless missile sensor platform because of experience with low-power embedded monitoring systems and the development of miniaturized components. LIT developed embedded software for the Remote Readiness Asset Prognostics and Diagnostic System (RRAPDS) program, which provides munitions readiness indication, health monitoring, and environmental monitoring for tactical assets. LIT also designed a new launcher test set to replace the legacy system for the Patriot Guided Missile Launching Station Test Set (LSTS) program to eliminate obsolescence. LIT’s redesigned launcher test reduced the overall size, power consumption, weight, and cost of the LSTS system significantly.

SPORIAN MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
515 Courtney Way Suite B
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 516-9075
Dr. Brian Schaible
ARMY 07-026      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Cheap Miniaturized Intelligent Wireless Missile Sensor Platform
Abstract:There is a need for small, low cost, wireless sensor platforms for in situ monitoring of missiles and other assets. These highly integrated sensor platforms should be small and energy efficient enough to operate on a single battery for a period of fifteen years. The objective of this work is to develop a 1 cubic inch wireless sensor platform with integrated temperature, humidity, and 3-axis shock sensors, provisions for connection of remote sensors, HERO compliance and with a wireless interface that meets the existing requirements of TR-AMR-SG-06-34. In addition to the sensor platforms, we will develop a hardware and software interface required to allow the platforms to communicate with an existing handheld interrogator. The proposed concept pushes the state of the art but leverages Sporian’s previous work on energy efficient wireless sensor network hardware and software. The effort maximizes use of existing components and technology to reduce overall development risk. Work tasks include the evaluation of several novel concepts to reduce platform size and minimize energy consumption, and will result in a preliminary system design and proof-of-principle prototypes. The work will be performed through a partnership between Sporian Microsystems, Titanium Mirror, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems and Sensors division.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4800
Dr. Roberto DiSalvo
ARMY 07-027      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:Advanced Nano-Particle Fuel Gel Formulations for Tactical Bipropulsion Systems
Abstract:CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) in conjunction with the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) propose to develop a fuel gel based on the Army’s most current tertiary amine MMH replacement fuel. We will develop a novel technology for the production of nanoparticles by employing the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process. With the use of our proprietary software technology that allows us to predict the physical properties of gels in silico, we will be able to predict the properties of the gels reducing the number of gel batches necessary to obtain the desired physical properties. Current churn-mixer gelling processes will be adapted to accommodate gelling a mixture of tertiary amines with nano-sized particles to obtain a consistent and reproducible gel mixing process. Complete preliminary rheological measurements to demonstrate that the fuel gel candidates will pass the standard Army developed leak test will also be conducted. The volumetric performance of the candidates will be determined by using the Cantera thermochemical code. These formulations will have a higher volumetric performance and a lower gellant concentration than the corresponding fumed silica gel currently the baseline gel. In Phase I we will establish the feasibility of our nano-particle fuel gel technology and in Phase II we will scale-up the preparation process, conduct thorough rheological and properties characterization, and position the technology for effective Phase III transition to the Army customer.

ORBITAL TECHNOLOGIES CORP.(ORBITEC)
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 827-5000
Dr. Millicent Coil
ARMY 07-027      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:Optimal Fuel Gel Formulations
Abstract:Propellant gels offer a promising way to simultaneously increase safety of operations and enhance performance. Gel viscoelastic properties minimize leaking and slosh during storage yet allow flow on demand. Use of energetic gellants can increase density specific impulse performance. Clever formulation of propellant gels based on sol-gel science can optimize gel properties. The proposed work will design and characterize fuel gel formulations for the Army’s bipropellant rocket engines. The fuel gels will consist of an azide fuel and a polymer-nanoparticulate gellant. Rheological and thermal characterization of the samples will guide the design process. The results will demonstrate the ability to apply theory to ‘dial in’ the viscoelastic properties that will provide the safety and IM benefits and improved performance.

LEWIS INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. 624 534 Lawrence Street
Moulton, AL 35650
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 905-0775
Mr. James Lewis
ARMY 07-028      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Secure, Lightweight, Tamper Proof, Cable Technology
Abstract:LIT proposes a modular Fiber Optic Universal Cable Adapter. Fiber Optic (FO) technology provides high-speed communication bandwidth (into gigabits per second) with advantages in weight and security. FO is intrinsically secure over the Electro-Magnetic spectrum. FO is suitable for cabling applications over short distances (1 meter) to long distances (10 kilometers). FO cable has weight advantages because fiber is inherently lighter than wire and because shielding and differential pairs are not required for secure high-speed data transmission. Because of these bandwidth, EMI, distance, and security features, no wire based serial data system can compare to Fiber Optic. The UCA must be configurable to allow for any combination of signals or signal types. The U. S. Military uses standard communication interfaces, but also depends heavily on custom interfaces. The UCA needs a method of interfacing numerous signal types (such as analog, digital, serial communications, and power) without requiring a complete system redesign each time a different signal type is encountered. The modular approach provides the apparatus to conveniently incorporate any signal or interface into the UCA. The LIT solution incorporates Built-In-Test, health monitoring, self-healing, redundant connectivity, Forward Error Correction, Anti-Tamper and encryption technology for system and data protection.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Brian J. York
ARMY 07-029      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:Missile/UAV Dispense Interference Modeling
Abstract:The innovation is that of using blast-based concepts for the hypersonic/endo dispense of an array of small hardened projectiles (SHAPs) from an interceptor missile. Hit-to-kill successes using this SHAP concept will be significantly enhanced from that of conventional, single warhead concepts, akin to the improved probability of hitting a fast moving object with buckshot in comparison to a single bullet. Technology issues need to be addressed to demonstrate the viability of this concept and advanced tools to address these issues are well established, based on related activities in analyzing blasts and multi-body dispense at high speeds. Key items we will be addressing are: moving blast interactions in a hypersonic environment (for both single and multiple blasts), SHAP effects on blast attenuation, and SHAP dispersion patterns. We will restrict our attention to spherical SHAPs where the key parameters are SHAP loading (overall mass of SHAPs to mass of explosive charge) and SHAP size for fixed loading (with a larger number of smaller SHAPs more closely following the blast gas-phase pathlines, but also attenuating the blast strength the most). Relevant technology stems from work being performed for MDA in dispensing blasts from interceptor missiles at exo-altitudes related to flux-based discrimination concepts.

THE SENTIENT CORP.
27757 Cricket Lane
Harvest, AL 35749
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 705-3810
Mr. Kent Key
ARMY 07-029      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Hypersonic Dispense Strategy for Adaptive Pattern Dispersion
Abstract:This effort proposed is tailored for a hypersonic class missile “UAV” to evaluate the opportunity to optimize fragment dispersion as it relates to the engagement geometry and timing uncertainty for threat classes that are intercepted within the atmosphere. Store separation, or in the proposed context, smart dispense of a lethality enhancement device, is extremely difficult to evaluate via analytical means without validating the predicted solutions with ground test. Essentially, the problem is characterized by the canister separation from the UAV, canister blast dynamics, and particle dispersion in a hypersonic flow. Pattern shaping to enhance lethality based on engagement geometry and intercept timing uncertainly is accomplished by independent ignition timing for each of the dispensed canisters.

ECLIPSE ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
2345 Anvil Street North
St. Petersburg, FL 33710
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 344-7300
Dr. Rand Dannenberg
ARMY 07-030      Awarded: 3/7/2008
Title:Wide Waveband, Large Aperture, Trichroic Beamcombiner
Abstract:Recent developments in hardware-in-the-loop systems for simulation and test of defense- critical sensors have led to requirements for optical beam combiners transmitting near infrared and Ka bands but reflecting long-wave infrared bands. Many candidate materials fall short of meeting specifications in these wavelength regions. By using innovative inhomogeneous (or rugated) index of refraction profile filter design techniques, needle- synthesis techniques, and a state-of-the-art deposition tool, it will be possible design and fabricate a trichroic beam combiner passing 1064 nm, blocking the LWIR, and passing the Ka band. This will be accomplished through achieving the Phase I technical objectives of formulating and theoretically modeling initial designs for rugate coatings to met spectral requirements, depositing beam combiner coatings on small witness pieces to develop process monitoring procedures and evaluating environmental durability (heat, humidity shift, abrasion) and iterating the design to compensate as needed.

NEI CORP.
400 E Apgar Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 868-3141
Dr. Mohit Jain
ARMY 07-031      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Boron Nanotubes for Ultra High Strength Light Weight Composites
Abstract:Boron Nanotubes (BNTs) have been predicted to have characteristics that are distinctively different than those of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), particularly with respect to physical and chemical properties. However, the development of BNTs is still in its infancy due to the lack of research performed in synthesizing BNTs. We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of synthesizing BNTs using a novel two-step process. The key innovation proposed here is to utilize a precursor structure of boron that will transform readily to BNTs. Further, an aspect of the proposed technology will allow long-term storage of BNTs by preventing any oxidation due to exposure to ambient atmosphere. In Phase I, phase pure and high purity BNTs will be synthesized and characterized for structural and chemical purity, which will result in the development of a protocol for synthesizing BNTs under optimized conditions. Additionally, the dispersabilty of BNTs, which is one of the critical parameters that determines the commercialization potential of BNTs, will be studied. Commercialization and scale-up plans will be developed during Phase I, and implemented in Phase II. A pilot scale system for the synthesis of BNTs will be delivered to the ARMY at the end of Phase II.

UNIVERSAL GLOBAL PRODUCTS, LLC
3159 Schrader Rd
Dover, NJ 07801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 314-8700
Mr. Svetoslav Zlatev
ARMY 07-031      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Boron Nanotubes for Ultra High Strength Light Weight Composites
Abstract:Universal Global Products, LLC proposes to develop a plan for a high volume, boron nanotubes synthesis prototype reactor. The significance of this proposal is that for the first time, boron nanotubes (BNTs) will be synthesized in high volume for use practical materials. Academic research data and analysis signifies that BNTs have significant strength advantage over present state-of-the-art nanomaterials. The innovation proposed is to develop a method and design a reactor prototype for producing BNTs from readily available, environmentally friendly, materials and chemicals. The approach for this prototype will utilize an amalgam of internal company know-how in nanomaterials and successful data from academia to create realistic and achievable action plan for the design of the reactor. UGP’s success will mitigate the issues with heavyweight engineering materials usage, low corrosion resistance, instability at high temperatures experienced by operational environment exposed coatings in military materiel. In later phases of this project, BNTs produced by UGP will surpass competitive technologies (aramid fibers, carbon nanotubes) as the choice for strengthening lightweight composites, with improved mechanical properties. Phase I activities will include: investigating methods for producing BNTs, developing a reactor prototype diagram, and procedural instructions for proper handling and storage, and prevention of material degradation.

IROBOT CORP.
63 South Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 418-3119
Ms. Carol Cheung
ARMY 07-032      Awarded: 11/13/2007
Title:MAGMA Mission Planner: Multi-Autonomous Ground/Multi-Air Unmanned Vehicle Collaboration
Abstract:To conduct a target engagement, a team of autonomous unmanned air and ground vehicles will have to execute tasks of target pursuit and target tracking. The iRobot, CMU, and AeroVironment team is actively developing mission planning and collaborative teaming algorithms for a UAV-UGV team. For this project, we propose to expand the current team to double the number of participating UAVs and UGVs involved in a target engagement mission. Moreover, we aim to diversify the UGV set to include different but complementary UGV platforms that enable a wider range of capabilities for pursuit and tracking from the ground. The mission planning tools will be developed on a Supervisor Operator Control Unit to support mission monitoring, situational awareness and supervisory control for the operator. We lead the industry in our expertise of small UAV and UGV platforms as well as in advanced multi-robot coordination. The team has the collective knowledge and experience to develop practical near-term mission planning solutions and advanced collaborative UAV and UGV system teams.

KUTTA CONSULTING, INC.
2075 W Pinnacle Peak Rd Ste 102
Phoenix, AZ 85027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(602) 896-1976
Mr. Douglas V. Limbaugh
ARMY 07-032      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Multi-Agent Based Small Unit Effects Planning and Collaborative Engagement with Unmanned Systems
Abstract:In this proposal, Kutta leverages its own Multi-Mission Planner and Controller Tool - Software Development Kit (MMPACT-SDK) as well as its partner’s past autonomous collaborative experiences. Kutta’s SDK allows the team to architect a controller that enables an operator to launch an offensive mission with unmanned aircraft (UA) and unmanned ground vehicles. The UAs in this proposal are unique in that they can be equipped with modular standard military issued small arms payloads (e.g. M-16s, grenades, flash-bang grenades, or subterranean radios). The user interface allows the operator the ability to launch semi-autonomous or completely autonomous missions. Unique concepts of operations that take advantage of the modular UA payloads enable offensive strafing operations, perimeter security, lead/follow modes, as well as surprise attacks, including unique subterranean capabilities. In order to accomplish this goal, Kutta uses a proven software engineering methodology to derive the set of functionality for the autonomous version of the MMPACT controller (A-MMPACT). Based upon the functionality assessment, Kutta designs the necessary software components for integration into the existing SDK and concludes the Phase I with a demonstration of a mission thread with an actual UA in the loop.

NUMERICA CORP.
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Dr. Shawn M. Herman
ARMY 07-032      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Multi-Agent Based Small Unit Effects Planning and Collaborative Engagement with Unmanned Systems
Abstract:Armed Unmanned Systems (UMSs) will be common in the Future Force Battlespace. In order to make the most efficient use of manpower, control modes with more UMS autonomy are necessary. Numerica envisions a system of multiple aerial and ground vehicles that intelligently prioritizes, tracks, and engages targets in complex environments. The collaborative control algorithm on each UMS will plan its actions based on shared knowledge of targets, platform capabilities, and situational awareness. Local UMS teams will exchange information to resolve conflicts in their plans of action. These actions will then be dynamically re-planned in response to evolving threats and changes in situational awareness. Operators will be able to preempt engagement plans to influence the behavior of the UMS team. Numerica's approach to decentralized collaboration is unique because it simultaneously addresses the limitations in communication resources and UMS onboard processing. To ensure a successful outcome of this effort, Numerica will leverage its expertise in areas such as network-centric tracking, signal processing, communication resource management, and discrete optimization. The value of Numerica's approach to decentralized collaborative engagement using autonomous UMS teams will be illustrated through a proof-of-principle simulation in Phase I and a sensor/control, hardware demonstration in the Phase I option.

MCQ, INC.
1551 Forbes St.
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-2374
Mr. James Morrison
ARMY 07-033      Awarded: 11/16/2007
Title:Miniaturized, Low-cost Processing and Software/Hardware Component Technology for Near Real-time Structure Mapping for Urban Combat Special Operations
Abstract:The proposed SBIR will develop an acoustic localization and building characterization system utilizing ad hoc networking and RF/Acoustic distance measurements and ultrasonic dimensioning. The sensor system will be low power and low cost to enable long operation times and high volume production at realistic budgets. The RF/Acoustic nodes will be designed for use and deployment by Unmanned Systems (UMS), as well as for handheld operation and quick deployment by clearing personnel. External GPS equipped nodes will anchor the building geographically. McQ has defined a design approach for a Phase I program that will research, develop, and refine the technical concepts based upon our experience with ad hoc networking, acoustic algorithms, and simulation development. McQ has over 10 years experience with the design and development of advanced unattended ground sensors (UGS) systems and associated algorithm development and simulation. During Phase I we will evaluate ad hoc networks and current RF/Acoustic heuristics to develop advanced building characterization algorithms. Algorithms will be tested and refined using simulation to assess the capabilities of the system. A design approach for SBIR Phase II will be presented to produce prototype units to integrate with the algorithms, a GUI for network visualization, and further refinement of algorithms.

TECHNEST HOLDINGS, INC.
10411 Motor City Drive Suite 650
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 767-2810
Dr. Steven Yi
ARMY 07-033      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Miniaturized, Low-cost Processing and Software/Hardware Component Technology for Near Real-time Structure Mapping for Urban Combat Special Operations
Abstract:Technest Holdings Inc. proposes in this SBIR effort to develop a near real-time multi- sensor 3D structure mapping system with added capability for object recognition. The proposed system will use low-cost and fast sensors that are seamlessly integrated with our customized hardware to provide high-resolution 3D maps of the surroundings. In doing so, the proposed 3D-Mapping system will provide a robust, practical and cost- effective solution to the challenge presented in this solicitation. This system will be designed leveraging our wide experience in designing hardware and software systems for real-time surveillance, 3D imaging, 3D modeling and 2D/3D target detection, tracking and classification. The benefits of the proposed system are reflected in its potential uses for urban combat, robotics research and surveillance applications.

ADVANCED CERAMETRICS, INC.
P.O. Box 128 245 North Main Street
Lambertville, NJ 08530
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 397-2900
Dr. Farhad Mohammadi
ARMY 07-034      Awarded: 12/4/2007
Title:Hybrid Harvesting Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:Currently, wireless sensors have been used in variety of applications such as surveillance, real-time data sharing, in-vivo medical devices, condition-based monitoring, etc. that can revolutionize industrial efficiency, health monitoring, and data processing. MEMS technology made possible autonomous wireless sensor nodes via the use of widespread, tiny sensors in large numbers. However, the sheer number of sensors requires a huge number of batteries, which can be very heavy, hard to deploy, and difficult to replace. Large geographic coverage of surveillance sensors requiring hundreds or thousands of batteries, with a limited life span and temperature tolerance, may not be practical, especially due to their maintenance and replacing the discharged batteries in hostile territories. Therefore, it is important to have a self-sufficient carefree power source that can generate electric power from its environment. Maximizing the use of wireless sensors will reduce the cost of maintenance and manpower. Using electric energy generated by environmental elements from disturbance/vibration or a temperature gradient in self-powered devices can eliminate sensor batteries in remote or inaccessible places. This proposal addresses that need via a novel approach to generate power from hybrid energy sources.

AMBIENT MICRO
Maui Research & Technology Center 590 Lipoa Parkway Suite 127
Kihei, HI 96753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(866) 561-4823
Dr. John Langley
ARMY 07-034      Awarded: 12/5/2007
Title:Harvesting Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:A key aim of the Army’s Future Combat Systems (FCS) program is the development of enhanced remote sensing capabilities that provide commanders with improved situational awareness and battlefield shaping capabilities, while reducing potential casualties and manpower costs. Future Army WSN mission applications will utilize persistent wireless sensor networks to provide commanders with continuous surveillance to detect, target, and respond to enemy activity. To achieve this goal of persistent surveillance, Army WSN applications will need access to “persistent” power supplies. Current battery technologies can not provide this capability. The Army’s challenge is to extend the benefits of wireless sensor networks while reducing or eliminating the operational lifetime limitations caused by battery depletion. Its opportunity is to develop self-sustaining WSN capabilities that eliminate the need for battery replacement. Ambient Micro has developed a Multi-Source Ambient Power Supply (MS-AMPS) technology that efficiently combines ambient solar, vibration, thermoelectric, and RF electromagnetic energy to extend the operating life of selected wireless devices indefinitely. Ambient Micro proposes to develop a multi-source energy harvesting power supply to indefinitely extend the operating life of Army wireless sensor networks. The long term goal will be to develop of a new class of battery-less wireless sensor networks, devices, and applications.

OMNITEK PARTNERS, LLC
111 West Main Street
Bay Shore, NY 11706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 665-4008
Mr. Richard Murray
ARMY 07-035      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Miniaturized Electrical Initiation Systems for Miniature Thermal Batteries
Abstract:The primary objective of this project is to study the feasibility of a class of novel low-cost programmable miniature electrically initiated inertial igniter concepts that operate without any external power for miniature thermal batteries that are suitable for gun-fired munitions, mortars and small missiles. A systematic method is developed for determining the performance of each miniature electrically initiated inertial igniter concept to all no-fire acceleration profiles, including those due to accidental drops, transportation and handling, as well as to various all-fire acceleration profiles. Issues related to the integration of the proposed novel miniature electrically initiated inertial igniters into miniature thermal battery housings of various geometries as well as high G hardening are addressed. The project involves extensive dynamics and finite element modeling of the proposed concepts, as well as their various components to determine their dynamic response to various environmental inputs and to satisfy the indicated safety and activation requirements. The proposed miniature electrically initiated inertial igniters will be manufactured using well established mass fabrication techniques and equipment, and should readily satisfy the need for the development of low-cost, safe, small and low-power miniature thermal batteries for munitions applications.

MET TECH, INC.
317 Varick Street
Jersey City, NJ 07302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 333-9937
Mr. Jacob Bindler
ARMY 07-036      Awarded: 11/28/2007
Title:Gun Hardened High-Performance Miniature Angular Acceleration Sensor
Abstract:Accurate targeting of ordnance is of vital importance for current and future battlefield requirements. A particular need exists for guidance devices applicable to gun-fired munitions. Currently available angular acceleration sensors do not fulfill the accuracy, size, weight, sensitivity, or especially the shock resistance requirements for gun-fired payloads. MET Tech, Inc. has recently developed novel angular acceleration sensors that promise to fulfill all the requirements for guidance of such munitions: high accuracy, small size and weight, low power consumption, and high sensitivity; and, because they have no proof mass or moving parts, the sensors are able to withstand extremely high forces such as those experienced during gun firing, without any degradation of operability. In this SBIR program, MET Tech proposes to develop novel high-performance miniature acceleration sensors having low drift, high dynamic range, and resistance to shock associated with gun firing, in a compact, economical package. MET Tech will demonstrate the feasibility of the new sensors through modeling and simulation, focusing on two key characteristics: ability to survive shock, and settling time after firing. Based on the model developed, we will then fabricate and test a laboratory prototype sensor. Finally, using both calculated and measured results, we will predict the expected performance of optimized sensors. Phase II will be devoted to design and fabrication of system-level angular acceleration sensors, as well as development of design drawings and drawings supporting the design, manufacture, test and evaluation of production model sensors, which will be produced in Phase III.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5237
Dr. Benjamin Bachrach
ARMY 07-037      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:Auto-tracking Steerable Laser Range Finder
Abstract:The next generation of infantry weapons will include small arms capable of delivering air busting ammunitions over considerable ranges. These weapons will be equipped with sophisticated target acquisition/fire control systems (TA/FC). In order to accomplish its purpose, the TA/FC system needs accurate range information to the target. This information will be provided by a laser range finder (LRF) integrated with the TA/FC system, and it will be up to the soldier to accurately aim the laser range finder at the enemy target of interest. To facilitate the soldier’s task of obtaining an accurate range to the target, Intelligent Automation Inc. proposes to augment the TA/FC capabilities with a miniature steerable LRF operating in conjunction with a target tracking system. By integrating the two systems together it will no longer be necessary for the soldier to aim the range finder exactly at the desired target, but only to its vicinity. The potential of the proposed effort cannot be sufficiently emphasized. Based on preliminary data, it can be substantiated that the success of the proposed project has the potential of translating into significant increases in system lethality (in the order of 50%). Improvements of such magnitude require little justification.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Min-Yi Shih
ARMY 07-037      Awarded: 11/13/2007
Title:Steerable Laser Rangefinder
Abstract:To address the Army need for a compact, rugged, actively steerable laser rangefinder system for small arms airburst applications, compensating for gun positioning jitter, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel STEerable LAser rangeFinder (STELAF) system based on a micro-modulated liquid crystal beam steerer (ICER). The ICER beam steering component will assist the soldier in accurately aiming the laser rangefinder at the target, steering the laser beam in both azimuth and elevation angle up to -/+ 4 mils with an accuracy 0.05 mil. The entire two-dimensional angle ranges are scanned at 2 Hz. The system is compact (25 mm x 25 mm x 1 cm), low-power (0.5 W), and robust, and will optomechanically fit into the FA/FC system. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of STELAF by fabricating and testing the system and preparing a road map for incorporation into a relevant weapon system. In Phase II we plan to optimize the STELAF design and component performance, and will develop a fully functional prototype integrated into an air burst-capable small arm that will lead to a new rugged and reliable steerable laser rangefinder for next-generation pointing control.

OMNITEK PARTNERS, LLC
111 West Main Street
Bay Shore, NY 11706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 665-4008
Mr. Richard Murray
ARMY 07-038      Awarded: 12/5/2007
Title:Novel High Control-Authority Impulse Based Micro-Actuation Technologies for Steering Guided Munitions
Abstract:The primary objective of this project is to study the feasibility of a number of novel high force/torque and high dynamic response actuator technology concepts that are particularly suitable for gun-fired guided and smart munitions. These novel actuator concepts will require minimal electrical power for their operation and they are lightweight and occupy small volumes. The actuator concepts are very simple and modular in design; can provide linear and partial or full rotary actuation; are capable of being integrated into the structure of the projectile, mostly as load bearing structural components; and therefore have the potential of providing a very low cost actuator solution to almost any gun-fired munitions, both subsonic and supersonic, mortars and small missiles. Due to their basic design, the present actuation devices and their related components are well protected against very high firing acceleration loads, vibration, impact loading, repeated loading and acceleration and deceleration cycles that can be experienced during transportation and loading operations. The guidance and control system of a projectile equipped with the proposed actuation devices should be capable of achieving significantly enhanced precision for both stationary and moving targets, thereby achieving significantly greater probability of hit.

N&R ENGINEERING
6659 Pearl Road Suite #400
Cleveland, OH 44130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 845-7020
Dr. John Z. Gyekenyesi
ARMY 07-039      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Probabilistic Physics-based design of Composite (and Novel) Materials & Structures for pre-defined Hi-Reliability and Life Expectancy
Abstract:Composite materials are being used in greater quantities for military combat vehicles and other hardware in an effort to improve the overall performance by making them lighter, stiffer, and have greater damage tolerance. The operating environment for military may present unique hazards such as projectiles from small arms and shrapnel. These hazards may produce holes in the composite by shearing the material, cause delamination, cracking, or a combination of each type of failure. In order to make structures safer, it is critical to accurately model and predict the damage initiation and its progression in composites that requires appropriately accounting for uncertainties associated with the composite material properties, manufacturing processes and loading conditions. N&R Engineering and GERT are proposing to establish a methodology for modeling the failure process of a composite structure while accounting for manufacturing, material, and loading uncertainties. The peridynamic theory will be used to model the failure process in a composite structure. The probabilistic analysis will be used quantify the probability of failure and sensitivity of the structural response to input variables. The methodology will include modules that determine composite properties from its constituents’ properties and geometric configuration, structural analysis, and probabilistic analysis including a sensitivity analysis.

PREDICTIONPROBE, INC.
2192 Dupont Drive, Suite 205
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 476-4491
Dr. Mohammad Khalessi
ARMY 07-039      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Probabilistic Physics-based design of Composite (and Novel) Materials & Structures for pre-defined Hi-Reliability and Life Expectancy
Abstract:Composite materials are well-known for the uncertainty in their properties arising from the inherent randomness in fiber, matrix and bonding material properties, in the manufacturing process and in environmental effects. When composite materials are used in any product, the traditional deterministic approach to design which tries to account for these uncertainties by applying arbitrary safety factors is not adequate. Instead, a probabilistic approach whereby the effects of these uncertainties are objectively analyzed must be utilized. The overall objective of this effort is to develop an innovative, physics-based approach for design of composite structures using probabilistic methods. This approach will: (a) result in practical predictive models that will accurately predict the local behavior of composite structures for various failure modes, (b) characterize the uncertainties associated with design variables and/or predictive models, (c) characterize the global behavior and performance of composite structures, and (d) implement probabilistic technology through the use of the commercial, off-the-shelf probabilistic software engine, UNIPASS. The technologies to be developed will be used to create practical commercial software for modeling and analysis of advanced composites structures during the Commercialization Phase.

PHOENIX NUCLEAR LABS LLC
8123 Forsythia St Suite 140
Middleton, WI 53562
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 826-4267
Dr. Gregory Piefer
ARMY 07-040      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:High-flux electronically generated thermal neutron source for radiographic applications
Abstract:An innovative approach to generating a high thermal neutron flux (108 n/cm2/s) at a distance of 1 m from the source via D-T nuclear fusion reactions is proposed. By making use of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) technology, which creates reactions between a re-circulating ion beam and a gas target, the limitations on lifetime of fusion sources that use solid targets can be overcome, while still possessing the advantages of being electronic. Additionally, substantial improvements in neutron moderator efficiency are proposed that can relax the requirements on total output for isotropic sources, improving efficiency and decreasing leakage radiation. Preliminary studies using the MCNPX code indicate that creative moderator designs can increase thermal neutron efficiency by over 50 times that from existing moderators. The goal of this proposal is to increase IEC neutron production rates by a factor of 4 in phase I, and a factor of 5 in phase II to reach a final rate of > 1013 n/s. Furthermore, moderator efficiency will increase by an additional factor of 4 in phase 1, and 20 in phase 2. These enhancements will allow the thermal flux on a target to be 2*106 n/cm2/s after phase I, and 1*108 n/cm2/s after phase II.

STARFIRE INDUSTRIES, LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 390-2784
Dr. Robert A. Stubbers
ARMY 07-040      Awarded: 11/26/2007
Title:High-Efficiency Long-Lifetime Neutron Generator For Radiographic Munitions and IED Inspection
Abstract:Sealed-tube FNG sources have on-off capability and relatively small size; however, lifetime of these tubes at the desired output levels is short (a few hundred hours due to target degradation at high power), and thus have prohibitive operating cost. In order to become cost and mission effective, the US Army is specifically looking for the development of an advanced generator that can improve output efficiency and lifetime in a compact configuration. Starfire Industries is proposing an innovative FNG solution to address these engineering challenges. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will address the technical and commercial feasibility of an advanced, compact, high-flux fusion neutron generator (FNG) with higher conversion efficiency (>5×) and longer lifetime (>20×) compared to the current state-of-the-art for neutron radiography (NR) systems with fast image processing capability for the inspection of munitions, unexploded ordinance and IED detections, and other non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. Preliminary modeling and experiments have shown evidence of scientific feasibility of a novel approach for neutron source and illumination system design for reduced cost-of-ownership radiographic inspection and other NDE applications.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Keehoon Kim
ARMY 07-041      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:Single-Body Direction-of-Arrival Sensor
Abstract:To address the Army need for a seismic sensing system, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Single-body Direction-of-Arrival Sensor (SDOAS) system to estimate direction of arrival (DOA) over distances less than ten meters. The SDOAS system is based on n-fold surface elastic wave measurement with a specially designed sensor platform for accurate and flexible DOA estimation even in environments with multiple polarized sources. The innovations in signal processing algorithms and a single-body sensing platform will enable the SDOAS to calculate the DOA, not bearing, of an incoming seismic surface wave and its magnitude, and to perform event (source) tracking. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the SDOAS with propagation mode identification and analysis. In Phase II POC plans to design/fabricate fully functional SDOAS hardware and software, optimized to have minimal complexity, and demonstrate the prototype in a real-world environment.

SENTECH, INC.
38 Montvale Ave
Stoneham, MA 02180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 279-9871
Dr. Gervasio Prado
ARMY 07-041      Awarded: 11/28/2007
Title:An Algorithm for Obtaining Bearing Information from a Single Triaxial Seismic Sensor
Abstract:Single-axis geophones have been used in Unattended Ground Sensor applications to detect personnel and vehicles. These devices are unable to determine the direction of arrival of the signal. However, a seismic wave is a complex process whose direction can be determined by sensing the full 3-dimensional motion of the soil. The objective of this SBIR effort is to develop and implement algorithms and code capable of determining the direction of a seismic source using a single tri-axial geophone. This capability can lead to compact tactical seismic sensors able to detect and track ground targets. We propose an algorithm based on an analysis of the polarity of the Rayleigh wave. In the scenarios of interest, with sensors placed on or near the surface and target ranges of 100 m or less the bulk of the arriving seismic energy will be in the form of a Rayleigh wave. Results obtained to date show the potential utility of this technique. They also show that the results can vary significantly from location to location. A significant contribution of this project will be a better understanding of the applicability and limitations of this technique and the development of adaptive algorithms that can produce more consistent results.

SOLID STATE SCIENTIFIC CORP.
27-2 Wright Road
Hollis, NH 03049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 598-1194
Dr. Richard J. Nelson
ARMY 07-042      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Hyperscope for Armaments
Abstract:Solid State Scientific Corporation is pleased to propose a Phase I program to design a hyperscope for armaments will simultaneously acquire, process, and display the results of a compact, lightweight, low-power spectral imager at video rates. This Phase I approach will capitalize on cutting-edge concepts recently developed in industry, including other successful SBIR efforts. The novel spectral imager will operate in the visible to short-wave infrared (VSWIR), have a narrow field of view, and use commercially-available large format staring arrays to capture 16-color spectral data cubes at high speeds. All images will be identical except for spectral band, and will be spatially and temporally coregistered with each other, making real-time algorithms based on spectral imaging a reality. The development of this sensor represents a unique opportunity in hyperspectral sensing and imaging.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. Mark S. Dombrowski
ARMY 07-042      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Visible to Short Wavelength Infrared Hyperscope for Armaments
Abstract:A program to develop an advanced, portable hyperspectral imaging sensor integrated with a scope - a ¡§HyperScope¡¨ - capable of detecting camouflaged objects is proposed. The proposed portable HyperScope builds upon Surface Optics¡¦ real-time hyperspectral imaging activities, including the Multi-band Identification and Discrimination Imaging Spectroradiometer (MIDIS) processor and the 3-D Full-Cube HyperSensor focal plane array. Simultaneously sampling 17 to 48 spectral bands from 0.4 ƒÝm to 2.5 ƒÝm over a full 2-D field of 512 x 512 pixels, the system is ideal for accurately measuring and exploiting spectral reflectance differences of tactical targets. Based upon requirements for high-speed simultaneous acquisition of all hyperspectral bands at each pixel in a full 2- D field, compactness, and low power, SOC will conduct a preliminary design of the HyperScope, which will include a compact, rugged, inexpensive 3-D imager plus the real- time hyperspectral (HS) data processor. The proposed effort represents an extension of Surface Optics¡¦ 16 years experience in hyperspectral imager design, and miniaturization of SOC¡¦s patented real-time hyperspectral image processor for real-time hyperspectral discrimination. By building on Surface Optics Corporation¡¦s experience in hyperspectral imaging system development, sensor development, and algorithm development, the proposed program will produce a new highly-portable visible to SWIR HyperScope hyperspectral imager of unsurpassed capability, ideal for detecting camouflaged objects during both day and night.

AEROTONOMY, INC.
117 Herron Street
Fort Oglethorpe, GA 30742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(706) 413-1582
Dr. James Neidhoefer
ARMY 07-043      Awarded: 12/3/2007
Title:Physically Small Confetti Antennas for High-Power Directive Applications
Abstract:The proposing team has developed an innovative antenna technology called the “Confetti” antenna that is particularly suited to this application, offering potentially revolutionary performance in antenna efficiency, bandwidth, and compactness. We propose to design and optimize a compact “Confetti” antenna for high-power, directive applications. This antenna will have a volume of only 500 cm3 and maximum linear dimension of 30 cm, and it will be tunable to operate efficiently over 2 to 30 MHz, with up to 1 kW of pulsed transmission power and 3 KHz instantaneous bandwidth. The Confetti antenna has conductors optimized in all three dimensions, making it theoretically capable of producing any desired radiation pattern. The automated design method and resulting generality of this class of antennas promise to not only accommodate a wide range of specific applications but also to provide performance that approaches optimal for each application. Thus, the innovation described in this proposal is both a class of antennas, along with the methodology and tools to design them, as well as specific designs of compact, high- power, directive HF antennas.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Ms. Francesca Scire-Scappuzzo
ARMY 07-043      Awarded: 12/5/2007
Title:Portable “no-assembly” wideband antenna for HF broadcast
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a novel small HF antenna designed to achieve optimal volume utilization, improved performance, light weight, and low manufacturing cost using a simple and elegant design solution. The size of the proposed antenna is considerably smaller (~ 5 times) than conventional HF antennas, such as whips, loops, and log-periodic antennas and has an excellent wide bandwidth. Furthermore, the proposed design does not require assembly, making this antenna a great alternative to whip antennas for military applications (where stealth and ready use become important). Its small size and low cost will be crucial also for commercial applications, where a non-obtrusive and elegant design is always appealing to the customer.

CHATTEN ASSOC., INC.
1094 New Dehaven Avenue Suite 200
West , PA 19428
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 940-6040
Mr. Kent Massey
ARMY 07-044      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Hardware Component Technology to Enable SUAV/SUGV Based Geo-location and Hand-off
Abstract:Chatten Associates proposes to develop a Geo-Indexed Gimbaled Instrument: a stabilized gimbal with a camera and laser range finder payload that is capable of precisely geo- locating anything in its view. The instrument can be easily integrated onto a variety of small unmanned ground vehicles (SUGV) or small unmanned air vehicles (SUAV) in both the current and future force. In addition to providing precise target location, the instrument is an inherently multifunctional payload that can also be used as an observer/driver camera, for identifying navigational waypoints, or as a remote sentry system. There is currently no available sensor gimbal that meets all the specifications required for this application (combination of sensors, speed, precision, low power, and light weight). We are proposing an essential hardware building block to enable target geo-location and hand-off of varying levels of autonomy using a variety of unmanned platforms, whether they are tele-operated, semi- or fully-autonomous.

DRAGONFLY PICTURES, INC.
PO Box 202 West End of Second Street
Essington, PA 19029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(917) 324-4654
Dr. Robert Rellim
ARMY 07-044      Awarded: 12/4/2007
Title:SUAV/SUGV Based Automated Geo-location and Hand-off
Abstract:As the use of robotic vehicles, both ground and air, become more prevalent in today’s military, a crucial mission capability is vehicle collaboration for automated target geo- location, designation, and response. This SBIR effort proposes to research and develop core technologies that are required for collaborative missions between ground and air vehicles. These include the ability to communicate in a common framework, using both the JAUS and STANAG 4586 messaging standards, the identification and development of advanced algorithms and techniques to fuse, correlate, and prioritize sensor data acquired from multiple vehicle sources, and the design of intuitive operator displays to provide the most relevant information to the field commander in a clear, concise and non- overwhelming way to facilitate the decision making process. Several of these core technologies will be demonstrated using both a DP-6 VTOAL unmanned helicopter and a Talon robotic ground vehicle. The team of Dragonfly Pictures and Applied Perception bring unique capabilities in the fields of advanced unmanned air and unmanned ground vehicles. The work in this area will be a significant step forward towards the goal of truly autonomous multi-vehicle mission planning and collaboration.

NANOPRECISION PRODUCTS, INC.
11500 West Olympic Blvd. Suite 400
Los Angeles, CA, CA 90064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 444-3033
Dr. David Cohen
ARMY 07-045      Awarded: 2/29/2008
Title:High-Volume Cost-Saving Nano-Precision Stamping of Metal Fuze S&A Components
Abstract:This proposal describes the initial phase of a program that will result in a nano-precision stamping manufacturing process to produce low-cost US ARMY S&A Fuze components with the minimum of development time. This technology will be used to design and develop for manufacturability the MEMS Safe and Arm Arming Slider and associated manufacturing process. nanoPrecision Products is pioneering the development of a nano- precision stamping process for metal components with a goal of ± 100 nm form tolerances by combining deterministic micro-grinding (DMG) with computerized modeling, metrology, and optimization of fundamental process materials and mechanics – no such capability exists today. The nanoPrecision Products approach includes identification of the key factors and technologies necessary for forming tooling and tooling system as well as development of an initial design of progressive dies, and validation of both die geometry and tooling system through FEA and CAE.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 471-9700
Dr. Amish Desai
ARMY 07-045      Awarded: 2/20/2008
Title:Mass Fabricating S&A with Bulk Metallic Glass: Micro-Components with Nano-scale Tolerance
Abstract:A state of the art technology suitable for facilitating the mass fabrication of metallic components used in high g gun-launched MEMS-based S&A devices is Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG). The emerging need for micro-scale S&A devices to complement the smart fuzing in modern munitions is jeopardized by high implementation cost of the metallic components able to survive the harsh gun-launch environment. The impact of cost reduction and/or cost avoidance on implementing critical munitions’ designs actually starts with the S&A device. Tanner Research proposes to design and implement a mass fabrication production process for micro-scale bulk metallic glass (BMG) components with nano- scale tolerances. This production capability, when implemented in Phase II, will be similar to other MEMS-based processes implemented by Tanner, and used to support MEMS- based S&A device fabrication.

STARA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
61 S. William Dillard Drive
Gilbert, AZ 85233
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 850-1555
Mr. Glen Bailey
ARMY 07-046      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:Precision Guided Aerial Delivery of Intelligent Ground Based Munitions and Sensors
Abstract:STARA Technologies is the leading developer of miniature guided parachutes. Over the past seven years we have fabricated guided parachute systems for the US Department of Defense, Department of Energy and other Federal Agencies to precisely deliver light weight payloads such as Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS), communications relays, medical supplies, top attack smart munitions and intelligent robots. In 2006 we developed the world’s smallest guided parachute system for the Navy’s Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS). Because we have chosen to specialize in miniature delivery systems, our Mosquito guided parachute system continuously outperforms all other guided parachute systems in the < 500 pound weight range. These results have been documented by the US Army at the Precision Airdrop Conference Technology and Demonstration (PATCAD). In its current form STARA’s Mosquito 2 miniature guided parachute system is capable of delivering multiple payloads within a 10 meter CEP using inputs from a GPS receiver and inertial navigation system.

MINNESOTA WIRE & CABLE CO.
1835 Energy Park Drive
Saint Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 659-6763
Mr. Tom Kukowski
ARMY 07-047      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) Technology to Disperse Carbon Nanotubes into Selected Polymeric Matrices
Abstract:As a conductive material for EMI shielding, carbon nanotubes hold significant promise. Carbon nanotubes are conductive, nanometer-thin fibers that can be many microns in length. They are a mechanically robust material—100 times stronger than high-strength steel and six times lighter. Carbon nanotubes can stretch beyond 20% of their resting length without damaging their structure or conductivity. Carbon nanotubes have extremely high aspect ratios (length/diameter), and thus form conductive percolation networks through materials more easily than other conductive fillers such as carbon fiber or carbon black. Because they form conductive composites at such low loading ratios, carbon nanotubes could be a key component in EMI shielding. However, current manufacturing process for carbon nanotube EMI shielding is expensive, scales poorly, and makes use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These limitations are a related to the process for dispersing the carbon nanotube in the polymers. A rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS) process for dispersing carbon nanotubes in polymers has the potential to overcome these limitations. Under this Phase I SBIR effort, Minnesota Defense, Arizona State University, and Lockheed Martin propose to demonstrate feasibility of dispersing carbon nanotube in polymer composite shielding/coating material processed via rapid expansion from supercritical fluid solution (RESS).

JOB PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS, INC.
1240 N. Pitt St,
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 799-3652
Dr. Doug Rosenthal
ARMY 07-048      Awarded: 12/28/2007
Title:Simulated Job Performance Assessment
Abstract:JPS is designing and developing a standard and affordable set of procedures for creating and validating PC-based job simulations that can be applied across a broad range of Army MOS to assess Soldier job performance. As part of the Phase I effort, JPS is building a simulation for one Army MOS. In this effort JPS is developing a 10 step process for creation of the simulations.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 931-2700
Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran
ARMY 07-048      Awarded: 12/28/2007
Title:Rapid Simulation Development Processes and Tools for Job Performance Assessment
Abstract:Job performance measurement is of critical importance to any organization’s health. It is important not only to recognize and reward good performance, but also to groom future leaders. Developing effective assessment techniques that are valid, effective and fair is an ongoing challenge. Assessing factual knowledge using multiple-choice test batteries is relatively inexpensive and tends to be commonly used. Hands-on assessment is the most effective in assessing task proficiency but is very resource intensive and expensive. Computer-based simulations provide an alternative where users can be assessed in the context of skill application under controlled conditions. However, simulations are expensive to produce and maintain. Validated guidelines and methodologies are needed to help organizations develop effective assessment simulations. Rapid simulation development tools are needed to reduce costs. This proposal addresses both these challenges. We propose to develop a standard, prescriptive methodology for developing assessment simulations. Using our existing products as a basis, we also propose to develop rapid simulation-development tools that make this solution cost-effective. This tool will enable organizations to create and administer assessment simulations and integrate the data with their employee managements systems. Phase I will result in a prototype methodology, a prototype simulation, and a validation of both these products.

361 INTERACTIVE, LLC
408 Sharts Road Suite 7
Springboro, OH 45066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 743-0361
Mr. Michael J McCloskey
ARMY 07-050      Awarded: 12/28/2007
Title:Measuring Learning and Development in Cross-Cultural Competence
Abstract:Contemporary operational environments are often characterized by ambiguous, multi- cultural contexts, where Army Soldiers must rapidly adapt without extensive prior knowledge of a region or its people. Ongoing training development efforts are addressing the need for general cultural competence, but this broad competence must be clearly defined and assessed in order to determine if our Soldiers are being adequately prepared. To support this goal, we propose to develop a stage model of general cross-cultural competence. We will leverage relevant features of existing cultural competence models, skill and expertise acquisition models across multiple domains, and the expertise of cultural trainers and Solders recognized as highly adaptable in cross-cultural settings. The model will represent a learner’s transition across stages of cultural competence from novice to expert, where the end goal is the ability to rapidly and accurately assess a new culture and determine how to achieve goals using that understanding. The model will further guide the development of scenario-based metrics and other metrics that will clearly define competence at all levels of development, and across trainable behavioral, cognitive, motivational and affective skills.

EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH, INC.
1595 Spring Hill Road Suite 250
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 893-6800
Dr. Margaret Daly Hayes
ARMY 07-050      Awarded: 1/2/2008
Title:Measuring Learning and Development in Cross-Cultural Competence
Abstract:The proposed Phase I approach will provide the Army with a culture-general model of a developmental learning approach to cross-cultural competence acquisition and measurement. The model will integrate and expand upon efforts to define cultural intelligence and will (1) recognize the metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral elements of culture learning; (2) identify and distinguish cross-culture competencies associated with both general and particular military occupational specialties and operational environments, and (3) align cross-culture competency acquisition with a learning-oriented developmental framework that reflects the best practices of adult learning assessment and is widely utilized across the US military and Joint Professional Education (JPME). The complexity of the problem requires a spiral development approach that involves identifying relevant cultural competency concepts and research, their alignment with soldier-relevant jobs and task, the identification of appropriate human performance requirements, and the integration of these to the institutional learning environment. Once we understand what cross-cultural competencies are most critical for the military in different operating environments, and how those difference competencies can be learned or acquired over time in the military training and education system, then a measurement system be developed and tested. Developing the Measurement system will be the task of Phase II research.

INVERTIX CORP.
7010 Little River Turnpike Suite 300
Annandale, VA 22003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 813-2160
Dr. Dan Law
ARMY 07-051      Awarded: 11/16/2007
Title:Short-Range Detection of Radio Transceivers for Physical Security
Abstract:The proposed approach leverages a proven RF stimulation technique to detect transceivers within a 5m range for physical security applications. The proposed tasks will evaluate operational scenarios for transceiver detection, and will determine the effectiveness of the detection and classification technique to operate effectively within FCC, human exposure, cost, and size limitations. An optional test-bed prototype lab demo is also proposed that may be easily migrated into a Phase II prototype system.

VADUM
628 Hutton St Suite 106
Raleigh, NC 27606
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 341-8241
Dr. Aaron Walker
ARMY 07-051      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Short-Range Detection of Radio Transceivers for Physical Security
Abstract:The ubiquitous nature of personal, wireless communications devices represents a daunting threat to the protection of secure facilities. The ever present push for smaller devices complicates the efforts of physical security organizations to determine if personnel entering a facility have one or more devices in their possession with a cursory physical inspection. Miniaturization of wireless devices also results in a decreasing content of metallic components and thus a decrease in the ability of metal detectors to detect them. However, while wireless devices will continue to grow in number and shrink in size, a single commonality exists among these devices, they are designed to receive and transmit RF energy. Vadum has developed an active detection technique that takes advantage of the design of wireless devices to extract a unique signature from the devices that reduces false alarms and has been shown to be effective for all types of devices investigated. Since the technique utilizes inherent properties of the electronic circuitry in the target devices, detection of devices can occur regardless of the power state (on/off) or whether the devices are actively transmitting or receiving intended signals. Vadum proposes advancing the state of a current product for detecting a class of personal communications devices to achieve the detection performance stated in the solicitation for this SBIR topic. Vadum will utilize its extensive experience with the active detection technology and target device construction and characteristics to maximize the potential for successful execution of the proposed program.

SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS ANALYTICS, INC.
3877 Fairfax Ridge Road Suite 201C
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 349-7056
Dr. Gary Citrenbaum
ARMY 07-052      Awarded: 10/26/2007
Title:An Assessment Methodology for Effects Based Operations
Abstract:In accordance with the requirements of the solicitation, we will design, prototype, and demonstrate an Effects Assessment (EA) tool which provides the capabilities to: • Visualize the links between effects, the actions planned to achieve those effects, and the resources assigned to those actions; • Decompose effects into MoEIs, i.e., the observable impacts of actions; • Roll-up, aggregate, or combine MoEIs to evaluate MoEs and assess overall effect accomplishment; • Determine if accomplishment of an effect is on track, i.e., identify trends and patterns from MoEIs and use this information to describe the likelihood of effect accomplishment; • Assess MoPs and compare actual versus planned performance; • Interface with ISR and operations reports to capture data relevant to MoP and MoE assessment; • Maintain the neutrality status of resources; • Interface with artificial intelligence and data mining tools to extract and automatically monitor data relevant to MoPs and MoEIs. Our tool will take advantage of current capabilities in the areas of data mining / knowledge discovery, visualization, and model-based estimation, and will draw heavily from our hands-on EA experience with users in the field, notably US Forces Korea, and with leading EA research organizations, e.g., DARPA and JFCOM.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Khaydarov
ARMY 07-053      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Soldier Information Technology Assistant for Flexible Displays
Abstract:To address the Army need for novel technology and electronic architectures to enable an Information Technology Assistant (ITA) that integrates a flexible display, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Soldier Information Technology Assistant (SITA) for flexible displays. The proposed device is based on low-power-consuming asynchronous LCD display drivers, microprocessor and software power management that leverages bi-stable displays, and power-saving wireless protocol. The innovation in flexible display driving electronics architecture and packaging will enable the flexible displays to be integrated with SITA, providing human interfaces such as a touch screen, keyboard, buttons, and scroll; wireless communication, and GPS features. The SITA package has all the advantages of flexible electronics, and is a power-saving, easy-to- use, small form-factor electronic assembly, on flexible carrier which, along with the flexible displays worn by soldiers, will be a personal communication and soldier location- positioning device. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of SITA by design, simulation, and fabrication of a breadboard prototype. In Phase II POC plans to further develop the SITA technology, and demonstrate its capabilities.

QUINTESSENCE PHOTONICS CORP.
15632 Roxford St.
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-4664
Dr. Jeff Ungar
ARMY 07-054      Awarded: 11/28/2007
Title:Highly Scalable Spectrally-Narrowed Surface-Emitting Arrays for Eye-Safe Lasers
Abstract:High-power solid state lasers using different active media have emerged as critical components in a variety of military systems. These lasers are efficiently and reliably pumped by diode laser arrays, but the poor and uneconomical scalability of output power and high manufacturing cost of linear, edge emitting diode arrays pose a serious impediment to wide application, particularly where very high total powers are required. There is little prospect that conventional approaches to laser design can result in cost reduction of the required magnitude. We propose to develop diode arrays using two technology elements that are complementary and compatible with each other to achieve the required performance and manufacturing scalability objectives. The first technology element or these arrays are massively parallel surface emitting diodes using monolithic beam deflectors to permit wafer-scale diode fabrication and integration with wafer-scale optics and coolers, which enables manufacturing process scalability for high-power applications and greatly reduces diode fabrication and packaging cost. The second technology element is diode lasers with gratings designed to generate lower lateral beam divergence, therefore higher optical brightness per emitter than conventional designs.. These features will allow very efficient optical coupling into the end-facets of eye-safe solid-state lasers.

PHOENIX INNOVATION, INC.
20 Patterson Brook Road PO Box 550
Wareham, MA 02576
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 291-4375
Dr. Brian G. Dixon
ARMY 07-055      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Combining Advanced Electrolytes & Electrodes in High Voltage, High Capacity Lithium Batteries
Abstract:A high voltage stability electrolyte (Phoenix Innovation) is combined with high voltage stability electrodes (A123Systems) to produce the next generation of high rate, high capacity lithium batteries. In addition to exceptional electrochemical performance, the novel electrolyte, which contains no carbonates, is nonflammable and inherently stable to thermal runaway. As such, these new batteries will be much safer than state of the art lithium systems.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Thomas Barbarich
ARMY 07-055      Awarded: 11/13/2007
Title:Rapid Recharge, High Voltage Li-Ion Battery Chemistry
Abstract:One of the problems with Li-ion technology is its somewhat limited ability to charge at high rates. At high charge rates lithium plating on the negative electrode can occur, which will hurt cycle life and could present safety risks. There is a need within the Army, Navy, other military services, NASA, and the commercial sector to improve the charge rate capability of Li-ion systems. The proposed effort will use an anode that is capable of intercalating lithium at high rates without plating lithium. In order to compensate for the lower energy of this anode, a high voltage cathode and an accompanying electrolyte will also be developed.

DAYLIGHT SOLUTIONS
13029 Danielson Street Suite 130
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 391-1010
Dr. Timothy Day
ARMY 07-056      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Widely-Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Technology for Spectroscopic Sensing and Optical Communication Applications
Abstract:Wavelength agile sources in the Mid Wave and Long Wave Infrared (MWIR / LWIR) will be extremely useful for spectroscopy and free space communications applications. The combination of high speed packaging technology with broadly tuned, external cavity, quantum cascade laser technology will lead to sources that can provide for high data rate communications as well as molecular detection in the 3-12µm regime. In this proposal, we present a plan that will demonstrate the feasibility of accomplishing this goal through the development of a MEMS-based wavelength tuning mechanism, robust packaging and 3-12µm external cavity technology. A demonstration of wavelength agile tuning through the use of Silicon MEMS gratings in an external cavity using quantum cascade gain media will be performed. This wavelength agile source will be packaged in a robust, high speed telecommunications package and will demonstrate modulation switching speeds of faster than 10ns together with broad tuning across a wide spectral region in the 9-10µm regime. The demonstrated combination of these two efforts will provide the technical basis for a successful Phase II program associated with the development and commercialization of wavelength agile sources in the 3-12µm regime for spectroscopy and free space communications.

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, INC.
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 213-8585
Dr. Hui-Ling Lu
ARMY 07-057      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Generic Automatic Recognition System for Handwritten Arabic Script Documents
Abstract:This proposal addresses the feasibility of developing a generic system framework for automatically recognizing handwritten text for non-Arabic languages using Arabic-style script such as Urdu or Pashto. Despite recent progress in automatic handwritten Arabic recognition, little attention has been paid to non-Arabic languages using Arabic-style scripts. Nonetheless, automatic recognition of non-Arabic languages using Arabic-style scripts such as Urdu and Pashto has great potential in both military and commercial applications. Hence, the goal of this proposal is to develop a generic system framework for automatically recognizing handwritten text for non-Arabic languages using Arabic- style script. In particular, we focus on extending the optical Arabic text recognition capability to the Urdu language in which computing standards are established. The generic Arabic-style script recognition system will be based on the Hidden Markov Model approach that is suitable for cursive and context-sensitive Urdu scripts. Various feature- extraction algorithms will be implemented based on the proposed generic handwritten Arabic-style script recognition framework. We shall evaluate the basic performance of the developed system using a handwritten Urdu database collected during Phase I.

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 529-0505
Dr. John A. Kosek
ARMY 07-058      Awarded: 11/16/2007
Title:A Solid Anion Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Use
Abstract:The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell is a potentially attractive power source for battery replacement applications. Thus, it could be used as a portable power source for soldier applications. One drawback to Direct Methanol Fuel Cells based on a Proton Exchange Membrane is methanol crossover, a parasitic loss of fuel. There are two main sources of crossover: (1) diffusion of methanol through the presently used membrane electrolyte and (2) proton drag, which carries both water and methanol from the anode to the cathode. To minimize crossover, Giner, Inc. proposes development of an advanced anion exchange membrane. The membrane will be designed to be stable in the hydroxide ion form, and will not contain any beta-hydrogens. Specific program objectives include (1) fabrication of the advanced anion membranes, (2) modification of the membrane surface for more efficient catalyst bonding, and (3) to characterize the anion membrane. In an anion membrane, because ions move from the cathode to the anode, we expect there will be a reduced amount of methanol on the cathode.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Sandra Withers-Kirby
ARMY 07-058      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:High-Performance Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Bipolar Membrane Structure
Abstract:Power demands of objective force warriors are rapidly growing, increasing the need for small, light, energy-dense power supplies. The burden of batteries an individual soldier transports must be reduced. High energy density fuel cell systems offer a promising alternative to batteries with methanol being the most portable, convenient fuel. Conventional direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC’s) based on proton exchange membranes suffer from fuel stripping and crossover combustion losses. Most use dilute fuel, significantly reducing the system energy density. Direct methanol hydroxyl exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMDMFC) suffer from carbonate build up in the electrolyte at the catalyst interface, causing quick deterioration of performance. However, the HEMDMFC cathode allows the use of non-platinum oxygen reduction catalysts that are not active to methanol oxidation. The acid anode of the conventional PEMDMFC provides the benefit of discharging the oxidized carbon as gaseous carbon dioxide. Lynntech will develop a small, rugged system that maximizes utilization of the energy available in concentrated methanol through the use of a bipolar or double-bipolar membrane structure, taking advantage of both PEM and HEM fuel cell technologies. A single, low-power DC fan (the only peripheral for the system) will move air across the cathode, minimizing parasitic losses.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 245-9970
Dr. Boris P. Venet
ARMY 07-059      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Passive Optical Detection of Acoustic Signatures
Abstract:We propose to investigate a concept for remote passive optical measurement of acoustic target signatures. Potential goals of the measurement are detection, activity assessment, or identification. The measurement concept produces an area image of the vibrational content of the target scene. We will produce a thorough radiometric signal/noise performance model, and an instrument design.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Drew L'Esperance
ARMY 07-060      Awarded: 10/23/2007
Title:A Stereoscopic Scanner System for Behind Armor Debris
Abstract:In response to an Army need for a data collection tool that can measure the velocities of Behind Armor Debris (BAD) fragments in controlled experiments, we propose to develop a stereoscopic scanner system that employs digital streak cameras. Unlike conventional high-speed cameras, which produce two-dimensional photographs at moments in time, a streak camera produces a photograph with one dimension being time. A unique property of streak photography that makes it ideal for this application is that objects in the debris field are naturally sorted by velocity. Two scanner configurations will be analyzed: one where two digital streak cameras are mounted in orthogonal positions and another where one digital streak camera is used to record the shadows cast by two intersecting laser sheets. To determine the feasibility of the proposed approach, we will compute the temporal and spatial resolution needs of the BAD experiment and the lighting requirements and show how these can be met optimally with available digital streak cameras. The end- result of the Phase I research will be a preliminary design for a complete system that we will build in Phase II.

INTEGRATED SENSOR SOLUTIONS
4104 Michael Neill
Austin, TX 78730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 633-3476
Dr. Kenneth Fernald
ARMY 07-061      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Nano-Device Memory Platform (NDMP)
Abstract:The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility and the initial design specifications for integrating nano-device switching elements with the available silicon crossbar array technology. Here, the minimum goal is memory arrays that are scaleable to 1010 bits/cm2 for pseudo non-volatile memory based on the silicon-molecule hybrid systems. Preliminary fabrication and testing will demonstrate read-write-erase function over 1000 cycles with 60 minutes of non-volatility

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Richard O. Claus
ARMY 07-061      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Self-Assembly Production of Hybrid CMOS/Nanodevice Interconnects
Abstract:The objective of the proposed SBIR program is to develop wet chemistry nanopatterning techniques compatible with conventional IC gate array processing materials and methods, and capable of fabricating conducting nanorod geometries to address individual elements in dense arrays. NanoSonic and the deep UV photolithography laboratory at Virginia Tech would cooperate on this program. NanoSonic would use its molecular-level self- assembly process with Virginia Tech’s holographic interference-based DUV lithography designs to produce multilayered interconnected nanowire/nanofin structures on silicon substrates. Prior cooperative work has demonstrated the feasibility of forming electrically conductive pin/post arrays in 2D square and hex geometries with 50nm periodicity, and single layer nanowire/nanofin arrays of similar conducting materials with comparable sub- 100nm periods. During Phase I, we would demonstrate that wet chemistry self-assembly and stand-off interference lithography may be used to form skewed crossed-nanorod interconnect arrays to address individual nano-sized MOSFET gate elements in large 2D formats. Such interconnects are key enablers for molecular topologies for next- generation, ultra-high density CMOS logic and memories. NanoSonic would work closely with a major defense contractor and specialized IC manufacturer during Phase I to evaluate manufactured prototypes, and would work with that company to transition developed technology to their production facility during Phase II.

CHEMIMAGE BIOTHREAT LLC
7301 Penn Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15208
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 241-7335
Dr. Robert Schweitzer
ARMY 07-062      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Real-Time Chemometrics and Sensor Fusion (RT-CSF) Technology
Abstract:We will exploit chemometric and advanced multivariate statistical analysis-based spectral signature signal processing techniques to perform autonomous explosives and chem-bio detection in real-time to increase the probability of detection and lower the rate of false positives. Our system will use multivariate statistical analysis (i.e. chemometrics) algorithms to perform autonomous detection. The decision-making engine will employ a Bayesian data fusion algorithm that combines individual sensor spectral signatures captured using Raman and LIBS techniques to achieve overall probability of detection and probability of false alarm performance that exceeds the performance of the individual sensing strategies operated in the stand-alone mode.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Edward A. Rietman
ARMY 07-062      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Sensor Fusion of LIBS and Raman Spectra for Remote Detection of Explosives
Abstract:Physical Sciences Inc. proposes a novel technique to subtract background spectra from the spectra of interest and to then combine the LIBS and Raman spectra for remote explosive detection. Our approach uses support vector machines with transductive inference for training. Based on our experience we anticipate a 95% correct identification of explosive vs. non-explosive material. Further, our calculations indicate we can easily perform the required sensor fusion in near real-time ( < 2 seconds) on a conventional computer workstation and in new proposed hardware we will be able to get this processing under 0.1 seconds.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. James C. Withers
ARMY 07-063      Awarded: 10/19/2007
Title:A High Production Rate Process to Fabricate Low Cost High Strength MMCs In Net Shape
Abstract:Military systems are traditionally produced in steel because of its excellent mechanical properties and low cost, but suffers due to its high weight and poor corrosion resistance. At ½ or less the weight of steel enables weapon systems with greater lethality, survivalability, transportability, and maneuverability and in a corrosion resistant material lowers ownership cost. Titanium metal matrix components (MMCs) can produce properties with a stiffness/modulus greater than 150GPa, strength greater than 1250MPa at a density less than ½ steel, and provide excellent corrosion resistance. Titanium MMCs can be produced for less than $10/lb. utilizing low cost primary Ti soon to be in production and direct net shape forming utilizing new but demonstrated processing. Ti MMC processing will be optimized with modeling support and due to the advanced demonstrated processing during Phase I, tubes and plates will be produced and delivered and plates will be independently ballistically characterized.

METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, LLC (DBA MMCC, LLC)
101 Clematis Avenue, Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 893-4449
Dr. James A. Cornie
ARMY 07-063      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Pressure Infiltration Casting, Lamination Theory Prediction and Mechanical Property Evaluation of High Performance Continuously Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites
Abstract:Pressure infiltration casting technology will used to develop low density continuous fiber reinforced structural metal matrix composites in the form of tubes and plates. Three different reinforcement systems will be investigated with the idea of producing a spectrum of choices for a wide range of structural applications. Nextel 610 alumina fiber will be used to reinforce Al alloy 2024, a 125 msi pitch derived graphite fiber will be used to reinforce a high purity version of Al 413 and that same alloy will be reinforced with high strength PAN derived T650/42 carbon fiber. Filament winding technology will be used to produce the various candidate preform architectures required for evaluation. Lamination theory will be used to predict properties with three composite systems. Mechanical properties will be measured to verify and modify the input data into the lamination theory software to improve its ability to predict actual properties. In addition to a preliminary design database, the technology will be demonstrated on the production of mechanical evaluation plates and demonstration 30 and 60 mm diameter by 300 mm long tubes with a quasi-isotropic architecture.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Ms. Karin Karg
ARMY 07-063      Awarded: 10/31/2007
Title:Lightweight, High Performance Boron Magnesium Composites(1001-126)
Abstract:Boron fiber reinforced magnesium (B-Mg) metal matrix composites (MMC) exhibit excellent weight specific properties outperforming all composite and metallic materials. In addition, these B-Mg materials offer a broad range of forming approaches that are not feasible with most MMC processing. In this SBIR program, Triton Systems, Inc. (Triton) will demonstrate B-Mg composites can exceed the aggressive performance requirements of modulus (22 msi) and tensile strength (180 ksi) at a density less than 0.14lb/in3 and be manufactured using economical and scalable processing. In the Phase I, Triton will fabricate and test B-Mg composites using low pressure casting to verify baseline Army defined mechanical properties. In addition, Triton will model and develop affordable processing approaches to form both large and complex configurations.

PITTSBURGH MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1801 Route 51 Building 10
Jefferson Hills, PA 15025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 382-7150
Mr. Timothy M. Delahanty
ARMY 07-064      Awarded: 10/24/2007
Title:Ultra-High Strength and High-hardness Nano-Aluminum Composites
Abstract:Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. and the University of California at Davis have the experience to verify the properties of the Aluminum composites identified in the SBIR. The team is well qualified to establish the repeatability required for cost effective production. PMTI has assisted in the technology development pioneered by UCD. PMTI sees its long term role as a supplier of the cryomilled powder needed for production of the Al composite formulated for armor applications. Both organizations have the background to drive the technology to commercial production. The experience of the Team is such that many of the technical and production issues have already been visited. This proposed process will help determine the correct production elements, and provide assurance that the chosen elements are effective in delivering the required properties. The Team proposes to produce a series of 8" square plates to demonstrate the repeatability of the trimodal matetrial. The team also proposes to produce an alternate alloy in the Option Phase. This alloy is a less expensive and slightly lighter Al-Mg alloy.

GENERAL SCIENCES, INC.
205 Schoolhouse Road
Souderton, PA 18964
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 723-8588
Dr. Peter D. Zavitsanos
ARMY 07-065      Awarded: 11/14/2007
Title:Warhead Adaptive Materials (WAM) for Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT)
Abstract:The U.S. Army, as well as other national military services, requires new and innovative energetic materials to produce next generation munitions. There exists a need for adaptable warheads that provide user-selectable energy output, as well as selectable modes of operation, such as fragmentation, penetration and blast. General Sciences, Inc. (GSI) will demonstrate the feasibility of applying energetic materials and innovative configurations of those materials to provide the US Army with Warhead Adaptive Materials (WAM) capabilities, specifically materials that are non-detonable that are tailorable to release intense heat and controllable pressure output. GSI will provide the Army with energetic materials information, configuration designs and lethality assessments to support the Warhead Adaptive Material program.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Michael D. Gilbert
ARMY 07-066      Awarded: 10/23/2007
Title:Manufacturing Process for Application of Selectively Permeable Coatings to Textiles
Abstract:Novel procedures will be developed for fabrication of sulfonated poly(styrene-b- isobutylene-b-styrene) block copolymer coated fabrics. These ionomeric coatings provide barrier protection against a wide range of solvents and organic chemicals including chemical warfare agents (CWA), while allowing a high level of water permeability. Used in the construction of CWA protective garments, this property will greatly alleviate heat stress that typically plague clothing of this type. Coating procedures will be developed in Phase I that permit high volume manufacture of coated fabric while preserving the micro-structuring and double percolation of ionic domains that are essential to the permselectivity of these materials. Methods will also be develop for cost effective, environmentally conscious sulfonation of the polymer and for an improved neutralization/cation exchange process that will provide more mechanically robust and durable coatings.

THIXOMAT, INC.
620 Technology Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 995-5550
Dr. Raymond F. Decker
ARMY 07-067      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Processing of Bulk Nano-Magnesium Alloy and Composites
Abstract:This SBIR Phase I project is aimed to attain 250 MPa yield strength, light weight of 11 lb/ft2, excellent formability, good corrosion resistance and low cost in Mg alloy and composite armor. This will be accomplished by a new Thixomolding Thermomechanical Processing (TTMP) regimen that produces a Mg alloy matrix of micron grains, reinforced by nanometer dispersoid phases - that can be further reinforced by ceramic discs and mesh. The novel TTMP can be accomplished on a combination of existing commercial equipment. This project will optimize mechanical processing variables and geometry of arrays of ceramic discs of Al2O3(optionally B4C)and ceramic or steel mesh in order to demonstrate the alloy design concept and to verify feasibility and repeatability of producing the product in dimensions greater than 2" x 2" x 2".

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Ulrike Becker
ARMY 07-068      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Thin Film Coatings for Antimicrobial Textiles
Abstract:Current clothing worn by soldiers offers little to no protection from biological agents, as biological agents may remain active on the textile surface or even pass through the textile. Luna Innovations is developing textiles capable of rendering lethal biological agents harmless on contact. This self-decontamination is achieved by covalently attaching highly effective biocides to the textile surface. Biological agents are immediately exposed to the biocide on contact with the textile rendering the biological agent inert. Covalent attachment permanently affixes the biocide to the textile allowing long-term protection even on repeated laundering. Luna’s proven expertise in polymer synthesis, surface modification and biocide synthesis will advance biocidal textiles from initial Phase I demonstrations through full technical development and eventual commercialization.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Lenka Stepan
ARMY 07-068      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Antimicrobial Polymer Deposition Process for Enhanced Textile Adhesion
Abstract:To address the Army need for a gas-phase process to deposit thin, durable, non-leaching antimicrobial polymers with long-term efficacy without deteriorating textile properties, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Antimicrobial Polymer Deposition Process to Enhance Textile Adhesion (AMPDETA). This proposed process is based on a pretreatment to enhance textile surface properties to augment deposition and adhesion of a cationic polymer during initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). The pretreatment and iCVD processes are low-temperature, solventless techniques that are compatible with heat sensitive and dyed textiles. Regulating the parameters of the iCVD process allows nanometer control of the thickness and a uniform, conformal deposition of a polymer on textile surfaces. This innovative two-step process will deposit durable polymer films with long-term antimicrobial activity onto textiles surfaces without affecting textile properties, such as porosity, mechanical strength, dyeability, and durability. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the AMPDETA process on cotton by characterizing the textile properties and assessing the antimicrobial activity after several laundering cycles. In Phase II POC plans to extend the AMPDETA process to different textiles and determine its scalability for batch fabrication.

CHROMOLOGIC LLC
2275 E. Foothill Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 419-6846
Dr. Naresh Menon
ARMY 07-069      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:DNA-based barcoding for identification of Army materiel
Abstract:In order to address its urgent need to track and identify critical material, the Army is in need of a DNA based barcoding system that would enable unforgible, unambiguous and easily readable system for labeling and tracking military material. To meet this need, ChromoLogic proposes to develop a new reagent-free DNA barcode and reader (RDB) system. This proposed system is based on rapidly identifying (under 10 seconds) the sequence of a DNA barcode by means of dielectrophoretic mass sorting that requires no contact with the DNA material or the use of any reagents. The low-cost (<$2/tag) RDB system is based on extensive expertise of the PI in dielectrophoresis based biological analysis and a thorough understanding in DNA manipulation and instrumentation expertise of ChromoLogic and its partners. In Phase I, ChromoLogic will demonstrate the feasibility of the RDB system by building a set of tags and a prototype reader. The inexpensive, reagent-free, unforgible, unambiguous and easily readable format of RDB will be demonstrated to the Army by the end of Phase I. In Phase II, ChromoLogic will develop a complete prototype system with a custom graphical user interface designed for rapidly transitioning the system to the Army.

OPTTEK SYSTEMS, INC.
1919 Seventh Street
Boulder, CO 80302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 447-3255
Dr. Fred Glover
ARMY 07-070      Awarded: 11/16/2007
Title:OptAgent: A Generalized Framework for the Optimization and Analysis of Agent-based Models
Abstract:This project seeks to create OptAgent, an integrated software environment built on the existing foundation of OptQuest®, a metaheuristic-based optimization engine, to provide a generalized framework for the analysis and optimization of agent-based models by combining optimization algorithms, agent-based simulation, and distributed processing. The proposed research will develop additions and extensions of the core OptQuest engine to provide a tool tailored specifically to work with agent-based models. The OptAgent software will function in three stages. In the first stage a diverse set of solutions will be created and a Markov blanket-based feature selection methodology will identify the most influential variables. In the second stage the agent-based model optimization search process will be performed. This process will be enhanced by classification and discrimination rules developed from the initial solution set using satisfiability data mining. In the final stage the best combination of agent and environment parameters will be presented along with statistics providing insights into the behavior of the model across the myriad possible combinations of inputs. During Phase I the proposed research areas will be investigated and the most promising paths to implementation identified. Proof of concept software will be developed demonstrating the feasibility of the OptAgent application.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance, CA 90502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 756-0520
Dr. Nahum Gat
ARMY 07-071      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Fused Color Night Vision Imagery Using Invariant Spectral / Texture Identification within a Bayesian Network.
Abstract:The proposal addresses the need for better multi-camera fusion through the development of novel material identification and image processing routines. An innovative spectral/texture algorithm adapted specifically for night vision imagery will be used to segment the scene. Different portions of the scene are then identified using a Bayesian Network that utilizes ancillary knowledge to "intelligently" manage an invariant database. Finally, color and lightness values are assigned to maximize scene understanding and object identification. The algorithmic framework is versatile for handling different combinations of sensors operating in different spectral ranges, and it is modular so that it can utilize additional algorithms where appropriate. The overall approach builds on previous OKSI work in true-color night vision, multispectral image processing, infrared scene rendering, and multi-camera fusion. It moves beyond the current state of the art by using innovative algorithms that enable efficient and invariant scene rendering with true- color displays. Under Phase-I, OKSI will develop all aspects of the project and demonstrate the algorithms on both real and simulated night vision imagery. Under Phase- II the database will be expanded and the algorithms will be optimized for performance and speed, and a fully functional prototype fusion system operating in real-time will be developed.

SPECTRAL SCIENCES, INC.
4 Fourth Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 273-4770
Dr. Xuemin Jin
ARMY 07-071      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:A Physics-based Fusion Approach for Color Night Vision
Abstract:Night vision enhancement systems, such as night vision goggles and in-vehicle displays, have been used extensively in the military since the 1960’s. Most common night vision systems use single-band sensors that are sensitive to either emitted infrared (IR) radiation or reflected light, and thus provide a monochromatic image (intensities of grey or green) of the inspected scene. As such, depth perception is limited and visual acuity and focal range are restricted. Adding color can increase depth, contrast and perception of night vision compared with monochromatic images, improving soldiers' reaction time and reducing fatigue. We propose a novel physics-based approach to fusing images in multiple IR wavelength bands that should provide reliable and consistent color assignment and generate color images close to natural appearance for color night vision. The approach, which features image restoration, material identification, and color mapping, will utilize a visual color knowledge base generated from experimental multispectral and hyperspectral data and first-principles radiation transport simulations. The results from Phase I will be used to define real-time algorithms for color night vision applications in Phase II.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4764
Dr. Pengcheng Lv
ARMY 07-072      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:A compact, low cost, wearable naphthalene dosimeter using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs)
Abstract:In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) and the Applied Physics Laboratory at John Hopkins University (JHU/APL) detail the development of a small, rugged, low cost and wearable dosimeter that measures individual’s exposure to naphthalene. The key innovations of the proposed dosimeter include: a) the use of a miniature, low- cost and commercially available mass- sensitive transducer to ensure the high sensitivity of the dosimeter; and b) the use of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) receptor coatings to greatly enhance the sensor selectivity, and c) the design of a compact, low- cost, low power consumption circuit for data acquisition and analysis. Consequently, the proposed sensor has the following merits: a) small, wearable and low cost, b) high sensitivity and selectivity, c) long lasting serviceability, d) automatic data acquisition and interpretation, and e) reusable.

Photon Systems
1512 Industrial Park St.
Covina, CA 91722
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 967-6431
William F Hug
ARMY 07-072      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Miniature real-time and accumulated deep UV dosimeter for naphthalene exposure
Abstract:Naphthalene has been identified as a serious health hazard for personnel working with JP8 and other fuels containing naphthalene. We proposed to develop a method for real time and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene. The proposed method would employ a cell-phone-size naphthalene dosimeter (NaDos) “badge” to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to naphthalene. The badge would provide both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene as well as accumulation of the dose on an absorption bed which can be further analyzed for total accumulated dose when personnel return to their base at the end of a shift and insert the NaDos badge into a reader which would recover the accumulated dose as well as provide total dose measured using orthogonal methods. The NaDos “badge” would also be “refreshed” at the end of each work period. During the “refreshment” process, data accumulated by the badge in the field would be compared with data obtained during automated reprocessing of the badge to release naphthalene and other vapors accumulated in the absorption bed within the badge. This dosimeter employs subminiature optical detection methods with imbedded chemometric software to identify naphthalene and differentiate it from other vapor materials.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 797-0613
Mr. Mark Cammarere
ARMY 07-073      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Logistical Decision Support and Planning in a Counterinsurgency Environment
Abstract:Future U.S. conflicts increasingly involve operations against insurgents in asymmetric environments. Ongoing operations have demonstrated that insurgents can effectively disrupt the Army’s ability to establish and maintain the logistical lines of communication (LOCs). Insurgent success is based on rapidly changing, low technology tactics that are difficult to counter. Consequently, there are few secure “rear areas” suitable for conventional logistic operations. Simultaneously, the DoD transformation embraces a decreased in-theater logistic footprint to effectively support quicker and more agile combat forces. As a result, sparse logistics assets are at greater risk – increasing force protection requirements. Given the leaner nature of the Army’s future force, increased logistic force protection must be achieved with little direct support from in-theater combat units. When planning logistic operations, there is a need to account, not only for local terrain and friendly doctrine/forces, but predicted enemy activity. TSC proposes an innovative solution to plan logistics operations that mitigate potential insurgent attacks before they occur. In Phase I, TSC will leverage an existing logistic decision aid and data discovery engine developed on previous efforts for the Army to demonstrate feasibility. In Phase II, TSC will develop an end-to-end prototype tool to extract related information, assess risk of insurgent attack, and incorporate risk metrics into logistics planning.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5268
Dr. Priya Ranjan
ARMY 07-074      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:A Swarm Intelligence Based Approach to Secure, Scalable and Robust Design for Tactical Networks
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) and Prof. Richard J. La from University of Maryland propose an innovative swarm intelligence (SI) based approach to secure, scalable and robust design of tactical networks. Basic idea is to demonstrate the effectiveness of ant- based multi-path routing for robust and secure network performance and hence enhanced confidence in networked system operation. In our proposed framework, cooperative behavior of ants will be leveraged to keep the network functioning even during nodes getting destroyed, disabled, compromised, or captured by the enemy. Basic motivation comes from biology that a system should have built-in redundancy for optimal performance. Following this architecture we shall demonstrate a SI based network paradigm at work which facilitates the integrated design and robust operation of a complex network under unpredictable environment along with built in simulation and operational capabilities.

SCALABLE NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6701 Center Drive West #520
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 338-3318
Dr. Ken Tang
ARMY 07-074      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Bio-Inspired Approaches to Secure Scalable Networking
Abstract:Tactical wireless communication networks, including both mobile ad hoc networks as well as sensor networks, are intrinsically dynamic, unreliable, and large scale. Therefore, capabilities such as self-configuration, resilience, and rapid recovery from disruptions to the network structure (such as failed nodes and jammed links) are critical to their successful operations, which pose difficult design challenges. However, design approaches which assume that the system is composed of reliable components, and/or that the system is of relatively small scale are not applicable in such environments. In addition, design approaches that are based on central and/or explicit control over the system as a whole either introduce a single point of failure or make the system not adaptable; such approaches are not applicable in such environments either. It is therefore critical to explore new design paradigms and approaches that do not suffer from these defects. In this proposal, we adapt the biological metaphor of Swarm Intelligence to design an adaptive networking architecture and a set of energy-efficient, robust, and scalable networking protocols for tactical wireless communication networks. We will also analyze the behavior and the performance of the proposed protocols through simulation and mathematically modeling.

D-STAR ENGINEERING CORP.
4 Armstrong Road
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 925-7630
Mr. S. Paul Dev
ARMY 07-075      Awarded: 11/14/2007
Title:Optimumization of Miniature Heavy Fuel Engine
Abstract:The project aims to develop a strategy for an Optimum Miniature Heavy Fuel Engine, using scaled versions of a heavy fuel atomization system and combustion management systems previously developed by D-STAR, and by optimizing the engine design parameters to yield a successful OM-HFE. For the Phase 1, the project tasks include : identification of relevant engine processes and parameters; modeling of engine processes and performance; variational performance analysis and optimization, prediction of engine performance; preliminary design and layout of the engine; reporting and planning. tasks for a phase 1 option include : experimental validation of critical technologies; and iteration of the system design. The above process will lead to an optimum heavy-fuel / multi-fuel engine of less than 5 hp.

IRON BAY MODEL CO.
3301 Chapline Street
Wheeling, WV 26003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 554-8879
Mr. John Craig
ARMY 07-075      Awarded: 11/8/2007
Title:Very Small, Heavy-Fuel Engine (VSHF) Concepts
Abstract:In recent years there has been substantial investigation into heavy-fuel (diesel or JP-8) engine technologies with the goal of producing small engines (in the 5 horsepower range) for a number of useful applications within both military and commercial areas ranging from unmanned vehicles to power generation. However, practical solutions that resulted in working viable power-plants with the performance and reliability necessary for real- world everyday use were not achieved. A recently patented (#6,899,061, May 31, 2005 and #6,994,057, Feb. 7, 2006) innovative compression ignition engine has been proven in 2006 to operate as anticipated at West Virginia University. It used a modified single cylinder, four-stroke, CFR (Cooperative Research Engine). Its design combines the high pressure compression ignition of the diesel engine with the rapid and timed combustion in the spark ignition engine to maximize combustion compression. These tests provide the technology basis for miniaturization into a useful small engine that can be commercially produced and utilized for everyday applications. This new internal combustion reciprocating engine is reliable and allows burning lean mixtures of heavy fuel for efficient operation. The technology appears to be scalable in size to power small unmanned vehicles and for portable power generators. A small version of this engine is proposed to determine if it is feasible and to demonstrate the technology, along with an analysis of its performance to evaluate its capabilities.

JM HARWOOD, LLC
4045 French Oak Ct.
St. Charles, MO 63304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(636) 459-5848
Mr. Michael Harwood
ARMY 07-075      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Very Small Injection Technology (V-SInTech) Demo
Abstract:JM Harwood, LLC proposes the demonstration of a very small, light weight, auto-ignition diesel using JM Harwood’s proprietary Very Small Injection Technology (V-SInTech) direct fuel injection system. The V-SInTech direct fuel injection system eliminates the need for a heavy, high pressure fuel pump and injector. It provides a compact solution for producing fine atomization and the timely, accurate injection necessary for efficient diesel engine operation. JM Harwood proposes the modification of an O.S. Engines FS-120 4- stroke engine into a 14:1 compression ratio, auto-ignition diesel for purposes of demonstration. The Phase I effort will conduct the detailed design and analysis of the V- SInTech integration into the modified engine, in addition to the detailed design and analysis of the engine modification. The fabrication of the V-SInTech injector will begin during the Phase I Option for an initial functional and performance test during the first part of Phase II. This will enable a Phase II demonstration of Very Small Heavy Fuel (VSHF) engine.

TORION TECHNOLOGIES
2400 North 180 West
Pleasant Grove, UT 84602
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 830-6083
Dr. Douglas W. Later
ARMY 07-077      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Hand-portable GC-TMS Instrumentation for Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Airborne Biological Threats
Abstract:Rapid detection and identification of biological threats in air during field operations and in gaseus flow streams from swatch permeation test fixtures are critical to protect the warfighter, first responders and civilians from exposure to infectious biological agents. The focus of this proposal is to develop these capabilities based on a proprietary hand- portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer (GC-TMS) instrument that has been developed by Torion Technologies for chemical threat detection. The proposed technology will be capable of sampling and concentrating bacterial endospores from gaseous media such as air, converting the particles into unique chemical biomarkers that can be analyzed by the GC-TMS system, and determining the presence of any target endospores using sophisticated deconvolution and spectral matching algorithms that can isolate relevant GC profiles and MS fingerprints from irrelevant background biological and chemical interferences to construct reliable bacterial endospore signatures. Specifically, in this Phase I project, we will demonstrate the collection of bacterial endospores using a small, battery-operated two-stage particle impactor, generate reproducible chemical biomarker signatures from captured bacterial endospores using acid-catalyzed hydrolysis/methylation, and apply a new classification and discrimination algorithm that is robust to growth conditions for identifying bacterial endospores.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Dr. Charles J. Cohen
ARMY 07-078      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:Real-Time Scalable Emulation of Communication Networks
Abstract:Cybernet Systems Corporation, with the support of Harris Corporation, propose to build a wireless radio network simulator that is capable of scaling to over several thousands of radios. Our goal is an extremely high fidelity simulator to represent not only the interactions among applications, protocols, and physical channels, but also allow easily modifiable configurations of large number of radio network nodes. Leveraging our past experience, we will emulate the Joint Airborne Network (JAN) and validate the JAN architecture through simulation and emulation of real, SCA-compliant software and hardware that could run on appropriate platforms. The benefits of the proposed system will include: 1. An integrated communication and mobility scenario design and execution. 2. A graphical design interface that minimizes the time required generating representative mission scenarios. 3. A multiple level-of-detail and timeline-enabled visualization interface that simplifies the analysis of network state over time. 4. Interactive scenario building that allows the designer to immediately view the effect of any changes of the JAN parameters and/or scenario flow.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5241
Dr. Renato Levy
ARMY 07-078      Awarded: 5/13/2008
Title:A Distributed Cluster-based Emulation Test Bed for Large Wireless Communication Networks
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose an innovative technical approach for developing a real-time scalable emulation test bed for large wireless communication networks. Our approach has four main advantages: 1) it uses radio model with configurable fidelity levels (packet level and detailed signal level) according to user’s preference; 2) the emulation architecture is scalable to support large wireless networks. We adopt clustering technique to manage up to thousands of radios in the emulation network in real-time. All wireless nodes are clustered into multiple groups, and each group and the communication activities within the group is managed by a single cluster server. Inter-cluster activities are handled by cooperation of different cluster servers; 3) the emulation network also works with user interactions and environmental data, such as weather and terrain data; 4) it provides both perceptual and statistical evaluation results. Users can connect real communication terminal devices into the emulation network and run any type of network applications, including audio/video streams, and evaluate those applications by the actual usage experience.

RUGATE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
353 Christian Street
Oxford, CT 06478
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 267-3154
Mr. Thomas D. Rahmlow, Jr.
ARMY 07-079      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Dual Band Infrared Coatings
Abstract:Sensor performance for the 3rd Generation FLIRs can be substantially improved by increased simultaneous throughput of both sensor bands in the optical systems. Currently available antireflection coatings (ARs) have optimized performance for either spectral band, but not both on the same optic. Where AR coatings do cover both bands or the entire broad band (visible – LWIR), performance is not sufficient for future combat systems (FCS). This program will address coating optimization for; 1) Refractive Lenses, 2) Mirrors (afocal and fold), 3) Beamsplitters, 4) Cold filters, and 5) Windows. Coating improvement will come from the use of rugate techniques, unique asymmetric design techniques , new coating materials and substrate material selection, design optimization techniques, and precise computer-control of fabrication processes.

TABLE MOUNTAIN OPTICS
509 Marin Street Suite 125
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 496-7133
Dr. William H. Southwell
ARMY 07-079      Awarded: 12/5/2007
Title:Dual Band Infrared Coatings
Abstract:This proposal is to perform optical thin film design studies for filters to be used in the mid wave infrared and simultaneously in the long wave infrared regions. In addition to the design studies, thin film materials and deposition processes and monitoring methods will be studied. The ultimate purpose is to develop the technology to enable high performance for military infrared sensors.

FIBERTEK, INC.
510 Herndon Parkway
Herndon, VA 20170
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 471-7671
Mr. Bill Gavert
ARMY 07-080      Awarded: 12/3/2007
Title:Ultra-High Temporal Resolution Laser Radar (LADAR) Receiver
Abstract:Fibertek Corporation of Herndon VA is proposing to perform critical system analysis and design for an ultra high resolution analog-to-digital converter(ADC)-based LADAR receiver that can resolve multiple <500ps pulses at 1.5 microns through foliage and obscurants with a repetition rate of up to 1.5 MHz.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. Andrew Huntington
ARMY 07-080      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Ultra-High Temporal Resolution Laser Radar (LADAR) Receiver
Abstract:In Phase I, the performance of existing ultra-low-noise, high-speed avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and readout integrated circuits (ROICs) will be characterized and the performance attributes of the Army Ultra-High-Temporal-Resolution LADAR Receiver demonstrated. Additionally, the impulse response, pulse-pair resolution, and noise characteristics of 30-,40-,50-,and 60-µm diameter variants of existing ultra-low-noise APDs will be measured. These trade studies will quantify: impulse response scaling, pulse-pair resolution, and sensitivity versus detector area, and will allow us to identify a device design that meets the Army’s performance goals. Using the trade study results and APD and ROIC device characterization, the Phase II LADAR receiver will be designed and simulated to meet the solicited requirements, including: sub-nanosecond laser pulse response, a 1.5-micron response, 100-micron diameter APD with the best possible excess noise performance, <500-psec pulse time-of-flight (tof) response and the ability to capture multiple tof and sample 50-psec pulse amplitudes at kHz pulse-repetition rates. At the end of Phase I, the design of all components of a LADAR receiver will be completed, supported by both circuit simulation and empirical measurement of detectors so that in Phase II, the ultra-high resolution LADAR receiver will be manufactured and characterized for integrated into a short-pulse direct-detection LADAR system.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Craig S. Agate
ARMY 07-081      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Persistent Surveillance in an Urban Environment
Abstract:Automatically detecting threatening behavior of dismounts would be an important capability in providing security to both civilians and miltiary personnel. Numerous environments could benefit from improved protective security monitoring, including military bases, governmental offices or complexes, schools, public gatherings, and industrial plants. A system designed to address such a problem requires a collection of distributed sensors that monitor an area-of-interest (AOI) to provide persistent surveillance. Persistent surveillance does not simply mean having enough sensors to provide good coverage of an AOI, but the ability to process the sensor data and provide situation assessment. Toyon Research proposes to extend our work in the areas of EO/IR detection and tracking of dismounts as well as feature-aided tracking algorithms used for track stitching to the problem of continuously tracking dismounts in urban surveillance environments as they pass through multiple, disjoint sensor field-of-views (FOVs). In Phase I Toyon will investigate different features (e.g., facial, motion characteristics) that can be extracted from EO/IR imagery and used to uniquely characterize a dismount detected and tracked in a video sequence. Experiments will be carried out to demonstrate the ability to identify a dismount as it passes through several disjoint sensor FOVs from features collected on the dismount.

III-N TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2033 Plymouth Road
Manhattan, KS , KS 66503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(785) 341-6964
Dr. Zhaoyang Fan
ARMY 07-082      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:3D Integrated Full Color Microdisplays Based on InGaN/AlGaInP Semiconductor Microemitter Arrays
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project is to develop next generation inorganic semiconductor based emissive microdisplays with the following merits: •Much higher brightness and power efficiency (5 x) than the current filter based LCD and OLED microdisplays. •Resolution and pixel density higher than 15 micron per pixel with VGA, SVGA and higher format. •RGB narrow bandwidth (~ 25 nm) with high color fidelity and gamut exceeding the current display standard. •Broad full color tunability. •High gray scale. •Wide viewing angle (>120 o). •Pixel response on nanoseconds scale. •Robust and long lifetime. To achieve the above goals, the proposed architecture will be based on 3D integration of stacked semiconductor RGB micro-emitter pixels with silicon CMOS driver/processor. The RGB micro-emitters have a vertically stacked structure with full-color tunability, ensuring a minimum pixel size. They are based on highly efficient InGaN for blue/green wavelength and AlGaInP for red wavelength emission, which are vertically integrated through thin-film transfer. The micro-emitter array will be bonded onto a silicon IC driver/processor substrate by flip-chip bonding and SiO2 based wafer bonding.

QD VISION, INC.
313 Pleasant Street 4th Floor
Waterown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 607-9701
Dr. Seth Coe-Sullivan
ARMY 07-082      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Direct Patterning of Emitters for Micro-Displays
Abstract:In this proposal, we articulate a program to develop the key technologies required to enable high resolution, full-color micro-displays. The proposed approach will exploit the development at QD Vision of high quantum yield (QY) colloidal QDs, as well as the company’s proprietary process capability for versatile manipulation of ordered 2D monolayer arrays of QDs by self-assembly and their pattern transfer and deposition on specifically targeted electrically active substrates and films. The direct deposition processes will be demonstrated for the currently used 15 microns per pixel density in the initial phase and will offer prospects for scaling down to approximately 9 microns per pixel density or higher in the future.

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
ARMY 07-085      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Integrated Auto-Calibration Self-Contained Target Acquisition Module
Abstract:The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative Integrated Auto-Calibration Self-Contained Target Acquisition Module (referred to as IASTAM in this proposal) for a Handheld Target Location System. In the Phase I of the project, we will test and evaluate a technical approach for the IASTAM implementation based on a new gyrocompassing method of an inertial navigation system (INS). It is based on fully Auto-Calibration Self- Contained inertial navigation system (INS) principles, and does not depend on magnetometers for azimuth/heading determination. Thus the system outputs and performance are not affected by the environmental magnetic fields. In the Phase I, the proposed approach of the IASTAM will be investigated and implemented. We will carry out hardware and software evaluation of the IASTAM. Laboratory testing will be carried out to verify the system performance. Based on the Phase I work we will build a prototype system for field experimentation/tests in Phase II.

JAYMART SENSORS LLC
4733 Fox St
Orlando, FL 32814
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 228-2226
Mr. Martin Tanenhaus
ARMY 07-085      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:Improved Far-Target Location Accuracy for Man-portable Systems Through Application of GPS, Gyroscope, and Magnetometer Technologies
Abstract:A. Summary . The program proposed herein addresses the need for more accurate target location information, specifically azimuth and elevation. This program combines accurately aligned MEMS gyros, accelerometers and a digital magnetic compass in a miniaturized package with GPS to achieve azimuth accuracy. The program leverages our demonstrated ability to package sensors, GPS and low power managed, high computation rate signal processing in a small volume to obtain an accurate MEMS based IMU/INS (1.9 in³) that utilizes new sensor technologies, miniaturized packaging and advanced 3D algorithms.

ACTIVE SPECTRUM, INC.
9 Hubbard Rd.
Amherst, NH 03031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 610-0720
Dr. Christopher White
ARMY 07-086      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Wideband Filter Networks for Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Size, Weight, and Power (SWAP) Reduction
Abstract:We propose a novel, high performance tunable narrowband bandpass preselect filter that is capable of continuously tuning from 400MHz - 3GHz. The proposed filter offers an order of magnitude reduction in SWAP-C, small size (1/2" x 1/2" x 1/4"), low cost and minimal power consumption. The proposed design uses conventional fabrication processes and inexpensive off-the-shelf commercially available components to minimize cost and technical risk.

AGILE RF, INC.
93 Castilian Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-5159
Mr. Albert Cardona
ARMY 07-086      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Wideband Filter Networks for Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Size, Weight, and Power (SWAP) Reduction
Abstract:Agile is proposing a unique new technology to solve JTRS filtering issues using a recently discovered piezoelectric material that can provide its own switching and tuning capabilities.

DATASOFT CORP.
7669 S. Myrtle Ave.
Tempe, AZ 85284
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 763-5777
Mr. Roger Paulsen
ARMY 07-087      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Innovative Electronics Components and Circuit Designs for UHF RF Diplexer
Abstract:The UGS/IMS gateway node is an important aspect of the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) network. The gateway node provides UGS networks with long haul communications and can be used to perform mission tasks such as perimeter defense, surveillance, target acquisition and situational awareness (SA), including Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) early warning. The UHF RF diplexer allows the two transceivers located within the UGS/IMS gateway node to share one common antenna. DataSoft’s goal is to enhance the performance of the current diplexer using advanced filter techniques and to implement the design using Integrated Passive Devices to maintain the size required for UGS/IMS integration. As a partner with General Dynamics on the JTRS Handheld, Manpack, Small Form Fit (HMS) program, DataSoft is familiar with the complex performance and mechanical requirements demanded by the HMS program is uniquely positioned to integrate the proposed diplexer design into the UGS/IMS gateway node.

OMEGA WIRELESS SOLUTIONS, INC.
Purdue Technology Center 3000 Kent Avenue Suite D1-106
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 775-1011
Mr. Jacob L. Smelser
ARMY 07-087      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Innovative Electronics Components and Circuit Designs for UHF RF Diplexer
Abstract:RF diplexers are a common and critical element in military and commercial communications equipment, allowing two independent communications channels to share a common antenna network. A diplexer can be thought of as a special type of combiner or splitter which allows two transmit signals, two receive signals, or a transmit / receive pair to operate concurrently through a common antenna network. This capability provides the communications system designer considerable flexibility in terms of multiple simultaneous communications channels as well as the capacity for full duplex operation. Currently available commercial diplexer designs are approaching theoretical performance limits given the available substrate materials, metallization, and circuit topologies employed. Improvements in materials, processing, and design topologies are therefore required to improve upon diplexer electrical parameters such as insertion loss, VSWR, and isolation, and to improve or even remove the frequency spectrum “gap” in currently fielded systems. Removing or minimizing the “gap” would therefore allow for greater spectrum utilization as long as careful frequency management is employed. Omega Wireless Solutions recognizes the need for improved diplexer performance and therefore proposes to partner with CIS Microelectronics to leverage upon on-going research to develop an advanced integrated UHF diplexer module.

DAX TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL
100 Matawan Rd Suite 350
Matawan , NJ 07747
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 203-1784
Ms. Dana S. Alexe
ARMY 07-088      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Improved Fault Management/Correlation for Tactical Networks
Abstract:In recent years, mobile ad-hoc networks have received considerable attention due to their capabilities to enable data networking without any infrastructure support. However, the nodes use wireless radios with limited bandwidth and typically high loss rates to communicate; every node participates in packet forwarding, and the topology of the network is dynamic. The U.S. military is planning deployment of mobile ad-hoc networks and commercial applications are emerging. Past research on such networks has been focused primarily on the enabling technologies such as wireless radios, media access, and routing. The challenging task of managing these networks has to now be addressed to ensure effective communications. Today’s commercial network management tools were mostly designed for networks with stable topologies and abundant capacity. These tools are ill-suited for mobile ad-hoc networks. In this Phase I study we propose to achieve a characterization of faults for the ad-hoc network that can be then used as the foundation for proposing an architecture to effectively deal with these faults. We will investigate distributive correlation techniques, root cause analysis based on network event causality model, and mission network optimization all in support of being able to propose an architecture design for a solution to the challenge of fault management/correlation for tactical ad-hoc networks.

COHERENT LOGIX, INC.
1120 South Capital of Texas Highway Building 3, Suite 310
Austin, TX 78746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 382-8947
Mr. Michael B. Doerr
ARMY 07-089      Awarded: 4/16/2008
Title:Software Defined Radio Waveform Development Kit (SDR-WDK)
Abstract:Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the Software Defined Radio Waveform Development Kit (SDR-WDK) program to facilitate the development of a SDR development kit based on the Hyper64 processor with an accompanying software development flow to support rapid development and fielding of this technology to the Warfighter. The HyperX Technology is viewed by JPEO JTRS HMS as a risk reduction technology that is slated for insertion into the JTRS HMS SDR program of record upon successful demonstration. It will simultaneously enable order of magnitude improvement in power savings while reducing chipset count, thus size and weight of the radio. The HyperX processor technology is fully programmable and reconfigurable on the fly and is supported by industry standards based [hardware agnostic software development flow and] programming model using ANSI-C and MPI (message passing interface) API. This provides reduced life-cycle costs and future proofing of hardware through fully portable software code. The Hyper64, first in a family of HyperX based chip products, will be available COTS in the Summer of 2007. This effort capitalizes on the investments made by DARPA; U.S. Army ARDEC and ARL; AFRL Sensors, Space Vehicles Directorate, and Information Directorate; and JPEO/PM JTRS HMS under the DARPA ECHiPPS Program.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5241
Dr. Renato Levy
ARMY 07-089      Awarded: 1/5/2008
Title:High Performance Parallel Signal Processor with SDK for Advanced Communications
Abstract:Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI), proposes a massive large scale parallelized high performance signal processor for advanced wireless communication. Our novel software developer kit (SDK) will translate single threaded or single processor waveform to the parallel processing aware waveform for field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). The high performance parallel processing model in FPGA has: (1) highly computational, embedded real time large scale parallelization, (2) optimization algorithm that allocates processor resources efficiently, (3) SDK tools for waveforms translations from single processor or thread to parallel architecture, (4) SDK tools for processor reconfiguration, expansion, optimization and mapping, (5) parallelization algorithm scalable across multiple processors with decreased power and (6) parallel execution of processing of multiple waveforms in the FPGA. FPGA offers most resilient, powerful, scalable approach for high performance parallel processing. The key innovations we propose are (1) high speed waveform digital signal processor with simultaneous processing of multiple waveforms in the processor (2) ability to perform test simulations on the FPGA itself, by creating HDL block, (3) ability to process waveforms upto 10 GHz and (4) SDK monitoring, analysis, storing the data and control the channels. The proposed system can be rapidly deployed for testing within the Phase I base period.

CUSTOM MMIC DESIGN SERVICES, INC.
2 Pace Rd
Tyngsboro, MA 01879
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 649-2660
Mr. Paul Blount
ARMY 07-090      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:High Efficiency, Low Power, Low Noise Amplifiers for SATCOM
Abstract:This proposal drastically reduces the existing power dissipation of low noise amplifiers within phase array systems. We intend to use an innovative and novel modification to a standard topology to achieve excellent performance with small size and mismatch tolerance. Such a novel use of current sharing in a balanced amplifier topology, along with a metamorphic HEMT (mHEMT) technology will result in the smallest and best performance for this design. The mHEMT will create a situation where the smallest design can be achieved by reducing the number of stages of amplification necessary to achieve greater than 20dB of gain while maintaining a good noise figure match. Further reduction in size for the amplifiers is proposed with the use of lumped element hybrids in the place of distributed elements.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. Frank Traut
ARMY 07-090      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:High Efficiency, Low Power, Low Noise Amplifiers for SATCOM (2007021)
Abstract:Today’s satellite communications terminals rely on electronically steered arrays made of a large number of radiating elements with a receive module connected to each element. Typically, a receive module contains a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and a phase shifter integrated into one (or more) MMIC chip. In order to reduce the power dissipation of the receiver, one critical design goal for module and hence the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), is to maximize the power-added efficiency (PAE) of the amplifier. While the dissipation in the LNA is a small fraction of the prime power consumption in the transmitter, the receiver portion of the terminal remains powered on at all times, thus the power consumption in the receiver represents a critical power drain. This will result in a reduced heat-load, which will in turn reduces the required cooling of the receive phased array antenna. The proposed program will conduct an analysis and preliminary design of high-efficiency, low power consumption, self-biased MMIC LNAs covering X- and K-band frequency bands.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Mr. George Dimos
ARMY 07-091      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:Enhancements for Military Ground Based GPS Receivers in Urban Environments
Abstract:This proposal addresses the Army SBIR program objective to develop and demonstrate GPS receiver improvements for ground users to optimize their positioning performance in urban applications. The proposed enhanced system (whose full configuration is shown in Figure 1 below) consists of (i) the Mayflower “NavAssure” SAASM GPS receiver; and (ii) receiver software enhancements in order to mitigate the performance issues for urban applications by incorporating Deep Integration (DI) with an IMU, Multipath Detection (MD), and Collaborative Navigation (CN) based on external GPS aiding measurements from collaborating receivers through a tactical radio (JTRS HMS a.k.a. “soldier’s radio”). Significant performance improvements, compared to typical existing military receivers, can be obtained with subsets of the above full configuration, i.e. (A) stand-alone “NavAssure” receiver with DI/MD software enhancements; and (B) stand-alone “NavAssure” receiver plus JTRS aiding and CN software enhancements. Mayflower is developing the “NavAssure” single chip SAASM GPS receiver (under the Navy GIF SBIR III program.) which is expected to be available in 2009 at a production cost of about $500 and typical power consumption of significantly less than 0.5 Watt. Theprogram. Mayflower is also developing the JTRS data interface under a Navy SPAWAR SBIR II program. The Phase I study will quantify the performance benefits of the proposed enhancements and demonstrate its feasibility to mitigate positioning performance degradation in urban applications. The follow on Phase II effort will implement these enhancements in software on the NavAssure SAASM GPS receiver platform and test and demonstrate its effectiveness in urban GPS applications..

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Paul Shnitser
ARMY 07-091      Awarded: 11/26/2007
Title:Horizontal Precision Enhancement System
Abstract:To address the Army need for Global Positioning System Precise Positioning Service receiver improvements for ground users to improve their positioning precision in urban areas, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop new Horizontal Precision Enhancement (HOPE) technology. This proposed system is based on self-contained navigation combined with multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) prediction. The innovation in combining a compact and lightweight (<8 cub. in, <8 oz) navigation sensor module with MHT dynamic process prediction enables the HOPE to achieve <2 m, 95%, horizontal positioning performance in all environments, including urban areas and within enclosed spaces, such as buildings and caves. The optical self-mixing interferometer-based navigation sensor tracks horizontal position through precise measurement (>95% accuracy) of three-dimensional velocity components. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the HOPE system by measuring horizontal position tracking inside a building with commercial off-the-shelf components. In Phase II we plan to develop a fully operational HOPE system, including an on-board signal processing and wireless communication link, that can be readily integrated into virtually any ground-based military platforms.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Jeremy Steinshnider
ARMY 07-092      Awarded: 10/30/2007
Title:Multi-functional Fluidic Manifold for Portable Fuel Cell Systems
Abstract:Significant progress has been made in recent years in portable fuel cell systems to increase energy and power densities. However, the majority of the focus has been in fuel cell development or hydrogen storage with little consideration towards the system ancillary components (pumps, valves, regulators, tubing) that usually require a complicated layout and adds unnecessary mass and volume. To address these limitations, Lynntech proposes to develop a multi-functional fluidic manifold that will reduce the system mass and volume, while improving both reliability and robustness. This novel multi-functional fluidic manifold contains the reactant gas and cooling channels, eliminating the need for tubing where the wall thickness accounts for half the tube diameter. The pump heads will be integrated in the fluidic manifold, eliminating the need for a shell. The manifold body will also serve as the regulator housing. To further reduce system mass and volume the fuel cell and heat exchanger will attach directly to the manifold eliminating the need for an endplate and water flow channel plate. This entire fluidic manifold will be fabricated from lightweight, high strength plastics to handle the mechanical and thermal stresses with new low power solenoid valves to improve system efficiency.

ULTRACELL CORP.
399 Lindbergh Avenue
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 455-9400
Mr. Ian
ARMY 07-092      Awarded: 10/31/2007
Title:Water Vapor Recovery System for Advancement of State of the Art Fuel Cell Technologies through Innovative Component Development
Abstract:Information technology is integral to the success of modern day military operations and future soldier capabilities. Traditional battery technologies do not provide the energy density and power delivery available in a size and weight that meets electronics intensive battlefield requirements with long mission durations. Micro fuel cells are envisioned as the next generation of hot-swappable, safe and environmentally friendly off-grid power sources for these demanding applications. The ultimate objective for this SBIR effort will be the development of a fuel cell system that provides 20W of power in less than 0.8 kg dry weight and exhibits an energy density of at least 1440Whr/kg for a 72 hour mission. The target energy density will be accomplished through the innovation of a water vapor recovery system (WVRS) component that will enable pure methanol fuel cartridges, thereby dramatically impacting fuel energy density by 38%.

JADOO POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
181 Blue Ravine Road
Folsom, CA 95630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(916) 608-9044
Mr. Andrew Wallace
ARMY 07-093      Awarded: 11/28/2007
Title:Economical Power Source for Dismounted Soldier and Unattended Ground Sensor Missions
Abstract:Leveraging fielded experience with award winning fuel cell products, Jadoo proposes a fuel flexible approach operating on a common fuel cell platform. Jadoo will develop a life cycle model supported by empirical data obtained from our fielded products, specific application data, and fuel technology specific characteristics. This model will be used to assess multiple energy storage technologies against dismounted soldier (DS) and unattended ground sensor (UGS) application requirements. The Jadoo fuel cell system architecture is well proven over hundreds of commercially fielded systems showing high reliability (>7000 hours), low cost (100W system under $1000), instant startup (less than 2 seconds), start/stop resilience (>7000 start/stops), and a wide environmental temperature (-20 to 55°C). Jadoo has already developed standardized fuel canisters that use ammonia borane, metal hydrides and sodium borohydride using a common fuel cell interface. Jadoo’s N-Stor interface enables a single fuel cell system to operate on any one of the above mentioned technologies without the need to change the system design. Jadoo has already demonstrated the operation of its commercial N-Gen fuel cell system on the above mentioned fuels as well as with reformed methanol and sodium silicide technologies. The needs and requirements of markets must drive the choice of fuel technology. Similarly, applications like cell phones require a rechargeable lithium ion battery while flashlights typically use primary batteries. Utilizing this universal fuel cell approach, end customers may use any combination of fuel storage technologies based on cost, storage capabilities, performance characteristics, refill requirements, and field availability.

PRECISION COMBUSTION, INC.
410 Sackett Point Road
North Haven, CT 06473
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 287-3700
Mr. Richard Mastanduno
ARMY 07-093      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Economical Power Source for Dismounted Soldier and Unattended Ground Sensor Missions
Abstract:The Army has identified a need for low (<20 We) power systems for the Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) and Dismounted Soldier (DS) applications. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) has developed a microscale-burner with successful technology from Palm Power, DoD CERDEC and SBIR programs, and is proposing to develop component and system level designs to exceed the capabilities of current battery technology by optimizing parameters for our catalytic combustor combined with thermoelectric modules already proven in military applications. In order to overcome the key hurdles, PCI is proposing a design and sensitivity study to define performance requirements of system components that meet the stringent performance and operational requirements of microburners. Mesh-like Microlith catalytic substrates will be utilized to realize benefits from the short-contact-time technology’s compact size, its diffusive capabilities to boost mixing, and its high surface area to augment vaporization. Capabilities of current and developing thermoelectric systems and Balance of Plant components will be evaluated as part of the overall integrated power generation system design studies. If successful, a low cost system which exceeds the baseline performance of military BB-8180/U Zinc-air batteries will be defined. The Phase II program will demonstrate the most promising systems.

SIMVENTIONS, INC.
11905 Bowman Dr Suite 502
Fredericksburg, VA 22408
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 372-7727
Mr. Bertram P. Chase
ARMY 07-094      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Framework for Mobile Services
Abstract:While the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has made huge strides in improving interoperability amongst software systems and applications, problems still exist. One SOA implementation is not necessarily compatible with another. For example, a service developed using Web services developed using SOAP cannot be easily used by a client relying on CORBA for communications. What is needed is a way to develop a service one time, using the implementation of choice. Then, have the ability to deploy that service in a way that allows for interaction with any number of SOA implementations. By applying the principles of the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB), the Service Component Architecture (SCA), and the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) such a solution is possible. The idea is to build a server that can run any type of service much in the same way a JVM runs any Java software on multiple platforms. This server would take advantage of the ESB and SCA to create a framework for development and deployment that allows existing and emerging services to be interoperable. This solution avoids impacting legacy systems and provides for extensibility to accommodate future service implementations / protocols, thus saving many man hours of design, development, and integration time.

APPLIED MEDIA ANALYSIS, INC.
387 Technology Drive, Suite 2101
College Park, MD 20742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 405-8574
Dr. Huiping Li
ARMY 07-095      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:AHOCR: A System for Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition
Abstract:For this SBIR Applied Media Analysis, Inc. is teamed with researchers at the University of Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo) to address the challenges of Arabic handwriting Optical Character Recognition (AHOCR). The proposed approach leverages our previous experience developing MATES, a Multilingual Automatic Translation Engine for Signs (and documents), supported in part by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). It will significantly extend our Mobile Arabic OCR capability to handle the handwriting. The system will be comprised of software modules including handwritten text extraction, preprocessing, segmentation, classification, post processing and evaluation. In this proposal we will focus on the underlying algorithms, rather then retargetablity, and our strategy will explore probabilistic methods that are independent of the writing style. These probabilistic methods have not previously been applied to Arabic handwriting recognition and advance the frontiers of document analysis in general, in addition to being ideally suited to the domains where the quality of documents is often less than ideal. We will demonstrate technical feasibility by testing the system on several Arabic handwriting collections, previously used in the community.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Glenn Beach
ARMY 07-095      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Optical Character Recognition for Arabic Ruq
Abstract:In the ongoing efforts in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), as well as the continuing Global War on Terror (GWOT), U.S. forces gain valuable information from captured documents. While these documents are typically written in Arabic, there are not enough U.S. personnel trained in reading Arabic to expediently read and understand the captured information. Since the information has the most value while it is still fresh, the U.S. military has started to use Arabic based optical character recognition (OCR) to quickly convert the Arabic text into English. While these commercial OCR packages work well with machine-produced documents, their performance is quickly and significantly degraded on more typical hand-written Arabic documents. The problems are compounded when the original document contains even small levels of noise or other sources of image degradation. In order to more quickly and effectively process collected information there is a need for an automated system to process this handwritten text. We propose to leverage our experience with developing previous image processing and handwriting recognition systems to develop a system for performing optical character recognition (OCR) on the most commonly used Arabic script, Ruq’ah

AMERICAN LITHIUM ENERGY
935 Bailey Court Unit 106
San Marcos, CA 92069
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-1689
Dr. Jiang Fan
ARMY 07-096      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Applied Innovative Nano-Materials Technology for High Energy Rechargeable Batteries, for Soldier Systems for Extended Missions in Combat Environments
Abstract:This proposal exploits nano-materials to achieve exceptionally high energy in an 18650- size cell. The successful development of this cell will provide the Army with the highest energy density commercially available for years to come. This advancement in the cell capacity will lift military batteries to the next level and will have a significant impact to the outcome of the future battlefield since the battery is one of the key factors in the digital battlefield. The higher cell capacity simply means the longer running time for some devises or longer range for some weapon, which will be vital to our soldier in the battlefield.

ELECTRO ENERGY, MOBILE PRODUCTS, INC.
3820 S Hancock Expressway
Colorado Springs, CO 80911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 392-4266
Mr. Stephen Cordova
ARMY 07-096      Awarded: 12/16/2007
Title:Applied Innovative Nano-Materials Technology for High Energy Rechargeable Batteries, for Soldier Systems for Extended Missions in Combat Environments
Abstract:This proposal is for the development of ultrahigh energy density rechargeable lithium battery chemistry. A novel cathode material is chosen that when fully developed is expected to provide packaged batteries with specific energies of 400-500 Wh/kg. The new battery will have applications in soldier power, aircraft, high power weapons and other military and commercial products. The electrode chemistry under consideration has particular application for high energy rechargeable batteries for soldier systems for extended missions in the combat environments. The proposal identifies a new type of nanocomposite rechargeable lithium battery cathode material to provide high specific energy and a proprietary cell design to provide high rate capability and compact packaging. The proposal identifies the steps for preparing and identifying optimum electrode compositions, fabricating and evaluating laboratory test cells and developing and characterizing fully packaged rechargeable lithium cells.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Darin A. Knaus
ARMY 07-097      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Multi-Fuel Burner for Stirling Applications
Abstract:Compact, efficient, and sustainable electric power generators are needed to provide mobile electric power for deployable military bases. Stirling engines are attractive candidates to meet the Army’s future deployed electric power needs because they are quiet, efficient, and have the potential to be highly fuel-flexible due to the external combustion process used to drive the engine. For low-power engines (<1 kWe) operated on heavy fuels such as JP-8 or diesel, fuel atomization and/or vaporization is a key aspect of burner design. Creare has previously developed fuel atomization technology compatible with JP-8 and diesel for small burners used for personal combat feeding. In the currently proposed project, we will modify this existing burner technology to add multi-fuel capability (JP-8, diesel, gasoline, and propane) and adapt the burner so that it will interface with a 750 We Stirling engine. In Phase I, we will demonstrate fuel delivery and combustion of the four fuels in a single proof-of-concept burner. During the Option phase, we will design and analyze a recuperator to maximize burner efficiency. In Phase II, we will develop a burner prototype compatible with an existing free-piston Stirling engine and characterize operability, efficiency, noise signature, and emissions with the four fuels.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-6643
Mr. Jason Targoff
ARMY 07-097      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Multi-fuel Burner for Stirling Engine Based on Innovative Component Development
Abstract:Developing a multi-fuel capable burner with an electronic controls subsystem for a Stirling engine represents an opportunity to develop a power source capable of running on a variety of military fuels. TIAX has developed a Stirling engine power plant technology, an operational third-generation laboratory prototype. The existing engine prototype has a multi-fuel compatible vaporizing burner with a 1.5-5 kW variable burn. There are technical limitations in atomizing less than 5 kW of heavy fuels (atomizers suffer from orifice clogging) and in vaporizing heavy fuels (fuel vaporization temperatures and coke- formation temperatures overlap). However, the TIAX-developed vaporizing burner achieves a clean, uniform flame with negligible coke formation after hours of use with a variety of fuels. In this project we will further optimize the burner flow field for improved thermal efficiency and heat recuperation. We will also modify our electronic controls subsystem to allow for multi-fuel, switch “on-the-fly” use. This project will improve the TRL of the TIAX Stirling engine. If this project is successfully implemented for military direct power and hybrid power applications, then commercial manufacturers would adopt the same features for applications in recreational vehicles/cabins and emergency vehicles/rescue stations as a compact source for combined heat and power output.

BLACK FOREST ENGINEERING, LLC
1879 Austin Bluffs Parkway
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-9501
Dr. Stephen Gaalema
ARMY 07-098      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array
Abstract:Uncooled focal plane array (FPA) technology has evolved such that high performance is achieved in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) with small pixel pitch and fast time constant. Small pitch allows high resolution with reduction in optics size and weight. Black Forest Engineering (BFE) has demonstrated 1024x768 a-Si:H FPAs with 20 um pixel pitch, noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) < 35 mK and time constant < 8 msec. On Phase I, BFE will demonstrate by design and analysis pixel circuit modifications to provide adjustable control of time constant and responsivity in a 17 um pixel pitch. On Phase II, this new pixel circuitry will be demonstrated in a 320x240 or larger format FPA, that achieves NETD < 20 mK at F/1.4 (LWIR @ 300 K). The new pixel circuitry will allow 1280x960 uncooled FPAs with high performance and hot source mitigation.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Rob Gillen
ARMY 07-099      Awarded: 2/19/2008
Title:Commercial Wireless Denial of Service (DoS) Mitigation Techniques
Abstract:Advanced Network Centric Warfare (NCW) systems are critical to the successful implementation of the Army’s future force. To achieve accurate, secure, and reliable wireless communications in such systems, the information flow between any two communicating entities should be protected properly against various malicious attacks, specifically the exploitable denial of service attacks (DoS) in wireless environments. In this research, we propose a novel scheme that addresses the problem of combating DoS attacks by raising an early alert. We employ a simple method that maintains minimal state information at each router and functions independent of the underlying queuing mechanism at the routers. IST has assembled a distinguished team to address this proposal. In conjunction with our university research partner, we are proposing a novel and innovative approach to meeting the requirements called for in the solicitation. At the conclusion of Phase II, we will have a pre-production version of our product ready for immediate deployment in selected applications.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5209
Dr. Julia Deng
ARMY 07-099      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:An Integrated Denial of Service (DoS) Mitigation Scheme for Tactical Networks
Abstract:One important class of security threats, Denial of Service (DoS) caused by the commodity of shared wireless medium is not fully addressable through conventional security mechanisms. In reality, DoS is such an easy attack which can be launched by an inexperienced attacker, but may cause significant system performance degradation, or even network partition and failure. Therefore, to ensure accurate, secure, and reliable “mission-critical” information delivery in the Network Centric Warfare systems, DoS attacks have to be further addressed. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) and its subcontractor, Professor Yang Xiao from the University of Alabama propose an integrated pipeline structure to mitigate the effects of DoS attacks, including DoS prevention, DoS detection and DoS response components. For each component, a set of DoS mitigation mechanisms are designed. One significant advantage of the proposed scheme is that it adopts the common defense strategies used in our daily life as well as the military war. In simple words, if A tries to fight with B, there are three approaches that B can do: 1) build high defense guard, 2) fight back when unavoidable, 3) escape when facing with unbeatable enemy. The three functional components in our proposed scheme correspond to these three defense strategies.

SPACE & DEFENSE SYSTEMS, INC.
10700 Parkridge Blvd Suite 410
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 390-9315
Dr. David Streight
ARMY 07-099      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Commercial Wireless Denial of Service (DoS) Mitigation Techniques
Abstract:The SDSI team proposes a unique DoS detection methodology: anomaly detection in the PHY and LNK layers. During Phase I, the SDSI team adapts Signal to Noise Enhancement Program noise and interference detection technology and specific emitter identification (SEI) algorithms currently used within the national SIGINT community to perform sophisticated anomaly detection for both the 802.11g and 802.15.4 standards.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-9008
Mr. Rob Gillen
ARMY 07-100      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Mobility to 802.16j - Mobile Multi-hop Relay Base Stations
Abstract:Due to the remarkable benefits provided by 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks, military interest in such technology has consistently grown. However, preplanned base station locations with tall towers and directionally-optimized antennas are not tactically useful. Therefore, in order for the military to leverage commercial wireless technologies, these technologies must be adapted for a tactical environment. In this project, we will address these challenges and develop the Multi-hop Base Station Mobility Management Scheme (MBSMMS) which will provide support for the mobility of base stations in a tactical environment. The proposed MBSMMS is an improvement/amendment of the current IEEE 802.16j standard that offers efficient mobility support for BSs and provides backward compliance to the commercial 802.16 technology. IST has assembled a distinguished team to address this proposal. In conjunction with our university research partner, we are proposing a novel and innovative approach to meeting the requirements called for in the solicitation. At the conclusion of Phase II, we will have a pre-production version of our product ready for immediate deployment in selected applications.

AGILE RF, INC.
93 Castilian Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-5159
Mr. Roger Forse
ARMY 07-101      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Low Profile Smart Multiple Beam Forming Antenna for KU-Band
Abstract:Agile has successfully demonstrated the ability to design and manufacture high performance, voltage controllable analog phase shifters for use in phased array antennas using the ferroelectric material, Barium Strontium Titanate (BST). Agile has also performed pioneering work in the design of low cost phased array antennas featuring our analog controlled phase shifters. This work was performed for a commercial application, automotive DirecTV antennas, but is ideally suited for the manufacture of cost-effective and scalable conformal antennas. Agile is proposing to develop 2-D electronically scanned antennas using our low cost, high performance phase shifters as the key enabling technology in a module based approach. These low cost modules include polarization control, amplification and phase shift in a single small and easily manufacturable package. Phase I will focus on a Ku band antenna and module development. The Phase I proposal will focus on extending our work from an existing Ku band commercial DBS antenna but adding transmit functionality and scaling the antenna for the specific requirements of the Army. Phase II will involve the actual manufacture of the antenna designed in Phase I.

EMAG TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
775 Technology Dr. Suite 300
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 996-3624
Dr. Alex Margomenos
ARMY 07-101      Awarded: 12/3/2007
Title:Low Profile Smart Multiple Beam Forming Antenna for KU-Band
Abstract:This SBIR project addresses the Army’s need for development of a high performance, low cost, reduced size, weight and power consumption (SWaP) beam steering array antenna that operates at the Ku-band frequency range with multiple simultaneous beam capability. In response to this need, EMAG Technologies proposes to develop a Ku-band wafer- scale digital beamforming (DBF) array based on revolutionary concepts in packaging and three-dimensional integration. The proposed system will comprise stacked high-resistivity silicon wafers each with a different functionality. EMAG Technologies proposes to develop a novel micromachined RF front end that will combine an antenna array, monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), and digital beamforming on a tile of array elements where each element forms a miniaturized multi-chip structure.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5275
Dr. Jason Li
ARMY 07-102      Awarded: 1/4/2008
Title:COSMOS: Composable, Systematic Cross Layer Design based on Multi-layer Optimization Strategies
Abstract:We propose the Composable, Systematic cross-layer design and analysis approach based on Multi-layer Optimization Strategies (COSMOS). First, “Layering as Optimization Decomposition” serves as a base for a unified framework which provides a level ground for comparison among various cross-layer designs, as well as a unified view on “how to and how not to layer”. This mathematical theory provides guidelines that enable systematic design of network architectures. Second, in order to make feasible the development of useful software tools, we aim to enumerate alternative cross-layer architectures. Third, to make the theoretical guidelines useful in practice, theory needs to be translated into manageable cross-layer strategies. We propose the composable framework that enables flexible network evaluation and optimization. Composability is enabled by our unique technologies on applying ontology-based agent composition for multi-agent system models. The organization of the alternative cross-layer architectures can be naturally translated to an ontology knowledge base, embedded with rules and inference logic to guide cross-layer design. Finally, to analyze how cross-layer design may work with various security architectures, we impose architecture constraints in the mathematical formulation and “block” some cross-layer interactions. As a result, the designs out of such “reduced” design space will abide by the governing security architecture.

SCALABLE NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6701 Center Drive West #520
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 338-3318
Dr. Prachee Sharma
ARMY 07-102      Awarded: 11/21/2007
Title:Cross-Layer Architectures, Semantics and Strategies (CLASS)
Abstract:While static parameter selections may be adequate for traditional layered network architectures, contemporary mobile ad hoc networks require cross-layer parameter optimizations to maintain desired performance. Though promising, the doctrine of cross- layer designs have limited proliferation due to unknown performance gains vs complexity trade-offs, ease of implementation, portability, scalability and security vulnerability. Phase I of this SBIR will provide a tool to analyze, test, evaluate and improve cross-layer designs. A thorough analysis of existing cross-layer techniques/algorithms and implementation strategies will be done. The SBIR proposes a high level design of the CLASS tool, which takes inputs from the user about performance objectives, cross-layer design techniques/protocols to be analyzed and the target deployment environment and/or mission scenario. The proposed tool will use a combination of analytical models and simulations to evaluate the existing design; make changes to the design to improve its performance and output the cross-layer design, including the expected performance goals. The analysis will include classification of these techniques according the expected performance gains from various designs and impact of cross-layer techniques/algorithms on network security. The Phase 1 design will provide the basis for a Phase 2 implementation effort to analyze cross-layered designs for large-scale networks with tens of thousands of components.

MODUS OPERANDI, INC.
122 Fourth Avenue
Indialantic, FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 984-3370
Dr. Richard Hull
ARMY 07-103      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Persistent Vigilance
Abstract:Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom clearly demonstrate the need for actionable intelligence within tactically useful timelines. ‘Actionable’ means contextually relevant to the mission; ‘tactically useful’ means timely intelligence supporting effective dynamic battle command. The DCGS-A Warfighter will have access to an unprecedented volume of intelligence data (13 PORs spanning seven intelligence domains). In addition, Army ISR data will be combined with joint service, coalition forces, national agency, mission and cultural context information. Modus Operandi proposes Persistent Vigilance, a predictive intelligence capability for unambiguous situational awareness based on intelligent semantic agents. Our objective is for multi-source exploitation to complement existing fusion applications creating a DCGS-A capability with the flexibility to support future military, humanitarian and peace keeping operations. Of critical importance is the ability to generate context sensitive intelligence products which do not overwhelm analysts and are capable of traveling the last tactical mile to disadvantaged users. To accomplish this objective, Modus Operandi will leverage existing technology and perform important research on increasing the velocity of intelligence cycles. Agent-based semantic reasoning over flattened networks is a key solution element. An existing information ontology solution and agent framework will provide the necessary foundation to semantically reason over appropriate corporate memory.

SYTRONICS, INC.
4433 Dayton-Xenia Road Building 1
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 431-6110
Mr. Jeff Collier
ARMY 07-103      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Intelligent Software Agents for Autonomous Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Analysis
Abstract:As net-centric information becomes available to the Warfighter in ever increasing amounts and types, the risk of information overload becomes a serious problem. Tools for filtering, fusing, and analyzing data have become critical components for the effective use of ISR data. The typical strategy for dealing with the large amounts of complex ISR data is to employee additional personnel to present it to the Warfighter, but this is expensive and prone to human error. We have found that the current state-of-the-art in software agent technology should allow the use of software agents to perform the roles of gathering and presenting the information, and in some cases doing so with greater accuracy and efficiency than is possible for human operators. To validate this approach, we will create a prototype of software agents based on a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that can interface with net-centric feeds; analyze, prioritize, and filter the data; and provide it to the operator. The end result will be a set of software agents capable of assisting an operator with Tasking, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination (TPED) and Task, Post, Process, and Use (TPPU).

AMERICAN GNC CORP.
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 582-0582
Dr. Jensen Lin
ARMY 07-104      Awarded: 12/4/2007
Title:Real-Time Ultra Resolution Navigation System (ReTURNS)
Abstract:The U.S. Army is looking for a low-cost navigation system with highly efficient route planning algorithm that provides real-time route planning/re-planning and is capable of deployment within the tactical and logistic vehicles in urban and suburban hostile environments. In the hostile, highly complex and often unfamiliar battle situations/terrain, it is a challenge to maintain robust communication and situational awareness for the soldiers/small operation units in urban areas as well as open fields under dense vegetation. A situational awareness navigation system that provides robust, up to date, enemy location/blockade/movements, road and terrain conditions, and real-time route planning for engagement or retreat will be an invaluable asset to the warfighters in the current and future battle space. Leveraging on AGNC’s coremicro 4D-GIS system, the coremicro Palm Navigator for GPS and GPS-denied Navigation and tracking, more than twenty years leading in Guidance, Navigation, Control & Communications (GNCC) and control software/hardware integration and development, AGNC is confident in integrating and developing the Real-Time Ultra Resolution Navigation System (ReTURNS) that will fulfill the need of the U.S. Army.

PRIMORDIAL, INC.
1835 Energy Park Drive
Saint Paul, MN 55108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 659-6762
Mr. Randy L. Milbert
ARMY 07-104      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Ground Guidance: Low Cost Tactical and Logistical Routing and Navigation
Abstract:Digital battle command and control systems such as Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) and Movement Tracking System (MTS) are wildly successful but are being deployed to only the highest priority Army vehicles due primarily to cost and budget constraints. In partnership with Comtech Mobile Datacom Corporation and Magellan Navigation Incorporated, Primordial proposes Ground Guidance, a low-cost, real-time route planning and navigation system for logistical and tactical vehicles. Ground Guidance is a low-cost alternative to FBCB2 and MTS that provides enhanced routing capabilities and real-time satellite access to shared threat and hazard databases. At a projected unit cost of $6,600, Ground Guidance can be deployed down to the last vehicle. While utilizing state of the art commercial routing algorithms, Ground Guidance is tailored specifically for military operations by providing concealed routing capabilities, support for tactical and logistical vehicle routing, dismounted and emergency routing, and integration with FalconView mission planning software. Comtech, prime contractor for MTS, manufacturers battle tested satellite transceivers and is supporting Ground Guidance by providing their state of the art MT-2012 satellite transceiver. Magellan, creators of the popular Hertz NeverLost vehicle navigation system, is enhancing Ground Guidance’s road-routing capabilities by providing their NavCreator Software Development Kit.

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
12530 Parklawn Drive, Suite 470
Rockville, MD 20852
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 581-3266
Dr. Tom Velez
ARMY 07-105      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Connectivity, Continuity, and Data Initialization for BC Services
Abstract:This submission addresses the problem of information flow and data initialization associated with achieving Battle Command (BC) Continuity of Operations (COOPS). The highly mobile and dynamically changing environment of BC operations requires that netcentric services and applications be fully operational as quickly as possible at the quality of service (QoS) needed to successfully carry out difficult missions – in other words, federated battle decision support environments must be capable of quickly achieving a state of readiness (SoR). BC operations demand automated tools that assure federated services and applications: 1) have the right decision support initialization data to support the tasks of the target node, 2) are properly configured to meet operational objectives, 3) have needed QoS characteristics, and 4) understand the changing state of the operational system and battlespace. Computer Technology Associates, Inc. (CTA) will investigate a highly automated BC COOPS initialization/configuration concept based on Task Organization (TO) aware agents using semantically encoded, policy-based structures that specify the data requirements, constraints, and initialization parameters based on dynamically changing TO mission context. These agents will perform functions such as session management, data transformations, and application-level protocol functions needed to establish and maintain connectivity and continuity of mission operations at a specified QoS.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Alan J. Vayda
ARMY 07-105      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:Sousa: Composing and Conducting Battle Command Services
Abstract:Soar Technology is teaming with Drexel University to develop Sousa, a multi-agent system that assists signal officers by automating the task of composing Battle Command (BC) services into data flows and conducting the flow of data for initialization. Sousa decomposes the task into sub-tasks that are each handled by an intelligent software agent as part of a multi-agent system. The overall system interfaces to the other services on the network as a service itself. The system includes agents for monitoring the network infrastructure, the units and task organization of the forces, and the BC service infrastructure. Information from the monitoring processes is consolidated and organized in a knowledge base where the information about BC services is stored in an ontology. A composer agent uses the BC services ontology and other information in the knowledge base to design a composition of services that meets the quality of service (QoS) requirements and all other constraints. A conductor agent takes the design and executes the necessary commands on the network to create the data flow. It then checks the data requirements and directs the appropriate data to each service that needs to be initialized.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Dr. Carl R. Stern
ARMY 07-106      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Probabilistic Evidential Reasoning for Collecting Signals Intelligence Data
Abstract:Management Sciences, Inc. (MSI) develops cognitive artificial intelligence tools. Cognitive reasoning is a logically constructed mathematical process that mimics the way people quickly process data into an understanding of a situation. We propose to develop a cognitive framework and toolset for processing Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) data. The architecture will have a solidly theoretical foundation with a Turing Complete Bayesian Inference Calculus for fusing data into higher and higher distillations not just collecting it. The toolset will work by using evidential fusion in combination with frames of reference to pick out important features and patterns in a track and test them against hypotheses to identify the track develop an understanding of its meaning in the context of current operations. The toolset will be used to support the work of SIGINT operators as they evaluate tracks for patterns and trends in support of the detection, identification, and tracking of potential threats.

MARK RESOURCES, INC.
3878 Carson Street, Suite 210
Torrance, CA 90503
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 543-4746
Dr. August W. Rihaczek
ARMY 07-107      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Range/Angle Radar Imaging for Non-Cooperative Combat Identification
Abstract:Only radar has the potential to identify non-cooperative ground vehicles, day and night in all weather conditions (including dust), and automatically from a significant standoff range. However, previous attempts at radar target identification have not provided the needed performance. Approaches based on range profiles are too sensitive to target orientation and configuration, and approaches based on range/Doppler imaging require too long a dwell on each target. MARK Resources proposes an alternative based on range/azimuth imaging. Ground-to-ground identification is possible with small closely spaced antennas via “cell splitting” in azimuth, which can be achieved to the needed accuracy with our new radar resolution theory and image processing technology. We propose to develop processing algorithms that measure range/azimuth positions of scatterers on a moving or stationary ground vehicle and identify the vehicle from the measurements, as well as to perform a functional design of a practical radar that can collect the required data.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Cecil Hess
ARMY 07-107      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Optical System for Identification of Friend or Foe
Abstract:This proposal is for a laser-based system to discriminate between friend and foe based on the acoustic signatures of military vehicles in the battlefield. A long range, multi beam, laser Doppler vibrometer would be capable of simultaneously probing the vibrational signatures of multiple locations of the target. Measuring at multiple locations with a single system enables the measurement of moving vehicles and enhances the reliability of the data. Strategies to eliminate or mitigate the noise associated with measuring moving targets will be implemented and demonstrated during Phase I. Standoff distances of several km are possible with fiber lasers operating at the eye-safe wavelength of 1.55 ƒÝm. Measuring vibrational signals for vehicle identification has been done for several years; mainly with CO2 lasers. Here we propose strategies to develop a fieldable system in a compact configuration based on telecom optics and multiple beams along with advanced algorithms to enable measuring moving vehicles. The Phase I work will consist of both analytical and experimental work culminating in proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of signature ID of a moving target.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 787-8700
Dr. Christopher Boner
ARMY 07-108      Awarded: 11/14/2007
Title:Multi-INT data fusion for Soft-Target Identification and Tracking (MP 66-07)
Abstract:Countering today’s asymmetric threats requires innovative technologies that automatically fuse massive amounts of data from diverse sources to discover and connect related signatures of threat entities, their activities and their support networks. Metron proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing disparate sources of transactional HUMINT and COMINT data with GMTI and IMINT surveillance data to detect, track and assess High Value Individuals and their associated organizations for the Army. Metron shall leverage existing level 2/3 data fusion technologies to execute all phases: our Paladin link discovery and network detection technology as well as our PAT threat activity detection and assessment technology.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place,Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Brian Xu
ARMY 07-108      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Blackboard Pattern-Enabled Integrated Intelligent Toolset
Abstract:To address the U.S. Army need for an automated toolset to identify and track significant persons and their organizations, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Blackboard pattern-enabled Integrated Intelligent Toolset (BIIT). BIIT is based on intelligent agents, a link analyzer, an entity association engine, an associative search engine, and Blackboard patterns, as well as our data fusion algorithms. BIIT will have unique capabilities for link and trend analysis for identification and detection of soft targets by means of HUMINT, COMINT, IMINT, and other intelligence data sources. The innovative use of unique intelligent agents, link analysis, associative search, and Blackboard patterns will enable BIIT to identify and track soft targets, and help commanders and analysts to quickly detect soft targets, and to disrupt and/or attack them. In Phase I POC will demonstrate BIIT feasibility by experiments, simulation, and performance assessment. In Phase II we will advance, code, and test the Phase I prototype, evaluate it through simulation and experiments, and validate the proof of concept toolset. We will mature the BIIT prototype software into commercial software and an automated toolset in Phase III and beyond.

FIRST RF CORP.
4865 Sterling Drive Suite 100
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
ARMY 07-109      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Blue Force Communications Compatible Antenna System
Abstract:As RF transmitters become more prevalent on US Army ground vehicles, the need for antenna systems that allow for mutual interoperability of Blue Force communications equipment and other RF systems grows in urgency. The main challenges that must be addressed for a successfully-realized system include adequate bandwidth and gain coverage as well as an understanding of the practical domain of the problem. Technologies addressing these challenges will require accurate verification from measurements and simulations of installed performance. FIRST RF has developed a broadband multi-function antenna system and an innovative beam forming technique to address each of these concerns. In support of these proposed techniques, FIRST RF engineers have designed, tested, simulated, and validated key components of the technology. Based on these results, FIRST RF has generated initial predictions of installed performance. FIRST RF investigated several radiator, integration, and beam forming techniques, providing a wide variety of technologies to be pursued in the Phase I evaluation, and for future systems. The proposed innovative solutions are practical and maximize performance and integration in order to facilitate expedited delivery to the warfighter. Prototypes and models developed in preparation for this proposal are available for immediate testing and engineering by the US Army team.

DIGITAL RECEIVER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
20250 Century Blvd Suite 300
Germantown, MD 20874
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 916-5554
Dr. Ernest Seagraves
ARMY 07-110      Awarded: 2/20/2008
Title:Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) Network Detector and Traffic Analyzer
Abstract:With domestic and international acceptance of the WiMAX protocol (IEEE 802.16), we can expect high growth in future deployments. This growth will enable widespread availability of low cost, high bandwidth, mobile data communications. The 802.16 standard has been amended to 802.16e (Mobile WiMAX) that enables cellular delivery of high speed data to mobile terminals. The deployment of Mobile WiMAX changes the paradigm of cellular service by offering Voice over IP, thus unifying voice and data traffic. Government agencies responsible for collection of signal and communication intelligence will require devices to prosecute this standard. DRT proposes to develop a WiMAX Network Analyzer (WNA) capability for use in DRT software defined receivers and transceivers. The WNA would rapidly scan the bands of interest, detect valid WiMAX base-stations and mobile-stations, monitor physical and MAC layers, and monitor/analyze packet traffic. Evolution of the WNA is envisioned to provide base station capability to interrogate mobile stations and mobile capability to enable network probing. Phase I of this program will fund detailed research into the technical aspects of a WiMAX Network Analyzer architecture and enable planning for the development of a prototype unit under Phase II.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Mr. Christopher Hornberg
ARMY 07-111      Awarded: 7/29/2008
Title:Laser Activated Device Countermeasure
Abstract:Detection and countermeasure of Laser Activated Devices (LADS) in today’s battlefield is of great importance. Current optics detection technology can be extended to the LADS detection mission, but often suffer from several operational challenges. Areté Associates approach can provide rapid optics detection over a wide field of regard (FOR).

DAVID H POLLOCK CONSULTANTS, INC.
99 Kinderkamack Road Suite 301
Westwood, NJ 07675
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 722-0615
Mr. Jon Hoimes
ARMY 07-111      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Optimized Laser Jam Code for Defeating Laser Activated Devices
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop laser based countermeasure techniques necessary to combine multiple pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) each repeated for an independent amount of time into an optimized sequence which would run in the shortest amount of time. The updated pre-detonation sequence would be used in laser based countermeasure systems whose goal is to stimulate a desired response from an emplaced improvised explosive device (IED) at such a range that would significantly reduce or eliminate the lethality of the IED attacks currently plaguing coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. Upon completion of this program and thus having a technique to guide future pre-detonation sequence generation will allow for a more adaptable countermeasure system which will better protect soldiers in the field.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-0966
Mr. Colin Morrow
ARMY 07-112      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Activity Behavior Modeling Toolkit (ABMT) for Non-Traditional OPFOR (Opposing Forces)
Abstract:The objective of this effort, proposed by Radiance Technologies, Inc. and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), is to investigate and design new behavioral models, methodologies, and techniques to identify unique behavior signatures of non- traditional transnational Opposing Forces (OPFOR) and or individuals in the Operations Other Than War (OOTW) environment to assist in predicting OPFOR courses of action (COA). This effort falls into the realm of designing asymmetrical activity behavioral models that use Human Measurement and Signature Intelligence (Human-MASINT).

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
1275 Kennestone Circle Suite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 384-3401
Ms. Susan F. Dugas
ARMY 07-113      Awarded: 11/28/2007
Title:Novel ECCM Techniques for Ground-Based Radars
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) proposes to develop a combination of waveforms and beamforming techniques that will mitigate both broadband noise and coherent jamming. PRA will focus the development of ECCM techniques applied to the Firefinder EQ-36 radar using the Multi-Mission Radar (MMR) Advanced Technology Objective (ATO) prototype system as a test bed. PRA will propose a suite of ECCM techniques that can either be implemented into the EQ-36 radar with slight modification or can be implemented in future radars that are designed with these ECCM techniques in mind. For coherent jammers PRA proposes to randomize the fast (intra-pulse) and slow (inter-pulse) time-waveform structure to prevent a coherent jammer from capturing the transmit pulse or dwell. PRA proposes using pseudo-orthogonal codes to randomize a combination of time, frequency, and phase. Pseudo-random pulse coding will prevent a coherent jammer from covering the signal pulse. Continuous noise and coherent jamming techniques must be treated differently due the inherent nature of these two ECM approaches. Since noise jamming is essentially a statistical process, any ECCM mitigation technique must be statistical as well. PRA proposes to use adaptive beamforming and space-time adaptive processing techniques that will use covariance information to null broadband jammers.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Michael Harrell
ARMY 07-114      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:Low-Cost Multi-Channel Arbitrary Waveform Generator (2007022)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop a high-fidelity low-cost multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator (MC-ARB) utilizing delta-sigma waveform generator (DS-WG). The MC-ARB will be developed for use in a tactical vehicles environment. Applications of the MC-ARB include targeted jamming, communications, decoys, test instrumentation. The MC-ARB will support ten wideband channels capable of being tuned anywhere in the 20-6000 MHz spectrum. Each channel supports multiple independent waveforms. The feasibility of developing a low-cost MC-ARB and control GUI will be assessed during Phase I. A prototype delta-sigma waveform generator will be demonstrated during the Phase I- Option. A prototype MC-ARB will be developed during Phase II leading to a system demonstration.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Brad Weals
ARMY 07-114      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Low-Cost, Multi-Channel Arbitrary Waveform Generator
Abstract:The US Army has a need for a vehicle mounted arbitrary waveform generator to be used for research, development, and testing of various Electronic Surveillance (ES) and Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The generator must be low-cost, multi-channel, high power, fast tuning, and capable of operation over a wide bandwidth. It must also be designed to operate from vehicle power or a battery pack, and it must be ruggedized for harsh environments, particularly for the shock and vibration associated with operation from a HMMWV. Toyon proposes to meet these requirements with a highly modular design consisting of up to 10 channel-modules and a backplane providing power and Ethernet connectivity. Each channel-module will support a fully independent, high power channel output over the entire operating band. Individual modules will have their own Flash Memory, field programmable gate array (FPGA), waveform synthesizer, up- conversion chain and set of power amplifiers (PAs). They will also be interchangeable, field replaceable, and individually configurable. Toyon is particularly well suited for the development and design of such a waveform generator due to our extensive signal processing, RF design, and prototyping experience.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 267-2300
Mr. Peter Stuckey
ARMY 07-114      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Low-Cost, Multi-Channel Arbitrary Waveform Generator
Abstract:Trident will develop Broadband Arbitrary Digital GEnerator (BADGE) to support Electronic Warfare, counter IED, and other applications. Trident has developed an innovative and flexible system architecture, and will utilize key pieces of technology developed in our RADAR and SIGINT work to reduce cost and schedule risk. This approach will result in system that will meet the challenging performance and cost objectives.

GOLETA STAR LLC
24085 Garnier St
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Dr. Cheng Pao
ARMY 07-115      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:W-Band Circular Electrically Scanned Array
Abstract:Goleta Star LLC with support from Academia, Quinstar and other supporting businesses proposes to develop a W-Band Circular Electrically Scanned Array (CESA). There are a number of alternative solutions which will be traded off in Phase I. The baseline proposed approach balances front end innovation and advanced back end processing techniques to evolve a cost-effective product for relatively small size UAV or OAV applications, with a weight goal of < 10-lbs. The target system provides 360-deg Az coverage by 60-deg El coverage, with up to 20-GHz bandwidth in the 80-100 GHz band. Radar modes of interest are Micro-Doppler MTI for hovering, SAR resolutions of 10-cm, 3-cm and 1-cm from hi speed flite, and multibeam communications. The Phase I tradeoff effort will enable the Army to select a preferred approach, from among the candidate options presented, for detailed design in the Phase I Option and development in Phase II. Limited lab testing and demonstration will be performed during the basic Phase I effort to assist in the tradeoff analysis and option formulation.

AETION TECHNOLOGIES LLC
1275 Kinnear Road
Columbus, OH 43212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 340-1835
Dr. John Josephson
ARMY 07-116      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Automatically Guiding Interviews By Commonsense Abductive Principles
Abstract:Significant challenges exist related to smartly interviewing multiple people to assess eyewitness accounts and judge how truthful a source is. Aetion proposes applying a powerful form of inference called abduction to help intelligently interview multiple people and compare their corresponding answers to judge the reliability of a source. Abductive inference, or "inference to best explanation," has been intensely researched over the past twenty years. Aetion has successfully applied this approach to complex, real-world problems. Because abduction allows a high degree of abstraction, incongruous data is easily fused and intelligently analyzed. An abduction machine (software implementing an abductive inference approach) has the ability to assess the the truthfulness of a source, find potential relationships among sources, determine what statements need to be verified, and provide display support for the user.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
ARMY 07-116      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:A Tool for Assessing and Conveying Testimony Veracity (TACT-V)
Abstract:HUMINT-specialized technologies (e.g., CI/HUMINT Information Management System (CHIMS), CI/HUMINT Automated Tool Set (CHATS)) provide soldiers with tools that help them capture, disseminate and reason about the information they collect. While these tools can help identify inconsistencies in source testimony, this activity still requires time and the expertise of the HUMINT collector to effectively assess and report on source and information reliability. To enhance the collection and exploitation of tactical HUMINT, soldiers need a tool to identify, assess, and alert them to false, inconsistent, and unreliable testimony gathered from sources while they are interviewing. We propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of a Tool for Assessing and Conveying Testimony Veracity (TACT-V) that will allow HUMINT collectors to rapidly assess and convey the veracity and context surrounding source testimony. For this endeavor, we will leverage our vast experience in developing intelligent systems for Military Intelligence (MI) activities, and exploit our access to MI experts and HUMINT information to create a tool that that enables HUMINT collectors to detect gaps, and misinformation during the course of an interview. Also, we will leverage our experience in developing Serviced Oriented Architecture (SOA) solutions to design and demonstrate a composition of software services that are loosely coupled, extensible, and ready to integrate with current and future HUMINT support systems.

ACULIGHT CORP.
22121 20th Avenue SE
Bothell, WA 98021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Roy Mead
ARMY 07-117      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Standoff Explosives Detection
Abstract:Aculight Corporation and ITT have teamed to develop a brassboard Raman sensor technology providing a clear path to a fully integrated sensor capable of detecting trace amounts of explosives at 30+ meters. Because of the maturity of the Aculight pulsed fiber laser technology and the ITT family of Raman sensors, the time to deployment of the proposed standoff sensor desired by the Army is minimal.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4760
Dr. Dan Xiang
ARMY 07-117      Awarded: 12/5/2007
Title:Orthogonal Spectroscopic technique Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced-Breakdown and Laser-Induced-Fluorescence for Standoff Explosive Detection
Abstract:In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI), along with its subcontractor, Prof. James Spicer from the Johns Hopkins University, proposes to develop a novel femtosecond laser-induced-fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) to form an orthogonal spectroscopic system with a femtosecond LIBS for detection and identification of hazardous materials. The key innovation of our proposed approach lies in applications of the orthogonal features associated with the LIBS and LIFS to enhance the signal detection for explosives. Due to the similarity in optics and electronics of a LIFS and LIBS, the combination of a femtosecond LIFS and LIBS can take advantages of both systems, without substantially increasing the overall system’s configuration and cost.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Iouri Kompaniets
ARMY 07-118      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Man-Portable Universal Real-Time Hyperspectral Sensor
Abstract:To address the Army need for a visible and near-infrared (VNIR) – short wavelength infrared (SWIR) compact hyperspectral sensor in the 400 nm to 2500 nm wavelength window (greater than or equal to 100 spectral bands) for real-time, close-range (less than 1 km), ground-to-ground and low air-to-ground battlefield reconnaissance and surveillance missions, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Man-Portable Universal Real-Time Hyperspectral (MURTHY) sensor as a unique combination of a large-format staring focal-plane-array imager and a novel multispectral data processing algorithm, based on digital terrain models (DTM), line-of-sight analysis (LSA), and hyperspectral algorithms for target identification. The innovations in the MURTHY sensor will enable the system to operate in real-time mode using more than 100 spectral bands from 400 nm to 2300 nm, with further extension to 2500 nm wavelength. Computation for the hyperspectral method is applied to anomaly pixels only and allows real-time mode. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the MURTHY sensor concept and key algorithm elements by mathematical modeling and computer simulation. In Phase II POC plans to develop and test integrated hardware and software set to various nighttime devices to prove the stated concept and algorithms.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Dr. David B. Cavanaugh
ARMY 07-118      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Visible and Near Infra-Red (VNIR) – Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) Hyperspectral Sensor
Abstract:The Broad Band Hyperspectral Imaging (BBHSI) System will provide spectral coverage from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The system is designed to be compact, portable and rugged for use by the warfighter. The BBHSI contains an integrated real-time hyperspectral processor which runs anomaly detection, end member, and similar other algorithms, and provides an easy and intuitive interface to the operator. The system also incorporates the ability for hyperspectral or multispectral imaging under low light level conditions.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Matthew Erdtmann
ARMY 07-119      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Monolithic SiGe SWIR Imaging Cameras
Abstract:In this project, Agiltron and RTI International propose to demonstrate low-cost, low-power, man-portable megapixel SiGe SWIR imaging cameras as a vehicle to replace more costly InGaAs imaging cameras. In Phase I, superlattices of Ge quantum dots or strained SiGe layers will be investigated for their detection performance in the SWIR band. In Phase II, leveraging the colossal investments made in the Si CMOS microelectronics industry, Agiltron and RTI will transition the proposed SiGe technology to fabricate two-dimensional FPAs with SiGe photosensitive areas monolithically integrated with Si CMOS ROIC, thus eliminating the hybrid approach of conventional InGaAs FPAs. The SiGe FPAs will be packaged into fully functional imaging cameras using Agiltron’s proficiency in optoelectronic module design, assembly, and manufacturing. The SiGe SWIR imaging cameras produced under this project will possess unprecedented price/performance metrics, and the low cost will enable widespread adoption by the military and commercial markets and open up new, disruptive markets.

APPLIED EM, INC.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Dr. C. J. Reddy
ARMY 07-120      Awarded: 1/4/2008
Title:Body Wearable Diversity Antenna Systems for Increased Antenna Performance
Abstract:Body wearable antenna systems designed for Land Warrior/Ground Soldiers are vulnerable to signal cancellations due to multipath and higher losses . Diversity and MIMO techniques integrated with these antennas can mitigate multipath and shadowing effects to increase the overall link system gain. Under this effort, we propose several methods (switching among antennas with better reception, combining antenna with complex weights, beam shaping and beam steering, and polarization diversity) to implement diversity with novel signal processing techniques, and thus reduce signal to noise ratios to increase reception reliability for the Army’s tactical radio systems. Applied EM and its team members propose a comprehensive study to improve body wearable antennas . Techniques that mitigate multipath effects and interference are proposed. Concurrently, we will carry out experimental studies to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. Stephen Craven
ARMY 07-120      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Body Wearable Diversity Antenna Systems for Increased Antenna Performance
Abstract:The creation of a wearable diversity antenna system for the warfighter presents a variety of challenges. The antennas must be wearable, robust, unobtrusive, light-weight, and interface with existing and future Army radios. To effectively design these antennas simulations must include the effects of human tissue on radio propagation. The antennas must tolerate and compensate for the motion and flexing of the underlying garment. Prototype creation and testing requires specialized knowledge in wearable electronics manufacturing. Luna will evaluate multiple diversity schemes for wearable antennas, validating simulations through direct measurements of a prototype laser-cut fabric antenna. The simulations will consider the entire antenna system including human tissue. In addition to traditional diversity techniques, such as spatial and polarization diversity, field diversity, a powerful technique often neglected, will be simulated.

NANODYNAMICS, INC.
901 Fuhrmann Blvd.
Buffalo, NY 14203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 853-4900
Mr. Gregory M. Berube
ARMY 07-121      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Development and Fabrication of Highly Conductive High Aspect Ratio Nanoflakes for Infrared Obscurant Applications
Abstract:Infrared obscurants are commonly used to screen soldiers and assets from enemy threat. In order to improve this countermeasure, materials superior to currently used brass and graphite flakes are required. Nano-thick metallic flakes have recently been demonstrated to achieve superior performance in terms of mass extinction, which likely will lead to a higher Figure of Merit defined by the U.S. Army. Similar metallic flakes are made at tonnage scales for demanding applications such as Electronics. The proposed SBIR project will be executed by experienced metallic flake scientists, Gregory Berube of NanoDynamics and Dr. Dan Goia at Clarkson University. A metallic flake will be developed leading to a Figure of Merit of at least four using a process allowing for easy scalability to manufacturing scale. In design of the flake, consideration will be taken toward not only selecting the right metal system, but also an organic system that allows for environmental stability of the flake while maximizing fill factor and dissemination yield. Then, the Candidate Flake will be demonstrated at a scale of at least 500 grams at a pilot plant scale while maintaining a high Figure of Merit. This pilot material will be validated by the Army through chamber testing.

SIGMA TECHNOLOGIES INTL, INC.
10960 N. Stallard Place
Tucson, AZ 85737
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 575-8013
Dr. Richard E. Ellwanger
ARMY 07-121      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:FABRICATION OF HIGH ASPECT RATIO Cu AND BRASS NANOFLAKES FOR IR OBSCURANT APPLICATIONS
Abstract:Development of a process to produce kg quantities of Cu and brass nanoflake material suitable for use as an IR obscurant is proposed. The process will comprise deposition of alternating layers of metal and release material on a deposition substrate, release and breakup of the metal layers into an organic carrier, and freeze dry processing of the slurried nanoflake material into a dry powder. The process will be scalable to commercial levels and characterization of the process will include a comprehensive estimation of process costs.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
David B. Kynor
ARMY 07-122      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Seismic Perimeter Monitoring System
Abstract:Maintenance of a secure perimeter around military camps is a significant problem. Visual surveillance and electronic imaging currently serve as the primary surveillance modalities. However, in using these methods, it is often extremely difficult to detect insurgents making effective use of stealth and camouflage. Seismic sensors offer an attractive alternative as they have been shown to be effective at detecting pedestrians in many circumstances and can be buried to provide hidden, unattended surveillance. However, the performance of existing seismic sensor systems is often limited by ambient noise and uncertain detection of distant footsteps. The goal of this program is development of a novel seismic monitoring system that overcomes the limitations of existing systems through the use of an innovative system architecture and data processing algorithms. During Phase I, we will demonstrate the primary features of the system and conduct a high-level design of a fully field-deployable system to be developed during Phase II.

MCQ, INC.
1551 Forbes St.
Fredericksburg, VA 22405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 373-2374
Mr. Barry Jones
ARMY 07-122      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Enhanced Standoff Detection of Personnel Intrusions using Seismic Sensors
Abstract:The proposed SBIR will advance the state of the art in seismic algorithms for use in unattended ground sensors (UGS) for the detection of personnel. McQ will build upon its extensive experience with seismic UGS sensors. We will use our OmniSense system as a platform for the demonstration of this advanced capability. We will start with several advanced algorithms that have already be identified and evaluated both by us and by others as a baseline. To this baseline we will add other algorithms that have not yet been evaluated. This group of detection algorithms will first be evaluated using our library of seismic data and one or more of our UGS simulator systems. Based upon the simulation results, we will then evaluate them experimentally in the field on our OmniSense UGS systems. We will also add features that will reject seismic sources that are identified by the user as nuisances or sources that are of no interest to the user through signal processing that identifies these sources their seismic signal characteristics. We will further use 3 axis geophones and a small geophone array to demonstrate the ability to reject signals from a user designated direction or area.

ANDREWS SPACE, INC.
505 5th Ave S Suite 300
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 438-0615
Mr. John Savage
ARMY 07-123      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Novel Representations of Elevation Data
Abstract:Andrews space proposes two pronged approach to reduce the size of elevation data files that need to be stored and transmitted. The first approach is a better compression algorithm that works well on discontinuous data although is less effective on smooth data. This is the opposite of traditional compression methods, which are not effective at compressing discontinuous data such as the elevation in urban terrain. This should provide high fidelity urban elevation data with a minimum file size. The second approach is an innovative way to transmit the data that will reduce by many orders of magnitude the amount of data that needs to be transmitted to and stored by a soldier or vehicle in the field. By synergy of currently available off-the-shelf components we can create an innovative system that allows transmission of the required data sets at download speeds that are well within current capabilities.

NUMERICA CORP.
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Dr. Randy Paffenroth
ARMY 07-123      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Novel Representations of Elevation Data
Abstract:With ever-increasing detail in terrain elevation data available to the Warfighter, new challenges are faced in the Battlespace for storage, transmission, and rapid display of these data. The key benefit of these more detailed data is better representation of terrain: thus, traditional approaches to compress or stream the information are generally not acceptable as these techniques typically reduce data fidelity. Accurate representations of elevation data are required for Mission Planning, Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield, and Dismount Maneuvers. All of these applications are facilitated by highly compressed, high fidelity Digital Elevation Models (DEM). Accordingly, advanced algorithms are required to compress Geographic Information System (GIS) data allowing DEM data to be transmitted, stored, manipulated, and displayed by the Warfighter to facilitate real-time Battlespace assessment. Currently available compression technologies can be quite effective at reducing image data files sizes. Such methods often do not correctly represent outliers in the data, but outliers are perhaps the most important part of a DEM data set. The precise location and elevation of local maxima are critical information for pilots and artillery units. The proposed work centers on compression schemes that accurately encode outlier information while maintaining small file sizes and efficient decompression.

CAZOODLE, INC.
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 265-0299
Dr. Zhen Zhang
ARMY 07-124      Awarded: 11/16/2007
Title:Web-Scale Search-based Data Extraction and Integration: Geospatial Database Generation Agents
Abstract:This proposal develops a novel Web indexing and search system for discovering geo- spatial data. It continuously crawls, extracts entities through pattern-instance searching and ranking process to update the geo-spatial database.

LINGUASTAT
784 Edgemar Ave
Pacifica, CA 94044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 324-8898
Mr. Mark Butler
ARMY 07-124      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Geospatial Database Generation Agents
Abstract:We propose to develop technology for geospatial database generation (GDBGEN) by combining six key components: 1) Use of intelligent crawling to identify and efficiently process documents on the World Wide Web relevant to a specific location or geographic feature 2) Spatio-temporal parsing using on new innovations to recognize and resolve location names and time expressions and an automated recognition engine built using conditional random fields 3) Text parsing using natural language processing to parse texts into appropriate lexical, syntactic, and semantic units to identify a wide range of descriptive features that may be expressed in tables or natural language sentences 4) A coordination component to seamlessly relate locations, times, and descriptive features to each other both within and across document boundaries into a collection of semantic “geospatial knowledge structures” 5) A reasoning component which provides a robust broad coverage framework for assigning confidence scores and selecting the best factoids from a set of potentially conflicting candidates 6) A data management layer which facilitates user interaction on multiple levels of granularity and enables discovery, visualization, and export of data using open standards.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8117
Dr. Michael W. Jones
ARMY 07-125      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Passive Imaging Millimeter Wave Polarimeter System
Abstract:There is currently growing interest in combining passive MMW imaging and polarimetry for various applications such as target discrimination, precipitation monitoring and improved terrain mapping. As passive systems require less power, volume, and weight than their active counterparts, they can be readily adapted to a wider range of airborne platforms. Digital Fusion Solutions, Inc., (DFS) and Trex Enterprises (Trex) propose to develop a full Stokes, passive MMW imaging polarimeter that is capable of being deployed from an airborne platform. The system is currently envisioned as a two-channel, push broom full- Stokes imaging polarimeter based on frequency scanned MMW line scanners fabricated by Trex. The two receivers will use a common collector in order to obtain common instantaneous fields-of-view (IFOVs). A preliminary system design for a deployable system will be completed during Phase I. Initial design and fabrication of a laboratory- based testbed will begin under the Phase I option. A prototype system will be fabricated and demonstrated during Phase II.

INFORMATION MACHINES INTERNATIONAL
2200 Regency Drive
Irving, TX 75062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 725-6805
Dr. Dayton Eden
ARMY 07-125      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Passive Imaging Millimeter Wave Polarimeter System
Abstract:Being able to use polarization effects while gathering imagery can mean the difference between discerning important objects and features in a scene or not. The objective of this program is to build a high utility real-time imaging system that can take passive, millimeter wave images in all four Stokes parameters, separately and simultaneously. A compact, lightweight and battery operated, millimeter wave imaging system is being developed independently. The key to this system is a staring sensor array of antenna coupled microbolometers fabricated as an integral unit. Different antenna array layouts may be used without having to change the rest of the structure. For this program, the antenna layout will represent independent Stokes vectors whose output will be digitally processed after detection. Two millimeter wave frequency bands will be considered: 75-125 GHz, and 210-350 GHz. A special, anamorphic image stabilization and object tracking software will be used to enhance the system sensitivity. Gains of a factor of ten over the basic bolometers are possible without compromising frame rate. The imaging system that houses the array is dual mode, capable of taking registered images in the infrared or visible as well as millimeter wave.

SPECIAL PROJECTS TEAM, LLC
7 HILLCREST DRIVE
SOUTH DEERFIELD, MA 01373
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 545-2136
Dr. Calvin Swift
ARMY 07-125      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Passive Imaging Millimeter Wave Polarimeter System
Abstract:The major objective of this Phase I proposal is to design a millimeter wave radiometer system that can be mounted on an airborne platform, including a UAV. This system will exhibit several advanced features. First, it will accommodate a mechanical scan unit that will develop sufficient spin to synchronize antenna rotation rate with the forward motion of the aircraft in order to image in a push broom fashion. Second, the millimeter wave receivers will be designed to measure all four Stokes parameters, with particular attention to be focused on the implementation of satisfactory calibration procedures. Finally, the process will strive to design a system that will achieve the best possible image spatial resolution without overburdening the UAV resources of size, weight, and power.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Patrick A. Toole
ARMY 07-126      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Optimal Intervisibility Site Selection
Abstract:Optimal placement of multiple sensors is an important part of the contemporary battlefield, however the computational challenge increases exponentially with the number of sensors considered in the problem. Global search techniques such as Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms have been employed with success against such problems. Toyon proposes to develop and compare two optimization methods, Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm to provide a timely near-optimal multiple sensor placement solution. By leveraging the Geospatial Analysis and Planning Support (GAPS) Toolbox, Toyon begins from an operationally deployed GIS application with an optimization module already developed. This proposal presents case study results for the existing Simulated Annealing approach and three techniques that show promise in minimizing the time to achieve a solution. Our Genetic Algorithm approach utilizes efficient storage and processing techniques that show promise with initial testing. Phase I deliverables will include a demonstration of the visibility optimizers against 1200 x 1200 cell urban and rural terrains, comparison results, and a standalone executable. Phase II will advance the optimization method and develop the capability as a web service application capable of interfacing with the Commercial Joint Mapping Toolkit environment.

IMPACT COMPUTING CORP.
606 Burnt Mills Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 593-2350
Mr. Hyam Singer
ARMY 07-127      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Spatio-Temporal Dynamics (STD) Data Model
Abstract:The proposed innovative research represents geographic dynamics in spatio-temporal data models, positing that spatio-temporal data are samples of geographic dynamics and that understanding the drivers and outcomes of these dynamics is the ultimate goal of a spatio-temporal GIS. Our proposed expressive data model and enabling algorithms make it possible to query, analyze, understand, and predict with increasing accuracy how activities, events and processes manifest across space and time, so as to extract meaningful information and synthesize actionable intelligence. Impact Computing proposes development of an open source implementation of the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics (STD) data model, based on the pioneering work and research of Dr. May Yuan of the University of Oklahoma. Through its component-based architecture, our STD module may serve as an extension to existing GIS databases and tools, thereby facilitating integration with existing DoD systems and frameworks. Key innovations of the STD data model and research include: 1. a comprehensive ontology for activities, events, processes and states that emphasizes change, history, movement, and mutation; 2. the conceptual abstraction of activities, events and processes, distinct from entities or objects; 3. innovative application of dynamic time warping and other spatio-temporal analytical techniques to support similarity, behavior, and relationship queries

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5223
Dr. Margaret Lyell
ARMY 07-127      Awarded: 11/14/2007
Title:Spatio-temporal Data Modeling using Formal Ontology Technology
Abstract:Developments in net centric applications, location aware computing and sensor network deployment have resulted in awareness that data modeling which can support applications having entities and events with spatio-temporal aspects that are subject to change must be further developed. Diverse, though scattered or narrowly focused, recent research efforts have noted the importance of going beyond the traditional Entity- Relationship model and incorporating semantics into the modeling. The significance of the opportunity is that if an appropriate data model that incorporates the spatio-temporal aspects of entities and associated events is developed: (1) computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools can incorporate the primitives for the enhanced data modeling, (2) appropriate query language extensions may be developed and (3) guidance may be given to application designers. We propose to develop a data model that incorporates spatial and temporal aspects into entity and associated event data through the innovative use of formal logic-based ontology technology. In developing the spatio-temporal data model, our effort will be informed by existing standards / specifications from the Open Geospatial Consortium.

TECHNOVA CORP.
3927 Dobie Road
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 485-9583
Dr. Anagi Balachandra
ARMY 07-128      Awarded: 11/28/2007
Title:Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes into Materials with High Compressive Strengths
Abstract:Functionalization techniques will be developed to enhance the dispersion, interfacial interactions and reinforcement efficiency of carbon nanotubes and other graphite nanomaterials within hydraulic cements and ceramics. The project focuses on covalent functionalization techniques which preserve the structure and properties of nanomaterials, provide control over the degree of funcitonalization, and are scalable, energy-efficient, and economically and environmentally viable. Fluorination followed by derivative reaction, free radical and reductive functionalization techniques will be particularly emphasized. A key consideration in the project is to introduce inorganic nanoparticles upon functionalized nanomaterials (via in-situ synthesis or self-assembly) to enhance the interactions between nanomaterials and the inorganic matrix via chemical reaction and interdiffusion. The Phase I research will develop a theoretical framework to guide selection of the type and degree of functionalizaiton. Selected functionalization techniques will then be developed, and their impact on the structure and surface chemistry of nanomaterials will be investigated. Promising functional groups will be used as the base for synthesis or assembly of selected inorganic nanoparticles upon nanomaterials for effective interactions with representative groups of hydraulic cements and ceramics. Dispersions of functionalized nanomaterials (with or without tethered nanoparticles) will be homogenized together with dispersions of cement or ceramic particles, and will be consolidated and processed under pressure via moist curing or sintering. The resulting inorganic matrix nanocomposites will be subjected to laboratory tests for assessment of their structure, mechanical performance, and thermal and electrical characteristics. The competitive position of these nanocomposites will be assessed against conventional (micro-scaled) ceramic and cement composites, and potentially viable fields of applications will be identified. The follow-up Phase I Option will identify and screen strategies to refine the functionalization techniques for further improvement of the reinforcement efficiency of carbon nanotubes and other graphite nanomaterials within hydraulic cements and ceramics.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. Rock Rushing
ARMY 07-128      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes into Materials with High Compressive Strengths
Abstract:High-strength concrete is vital in most fixed protective structures and ceramics are likewise critical for the containment of blast fragments and bullet penetrators. Concrete and ceramics exhibit mechanically brittle behavior due to their microstructure. The utilization of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements for concrete and ceramic materials has been limited, in part, because of their inherent hydrophobic character. Typical approaches to increase the hydrophilic nature of carbon nanotubes include functionalization through oxidation and/or reaction with reactive species. Many of these techniques for CNT�s can result in degradation of sidewall integrity and reductions in mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the nanotubes. TRI-Austin has identified an approach that will address both the issues of matrix compatibility and improved adhesion of carbon nanotubes in inorganic matrix materials such as concrete and ceramics. This approach is based on the mechanisms of adhesion resulting from helical wrapping and covalent attachment of carbon nanotubes with inorganic macromolecules. TRI-Austin will be teaming with a leading producer of carbon nanotubes that has multiple pilot plants and commercial demonstration units for the production of nanotubes. CNT�s have the potential to increase the mechanical properties, including fracture toughness, of inorganic composites by inducing fiber pull-out and bridging, interfacial debonding, crack deflection and pinning effects during fracture . These improvements will potentially affect the ability to design lighter weight structural concretes and ballistic armors.

LEAMGROUP, INC.
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(217) 841-5935
Mr. Jeff Terstriep
ARMY 07-129      Awarded: 10/18/2007
Title:Next Generation Urban Encroachment Model
Abstract:A key concern for military installations is the increasing urban growth in their vicinity and its effect on mission requirements and regional sustainability goals. Mission requirements can be compromised by encroaching land uses as neighboring communities grow and prosper as the economies in the surrounding communities grow, the benefits of retaining military lands can be obscured. This research will look at how to best simulate future growth of transportation networks based on land use and traffic demands. Using LEAM, a spatial dynamic modeling tool used to simulate future land use change and associated impacts, it is possible to generate the potential future land use demand. This project will explore the feasibility of developing a new urban encroachment model that couples LEAM with a transportation network growth model to identify potential threats of urban encroachment around installations. Research included in this proposal will include review of current transportation network growth models and development of a prototype model that will interact with the LEAM land use model. This new urban encroachment model would provide a means of preemptively identifying future encroachment that would negatively impact the Army's training and testing missions.

EPIR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
590 Territorial Drive, Suite B
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 771-0203
Dr. Dinakar Ramadurai
ARMY 07-130      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Microcontainment System for Photolytically Induced Delivery of Biocide Against Biological Agents
Abstract:Currently there is no real-time technology to reliably neutralize biological and chemical agents. Conventional technologies require several hours for decontamination of surfaces either through manual spraying or scrubbing. We propose to design, fabricate and test a user-friendly, low-logistical-load photolytically triggered microcontainment system capable of rapid neutralization of biological and chemical agents with high sensitivity and specificity for all classes of bioagents – bacterial spores, viruses, vegetative bacteria, and bacterial toxins – and many chemical agents. The sensors developed will be easily used within HVAC systems, military facilities and building infrastructures. They will be low-power, have low-logistical-loads (i.e., reagents and consumables), and will allow the quantification of the neutralizing efficiency (“kill ratio”). They will also enable automated remote response and the automated refreshing of biocide carriers. They will be implemented using planar microfabrication and microfluidic techniques without any moving parts and will be augmented with polymeric nanocapsule technology and optoelectronic techniques. They will incorporate three different techniques for neutralizing biological agents: (1) the encapsulation of biocide within lipid nanoparticles, (2) the use of multifunctional oxide particles for high efficiency decontamination, and (3) the triggered release of encapsulated biocides through embedded photolytic compounds.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Shi-Hau Own
ARMY 07-130      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Encapsulated Biocidal Coatings for Decontamination of HVAC Systems
Abstract:Current technologies used for neutralization of biological warfare agents (BWA) can be effective to clean exposed facilities, however have major obstacles. Following the anthrax mail scare in 2001, certain buildings and offices were closed for months pending cleanup. To neutralize these sites, poisonous chlorine dioxide gas was pumped through building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for about nine hours, followed by another four hours removing the gas from the system. It was estimated that up to $1 billion was spend on the decontamination effort. New methods need to be developed that can decontaminate immediately upon detection of agent detection to eliminate this health, time, and cost burden. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a novel encapsulated biocidal coating that will be able to deliver on-demand biocides to neutralize spores, bacteria, and viruses within seconds of detection. This technology will ensure the protection of personnel and increase the readiness of buildings and other facilities after a biological attack.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Subrata K. Das
ARMY 07-131      Awarded: 11/14/2007
Title:Hierarchical Analysis, Reasoning, and Visualization of Events in Space and Time (HARVEST)
Abstract:The Army's Distributed Common Ground Systems (DCGS-A) promises to unite hundreds of different data sources into a common operational database. What is needed is a means of analyzing many complex, overlapping data sources, particularly those with spatial and temporal elements. Here, we propose Hierarchical Analysis, Reasoning, and Visualization of Events in Space and Time (HARVEST) to carry out spatio-temporal analysis of asymmetric threats. We combine Bayesian hierarchical models with a new class of spatio-temporal covariance functions that allow us to detect hidden spatio-temporal interaction patterns and model asymmetric spatio-temporal processes. Hierarchical modeling gives us the tools needed to combine a large number of distinct data sources, all from different spatial and temporal scales, into a unified model for prediction. But to deal with asymmetric threats we move beyond conventional approaches in order to analyze far more complex spatio-temporal processes than can be detected by traditional statistical methods. And we move cutting-edge theoretical statistics into a modeling framework that can handle complex, messy real-world data. This modeling framework will provide military analysts with tools needed to effectively assess asymmetric threats and to automate the monitoring of incoming data by using dynamically updated models to generate alerts regarding potential threats.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 682-1735
Ms. Jessica Bradley
ARMY 07-131      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Geospatial Temporal Evidential Reasoning System (GEO-STEERS)
Abstract:Our approach, termed the GeoSpatial Temporal Evidential Reasoning System (GEO- STEERS), is comprised of three key steps termed: Network Formulation, Network Testing, and Network Evaluation. In combination, these three steps provide the capabilities to discover relationships, patterns and connections between diverse sources of geospatial and/or temporal data, understand the enemy’s actions, and improve battlespace awareness. This is accomplished by identifying important geospatial and temporal relationships, predicting significant events in the battlefield, and continuously improving the quality of our geospatially enabled predictive models through an advanced data association technique. Our solution will provide the capability to identify key geospatial entities (events, persons, locations, organizations or objects) from structured and unstructured data. We will also provide the ability to quantitatively evaluate many combinations of horizontal and vertical relationships between suspect and non-suspect entities. The tool will also include a hypothesis management capability that can handle large, computationally complex relationships and interaction, and a continuous searching capability that dynamically evaluates new possible relationships between events as new data is observed. Finally, the Phase II GEO-STEERS salutation will be completely integrated with ESRI’s ArcGIS for visualization of the relationship information and predictive models accessible from the leading commercial GIS software package.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. G. Scott Valentine
ARMY 07-132      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Automated 3-D Terrain Mission Profile Generation for CBM & Durability Analysis
Abstract:Impact Technologies, LLC, in collaboration with the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory of the Rochester Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate a micro-surface terrain inferencing algorithm capability. This capability will ultimately be used within mission planning tools (Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) software) to generate 3-D terrain mission profiles with adequate level of detail to conduct meaningful vehicle durability analysis. The micro-surface terrain inferencing algorithm capability will hinge on the identification and/or development of a cost effective micro-surface terrain elevation profile collection technology that provides the required level of detail. The required level of detail will be determined through a sensitivity study of the durability analysis as a function of terrain detail. Micro-surface terrain elevation profile collected using this technology will then be used for feature extraction and terrain classification which will, in turn, enable the development of a ground truth database and the inferencing algorithms. The ground truth database will contain the relevant features for each terrain type to alleviate the need for using the collected data and minimizing storage requirements. The statistical accuracy of the inferencing algorithms will be verified and validated through comparison with collected data initially and then through comparison with information from historical vehicle test programs.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Sergey Sandomirsky
ARMY 07-132      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:Automatic Microsurface Terrain Acquisition and Modeling
Abstract:To address the Army need for innovative and cost-efficient tools for collecting microsurface terrain profiles and inferring three-dimensional microsurface terrain models for different terrain types, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Automatic Microsurface Terrain Acquisition and Modeling (AMSTAM) system. This proposed system is based on two innovations: 1) noninvasive differential laser triangulation sensors measuring microsurface terrain profiles along with soil strength, and 2) software providing an ArcGIS-compatible two dimensional spectral representation of microsurface terrain models for major terrain types. The innovation in profilometry will enable the AMSTAM system to quickly and efficiently collect microsurface terrain elevation data and create an ArcGIS-compatible database. The second innovation will create terrain roughness models for major terrain types, which is needed for BTRA mission planning and vehicle durability analysis. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the AMSTAM prototype by field testing and data collection. In Phase II POC plans to complete software development for terrain modeling in the BTRA-CJMTK environment and will conduct required field observation to characterize major terrain types.

ALICO SYSTEMS, INC.
2461 W. 205th Street, STE B105
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 781-9503
Mr. Ward A. Holdrege
ARMY 07-134      Awarded: 5/2/2008
Title:Small Aperture X-Band Antenna (SAXBA)
Abstract:Currently there is no affordable military band on-the-move non-line-of-sight (NLOS) or beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) communications capability available for land vehicles, helicopters, boats or small UAVs. The current state-of-the-art in Satellite-On-the-Move (SOTM) terminals for Blue Force Tracking (BFT) application is the unit deployed for OIF/OEF which provides 2.4 Kbps utilizing a commercial L-band satellite. The key goals of this project is to develop a low cost, military band, high data rate (> 16 Kbps) on-the- move (OTM), small footprint (< 1 cubic foot) satellite terminal which supports Blue Force Tracking (BFT), situation awareness (SA), and C2 missions. We have investigated the DoD satellite offerings and believe that the X-band Wideband Gap Filler Satellite (WGS) provides the optimum capability to support small aperture on-the-move terminals. Our proposed design will support WGS X-band. In the interim these terminals will also support XTAR a commercial X-band service provider with operational capability available today. Alico Systems proposed approach is based on utilizing low cost beam steering antenna technology with no moving parts. An innovative approach is proposed for tracking the satellite with low cost components. Our design supports >32 Kbps forward and >8 Kbps reverse data rate on-the-move with a <0.5 cubic foot volume.

MINERVA SYSTEMS & TECHNOLOGIES
28 Warrens Way Suite 101
Portsmouth, RI 02871
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 487-6711
Dr. Kalyan Ganesan
ARMY 07-134      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:Small Aperture X-Band Antenna (SAXBA)
Abstract:We propose a low-cost, low-profile, electronically scanned, in both Azimuth and Elevation, X-band communications on-the-move (OTM) antenna. All electronics and power modules including MIL-1275 type power supply are enclosed inside the radome. There are no moving parts in the system. The antenna is designed to interface, using L-band, with VSAT type modems to provide the required services. In Phase I, we will develop the operational and functional specifications of the system, identify any known barriers or risks, and propose solutions to manage the risks. We will also be establishing the operational scenario for demonstrating the effectiveness of the system.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Vincent Lee
ARMY 07-135      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:Compact and Highly Sensitive MEMS Enhanced Fiber Gas Spectrometer
Abstract:Leveraging on our extensive production experience on MEMS technology and fiber optic components, AGILTRON proposes to realize a new class of gas spectrometer with built- in MEMS enhanced mid-IR tunable laser and gas filled hollow fiber as gas cell, targeted for TIC and CWA detection. Our proposed MEMS enhanced QCL based external cavity tuning laser has high output power (tens of mW) and very large wavelength tunable range (about 2 µm), which can dramatically increase the sensitivity and selectivity. Besides, a long hollow fiber coiled in small diameter can further increase sensitivity due to its long optical absorption path. Therefore, this kind of spectrometer not only has very high sensitivity but also is very lightweight, miniature in size, highly reliable and durable. The design intrinsically eliminates the requirement for optical alignment, providing excellent temperature stability and longevity. Furthermore, our designs offer advantageous attributes of quick action, lower power consumption, low cost, and withstand severe environmental conditions. In this Phase I program, state-of-the-art MEMS enhanced EC- QCL will be designed; the sensitivity increase of long hollow fiber gas cell will be further developed and demonstrated. In addition, the proposed gas spectrometer theoretical receiver operational characteristics (ROC) will be analyzed and simulated.

BLOCK MEMS LLC
64 Cedar Hill Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 480-9643
Mr. E. Robert Schildkraut
ARMY 07-135      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:MEMS Enhanced Laser Spectrometer for Ultra-sensitive Toxic Chemical Detection
Abstract:Block MEMS, LLC proposes the development of an ultra high sensitivity MEMS enhanced, tunable diode laser spectrometer. With the aid of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) components, this spectrometer should achieve a size of <1800 cm3 while exhibiting sensitivities greatly exceeding the current JCAD specification, but with very low false alarm rate. It should exhibit extremely favorable Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves compared to current IMS or SAW point detection devices. While primarily for chemical detection, the unit should also be capable of biological cueing/detection consistent with current spectral data. The unit could also be adapted to serve as a moderate range (from 10 to 50 meters) standoff detector at somewhat larger size, weight, and power The approach combines several variable frequency Quantum Cascade Lasers operating in the 2-14 µm infrared (IR) “fingerprint” region. The unit can also measure some Mie scatter parameters which would help detection of biological aerosols. The Block approach further seeks to optimize the cost/benefit parameter by first analyzing the optimal spectral discrimination regions which differentiate among toxic species and between toxic species and military or other interferents. Through more efficient use of the spectral discrimination information, we expect further increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).

TRANSLUME
655 Phoenix Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 528-6330
Dr. Philippe Bado
ARMY 07-135      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Field-deployable, small, ultra-sensitive, battery-powered laser spectrometer for toxic chemical detection
Abstract:Using our proprietary and proven technique for machining fused silica, we propose to manufacture robust and stable hybrid fiber-waveguide tunable lasers. These hybrid lasers will be integrated into field-deployable, high-sensitivity, miniature, infrared laser spectrometers capable of performing real-time measurements of a wide range of chemical toxics. Broad IR coverage will be obtained through non-linear mixing of two or more hybrid sources. Unlike present commercial system, the tunable IR laser source will be fully waveguided. This design approach will provide exceptional robustness. Wavelength tuning, bandwidth control, synchronization, and wavelength monitoring functionalities will be implemented using waveguided elements and MEMS elements imbedded deep inside fused silica substrates. These energy efficient spectrometers will run on standard batteries without outside power sources.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(424) 263-6329
Dr. Steven Cordero
ARMY 07-136      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:A Field Rugged Multi-Agent Colorimetric Sensor Array
Abstract:Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to develop a field-rugged, colorimetric indicating armband that is capable of detecting multiple TICs and CWAs, at low concentrations, in adverse environments. The proposed sensor array will detect threatening chemical agents and provide a visual readout within minutes of coming in contact with the agent or agents. Rapid detection is essential so that warfighters and other military personnel can recognize a threat and don protective gear. The innovative process that will allow the sensor array to overcome the drawbacks of current colorimetric technologies is that the colorimetric indicators will be immobilized in cross-linked polymers. As a starting point for this project, IOS will use its proprietary repertoire of CWA-sensitive colorimetric polymers that were developed for a fiber optic-based chemical warfare agent sensing system currently in "beta test" deployment. Our novel polymers have many advantages as a support medium, including a low glass transition temperature (broad operating range), no swelling by water (immersible in water without impact on performance), excellent permeation of target agents (fast detection), flexible and rugged containment of indicators (robustness and longevity), and ease of manufacturing (amenable to miniaturization).

K&M ENVIRONMENTAL, INC.
2557 Production Road
Virginia Beach, VA 23454
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 431-2260
Dr. Edward Locke
ARMY 07-136      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Technology for Detection of Chemicals in Extreme Environmental Conditions
Abstract:With increasing threats to war-fighters and first responders, each individual serving in these roles needs the capability to respond to a wide range of unpredictable conditions. One of these conditions is the presence of toxic chemicals. The technologies for the detection of toxic chemicals can be broken into two general groups: 1. simple-to-use colorimetric paper (such as pH paper or M8 paper), and 2. complex electronic devices (such as the JCAD – the Joint Chemical Agent Detector). Colorimetric paper is simple enough for use by every war-fighter or first responder, but it is not rugged enough for regular field use and responds poorly to relevant agent vapor concentrations. Some electronic devices are designed for field use, but their complex operation, high power demand, high cost and bulkiness make them impractical for use by a large number of war- fighters or first responders. Clearly the need exists for a device to bridge the gap between these two technologies. In this work, new colorimetric sensor chemistries will be developed and validated for performance under harsh environmental conditions and after immersion in salt or freshwater. Sensitivity targets consist of colorimetric response to PEL in 15 minutes or less and one-half IDLH responses in 5 minutes or less.

NUMERICA CORP.
4850 Hahns Peak Drive Suite 200
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 461-2000
Dr. Randy Paffenroth
ARMY 07-137      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Passive Angle Tracking in a Distributed Sensor Environment
Abstract:In the modern electronic warfare environment, a network-centric tracking system will have to function in a variety of jamming scenarios. The coordinated use of multiple distributed sensors by network communication has the potential to substantially improve track state estimates, associated feature and attribute estimates, and combat identification (CID) of targets, even in the presence of enemy countermeasures. The improvement is primarily due to geometric diversity, complementary sensor information, and different coverage areas and these effects are precisely those that are particularly desirable for tracking problems involving passive angle measurements. With respect to tracking, multiple target tracking methods divide into two broad classes, namely single frame and multiple frame methods.The performance advantage of the multiple frame methods over the single frame methods follows from the ability to hold difficult decisions in abeyance until more information is available or, equivalently, the opportunity to change past decisions to improve current decisions. Accordingly, the focus of this effort will be the interaction of ECM scenarios with advanced multi-target, multi-sensor multiple frame tracking algorithms and to provide network-centric processing of passive angle measurements.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Mahendra K. Mallick
ARMY 07-137      Awarded: 2/27/2008
Title:Robust Passive and Active Track Fusion in a Distributed and Decentralized Architecture
Abstract:This proposal addresses the problem of angle-only tracking of multiple jammer strobes in 3D by a distributed network of passive sensors with decentralized track processing. The challenges are (1) to develop robust algorithms for signal and/or data processing to associate measurements unambiguously from one sensor to others in the network (that is, “deghost” the possible intersections of jammer strobes), (2) to associate and track for various sensor/target geometries, (3) to be insensitive to data timeliness, and (4) to transition to single-unit tracking where feasible. We propose to develop robust algorithms and software by leveraging on Toyon’s existing multiple-hypothesis tracking (MHT) framework for 3D passive tracking and fusion of passive tracks in a distributed sensor network. For the passive tracking problem, we shall develop range-parameterized extended Kalman filter algorithms and software in MHT using the modified spherical polar coordinates (MSC). We shall add a number dynamic models using the MSC to the interacting multiple model component of MHT to handle maneuvering targets. Initially, we shall demonstrate track-to-track fusion of active and passive tracks using the convex combination algorithm and information filter.

DANIEL H. WAGNER, ASSOC., INC.
40 Lloyd Avenue Suite 200
Malvern, PA 19355
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 727-7700
Dr. C. Allen Butler
ARMY 07-138      Awarded: 2/12/2008
Title:Radar Video Manual Measurement Extraction
Abstract:In this proposed Phase-I SBIR project, we will investigate, develop, and demonstrate the feasibility of generic techniques and methods for characterizing the errors associated with manual sensor measurement extraction in a variety of processing environments that have manual tracking capability. Our technical approach will be based on a combination of mathematical and statistical techniques to handle manual measurements under several different settings. These techniques will include operator-input calibration testing, bias estimation, target echo extraction, Kalman filtering and smoothing, and a method of information extraction we refer to as pseudo-measurement. We will refer to our proposed collection of algorithmic methods and techniques as the Radar Video Manual Measurement Extraction (RVMME) System. We recognize that this system will need to be configured to the particular processing environment of interest. The Phase-I development and feasibility study will demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the RVMME system and lead to Phase-II development of a working prototype for incorporation into a specific decentralized, distributed sensor track processing environment, to be identified in consultation with the sponsor.

DIGIRAY CORP.
317 Hartford Rd.
Danville , CA 94526
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 838-1510
Dr. Richard D. Albert
ARMY 07-139      Awarded: 10/29/2007
Title:Portable Digital Field Panoramic x-ray
Abstract:This proposal is to develop a panoramic, field portable, motionless, laminographic x-ray machine for medical analysis of soldiers with head injuries resulting from military battle. The scanning x-ray source is located near the head of the soldier and the divergent x-ray beam passing through the head is detected by an array of 64 detectors at some distance from it. All detectors acquire data simultaneously at different angles. Data are digitized and then stored and processed in a laptop computer. The final processed x-ray data are presented layer-by-layer at the display of the laptop. All 1000 layers (slices) are acquired in less than a minute and processed in less than 2 minutes. The image slices thus obtained have a spatial resolution of greater than 7 line pairs per mm, resolution in the third dimension less than 8 mils, and contrast sensitivity less than 2 parts per 1000. High contrast is largely due to reduced scatter as a result of the reverse geometry. The x-ray source, c-arm and detector array are designed so that each can be carried by a single person, and their assembly is made fast and simple.

STELLAR MICRO DEVICES
2020 Centimeter Circle
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 997-7782
Dr. Leonid D. Karpov
ARMY 07-139      Awarded: 10/17/2007
Title:Portable Digital Panoramic X-ray Imaging System
Abstract:A portable digital panoramic X-ray imaging system will be developed using strips of electronically addressable X-ray sources arranged in a canister-like system with strips of digital X-ray detectors. The system will be able to provide both panoramic X-ray and digital tomographic images with no moving parts. The system will run off of HUMVEE and other standard power sources and have a total weight of under 45 lbs. It will be field rugged and have self-shielding features to protect medical personnel from radiation exposure even in close quarters.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. Jeremiah Slade
ARMY 07-140      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Electrotextile Based Intelligent Hand Warmer
Abstract:During cold weather operations tasks requiring manual dexterity can become significantly more difficult as the drop in temperature causes capillaries in the fingers to rapidly contract, decreasing skin blood flow and leading to stiff, sore fingers. Infoscitex Corporation (IST) is proposing to address this problem by developing an intelligent electrically heated fingerless glove that is specifically designed to keep the fingers both unencumbered and warm. This system will contain a network of highly flexible electrotextile resistive heating elements. The path that these elements take within the glove will be chosen to maximize the efficient transfer of heat to the blood as it travels out to the fingers. This will allow the fingers to be left uncovered. By using electrotextile materials for the bus bar and heating elements rather than conventional wires IST will significantly improve system comfort and flexibility. The heating system will be controlled by a flexible power supply that is able to maximize user comfort and minimize power usage by regulating its output based on the ambient temperature. The end result will be a lightweight system that is able to keep the wearer’s fingers warm and dexterous even when working in sub-freezing conditions for extended periods of time.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Lenka Stepan
ARMY 07-140      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Heated Arm Sleeve for Forearm, Palm, and Wrist Heating to Maintain Dexterity
Abstract:To address the Army need for a lightweight, ruggedized, nonflammable, low-power device to maintain dexterity in resting individuals conducting cold weather operations, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Heated Arm Sleeve (HAS). This proposed device is based on a layered system consisting of heating elements, insulation, and a temperature control subsystem integrated into a fingerless sleeve to directly warm the forearms, palms, and wrists. The low-power convenient HAS will maintain fine-motor dexterity in resting individuals by heating the muscles essential to dexterity. The HAS will perform for over 4 hours on a single 12 V battery, and can be integrated into military gear via a Snapnet connector, making it an easy-to-use, ruggedized device for resting military personnel as well as those performing tasks in the field. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the HAS by simulation and testing on tissue phantoms with thermal properties similar to those of human tissue such as polyacrylamide. In Phase II we plan to develop a wearable prototype HAS and demonstrate its effectiveness on human volunteers.

CHROMOLOGIC LLC
2275 E. Foothill Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 356-9247
Dr. Naresh Menon
ARMY 07-141      Awarded: 10/16/2007
Title:Human Hydration Status Monitor
Abstract:To address the Army’s need for a non-invasive, rapid, field-deployable and inexpensive hydration status monitoring technology, ChromoLogic proposes to develop a new Ocular Hydration Monitor (OCHYMO). OCHYMO is based on measuring the plasma omolality by non-invasively measuring the osmolality of the aqueous humor. The unique optical and medical expertise of ChromoLogic scientists and collaborators will result in an innovative, non-invasive approach to measure the osmolality of the aqueous humor in a miniature, compact package. The robust measurement modality of OCHYMO will result in accuracies consistent with the gold standard in measuring hydration status, namely, invasive plasma osmolality measurements. Furthermore, OCHYMO measurement will be independent of physical posture, skin temperature/moisture. In Phase I ChromoLogic will demonstrate the feasibility of the OCHYMO technology by building a hand-held prototype ideally intended for pre-mission hydration measurements by troop leaders and medics. In Phase II, ChromoLogic plans to develop multiple OCHYMO prototypes, including a miniature ambulatory unit for non-invasive, continuous hydrations status monitoring.

MEDISYN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6109 Blue Circle Drive Suite 1000
Minnetonka, MN 55343
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 475-8092
Mr. David Land
ARMY 07-142      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Development of Improved Therapeutics for Local and Systemic Inflammation
Abstract:Inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of many pain disorders and diseases including myalgia, arthralgia, tendonitis and dental and bone irritation. In the U.S., patients spend approximately USD $3 billion each year on over-the-counter drugs. NSAIDs possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities, and are therefore widely used to treat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Nevertheless, these agents are limited by toxicity to the GI system and increased cardiovascular risks. Therefore, this Phase 1 effort will identify novel compounds that possess both anti-inflammatory and pain mitigation activity without adverse effects using molecular topology (MT). MT is a mathematical approach used to characterize the molecular topological signature responsible for biological activity in compounds. Once the molecular signature responsible for anti-inflammatory activity has been identified, chemical databases will be screened to identify other compounds not known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. Activity of compounds will be measured using in vitro potency assays specific for COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LOX inhibition. The anticipated results from this Phase 1 effort are novel compounds in new chemical classes with favorable anti-inflammatory activity as demonstrated by an IC50 of COX-2 and 5-LOX of between 1 micromolar and 10 micromolar.

PLX PHARMA, INC.
8285 EL RIO, SUITE 130
HOUSTON, TX 77054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(713) 842-1249
Dr. Upendra Marathi
ARMY 07-142      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:PC-NSAIDs: Gastrointestinal-safe and potent anti-inflammatory drugs
Abstract:Contrasting in vitro and in vivo systems will be used to evaluate the anti- inflammatory/analgesic activity and side-effects of a family of phosphatidylcholine (PC) – associated NSAIDs. Previous studies indicate that PC-NSAIDs have equivalent and/or enhanced therapeutic activity while GI ulceration/bleeding is remarkably reduced. Dr. Susan Carlton’s lab will measure the effect of our test NSAIDs (PC-NSAID vs unmodified NSAIDs) on calcium signaling of rodent dorsal root ganglia cells in response inflammatory mediators. Her lab also will electrophysiologically measure the effect of test NSAIDs on nociceptive C-fiber activity of a rodent skin-nerve preparation. Dr. Catherine Ambrose will investigate the effect of the test NSAIDs on growth/apoptosis of human osteoblasts in culture. During the Option period, Dr. Lenard Lichtenberger’s lab will utilize a rodent model of adjuvant-induced joint inflammation that provides information on the anti- inflammatory/analgesic activity of the test NSAIDs and their ability to induce GI ulceration/bleeding. The synovial fluid eicosanoids will be measured by HPLC/MS. Dr. Carlton also will evaluate the anti-inflammatory/analgesic activity of PC-NSAIDs using a rodent hindlimb incision model. In Phase II we plan to expand our in vivo evaluation of PC- NSAIDs using an array of rodent model systems available in the labs of the Co- Investigators.

VCRSOFT LLP
2310 Bamboo Drive STE J303
Arlington, TX 76006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 652-3190
Dr. VC Ramesh
ARMY 07-143      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:HL7 V3 Interface Engine
Abstract:The FHIE/BHIE initiative links DoD AHLTA with VHA Vista. The existing architecture is based on HL7 V2.x. We propose a method for migrating this architecture to the HL7 V3 RIM and the HL7 V3 CDA (rel 2). The proposed approach retains the core components of the FHIE architecture while replacing only the messaging adapters that are needed to enable this migration. In addition, we propose to explore both COTS tools such as Oracle HTB and open-source tools such as Mayo LexGrid for creation of such adapters. Finally, we propose to study other initiatives such as the Spartanburg center for potential synergies.

EIGENT TECHNOLOGIES
10 Cindy Lane
Holmdel, NJ 07733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 673-0402
Mr. Robert Warner
ARMY 07-144      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Automated Identification Technology System (AIT) to Identify, Track and Monitor the Condition of Medical Supply Items from Point of Origin to End User
Abstract:At the present time there is no system to monitor the progress of medical shipments to and within the combat theater other than those pallets that are tagged with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags in compliance with the current DoD mandate for tagging pallets and cases. Full implementation of the DoD mandate to tag all pallets and cases of Class VIII (Medical) materiel is not expected to occur before 2008. The DoD mandate not withstanding, most Class VIII shipments are of less than pallet or case quantity and therefore are not subject to this requirement. Many of these medical shipments are time sensitive and are often subject to damage from rough handling and/or environmental exposure. Very often the timely delivery of these items, in good condition, is necessary to save human life or limb or to alleviate human suffering. An AIT enabled system is required to provide tracking/in-transit visibility of less than pallet/case quantity medical shipments from the point of origin, or from an intermediate shipping point such as a military medical depot, to the point of use. The selected technology should require minimal human intervention and monitor the condition of sensitive medical shipments in transit. At a minimum, sensors will be needed to monitor and report temperature, humidity, vibration and/or shock. Early notification of possible damage to essential medical materiel can facilitate the shipment of a replacement item even before the ultimate consignee receives the damaged material. The successful system needs to be capable of being integrated into the Defense Medical Logistics system(s).

INFINID TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
975 E. Green Street
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 793-2019
Dr. Barry Ambrose
ARMY 07-144      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Ad hoc Networked Tags (ANT) for Active RFID
Abstract:The US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC) needs a new Automated Identification system to track and monitor the condition of medical supply items from point of origin to end user. InfinID Technologies, Inc. proposes a new system for item tagging called Ad hoc Networked Tags (ANT), based on the use of active RFID tags that self- organize to create a reliable communications network for interrogation of many closely packed medical items, even in the presence of sources of interference such as metal, liquid and cardboard. In addition, the ANT RFID tag has an open sensor bus to allow a wide variety of sensors to be attached to the tag. Because each tag is both a transmitter and a receiver, the system can be made very secure by incorporating two-way “challenge-response” encryption protocols to ensure tag IDs are genuine and the system is not being spoofed. For medical supply tracking, the robustness and security of the system would ensure virtually 100% read rates with 100% security. The ANT RFID system allows alarm indications to be logged and/or sent to a central monitoring station if any medical supplies are subject to extreme conditions (heat, humidity, vibration or shock).

VERDASEE SOLUTIONS, INC.
Suite 300e, 3000 Cabot Blvd., West
Langhorne, PA 19047
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 909-9303
Mr. Harry B. James
ARMY 07-145      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:A Compact, Rugged, Mobile Automated Identification Technology Integrated Warehouse Scanning System for use in a Military Deployed Environment
Abstract:VerdaSee Solutions will design a portable inventory control system that will use portable computing technology, ad hoc network technology, RFID (UHF class 1 gen 2) technology, and bar code technology to address the needs as defined by the Army in the SBIR.

HSTAR TECHNOLOGIES
82 Guggins Lane
Boxborough, MA 01719
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 239-3203
Dr. John Hu
ARMY 07-146      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:An Advanced Medical Robotic System Augmenting Healthcare Capabilities
Abstract:Hstar proposes an advanced mobile robotic nurse assistant (RoNA) system for augmenting nurses’ health care capabilities in a hospital environment with physical assistance. The RoNA system must a) navigate intelligently in hospital environments with a mobile holonomic drive, b) support an intuitive interface guided by human-robot interaction and work safely and robustly, c) perform well in direct control by the nurse and via telepresence operation, and d) provide dexterous manipulation and sufficient strength to lift/ move patients and heavy loads (up to 300lbs). No robotic system currently exists that would meet all of these needs. Hstar proposes an enhanced Series Elastic Actuator based humanoid body that is capable of advanced dexterous manipulation and patient lifting, haptic feedback and natural human-robot contact. We will add several innovative technologies to meet technical requirements of RoNA system including an intelligent navigation and stable zero-moment-point (ZMP) control. Hstar enhance Segway’s four-wheel mobile robotic platform RMP400 with holonomic drive using omnidirectional wheel technology. Our telepresence operation and direct human robot interaction control will provide safe and robust operation in hospital environments. In addition to performing physical activities (lifting, moving patients and heavy load), the RoNA system is also capable of nurse transportation and material delivery.

RE2, INC.
32 Thirty-Ninth St.
Pittsburgh, PA 15201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 681-6382
Mr. Jorgen Pedersen
ARMY 07-146      Awarded: 10/17/2007
Title:Robotic Nursing Assistant (RNA)
Abstract:Hospitals are currently facing significant staffing crises, especially a shortage of immediate care personnel such as nurses. As a result of this shortage, the number of work-related injuries continues to increase primarily due to more shifts, mandatory overtime, and the aging nursing population. Among the increasing number of work-related injuries, back injuries pose the greatest impact. Back injuries compound the staffing shortage, requiring the remaining nurses to work extra shifts, which in turn, increases the chances of those remaining nurses incurring work-related injuries or making on-the-job mistakes. One way to mitigate the problem is to create a robotic assistant to protect nurses from debilitating injuries. A robotic assistant would shield nurses from injuries, help maintain the workforce, and consequently reduce the number of medical errors caused by nurses. Our innovative concept, combines a robotic platform, dexterous manipulators, and intuitive control interfaces to provide a practical implementation of a robotic nursing assistant. The resultant Robotic Nursing Assistant (RNA) will serve as an extension of the nurse when performing physically challenging maneuvers such, as helping a patient sit up in bed or moving a patient from a gurney to a hospital bed.

CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4982
Mr. Aditya Bedekar
ARMY 07-147      Awarded: 12/1/2007
Title:A Microfluidic System for Affinity Reagent Generation and Assay Development for High-Throughput Biomarker Validation
Abstract:Protein biomarkers are finding increasing application in Force Health Protection and health surveillance. However, very few biomarkers have been verified and validated. This deficiency has been ascribed primarily to availability of reagents (affinity probes). There is a need for assays to measure biomarker candidates, which must be accompanied by the development of reagents for detection. We propose to develop a microfluidic high- throughput reagent generation platform using capillary electrophoresis (CE) to enable the discovery and directed evolution of molecular probes from combinatorial libraries using an in vitro protein selection technique. The platform will be adapted to develop immunoassays using the probes selected. Key benefits include reduced reagent consumption (cost savings), automation, thermostable probes, and faster screening. In Phase I, the microfluidic system will be designed and fabricated, and proof-of-concept established by accomplishing probe screening and assay development for multiple protein biomarkers. In Phase II, the microfluidic system will be used to develop reagents for biomarkers provided by USACEHR. Currently, no miniaturized system to develop reagents in a cost-effective, high-throughput format is commercially available. A multidisciplinary team with proven expertise in microfluidics, protein engineering, and device development has been assembled.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Sriram Shankar
ARMY 07-147      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Expedited High-Affinity Ligand Generation from Biomarker Sequence by Integration of Data Mining with High-throughput Screening
Abstract:Frontline and support military personnel often may be exposed to toxic industrial, biological, or chemical agents. These typically elicit a biochemical reaction resulting in the release of protein biomarkers that are measurable in the blood or urine. Sensitive and specific identification of these biomarkers could facilitate timely intervention, potentially mitigating decreased operational efficiency and preventing long term health issues. Existing methods, such as generating antibodies for ELISA-based detection, computational design through ligand docking, or high-throughput screening of vast ligand databases are highly time intensive and not always successful. There is an unfulfilled niche for a technology for rapidly (1-2 weeks) generating high-affinity ligands for newly identified biomarkers, based only on their primary sequence, which could be used to detect and quantify them in a complex mixture of other proteins. Owing to the evolutionary design of proteins, it is documented that “similar proteins bind similar ligands”. Lynntech, Inc., in collaboration with Dr. Garner at UTSWMED, proposes the utilization of database mining techniques to obtain knowledge based ligands, which, in conjunction with iterative high- throughput screening using patented, automated, chip-based peptide/peptoid/DNA micro- array production and detection technology, may be used to generate specific high affinity ligands for protein biomarkers.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6822
Dr. Daniel Hall
ARMY 07-147      Awarded: 10/22/2007
Title:Rapid Generation of High-affinity Aptamers for Quantification of Protein Biomarkers
Abstract:The generation of genomic and proteomic data with the goal of biomarker discovery for disease diagnostics or prognosis is a powerful approach. However, biomarkers identified from a typically small sample size must be validated on a large population. A limiting factor is the availability of high-quality reagents for the quantification of the biomarkers in a complex medium such as serum. The assay must be technically simple and amenable to high-throughput procedures. Screening of recombinant antibody libraries is a powerful method for the generation of affinity reagents. However, “affinity maturation” techniques required to produce high affinity antibodies is a relatively slow procedure as it requires library isolation, diversification, and retransformation back into cells. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. proposes the high-throughput generation of nucleic acids-based aptamer affinity reagents. We introduce a novel technique for generating aptamers with high affinity and specificity. In addition, we will utilize a screening technique that does not require sample modification with labels or separation of the bound/unbound aptamers. This will increase the number of clones for which we are able to obtain binding data. Finally, because selection occurs outside of cells, the entire procedure is rapid including all maturation steps for improving the binding characteristics.

LIVEDATA, INC.
810 Memorial Drive
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 576-6908
Dr. Gabriel Spitz
ARMY 07-148      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Integrated Clinical Environment Manager
Abstract:Interoperability and interconnectivity of medical devices in clinical environments can significantly enhance patient safety and workflow efficiency. To achieve this goal, a standards-based approach to an overall medical device plug-and-play architecture for an Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) has been proposed by the MD PnP program. However, the process of accepting and implementing communication and interoperability standards is a lengthy process, and device manufacturers have avoided building interoperable devices primarily on economic grounds. To overcome these difficulties and start capitalizing on the potential benefits of networked medical devices, a technology is needed that would provide a communication layer for current and legacy devices, enable interoperability, and provide concrete examples of its potential benefits. LiveData together with Draper Lab and MGH/CIMIT propose to develop the MD-ICEMAN, that will facilitate the transition to a networked medical device environment and help materialize the potential benefits of a patient–centric networked system. MD-ICEMAN will use the standardization efforts as guideposts and provide a framework with metadata which describes a standard layer of capabilities for common devices and driver architecture that can be used interchangeabily. The proposed solution will focus on the Operating Room, however it will apply to the entire continuum of clinical environments.

INBIOS INTERNATIONAL
562 Ist Ave S, Suite 600
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 344-5821
Dr. Raymond Houghton
ARMY 07-150      Awarded: 10/16/2007
Title:A Multiplexed Assay for the Detection of Pathogens of Military Importance in Sand Flies
Abstract:The objective of this study is to develop a robust, field grade, screening assay for the detection of both leishmania parasites and/or sand fly fever viruses directly in sand flies. The test will utilize a multi-line lateral flow (dipstick) chromatography incorporated into a cassette that enables the simultaneous screening of both analytes. The proposed immunochromatographic assay would be a very useful screening test to assess sand fly infestations for leishmania parasites or sand fly fever viruses. This would facilitate the treatment of military personnel presenting with febrile illness. It would also help in eradication programs. In this Phase I study we will develop/acquire antibody and antigen reagents for use in development of prototype antigen detection assays for both pathogens. We will then construct prototype assays that will be evaluated against archived samples from infected sandflies. Further development of the assay would take place in a Phase II proposal.

VECTOR TEST SYSTEMS, INC.
2033 Yellowthroat Place
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 390-0647
Dr. Kirti Dave
ARMY 07-150      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:A Multiplexed Assay for the Detection of Pathogens of Military Importance in Sand Flies
Abstract:VecTOR Test Systems, Inc. proposes to develop and produce the Leishmania/SFFV antigen panel assay, a field usable assay for detection and differentiation of Leishmania parasites as well as Sand fly fever viruses (SFFVs) in sand fly vectors. The proposed assays will be performed in a rapid, one-step immuno-chromatographic process for detection of various epidemiologically relevant Leishmania sp such as L. major, L. tropica, L donovani, as well as SFFVs in infected sand-flies. The technology is based on the simple and reliable wicking immuno-chromatographic detection method by which sensitive test-strip based assays provide results in less than 30 minutes. The proposed dipstick assays will be stable at ambient storage conditions. During Phase I, a sufficient number of tests will be developed for evaluation. The antigen assay will be important to rapidly identify and differentiate sand flies infected with specific pathogens for surveillance and focus control activities. Assays developed in similar format for mosquito vector for detection of Malaria circumsporozoite protein, WNV, SLE, EEE, and WEE and have found commercial application. The development of easy to use tests will be important for detection of pathogens of military importance as well as the commercial sector for vector surveillance and control programs.

NANOHMICS, INC.
6201 East Oltorf St. Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 389-9990
Dr. Donald E. Patterson
ARMY 07-151      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:FluoroGuard: Personal Insect Repellent Device
Abstract:An advanced, easy-to-use, passive personal insect repellent device is greatly needed for both military and general public use. While existing insect repellents and insecticides provide excellent protection against a variety of annoying and potentially deadly insects, most of the repellents are somewhat tedious to apply, have to be re-applied often, and can have offensive odors or cause minor irritation to the skin. During this program, Nanohmics will develop FluoroGuard - a simple, effective, and long-lasting passive insect repellent device that can be easily attached to any article of clothing. Relying on our expertise in biocide-impregnated plastics and the development of injection-molded cases, we have the necessary capabilities for incorporating an advanced insect repellent into a slow-release polymer formulation. The formulation will be contained in a simple polymer housing that can be opened for use when needed and closed to provide both a long storage life and usage life. Additionally, the device will be manufactured so that it is waterproof, lightweight, and exceedingly easy to use.

STERLING INTERNATIONAL, INC.
3808 N. Sullivan Road Building 16 BV
Spokane, WA 99216
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 926-6766
Dr. Qing-He Zhang
ARMY 07-151      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Personal Insect Repellent Device
Abstract:Sterling International Inc. proposes to develop a light-weight, portable, water-proof “Personal Insect Repellent Device”, impregnated with a repellent(s) and/or insecticide(s) vapor, that can be attached to a solider, or an individual soldier's uniform, to provide long- lasting, passive, whole-body, spatial protection against bites from insect disease vectors (e.g. sand flies and mosquitoes) and other biting arthropods (e.g. ticks) for at least 1 month of continuous use. In Phase I, we will develop a detailed plan and proof-of-concept study (to include technical feasibility and product evaluation) for the "Personal Insect Repellent Device". Phase I/Phase I Option deliverables will integrate a chemical(s) with an innovative design to develop a prototype product that has the potential to meet the broad needs discussed above. We will determine the feasibility of the concept by conducting initial field evaluations of the devices for their efficacy to repel vectors.

CUBE TECHNOLOGY
2987 W. Elliot Rd.
Chandler, AZ 85224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 497-8400
Dr. Daniel S. Marshall
ARMY 07-152      Awarded: 10/17/2007
Title:Field-deployable source of Carbon Dioxide for use in Vector Surveillance
Abstract:CUBE Technology has created an extremely compact and efficient enclosed combustor dubbed a Micro-Furnace. These Micro-Furnaces have demonstrated an unprecedented operating range and have operated on fuels from hydrogen to alcohol to JP-8. This Micro- Furnace combustor is fast-starting and will burn less than 200gm of JP-8 fuel to deliver 400cc/minute of CO2 Mosquito attractant over 12 hours. In addition, this system will incorporate a small power converter driven by the Micro-Furnace to make it a miniature generator capable of powering the fan and light of a standard CDC trap. The system components required to develop this small generator/CO2 source are small and commercially available. The entire system will be much smaller than the batteries currently used for powering these traps and will require only JP-8 logistics fuel that is universally available military personnel worldwide.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 261-1145
Dr. Brady Clapsaddle
ARMY 07-152      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:CO2 Generator for Vector Surveillance
Abstract:Civilian and military organizations throughout the world perform vector surveillance to identify and control diseases transmitted by arthropods. The arthropod traps used for vector surveillance perform better when baited with carbon dioxide gas (CO2) in addition to using light as an attractant. However, since many vector surveillance locations of importance to the military are remote, it is hard to find a reliable, field-deployable supply of CO2. Current trapping methods use compressed gas cylinders, which are heavy and considered HAZMATs, or dry-ice sources, which require refrigeration and sublime rapidly. TDA Research, Inc. proposes to fabricate and demonstrate the performance of an automated chemical gas generator that will supply CO2 to vector surveillance light traps. The gas generator produces CO2 from a chemical reaction between two non-hazardous materials and is lightweight and small enough to be field-deployable, thus eliminating the concerns of conventional CO2 sources. The CO2 generator is capable of producing CO2 at a flow rate of 200 mL/minute over a 12 hour time period using less than 2 kg of starting materials.

INBIOS INTERNATIONAL
562 Ist Ave S, Suite 600
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 344-5821
Dr. William John Woodroofe
ARMY 07-153      Awarded: 10/18/2007
Title:A Point-of-Care Assay for the Detection of Spotted-fever group and Typhus group Rickettsia.
Abstract:The objective of this study is to develop a robust, field-grade, screening assay for the differential diagnosis of infection by Spotted Fevers (e.g. Rocky Mountain Spotted fever, Boutonneuse fever) and Typhus (Epidemic and Endemic forms) causing rickettsial bacteria. Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) will be used as a reference control and may be incorporated into the final assay. The test will utilize lateral flow (dipstick) chromatography incorporated into a unique, triplex, cassette that enables the simultaneous screening of Spotted Fever, Typhus and Scrub Typhus group organisms. The proposed immunochromatographic assay would be a very useful for point-of-care screening and as differential diagnostic test to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of infection. In this Phase 1 study we shall evaluate the ability of a panel of rickettsia-derived antigens from the families of pathogens listed above to function as the basis of an IgM/IgG serodetection system. We will then construct prototype assays that will be evaluated against samples from individuals with confirmed infections. Further development of the assay would take place in a Phase 2 study.

INTEGRATED BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Frederick Innovative Technology Center 4539 Metropolitan Ct.
Frederick, MD 21704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 644-3910
Dr. M. Javad Aman
ARMY 07-154      Awarded: 10/19/2007
Title:Therapeutic Human Hyperimmune Polyclonal Antibodies against Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B
Abstract:Research Proposed: Determine the feasibility of developing human hyperimmune serum (HIS) against staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY: Staphylococcus aureus is associated with up to 25% of invasive infections in hospitals and community. Staphylococcal exotoxins (SEs), including SEB, are key virulence factors leading to toxic shock syndrome (TSS). SEB has been weaponized and can cause human incapacitation and mortality. No countermeasures targeting SEs are currently available for human use. Integrated BioTherapeutics (IBT) has a cGMP produced SEB vaccine (STEBVax; currently in IND process) that may be used to generate HIS to treat SEB intoxication. PLAN/PROCESS OUTLINE: Screen human intravenous immunoglobulin and monkey immune sera and use, as HIS surrogates to develop assays and SOPs to test sera for inhibition of superantigenic activity. Evaluate neutralizing activity of antibodies in vitro (>80% inhibition) and in mice (>80% protection). PHASE I OPTION: Develop a clinical protocol for plasmapheresis of volunteers vaccinated with STEBVax. PHASE II PLAN: IBT plans for a cost shared phase II to conduct plasmapheresis for collection of anti-SEB HIS in partnership with Omrix Biopharmaceuticals, a leading plasma fractionation company, using the IND status of STEBvax and preclinical evaluation of anti-SEB HIS in anticipation of filing an IND with FDA.

ELECTRONIC TEXTILE, INC.
9 Celestine Terrace
Stoneham, MA 02180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 678-1919
Mr. Vikram Sharma
ARMY 07-155      Awarded: 10/31/2007
Title:Micro-encapsulated Insecticide treated, Retrofit-able Optimized Opening Mesh Liner for Camouflage Systems
Abstract:Electronic Textile, Inc (ET) is proposing to accomplish two key objectives in this proposed effort. One, to integrate three different ingredients for a powerful synergetic long term protection from vectors by using: 1) Encapsulated DEET – improving the longevity of the insecticide by addressing DEET’S volatility. 2) Encapsulated Permethrin – a washable, Stable Neuro-Toxin 3) Cyclodextrin - Acting as Reservoir to Increase the quantity of material held active on the fabric surface. DEET, Permethrin are EPA approved chemicals. Second Objective, ET will design, develop an optimized opening lightweight mesh liner fabric, treated with chemical combination mentioned above. ET proposed liner material will retrofit into existing camouflage systems providing significant cost benefits. ET Liner System will utilize DEET’s Halo Effect to achieve the desired optimization of weight and opening of the liner mesh fabric without compromising and affecting the camouflage functionality or mosquito vector protection. ET will conduct testing to evaluate the durability, stability and efficacy against arthropods of this system. ET has gathered an Industry leading professional team members (Marmot, Malden, Black Diamond) to assure successful development and commercialization effort.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. Jeremiah Slade
ARMY 07-155      Awarded: 10/31/2007
Title:Enhanced Camouflage Materials for Insect Protection
Abstract:Vector borne diseases have posed a significant threat to soldier health in past and present foreign deployments. Currently deployed troops face several severe illnesses such as Leishmaniasis and Sand Fly Fever Virus that are transmitted by insects. There are no prophylactic vaccines available for these diseases. Soldiers must integrate multiple personal protective equipment (PPE) measures to minimize likelihood of infection; however 100% compliance is often not achievable in the battlefield due to several complicating factors. Essential to soldier heath is the rapid deployment of new technologies that reduce the hindrance of PPE measures and enhance protection against insects that transmit disease. In this Phase I project, Infoscitex proposes to develop a new controlled release technology that will repel insects from lightweight camouflage structural netting such as the ULCANS and LCSS. This technology is inexpensive and readily applicable to the civilian population in regions where mortality is high due to the prevalence of vector borne diseases.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Tony Ragucci
ARMY 07-156      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:High-Speed Hyperspectral Polarimeter for Measuring Parachute Canopy Strain
Abstract:The parachute development process can be expensive and time-consuming due to the current need for iterative, full-scale flight testing. Although new computational algorithms for parachute modeling are being developed at the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, these models must be validated through actual measurements of parachute strain both during the inflation phase and in steady decent. We propose the development of a high-speed strain-imaging system based on optical birefringence properties of the parachute canopy fabric and a technique of hyperspectral polarimetry developed at Lynntech. High- resolution strain data could be recorded in a wind tunnel, drop tower, or during an airdrop. Full-canopy, distortion-free strain maps would be acquired on a millisecond time scale, enabling accurate strain imaging of parachute inflation. No device attachment to the parachute material is required and the fabric would not be structurally modified, thereby obviating measurement-induced alterations in the natural parachute strain. The spatial resolution of the strain map is not limited by the attachment density of massive detection elements and the technique enables strain determination in a highly localized area of the canopy, rather than along the length of a strain gauge. This approach will ultimately reduce the time and expense currently associated with parachute development.

ACELLENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 745-7872
Dr. Shawn Beard
ARMY 07-157      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Ultra-light weight and low-cost in-situ system for damage detection of ballistic protective armor
Abstract:Acellent Technologies proposes to build an innovative and cost-effective ultra portable system for detection of damage in personnel ballistic armor inserts. The system upon will provide in-situ capability to detect damage in armor inserts by personnel in the field. Current techniques commonly used in determining the health of the ballistic protective armor such as X-ray, may be time-consuming, expensive, and dependent in large measure on human intervention. The proposed integrated and automated built-in health monitoring system has the potential to greatly relieve this inspection burden, increase the useful life of armor inserts, while providing for increased safety at a considerably low- cost. The system will utilize Acellent’s SMART layer technology, based on a built-in network of sensors and actuators embedded on a thin dielectric carrier film, to query, monitor and evaluate the condition of the ballistic inserts. The monitoring layer can either be surface-mounted or embedded in the insert during fabrication itself. The system will automatically scan the structure to detect cracks occurring in the ceramic plate and interlayer delaminations. Sensory data from the monitoring layer collected through wired or wireless means during inspection will be interpreted and processed by a hand-held portable diagnostic system running intelligent diagnostic software.

NEWPORT SENSORS, INC.
7 Murasaki St.
Irvine, CA 92617
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 378-8666
Dr. Maria Feng
ARMY 07-157      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Smart Small Arm Protective Inserts
Abstract:The ultimate goal of this SBIR project is to develop a smart small arm protection insert embedded with a sensor network capable of self-inspection when interrogated by a separated handheld device. Phase I will focus on two highly innovative and promising technologies: a distributed fiber optic sensor and a conductive paint sensor. The PI’s extensive prior work has proved the concept and demonstrated the advantages of these sensors. In particular, the distributed fiber optic sensor can potentially locate and quantify damage in the inserts, while the conductive paint is likely to provide a simple and cost- effective solution. The Phase-I objective is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the sensors embedded inside armor inserts for detecting ceramic cracking and delaminations. An innovative interrogation technique is proposed to significantly improve the spatial resolution and accuracy of the fiber optic sensor. Technical obstacles including closed cracks, sensitivity degradation due to bonding and insulation coating will be addressed. Critical issues associated with embedding sensors, such as survivability under the high- temperature and high-pressure manufacturing process of the inserts, will be investigated. Finally, the sensors will be embedded into the current armor inserts for evaluation of their damage detection capability. The ballistic integrity of these inserts will also be verified.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
ARMY 07-158      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Modeling User-Defined Operating Pictures (UDOPs) within Simulation Environments (MUSE)
Abstract:The Network-Centric Warfare paradigm will provide Ground Soldiers in the U.S. Army with large amounts of information needed to maintain Situational Awareness and to perform successfully in the field. Current information interfaces lack a targeted operational focus and provide a broad superset of data, resulting in Ground Soldiers becoming overloaded by extraneous or non-critical information. To address this, the U.S. Army is developing User-Defined Operational Picture (UDOP) technology that will manage incoming information to maximize Ground Soldier effectiveness. However, IWARS and similar simulation-based analysis tools do not currently provide a means of modeling UDOPs and their effect on Ground Soldier performance. New modeling and simulation technologies are needed to address this gap. We propose to design and demonstrate a suite of design and analysis tools that: (1) use automated analysis techniques to determine what information the Ground Soldier needs to perform effectively, (2) model and simulate the information available to the simulated Ground Soldier based on the simulated UDOP’s capabilities and known limits of human information processing, and (3) provide visual mockups of the information provided by the simulated UDOPs that enable analysts and SMEs to appreciate and validate the type of information and display being simulated.

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS EXPERTS, INC.
209 West Central Street Suite 107
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-2232
Ms. Alicia Borgman
ARMY 07-159      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Modeling Encumbrance Effects of Ground Soldier Systems on Soldier Performance
Abstract:Many pieces of a soldier’s equipment encumber task performance. Some of the most common encumbrance factors sited are interference with the ability to sense, center of balance, interference with movement, and thermal properties and load. In order to examine the effects of encumbrance on ground soldier performance it is proposed that the Task-related Effects of Encumbrance Methodology (TEEM) be developed for use within a constructive combat simulation. Development of TEEM will begin with an in depth look at a small list of key encumbrance factors. This will include a look at the material causes, the tasks that are impacted, and effects. TEEM is expected to provide benefits to the civilian analyst in areas such as law enforcement, firefighting, and search and rescue. Future work will involve an implementation into the constructive combat simulation, IWARS, and possibly the addition of a larger list of encumbrance factors.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. R. Paul Roth
ARMY 07-160      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Temperature Controlled Human Remains Transfer Case
Abstract:The Vietnam-era solution of packing 40-60 pounds of ice in an aluminum transfer case to maintain temperatures inside a human remains case is still being utilized. This method offers essentially no temperature control or assurance that the remains are properly preserved during transportation. This is especially problematic because transportation times are typically at least 10 hours. Although using ice seems archaic when compared to the thermal control technology currently available, the options are severely limited by the fact that external power often is not available for 10 hour periods of time while transporting the remains. The required solution to this problem involves a new design that integrates technologies maximizing insulation properties, thermal storage, energy storage, energy input flexibility, and high efficiency mechanical cooling methodologies. . Mainstream Engineering has a preliminary system design capable of meeting all of the solicitation’s requirements in the most extreme ambient conditions, using worst-case scenario assumptions.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5821
Mr. Detlef Westphalen
ARMY 07-160      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Temperature Controlled Enhanced Human Remains Transfer Case
Abstract:Current practice for return of human remains from theatres of operation consists of packing the remains in a human remains pouch and then in an uninsulated aluminum- construction case. Ice is used for maintaining temperature, but it often is not sufficient for the flights of up to ten hours. This proposal addresses the need for an improved human remains transfer case, which will be insulated to reduce thermal load and will incorporate a cooling system and auxiliary thermal storage system to maintain optimum human remains temperature. The transfer case design will use best practices from design of refrigerators, combined with ruggedization and technology improvements to meet the stringent size, weight, and performance requirements. TIAX will design the transfer case during Phase I and will work with DRS Sustainment Systems, Inc. to fabricate and test prototypes during Phase II, leading to ramp up of production at the end of the project.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Eric Pennell
ARMY 07-160      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Composite Temperature Controlled Human Remains Transfer System(1001-106)
Abstract:Triton Systems proposes to develop a temperature controlled human remains transfer case, consisting of a lightweight, insulating composite structure, integrated phase change materials and an energy efficient active cooling device. The system will provide reliable maintenance of the case internal temperature through the use of an active temperature control device, when provided with power from an external or internal power source, or, maintain temperature without power via integrated phase change materials. The systems composite structure will be lightweight, rigid, tough, be capable of being nested to reduce stowed volume and provide a hermetic seal for the lid.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mr. Kang Lee
ARMY 07-161      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Mechanically Activated Insignia Data Display
Abstract:To address the Army need for a novel interactive insignia for combat uniforms, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a novel Mechanically Activated Insignia Data Display (MAIDD) technology. MAIDD is based on low-cost, low-risk, mature mass production techniques--injection molding, lamination, and stencil printing. The MAIDD will not only display simple characters and symbols that can be mechanically activated/deactivated in the field by a soldier, but will also blend in with the camouflage pattern of the uniform when disabled. The MAIDD can be secured directly to the fabric of a uniform by rivets common to the garment industry, and is protected against combat environments and contaminants. The operation of the MAIDD system is controlled by a mechanical membrane switch, integrated into the patch. In Phase I POC will demonstrate prototype MAIDD materials for several types of insignia. In Phase II we plan to mature MAIDD technology to TRL-6 by optimizing the material and the fabrication process

SUNDANZER DEVELOPMENT, INC.
742 E. 46th Street
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 882-9100
Mr. David Bergeron
ARMY 07-162      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Passive Cooling for Storage of Semi-Perishable Rations
Abstract:Wasted rations due to food spoilage are a $50 million dollar a year problem for the Department of Defense. SunDanzer’s approach to solving this problem consists of developing technology for a storage container that could reduce internal storage temperatures. Concepts to reduce heat transfer included thermal control coatings, insulation, active cooling driven by photovoltaics and phase change materials. A small scale test of several of these and other concepts were conducted at SunDanzer’s Tucson facility. The most reliable and cost effective approach will be considered for selection to meet the requirement of a $3500 retrofit.

INFINIA CORP.
6811 West Okanogan Place
Kennewick, WA 99336
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 737-2119
Dr. SONGGANG QIU
ARMY 07-163      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Off-Grid Pallet Chilling for Bottled Water
Abstract:The Natick soldier center has identified the need for maintaining soldier drinking water at a palatable temperature of less than 60°F. Individual pallets of bottled water must be kept cool near feeding and resting areas, but the cooling must be provided independent of an electrical grid. Infinia Corporation proposes a practical design concept for a Stirling pallet chiller that will produce up to 1 refrigeration ton of cooling, and sufficient electricity to run system loads such as heat rejection using JP-8 or diesel fuels. The Stirling Individual Pallet Chiller (SIPC) will operate directly on JP-8 fuel, be HMMWV (High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) towable, and have an acoustic signature of significantly less than 40 dB at 5 meters, making it ideal for remote deployments.

SUNDANZER DEVELOPMENT, INC.
742 E. 46th Street
Tucson, AZ 85713
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 882-9100
Mr. David Bergeron
ARMY 07-163      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Off-Grid Pallet Cooling for Bottled Water
Abstract:Data shows that soldiers in Iraq are reluctant to drink water that is warm, which can lead to dehydration weaknesses and heat stress. To address this problem, envisioned are mobile, 100% solar-powered refrigeration units sized to handle individual standard-size pallets holding 1,296 liters (342 gallons) of water in 0.5, 1, or 1.5 liter bottles. This unit would cool water to the required 60¢XF in ambient conditions of 105-135¢XF (40¡V60¢XC) within 24 hours and then hold temperatures indefinitely without any need for refueling. Time permitting, the units will be able to cool water to 38„aF. The units would be positioned near kitchens and billeting or in more remote locations.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. John Bulluck
ARMY 07-164      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Lightweight, low-cost armor panels for installation in soft-walled shelters
Abstract:The U.S. Army's soft-sided shelters are in need of lightweight, modular, fire resistant, ballistic protection panels that will provide sufficient blast defense for personnel and equipment within the shelter. Texas Research Institute Austin Inc. (TRI/Austin) proposes a novel composite armor paneling system that can afford this protection by dissipating the energy of the blast while subsequently preventing penetration of fragmented projectiles. The high strength panels will have an areal density < 3.0lbs/ft2 and cost less than $25/ft2. During Phase I, TRI/Austin will be working with a leader in ballistics testing and armor mechanics design and predictive modeling, as well as with a manufacturer of blast resistant materials. Ballistics testing will be performed using varying sizes of right circular cylinders (RCCs) at defined velocities to simulate mortar fragmentation. Environmental tests will be conducted that include water absorption, ultraviolet radiation resistance, and temperature effects to ensure that the armor panels will maintain their effectiveness under harsh field conditions. Flexural strength testing will insure that the panels can withstand a blast event, and fire resistance testing will verify the self-extinguishing properties of the composite. The novel combination of ballistic-protection materials will result in a lightweight, easily-installed, ruggedized armor panel for military integration.

ASPEN PRODUCTS GROUP, INC.
186 CEDAR HILL STREET
MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Mr. Craig Thompson
ARMY 07-165      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Flameless Personal Water Heater Using Battlefield Fuel (JP-8)
Abstract:A flameless personal water heater will be developed that is capable of heating small individual volumes of water for meal preparation, sanitation, or hygiene. The heater will react air and JP-8 in an enclosed flow path and transfer the heat generated to water. The device will be packaged into an immersion-style heater that fits within any generic insulated cup. The key innovations required for development of the heater are in the areas of catalysis, fuel addition, and mixing. Use of a highly active, stable catalyst will allow clean operation at conditions that favor high efficiency. A method of fuel addition will be developed that requires no moving parts or external fuel pressurization. Features of the design will act to promote static mixing, resulting in full combustion with clean exhaust. The final packaged device will incorporate features that allow the heater to be used safely, effectively, and easily. It will be suitable for use indoors with no health hazards or irritants produced. Advances in efficiency over currently available heaters will benefit the user by requiring the transport of less liquid fuel.

CUBE TECHNOLOGY
2987 W. Elliot Rd.
Chandler, AZ 85224
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 497-8400
Dr. Daniel S. Marshall
ARMY 07-165      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Flameless Personal Water Heater Using Battlefield Fuel (JP-8)
Abstract:CUBE Technology has created an extremely compact and efficient enclosed combustor dubbed a Micro-Furnace. These Micro-Furnaces have demonstrated an unprecedented operating range and have operated on fuels from hydrogen to alcohol to JP-8. This Micro- Furnace combustor will be the core of the flameless personal water heater. This combustor is fast-starting and delivers its heat via radiation and convection. The Micro- Furnace will be used to heat small portions of water in a cup. The system will be designed to prevent JP-8 contamination of the water yet provide intimate contact between heated surfaces and the water to be heated. In addition, this system will incorporate a small power converter between the Micro-Furnace and the water to make it self-powered after a short start-up time allowing the personal water heater to be used repeatedly without external power and requiring only fuel to continue operating reliably.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Dr. Jingwen Zhang
ARMY 07-166      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Night Vision Enhancement Technology for Paratrooper Eye Protection Goggles
Abstract:This SBIR project aims at developing a high sensitivity night vision viewer with broadband (near IR (NIR), mid-wave IR (MWIR), and long wave IR (LWIR)) coverage. Utilizing a specific transparent functional material developed at Boston Applied Technologies Incorporated (BATi) that has excellent pyroelectric effect, over strong absorption at NIR, MWIR and LWIR wavebands, perfect transmittance in certain visible wavelength, the intensity variation of an incident NIR, MWIR or/and LWIR radiation from a warm object can be transferred into intensity variation of a visible beam by a smart use of liquid crystal. The output visible image can then be view directly by naked eyes. Take the advantage of maturity in liquid crystal display industry and excellent capability of production of large size functional materials at BATi, the aperture of the viewer can fit the need for paratroopers. Compared with existing thermal imaging techniques, this invention will generate an uncooled imaging system of unprecedented low costs, yet with higher resolution, high sensitivity, and lower power consumption. In our Phase I work, we will demonstrate the feasibility and detailed design of the proposed viewer. In the Phase II efforts, we will advance towards the implementations of a viewer prototype with full functionality.

OMNI MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS, INC.
1150 Airport Drive
S. Burlington, VT 05403
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 865-5223
Mr. Mark Harvie
ARMY 07-167      Awarded: 10/11/2007
Title:Waste Management System for Chemical/Biological Protective Garments
Abstract:Omni Measurement Systems, Inc already has a proposed solution to the liquid waste portion. Omni developed an extended wear, semi-automatic bladder relief device for aircrew through Air Force/Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I, Phase II, Phase II Enhancement and Phase III contracts. The Advanced Mission Extender Device (AMXD) is certified Safe to Fly and FDA approved. Omni is currently manufacturing AMXD systems for the USAF under a procurement contract. This patented technology can be reconfigured to provide a bladder relief solution and solid waste management for Army War Fighters.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Wondwosen Mengesha
ARMY 07-168      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Stand Alone Gamma Protective Clothing
Abstract:To address the U.S. Army need for low-level ionizing radiation protective clothing that is lightweight and flexible for incorporation into military protective clothing, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the new Stand-Alone Gamma Protective Clothing (SAGPROC) system. The SAGPROC uses its unique fabric geometry to maximize the absorption of radiation flux from an energetic gamma source. This unique fabric geometry brings together high- and low-atomic-number materials for effective reduction and protection from incident high energy radiation flux. Its significant attenuation at high energy (such as 1.332 MeV) assures even better performance with lower-energy gamma rays. The SAGPROC will also be >90% effective in attenuating particulate radiation. The high malleability and ductility of the materials and the low weight with radiation-leakproof perforation will make it flexible without causing physical or heat stress. In Phase I POC will develop SAGPROC and demonstrate its feasibility. In Phase II we plan to develop a prototype that meets all requirements.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 501-2880
Dr. Paul Carter
ARMY 07-169      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:A High Speed Magnetic Array for In-Road Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices
Abstract:An attractive approach for IED detection is to deploy inconspicuous, unmanned vehicles traveling at normal highway speed that can detect, discriminate, and localize IEDs and transmit data to a remote operator. Areté Associates and Applied Research Associates propose to combine their proven hardware, analytical, and theoretical capabilities to develop and demonstrate a unique and versatile magnetic system capable of meeting the rapid survey requirements of IED detection.

CENTER FOR REMOTE SENSING, INC.
3702 Pender Drive Suite 170
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 385-7717
Dr. Suman Ganguly
ARMY 07-169      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Magnetic Array for Detection and Characterization of IEDs in Presence of Strong Clutter
Abstract:CRS has pioneered magnetic array technology (U.S. Patent 4,675,606; 1985). The use of magnetic arrays for detection and characterization of IEDs is proposed. Magnetic array will enable: 1. attain high sensitivities by cross-correlating the ambient noise fields 2. detect and map clutter through change detection 3. characterize or classify the residual targets through inversion from different look angles achieved through spatial and temporal field mapping. CRS has a strong background in the design and development of the world’s most sensitive fluxgate and induction coil magnetometers as well as signal processing techniques necessary to use such sensors. We propose to improve the fluxgate design for AC operation and combine both fluxgate and induction coil techniques to cover a frequency range of a few Hz to hundreds of kHz. This will provide a small, compact unit (less than 10 cm) and provide very large sensitivity (better than pT). Our proposed effort consists of: (a) improved electronics – digital circuits for stability, compactness, AC operation, and digital outputs, (b) integrated signal processing units for signal processing and analysis in real-time, and (c) vector to scalar transformation, orientation, and calibration. During Phase I we plan to perform numerical simulations to ascertain the effects of vibration, noise, orientation, and orthogonality. We also plan to develop a laboratory prototype of the integrated sensor based on our experiences with fluxgate and induction coil sensors.

GEOPHEX LTD.
605 Mercury Street
Raleigh, NC 27603
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 839-8515
Dr. I.J. Won
ARMY 07-169      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:A High Speed Towed Magnetic Array for In-Road Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices Employing Optimized Magnetic Map Differencing
Abstract:This proposal describes an active electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor array that can operate at a sampling rate of 750Hz, corresponding to 1.4 inches (3.5 cm) in distance at a moving speed of 60 mph. At low frequencies (below a few kHz), an EMI sensor is basically a magnetometer that responds to susceptibility targets (i.e., ferrous objects). The main difference is that, while a magnetometer uses the earth’s field as the illuminating source, an EM sensor emits its own time-varying magnetic field and, thus, has the name electro-magnetometer. An electro-magnetometer acts like a magnetometer at low frequencies but also acts like a metal detector at higher frequencies, responding to conductive targets and, therefore, can also detect nonferrous objects (aluminum, copper, brass, etc.) that a magnetometer misses. The proposed electro-magnetometer will have a bandwidth of 750 Hz – 96 kHz, for which it will behave like a magnetometer below a few kHz and a metal detector above. In this proposal, we describe our new electro- magnetometer technology that can meet all requirements for this topic: it will provide a high sampling rate (750 Hz), can have an arbitrarily wide swath, and can detect both ferrous and nonferrous targets down to 3 feet in depth for typical metal objects. The proposed sensor is based on successful commercial EMI sensors manufactured by Geophex for detecting and discriminating UXO/landmines. The primary difference will be the new high sampling rate to meet the requirements of this SBIR topic.

SKY RESEARCH, INC.
445 Dead Indian Memorial Rd
Ashland, OR 97520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 458-9807
Dr. Jack Foley
ARMY 07-169      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:A High Speed Towed Magnetic Array for In-Road Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices Employing Optimized Magnetic Map Differencing
Abstract:The documented success of UXO detection offers a technical basis of roadway IED detection. The technical and operational challenges of applying UXO technologies to the IED problem can be overcome by exploiting two aspects of the IED problem. First, the detection of munitions (projectiles, rockets, bombs, etc.) is well understood and readily accomplished with magnetometers through straightforward and well-established procedures. Second, the presence of roadside IEDs changes with time. It is this time- variation in magnetic conditions associated with IED emplacement that offers a unique aspect of the problem that can be exploited to facilitate IED detection, mitigate clutter false alarms, and support near-real-time implementation. Therefore, Sky Research proposes a process referred to as Magnetic Field Change Detection (MFCD) to address the roadway IED threat. Through the leveraging of existing Sky Research technologies and ongoing research and development work, the extensive experience and expertise in magnetics mapping for munitions detection, and through the execution of the proposed work, this technical approach has great potential to meet or exceed the performance requirements of the RFP. MFCD will facilitate IED detection in cluttered environments and has been shown to be effective in recent SKY tests using a low-altitude helicopter-deployed magnetometer array.The documented success of UXO detection offers a technical basis of roadway IED detection. The technical and operational challenges of applying UXO technologies to the IED problem can be overcome by exploiting two aspects of the IED problem. First, the detection of munitions (projectiles, rockets, bombs, etc.) is well understood and readily accomplished with magnetometers through straightforward and well-established procedures. Second, the presence of roadside IEDs changes with time. It is this time-variation in magnetic conditions associated with IED emplacement that offers a unique aspect of the problem that can be exploited to facilitate IED detection, mitigate clutter false alarms, and support near-real-time implementation. Therefore, Sky Research proposes a process referred to as Magnetic Field Change Detection (MFCD) to address the roadway IED threat. Through the leveraging of existing Sky Research technologies and ongoing research and development work, the extensive experience and expertise in magnetics mapping for munitions detection, and through the execution of the proposed work, this technical approach has great potential to meet or exceed the performance requirements of the RFP. MFCD will facilitate IED detection in cluttered environments and has been shown to be effective in recent SKY tests using a low-altitude helicopter- deployed magnetometer array.

LUND & CO.INVENTION LLC
4111 N. Rockwell
Chicago, IL 60618
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(773) 267-3090
Mr. Bruce Lund
ARMY 07-170      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Innovative Propulsion Methods for Small Arms Projectiles
Abstract:Lund and Company Invention, L.L.C. is conducting research and development on a hydrogen-powered light weight weapon that can launch 5.56 mm NATO ammunition in both a lethal and non-lethal mode. Muzzle velocity can be readily modified by the warrior in the field to maximize effectiveness. The traditional cartridge and black powder propellant is eliminated. Advantages of the hydrogen-powered weapon include lower weight, increased long range effectiveness, reduced heat and visible flash, and the elimination gun powder combustion gases, burnt residue and smell. In the proposed system, hydrogen gas is directed to a combustion chamber where it is ignited by a piezo

JENTEK SENSORS, INC.
110-1 Clematis Avenue
Waltham, MA 02453
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 642-9666
Dr. Neil Goldfine
ARMY 07-171      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Non-contact Torque and Load Monitoring Using Magnetic Stress Gage Networks
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a noncontact torque measurement capability to reduce uncertainties in remaining life estimates for rotorcraft parts, to support Condition Based Maintenance decisions, and to enable individual component life management. The proposed method uses JENTEK’s Magnetic Stress Gage Networks with rapid multivariate inverse methods that will provide a practical method for noncontact torque monitoring that can be easily retrofitted to legacy platforms, as well as new rotorcraft. It will offer a means for validating and periodically recalibrating the Magnetic Stress Gage system on the ground, or in flight. In the Phase I effort, we will develop a preliminary torque monitoring capability, perform laboratory noncontact torque measurement tests to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, develop robust calibration and recalibration methods, and investigate the use of noncontact torque measurement data as an input to algorithms for remaining fatigue life estimation. We will also develop a detailed Phase II transition plan, design the Phase II full-scale demonstration, investigate scale up issues, and evaluate other torque measurement methods. Several major OEMs have expressed their interest in the proposed approach and the demand for a solution suitable for legacy platforms, such as the CH-47 and H-60, is substantial.

CONTROLLED DYNAMICS, INC.
11362 Kelly Lane
Los Alamitos, CA 90720
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 735-3065
Dr. Scott A. Green
ARMY 07-172      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Small Light-Weight Precision Localization and Geo-registration System
Abstract:Airborne navigation, reconnaissance, surveillance, and targeting are critical missions that must be performed by the U.S. military in environments where reliable GPS services are unavailable or intentionally denied. Vision-aided inertial navigation has the potential to satisfy this need, though many of the existing approaches are not well suited for on- board application in the turbulent flight environment experienced with small UAV platforms. To provide a robust capability applicable from small UAVs to manned systems, CDI and SARA, Inc. have teamed to develop the Geo-Vision LOS/INS. This solution uses a flight-proven combination of inertially stabilized cameras and centralized optimal estimation. Landmark tracking provides precision geo-registration and accurate estimation of the platform’s position, velocity and orientation. Between landmark updates, feature/target tracking maintains the solution accuracy and provides precision localization and feature/target location estimation. To establish the technical feasibility of our approach, Phase I will develop performance predictions for typical mission scenarios and verify those predictions through ground tests with a proof-of-concept system on a moving vehicle. Applicable to a small UAV, this testbed consists of a low-cost MEMs IMU co-located with a small digital camera. Using an established network of industrial support, Phase II will develop a tightly integrated prototype and conduct flight testing on a UAV for system performance characterization and tuning. Upon completion of Phase II, our team will take the Geo-Vision LOS/INS system into production.

APPLIED OPTICAL MATERIALS, INC.
744 Stewart Canyon Rd
Fallbrook, CA 92028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 451-0546
Dr. David Schaafsma
ARMY 07-173      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Affordable, High-Performance Information Network for Tactical Vehicles
Abstract:This SBIR will design and develop a unique high-functionality network for tactical vehicles, leveraging the low latency, high bandwidth and EMI resistance of optical systems with the affordability of electronic networks. The basic system hardware has been developed and is currently used on military platforms, so this effort will focus on adapting aircraft networks to cost-sensitive ground vehicle applications. The configuration of the system must be optimized to make the best use of optical data links and access to the optical part of the network will be seamless at the depot level. Low latency for critical signals will be preserved, while at the same time allowing multiple independent protocols to run over the same bus.

COMPACT MEMBRANE SYSTEMS, INC.
325 Water Street
Wilmington, DE 19804
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(302) 999-7996
Dr. Donald Stookey
ARMY 07-174      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Membrane Produced Oxygen Enriched Air for Diesel Engine Power Enhancement
Abstract:Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) has been a pioneer in modifying the air charge to diesel engines with air separation membranes. Nitrogen-enriched air (NEA) supplied from polymeric membranes mounted on highway truck diesel engines have been shown to substantially reduce the NOx formation and emissions from the engine. The NEA membrane’s co-product, Oxygen-enriched air (OEA), when supplied to the intake of laboratory diesel engines has been known to substantially increase the engine’s power density. This project will develop a prototype membrane system that will be integrated on a 100 kW Tactical Quiet Generator for the purpose of enhancing combustion of diesel and JP-8 fuels and boosting the engine’s power density.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Greg Cole
ARMY 07-174      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Integration, Optimization, and Validation of Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for 100-kW Engines
Abstract:Oxygen-enriched air has been used in the past to enhance combustion in burners (e.g. for Stirling engines and thermophotovoltaics). The same technology can be extended to internal combustion engines providing potential benefits that include; cold start operation, emissions control, combustion control, increased power density, and increased system efficiency. However, integration, demonstration, and practical implementation of an optimized system have yet to be realized. In Phase I, Mainstream will demonstrate oxygen-enriched combustion on a small-scale internal combustion engine test stand, perform optimization tests, and use the experimental results to design an oxygen-enriched engine for future 100-kW generators. Engine models will be developed that include the effects of oxygen enrichment. The optimized performance and emissions of the full-scale engine will be compared to the 7.2 L Caterpillar 3126B baseline engine. In the Phase I Option, Mainstream will develop emissions control strategies. In Phase II, Mainstream will work with large engine OEMs to design, build, integrate, and test the optimized air separation technology into a 100-kW class diesel engine.

WISCONSIN ENGINE RESEARCH CONSULTANTS, LLC
3983 Plymouth Circle
Madison, WI 53705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(608) 890-0433
Dr. David Wickman
ARMY 07-175      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Control Strategies for Advanced Military Diesel Engines
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to optimize the combustion system for a high output military diesel engine to substantially increase engine power density (>100 bhp/l), improve fuel economy (> 40% efficiency at best point), and reduce specific heat rejection (<25 btu/bhp). The approach used in this study will focus on the simultaneous optimization and matching of injector nozzle design and combustion chamber geometry. In addition, the benefits of a variable valve actuation strategy will be explored with emphasis on late intake valve closing (LIVC).

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
ARMY 07-176      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:Advanced System Level Durability Analysis, Prediction and Optimization
Abstract:Impact Technologies, with the support from our commercialization partner General Dynamics Land Systems, propose the development and demonstration of a suite of integrated computer modeling/simulation tools that can perform detailed durability and fatigue life predictions on ground vehicle subsystems comprised of multiple, highly interactive components. The proposed program would address the need for more accurate and integrated component lifing technologies that can be used from the design stages all the way through to field support initiatives. The key components of this integration are the individual component life analysis modules, probabilistic analysis with uncertainly management methods, subsystem interaction models and the necessary open systems software simulation framework that can analyze a defined hierarchy of components in an efficient manner. Specifically, Impact will leverage its experience with ground vehicle suspension/propulsion systems, the VEHDYN component of the NRMM, structural ANSYS/ADAMS/DADS modeling and relationship with GDLS, to create integrated probabilistic fatigue life modules capable of analyzing and predicting subsystem life for key manned ground vehicle suspension components as a case study. The modules will be developed and demonstrated within the Matlab/Simulnk™ environment with direct interfaces to VEHDYN, ADAMS and ANSYS models and available suspension data. Furthermore, the proposed modeling and simulation environment will be implemented within a node-based, resource sharing computing environment to demonstrate scalability to more complex vehicle system models to be exercised during a Phase II development effort.

M4 ENGINEERING, INC.
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill, CA 90755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 981-7797
Mr. Kevin Roughen
ARMY 07-176      Awarded: 12/4/2007
Title:Advanced System Level Durability Analysis, Prediction and Optimization
Abstract:The proposed development creates an analytical system for durability analysis, prediction, and optimization. The approach taken leverages several existing technologies available at M4 Engineering and across industry. Additional algorithm and software development is focused on addressing portions of the problem that have significant opportunity for advancing the current state of the art. These developments include streamlining of several analytical processes as well as a novel approach to include physics-based analysis significantly earlier in the design process. The proposed work will advance the Army interests by enabling increased reliability and reduced lifecycle cost of military ground vehicles.

MKP STRUCTURAL DESIGN ASSOC., INC.
2500 Packard Suite 105
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 975-8860
Dr. Zheng-Dong Ma
ARMY 07-177      Awarded: 11/9/2007
Title:A Reactive Deflector Technology for Vehicle and Crew Protection from Landmine and IED Blast
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research is to develop a new computational design methodology with an innovative reactive structural concept for a deflector that can be installed in current and future tactical vehicle systems for crew and vehicle protection from landmine blast and improvised explosive device (IED) assaults. A major concern with the state-of-the-art deflector technology is that installing a protective deflector under the vehicle chassis usually requires raising the vehicle CG (center of gravity), which may result in problems with maneuvering, vehicle rollover, and an increased foot-print – ultimately affecting vehicle’s mobility and survivability. Using the new reactive deflector technology, the deflector can reconfigure itself from a normal working state to blast protective mode upon detection of an explosive blast. This avoids the above mentioned problems by raising the CG minimally, thus reducing the risk to both crew and vehicle. Major tasks include the development of basic concepts for reactive deflector; shape optimization of deflector for protection against blast overpressure and fragment penetration; the development of fundamental mechanism of re-configurable material distribution; and the concept development for embedded sensors and igniter that can detect blast energy and initiate the reactive structure. Phase II research will focus on the development of a computer simulation code for the deflector design and validation for its effectiveness in occupant survivability in a tactical vehicle underbelly landmine blast and IED fragments impact.

MATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH (MER) CORP.
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 574-1980
Dr. Roger Storm
ARMY 07-178      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:A Blast Resistant Armor Package Based on a High Strength Titanium Foam
Abstract:The Army has a critical need for increased protection for combat personnel vehicles against blasts from land mines and IED’s. A solution to this problem is needed which addresses damage from both fragment penetration and blast pressure, while maintaining an acceptable thickness and weight addition to the underbelly of the vehicles. MER Corp. working with Prof. Anthony Evans of UCSB will develop a solution to this problem which is based on a sandwich structure of dense titanium layers with a new high strength Ti foam being developed by MER. A strike face layer of MER’s Ti/TiB2 composite cermet armor will be used which has been shown to have excellent fragment protection at one half the areal density of Ti-6-4 armor. Prof Evans will conduct a modeling study to define the optimum overall structure, which will build on his earlier studies of honeycomb structures. MER will optimize the foam parameters and provide data to be used for the modeling study.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Dr. Arthur J. Fortini
ARMY 07-178      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Lightweight Foam-Based Vehicular Armor for Mine Blast Protection
Abstract:Open-cell foams offer several unique mechanisms that can be used to defeat the threat posed by mine blast effects. The initial shock wave reaching the armor is by far the greatest threat, and dissipating the energy of this shock wave is the goal of the proposed work. The first mechanism relies on the cellular structure of the open-cell foam itself. Because the foam is essentially a two-phase system, and each phase has a different sonic velocity, the incident shock wave will be diffused by the foam structure. This will decrease the amount of blast energy under the curve and the peak energy delivery rate. By using a high-strength, ductile metal foam, a material far stronger than the aluminum foams tested in the past, additional blast energy will be absorbed via crushing. Furthermore, by filling the voids of the foam with an endothermic, energy-absorbing material, even greater energy-absorbing capability is added to the system. If the endothermic polymeric filler is chosen such that it behaves like a high-viscosity fluid at high shear rates, the overpressure from the blast wave will cause it to flow through the foam, and viscous dissipation will remove additional energy from the blast. Finally, by incorporating nanoparticles into the filler, additional energy can be extracted from the shock via viscous dissipation from the particles moving through the filler. Grading the mechanical properties of the system will further attenuate the blast wave and mitigate reflections and inadvertent amplification of the blast. The net effect will be a significant reduction in the level of energy transmitted to the underlying structure, and that energy will be transmitted at a slower, more sustainable level. By combining all of these mechanisms into a single lightweight system, ground vehicles will enjoy increased survivability and mobility because of the decreased armor weight. With a 1" thick slab of foam and lightweight filler, the areal density will be less than that of a 0.17" thick sheet of steel. The proposed system also offers the potential to incorporate traditional ballistic/fragment protection approaches by using a ceramic or a ceramic/metal laminate as one of the facesheets covering the foam.

PUREWAVE, INC.
P. O. Box 1749
Auburn, AL 36831
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(334) 524-1118
Ms. W. Wendy Pu
ARMY 07-180      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Radar on a Chip
Abstract:This proposal presents an innovative low power and high performance transceiver (TR) microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) for 10GHz multifunction Radar-On-Chip (ROC) applications. The radar TR MMIC includes a low noise front end with low noise amplifier (LNA) and mixer. The TR MMIC is featured with a high speed and low power analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which allows digitizing the received signal at input frequency beyond 1GHz. The TR MMIC also includes an ultrahigh-speed low power direct digital synthesizer (DDS) with a clock frequency larger than 4.5 GHz. The high-speed DDS includes a sinusoidal weighted digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with 9-bit resolution to achieve better than -50dBc spectral purity. The DDS modulation waveform configurations include chirp, step frequency, FM, MSK, and PM. It uses a low-noise phase lock loop (PLL) to generate both the DDS clock and the local frequency at 9 GHz. The TR MMIC has a power amplifier (PA) with innovative bias boosting scheme to deliver larger than 100mW output at 10GHz with high power added efficiency (PAE). The proposed TR MMIC using commercially available SiGe technology can achieve low power consumption of less than 10W for X-band radar applications.

SENSCORP, INC.
ASB Tower, Suite 2650 1001 Bishop Street
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 783-8080
Dr. Olga Boric-Lubecke
ARMY 07-180      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Radar on a Chip
Abstract:The Army is using unattended ground sensors (UGS) for surveillance and intelligence collection, and while they are effective in many scenarios, the current UGS technologies have capability shortcomings and characteristics that limit their usefulness in many applications. These shortcomings include the lack of radar search capabilities due to cost, weight, power and size constraints. Radar could add additional capabilities to UGS such as improved search and discriminating moving and stationary targets from clutter and noise. This research effort will leverage radio-frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) miniaturization methods, and Senscorp’s expertise in Doppler radar sensing to develop low cost, low weight, low power, multifunction radar on a chip. The radar chip will be capable of supporting search, track, identification, and communication.

APPLIED TECHNOLOGY ASSOC.
1300 Britt SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 767-1224
Mr. Darren Laughlin
ARMY 07-181      Awarded: 12/10/2007
Title:Miniature North Seeking Module (MNSM)
Abstract:Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop a miniature North seeking module (MNSM) based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial angular rate sensing devices. The MNSM measures the Earth’s rotation vector to determine azimuth and is independent of GPS, celestial body sight angle, and the magnetic North. ATA’s enabling sensor (ARS-15, 8cc volume, 60grams) will be integrated on an ultra small, low power turntable and rotated to determine azimuth angle from North. ATA will demonstrate the technology that has the potential of augmenting, or replacing magnetometer based compasses in the battlefield. Army applications for a precision MNSM include Far Target Locators (FTLs) for the improved target acquisition system (ITAS), and Javelin command launch unit (CLU). ATA will investigate several algorithms that will be used to minimize the error of the MNSM azimuth calculation. The initial desired horizontal accuracy is 10m at 3000m (3mrad, 0.2 deg), however the proposes MNSM is expected to exhibit azimuth errors less than 1 mrad (0.05 degree) in less than one minute based on initial analyses. The signal to noise (SNR) between the Earth spin vector and the inherent noise of the ARS-15 enables high fidelity measurement of the Earth’s spin rate vector.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Anthony J. Dietz
ARMY 07-182      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:CFD Toolkit for Modeling Parachutists in Freefall
Abstract:A recent increase in the occurrence of pilot parachute deployment hesitation events during training has focused attention on the flow about parachutists in freefall. An improved understanding of this flow will contribute to better equipment and improved safety. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is a powerful technique for exploring such flows. Once validated against experimental data, CFD solutions may be used to probe the flow in detail and to evaluate the effects of changes in body position or equipment configurations. However, a high level of modeling and analysis expertise is required to generate accurate solutions of appropriate fidelity. In this project, Creare will develop a Freefall Modeling Toolkit, in which the modeling process will be simplified and the user guided through each of the modeling, meshing, analysis, iteration, and visualization tasks required to generate a valid solution. In Phase I we will demonstrate our approach by modeling a specific parachutist configuration and validating the results against experimental data. We will then develop a design for the toolkit based on the results and customer feedback. In Phase II we will implement the Freefall Toolkit and validate it for a wide range of body positions, equipment configurations, and drop conditions.

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
13766 S. Hawthorne Blvd.
Hawthorne, CA 90250
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 679-2281
Mr. Thomas T. Myers
ARMY 07-182      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:The Free Fall Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST)
Abstract:The Free Fall Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST) is designed to bring the power of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the analysis of the aerodynamics and dynamics of parachutists in freefall. The primary application will be in the design of new free fall equipment and techniques. A key objective of the FAST development will be to provide a highly specialized and very efficient tool that is relatively easy to use by analysts with limited background in aerodynamics and dynamics. FAST will consist of three primary modules: the Aerodynamics Module which contains the CFD element, a Dynamics and Control Module and a Digital Manikin Module, which simplifies the generation of parameter values for the other two modules. The CFD component will implement the Immersed Boundary Method which will greatly simplify grid generation for the end user and ultimately provide a unique capability for dealing with complex body motions. The Digital Manikin will allow the FAST user to simply specify a parachutist’s height, weight and equipment suite and have the surface geometry for CFD grid generation and the mass properties for dynamic analysis automatically generated. Arms and legs will be positioned within bio-kinematic constraints from a graphical display of the manikin.

PROTOTYPE PRODUCTIONS, INC.
21641 Beaumeade Circle Suite 311
Ashburn , VA 20147
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 858-0011
Dr. Paul Howard
ARMY 07-183      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Accessory Rail Communication and Power Transfer
Abstract:Today’s U.S. soldiers benefit from the best training and the most advanced equipment than any other previous generation of U.S. warfighters. With the advanced technology, however, has come an increased reliance on electrical power and portable batteries. As an example, the current M-4 rifle, with its Modular Weapon System (MWS), can be equipped with numerous optics, laser designators/sights, and lights, all with different power requirements and battery supplies. The result is a heavy weapon and a heavier field load of batteries to accommodate the various accessories, which ultimately impacts the soldiers’ effectiveness, particularly on longer missions. At present, the Army is requesting a solution be developed that will allow for compatible accessory attachment with existing rail attachments, along with a common power supply and accessory communication system. Prototype Productions, Inc. (PPI) has reviewed the challenges associated with this effort, and PPI has prepared several preliminary solution concepts. PPI proposes to conduct a detailed analysis of these proposed concepts to determine feasibility of the optimum concept.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Parfenov
ARMY 07-184      Awarded: 3/31/2008
Title:Secure, Multi-Channel High-Speed Wireless 3D-Video Transmission
Abstract:To address the Army need for high-speed wireless 3D video transmission to support virtual dismounted soldier training, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Secure, Multi-Channel High-Speed Wireless 3D-Video (SMuCH-3D) transmission system based on an UWB (ultra-wideband) directional antenna and image prediction algorithms. The proposed system contains projection optics with image-producing high- definition microdisplays with SVGA resolution, microdisplay driving electronics, and a novel electronic wireless link interface for communication with the base computer station that generates video images and directional antennas, and UWB transmitters connected to the scene image generators. The innovation in the wireless link interface will enable the SMuCH-3D to present SVGA resolution simulated stereoscopic images to the user, while the innovative directional antenna array and secure transmission result in gapless display for multiple users. In Phase I POC will show the feasibility of the SMuCH-3D by design and breadboard demonstration of the SVGA-resolution COTS components. In Phase II we will demonstrate a TRL 5 SMuCH-3D prototype transmitting stereographic images to multiple users at 10-20 m in an Army simulator environment.

RPA ELECTRONICS DESIGN, LLC
1285 Chenango Street
Binghamton, NY 13901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 771-0393
Mr. Richard Pray
ARMY 07-184      Awarded: 3/31/2008
Title:High Speed Wireless 3-D Video Transmission to Support Virtual Dismounted Training
Abstract:The use of real world portable devices such as binoculars, helmet mounted displays, and night vision goggles is expanding, providing today's warfighter with greater amounts of visual information to process in real time. Training the soldier to become proficient with each of these complex systems is crucial to their effectiveness. Training devices lack the immersive, real 3D world to stimulate such systems, requiring simulation engineers to make tradeoffs. To achieve high resolution imagery necessary for reasonable replication of imagery, cables have been employed to provide the bandwidth required. Such tethers, however, restrict user range of motion and therefore training effectiveness. Recent advances if radio frequency (RF) commercial technologies improve greatly on past RF performance, and now provide the leap in available bandwidth necessary for delivering multiple high resolution video streams to portable devices. This proposal takes advantage of these new RF data links, and provides a highly adaptable solution to allow future advancements to be readily incorporated into multi-player portable training systems.

D & S CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 7259
Freehold, NJ 07728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 542-3113
Mr. Brian Holmes
ARMY 07-185      Awarded: 3/31/2008
Title:Battlefield Effects for Live Embedded Training
Abstract:This Phase I proposal describes the process used by DSCI /Icon Team to identify a solution for the Battlefield Effects for Live Embedded Training. The DSCI/Icon Team will use our expertise in Tactical Engagement Simulation Systems to investigate alternatives for providing the desired Battlefield Effects required by this SBIR Topic, and will develop a system that we have coined as the “Embedded Battlefield Effects Simulation System” or EBESS. As part of the Phase I Option, DSCI proposes to begin initial development of a prototype of the solution recommended by the Phase I effort, which will be used to demonstrate the feasibility to the U.S. Army for a Phase II development effort to implement an embedded Live Training Battlefield Firing Effects system on a current force vehicle and demonstrate it in a Live Training exercise.

ADVALUE PHOTONICS, INC.
4585 S. Palo Verde, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 514-1100
Dr. Shibin Jiang
ARMY 07-186      Awarded: 11/12/2007
Title:Handhold High Resolution Visual Detector for Ceramic Armor
Abstract:We propose to design and implement a novel field portable THz detector for examining vehicle armor panel and body armor based on the high frequency (0.5-10 THz) and high power THz source and a commercial high resolution focal-plane array (FPA) camera. The crucial high frequency THz source will have subwatt-level power that is sufficient to penetrate thick armor ceramics for high resolution imaging, which will be designed and implemented. The proposed field portable THz detector will provides unique and high resolution diagnostic tools for identifying and locating the non-ballistic impacts of vehicle armor panel and body armor in the field. Furthermore, it will be the most promising detector for homeland security, especially for the remote sensing and imaging of hazardous materials, such as improvised explosive devices (IED), drugs and poison chemicals due to its high power, tunable high frequency and high resolution.

EVISIVE, INC.
8867 Highland Rd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70808
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(225) 769-2780
Mr. Bob Stakenborghs
ARMY 07-186      Awarded: 3/16/2009
Title:Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Testing of Ceramic Armor
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the application of a patented microwave scanning device as a portable NDE methodology to perform monitoring of the health of ceramic armor from non-projectile impacts. The scanning process utilizes microwaves as an interrogating beam to penetrate a dielectric material. The microwaves combine and form an interference pattern that is reflected at areas of changing dielectric constant. This method has been used successfully in preliminary studies on many different types of dielectric materials, including monolithic ceramics and samples of Stryker and ASV program armor panels. This method has also been shown to be capable of providing a quick and accurate identification of discontinuities in ceramic material samples. This method permits real time evaluation by inspection from one surface only, through non-contacting encapsulation such as Kevlar or rubber, saving access time and cost. Evisive microwave scanning technology has been demonstrated for the Army through Argonne National Laboratory. The included letter of support from TARDEC refers to that investigation.

KTECH CORP.
1300 Eubank Blvd. SE
Albuquerque, NM 87123
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 938-4192
Dr. Bruce Freeman
ARMY 07-187      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Phase Transition Explosive Driven Pulsed Power Generators
Abstract:This SBIR proposal is intended to address the experimental development of Shock Wave magnetic flux compression Generators (SWGs) for applications to be used in the US Army’s multifunction munitions. The US Army requires high-energy density power supplies that are capable of functioning properly in high G environments. Conventional magnetic flux compression generators (FCGs) probably cannot be adequately hardened to operate under these circumstances. However, a variant of the FCG technology, namely shock wave flux compression generators (SWGs) hold the promise for being able to survive the high G launch needs of the US Army. These generators work by using the phase change of a working material under strong shock conditions to perform work on a magnetic field. To date, the only experimental research appears to use implosion systems to create high magnetic fields. However, for SWGs to become useful power supplies, divergent geometries must be shown to be able to compress the magnetic fields. We intend to develop the SWG for the Army’s directed energy applications. While the hydrodynamic computer codes CTH and ALE3D will be used, the emphasis will be on the experimental testing of the generator designs, differing working materials, and various explosives. Thus, within the Phase I of this effort, SWGs will be designed, fabricated, and dynamically tested. If appropriate, a second set of tests will be performed during the Option period. Phase II development will examine the use of SWGs to power directed energy devices of interest to the US Army. Phase III development will extend this effort by working with the US Army and its contractors to provide useful solutions for Army requirements.

HEM TECHNOLOGIES
602 A Broadway St
Lubbock, TX 79401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(806) 747-7511
Dr. David Hemmert
ARMY 07-188      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Power Conditioning for Explosive Pulsed Power for Missiles and Munitions
Abstract:Explosively driven pulsed power has developed significantly over the past few years in the form of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG), Ferroelectric Generators (FEG), and Ferromagnetic Generators (FMG). However, two critical areas still need to be addressed to make it possible to use these technologies in small munitions. First, the generator output needs to be matched to the load in order to deliver maximum amount of power. A second problem with explosively driven generators is that they tend to be sensitive to high strain loads. HEM Technologies, with the Texas Tech University Pulsed Power and Power Electronics Center, propose to address these critical issues with several solutions focused on FEG technology.

LOKI, INC.
1006 Kingshighway
Rolla, MO 65409
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(806) 239-6944
Dr. Sergey I. Shkuratov
ARMY 07-188      Awarded: 11/16/2007
Title:Power Conditioning for Explosive Pulsed Power for Missiles and Munitions
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research and development work is to create the power conditioning needed for explosive driven pulsed power devices to properly drive various loads being considered as payloads for missiles and gun launched projectiles. The system we are proposing will be complete unit, to include all components necessary for operation: miniature explosive-driven primary power source, a corresponding impedance- matched miniature power-conditioning system, and a deployable antenna. The target overall diameter of the systems will be 25 mm, and the systems are to be g-force hardened. These microwave generators are intended to radiate a series of ultra- wideband pulses from tens to hundred of megawatts in power, and the systems will be autonomous, simple, reliable in operation, inexpensive, and easily produced.

RADIANCE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
350 Wynn Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-3642
Dr. M. Franklin Rose
ARMY 07-188      Awarded: 11/26/2007
Title:Power Conditioning for Explosive Pulsed Power for Missiles and Munitions
Abstract:The objective of this research and development effort is to create the critical power conditioning elements that are integral to munitions capable of generating electronic kill mechanisms in addition to blast, and impact damage. Inherent in the design of the conditioning elements, is the requirement that they must be capable of sustaining severe g-loading as a result of the launch process that delivers the munitions to its target. At present, we are aware of no ultra-compact, diameter on order of 1 inch, explosive driven pulsed power system that is capable of hundreds kilovolts output voltage at hundreds of megawatts levels. We propose to develop a unique ferroelectric explosive generator charging a vector inversion generator to generate a high voltage, nanoseconds rise time, shock hardened power supply. The total unit contains the energy source, power conditioning, and requisite switching and is fabricated in an inherently shock-hard way. The significance of this work is that it is possible to build an ultra compact single shot/multiple shot highly efficient explosive driven electrical pulse generator that is robust and with sufficient power and energy to drive a variety of RF converters. These units have numerous applications in impulse radar, flash x-ray systems.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Hartmut H. Legner
ARMY 07-189      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Ice Hydrometeor Interactions in Shock Layers and Hot Material Surfaces
Abstract:The proposed effort is a new, low-cost testing technique for ice hydrometeor impact on hot material surfaces simulating high-speed missile flight at altitude. This screening method will allow rapid evaluation of the performance of new radome materials and surface materials used on hypersonic vehicles as they encounter ice particulates in flight. The portable ice-particle gun system will have three gas guns that can be independently fired to simulate both single and multiple impacts on the same impact location. The ability to assess ice pellet damage on hot material surfaces is unique and new. During the Phase I effort, the gun system will be designed, fabricated and demonstrated. A simple model for ice particle behavior in high speed shock layers and the subsequent material damage will be developed in order to predict and analyze experimental observations. Laser-simulated hot tests will be demonstrated in the Phase I Option effort.

ADVALUE PHOTONICS, INC.
4585 S. Palo Verde, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 514-1100
Dr. Shibin Jiang
ARMY 07-190      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:High Power 2.1 Micron Fiber Laser
Abstract:High energy laser can provide a tremendous benefit to the army for area protection against rockets, artillery, and mortars (RAM). There is concern about high energy laser systems potentially causing collateral eye damage due to scattering off of target surfaces. We propose to develop innovative high efficient high power 2.1 micron fiber laser that is scalable to power levels of greater than 10kW. This new fiber laser is retina safe which significantly reduces the possibility of permanent eye damage due to laser scattering, and exhibits good atmospheric transmission which is necessary to use laser to provide protection against rockets, artillery, mortars (RAM), and other potential threats. We will design new glass composition to host high rare-earth doping concentration to generate extremely efficient fiber laser, characterize the spectroscopic properties to identify the optimum doping concentrations, design and fabricate large core double cladding single mode fiber, and demonstrate efficient fiber laser. Slope efficiency of 65% is expected. Successful development of such innovative highly efficient high power fiber laser with output power of 10 kilowatts level would revolutionize the fiber laser development and enable many new applications.

Q PEAK, INC.
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9535
Mr. Glen A. Rines
ARMY 07-190      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Tm:fiber-Based, Reduced Eye-Hazard Laser
Abstract:Until recently, gas lasers were the only technology that could provide the powers required for Directed Energy (DE) applications, such as providing area protection to Army forces against rockets, artillery, and mortars. Recent advances in solid state lasers have shown their potential for power scaling to DE levels, and their lack of expendables is major advantage over gas systems. To date, the solid lasers involved have employed either neodymium (Nd)- or ytterbium (Yb)-doped media, either bulk crystals or silica glasses drawn into fibers. All operate in the 1000-1100-nm wavelength region, which, because the wavelengths are invisible but are transmitted to the retina, leads to a significant operational concern about eye safety in real-world uses. Even minimal reflections from targets or debris can exceed the eye-safety limit. Q-Peak has recently developed high-power, efficient, thulium (Tm)-doped, 2000-nm-wavelength fiber lasers that have the potential to scale up to kW power levels. In the work we propose here, we will investigate techniques for fiber-laser beam combination that would further scale the power to DE levels, while maintaining high beam quality.

ACULIGHT CORP.
22121 20th Avenue SE
Bothell, WA 98021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Pratheepan Madasamy
ARMY 07-191      Awarded: 11/21/2007
Title:Photonic Crystal Development for High Power Lasers
Abstract:The Phase I effort will show the feasibility of reaching 10+kW average power in Yb- doped, photonic waveguide amplifiers emitting near-diffraction-limited output beams. We will show that this innovative technology permits us to avoid nonlinearities and thermo- optical fracture, while producing near diffraction-limited output in the multi-kilowatt regime. By the conclusion of the Phase I effort, we will have addressed the major risks involved in power-scaling the technology to 10+kW.

CORCORAN ENGINEERING, INC.
49 Jerome Ave.
Newton, MA 02465
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 795-0687
Dr. Christopher J. Corcoran
ARMY 07-191      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Monolithic Self-Fourier Photonic Crystal Laser Array
Abstract:The proposed project will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a scalable coherent high power laser array using a photonic crystal structure and a monolithic self-Fourier cavity. In the proposed Phase I effort, the optical design of the multicore photonic crystal structure will be analyzed and a monolithic Self-Fourier cavity will be designed. The mode matching properties of a self-Fourier cavity to the photonic crystal structure will be experimentally demonstrated using bulk optics in a scaled experimental demonstration. During the 4-month Option, a monolithic Self-Fourier cavity of the appropriate scale to match the photonic crystal structure will be manufactured and the mode matching capabilities demonstrated. A complete full-scale laser design will be developed for the Phase II project.

OASIS ADVANCED ENGINEERING, INC.
3200 Cross Creek Parkway
Auburn Hills, MI 48326
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 373-9800
Mr. Jeff Minor
ARMY 07-192      Awarded: 10/19/2007
Title:Embedded Virtual Driver Training Technologies
Abstract:Oasis will develop a driver’s periscope capable of switching between 1) the normal optical view of the battlefield, 2) a synthetic image for displaying sensor imagery or a simulated battlefield, and 3) a combined view similar to an aircraft Heads Up Display (HUD). Oasis has already developed a prototype of such a device and its design is unique in that it has no moving parts, increasing reliability. The objectives of this SBIR program will be to adapt the existing design to a driver’s periscope of a current force vehicle, integrate it with night vision sensors, and collimate the display image. In Phase I, Oasis will identify design options, evaluate the feasibility and relative merits of those options, develop the conceptual design, and prototype the collimating optics components. Phase II will produce a fully functional prototype.

OPTICAL RESOLUTIONS, INC.
155 east main street suite 308
brewster, NY 10509
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(845) 940-0457
Mr. Paul Weissman
ARMY 07-192      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Embedded Virtual Driver Training Technologies
Abstract:The objective of topic ARMY 07-192 of Army SBIR 07.2 is to develop and demonstrate a prototype visual imaging solution for low-cost, virtual, fully embedded vehicle driver training focused on current force combat vehicle vision blocks and night driving sources. Optical Resolutions Incorporated (ORI) and its subcontractor, RTI International, propose to select and design a visual system concept chosen from trade offs conducted between possible visualization system solutions and the physical constraints of current force combat systems driver stations. These solutions will be based on extensions to the vehicle vision blocks and will incorporate the ability to display the output of night vision sensors. We will research newly available optical and display components; view-mode switching techniques; micro-fabrication methodologies; and interface technologies to transform the conventional, direct view vision block into a dual-purpose viewing device that supports, in addition, a driver visualization of a virtual battlefield. In phase I, the project team will study the configuration of driver crew stations of current force fighting vehicles (Abrams, Bradley, Stryker, etc.) to determine which one is most amenable to the implementation of a switchable vision block (SVB). This determination will be based on tradeoffs between possible solutions to provide ET to the driver station. The interface between the SVB and the image generator will be implemented to connect, in the indirect view mode, to either the VR training data base or the video products of the night vision technology device(s) to support day and night combat operations without the need for a separate, dedicated night vision port. We will also investigate HUD-like projection technologies capable of supporting yet a blended view mode in which sensor-derived information can be overlayed over the real world scene for enhanced situational awareness. This phase of the project will culminate with the selection of a combat system and a corresponding SVB concept design for driver ET. Available and developing technologies in optics, displays, and wireless transmission will also be researched to attain the most reliable, lowest cost and weight possible implementation of an SVB to satisfy the ET, virtual driver training requirements.

CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP.
727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 668-2567
Mr. Douglas Haanpaa
ARMY 07-193      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Battlespace Target Presentation in the Live Training Environment
Abstract:The proposed system creates augmented reality targets for live fire training using novel optical beacons. These optical beacons are easily added to current training facilities and are use to determine the soldiers position in a scene with respect to an environment model of the surrounding structures. The system uses a forward looking camera to ascertain the soldier’s position with respect to the buildings, and then overlays virtual 3D targets into the scene via a heads up display. Because of the environment map the virtual targets can realistically move in and out of buildings, and take cover. The targets will use scripting tools acquired from the gaming industry to perform complex maneuvers, and adaptively respond to the soldier’s behavior. The location of misses and hits from the rifle is determined using Cybernet’s I3M rifle pose detection device. This device has the added benefit of allowing the soldier to interact with the target via gross body movements, and reposition of the rifle. The head mounted display is kept stationary using helmet-mounted actuators and an eye-tracking camera. This eye-tracking camera is also used to monitor the soldier’s gaze direction for enhanced training.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Ryan Kilgore
ARMY 07-194      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Multimodal Interfaces for Synthetic Training Environments (MIST)
Abstract:Current synthetic training environments are limited in their effectiveness by their exclusive use of conventional human-computer interaction techniques (e.g., mouse/keyboard/joystick). To successfully train soldiers in small-unit tactics, trainees need to be able to interact with semi-automated forces through the use of realistic gestural and verbal communication interfaces. To improve training by incorporating realistic interfaces, we propose to design and demonstrate Multimodal Interfaces for Synthetic Training environments (MIST) through the use of a reconfigurable hardware and software system. Four components define our approach: First, we will determine the types of communication needed by analyzing soldier communication needs through studying doctrine documents and interviewing and observing subject matter experts. Second, we will use this analysis to drive the design of multimodal interfaces for use in synthetic training environments. This effort will focus on the use of voice recognition to support verbal commands, and the use of inertial sensors to support gestures. Third, we will design and demonstrate an innovative software and hardware system that will support configuration, selection, and adaptation of multimodal interface methods. Fourth, we will define initial evaluation metrics and develop an evaluation methodology for assessing the utility and efficacy of the proposed multimodal interface methods.

RESEARCH NETWORK, INC.
1201 Roberts Blvd. Ste. 120
Kennesaw, GA 30144
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 354-0182
Mr. James A Saffold
ARMY 07-194      Awarded: 10/19/2007
Title:Modeling Human Interfaces and Behaviors in Dismounted Soldier Training Environments
Abstract:This research will specifically look at the dismounted soldier simulation environment and aim to make significant advances for the command and control of computer generated forces such as Blue Force and unmanned platforms. These advances will use intelligent human interfaces, particularly voice recognition and other multi-modalities such as hand signaling.

FORTERRA SYSTEMS, INC.
1855 South Grant Street 3rd Floor
San Mateo, CA 94402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 433-4027
Ms. Laura Kusumoto
ARMY 07-195      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:High Fidelity Visual Representation of Crowds
Abstract:Today’s contemporary operating environment is filled with individuals and crowds that have become a tactical asset to the enemy. When confronted by crowds, soldiers face the ambiguity of not knowing who is friend or foe and likely don’t possess the requisite cross-cultural communication skills to adequately respond to the rapidly changing threat. Poor choices result in escalation of hostility threatening lives and the mission. Learning appropriate skills to deal with individual and group behaviors is an imperative; and a variety of game-based technologies show promise to close the training gap. Forterra and Charles River Associates propose to research game technologies and crowd modeling approaches that can be integrated to produce an appropriate virtual training system. We propose to analyze the behaviors of crowds to understand their dynamics then to look at available cognitive modeling architectures. We’ll look at several game based platforms to find an appropriate match to support virtual training with large numbers of avatars in an asymmetric warfare environment. A feasibility demonstration is proposed as a culminating event. Emphasis will be placed on solutions than can be commercialized to support similar training needs in combat medicine and emergency preparedness.

REALTIME TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1523 N. Main Street
Royal Oak, MI 48067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(720) 890-4871
Mr. Brian Collins
ARMY 07-195      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:High Fidelity Visual Representation of Crowds
Abstract:Soldiers in remote territories need to be able to quickly assess the prevailing threat level from crowds in urban settings. Existing training solutions, however, do not generally provide realistic crowd simulation capabilities, as commodity graphics hardware has not, until recently, been up to the task. To generate effective crowds in a typical visualization environment involves the generation of hundreds of characters, which may exert a heavy load on graphics systems already taxed by terrain, structures, vehicles, and various scene clutter. In addition, plausible crowd behavior, both for individuals and the collective, is an equally important element in realistically simulating crowds. These behaviors must be scriptable and dynamically controllable to provide the flexibility necessary to accurately prepare troops for any urban situations they may encounter. The aim of this project is to design and develop a complete crowds framework to populate a virtual environment with hundreds of characters. Crowd behavior will be governed by a cognitive model designed to allow the flexibility to provide high level scripting, while simultaneously allowing for the collective emergent behaviors so fundamental to real crowds.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Magnús Snorrason
ARMY 07-196      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:Automatic Recognition of Signs for Enhanced Navigation Awareness, and Localization
Abstract:GPS technology provides a warfighter in unfamiliar territory with up-to-date location data. However, in dense urban and heavily canopied environments, or in the presence of external interference, the effectiveness of GPS-based navigational systems can be severely compromised. Warfighters require a navigational system capable of providing localization data and improving situational awareness even under GPS-suppressed conditions. We propose a system called Automatic Recognition of Signs for Enhanced Navigation Awareness, and Localization (ARSENAL) capable of automatically detecting and recognizing road signage that would directly address this problem by providing precise geographic location (e.g. intersection of two roads) as well as general awareness (e.g. speed limits, “road closed/dead end”). ARSENAL identifies regions in an image that exhibit sign-like properties based on cues common to most signs like the presence of text, vivid color, planar surfaces, compact shape, and retroreflectivity. These cues are fused to produce sign hypotheses which are accumulated over time to classify sign regions with high confidence. Finally, symbolic information (e.g. embedded text) is segmented and recognized from the detected signs, improving situational awareness and providing accurate navigational data.

QUANTUM SIGNAL, LLC
3741 Plaza Drive Suite 1
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 994-0028
Dr. Mitchell M Rohde
ARMY 07-196      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:ESARR: Enhanced Situational Awareness via Road Sign Recognition
Abstract:Situational Awareness (SA) systems leveraging Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have become a mainstay for vehicles, troops, and even unmanned systems (such as unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs)). Unfortunately, in urban, semi-urban or canopied terrain GPS signals can be difficult or impossible to receive consistently. New and alternative tools to enhance situational awareness are needed to fill this gap. Road signs can potentially serve as an alternative to GPS in these environments – by definition; they are designed to provide information related to location. Quantum Signal LLC proposes to develop ESARR: a tool for enhanced situational awareness via road sign recognition. The system will be easy to operate, and will provide enhanced SA to the warfighter by: 1) Capturing & processing road sign images in stills/video & extracting information from them; 2) Relating the extracted information to maps/GIS to ascertain position (i.e. geo-bounding); 3) Efficiently communicating this information back to the soldier in a manner that is timely and informative. The system will be based on a combination of advanced image processing techniques and will be able to perform the road sign reading function robustly under a variety of conditions from video in real-time.

MKP STRUCTURAL DESIGN ASSOC., INC.
2500 Packard Suite 105
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 975-8860
Dr. Zheng-Dong Ma
ARMY 07-197      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:Modeling, Simulation, and Design Optimization of Nanocomposites for Applications in the Army
Abstract:In this program, we will develop a comprehensive modeling, simulation, and design optimization tool for nano-composites in order to predict, with accepted fidelity, nano- composite behaviors; and to design optimum nano-composites for specific Army applications. We will design, prototype, and test a new advanced composite armor with nanomaterials to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nanocomposites to enhance Army vehicle protection. The fundamental technologies to be developed in this research include multiscale models of the considered nanomaterials, homogenization methods, and design optimization tools based on these models. The resultant simulation and design system will address major concerns in functional requirements of Army’s ground vehicles, including mechanical strength, hardness, durability, ballistic and blast impact resistance, etc. The new technology will enhance evaluation and development capabilities of the Army for developing new innovative materials to meet current and future challenges. The proposed simulation and design system will have the following features: 1) Multiscale modeling of nano-materials; 2) Advanced nanomaterial design capabilities based on the multiscale models; 3) Validated physics at both nano-level observation and macro-level testing; 4) Imbedded manufacturability consideration in the nanomaterial design process; and 5) Function-oriented material design at multiple scales, including nano- and macro-scales.

ATA ENGINEERING, INC.
11995 El Camino Real Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 480-2085
Dr. Gareth Thomas
ARMY 07-198      Awarded: 12/5/2007
Title:Reconfigurable Structures for Future Force/Future Combat System (FF/FCS) and Joint Force Bridging Applications
Abstract:A deployable bridge design concept is proposed that is capable of supporting a 68 Ton M1A2 tank over a span of 50m. This concept is easily configured to accept alternate combinations of span length and vehicle loads. The structural design has adequate strength for all load cases and adequate stiffness in the static and dynamic modes of deformation that are important to operational performance. Key to the success of the bridge concept is the use of materials that exhibit high strength and stiffness. Tensile members are generally constructed of UHMWPE ropes with compressive members made of carbon fiber composites. The suitability of these materials will be demonstrated in Phase I by extensive computer simulation. The structural system can be compressed into a compact package for storage and transportation in a C-130 aircraft. In one proposed version of the bridge system a pneumatic bladder system is used to assist deployment in both short and long span applications. This option, as well as other issues, will be addressed in a design specification that will be developed early in Phase I. This specification will help guide design development in a controlled way towards a design goal that is clearly defined by the Army.

MARITIME APPLIED PHYSICS CORP.
1850 Frankfurst Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 524-3330
Mr. Kevin Silbert
ARMY 07-199      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:Advanced Active Electromechanical Track Tensioner Development
Abstract:Research and development of an innovative and advanced active track tensioner is proposed. Multiple control schemes will be investigated, as will multiple integration issues that are inherent in the use of the system on high speed military tracked vehicles.

MILLENWORKS
1361 Valencia Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 426-5512
Mr. Peter LeNoach
ARMY 07-199      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Advanced Electromechanical Track Tensioner
Abstract:MillenWorks proposes to develop a mathematical model that will simulate the dynamic performance of a track system on a track-laying vehicle. This model will be used to study the effects of track tension on fuel economy, track component wear and track retention. This model will also be used to create specifications for future track tensioning devices, as well as for use in developing control algorithms for dynamic track tension control.

MAGNETIC APPLICATIONS, INC.
9810 Isabelle Road
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 257-2848
Mr. Harold Scott
ARMY 07-200      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Vehicle Based Exportable Power
Abstract:The Offerors address the limitations of conventional towed or deck-mounted generator sets by examining the feasibility of using their proprietary high performance HPD (High Power Density) vehicle alternators and a novel MSC (Microprocessor Supervisory Circuit) to develop Vehicle-based Exportable Power capability to accomplish the following power generation tasks: • Using a single vehicle, provide 12VDC, 28VDC, 120VAC, and 3-Phase 220VAC to vehicle-mounted and external equipment such as floodlights; welders; a small command post, clinics or mess facilities. Depending on the vehicle/alternator used, output powers from 20kW to 50kW are possible • Using multiple vehicles, form a small electrical power grid to provide 12VDC, 28VDC, 120VAC, and 3-Phase 220VAC to larger sites, such as radar/missile battery installations, larger command and control sites, data processing and telecommunications sites, temporary barracks and large-scale field kitchens, field hospitals, forward airfields, etc. The Vehicle-based Exportable Power electrical power grid is composed of multiple nodes, and possesses “designed-in” redundancy, has no additional impact on a mobile force’s sea/air-lift resources, is transparent to the mission capabilities of the vehicles in which it is installed, and because the number of nodes can be changed to meet changing electrical power demands, is inherently adaptable to changing mission requirements.

MILLENWORKS
1361 Valencia Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 426-5512
Mr. Peter LeNoach
ARMY 07-200      Awarded: 12/3/2007
Title:Vehicle Based Exportable Power
Abstract:Dynamic supply of clean, reliable electrical power in remote locations and during emergency situations is increasingly called for by today’s military. Current diesel engine/generator sets (gensets) are not self-mobile, requiring an additional vehicle to tow or transport them to where power is needed. Current tactical vehicles, such as HMMWVs, have been successfully retrofitted with high power alternators, but lack the electronics needed to export this power and the intelligence needed to safely and reliably coordinate multiple vehicles in order to achieve power outputs greater than ~35kW, such as the ~100kW required by a field hospital. Therefore a system which converts ubiquitous, mobile tactical vehicles into a distributed power supply system is called for. MillenWorks proposes to develop a Grid Interactive Vehicle Exportable Power (GIVE- Power) system which is intelligent, scalable, safe, and fault tolerant. By seamlessly converting fleets of vehicles into go-anywhere grid power supplies, MillenWorks will help the Army to provide the dynamic power systems required on today’s battlefield. MillenWorks intends to develop both a system architecture for communication, coordination and cooperation between multiple vehicles as well as the electrical hardware necessary to monitor and understand the output from various vehicle alternators and the conditions on an existing energized or unenergized power grid. A key feature of the proposed system is its applicability and expandability to new hybrid- electric and fully-electric vehicles, which are increasingly being adopted both in the military and by the general public. MillenWorks has a plan to capitalize on both military and commercial markets for intelligent vehicle-based power distribution by developing a robust, distributed, coordinated power management system.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(424) 263-6326
Dr. Irene Kung
ARMY 07-201      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Battery-Powered, Field System for Visual Extraction of Ceramic Shards from Wounds
Abstract:Rapidly removing sharp ceramic fragments embedded in the body after a shattering impact on a small arms protection insert (SAPI) is critical to the optimal recovery of wounded personnel. Because tiny SAPI pieces are made of materials that are difficult to visualize, however, they are often overlooked in an initial medical response, leading to dangerous situations where the shards migrate during medical evaluation. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes an innovative system that integrates fluorescent inorganic nanoparticles into existing SAPI manufacturing; under black light delivered from a battery-powered medical implement, these fragments will luminesce. IOS’s novel system will assist medical personnel in visualizing spall in the initial triage, resulting in more efficient cleaning of the wound. These nanoparticles also contain elements that react strongly to a magnetic field and would have strong signals in subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. With the support of an established SAPI manufacturer, we propose to demonstrate the robustness of these fluorophores to extreme conditions of SAPI production; we plan to show that dopants will not diminish SAPI protection capabilities. We plan to perform a detailed analysis of material integrity, luminescence, and biocompatibility, and provide cost benefits of near-term, mass production.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 552-5128
Dr. Shi-Hau Own
ARMY 07-202      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Advanced Technologies to Improve Fire Resistant Fuels
Abstract:Luna Innovations proposes a novel flame resistant fuel formulation that will meet the Army’s need for self extinguishing JP-8 and diesel fuels. Recent research in water-in- fuel emulsions has demonstrated great advances to reduce flammability of fuels through its self extinguishing property. Although this technology has been very effective at reducing the hazards of incendiary threat, these materials present a significant logistic burden through necessary fuel blending equipment in storage, distribution and handling of the fuel. Luna has identified a new fuel additive that takes advantage of the beneficial properties of the materials already studied, with significantly enhanced stability. This additive is formulated such that it will be stable indefinitely, and thus negate the need for auxiliary equipment on site. This technology will confer the safety advantages of self extinguishing characteristics, while maintaining high engine performance and decreasing logistic burden of the state of the art materials.

POLARIS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
200 Westside Square Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 562-0087
Dr. Larry Pezzaniti
ARMY 07-203      Awarded: 12/5/2007
Title:Rapid Field Test Method(s) to Measure Additive Concentrations in Military Fuel
Abstract:Detection of fuel quality and fuel additive status in petroleum at multiple points in the fuel delivery chain is highly desirable in order to prevent military vehicles from being disabled by low quality fuel. Polaris Sensor Technologies will develop a small portable sensor comprising spectral, optical and electrochemical technologies which when combined produce a portable instrument capable of detecting a fuel additive concentrations and measure a number of fuel quality metrics. The fuel additive sensor requires no sample preparation and is expected to provide a sensitive measurement of concentrations of relevant military fuel additives. Polaris Sensor Technologies will partner contract Southwest Research Institute, recognized authorities in Fuel quality, to develop the Portable Fuel Additive Sensor.

ECK INDUSTRIES, INC.
1602 N. 8th St.
Manitowoc, WI 54220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(920) 682-4618
Mr. David Weiss
ARMY 07-204      Awarded: 1/5/2008
Title:Ablation Casting of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites
Abstract:The Ablation process is a liquid to solid phase conversion process that has cooling rates exceeding 400F per second coupled with steep thermal gradients approaching 900F over a .500" span. Preliminary work casting Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (359, 30% SiCp) using this technology demonstrated better SiC particle distribution than shown in other casting processes. Preliminary data suggest higher mechanical properties than like composites produced in gravity casting. Better distribution of the hard phase will improve machinability and improve fracture toughness, reducing or eliminating barriers to aluminum metal matrix composite components.

GS ENGINEERING, INC.
101 West Lakeshore Drive
Houghton, MI 49931
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(906) 482-1235
Mr. Glen Simula
ARMY 07-204      Awarded: 11/16/2007
Title:Develop Aluminum Metal Matrix Components (Al MMC) and Manufacturing Applications for both Military and Commercial Vehicles
Abstract:Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials have been available since the 1950’s. The reason MMCs are not called out as a material choice by vehicle design engineers is because they have not proven to be cost effective. A successful MMC program is one that delivers an extremely lightweight component at a cost target affordable to the weight sensitive wheeled vehicle market segments. The contractor will utilize Century 3+ Ring Extruder technology to mass produce ceramic preforms with consistency and reliability for safety critical components such as brake drums. The contractor chose a selective reinforcement strategy where the ceramic will only be positioned in areas of need. This approach minimizes raw material cost; eliminates unnecessary MMC machining costs; and allows for ductility & toughness where it is needed in a component. The contractor has prior experience in the design, manufacture, and testing of MMC-reinforced steering arms, brake drums, brake calipers, track shoes, and connecting rods. The contractor has a large customer base that includes many of the military truck vehicle manufacturers, and these relationships will be important when there is the opportunity to integrate the component to the vehicle.

GCAS, INC.
1531 Grand Avenue
San Marcos, CA 92078
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 591-4227
Mr. Scott Woodson
ARMY 07-205      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Accelerated corrosion simulation and Modeling
Abstract:This proposal describes a complete vehicle corrosion simulation and modeling tool called ACES (Accelerated Corrosion Expert Simulator) that has a high degree of correlation to actual accelerated corrosion test. The system will utilize existing 3D Vulnerability models which will be expanded. Geometric detail will be added associated with observed corrosion hot-spots from prior correlations with accelerated and other corrosion testing and observations. Tool will include a robust Knowledge Acquisition Facility that incorporates learning algorithms for semi-automatic updating of the models as new experimental or field data is obtained showing the models to be inadequate in some areas. The ACES system will include models for various coating application and their breakdown, poultice entrapment areas and the mechanism for corrosion in crevices, etc. )

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Gregory J. Kacprzynski
ARMY 07-205      Awarded: 11/13/2007
Title:Generating Correlated Corrosion Life Predictions from Affordable Accelerated Test Data
Abstract:Impact Technologies LLC, in collaboration with the Ohio State Fontana Corrosion Center, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative multi-scale Bayesian-based approach for both correlating probabilistic corrosion model predictions with accelerated test data and for definitively improving the accuracy of models as experience grows. Since the Army is currently challenged with costly and burdensome full-scale accelerated corrosion testing, this program also promises to provide a flexible software architecture with which tuned models, in conjunction with component and/or subassembly tests, can serve to validate vehicle corrosion performance more affordably. In a comprehensive Phase I software demonstration, the development team will highlight automated model correlation processes, based on an accelerated vehicle subassembly corrosion test performed at the OSU Fontana Center. As an HLA-Compliant toolkit for corrosion modeling, we will further demonstrate how varied data sources such as service life histories, expert rulebases, accelerated tests and correlated lifing models can be integrated to generate reliability predictions as a function of expected platform usage, maintenance and environment.

FERRO SOLUTIONS, INC.
215 First Street, suite 203
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 225-7878
Dr. Robert O'Handley
ARMY 07-206      Awarded: 11/8/2007
Title:Novel magneto-electric ground-vehicle magnetic-field anomaly sensors
Abstract:The Army has a growing need to detect the anomalies in the earth’s magnetic field due to the presence or motion of ground vehicles in the battle-space. Laminations of magnetostrictive and electroactive materials have shown magnetic field sensitivity comparable to that of flux gate magnetometers, yet their theoretical sensitivity is ever better. Ferro Soutions experimental and theoretical work on a variety on such artificial magneto-electric (ME) devices indicates a clear path toward advancing ME sensors closer to their limiting sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. Theory of these devices indicates that with more efficient elastic coupling between the magnetostrictive and electroactive elements, the sensitivity can be comparable to that of a superconducting quantum-interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. This proposal outlines a program leading to micro-fabrication of low-power-consuming, high-sensitivity ME magnetic field sensors integrated on a chip with their processing circuitry. It is shown that outstanding performance can be expected from such devices due to the enhanced stress coupling of the layers made by microfabrication and the enhanced electro-mechanical coupling of relaxor crystals.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Yungping Yang
ARMY 07-206      Awarded: 10/30/2007
Title:Magneto-Optic Ground Vehicle Identification and Detection System
Abstract:To address the Army’s need for the distant detection of ground vehicles by measuring their magnetic signatures and distortions in the Earth’s magnetic field, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Magneto-Optic Ground Vehicle Identification and Detection (MOVID) system. The proposed MOVID system is based on spin wave generation and characterization in magnetic films using optical interferometric heterodyne detection. The innovative combination of spin wave generation and optical interferometric heterodyne detection will enable the MOVID to robustly detect and identify ground vehicles at a distance of 100 m within less than 1 sec, with a very low false alarm rate. The battery-powered MOVID system will be fitted into a very compact package (10 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm), weigh less than 1 lb, and can be mounted on a robot or a vehicle. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MOVID by physics-based theoretical analysis and numerical simulation; assemble a breadboard MOVID prototype; and conduct preliminary experiments. In Phase II, POC will assemble an advanced MOVID prototype based on the specifications provided by the Army. The advanced prototype will be designed to be integrated into the Army’s Future Combat Systems.

ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
244 Sobrante Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 328-8302
Dr. John T. Kelly
ARMY 07-207      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:Advanced Low Pressure Drop Radiator for HMMWV and Other Vehicles
Abstract:Advanced radiators are needed for military vehicles, to allow engine output to be increased to meet new performance requirements. These radiators need to transfer more heat to the cooling air, while simultaneously reducing radiator size, pressure drop, weight and cost. Altex has identified and performed preliminary tests on a novel heat exchanger design that can meet the above challenging objectives. Under the base Phase I project, the novel heat exchanger will be designed, fabricated and tested, at subscale, to show the feasibility of the concept. Based on the test data, the design will be refined and costs estimated to show the benefits of the concept versus conventional vehicle radiators. Under the Phase I option effort, a full scale prototype test article will be designed and fabricated, ahead of testing to be carried out in the Phase II effort.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
10F GIll Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Dr. Pavel Bystricky
ARMY 07-207      Awarded: 12/6/2007
Title:KaZaK Advanced Radiator Design (KARD), a Low Weight, Low Volume, High Performance Composite Radiator
Abstract:KaZaK Composites Incorporated will develop and demonstrate a next generation heat exchanger incorporating a new lightweight, low cost structure that reduces pressure drop across the radiator and improves overall cooling efficiency compared to the current production HMMWV radiator. The motivation for such advanced radiator systems is driven by the current need to increase the power pack size and output to compensate for increased vehicle weight arising from additional armor protection and other capabilities. KaZaK development efforts will focus on the use of novel higher conductivity fibers in carbon composite fabrication to produce a radiator with high thermal conductivity. The novel engineered thermal composite materials have higher specific thermal efficiency than aluminum, offering improved performance for lower volume and mass. The greater specific thermal efficiency allows for more compact packaging because of the ability to more effectively dissipate heat. The innovative composite system will serve both as thermal management and structural material. This technology will be integrated to produce and test a preliminary prototype HMMWV radiator. Upon completion of Phase I, the Army will have insight into a new, high performance radiator system that will demonstrate significant improvements in performance as KaZaK moves toward qualification in Phase II.

BAKER ENGINEERING, INC.
17165 Power Dr.
Nunica, MI 49448
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(616) 837-8975
Mr. Jack Jerovsek
ARMY 07-208      Awarded: 12/4/2007
Title:Development of small fuel efficient multi-fuel capability engine
Abstract:The Baker Opposed Piston Single Cylinder Engine is a 24 cu.in., 30 Hp engine with high power density (0.803 Hp/lb or 45.7 Hp/cu.ft.) capable of running on multiple fuels. The engine concept offers a totally new look at small engine development while utilizing several conventional engine components. In addition to high power density, the engine has significant advantages over current small engine programs, in both military and commercial applications. Previous development contracts have proven that the engine concept is viable and exciting. Now research is required to adapt the engine to the current military requirement for smaller applications and to advance the technology to a point where it will become a viable alternative. Specific primary areas of development that will be addressed in Phase I include: mechanical engine design, engine simulation/modeling, fuel research and component bench testing. Looking toward a Phase II SBIR, the objective will be to build and test a prototype of the 30 Hp engine.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Chris Mento
ARMY 07-208      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Development of a Small Multi-fuel Capability APU for Abrams, Bradley, and Stryker Vehicles
Abstract:The Army is currently interested in obtaining small engines that are lightweight, reliable, durable, fuel efficient, and low cost for many applications. One application of this small engine technology is for use as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for the Abrams, Bradley, and Stryker vehicles. The APU would provide power for onboard electronics and reduce the need to run the main engine continuously. The proposed APU would also be an improvement over existing units in terms of weight, noise, and fuel consumption. In Phase I, Mainstream will perform a detailed simulation of the proposed engine using advanced software modeling that is a standard in the engine design industry. Using the results of this simulation, an initial design for the 8-kW engine will be obtained. Various technologies to improve performance of the engine will be demonstrated on Mainstream’s 2-kW diesel generator. Performance-enhancing technologies that will be investigated in Phase I include turbo/super-charging, electronic fuel injection, variable valve timing and camless valve actuation.

BUCKYTECH, LLC
12135 85th Place North
Maple Grove, MN 55369
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 805-9155
Dr. Ming Zang
ARMY 07-209      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Embedded Resonated Screen Air Filtration Device
Abstract:To address the Army need for development of designed-by-reliability zero-maintenance air filtration system for modernization of military air filtration systems for ground vehicles to increase the system service life and reduce operation and support costs, BuckyTech, LLC proposes to develop an Embedded Resonated Screen Air Filtration device, based on a new, highly efficient nano-fiber mesh with embedded resonators, which is built on a substrate of thicker fiber mesh to form an integrated air filtration device. High efficient particle filtration, longer service life, and zero-maintenance are achieved by the self- cleaning nano-fiber mesh. Vibrated by the embedded resonation system at a resonant frequency, the self-cleaning nano-fiber mesh will screen and block particles > 7 microns in the air flow. Keeping the fiber mesh and the substrate from the particle attachment and contamination, the self-cleaning function can increase the new device’s service life longer than the existing systems by 65% or greater. In Phase I BuckyTech will demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative device and develop a detailed design for its implementation in the fabrication. In Phase II BuckyTech will conduct a detailed investigation of each production step, implement the innovative device fabrication, and demonstrate a prototype of the self-cleaning air filtration system.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Michael Reznikov
ARMY 07-209      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Contraflow Vortex Air Precleaner
Abstract:To address the Army need for a zero-maintenance air filtration system for diesel engines of tactical military vehicles that eliminates all particles above 7 microns with service life increased by >65%, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the new Contraflow Vortex Air Precleaner (CVAP) technology. This proposed technology is based on synchronous rotation of coaxial counter-directed vortices that centrifugally move dust particles to the external vortex and flush them out. The device will perform better than 99.5% air cleaning, with the capability to adjust the clean air flow according to the dust content in the inlet air. CVAP is compact—only a short time of axial flight is sufficient for dust extraction because of the fast acceleration of dust particles (~30 ms for 1-micron particles; bigger particles are removed even faster), lightweight, and low in production cost. It will have a long lifetime because of the absence of any moving parts. In Phase I POC will design, build, and demonstrate the proof-of-concept CVAP prototype. In Phase II POC plans to develop, build, and demonstrate the performance of the CVAP prototype with a Detroit Diesel 6V53T engine.

IROBOT CORP.
63 South Avenue
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 418-3291
Dr. Brian Yamauchi
ARMY 07-210      Awarded: 10/30/2007
Title:Stingray: Control of High Speed Unmanned Vehicles
Abstract:iRobot Corporation and Chatten Associates propose to jointly develop the Stingray teleoperated control system for driving the iRobot Warrior UGV at high speeds. The Stingray Project will integrate Chatten’s HARV (Head-Aimed Remote Viewer) immersive telepresence system with proprioceptive behaviors on iRobot’s dynamically- reconfigurable Warrior UGV to provide unprecedented capabilities for driving small UGVs at high speed in complex environments. During Phase I, we will develop the initial design for the Stingray control system. We will implement and demonstrate immersive teleoperation with the HARV controlling the Warrior up to its maximum current travel speed. We will explore the use of variable fields-of-view and a panoramic 360-degree camera to provide additional operator awareness. We will also analyze the feasibility of using the Warrior’s dynamic track configuration and weight shifting to control oversteer and understeer. The final report will include documentation of the design tradeoffs, feasibility analysis, and predicted performance. For the Phase I Option, we will implement proprioceptive driver assist behaviors to dynamically adjust the handling characteristics of the Warrior, and we will add stereo audio to the teleoperation system. In Phase II, we will complete the design of the control system and build a fully-integrated Stingray Warrior UGV.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Wenjian Wang
ARMY 07-210      Awarded: 11/28/2007
Title:Unmanned Vehicle Stability Control and Sensor Integration System
Abstract:To address the Army need to control high-speed unmanned ground vehicles, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an new Unmanned Vehicle Stability Control and Sensor Integration (UVS-CASI) system. UVS-CASI is based on the unique integration of multimodal (proprioceptive/ultrawide-FOV vision/acoustic) sensors with haptic feedback control, real-time processing software and a minimum-latency wireless communication system. The innovation in multimodal sensing with haptic feedback control will enable remote control of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) at high speed (40 km/h) in urban or off-road environments, with early rolloever/tipover warning capability. In addition, ultrawide-FOV vision and acoustic sensors provide complete situational awareness for effective UGV operation. The sensor data will be transmitted through a minimum-latency (<20 ms) wireless communication channel to ensure smooth and responsive remote UGV control. UVS-CASI will be compact (3 in. x. 3 in. x 6 in.), lightweight (~3 lb.), and power-efficient (~1 W). In Phase I, POC will demonstrate these capabilities by developing and testing key components of the control system, and conducting tradeoff analysis and performance prediction. In Phase II, POC will build a prototype system, and test it on a UGV in an outdoor environment. Supporting technical documents will also be delivered.

QUANTUM SIGNAL, LLC
3741 Plaza Drive Suite 1
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 994-0028
Dr. Mitchell Rohde
ARMY 07-210      Awarded: 10/30/2007
Title:DRIVER: Data-Rich Interface for Vehicle Remote Operation
Abstract:Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) will play an important role in the nation’s next- generation ground forces. Control of UGVs is accomplished remotely, through a command system that allows an operator(s) to receive sensor data from the UGV and send motion commands to the vehicle. Remote control (i.e. teleoperation) of a UGV is a physically and cognitively complex task, because the operator must command the vehicle based on limited sensory information. This problem is exacerbated when an operator attempts to command a vehicle traveling at high speed. Bridging the gap between current teleoperation systems and a system that can enable robust high-speed teleoperation requires innovation in several areas, including visual sensing, auditory and tactile sensing, and embedded control algorithms. To address the above challenges, Quantum Signal work proposes to develop the DRIVER system for high speed UGV teleoperation. The system will be easy to operate, and will enable safe operation of UGVs at high speeds by: 1) Providing a diverse, data-rich sensory environment to the operator via a compact, man-portable interface; 2) Seamlessly embedding intelligent stability control algorithms in the operator interface; 3) Efficiently transmitting sensor feedback and driver commands over a wireless network with limited bandwidth.

ACULIGHT CORP.
22121 20th Avenue SE
Bothell, WA 98021
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 482-1100
Dr. Mark S. Bowers
ARMY 07-211      Awarded: 11/28/2007
Title:Autonomous, Real-time, 3D Change Detection System
Abstract:Aculight Corporation, together with Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC), proposes a novel system approach that uses a mature 3D imaging laser radar (LADAR) design and leverages existing 3D image processing algorithms to meet the needs for an autonomous, real-time, 3D change detection system. The LADAR imaging system usies a compact, eye-safe, high-peak power, short pulse fiber laser with proven scanning LADAR technology. The LADAR imaging system is capable of generating 3D images at a distance of >350 m with less than 10 cm range precision.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
6800 Burleson Road Building 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Bradley Sallee
ARMY 07-211      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:LADAR 3D Change Detector
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a LADAR for 3D change detection, consisting of a SPEC miniature LADAR combined with two Hyper X64™, high speed, low power, processors, a GPS and IMU to give a miniature, light weight, low power system capable of detecting small, 50mm changes, while driving down a road at highway speeds. Use of 3D LADAR images eliminate lighting, field of view and magnification errors, allowing discrimination of changed fixed objects and identification of moving objects for real time threat evaluation. Key components are the SPEC eye-safe LADARs, capable of 30Hz frame rate, 78 degree, 408 pixel diameter field of view and obtaining the first three objects in range and the Hyper X64™ processor, capable of 24GFLOP at record breaking 64GFLOP/watt. Software consists of 3D image construction module, the SLAM (Simultaneous Location and Mapping) module which globally registers the image and DTMO (Detection and Tracking of Moving Objects) module to discriminate moving objects. These feed a change detection module whose output is displayed to the operator, overlaid on a visual image. These software modules must run at real time rates to be effective, making computational speed and power per GFLOP key parameters.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGY
3300 A Westminister Ave.
Santa Ana, CA 92703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 554-5511
Dr. Timothy Lin
ARMY 07-212      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Application of Spot Cooling Technologies for the Thermal Management at the Source
Abstract:Advancements in high-efficiency heat dissipation techniques are imperative to meet the long-term requirements in thermal management of power electronics in various combat vehicles. Commercially used techniques, which generally cool the whole circuit in a package level, can not well solve the specific problem of cooling the circuit with highly localized/concentrated hot spots. The ability to cool the localized hot spots directly will enable the resultant thermal management system to handle high heat flux yet with less size/mass and power consumption required. Therefore, in this proposed research program, Aegis Technology will: (1) Develop and demonstrate a novel class of spot cooling technology by utilizing electrowetting-based droplet manipulation that enable the implementation of thermal management at the source for future power systems with highly concentrated hot spots; (2) Identify the underlying technical issues that govern the fabrication and performance of this novel class of thermal management; and (3) Use this knowledge to design and manufacture the thermal management system that exhibit heat dissipation capability as required by the Army. The anticipated technological impact of the proposed research program is the design, development and implementation of an automatic hot-spot cooling concept that will improve the design and fabrication of future thermal management with unprecedented power, weight and size savings.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Mr. Greg Cole
ARMY 07-212      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Nano-Structure Enhanced Microfluidics Device for Spot Cooling
Abstract:The Army is currently seeking advanced thermal management technologies for cooling localized hot spots in military vehicular power electronics. Electrowetting microfluidic devices provide highly-efficient discrete cooling with nano-liter volumes of fluid. The microdroplet is typically sandwiched between two hydrophobic coated electrodes. A control voltage is applied successively across multiple control electrodes, manipulating the interfacial forces, and transporting the fluid. State-of-the-art systems require large voltages (30-40 V) to initiate movement. A nano-structure enhanced microfluidics device is proposed that will reduce this large threshold voltage and increase heat transfer rates. In Phase I, Mainstream will fabricate and demonstrate the improved microfluidics device. Test results will be compared to other microfluidics devices found in the literature. A specific Army vehicle, power electronics system, and microelectronics device will be selected for analysis. In Phase II, Mainstream will fabricate an integrated microelectronics/microfluidics device and complete extensive testing. The technology will be ready for transition to the Army at the end of Phase II.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
16115 SW 117th Ave. A-15
Miami, FL 33177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. Pengfei Wu
ARMY 07-213      Awarded: 11/9/2007
Title:Broadband Non-Focal-Plane Laser Protection Device based on Fast Nano-scale Molecular Switching
Abstract:Current frequency-agile technologies for laser eye and sensor protection rely on nonlinear optical effects. However, the nonlinear optical materials must be located at the focus of optical system for high fluences necessary to activate the effective protection mechanism. The use of focusing optics leads to many practical limitations in system performance, size, weight, architecture and cost. Also, most nonlinear materials do not have broad spectral response against the frequency agility of laser threats. Based on our preliminary study, we proposes herein a novel Non-Focal-Plane Optical Power Limiter (NFP-OPL) for protecting eyes and sensors against lasers throughout the visible spectrum with improving normal transmission, time response and limiting performance. The operation mechanism of NFP-OPL is based on sensitive nano-scale molecular switching processes, rather than electronic transitions of higher energy levels. Thus, large nonlinear optical effect with high optical sensitivity can be obtained without using any focusing optics. The proposed device will be polarization-independent and thin-film- like with high optical quality, allowing ample transmission of ambient visible light. Phase I will demonstrate feasibility of NFP-OPL. The performance will be optimized in Phase II to yield a practical functional, rugged prototype with improved system performance and cost reduction to support military and commercial applications.

COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES, LLC
2317-A Market Place
Huntsvillle, AL 35801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 694-3056
Dr. Steven R. Vosen
ARMY 07-214      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Co-Simulation Software for Rapid Prototyping of Vehicle Cooling Systems
Abstract:Use of virtual, simulation-base prototyping is starting to be routinely used to streamline and optimize the design of cooling systems required by military ground vehicles. A new generation of integrated simulation tools is however needed to effectively deal with the evolving complexities of the new cooling system designs. This proposal addresses this need. In Phase I we will develop and demonstrate a novel software capability for performing system analysis based on software and hardware co-simulation concepts, automatic generation of models of cooling system components, and a unique approach enabling automatic, on-line optimization of cooling system operation. In Phase II the prototype tools will be refined, and additional features will be added to enable designers to graphically prototype a system, optimize its functionality and distribute the analysis data from a single GUI. The tools will be validated and demonstrated on selected vehicle configurations selected in consultation and collaboration with the Army.

TES INTERNATIONAL LLC
2265 Livernois Road Suite 701
Troy, MI 48083
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 362-2090
Dr. Scott Hale
ARMY 07-214      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Innovative Simulation and Analysis Tool for Vehicle Thermal Management
Abstract:The purpose of this investigation is the design and development of a prototype modeling and simulation tool for rapid thermal analysis in support of evaluation and optimization of propulsion cooling systems in conventional and hybrid military ground vehicles. Propulsion system thermal management has become critical due to increases in field related thermal issues related to environmental conditions and increased vehicle loads. The increases in computer performance in recent years have removed many of the pitfalls associated with this type of analysis tool allowing for a high degree of accuracy without an increase in computation time. Our proposed solution will provide a complete thermal management environment that offers a variety of approaches each ideal for modeling a type of cooling component/scenario. This will include the ability to link and couple various model types from simple “network” based models to more complex models involving a mixture of “networks” and full CFD/Computational Heat Transfer based component modeling. TES has a wide range of experience in the development of thermal analysis software. Through collaboration with TACOM, under another SBIR, TES has developed an efficient analysis package which will be modified and customized during Phase I to meet the goals of this investigation.

THERMOANALYTICS, INC.
23440 Airpark Blvd P.O. Box 66
Calumet, MI 49913
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 380-4348
Mr. Craig M. Cless
ARMY 07-214      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:Innovative Simulation and Analysis Tool for Vehicle Thermal Management
Abstract:Military vehicles are being deployed in extremely hot environments. Designing optimized cooling systems has become a considerable challenge. System performance can be optimized if system integrators can analyze proposed configurations rapidly and accurately, while keeping pace with an evolving vehicle design. A modeling tool to support rapid trade studies of vehicle thermal management system variants integrated into vehicle design variants is proposed to meet this need. We are proposing to add features to MuSES, the Army standard for thermal and IR signature analysis of ground vehicles, to enable rapid, easy-to-setup analyses of engine cooling systems. We intend to create a library of 1D, or limited node number models of component parts, including values for parameters necessary to describe their thermal behavior. We will then create a means to include these 1D models within a 3D MuSES vehicle model, so a designer can investigate the cooling performance quickly and easily. These features, combined with MuSES’ ability to model a complete vehicle in a natural weather environment, will produce the desired prototyping modeling capability.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1330
Mr. John Player
ARMY 07-215      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Biomimetic Energy Absorptive Smart Armor
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR program Infoscitex is proposing to develop a biomimetic energy absorptive smart armor system to protect our troops and their light armor vehicles against both conventional and unconventional explosion threats. Our approach involves designing and fabricating a variable modulus ceramic face plate in which coupled piezoelectric ceramics and electroactive polymers enable an immediate highly energy absorptive shape change that also redirects energy laterally along the surface of the armor from an impinging blast wave. During the program IST will design, fabricate and test the hybrid smart material face plate armor to determine the best combination of response time, energy absorption and manufacturability. IST will build a small test demonstrator to show how the response time and structural properties change after a simulated blast wave. In the Option, IST will further develop the technology to increase energy absorption and decrease response time. An investigation of the scale up steps required from a manufacturability perspective will also be undertaken with our commercial armor team partner. During a follow on Phase II program, IST will work with its commercial armor partner to scale up the smart armor fabrication process and integrate it with our partner’s proprietary attachment technology.

MKP STRUCTURAL DESIGN ASSOC., INC.
2500 Packard Suite 105
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 975-8860
Dr. Zheng-Dong Ma
ARMY 07-215      Awarded: 12/3/2007
Title:Develop Smart Material Technology for Improved Protection of Vehicles
Abstract:The objective of the proposed SBIR program is to develop new concepts and design methodologies of smart materials for blast-protective structures that can be implemented on combat and light tactical vehicles for improved protection of crew and vehicles. The smart material technology considered in this research is defined as a new class of materials that can react to external excitations such as blast and ballistic impact in a designed way to counter such excitations and perform the desired action utilizing energy from the excitation. Based on their designs and imbedded sensing and actuation mechanisms, smart materials will be able to reconfigure so to mitigate the damaging effect of threat. Three major differences between the proposed new smart material and traditional smart materials are: 1) it acts in a reactive way without requiring an external energy supply; 2) it can be destroyed for energy absorption or other predefined purposes; and 3) its post-damage behavior plays an important role in its functionality. Innovative smart material concepts will be direct outcomes of the new design methodology developed to cover a wide range of different applications, including ballistic and blast protections and crashworthiness of vehicle structures.

AASA, INC.
47715 Bowline Terrace Ste 100
Sterling, VA 20165
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 444-6170
Dr. Rolf Epinger
ARMY 07-216      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:Determination of Human Injury Mechanism, Mechanical Response and Tolerance for Improved Virtual and Physical Biomechanical Test Devices for Vehicle Crashworthiness Applications in Rollover Crash Scenarios
Abstract:Vehicle rollovers continue to be one of the most hazardous and costliest types of crashes among both military and civilian vehicles in the U.S. While rollover crashes only constitute 2.2% of civilian crashes, they make up 33% of the total cost of civilian crashes. An analysis of military mishap data showed that rollovers occur less frequently than frontal and rear impacts, but have the highest rate of injury and fatality. However, there are currently no military safety standards, and only the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration static roof crush, and interior padding requirements standards to regulate rollovers. The goal of this proposed SBIR effort is the development of a suite of new, proven, rollover-specific safety tests. These tests will have the greatest potential for understanding the kinematics, and reducing the hazards, of the rollover crash situations. The research will be conducted by gathering and analyzing existing literature, tests, and tools, and will ultimately lead to improved safety in vehicle during rollovers.

ALBERT I. KING
1000 Bretton Lane
Bloomfield Hills, MI 48304
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 489-5926
Dr. Clifford Chou
ARMY 07-216      Awarded: 11/27/2007
Title:Determination of Human Injury Mechanism, Mechanical Response and Tolerance for Improved Virtual and Physical Biomechanical Test Devices for Vehicle Crashworthiness Applications in Rollover Crash Scenarios
Abstract:The objectives of this proposal are to identify the injury patterns and possible causations during military rollover crashes, and to critically review the injury mechanisms, available physical and virtual tests related to military rollover crashes. First, an epidemiological review of the victims involved in military ground vehicle rollover crashes will be conducted to identify the injury patterns and sources. Next, the risk factors associated with the likelihood of the top three most commonly injured body regions will be evaluated by a series of logistic regression analyses. Two critical literature reviews regarding the injury mechanism and tolerance, as well as the existing virtual and physical test devices will be conducted thereafter. Based on these two reviews, a plan will be developed to reconcile various rollover crash modes to a limited set of rollover tests for military vehicles. It is expected that the proposed studies will give us a better understanding of the most commonly injured body regions during military rollover crashes, why these injuries occurred, and how to setup a systematic approach to prevent them. Findings from this study will be used to derive Phase II objectives for reducing rollover associated injuries.

MIGMA SYSTEMS, INC.
1600 Providence Highway
Walpole, MA 02081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 660-0328
Dr. Michael Zeifman
ARMY 07-216      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Model-Based Study of Rollover Automotive Crashes
Abstract:Migma Systems, Inc. and Professor Cynthia Bir of Wayne State University propose an innovative technology to gain a better understanding of injury mechanisms and criteria in rollover crashes. In Phase I, we propose to use our expertise in coarse-grained crash modeling and in statistical processing of the results to test the applicability of various traditional and new injury criteria in rollover crash. Real data obtained in civil (NHTSA) and military settings will be used for the criteria validation as well as to obtain the probability and severity of injuries. In addition, the distribution of injuries in real military rollover crashes will be used to measure the appropriateness of the various existent rollover tests and to design new modified physical tests. To this end, the occupant injury criteria will be calculated for each test setting and the probabilities of injuries will be subsequently estimated and compared to the empirical distributions. As a result, more advanced and validated injury criteria will be developed and more accurate injury risk assessment will be possible.

MICRO COOLING CONCEPTS, INC.
7522 Slater Ave. Suite 122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 847-9945
Mr. Jack M. Fryer
ARMY 07-217      Awarded: 11/9/2007
Title:Self Contained Two-Phase Thermal Management System
Abstract:Thermal management is a growing problem in all areas of military systems, due to increased use of electronic systems, and more stringent requirements on efficiency, size, and weight. In the case of next generation Army ground vehicles, heat sources will provide significant heating at various locations around the body. These sources must be cooled independent of the vehicle’s thermal management system, meaning that the thermal management system must provide its own coolant, circulation system, and means of dissipating the waste heat to ambient. Such a system will require coolers to extract the waste heat from the heat sources, coolant lines or a coolant “bus” to transport the heat away from the heat sources, and a heat exchanger to reject the heat to the ambient environment.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Matthew Rickard
ARMY 07-217      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:Ultra-Compact Field Enhanced Thermal Superconductor
Abstract:To address the Army’s need for a self-contained two-phase thermal management system for dissipating heat from electronics onboard next-generation ground vehicles, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Ultra-compact Field Enhanced Thermal Superconductor (U-FETS). This proposed system is based on the novel integration of three microscale electrofluidic technologies. The innovative U-FETS will remove a total of 3 kW from four distinct sources, each of which may be as small as 25 sq. cm. The electric-field- enhanced two-phase thermal superconductor components of the U-FETS will demonstrate improved coefficient of performance and heat flux capabilities in comparison to existing systems. Optimization tests will be conducted to ensure maximum performance. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of U-FETS by the fabrication and testing of a conceptual prototype. In Phase II POC plans to develop a complete compact prototype to test in a relevant environment, proving that the U-FETS will meet the Army’s need for cooling electronics onboard next-generation ground vehicles.

AEGIS TECHNOLOGY
3300 A Westminister Ave.
Santa Ana, CA 92703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 554-5511
Dr. Timothy Lin
ARMY 07-218      Awarded: 2/7/2008
Title:Nano-material Conducting Wires With Enhanced Electric/Thermal Conductivity and Mechanical Strength
Abstract:Small-size high power electronics is in the roadmap of the electronics from both military and civil application demands, especially for the military vehicles, where the complex vertronics are used in high vibration and harsh conditions. Hence the electrical cables, wires, circuit leads, contacts, and interconnects are being improved in three areas: (1) electrical conductivity for less heat generating and high power efficiency, (2) thermal conductivity for effective heat dissipation, and (3) mechanical strength resistant to harsh environment. Based on the results of the recent studies performed on the forming mechanism of the high strength and high conductivity (HSHC) nano material copper, Aegis Technology Inc. intends to develop a cost-effective processing technique derived from the ball-milling process under low temperature conditions in order to produce high volume HSHC Cu. Then from the produced bulk Cu, various dimensions from tenths of a micrometer to several millimeters of wires will be produced with enhanced mechanical strength (>5times) and high electrical conductivity (>80%) as compared to the pure coarse grain Cu.

---------- NAVY ----------

110 Phase I Selections from the 07.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
HOPE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
185 East Main Rd.
Little Compton, RI 02837
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 353-9932
Dr. Robert Chivas
NAVY 07-114      Awarded: 9/24/2007
Title:High Power, High Repetition Rate, Pulsed, Blue Laser for ASW Purposes
Abstract:Yb double clad lasers are the "work horse" of high power systems. By codoping with Sm to quench stimulated emission at 1,070 nm (4 level system), Yb/Sm can be forced to lase efficiently at 980 nm. By further using HOM (Higher Order Mode) fiber design, greater energy storage/length can be achieved, and the shorter length also favors 980 nm radiation. Frequency doubling the q-switched output from such a system with periodically polled lithium niobate, all of the required design criteria desired by the Navy can be met with this new concept.

JP INNOVATIONS, LLC
101 East Main St., Suite 207
Monroe, WA 98272
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 805-3124
Mr. Jeffrey W. Pierce
NAVY 07-114      Awarded: 9/17/2007
Title:High Power, High Repetition Rate, Pulsed, Blue Laser for ASW Purposes
Abstract:It is necessary to use blue-green lasers for underwater optical imaging for anti-submarine warfare, location of mines and other tactical underwater targets since the penetration depth for ranging/imaging illumination depends upon the optical attenuation coefficient in various types of waters. The minimum optical attenuation coefficient for ocean waters is found in the blue-green part of the spectrum. Suitable laser transmitter technology needs to be insensitive to environmental conditions as well as compact, lightweight, and efficient. This proposal describes a laser concept for a lightweight, compact, high efficiency, pulsed blue laser transmitter operating in the 470-475 nm range.

LIGHT AGE, INC.
500 Apgar Drive
Somerset, NJ 08873
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 563-0600
Dr. Bruce Boczar
NAVY 07-114      Awarded: 9/26/2007
Title:High Power, High Repetition Rate, Pulsed, Blue Laser for ASW Purposes
Abstract:A laser will be developed which meets the Navy requirements for airborne anti-submarine warfare missions. These requirements include high repetition rate, short pulse operation at blue wavelengths, and a compact, robust package. The laser will be based on a wavelength shifted, diode pumped alexandrite laser. The wavelength shifting is accomplished by means of Raman and second harmonic conversion. Data are presented for diode pumped alexandrite lasers and Raman conversion from low repetition rate flashlamp pumped alexandrite lasers operating at the required energies. This work builds on Light Age’s demonstrated technologies including its Raman convertors which can handle the 100W power levels required. Phase I will provide studies of the scaling required for diode pumping and a laboratory demonstration of efficient conversion of flashlamp pumped alexandrite output at 753 nm to 486 nm. Phase I goals are the demonstration of the power requirements and efficiency for the conversion of 753 nm light to 486 nm and a design for scaling the diode pumped alexandrite lasers to provide the requisite power. In the Phase II, a prototype system will be demonstrated at 486 nm, with 10 mJ pulse energy at 1000 Hz repetition rate and sub-20-nsec pulsewidth.

PRINCETON OPTRONICS, INC.
PO Box 8627
Princeton, NJ 08543
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-9696
Dr. Jean Seurin
NAVY 07-114      Awarded: 9/12/2007
Title:High Power, High Repetition Rate, Pulsed, Blue Laser for ASW Purposes
Abstract:The Navy needs high energy short pulsed (1-20ns) pulsed blue lasers for ASW purposes. The current technology lasers are bulky and low efficiency. Princeton Optronics proposes to develop a vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) based high power pulsed blue laser which offers to deliver high energy pulses in a very small size with high efficiency. The potential for such laser has already been demonstrated with high energy pulsed laser output arrays with this technology. In phase I, we plan to demonstrate frequency doubled blue laser with this technology and study its characteristics and means to deliver high power from the array and meet the specifications in the solicitation.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Mr. Lexi Donne
NAVY 07-114      Awarded: 9/18/2007
Title:Direct Diode Pumped Blue-Green Laser
Abstract:Present Blue-Green lasers are inefficient (0.5 – 2.0 %) owing to the losses incurred by using multiple/cascaded solid-state and two or more nonlinear optical frequency conversion stages. We propose to develop a simpler approach to a blue-green efficient system: Single-state diode laser pump light in = blue-green laser pulses out To achieve this we will bring together advances in diode lasers/super-luminescent LEDs to provide “in-band” pumping of pulsed and frequency tunable gain media. The candidate systems emerged from a long term internal effort at SARA to identify new systems with output in the blue-green and other regions of the visible spectrum. SARA’s corporate mission is to pursue new technologies and develop highly innovative applications for existing technologies. Within our laser system development projects we focus upon realizing the performance and efficiency inherent in entirely new and previously not well developed laser systems. In addition SARA is well versed in laser detection and tracking systems for applications with technologies including reflected light detection (optical LIDAR type missions), and the challenges facing the applications of lasers to underwater detection and tracking and optical communication in water.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
626 Whitney Street
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Mr. Jason Wright
NAVY 07-115      Awarded: 9/6/2007
Title:Non-toxic process for depositing highly-dense, corrosion-resistant aluminum on complex geometry components
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes dry, non-toxic, plasma-based hybrid energetic ion deposition and implantation process to prepare highly-dense, corrosion-resistant aluminum on complex geometry aircraft components. By replacing electroplated Low Hydrogen Embrittlement cadmium (LHE-Cd), a highly toxic metal and known carcinogen with serious ES&H issues, AASC’s non-toxic process can reduce compliance costs associated with mounting regulatory burdens and reduce the scope of potential legal liabilities faced by today’s Navy. Ion vapor deposition (IVD) and sputtered aluminum, currently used as LHE-Cd replacements, are low energy PVD methods that suffer from columnar microstructures with lower grain boundary density that provide fast diffusion pathways for the anions and cations in corrosion reactions. Burnishing, peening or bead blasting post-processing steps are required to achieve full density, adding cost and reducing throughput. Comparatively, AASC’s hybrid energetic ion deposition and implantation process collapse voids, breaks up columnar microstructures, and produces uniformly dense aluminum layers that will offer superior corrosion performance and avoid post-deposition steps. Further, the use of cathodic arc plasma sources, relative to evaporative (IVD) or sputtering sources, enables much higher rates of deposition.

ELTRON RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, INC.
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-0263
Dr. Jason M. Stotter
NAVY 07-115      Awarded: 9/6/2007
Title:Ambient Temperature, Solvent-Free Plating of Dense Aluminum Coatings
Abstract:This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a room-temperature, non-toxic process for the application of protective, highly dense, corrosion-resistant aluminum and anodized aluminum coatings. This process will initially be used for applying aluminum coatings to complex geometry aircraft components. The proposed process will address issues associated with traditional plating methodologies (including operating temperature, organic solvent consumption, hazards, and environmental impact of solvent emissions), resulting in improvements in energy consumption, waste disposal and the reduction/elimination of VOC emissions. A previous project at Eltron successfully demonstrated plating of Al from ionic liquids with toluene co-solvent. The ionic liquid melt consisted of 35% toluene, representing a significant reduction in VOC for the process compared with existing processes. The proposed effort will build on these results, exploring two strategies to eliminate the need for organic co-solvents in this process: investigating other organic chloride salts and applying pulsed deposition techniques.

ENIGMATICS, INC.
9215 51st Avenue Unit No. 7
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 486-1725
Mr. Ben M Gauthier
NAVY 07-115      Awarded: 9/6/2007
Title:Non-toxic process for depositing high density, corrosion-resistant aluminum alloys on complex geometry components
Abstract:This SBIR Program is aimed at the development of a non-toxic alternative to cadmium electroplating for corrosion protection of a variety of aerospace components including landing gear, electrical connectors and aluminum structural components. The thermal spray process will be optimized to deposit high density, corrosion resistant aluminum alloys on high strength steel, aluminum and other targeted materials and configured for coating of complex geometry surfaces, including non line of sight (NLS) and other configurations that have traditionally complicated thermal spray processes. The proposed Phase I program will leverage previous work to develop a corrosion protective system for aluminum cladding replacement and focus on applying a similar system for protection of high strength steels and other component materials. A blend of computational and experimental optimization routes will be employed to maximize corrosion protection, as well as extend component surface geometrical capabilities and overall system robustness and portability. Additionally, an important aspect of the Phase I research will be to gain further understanding of the effects of various processing variables as well as the concept capabilities and limitations in order to design a scaled up device for a Phase II program.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Rabi S. Bhattacharya
NAVY 07-115      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Electroless Plating of Corrosion-Resistant Aluminum Coatings for Steel
Abstract:Dense aluminum and aluminum alloy coatings are needed for corrosion protection of high strength steel, aluminum and other materials. The major objective of this work is to develop and demonstrate an electroless aluminum deposition process using organic solvents and room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for coating of steel and other metallic components for corrosion resistance. UES will be working with University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne (UIUC) in this project. The work will involve sample preparation, solution preparation, studies of coating properties as a function of deposition parameters, and detailed characterizations of aluminum coating.

SHEET DYNAMICS, LIMITED
1775 Mentor Avenue Suite 302
Cincinnati, OH 45212
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 631-0579
Dr. Ken Moore
NAVY 07-116      Awarded: 9/19/2007
Title:Automated Tool for Reporting Aircraft Damage and Queuing and Screening Repair
Abstract:A damage digitization system using optical cameras is proposed as part of a comprehensive nondestructive inspection platform. The advantages of such a system are the ease of use and the lack of a need for expensive specialized hardware. A combination of image processing, target recognition, and computer graphics algorithms will be used to accurately identify the location and size of each damage incident, and propagate them into a variety of display and analysis tools via a non proprietary file format.

SURVICE ENGINEERING CO.
4695 Millennium Drive
Belcamp, MD 21017
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 866-2080
Mr. Mark Butkiewicz
NAVY 07-116      Awarded: 9/19/2007
Title:Automated Tool for Reporting Aircraft Damage and Queuing and Screening Repair
Abstract:The Navy requires the ability to quickly and accurately measure damage to composite structures. The advent of composite materials has provided improved capabilities for aircraft as well as a host of sea, ground-mobile, and other combat systems. However, while these new materials have significant benefits in terms of reduced weight, higher strength, lower signature, and improved armor performance, the ability to rapidly evaluate and repair damage of these materials requires new tools and methodologies. The historical means of measuring and repairing damage is inadequate for composite structures and components. Identifying the exact location and extent of damage is crucial for determining the type of repair that is suitable. In addition, manual data collection and transfer techniques are prone to the introduction of human errors that further complicate and slow-down the engineering analysis, disposition, and repair process. The proposed approach is to assemble current state-of-the-art data collection hardware with innovative and customized software to provide an integrated data collection and processing system.

DYNALENE, INC.
5250 W. Coplay Road
Whitehall, PA 18052
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 262-9686
Dr. Mingzhnag Wang
NAVY 07-117      Awarded: 9/25/2007
Title:Robust, Non-Toxic, Corrosion Inhibitor System
Abstract:Proposed is a robust, non-toxic corrosion inhibitor system consisting of novel, stable colloidal, hybrid polymeric or composite materials that are modified to have functional groups covalently or ionically combined with selected corrosion inhibition groups and are mainly prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization. Chain length and number and type of functional groups can be adjusted. Hydrophobicity and other properties of the polymeric materials can be also modified. These polymers and their mixtures will be designed and formulated into a corrosion inhibiting package (with optimized corrosion inhibitor ratio, concentration and solubility) so that they can be easily applied to metal substrates from water or solvent solutions as pre-treatments, primers or coatings, to provide an innovative, versatile, robust, non-toxic corrosion inhibitor system. This novel inhibitor system can involve more than four-fold synergistic combinations of materials and functions, i.e., (1) polymer network + corrosion inhibitor(s), (2) corrosion inhibitor group A as inorganic oxoanions + group B as rare earth cations + group C as organic anions or compounds, (3) linear (co)polymer structures + core-shell polymer particles, and (4) adherent polymer protective barrier + hydrophobicity (repelling corrosive media), to achieve the desired corrosion inhibiting performances and other hybrid advantages over chromates.

TDA RESEARCH, INC.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 940-2302
Dr. Ronald L. Cook
NAVY 07-117      Awarded: 9/22/2007
Title:Robust, High-Efficiency, Low-Toxicity Corrosion Inhibitors
Abstract:The actions of effective corrosion inhibitors are tied to their structures and their electronic properties. While there have been many studies of these relationships, there have been few instances of where the design of new corrosion inhibiting molecules resulting from the models. Furthermore, considerations of the toxicities of any new predicted corrosion inhibitors were not built into the modeling scheme. Recently, through a combination of experimental measurements and model building, TDA has identified a small set of molecular descriptors that are highly effective at both prediction of the efficiency of corrosion inhibition and the molecular toxicities. In the Phase I effort, TDA will expands these models using a larger training set and also build structure-property relationships for diffusion through protective coatings. This will then allow us to computationally screen large numbers of molecules so that we can select a few for in-depth evaluation.

IMPERIUM, INC.
1738 Elton Rd. Suite 218
Silver Spring, MD 20903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 431-2911
Dr. Marvin E. Lasser
NAVY 07-118      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Ultrasound Camera for Rapid, Simple NDE of Rotor Blade Assemblies
Abstract:The available tools to detect skin to core disbonds are both difficult to use and require extensive training. Complex waveforms must often be interpreted. We are proposing a small, portable, low cost ultrasound camera for in-service inspection of honeycomb rotor blades for skin to core disbonds. The basis of our technique is a two dimensional imaging array which generates real time C-scan images of defects in materials. The key advantage of this system is the simplicity of the technique. Therefore, a non-specialized inspector can easily be trained to find small defects in these structures.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
NAVY 07-118      Awarded: 9/12/2007
Title:Rapid and Conformable Field Repair and Nondestructive Evaluation of Rotor Blade Skins and Honeycomb in Blade Afterbody
Abstract:This proposal describes the development of a novel NDI instrument for rapid and reliable detection of skin to core and skin to honeycomb disbonds in aerospace structures. The proposed field instrument adapts a newly developed fiber-arrayed laser Doppler vibrometer (FA-LDV) to perform true defect detection and imaging as compared to the slow image synthesis employed in conventional point-scanning LDV instruments. This methodology has recently been successfully applied for detection of disbonds and delaminations in metal and composite airframe structures. The proposed effort aims to further extend this technology and design to engineer, assemble and field-test a portable, compact instrument capable of the reliable detection of core-skin disbonds as required by the NAVY. The Phase I study is anticipated to yield an analysis of the instrument configuration, assortment of its critical components, and working envelop estimation. An existing MetroLaser multi-beam LDV instrument will be employed in the Phase I study, to accelerate the process of getting signatures from the specimens with representative defects. These data will be used to design the fiber-optics breadboard system for performing proof-of-concept tests. The Phase I effort will culminate with a preliminary prototype design of an instrument to be developed and field-tested during Phase II.

THERMAL WAVE IMAGING, INC.
845 Livernois Street
Ferndale, MI 48220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 414-3730
Dr. Steven Shepard
NAVY 07-118      Awarded: 9/12/2007
Title:Rapid and Conformable Field Repair and Nondestructive Evaluation of Rotor Blade Skins and Honeycomb in Blade Afterbody
Abstract:NAVY 07-118 Rapid and Conformable Field Repair and NDE of Rotor Blade Skins and Honeycomb in Blade Afterbody The integration of composite materials into modern military aircraft has provided numerous benefits to the armed forces due to superior strength-to- weight performance and corrosion immunity. However, when compared to their metallic predecessors, composite components present significant challenges in terms of maintenance and repair. The NDI situation has become far more complex with the deployment of composite-based aircraft. Older techniques such as tap testing are slow and are unable to detect all inner-layer and skin to core disbonds. Active thermography has already been proven as a rapid and reliable inspection technique for such applications. In the following Phase I proposal, Thermal Wave Imaging will attempt to distill the advances made in thermographic NDI into an instrument that addresses the cost, size and complexity of the current technology. We will exploit the hardware and signal processing advances made in flash (pulsed) thermography, and apply these to a small, low-cost instrument that is truly handheld and self-contained. The user interface for control and presentation of results will reside on the unit, so that the operator will not interact with a computer.

MENON & ASSOC., INC.
12282 Libelle Ct.
San Diego, CA 92131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 549-8886
Dr. Suresh Menon
NAVY 07-119      Awarded: 9/22/2007
Title:MENTOR 300B - Spectrographic instrument for analyzing composite surfaces prior to repair
Abstract:Contaminants left on surface of a composite part during repair leads to poor quality bond. Dirt, oil, marking materials, grease, release materials, solvents, other organic and inorganic chemicals, cleaning material residues, biologicals from environment, grit from sanding and metal particles may remain. Menon and Associates is proposing to develop a molecular spin resonance instrument that combines both imaging and spectrographic modules to carry out a broad area scan followed by detailed scan of suspect areas. Both, the surface of part being repaired as well as new materials for repair can be scanned. The goal is to eliminate all non-resin and non-fiber materials upstream prior to and during the repair process. The system, called MENTOR-300B, will be built for complete quality assurance of composite materials spanning the breadth of inspecting the surface to be repaired, prepreg raw materials, its manufacturing process to final layup of composites.

REDWOOD SCIENTIFIC, INC.
1005 Terra Nova Blvd.
Pacifica, CA 94044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 738-8083
Dr. John L. Lawless
NAVY 07-119      Awarded: 9/22/2007
Title:Rapid, Reliable, and Portable Surface Bondability Detector
Abstract:We propose a field-portable surface bondability detector capable of determining surface cleanliness. Readings will be traceable to industry standard methods (MIL-STD-1246C, IEST-STD-1246D). We propose a low-risk high-payoff optical method that flexibly handles different sizes, structures, and materials.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0704
Mr. Carl Edwards
NAVY 07-119      Awarded: 9/24/2007
Title:Portable Surface Bondability Detector
Abstract:An operator-friendly non-contact method capable of detecting any contaminant over a large area just prior to bonding is the ideal solution. Space Micro Inc. (SMI) Advanced Materials Division, in partnership with Vanguard Composites (VC) proposes to define and develop a novel inexpensive portable instrument for both qualitatively and quantitatively assessing the bond surface quality of composites. The innovation described in this proposal is to select and adapt existing commercial off the shelf (COTS) equipment and technology for this application to minimize the technical risk and development time.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 501-2880
Mr. Nicholas Flacco
NAVY 07-120      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
Abstract:As adversarial submarines become quieter and operate in increasingly adverse acoustic environments, the U.S. needs effective non-acoustic detection capability deployed from maritime patrol aircraft. Air-dropped buoys exploiting submarine ELF emmissions offer unique advantages over MAD and other non-acoustic methods. Teamed with USSI, Arete Associates will design the hardware and detection algorithms, predict performance, and conduct testing in realistic environments to demonstrate the concept's tactical utility.

NAVMAR APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
65 West Street Road Building C
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 675-4900
Mr. Richard Coughlan
NAVY 07-120      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I study will briefly survey the various magnetic-field sensors that meet the requirements for being inexpensive yet highly sensitive. The present sensor of choice is a coil with a high-permeability core. This coil will be suspended vertically in the water column. The main challenge will be to reduce motion noise by the suspension system and ancillary motion sensors. Other noise sources (wave, geology, geomagnetic, and flow) will be characterized and quantified; an approach for their reduction will be proposed. An operational analysis will be used to predict the performance of the noise-reduced sensors against various target strength levels in the presence of various noises.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 304-2402
Mr. Michael Mullen
NAVY 07-120      Awarded: 9/13/2007
Title:Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
Abstract:The US Navy has a requirement for an affordable A-sized independent sonobuoy with an Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic field sensor suitable for operation in both deep and shallow water regions. The 0.5 to 30 Hz ELF band presents an opportunity to detect galvanic current from submarines, especially those which are poorly maintained. ELF sensors have been used in fixed mounted applications, however free floating sonobuoy configurations pose complications due to motion induced noise, control of sensor orientation, and miniaturization. To address the technical challenge of motion induced noise we propose to develop our ELF sensor concept teamed with UnderSea Sensor Systems, Inc. which senses horizontal flow and repositions the drogue and ELF sensing element to a stagnation point. Whole field magnetometers will eliminate the need for precise orientation of the sensors. Additionally we will use of multiple ELF sensing elements to correlate and discriminate far-field geomagnetic noise.

QUASAR FEDERAL SYSTEMS, INC.
5754 Pacific Center Blvd. Suite 203
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 200-2229
Dr. Yongming Zhang
NAVY 07-120      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
Abstract:An inexpensive sonobuoy to detect the Extremely Low Frequency magnetic field emissions from a submarine would complement the Navy’s acoustic detection capability. Under this program, QUASAR Federal Systems (QFS) together with Applied Signal Technology and Prof. John Hildebrand of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography will bring to bear demonstrated expertise in magnetic induction sensors and sensor systems to build a cost-effective underwater B-field sensing system. The system will be based on the QFS 18” long induction sensor, reconfigured to fit in an A-sized sonobuoy. The proposed system will be capable of detecting and processing ELF magnetic field signals in the ocean with sufficient sensitivity for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). The proposed system will fit into an A-size sonobuoy, have a sensitivity of 0.3 – 0.5 pT/rtHz at 1Hz, reject vibration and motion induced noise below 0.5 Hz, incorporate other motion noise cancellation capabilities, have integrated data acquisition, processing and telemetry, and be low cost enough to make a disposable system feasible. In Phase I, we will establish the feasibility of using a magnetic induction sensor for this application, and in the Option period, we will provide an outline design for a free floating sonobuoy prototype.

APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES CORP.
475 Bridge Street Suite 100
Groton, CT 06340
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 448-3253
Dr. James McConnell
NAVY 07-121      Awarded: 9/17/2007
Title:Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) Sonobuoy
Abstract:During the Phase I Base Effort, an omni-directional hydrophone will be designed and tested for prospective use in a ULF sonobuoy application. The design will be based on a sensor that was previously developed for an unrelated ULF application, but will generally fit within design envelope of the AN/SSQ-53F calibrated omni. The Base Effort will also entail evaluation of three different hydromechanical suspension systems that are adaptations of the suspension system employed by the AN/SSQ-53F DIFAR sonobuoy. The overall sonobuoy system architecture will also be developed during the Base Effort and will largely be driven by the hydrophone and hydromechanical suspension system design. The Phase I Option will entail an in situ evaluation of the hydrophone and hydromechanical suspension system at ultra-low frequencies. A majority of the experiments will be performed at the Lapel Test Facility operated by USSI.

NAVMAR APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
65 West Street Road Building C
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 675-4900
Mr. Roger A. Holler
NAVY 07-121      Awarded: 9/18/2007
Title:Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) Sonobuoy
Abstract:In order to counter the quiet modern submarine threat, sensor systems require innovative concepts and sensor developments that exploit the acoustic environment. There is a low acoustic ambient noise window the Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) band, in the 0.01 Hz to 0.1 Hz range, which has not been adequately explored with regard to tactical underwater acoustics. This acoustic band is attractive for passive detection, since propagation is good at these frequencies and target signals would be impossible to mask or suppress in the low ocean ambient noise in this band. This effort is to develop an air-deployed in- water acoustic sensor capable of Ultra Low Frequency performance in the ocean environment. The feasibility of developing a ULF acoustic sensor on a suspension that isolates it from ocean wave-induced motion will be demonstrated. Laboratory models will be fabricated to measure the appropriate parameters to assess ULF performance in the ocean. A means to discriminate self-noise from ambient noise will also be devised. The results from the Phase I effort will be used to develop and demonstrate an A-size over- the-side model in Phase II to show that the sensor meets performance requirements and measures acoustic ambient noise rather than sensor self-noise.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 304-2402
Mr. Michael Mullen
NAVY 07-121      Awarded: 9/18/2007
Title:Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) Sonobuoy
Abstract:The US Navy has a requirement for an affordable A-sized sonobuoy with an Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) acoustic sensor. The ULF acoustic band presents an opportunity to detect emissions from submarines, assuming they exist, would be particularly hard for the target platforms to suppress. ULF detection in a free floating sonobuoy configuration poses complications due to motion and flow induced noise. To address the technical challenge of flow induced noise we will develop our ULF sensor concept teamed with UnderSea Sensor Systems, Inc. based on a neutrally buoyant swallow float design. The feasibility study will evaluate two development paths using varying levels of automation. The operator-in-the-loop option would deploy a drifting neutrally buoyant sensor subassembly at the desired sensing depth and employ an acoustic or wired datalink to a floating sonobuoy RF transmitter. The second automated option would package the entire sonobuoy payload as a neutrally buoyant float which will stabilize at the desired sensing depth, and given a target detection of sufficient confidence would employ a pop-up RF transmitter to pass the detection and data report. We will determine the optimum frequency band to exploit target signatures with minimal noise interference, and then determine the appropriate acoustic sensor design.

SEALANDAIRE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1510 Springport Rd Suite C
Jackson, MI 49202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 784-8340
Mr. Luke Belfie
NAVY 07-121      Awarded: 9/19/2007
Title:Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) Sonobuoy
Abstract:The technology developed under SBIR NAVY 07-121 will yield an air deployed, free floating acoustic sensor providing Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) performance in the ocean environment. The final product will conform to the Navy requirements for “A” size sonobuoys. Phase I will show proof of principle for an acoustic sensor and innovative suspension system. The technology will be capable of meeting the packaging and environmental requirements for “A” size sonobuoys. Phase I will also present a notional concept of a complete ULF sonobuoy based on existing production sonobuoy technology Phase I tasks will include the fo0llowing efforts:: Perform studies to establish the concept feasibility Identify and initiate design of critical components Determine test methods necessary to assess ocean performance Conduct preliminary laboratory testing Devise and document a means to discriminate self-noise from ambient noise Phase II tasks will develop an “A” size over-the-side model and conduct laboratory tests to establish performance parameters

DEMETON TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
48 Nancy Street
West Babylon, NY 11704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 491-1592
Mr. Alex Chi
NAVY 07-122      Awarded: 9/12/2007
Title:Method and Device for In-Service Repair of Magnesium, Aluminum and High-Strength Steel
Abstract:The Purpose of this proposal is to develop a portable process to repair precision aircraft components. Typically, they are composed of magnesium, aluminum, or high-strength steel base alloy, and may have a protective coating, such as cadmium or aluminum. These components damaged in the field must be removed from the aircraft to complete typical repairs. In addition, protective coatings, especially sacrificial coatings, have no viable, on-aircraft repair processes. Currently, Electroplated Hard Chromium (EHC) and Low Embrittlement Cadmium (LHE-Cd) are being used to repair worn and damaged components for a variety of applications. However, since it is a known carcinogen and produces waste that is detrimental to the environment, their use and disposal are strictly regulated. Demeton has extensive experience in repairs of high-strength steel, including 4340 alloy (260-280 ksi), with Demeton Detonation Spray Process (DDSP). Demeton, through past experience, has identified that DDSP is the best alternative to repair base alloys and protective coatings in order to restore material properties as close to original as possible with current requirements in the field. Since DDSP does not require high pressure gas or a special high pressure cooling system, the portability of the system is feasible for in-field repair works.

INOVATI
PO Box 60007
Santa Barbara, CA 93160
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 571-8384
Dr. Ralph M. Tapphorn
NAVY 07-122      Awarded: 9/17/2007
Title:Portable Kinetic Metallization Process and Device for In-Service Repair of Protective Coatings on Magnesium, Aluminum and High- Strength Steels
Abstract:The low temperature Kinetic Metallization technology offers a portable process and device for in-service repair of metallic protective coatings on magnesium, aluminum, and high-strength steel based alloy components used on various aircraft. Damage to protective coatings on these aircraft alloy components include abrasion and cuts. Repairs frequently require removal from the aircraft at the Navy Aviation Depots and airfields or temporary repairs with environmentally hazardous brush plating processes. In-service repairs of damaged metallic coatings including cadmium and IVD-Al would reduce the maintenance cost and allow the aircraft to remain in operational service for longer periods before overhaul. The object of the Phase I research is to develop Kinetic Metallization as a portable process for repairing metallic protective coatings on magnesium, aluminum, and high-strength steel base alloys for aircraft components. Using a handheld Kinetic Metallization gun, repair coatings will be tested and evaluated as a viable process for in-service repair of damaged protective coatings on aircraft components.

KUCHERA DEFENSE SYSTEMS
345 Pomroys Drive
Windber, PA 15963
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(814) 467-9060
Mr. Mike Foust
NAVY 07-122      Awarded: 9/14/2007
Title:Method and Device for In-Service Repair of Magnesium, Aluminum and High-Strength Steel
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a methodology for using the Cold Spray Process for in-service repair of magnesium, aluminum and high-strength steel. The process will focus on the development of corrosion resistant coatings and provide improved corrosion resistance with a minimal effect on the base materials properties. The performance of two portable systems will be evaluated. One system is a commercially available system that uses air and nitrogen as the carrier gas and the other system is a system that uses helium as the carrier gas. Evaluation criteria will include coating properties (density, adhesion, strength, and corrosion resistance), easy of use, cost and portability. The efforts will address coatings for magnesium, aluminum and high strength steels. The results of this effort will be used to establish the performance of the available portable systems and to define the requirements for a portable system that will meet the in-service requirements. The end result will be an environmentally friendly, economical, portable system that can be used to apply coatings for in-service repair of magnesium, aluminum and high strength steels used is aircraft.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Richard S. Sapienza
NAVY 07-123      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Environmentally Friendly Removal of Fluid Contamination from Composite Aircraft Structure
Abstract:The US Navy is seeking an improved cleaner that can remove hydraulic fluid from aircraft composite materials. The cleaner must be compatible with these materials, and must not introduce any significant environmental, health or safety hazards into the workplace. Materials compatibility is the toughest criteria for a candidate cleaner to meet, because any degradation to structural integrity or reliability is totally unacceptable. Current cleaners, promoted as safe and environmentally friendly have been found to be deleterious to the performance of the composite materials. METSS proposes to develop and test new, environmentally benign formulations that are compatible with the materials of construction using a proven approach to cost-effective materials development. METSS will draw on existing materials, working directly with industry participants to select the best materials for product formulation. This ensures a non-biased approach to achieving the program objectives and opens up the opportunity of creating customized formulations that can be designed to directly address performance requirements. This effort will include optimizing the performance of the cleaner to meet and exceed the performance of the currently used cleaners while considering environmental impact, safety, and toxicity. A prototype cleaner will be formulated and demonstrated to be compatible with the aircraft composites.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. John Bulluck
NAVY 07-123      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Environmentally Friendly Removal of Fluid Contamination from Composite Aircraft Structure
Abstract:Aerospace composite structures (e.g., carbon/epoxy) have enjoyed increasing use in aircraft manufacture over the last few decades. With strength-to-weight ratios superior to metal, their use has facilitated large decreases in aircraft weight. Composite structures often become contaminated by various aircraft fluids during maintenance or repair. Hydraulic fluid is the most wide spread contaminate encountered. Contaminated structures must be cleaned efficiently to maintain the strength of these high performance materials. Hydraulic fluid contamination, left unattended or poorly cleaned, can cause composite weakness due to plasticization, delamination, and disbanding. The solvent of choice for cleaning composite structures has historically been hexane, which efficiently removes hydraulic fluid contamination without adversely affecting the composites. However, environmental regulations have forced the Navy to use methylisobutylketone (MIBK) for cleaning instead. Unfortunately, MIBK is inefficient for this purpose, and contaminated parts often must be sent to a controlled facility for cleaning with hexane after several failed attempts using MIBK. This results in extra costs in terms of both time and money. In response to this problem, TRI/Austin is proposing to develop a new solvent based on non-toxic, zero-VOC, and non-HAP materials that can be used without regulation to efficiently decontaminate composite structures. The solvents utilized will be both environmentally and personnel friendly, and will have no regulations for shipping and handling, making them easily accessible to the Navy. TRI/Austin will examine both single solvents and multi-solvent formulations for this purpose. Both organic and aqueous systems will be tested. Composite samples will be subjected to contamination, cleaned, and the efficacy of the solvent will be determined by the retention of composite physical properties. The resulting solvent formulation will save the Navy time and money, and will also be a step towards a healthier environment.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. D. Ernie Havens
NAVY 07-124      Awarded: 9/25/2007
Title:Conformable, Compact Isolation System for Repairs
Abstract:CRG proposes to demonstrate feasibility of an environmental boundary system to reduce the time and cost of performing composite repair. This technology will also increase the quality of the repair for composite parts on platforms, such as the V22, due to the ability to keep the repair area contained. CRG has a unique concept that will accomplish the goal of environmental containment yet still allow easy repair. The concept is comprised of a lightweight truss structure that provides support to a clear plastic film. The trusses may be a semi-flexible, lightweight plastic, or even shape memory polymer (SMP), which will provide great benefit in stowing the system. The system will include hand ports that allow passage of hands and materials through the containment system while sealing automatically without any powered activation device. This design will prevent dirt or dust to pass through while the repair is ongoing. The hand ports also allow the repair technician to use any type of gloves, improving the dexterity and cleanliness of the repair environment. This system will be self-supporting and provides a unique way of transferring materials without using the traditional glove box approach. It will be stowable, lightweight, and cost effective.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. B. Matthew Michaelis
NAVY 07-124      Awarded: 9/9/2007
Title:Self Assembling Environmental Shield
Abstract:To address the U.S. Navy need for an environmental shield to protect repair areas from debris and contamination, especially in austere environments, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new POsitive Pressure repair SHIELD (POP-SHIELD) as an environmental shield that provides protection during in-field repairs of composite structures on aircraft, vehicles, boats, and ships. The heat resistant shield can be quickly installed and assembled with the use of a compressed air line. Redundant, independently actuated suction cups firmly anchor POP-SHIELD to surfaces without unreliable consumables such as tape or adhesive. The innovation in POP-SHIELD will enable the device to be quickly and securely assembled over a work area, using only air power. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of POP-SHIELD by developing a proof of concept prototype, which will show its ability to meet the Navy’s needs. In Phase II we plan to develop a pre-production prototype, and demonstrate that it can protect work areas in real work scenarios.

ADVANCED POWDER SOLUTIONS, INC.
10010 Cucklebur
Houston, TX 77095
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(661) 373-1729
Mr. Dean Baker
NAVY 07-125      Awarded: 9/6/2007
Title:Novel Magnesium Based Nano Composites
Abstract:Developing low cost, lightweight materials with high stiffness, that are environmentally safe, low risk/liability, and corrosion resistant is extremely important for the Department of Defense in the current climate of reduced spending and desire for increased performance. Reducing program life cycle costs for new materials in a program is also important, but additional desirable benefits for a new material include; reduction in component and system weight, providing multi-function capability, and limiting the use of potentially hazardous materials. This APS Phase I NAVY SBIR program plans to demonstrate these desirable characteristics in proven materials. The APS demonstrated nano composites provide many solutions to decreasing a systems mass, while providing multi-functional capability (corrosion resistance, modulus, low cost, etc…) within system components. APS has assembled a world-class team that is well versed in design, materials testing and manufacturing for aerospace structures to successfully complete this Phase I program.

ASPEN SYSTEMS, INC.
184 Cedar Hill Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 481-5058
Dr. Somesh K Mukherjee
NAVY 07-125      Awarded: 9/6/2007
Title:Innovative Surface Modification for Aluminum, Magnesium and High Strength Steel Alloys to Enhance Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:U.S Navy spends a huge amount of money to address corrosion maintenance problems for various air platform material such as aluminum alloys, steel and magnesium alloys. Improving corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys may improve 50% life-cycle costs and provide a number of performance improvements. Aspen Systems proposes to design a superior and economic coating technique for magnesium alloy in order to increase its corrosion resistance. In our Phase I program, we will identify a superior corrosion resistant magnesium alloy composition and successfully perform the coating using innovative plasma immersion Ion deposition (PIID) technique to obtain defect free stable adherent coating on magnesium. We will also evaluate the coating and perform extensive corrosion testing of the magnesium coated alloy

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS DESIGN & PROCESSING LLC
597 Lullingstone Dr SE
Marietta, GA 30067
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(678) 570-2575
Dr. Klaus-Hermann Dahmen
NAVY 07-125      Awarded: 9/18/2007
Title:Innovative Surface Modification for Aluminum, Magnesium and High Strength Steel Alloys to Enhance Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:This proposal seeks innovative solutions to address the Navy’s needs to extend life and durability of its aircraft. It is proposed to apply surface treatment strategies for two important classes of materials: Custom 465 Stainless, and CSS 42L carburizing stainless steel. The former is a highly corrosion resistant high-strength precipitation hardening material that, nevertheless, will require surface hardening to enhance wear resistance. It is proposed to accomplish this through mechanical treatments such as peening before aging, and, low-temperature carburizing. The latter material is also a high-strength stainless steel that is intended explicitly for carburizing applications, and exhibits corrosion resistance suitable for applications such as the wing-fold transmission (WFT) system. We request funding to conduct a preliminary analysis of the mechanical and corrosion characteristics of these two materials (Phase-I), and optimize the processing of them necessary for the WFT application (Phase-II). The goal is to identify materials and processes leading to a WFT component that meets mechanical requirements and does not require a separate scheme for corrosion control. The identification of the process parameters will lead to the development of multiscale models for strengthening in steels due to combined effects of surface hardening and heat treatment with higher corrosion resistance.

LIBERTY TECHNOLOGIES GROUP, INC.
505 Liberty Street
Warren, PA 16365
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(724) 539-8310
Mr. Kevin Smith
NAVY 07-125      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Innovative Surface Modification for Aluminum, Magnesium and High Strength Steel Alloys to Enhance Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:Liberty Technologies is proposing to apply its proprietary Atomic Penetration of Materials technology to protect US Navy aircraft components from corrosion by creating innovative surface alloys and coatings that are not available by any other process. This technology is currently being applied to surface coating alloys that address the harsh erosive and corrosive environments deep in oil wells, as well as coatings for medical instruments, and new long-life cutting tools. We are proposing in Phase I to demonstrate this technology for Navy anti-corrosion applications, focusing on the ability to prevent Stress Corrosion Cracking and extending the life of many components in the harsh naval environments.

NAVMAR APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
65 West Street Road Building C
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 675-4900
Dr. Jeffrey Waldman
NAVY 07-125      Awarded: 9/6/2007
Title:Innovative Surface Modification for High Strength Steel Alloys to Enhance Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:The Navy experiences costly corrosion maintenance problems and component failure resulting from corrosion. An innovative approach utilizing surface modification methods is needed to reduce processing and life cycle costs while providing a high component surface hardness with improved corrosion and wear resistance for Navy aircraft components such as drive mechanisms. The Phase I effort will involve development and demonstration of the feasibility of a cost efficient low temperature carburization surface modification process applicable to high strength martenstic stainless steels, such as Pyrowear 675, which is used in components such as in the weapons bay door drive system, in the Joint Strike Fighter. The use of the low temperature carburizing process will result in lower cost, increased corrosion resistant and wear resistant components for the JSF. Phase I will also involve laboratory testing to establish wear resistance and static strength levels and will also involve trade-off studies comparing low temperature carburizing of various martensitic and precipitation hardening stainless steel alloys. An Option Phase will involve optimization of the low temperature carburizing process for Pyrowear 675 for use in JSF components and laboratory testing to determine the fatigue, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance of low temperature carburized Pyrowear 675 alloy.

QUESTEK INNOVATIONS LLC
1820 Ridge Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 328-5800
Dr. James A. Wright
NAVY 07-125      Awarded: 9/28/2007
Title:Innovative Surface Modification for Aluminum, Magnesium and High Strength Steel Alloys to Enhance Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:7xxx series aluminum alloys are widely used for structural components of aircraft such as wing spars due to their high specific strength. Unfortunately, tempering most 7xxx series alloys to peak strength results in susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Despite utilizing the best available surface treatments, SCC results in unscheduled maintainence of naval aircraft. QuesTek Innovations LLC, a leader in the emerging field of computational materials design, is uniquely suited to design an SCC-resistant, high- strength aluminum alloy for the aerospace industry. QuesTek has experience commerciallizing high-performance stainless and gear steel alloys, and QuesTek has developed extensive mechanistic process – structure and structure – property models specific to 7xxx series alloys. These models include custom thermodynamic and kinetic databases, well-calibrated microstructural evolution models utilizing PrecipiCalc software, and a validated, physics-based strength model. The overall goal of this SBIR program is to design and develop an advanced, high-strength aluminum alloy with improved SCC resistance compared to commercially available Al alloys. To demonstrate the feasibility applying Materials by Design® approach during Phase I, QuesTek plans to develop a qualitative model for SCC of aluminum alloys; design model alloys to achieve the 7075-T6 strength with maximum SCC-resistance; and produce and characterize these model alloy designs.

ULTRAMET
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima, CA 91331
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 899-0236
Dr. Arthur T. Allen
NAVY 07-125      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Low Temperature Gaseous Nitriding of 4340 Steel for Increased Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:Corrosion-related maintenance of metal alloy components such as hydraulic wing and blade fold actuation systems for carrier-based aircraft and rotary gear assemblies costs the Navy approximately $1 billion per year. Innovative and low-cost surface modifications that do not compromise mechanical properties are needed to improve the corrosion resistance of the alloys. Current surface treatment technologies offer limited effectiveness in long-term use for steel alloys. These techniques include the application of hard chromium coatings, which have toxicity issues. Nitriding and/or carburizing techniques are other traditional methods used to harden steel alloy surfaces and improve corrosion resistance. One shortcoming of these methods is that the high processing temperatures required risk degrading the mechanical properties of the steel alloy. Recently investigated methods of nitriding iron at low temperatures have demonstrated that iron can be coated with a thin layer of nickel (<100 nm) and that an iron nitride layer can be formed below the nickel coating when exposed to an ammonia atmosphere at temperatures as low as 225°C. The catalytic nickel coating affects the preferential formation of the desired iron nitride compound instead of the iron oxide (i.e., corrosion). The iron nitride layer is hard, non-porous, and chemically stable at temperatures below 400°C. This process has not yet been used commercially. In this project, Ultramet will deposit a thin (<100 nm) layer of nickel on iron and 4340 steel using chemical vapor deposition technology, which does not rely on conventional thermal activation, thereby minimizing the deposition temperature. The resulting surfaces will be nitrided in an ammonia atmosphere at 325°C and lower. The viability of chemical vapor deposition for production of a hard, wear-resistant surface on these materials will be assessed, and the ability to protect them against corrosion and retain their mechanical properties will be evaluated. Chemical vapor deposition is the best alternative for protecting steel surfaces because it is the only process that can treat steel at low temperature without altering the mechanical properties of steel.

HD LABORATORIES, INC.
1595 NW Gilman, Suite 14
Issaquah, WA 98027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 392-8355
Mr. Thomas J. Davis
NAVY 07-126      Awarded: 9/22/2007
Title:Flexible Ultrasonic Arrays for Rapid Damage Assessment in Epoxy-based Composites
Abstract:Flexible ultrasonic arrays can readily detect delaminations and disbonds in composites. Recent experience has shown that thermal damage in composites may also be characterized with ultrasound. This SBIR project will investigate flexible arrays for implementing this advanced ultrasonic technique. The resultant flexible array systems could be configured for rapid characterization of both thermal damage and other defects in composites.

IMPERIUM, INC.
1738 Elton Rd. Suite 218
Silver Spring, MD 20903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 431-2911
Dr. Marvin E. Lasser
NAVY 07-126      Awarded: 9/13/2007
Title:Low Cost, Portable Ultrasound Camera for Rapid Composite Inspection
Abstract:Imperium, along with Bell Helicopter and Boeing, are proposing a small, portable ultrasound camera for real time imaging of subsurface defects in composites. This device, based around a unique ultrasound imaging array, can generate C-scans in real time of subsurface defects. This allows for a non-specialized user to find defects immediately. This camera will allow a non-specialized user to quickly find defects. Little training will be required and it can be made at a low cost.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. David Forsyth
NAVY 07-126      Awarded: 9/12/2007
Title:Ultra-Portable, Low-cost, Nondestrutive Evaluation Technologies for Rapid Damage Assessment in Epoxy-based Composite Materials
Abstract:In-theater operations of US Navy/Marine Corps aircraft can result in operational damage that requires rapid detection and repair so as not to interrupt mission operations. Multiple Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) technologies are available for in-depth analysis of suspected damage zones at higher-level maintenance activities. Unfortunately, the only inspection methods available for rapid on-site damage detection at the squadron level are visual and tap testing. Texas Research Institute Austin (TRI/Austin), in collaboration with Dr. Mel Siegel from Carnegie Mellon University and Physical Acoustics, proposes to develop a portable inspection system for detecting damage in composites. The TRI team will construct a breadboard instrument that will perform a controlled impact tap test and utilize both accelerometer and microphone data to assess damage in composite materials. In the Phase I work, the design for the composite inspection system will be completed and the instrument will be built and tested to ensure system functionality.

SPERIENT, INC.
1813 Rutan Drive
Livermore, CA 94551
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 548-5555
Mr. E. Tom Rosenbury
NAVY 07-127      Awarded: 8/23/2007
Title:Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Imaging Array Surveillance Sensor
Abstract:The goal is to develop and demonstrate an UWB imaging surveillance sensor array capable of detecting intrusion of man or machine in to secure (exclusion) zones. The asynchronous nature of modern war exacerbates the protection needs of critical infrastructure: airfields, waterfronts, and other facilities. Developing a multi-lateral UWB sensor fence-line has immediate application for force and infrastructure protection both domestically and abroad Sperient proposes a multilateral time-of-flight impulse radio-radar system to enhance detection accuracy, eliminate false alarms, and operate on the lowest power with the stealthiest signal. The multi-lateral approach is superior to conventional sensors because scaling information about the target may be derived from multiple sensors. The approach includes utilizing Sperient’s (patent pending) impulse communication technology to detect time-of-flight (ToF). When a target passes between the radio transmitter and receiver, the difference in ToF is more reliably detected than in conventional systems. Radios used as described constitute an ultra-high resolution sensor. Additionally, detection range goes as 1/R2 rather than 1/R4-yielding much longer detection ranges. Since detection depends on time-of-flight (TOF) rather than amplitude, the sensors will yield better resolution and noise immunity. Lastly, multiple sensors enable better target estimation and may include: target size, gait, number of legs, and potentially heart and breathing rates.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike, Suite 250
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-6325
Mr. Alan Petroff
NAVY 07-127      Awarded: 8/22/2007
Title:Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Imaging Array Surveillance Sensor
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to determine if an Ultra-Wideband radar array sensor can be used as an effective perimeter security sensor to detect, track and classify targets. If this can be determined, then the next step will be to produce a proof of concept unit, then demonstrate and characterize the performance in a multitude of real life scenarios. If successful, this effort will result in the production of a new, robust, high performance, low cost and unique perimeter security system. This project is feasible because Time Domain has demonstrated this mono-static, bi-static and multi-static radar capability with existing low cost hardware in several similar projects. Time Domain will leverage this hardware and experience with the UWB signal processing experience and strengths of our teammate, Applied Physical Sciences, to produce a UWB radar performance model, then validate the expected detection performance and produce a proof of concept. The project will be successful if 1) the detection, false alarm and classification thresholds can be met for the target environments and 2) the hardware is producible and has a cost advantage over conventional microwave, IR sensor techniques and other sensors approaches.

NDT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1726 Ellington Road P.O.Box 637
South Windsor, CT 06074
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 644-5655
Dr. Herbert R. Weischedel
NAVY 07-128      Awarded: 8/15/2007
Title:Reliable Tool for Assessing Structural Integrity of Guy Wires on Tall Antenna Tower
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Exploratory Development effort is to prove feasibility of advanced concepts for a lightweight tool for regularly inspecting the guy wires that support tall antenna towers, and to develop a design of such a tool. The tool will have one simple haul-up line and no power or data transmission lines. In particular, the tool will be lightweight, self-powered and self-recording and work reliably in the field. It will smoothly track guys of up to 3.5 inches in diameter with varying amounts of swelling in a manner that ensures high quality inspection data. The performance of the tool will not be affected by severe EMI/RFI conditions.

QUEST INTEGRATED
1012 Central Avenue South
Kent, WA 98032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 872-9500
Mr. Phillip D. Bondurant
NAVY 07-128      Awarded: 8/21/2007
Title:Reliable Portable Device for Inspection and Assessment of Guy Cables Supporting Tall Structures
Abstract:Guy cables are used to support tall man-made structures, including broadcast antenna masts. Failure of a guy cable results in destruction of the mast with significant damage and impact. We will design, build and prove a portable online robotic system with unique non-destructive examination capabilities to detect flaws which result in loss of cable strength. The methods used will include standard magnetic flux methodologies for detection of local flaws and loss of metallic cross-sectional area supplemented by QUEST Integrated proprietary technology to detect hidden internal corrosion as well as pitting and fretting damage in sub-surface layers of the metal cable. The device will operate on a range of cable diameters and will be designed for use in a ‘live’ operational high-voltage radio frequency environment. Existing systems and proven technology will be adapted for use in this new application. Significant experience in measuring and modelling corrosion and fatigue in metal cable and knowledge of the key degradation mechanisms will be applied to automatic software recognition of typical flaw signatures.

TETHERS UNLIMITED, INC.
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 486-0100
Dr. Robert Hoyt
NAVY 07-128      Awarded: 8/20/2007
Title:Reliable Tool for Assessing Structural Integrity of Guy Wires on Tall Antenna Tower
Abstract:TUI proposes to develop a novel electro-magnetic inspection tool for assessment of guy wire integrity. The proposed tool will utilizing recent advances in hybrid flexible/rigid printed circuitry fabrication to implement the main-flux measurement technique within a clamshell-type enclosure. This innovation will provide significantly greater sensitivity than current tools utilizing the ‘modified-main-flux’ method while retaining the convenience of easy installation and operation. Integrating onboard signal processing and data storage, this tool will have the capability to transmit Loss of Metallic cross-section Area (LMA) and Localized Flaw (LF) data via a RF connection to a laptop or other suitable computer. Additionally, the tool will obtain close-up visual inspection of the cable using several cameras and transmit these images to the ground station to facilitate data analysis. Software hosted on the laptop will provide data analysis, archival, and comparison with historical data for a given guy wire. The tool will also use a novel method that will enable it to be readily adjusted for precision inspection of guy wires ranging in diameter between 1 and 3.5 inches as well as cables that have localized swelling.

MAKAI OCEAN ENGINEERING, INC.
P.O. Box 1206
Kailua, HI 96734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 259-8871
Dr. Jose Andres
NAVY 07-129      Awarded: 8/22/2007
Title:Tool for Recovery, Maintenance and Repair of US Navy Cable Systems
Abstract:The U.S. Navy has special requirements for recovery, maintenance and repair of seafloor cable systems. The Navy frequently makes repairs to cable systems damaged by seafloor hazards by dragging a grapnel hook near the vicinity of the break. The process of recovering the cable to make the repairs is time-consuming and without knowing the exact location of the seafloor cable, can lead to further damage to the cable by dragging it along the seafloor and fouling it with other submarine cables or seafloor hazards. Makai proposes to develop an advanced computer tool for the planning, simulation, and real-time control during recovery and re-laying of the Navy’s cable systems. Running on standard PC’s and in a GIS environment, the proposed tool will accurately model cable retrieval operations and create office generated sail plans that can be used during at-sea recovery operations. All information relative to the recovery operations will be maintained in a GIS database easily accessible during at-sea operations. The proposed software tool will allow the Navy to retrieve cables with lower values of seabed tension, allowing for faster recoveries and minimizing cable dragging on the seafloor, which ultimately will result more efficient and in safer recoveries.

DIVERSIFIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
35 Wiggins Ave.
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-9444
Dr. Ian Roth
NAVY 07-130      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:High Power Density Power Electronic Devices and Components
Abstract:In this SBIR, DTI proposes to extend its existing high voltage switching technology to develop the high voltage and high power switches required for high frequency, multi-MW power conversion, based on currently available and deployable Si devices – enabling the use of switching power supply architectures at 13.8 kV voltages and multi-MW power levels. These switches are the critical elements in any compact, multi-MW, high frequency power converter. In Phase I, DTI will design and test a prototype 10 kV 200 Ampere (2 MW) switch capable of supporting multiple power converter architectures.

PRINCETON POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
501 Forrestal Road Suite 211 Forrestal Campus
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 258-5994
Mr. Mark Holveck
NAVY 07-130      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Reduced Power Electronics Subassembly Size, Weight, and Footprint Using Silicon Carbide and AC-link Technology
Abstract:We will design, develop, and deliver a 4160 V, 100 kW converter with a power density of 3 MW/m3,through the integration of silicon carbide (SiC) thyristor devices operating in an AC-link topology. Unlike other state-of-the-art converters, AC-link can use thyristor devices and, therefore, avoid the reliability problems with the SiC oxide layer found with turn-off devices (IGBTs). SiC devices with an 8 kV voltage rating and 300°C junction temperature significantly reduce the size, weight, and footprint of the bridge and heat sink. Furthermore, SiC thyristors and AC-link enable a high operating frequency, which minimizes the size and weight of passive components. During Phase I we will model the converter’s operation over a wide range of conditions and use the results to complete a detailed design of the bridge, heat sink, inductor, and capacitor subassemblies, including component selection, cooling, assembly considerations, and voltage isolation. In the Phase I Option, we will design the enclosure and component layout and obtain quotes from contract manufacturers for each subassembly. In Phase II we will build a system demonstrating the power density and performance of the converter and optimized subassemblies. GHO Ventures has expressed interest in our Phase III manufacturing effort.

BIG HORN VALVE, INC.
1664 Terra Ave #5
Sheridan, WY 82801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 672-5443
Mr. Zachary A. Gray
NAVY 07-131      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:VOST Flow Control Device
Abstract:An innovative flow control device will be built and tested. Based on cryogenically proven, highly efficient Venturi-Offset Technology (VOST) developed for NASA, it has no stem- actuator, few moving parts, and an overall cylindrical shape. Consistently demonstrating breakthroughs in flow control, VOST technology provides precise linear flow control across its entire dynamic range, holds position without power, and requires remarkably low actuation energy. This project will demonstrate the viability of using VOST for autonomous, bi-directional, self-powered, low-pressure drop isolation valves for shipboard use.

SEA CORP.
62 Johnny Cake Hill Aquidneck Corporate Park
Middletown, RI 02842
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 847-2260
Mr. Barry Holland
NAVY 07-131      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Innovative Flow Control Devices for Shipboard Fluid System Rupture Isolation
Abstract:Current shipboard emergency flow control devices for fluid systems use either pneumatic power or electric motors to close valves when a rupture is detected. These systems are dependent on the availability of the electric power or low pressure air systems. In a casualty situation, these support systems could also be lost and the flow control devices would not operate as intended, placing the ship in even greater extremis. SEA CORP proposes to use its extensive experience in the use of commercially available automotive airbag inflators to develop an innovative application of this existing technology to provide the pneumatic energy to autonomously close fluid system valves when a rupture is detected. The inflator(s) would be individually mounted to each valve and controlled by local circuitry that would normally use available ship’s electrical power, but would have a small (D-cell size) battery backup in case normal power is lost. Algorithms will be developed, or adapted from current “smart valve” systems, to ensure that only those valves required to secure the rupture would close, allowing use of the remainder of the affected system. This technology is easily adaptable to commercial applications such as shipping, oil, and chemical facilities, especially in remote locations.

3E TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
700 King Farm Boulevard Suite 600
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 679-6779
Mr. Qiang Guo
NAVY 07-132      Awarded: 12/27/2007
Title:Hand Deployed Situational Awarness Sensor for Shipboard Damage Control
Abstract:Current methods of damage control assessment onboard US Navy ships subject personnel to hazardous environments. These methods are labor intensive and dangerous. Our proposal outlines the initial design and architecture of a ruggedized multi-sensing wireless device and the remote monitor to which it interfaces. The sensing device we propose is self-orienting, shock resistant, waterproof, buoyant, capable of withstanding fire, explosions, toxic gases, and able to transmit high-bandwidth data, including video, wirelessly to the remote monitor with a range beyond 70 feet. 3eTI has significant experience with wireless mesh equipment and wireless sensor technology, and has deployed wireless equipment to U.S. Navy surface vessels and on U.S. Navy bases. All 3eTI products meet U.S. Navy requirements, including the vast array of wireless certification and accreditation requirements. Due to our significant experience with wireless sensor systems and remote monitoring for the U.S. Navy specifically, 3eTI is well-positioned to develop a working product that meets all of the requirements in this SBIR topic

ADAPTIVE METHODS, INC.
5885 Trinity Parkway Suite 230
Centreville, VA 20120
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 840-9722
Mr. Kevin Keiffer
NAVY 07-132      Awarded: 12/27/2007
Title:Hand Deployed Situational Awarness Sensor for Shipboard Damage Control
Abstract:Damage sustained on board a US Naval vessel is a serious situation. Rapid situational assessment of a damaged compartment by a rugged, hand-deployed, situational sensor would be advantageous in coordinating a response, mitigating additional damage to the ship and crew, and preserving the ship’s mission. Such a device must be able to withstand shock, heat, flooding, and other hazardous environmental conditions. A concept and implementation plan for a rugged, modularized, configurable environmental sensor is discussed in this proposal. Key features proposed include multiple camera systems for visual feedback, on-board data processing, and wireless connectivity. In addition to providing rapid response to the US Navy, it is envisioned that this device has broader applications to federal, state, and municipal hazardous materials response departments.

SAGE TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.
One Ivybrook Boulevard Suite 190
Warminster, PA 18974
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 658-0500
Mr. Wesley Sheridan
NAVY 07-132      Awarded: 12/27/2007
Title:Hand Deployed Situational Awarness Sensor for Shipboard Damage Control
Abstract:The Multi Function Sensor System addresses the needs of the shipboard Damage Control mission to provide front line assessment of vessel compartments and spaces that may be compromised by hazardous and life threatening conditions. The Multifunction Sensor (MFS) in conjunction with the Remote Monitor Unit is capable of providing wireless transmission of critical situational, hazardous material, and environmental condition status and information to enhance situational awareness and effect emergency response measures without compromising the lives of the Damage Control teams.

FRICTION STIR LINK, INC.
W227 N546 Westmound Drive
Waukesha, WI 53186
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(262) 522-6680
Mr. Christopher B. Smith
NAVY 07-133      Awarded: 12/28/2007
Title:Increasing Automation in the Shipbuilding Production Process
Abstract:As stated in this SBIR solicitation, “The Navy's Program Executive Office for Ships is leveraging the National Research Program (NSRP) to effect change across… surface shipbuilding…to adapt and implement "World Class" commercial best manufacturing practices.” Shipyard Process technology is identified as an area of high relative benefit within the NSRP Strategic Investment Plan. The overall objective of this proposal is to develop an automated shipbuilding structure manufacturing process. The NSRP SIP identifies structure as a high importance area within shipyard process technologies. Benefits will be realized in the application of multi-technology lean manufacturing cells, which will reduce the work done in situ in the main shipbuilding bay and in single process work centers. These cells will contain general purpose robots as well as other CNC machines. They will use such technologies as tool changing to minimize handling of the large assemblies typical of ship structure. The process will be designed to reduce distortion, eliminate fitting, and achieve high process capability. Typical technologies within the cell would include cutting, welding, assembly, coating, and measurement. This project will address specific NSRP objectives, namely to increase work accomplished by robotics and to improve fabrication of internal decks, longitudinal bulkheads, and stiffeners.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
NAVY 07-133      Awarded: 12/28/2007
Title:Operational and Process Management Improvement through Implementation of In-process Manufacturing Wireless Asset Tracking
Abstract:Impact Technologies, LLC, with support from Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, proposes to develop and demonstrate a Wireless Mobile Asset Tracking (WMAT) system with integrated reasoning algorithms to monitor and locate in-process manufactured parts. Implementation will hinge on development of both hardware and software solutions tailored to the ship construction and repair industry. The hardware will be designed to withstand the riggers of a shipyard environment fusing both global and local position tracking technologies into a single, cost-effective, integrated package. Embedded reasoners will be employed within the software to determine the location of in-process materials and identify the most probable locations of those assets that have been mishandled and cannot be found. An electronic visualization will identify those areas in the shipyard to search for missing materials. Data garnered from the tracking system will facilitate improved production planning by having the ability to continuously track and monitor the status of materials throughout the entire shipbuilding process; thereby, creating a more efficient, agile manufacturing climate. Trending of historical data will enable study of workflow patterns to improve overall operational efficiencies in shipbuilding processes.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P Scaringe
NAVY 07-134      Awarded: 10/3/2007
Title:Demonstration of a Practical Low-Energy-Consumption Dehumidification Device for Shipping Containers
Abstract:The thrust of this proposal is to use Mainstream’s proposed concept for a VC-QuaDD dehumidifier to demonstrate an innovative low-power compact dehumidification design that can be powered from alternative energy power sources including solar, wind, and even internal battery power, as well as ship-board or vehicle power. The system can also obtain power from energy scavenging devices. This proposal contains detailed calculations to support the design chosen, as well as a preliminary design of the complete first-generation prototype unit that will be experimentally demonstrated in Phase I. The proposed configuration can be used on existing 20' ISO containers, as well as smaller TriCon and QuadCon containers. This Phase I effort will prove the technical feasibility of the approach using a full-scale first-prototype configuration. Reliability, durability, and low cost will be demonstrated, as well as compatibility with existing ISO containers. The Phase I Option includes re-design (as needed), fabrication of a second-generation prototype, performance testing on a 20' ISO container, and extensive life testing (to demonstrate the ruggedness and reliability) of this compact patent-pending design. The proposal contains a commercialization plan for the shipping, marine, and industrial markets. This product fits well into Mainstream’s evolving commercial products for the shipping industry.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5821
Dr. Detlef Westphalen
NAVY 07-134      Awarded: 10/3/2007
Title:Quasi Dynamic Dehumidification (QuaDD)
Abstract:This proposal addresses the need for a robust moisture-removal system for containers used for shipment and storage of high-value equipment such as aircraft engines. Current desiccant-based systems incur high inspection and servicing costs, and may still allow humidity-related damage to occur. TIAX proposes to develop a passive, self-regenerating desiccant (SRD) ventilation system to work in tandem with the current desiccant device. This system will remove moisture from air entering the container, thus greatly extending the life of the existing desiccant, and will passively self-regenerate, with no need for an external power source. The use of a desiccant-coated matrix as the moisture removal material both aids in desiccant regeneration and assures low humidity for in-flowing air even when the desiccant is close to saturated. In this work, TIAX will partner with Airxchange, Inc. the leading OEM supplier of air-to-air enthalpy recovery heat exchangers and manufacturer of desiccant-coated matrix material. Airxchange will supply both materials and expertise in support of the project. Using matrix materials currently available from Airxchange, an SRD system designed for a standard 20’ ISO container and extreme, “worst case” conditions is predicted by TIAX to supply very low-humidity in-flow air, and occupy only 0.015% of the container volume.

ARCON CORP.
260 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-0069
Mr. John D. Tardelli
NAVY 07-135      Awarded: 9/30/2007
Title:Multiple Vocoder Translation Software Application
Abstract:The proposed study considers the translation between speech vocoders of both wave form and parametric types. Transcoding and tandem methods of translation are proposed for the various codec pairs. The special case of multi-user conferencing scenarious with a variety of different codecs is considered. A methodology for the translation between different speech compression methods is developed. This methodology is used in the development and implementation of a parametric codec to parametric codectranslation.The minimization of degredation to the speech communication is considered with special emphasis placed on intelligibility. At the same time an effort is made to minimize the complexity of the translation. Specific subjective test methodologies are proposed to evaluate the degredation. The implementations are modeled and their complexities are measured.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Mr. Wassim Ferzali
NAVY 07-135      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:Multi-standard Vocoder Translation (MuVT) Software for JTRS Secure VoIP Application
Abstract:Mayflower Communications proposes the Multi-standard Vocoder Translation (MuVT, pronounce move it) Framework and Software Suite to meet the Navy objectives, namely, develop “minimum loss” vocoder translations among a pre-determined set of vocoders and qualify the translation software for speech quality, processor requirements and JTRS SCA compliance. The proposed MuVT Framework is a mathematical foundation and an associated Software Suite that accomplishes the process of translation between multiple codecs. The MuVT Framework/Software includes a set-up for speech quality assessment (in a laboratory setting) using the ITU P.862 PESQ and an implementation/development strategy to demonstrate the MuVT technology on JTRS compliant hardware platforms, and eventual incorporation into the JTRS Enterprise Business model to insure software interoperability among all potential JTRS vendors. The proposed MuVT technology leverages Mayflower’s expertise in secure VoIP communications and builds on previous Mayflower R&D programs. The MuVT technology, when proven feasible in the Phase I study for the Navy application, has enormous potential for military and commercial applications. Mayflower will develop a cost effective MuVT prototype software suite in Phase I and II, and ensure its commercialization in Phase III and beyond.

FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY, INC.
75 Aero Camino, Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 429-3302
Mr. Sam Boykin
NAVY 07-136      Awarded: 11/5/2007
Title:Human Performance Modeling in the Naval Capabilities Development Process
Abstract:As the Department of Defense continues to emphasize the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System for evaluating material and non-material solutions, the importance of robust modeling tools continues to increase. The objective of this Phase I SBIR is to provide US Navy analysts with more comprehensive insight into the human-to- machine interface by developing a C4 behavior model. The model will support the assessment of multi-step decisions associated with command and control systems to include attributes such as process time, data uncertainty, human error and decision dependencies. The resulting performance metrics will be incorporated into a decision support environment to facilitate the evaluation of concept cost versus benefit. The data fusion framework linking the behavior model metrics and integrating multiple data sources will be built on an infrastructure initiated by investments from the Missile Defense, Air Force and Navy offices to provide robust decision traceability during acquisition decisions. The Phase I program will solidify the Phase II requirements by having selected Navy analysts and OPNAV stakeholders interact with the proof-of-concept graphical user interface (GUI) and supporting database structure to conduct actual human performance assessments. The Phase II program will fully develop a prototype tool and validate its operation and use concept.

PACIFIC SCIENCE & ENGINEERING GROUP, INC.
9180 Brown Deer Road
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 535-1661
Mr. Michael L. Quinn
NAVY 07-136      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Human Performance Modeling in the Naval Capabilities Development Process
Abstract:The overall objective of this work is to create a model of the decision process in C4I that will integrate human decision making analyses into NCDP assessment processes In Phase I, a model of the human decision process will be developed, and algorithms required to use that model to evaluate human performance, will be specified. This proposal integrates and extends three tested methodologies for defining performance and estimating the effect of performance-shaping factors on mission performance. The first methodology (Link and Node Analysis) identifies where human activity occurs in a mission thread (the Nodes) and how information is distributed between those nodes (the Links). The second methodology, a model of the human decision-making process, specifies what happens within a node and identifies factors that effect human performance. The third methodology, model-based simulation, allows us to use the extensive existing literature on human performance capabilities to estimate the effect of those performance-shaping factors on process outcomes. The final product of this Phase I research will be a descriptive model of the human-decision making process that can be used to drive a simulation of overall system performance and to assess the impact of various performance-shaping factors on that performance.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Dr. Marc Abrams
NAVY 07-137      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:Artifact Assessment Tool Suite Infrastructure (AATSI)
Abstract:Using our 50+ person-years of experience with testing, XML processing, and Eclipse for DoD, we aim to largely automate compliance testing and catalog artifacts by providing a framework to integrate disparate compliance tools, for JTRS-TD to reduce time/effort by at least 30% over the tested product’s lifecycle. Our architecture for Artifact Assessment Tool Suite Infrastructure (AATSI) supports compliance test initiation, execution, result evaluation/storage, and queries to generate reports. Through one common open- standards based infrastructure into which ‘best-of-breed’ tools can be integrated as web services, we future-proof AATSI to accommodate today and tomorrow’s platforms for real-time and conventional systems. The architecture accommodates compliance and quality assessment tools, requirements tools, configuration management systems, report generators, log file analysis tools, Eclipse TPTP, and more. Our architecture represents meta-data and optionally artifacts in an XML canonical format for tool interoperability, replacing proprietary solutions. We permit automated and customized tests, latter using business processes compatible with service-oriented architecture. We propose a design, evaluation, and implementation roadmap. Innovations include XML-compliant Artifact Meta Language, promoting document standards either at XML schema or document interchange level; rule-driven components for extensibility; Orchestration Service for concurrent request execution; experience-based cognitive learning; and visualization via a compliance measure dashboard.

INNOVATIVE DEFENSE TECHNOLOGIES
4301 North Fairfax Drive Suite 630B
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 807-0055
Ms. Elfriede Dustin
NAVY 07-137      Awarded: 9/26/2007
Title:Artifact Assessment Tool Suite Infrastructure (AATSI)
Abstract:Tracking the quality, completeness, standards adherence and consistency of radio software from initial requirements, coding, testing, all the way through to production is a complex and error-prone task involving a myriad of people, processes, and technologies. The various groups responsible and involved in the critical radio software engineering phase such as development, configuration management, testers, release, users, etc. are often separated by organizational boundaries, disconnected toolsets, or possibly even vast geographic locations. Automation and integration of such efforts is key to solving this issue, to include integration of relevant processes, tools, analysis capabilities, artifact management and other related efforts. An excellent opportunity exists to solve this problem of disconnected efforts by implementing a program such as AATSI. The goal for AATSI is to support compliance and quality assessment analysis of digital artifacts produced for all phases of code intensive product development, particularly code intended for embedded real-time systems. Additionally, this effort will provide opportunities to extend these capabilities to provide historical reporting and tracking for the life cycle of the products. It will allow various teams to work together seamlessly within the same infrastructure, supporting the efficient and successful delivery of radio software.

ASTRON WIRELESS TECHNOLIGIES, INC.
22560 Glenn Drive Suite 114
Sterling, VA 20164
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 450-5517
Mr. Jospehp R. Jahoda
NAVY 07-138      Awarded: 9/26/2007
Title:Extremely Wideband Antenna for Airborne and Land Mobile Communications Systems
Abstract:The objective of the Phase 1 and 2 SBIR topic NAVY 07-138, “Extremely Wide Antenna for Airborne and Land Mobile Communications Systems” is to develop antenna technologies that can be incorporated into compact, efficient, and wideband antennas that can be militarized for air and land mobile platforms. • Cover the full 2 to 2000 MHz spectrum • VSWR is less than 3:1 • Handle 100 Watts CW • Omni-directional with Vertical Polarization • Height of 10 inches • The final antenna will fit into a “blade” radome for Land Mobile application and Conformal for Aircraft applications Also, a UHF SATCOM (240 to 380 MHz) antenna to enable the operation of multiple narrow band channels. RHCP with hemispheric coverage, 200 W CW RF input for transmit. 10 inch height. A full-scale improvement and a revolutionary approach to antenna design and the integration of antennas on airborne and land mobile platform are absolutely essential to achieve the objectives of this program. Astron is committed to achieving this objective.

FIRST RF CORP.
4865 Sterling Drive Suite 100
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 449-5211
Mr. Farzin Lalezari
NAVY 07-138      Awarded: 9/28/2007
Title:Extremely Wideband Antenna for Airborne and Land Mobile Communications Systems
Abstract:Joint Forces interoperability systems such as the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) require antennas that are extremely broadband. Some of the joint systems operate in HF/VHF/UHF and L-Bands and require antennas that can operate from 2-2000 MHz. Current conventional antennas do not perform adequately as communications antennas. This problem is further exasperated when the antennas are installed on a fixed/rotary wing aircraft or land mobile vehicle and do not perform due to size and weight limitations as well as detuning because of the vehicle. FIRST RF is qualified to develop an innovative approach to antenna design and integration on airborne and land mobile platforms for extremely wideband communications systems. FIRST RF is proposing to integrate up to five unique antenna technologies into the proposed system. This broad approach early in the Phase I effort is proposed in order to generate the best solution for US Army. These technologies are aimed at improving gain, bandwidth, and size. FIRST RF engineers have designed, tested, simulated, and validated critical components of the technologies of the system. These data allow FIRST RF to make preliminary predictions of installed performance. Prototypes developed in preparation for this proposal are available for immediate testing and human engineering.

HS OWEN LLC
4 Austen Court
Medford, NJ 08055
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(856) 552-1548
Mr. Hank Owen
NAVY 07-139      Awarded: 9/4/2007
Title:Electromagnetic Propagation Characterization using Communication Networks
Abstract:A methodology is proposed to retrieve local refractivity profile conditions in a continuous manner. This methodology uses a minimum number of tactical communication links operating between a small number of ships and / or aircraft. The refractivity profile retrieval method is tolerant to measurement errors associated with typical radio hardware, and can support radar coverage planning, communications coverage planning, and counter detection range evaluation. An approach to implement this capability in existing operational hardware and demonstrate the capability with existing radios is presented.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 565-2970
Mr. Robert Blase
NAVY 07-139      Awarded: 9/5/2007
Title:Electromagnetic Propagation Characterization using Communication Networks
Abstract:TSC proposes to estimate and display local propagation conditions (refractivity) using selected shipboard communication signals in real-time, i.e. estimate Refractivity-From- Communications (RFCOM). The proposed approach frames the problem as a non-linear least squares estimation problem involving measured communication signal level profiles, range dependent parameterized refractivity profiles and a parabolic wave equation solution model. Phase I demonstrates feasibility by implementing candidate techniques against simulated data and validating them using directly measured propagation data available from NSWCDD. Phase II will develop prototype code for a real time implementation and validate the code against field test data. Phase III will integrate this new capability into onboard communications systems and the Navy Integrated Tactical Environmental Sub-System (NITES). Outputs of Phase I are: a detailed algorithm description; MATLAB code; a measured signal requirements specification detailing the requirements placed on the communication systems in order to produce the require measurements; and feasibility assessments validating the method for selected cases and assessing potential performance in practical scenarios. Phase II outputs are prototype software and broad validation results based on field demonstration. Phase III outputs are requirements definition documentation, software design/development, system integration, and test efforts for integrating with NITES.

BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 530-1416
Dr. Freddie Lin
NAVY 07-140      Awarded: 8/27/2007
Title:Adaptive Multi-Channel Software Defined Radio System
Abstract:Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to investigate and develop a new Adaptive Multi-Channel Software Defined Radio (AMSDR) System based on an intelligent decision feedback based diversity receiver for UHF SATCOM systems. The AMSDR system utilizes high performance, state-of-the-art, physical layer receiver algorithms implemented in software radio, providing high adaptability pertinent to software defined radio architecture, and also, more importantly, significantly enhancing the performance due to the first-ever implementation of the latest innovative diversity algorithms in software radio architecture. The final AMSDR system will use the Software Communications Architecture, support multiple waveforms, and provide Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) capabilities. The AMSDR system will be based on advanced decision feedback based algorithm for signal detection and a innovative signal combining mechanism together providing Signal to noise ratio (SNR) performance improvement of 4-6dB as compared to existing systems. In addition, AMSDR provides all the benefits of software radio such as adaptability, significant cost savings, easy upgrades to future technologies and flexibility.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Min-Yi Shih
NAVY 07-141      Awarded: 9/4/2007
Title:Widely Distributed Optical Clock
Abstract:To address the Navy need to distribute a pulse-based clock signal with low jitter (<2%) at high speed (>20 GHz), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Widely Distributed Optical Clock (W-DOC) system. This proposed W-DOC is based on hybrid integration of state-of-the-art optoelectronic components and an optical waveguide platform. This novel system integration of low-noise components and packaging and phase-lock loops to suppress jitter to its quantum limit at this elevated speed, will provide a reliable clock system for the Navy. The electrical clocking will be converted, transmitted, and widely distributed in the optical domain over a long distance and recovered where the signal is needed. An innovative hybrid conversion between return- to-zero and non-return-to-zero logic supports unprecedented performance by optimizing between optoelectronic and electrical components. The new all-passive optoelectronic assembly not only reduces cost but also offers flexibility in future maintenance and upgrades because of its modular design. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the W-DOC system by designing, fabricating, and testing a prototype system and establishing a simulation model. In Phase II, POC plans to continue optimizing the technology and advancing the technical readiness level.

MAXIM SYSTEMS
1615 Murray Canyon Road Suite 400
San Diego, CA 92108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 574-2359
Mr. John Wilson
NAVY 07-142      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Assessing the Impact of GPS Degradation Using Campaign-level Warfare Modeling
Abstract:With increased reliance on GPS for navigation, targeting, and guidance, the threat of jamming and signal spoofing is significant. These threats create a greater risk in mission success and potentially increased casualties in U.S. and Allied force operations. GPS jamming can cause receivers to operate with a large navigation error, or with a failure to acquire the GPS signal altogether. GPS spoofing can potentially cause a receiver to report incorrect or false navigational data. Under this Phase I funding, MAXIM Systems will review engineering and campaign level DoD modeling platforms, define requirements for more granular GPS degradation models and their integration with established platforms, and build a proof of concept. Focused on realistic warfare scenarios, the goal of this work is to effectively bridge the gap between high fidelity engineering based GPS models and overarching campaign level models. Key to this process will be defining an automated data sharing design allowing the models to be executed quickly on a large scale to facilitate their use in mission planning and execution, with accurate representations of degradation in different types of unit level equipment and terrain environments.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 792-8904
Ms. Colleen M. Keller
NAVY 07-142      Awarded: 8/27/2007
Title:Assessing the Impact of GPS Degradation Using Campaign-level Warfare Modeling - (MP 53-07)
Abstract:Metron, Inc. proposes a unique solution for combining data from detailed engineering-level simulations of GPS integrity with a mission- and campaign-level model of joint warfare to produce a tool that can be used to illustrate the importance of accurate GPS signals to various warfighting functions. This tool builds on Metron’s past experience using the Naval Simulation System (NSS) for Navy and Joint studies applications, and our recent collaboration with more detailed models such as GIANT (GPS) and NETWARS (tactical data link and internet-protocol (IP) communications). Metron proposes to outline the various ways that loss or degradation of GPS would impact military operations in an example scenario, and will then present different approaches for the automated exchange of GPS performance information between the detailed GPS model and the warfare model, and demonstrate a subset of these approaches in a sample scenario.

SHARED SPECTRUM CO.
1595 Spring Hill Road Suite 110
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 761-2818
Dr. Mark McHenry
NAVY 07-143      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:Cognitive Radio Capability for Software Defined Radios
Abstract:Shared Spectrum Company (SSC) and Space Coast Communication Systems, Inc build on its work on the DARPA XG program to incorporate adaptive cognitive radio capability into the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Software Communications Architecture (SCA). SSC performs feasibility studies to determine which capabilities may be realized through cognitive radio techniques, and to quantify their expected benefits. In support of these studies, SSC delivers a design paper showing how a cognitive radio module fits into and works within the framework of the JTRS SCA and its Application Programming Interface (API). SSC’s approach is twofold: (1) to design a system capable of autonomously configuring a network by optimizing multiple physical layer parameters (frequency, data rate, modulation, etc.); and (2) to implement proven dynamic spectrum access (DSA) technology within the JTRS SCA. DSA brings a secure spectrum policy administration system together with real-time spectrum sensing to enable rapid, autonomous frequency selection. This application of DSA will start the process to transition XG technology into the JTRS waveform library, thus enabling efficient transition of the XG techniques to all JTRS radios.

SPACE COAST COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, INC.
100 Rialto Place Suite 730
Melbourne, FL 32901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 951-8320
Dr. John Bard
NAVY 07-143      Awarded: 9/30/2007
Title:Cognitive Radio Capability for Software Defined Radios
Abstract:A Cognitive Radio (CR) is a radio in which communication systems are aware of their environment and internal state and can make decisions about their radio operating behavior based on that information and predefined objectives. Space Coast Communication Systems, Inc. and sub-contractor GDC4S are well established in the fields of Software-Defined Radio, Cognitive Radio and JTRS. We propose a review of the current state of the art in CR and seek to identify a few candidate technologies that both offer value and are sufficiently mature for migration to the JTRS enterprise. Our proposed effort includes definition of new JTRS API’s and extensions to existing JTRS API’s in order to allow access to these new cognitive capabilities. Our experience with the JTRS HMS program gives us confidence that this platform and other platforms across the enterprise are both capable of hosting and benefiting from some of the CR technologies. Our final proposed focus is on the design of a spectrum sensing capability – a requirement for CR - and the design of two physical layer approaches that can immediately tap into the benefits of Dynamic Spectrum Access, one of the more gainful aspects of CR technology.

SPECOM, INC.
4901 Morena Blvd Suite 124
San Diego, CA 92117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 884-9523
Mr. Dragan Vuletic
NAVY 07-143      Awarded: 9/30/2007
Title:Cognitive Radio Capability for Software Defined Radios
Abstract:Cognitive Radio (CR) technology can improve management of the RF environment by providing better visibility of the RF environment, facilitating spectral congestion and interference detection, and allowing automatic reconfiguration to mitigate the effects of interfering signals. A CR is defined as a system that senses and is aware of its operational environment and can dynamically, autonomously, and intelligently adjust its radio operating parameters. A CR embodies three concepts: 1. Characterization of its operating environment. 2. Real-time adaptability of its operational parameters. 3. Capability to remember and learn from past experiences. Employing these concepts inherent in CR is imperative to the future of both DOD and commercial wireless communications and efficient utilization of our RF spectrum. Next generation communications will be based on Software-Defined Radio (SDR) technology and will employ techniques to monitor and modify in real time its critical parameters to adapt to a changing operating environment. These critical parameters will include frequency agility, modulation, and transmit power control. In addition, next generation communication systems will be required to incorporate technologies to provide a high level of network security drawing from all available means - hardware, software, computer, or even waveform signatures. These enhancements can be achieved via Cognitive Radio technologies.

ELECTRO STANDARDS LABORATORIES
36 western Industrial Drive
Cranston, RI 02921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(401) 943-1164
Dr. Steven Bastien
NAVY 07-144      Awarded: 9/11/2007
Title:Small Buoy for Energy Harvesting
Abstract:A “Small Buoy for Energy Harvesting” has applications for use on current and future buoy systems used by the submarine fleet of the United States Navy. This work proposes to meet the requirements by converting mechanical wave energy to electrical energy using a generation system housed in a spar buoy. The energy extraction method will work with the natural orientation and motion of the buoy. Accumulated energy can be used to power a variety of systems including surveillance and communications and will greatly extend the operational capabilities of remote and independent marine based platforms.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Paul M. Koola
NAVY 07-144      Awarded: 11/8/2007
Title:Parasitic Power Pack (P3)
Abstract:Parasitic Power Pack (P3) is a modular power generation device that will fit into a 3-inch diameter free floating buoy on the ocean surface. P3 will not interfere with the antenna on the upper portion of the buoy and will not occupy more than 20 inches in length producing a steady power output of at least 4 milliwatts with a capacity to store at least 60 joules of energy. Of the different energy harvesting concepts for powering wireless sensors we use the incessant oscillations of the ocean waves under which the buoy is excited. Unlike regular wave energy devices that are tuned to ocean waves, we have a platform whose dimensions are preset for a specific purpose. Our intent in this effort is to design this platform which is not tethered to the ocean bottom, but a robust maintenance free design that can survive the shock loads that will be imposed on delivery and one that will survive other operating conditions that it could be subjected to. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of our technology through mechanical and electrical modeling.

MIKROS SYSTEMS CORP.
707 Alexander Road, Building 2, Suite
Princeton, NJ 08540
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 371-3913
Mr. Thomas J. Meaney
NAVY 07-144      Awarded: 7/14/2008
Title:Wave Energy Harvesting Buoy for Communications at Speed and Depth and Distributed Sensor Networks
Abstract:Mikros Systems Corporation addresses the need for current and future buoy systems used by the United States Navy’s submarine fleet to increase situational awareness and battle group integration by enabling Communications at Speed and Depth (CSD) and through Distributed Sensor Networks (DSN). Mikros proposes a system solution consisting of small buoys that harvest energy from both ocean waves and sunlight. The proposed system utilizes wave energy harvesting technology currently under development by Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. (OPT), coupled with a small array of solar cells. This dual-technology approach should provide full communications capability at nearly all ocean locations in the world (i.e. at high latitude locations where waves are energetic and at near equatorial locations where they are not). The Mikros team’s solution, based on a unique wave energy harvesting technology, addresses the issues associated with CSD and DSN while exceeding the power generation requirements set forth in the solicitation. It will enable at least an order of magnitude higher communications bandwidth and payload longevity than the minimum set forth in the solicitation, and the increased power generation capability may lead to other novel, currently unidentified buoy applications.

OMNITEK PARTNERS, LLC
111 West Main Street
Bay Shore, NY 11706
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 665-4008
Mr. Mr. Richard Murray
NAVY 07-144      Awarded: 9/10/2007
Title:Small Buoy for Energy Harvesting
Abstract:The primary objective of this project is to study the feasibility of a number of innovative energy harvesting power sources for small, remote communications buoys. These novel concepts are for energy harvesting devices which can offer open-ended service life and distinct advantages in reliability, efficiency, and compactness over competing technologies. The present designs are highly scalable and modular, making them suited to a wide variety of applications with electrical power demands and ambient motion of low and varying frequency. The simplicity of the developed design concepts as well as the multitude of configurations into which the basic principle may be applied augment the applicability of the present devices.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Michael Reznikov
NAVY 07-144      Awarded: 9/24/2007
Title:Vibro-Electric Converter (VEC)
Abstract:To address this U.S. Navy need for an energy harvesting technology for a 3 in. diameter buoy that floats free on the ocean surface and needs extended mission time, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the new Vibro-Electric Converter (VEC) technology, based on alternating induced electric charges in oscillating variable capacitors. POC’s proposed VEC harvests the energy of ocean waves and converts it to a charge in a battery without the need for any external source of charge or electric voltage. The innovative VEC design will result in a powerful energy source, producing over 7.5 mW per module, while being lightweight (<2 lb.) and compact (about 400 cu. cm) due to POC’s proprietary technology for the permanent prepolarization of electrodes with a very high charge density. Because of the contactless displacement of a single lightweight moving part, VEC will work longer than any rechargeable battery. In Phase I POC will design, build, evaluate, and demonstrate the proof-of-concept VEC prototype, and in Phase II, develop, build, and demonstrate performance of VEC prototype in a real environment with a small buoy.

QUICKFLEX, INC.
8401 N. New Braunfels Suite 324
San Antonio, TX 78209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(210) 824-2348
Dr. Steven P. Smith
NAVY 07-145      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:QuickCode Automatic Code and Test Generation Suite for Real-Time Embedded Systems
Abstract:Sophisticated real-time embedded systems pose a unique challenge to system developers, especially if the system includes a complex mixture of software components and special-purpose hardware, and when the development occurs cooperatively across organizations. QuickFlex, Inc. proposes QuickCode, a flexible, extensible development environment capable of automatically generating standards-compliant software and hardware source code as well as test and validation capabilities for real-time embedded systems. The system will rely upon the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), a precise formal notation for representing the interface relationships among both the software and the hardware modules that compose a real-time system. Through the use of AADL's property notation a Software Communications Architecture (SCA) virtual machine is implemented as a system simulation model. The simulation model will present a complete implementation of the SCA operating environment and will provide an API for target-specific hardware interfaces outside the scope of the SCA. The team's effort will leverage the Open Source AADL Tool Environment (OSATE), which is in turn built upon the widely used Eclipse tool environment. The tool will generate C, C++, AADL, CORBA IDL, VHDL, SystemC, and Verilog.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Dr. Marc Abrams
NAVY 07-146      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:Business Process Transformation Tool for Rapid Reconfiguration of Navy Systems
Abstract:Using our 50+ person-years of experience with business process (BP) modeling, BPEL, SOA, and HCI design, we propose a BP Transformation Tool for warfighters and other SMEs that will cut time to create BPs up to 80% and training time to learn tool as much as 40-fold, compared to industry-leading BP design studio tools from IBM. We will extend our LiquidApps tools suite, used today by primes to rapidly design HCIs for Fleet, to create a higher abstraction level for SMEs to rapidly design mission-oriented BPs into capability packs or FnEPs, and guide and analyze on-the-fly reconfiguration to meet changing mission objectives by exploiting disparate and geographically dispersed services. We can dynamically align data models and messages from net-centric services via fuzzy logic, inference, and cognitive learning to overcome information disparities, unlike today’s world of static, not reconfigurable, data. Additionally, a reusable BP and abstract services catalog allows the system to learn over time to reduce work for SMEs in future. Our reuse component helps expose web services for stovepiped but time-proven C2/C4I systems (e.g., GCCS-M, NTCSS, JPMIS, CLIP). Our techniques support composing then orchestrating efficient mission-oriented applications that infuse real-time data but meet system performance demands and QoS guarantees.

IMAGINE ONE TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT LTD.
907 McKINNEY BLVD.
COLONIAL BEACH, VA 22443
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 691-8974
Mr. Jack Lenahan
NAVY 07-146      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Business Process Transformation Tool for Rapid Reconfiguration of Navy Systems
Abstract:Most current Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems exist in stovepipe environments that do not lend themselves to evolving network centric paradigms. This creates barriers to information sharing, hinders the improvement of situational awareness, and denies progress towards better speed and quality of decisions. Lack of a rapid business process modeling capability impedes the data coordination needed to better exploit sequential and parallel processes at the system level. The absence of reconfigurable systems and data models prevents the decoupling of complex processes into simpler problems to solve. Today, system reconfiguration would require modifying the systems and writing costly integration software. The time required to modify the system is usually measured in years or months at best. What is needed is a Business Process Transformation Tool for Rapid Reconfiguration of Navy Systems which will support FORCEnet Engagement Pack (FNEP) creation and dynamic data and service modifications on the fly given changing mission requirements. The tool set will perform rapid reconfiguration of Navy systems across the distributed enterprise with regard to mission objectives, while using business process models in a service oriented paradigm.

INSCOPE SOLUTIONS
1851 Alexander Bell Dr Suite 105
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 480-1347
Mr. Brian Stucky
NAVY 07-146      Awarded: 11/13/2007
Title:Business Process Transformation Tool for Rapid Reconfiguration of Navy Systems
Abstract:Research Proposed: Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of adapting an innovative rules-based, Business Process Management technology that could lead to rapid, near real time reconfiguration with reliable connectivity. Problem/Opportunity: Navy C4I capabilities are fairly stove-piped in nature and require the integration of complex services across many operating domains. Present solutions for these information disparities are not reconfigurable by design. Existing technology combined with innovative research can solve such information disparities over evolving net-centric environments as well as guide this reconfiguration and transformation on the fly. Plan/Process Outline: Identify and document the range of systems, data models, platforms and sensors utilized in the FORCEnet engagement pack concept. Combine SOA, Business Process Management and Business Rules Management Systems technological concepts in a unified architecture enabling operational agility while addressing the reconfigurement of processes and business rules across distributed enterprises. Benefits: This technology should be one of the solutions to FORCEnet's most significant goals by providing each decision maker the ability to depict situational information in a tailorable, user-defined format. This automated business rules approach supports the complex man-machine interaction resulting in higher quality decisions made quicker with greater speed and accuracy.

OUT OF THE FOG RESEARCH LLC
Stuart Berkowitz 2258 20th Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94116
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 505-3827
Dr. Stuart Berkowitz
NAVY 07-147      Awarded: 9/19/2007
Title:Microwave switches for cryogenically cooled RF receivers
Abstract:We propose to develop and build very low loss microwave switches for use in cryogenic, high vacuum environment. The resulting switches will outperform current room temperature switches while operating at cryogenic temperatures under high vacuum and will be able to handle high power levels up to 33dBm as well as endure thousands of temperature cycles and tens of millions of switching cycles or better at speeds of at least 10 microseconds. First we will develop target switch specifications. Using these specifications, we will design a switch for cryogenic operation. We will outline the cost/benefit trade-offs for commercial-off-the-shelf components (COTS) versus specialized designs. Finally, we will prove the feasibility of COTS components, either as the approach or as a baseline for comparison. In the Phase I option, we would reoptimize the design given the results of the measurements in Phase I. These technologies will push the state of the art and the challenge areas for the Phase II demonstration will be identified. A number of significant technology advances in RF design and cryopackaging must be achieved to accomplish the goals of the program.

SENSOR ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1195 Atlas Road
Columbia, SC 29209
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(803) 647-9757
Dr. Nezih Pala
NAVY 07-147      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Low-loss High-power Cryogenic RF Switches using III-Nitride MOSHFETs
Abstract:We propose to carry out research and development of highly efficient broadband cryogenic switches using voltage controlled 2D electron gas in III-Nitride heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs). Unlike RF switches based on regular semiconductor devices, key characteristics of properly designed III-Nitride HFET - based RF switches will actually improve at cryogenic temperatures. These include insertion loss, maximum switching powers, switching times and others.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Mr. Amol Inamdar
NAVY 07-148      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Dynamic Interference Canceller for High Dynamic Range Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)
Abstract:A longstanding problem with wideband radio receivers for sensitive naval applications (such as Signals Intelligence or SIGINT) is the high level of radio frequency (RF) interference including those from co-located RF transmitters. This proposal addresses the critical interference problem with an improved architecture that permits wideband cancellation of undesired high power signals, thereby providing better utilization of the dynamic range. In order to accomplish frequency-independent interference cancellation, a copy of interference signal (called the cancellation signal) with precise amplitude and true-time delay matching is subtracted from the receive signal. The cancellation signal is digitally controlled with adaptively programmable gain and delay components thereby facilitating high precision interference cancellation. The enabling component of the new architecture is a flux subtractor that performs accurate subtraction of one or more unwanted signals before the front-end of the receiver, and thus enhances its operation in a high EMI environment. The new scheme is particularly well-suited for a digital-RF transceiver architecture, featuring direct conversion of RF signals to digital. The adaptive interference canceller takes full advantage of high-speed digital cross-correlators, look- up tables, true-time delay elements, digital amplifiers, and ADCs.

V CORP. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7042 Nighthawk Court
Carlsbad, CA 92011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-1011
Dr. Scott R. Velazquez
NAVY 07-148      Awarded: 9/14/2007
Title:Blind Adaptive Signal Cancellation for Wide Dynamic Range A/D Converter
Abstract:The very high-resolution V Corp analog-to-digital converter with Adaptive Signal Cancellation (ASC) uses a parallel array of high-speed, high-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with blind adaptive interstage matching to successively cancel large signals from the analog input and thereby allow very wide dynamic range digitization of the remaining lower level signals. Conventional pipelined subranging ADC architectures without V Corp’s proprietary ASC signal processing suffer from transfer function discontinuities due to gain, phase, and DC-offset mismatches between the multiple ADCs. These discontinuities introduce nonlinear distortion that severely limits the usable Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR). The ADCs must be matched extremely accurately to enable high-resolution performance, which is very difficult to accomplish because the mismatches are a function of input frequency, amplitude, sample rate, and even small temperature changes. The key to the efficacy of this Adaptive Signal Cancellation architecture is the ability for the processing to calibrate itself in the background to insure optimal dynamic range by cancelling large signals. The architecture (including multiple ADCs, DACs, support electronics and adaptive processing) can be implemented in a compact, low-power custom ASIC or a printed-circuit board with discrete components and an FPGA. Note that this architecture does not use digital post-processing to notch filter out large signals. The ADC architecture itself inherently cancels the large signals by using V Corp’s proprietary signal processing to assure interstage matching. During Phase I, V Corp will demonstrate the architecture with detailed simulations over a wide range of operating and environmental conditions. During Phase II, a real-time implementation of the A/D converter system will be implemented and tested.

OUT OF THE FOG RESEARCH LLC
Stuart Berkowitz 2258 20th Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94116
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(415) 505-3827
Dr. Stuart Berkowitz
NAVY 07-149      Awarded: 11/2/2007
Title:Extended Frequency Range Wide Band RF Distribution System for Shipboard Systems
Abstract:We will develop a basic technology concept and prove concept feasability using modeling and simulation of an RFDS for the extended frequency band (2-18 GHz) utilizing both CLIC and cryogenic technologies. Using a combination of cryogenic filters, cryogenic low-noise amplifiers, and cryogenic conventional components, EMI tolerance and EMI rejection can be introduced into the RF front end without significantly increasing the noise figure of the system or impacting proper demodulation of the received waveform. First we will develop target RFDS specifications. Using these specifications, we will perform a link analysis/system design to determine the critical components in the chain from both a performance and technical challenge perspective. We will also outline the complete system architecture. Finally, we will explore the technologies to design any components identified as key challenging components. Successful completion of this effort will form a solid foundation for building and testing an engineering prototype in Phase II.

SYNTONICS LLC
9160 Red Branch Road
Columbia, MD 21045
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 884-0500
Mr. Gary W. Bruce
NAVY 07-149      Awarded: 10/29/2007
Title:Extended Frequency Range Wide Band RF Distribution System for Shipboard Systems
Abstract:Syntonics will investigate the feasibility of an optical radio frequency distribution system (ORFDS) that uses photonic links to mitigate EMI issues, freeing the system designer to place shipboard antennas and radios without constraints on connection lengths. Electro- optic (EO) “RF-over-fiber” technology sends analog RF signals over optical fibers using modulated lasers and photonic detectors. Syntonics will study several RF-over-fiber architectures focusing on designs that use externally modulated CW lasers with relative intensity noise suppressed by balanced detectors and active phase detector linearization techniques. Performance estimates will be prepared for each design option. A feasible ORFDS conceptual design will be prepared.

S2 CORP.
2310 University Way Building 4-1
Bozeman, MT 59715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(406) 922-0334
Mr. Luke Mauritsen
NAVY 07-150      Awarded: 11/2/2007
Title:Packaging and signal transfer hardware for cryogenically cooled RF receivers
Abstract:While cryogenics is an enabling component for many new technologies, the integration of components into cryocoolers is fraught with challenges that hinder system deployment and technology advancement. We propose an cryogenic packaging approach based on experience and novel concepts to provide vibration isolation, thermal stability, interfaces for signal transfer hardware (either RF or optical, or both), and connectivity to a variety of commercial 4K cryocoolers. The devices can be integrated into 19” rack mounts for both the 4K cryocooler and compressor, with reliable, convenient and efficient connections to temperature stages. During Phase I we plan to design and demonstrate the predicted performance. In Phase II we plan to build and test a prototype version of the systems.

TRISTAN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6185 Cornerstone Court East Suite 106
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 550-2720
Dr. Douglas N. Paulson
NAVY 07-150      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Packaging and signal transfer hardware for cryogenically cooled RF receivers
Abstract:The electronic benefits of using cryogenically cooled and/or superconducting electronics comes from higher potential speeds, higher signal to noise and lower thermal noise. Use of cryogenically cooled and/or superconducting electronics for shipboard, airborne, and long life stationary applications prohibits the use of liquid cryogens. There is no standardized cryogenics platform available for use at this time that employs closed-cycle (cryogen free) refrigeration. In Phase I, we propose to design and (in Phase II) construct a Rack Mounted Cryogenic Platform that will satisfy the need for packaging of signal transfer hardware for cryogenically cooled RF receivers and other superconducting electronics. We will establish thermal criteria that will allow “hot swapping” of key elements of an instrumentation package having superconducting and/or cryogenically cooled circuit elements. This will lead to the design of a complete system that will have access to the cryogenically cooled circuit elements by way of an air lock system and standardized chip carriers. The chip carriers will demonstrate thermal grounding and electrically connected functions compatible with hot swapping capability. This includes cryocooler, cryostat, airlock/actuator, chip manipulator, superconducting-to-normal low loss leads, and vacuum electrical feedthroughs.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Benjamin L. Burnett
NAVY 07-151      Awarded: 10/18/2007
Title:Agent based Viral Object Caching and Dissemination Overlay (AVOCADO)
Abstract:Improved dissemination of software, updates, messages, and data in tactical networks require new and adaptive systems to improve war fighter’s decision making abilities, performance and systems readiness. Degradation of services across platforms needs to be avoided while reducing update times for C4I applications, techniques and technologies in tactical networks including remote nodes with limited and intermittent communications. The Agent based Viral Object Caching and Dissemination Overlay (AVOCADO) system provides a novel dissemination system for existing networks (such as the GCCS-M in Tactical networks) based on an overlay data caching system using agents, data objects, and automation scripts. Existing update management systems send files from a base node to each other node, causing countless redundant data paths. AVOCADO will stop redundant data transfer and wasted bandwidth while guaranteeing delivery of data, software and updates to all needed nodes.

RAM LABORATORIES, INC.
10525 Vista Sorrento Parkway Suite 220
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 677-9207
Dr. Gary Shao
NAVY 07-151      Awarded: 11/19/2007
Title:A Tactical Bulk Data Distribution Service (TBDDS) For Caching Software Updates Over a Wde Area Network
Abstract:Navy software applications and systems such as GCCS-M are installed on hundreds of ships, many of which are positioned away from major shore facilities during periods of deployment. There is a need for technology that can provide dependable delivery of software update packages and other large non-time-critical data objects, all while making the most efficient use of constrained resources and capabilities found in tactical networks. Phase I research results will be applied to developing an architectural design for a Tactical Bulk Data Distribution Service (TBDDS) that will ultimately be suitable for use in the dissemination of large packages of bulk non-time-critical data to shipboard systems located anywhere in the world. Phase I research activities will initially focus on three primary areas: (1) technologies for data transport that are resilient to periodic and/or unpredictable interruptions in network functionality, (2) technologies for semi-persistent staging of data at intermediate nodes to optimize efficient use of limited network capabilities, and (3) technologies for resource efficient multi-hop routing of data through sparse-connection tactical networks. A proof-of-concept demonstration of the TBDDS architectural design will be performed through network simulation and analysis efforts at the conclusion of the Phase I effort.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
2790 Indian Ripple Road Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
Dr. Daniel D. Reuster, Ph.D.
NAVY 07-152      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Advanced Metamaterial (MTM) Rapidly Reconfigurable Common Aperture Antenna
Abstract:For this Phase I program, Spectra Research will leverage its recent accomplishments in advanced antenna designs (and those of its research partner GTRI) to investigate the application of fragmented aperture and fragmented volume technologies in concert with metamaterial based EBG substrates to develop a reconfigurable broadband (UHF to L- band) antenna. The work will take advantage of current FDTD algorithms and broad experience in EBG materials. Innovative approaches that improve overall antenna performance while minimizing antenna profile are desired solutions for all volumetrically restricted platforms. The Spectra Research team proposes an innovative approach to accomplishing the program objectives by employing advances in fragmented aperture antenna designs, and metamaterials EBG research, in concert with the extensive Spectra Research capability in designing specialized antennas, to develop solutions for a unique UHF through L-band common aperture, reconfigurable antenna. Both Cartesian and cylindrical FDTD simulations will provide a set of design rules that then may be used to modify analytical approximations.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 792-8904
Mr. Jeff Monroe
NAVY 07-153      Awarded: 10/30/2007
Title:Runtime Integration of NETWARS with Warfare Assessment Models - (MP 54-07)
Abstract:Under the Navy’s Programming, Planning and Budgeting System (PPBS), OPNAV conducts simulation-based assessments to provide traceability from systems characteristics and performance (C&P) data at the Program Executive Offices (PEOs) and Program Management Offices (PMWs) to warfighting effects computed by engineering, mission, and campaign level models. Accurate modeling and simulation of Naval and Joint communications systems is a key aspect of this PPBS process. The current state of communications modeling is to run engineering level simulations in NETWARS and then pass static data tables as input to multi-mission models such as the Naval Simulation System (NSS). This methodology neglects feedback paths that exist within the communications architecture and does not meet the government-mandated level of fidelity for the PPBS process. To address this issue Metron will extend a High Level Architecture (HLA) federation between NSS and NETWARS that Metron investigated in 2003/4. In order to make this federation practical for use in the short analysis timelines required by the PPBS process Metron will dramatically reduce scenario construction times by implementing an NSS to NETWARS two-way scenario transfer. Efforts will reduce the federation runtime by identifying and focusing on key scenario timeslices to construct dynamic communications data tables.

GIRD SYSTEMS, INC.
310 Terrace Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45220
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 281-2900
Mr. John J. Schamus
NAVY 07-154      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Multi-carrier VHF/UHF amplifier with suppressed intermodulation products
Abstract:Intermodulation refers to a wide-spread problem in RF power amplifiers. When an amplifier amplifies multiple frequency-separated signals simultaneously, or one signal with more than one frequency content, it also mixes different frequency contents of these signals such that two frequency contents in become four out. These added frequency contents are referred to as intermodulation products, and are undesirable. In this proposal GIRD Systems will perform a thorough trade study, algorithm development, analysis, simulation, and testing. Based on customer input and system requirements, an innovative mitigation method and algorithm will be developed and finalized for further prototype development and demonstration in Phase II.

ZEGER-ABRAMS, INC.
1112 Clark Road
Glenside, PA 19038
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 576-5566
Mr. Burton S. Abrams
NAVY 07-154      Awarded: 9/26/2007
Title:Multi-carrier VHF/UHF amplifier with suppressed intermodulation products
Abstract:This proposal presents techniques previously developed by Zeger-Abrams Inc. (ZA) that are directly applicable to the reduction of intermodulation product (IMP) distortion in a multicarrier power amplifier (PA). The use of adaptively controlled feedforward cancellation is proposed, plus the use of ZA’s unique multichannel frequency-agile ultranarrow notch filter in the PA to suppress IMPs that lie in the receive channels of collocated receivers. This Phase I effort will characterize the performance of a PA with and without these IMP reduction techniques for 2,4, or 8 simultaneous signals, culminating in a recommended best-value approach for Phase II implementation.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-3343
Mr. David Helms
NAVY 07-155      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:Efficient Linear Broadband RF Power Amplifier Technology (2007029)
Abstract:This abstract is prepared in response to DoD SBIR Solicitation 2007-2, Topic No. NAVY 07-155. The new generation of tactical communication system will have capabilities to adapt its power amplifier operating mode to specific operational needs for multiples of functions linking multiples of platforms The objective of the proposed program is to establish a design baseline for linear power amplifiers operating multiple functions over the frequency band of 2 MHz to 2 GHz. The proposed amplifier will be of a MMIC design fabricated by the novel technology of wide bandgap devices. In addition to the power output design goal of up to 200 watts, the Phase 1 effort will also include analysis of non- linear property of the amplifier and applicable linearization processes. Hittite will then identify the optimum process for MMIC implementation of the amplifier and provide modeling results of the core technology demonstrating the RF, DC, and thermal characteristics of the amplifier. Along with these simulations and analyses, a roadmap showing the insertion of the technology into the transmitter shall be delivered as a Phase II Plan. As an option, a baseline GaN MMIC shall be designed and prepped for processing.

NITRONEX CORP.
2305 Presidential Drive
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 424-4204
Dr. Chris Park
NAVY 07-155      Awarded: 10/2/2007
Title:GaN HEMTs for Broadband RF Power Amplifier Technology
Abstract:GaN FETs are capable of very high power levels relative to Si or GaAs technologies. This high power density leads to very broadband capability as needed for the 2MHz-2GHz JTRS radio program. Nitronex has commercialized AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on silicon substrates. As such, reliable devices and accurate device models are available for sub- 4GHz operation in class AB. During this Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasiblity of a PA based on our GaN FET technology that meets all the JTRS requiements. We will investigate PA designs for this applciation using our current generation discrete devices, our next generation high frequency capable GaN FET devices (that can be used in Class D topology) and our GaN MMICs for this applications.

DIGIFLIGHT, INC.
1010 Vermont Avenue NW Suite 202
Washington, DC 20005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(410) 312-0662
Mr. Paul Kob
NAVY 07-156      Awarded: 10/31/2007
Title:Modeling and Simulation for Information Operations Training
Abstract:Today's information warriors are not sufficiently trained to deal effectively with the threats posed by our potential enemies and terrorists to disrupt or destroy our computer networks, or steal or delete our valuable and sensitive information stored in these networks. Team DigiFlight has personnel who are skilled in the required technologies, and can develop training scenarios that will be useful in the classroom. Additionally, we have already developed tools that have been demonstrated to be effective in several phases of information operations, and will be useful for demonstration in the classroom. Further, we propose to develop a training "package" that will use modeling and simulation techniques to maximize the effectiveness of this training to the IO practitioner.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd. Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
NAVY 07-156      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:IO-Train™: Information Operations Training Using Modeling and Simulation
Abstract:Information operations (IO) training is a challenging problem because of the abstract nature of IO tasks. Today, modeling and simulation, augmented with appropriate visualization and animation techniques, is seen as a promising approach to convey abstract IO concepts. Phase I of this project is concerned with researching communications and process models as well as simulation frameworks (e.g., NETWARS/OPNET) to provide fundamental insights into the information space associated with IO. Specifically, Phase I will develop effective visualization and animation techniques to convey abstract concepts in communications and mission planning for the warfighter. The relationship between measures of system performance, geometry of distributed assets, channel effects, and measures of mission effectiveness will be demonstrated through a concept-based prototype of scenario-based modeling and simulation. The results of the research will be analyzed to determine the content of training layers beyond system operations. Specifically, commercial advances in network communications planning will be levered along with the use of animation to train features of complex communications and protocols. The development approach will include a plan to integrate commercial modeling capabilities to both extend and influence operations.

METRON, INC.
11911 Freedom Drive Suite 800
Reston, VA 20190
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 792-8904
Dr. Michael Atamian
NAVY 07-156      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Modeling and Simulation for Information Operations Training (MP 51-07)
Abstract:Metron, Inc., proposes a unique solution for combining visualization, mission-level modeling, and automatic collection of mission/campaign success metrics, with the goal of improving training of Information Operations (IO) practitioners. The first part of the effort will focus on which elements of the five core capabilities of Information Operations (IO) are amenable to training via modeling and simulation (MODSIM). During Phase 1, Metron will focus on these capabilities and proposes to federate the NSS model with other well- established engineering models of utility to the IO community, with the goal of allowing IO practitioners at different levels to visually trace actions up to mission/campaign outcomes or down to physics/engineering first principles. The IEEE 1516 and IEEE 1484 standards will be used as guidelines for the approach. As part of this effort, Metron will develop key IO training scenarios, focusing on the effects-based operations desired by the IO community. Metron will map measures of effectiveness (MOE) and measures of performance (MOP) to these mission-campaign objectives, and tie the MOE/MOP back to higher-fidelity models in use by the IO practitioner. A mock prototype will be developed that includes a set of test scenarios which demonstrate the training potential.

ALASKA NATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
PO Box 241085
Anchorage, AK 99524
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(360) 697-6785
Mr. Gerald F. Denny
NAVY 07-157      Awarded: 10/10/2007
Title:Geoacoustic Sea Bottom Characterization Using Passive, Cost-Effective Sensors
Abstract:Alaska Native Technologies (ANT) and Johns Hopkins University-Applied Physics Lab (JHU-APL) have teamed to present an innovative, solution to the acoustic inversion sensor problem by combining a new, cost effective, high gain, broadband array (JHU, sponsored by ONR Code 32) with a new UUV (glider, ANT, sponsored by ONR Code 321) designed to operate in littoral areas that has extensive onboard processing capability and communications, JHU has been developing a new array composed of inexpensive PVDF wire. The compact array has been successfully tested and would fit on the nose of a new glider. Littoral Glider (LG) can carry the array and process the data in situ and report results during its weeks-long mission.

PROGENY SYSTEMS CORP.
9500 Innovation Drive
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 653-0177
Mr. John Thornton
NAVY 07-157      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Geoacoustic Sea Bottom Characterization Using Passive, Cost-Effective Sensors
Abstract:The Navy can gain a significant operational advantage by knowing the ocean’s seabed properties. It is well known that the seabed type can have an enormous impact on sound propagation and therefore effects detection and classification of underwater targets. Seabed properties often are the unknown wild-card in predicting how ASW and MIW sonar systems will perform. Estimating the seabed properties around the world has proven to be an extremely difficult task with today’s technology. In this proposal, a novel method is presented for passively estimating seabed properties with a cost-effective, autonomous sensor. This new approach can provide a way to vastly increase the coverage of seabed maps at a small fraction of the expense using current technology. Rather than using a sound projector (which typically requires a research or T-AGS ship), we exploit the ambient noise that occurs naturally from wind and breaking waves on the sea-surface. This greatly simplifies the measurements and allows for the development of an autonomous sensor from a buoy or autonomous vehicle (i.e., glider or UUV) for seabed geoacoustic characterization. Although using ambient noise for such an important characterization may seem a bit far-fetched the results are surprisingly good.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Martin Theobald
NAVY 07-158      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:High Reliability, Reduced SWaP Circuit Card Assemblies for Real-Time Embedded Systems (2007025)
Abstract:It is the intent of Hittite through this proposal to offer a systematic approach to the review, design definition, and testing of suitable printed wiring board (PWB) manufacturing methods that would result in integrated circuits (ICs) embedded within the PWB. The effort is specifically directed towards the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) radio modules with the objective of reducing the Size, Weight, Power, and Cost (SWaP-C) of the fielded units. Activities included in this effort are an analysis of the selected manufacturing approaches with respect to the design requirements, design and fabrication of a reliability test vehicle, and a reliability demonstration using accelerated stress testing to replicate the JTRS environments and life cycle profile.

VULCAN WIRELESS, INC.
2195 Faraday Ave Suite F
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 602-0606
Mr. Kevin Lynaugh
NAVY 07-158      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:High Reliability, Reduced Size, Weight, and Power (SWAP) Circuit Card Assemblies for Real-Time Embedded Systems
Abstract:High density packaging will greatly enhance the utility of the JTRS radios. The JTRS program will also realize greater system reliability due to reduced interconnect interfaces and thermal resistance. Additionally, smaller footprint systems allow for a greater functionality and lower mass.

---------- DARPA ----------

172 Phase I Selections from the 07.2 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
CFD RESEARCH CORP.
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 726-4892
Dr. Shivshankar Sundaram
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 11/8/2007
Title:Nanoelectrokinetic, Label-free Sensor for Toxic Industrial Chemical Detection
Abstract:We propose to develop a novel nanofluidic, label-free sensor to detect the presence of ultra-low levels of Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) in aqueous environmental samples. The envisioned handheld sensor will be hand-portable, be ruggedly constructed, support remote operation and be UAV-mountable. Our sensor exploits novel features of AC electrokinetics, made possible only when the channel dimensions approach the nanoscale, to detect signatures of TICs in aqueous solution, rapidly and with very high sensitivity. Equally significantly, the label-free approach developed here eliminates critical difficulties associated with reagent logistics and stability. In Phase I, guided by physics- based simulations, we will develop the design of the basic nanosensor element. The design will conform to specifications that are amenable to mass-production-friendly lithographic techniques. The designed nanochannel sensors will be fabricated using US Army AMRDEC facilities. The prototype sensor will be challenged with common hazardous chemicals and the overall sensor response will be characterized. In Phase II, the nanofluidic sensor will be optimized to increase sensitivity. Response to array of other common toxic chemicals will be verified. Finally, the sensor will be integrated with other sample handling components (currently under development at CFDRC) and control/transmission electronics to form a hand-portable or UAV-deployable Toxic Industrial Chemical detector.

ENGENIUSMICRO, LLC
5361 Whitehall Place
Mableton, GA 30126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 289-8272
Dr. Brian A English
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 9/27/2007
Title:NanoEnhanced Toxic Industrial Chemicals Sensor
Abstract:The detection and classification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICS) is an important capability to the nation’s defense forces, first responder units, and law enforcement, not to mention the more traditional needs in industrial monitoring and control, construction, and even household applications. First responders, in all levels of government, need to be warned of the presence and type of TICS when first arriving at the scene of plant explosions, fires, terrorist attacks, and other events. Law enforcement organizations also require this capability when reconning and raiding anticipated drug manufacturing and distribution sites, monitoring the nation’s borders, and many other activities. All of these applications may be looking at different types of chemicals, but they may also be acquiring the samples in different ways and may also have different concepts of operation when utilizing a TICS detector.The goal of the proposed effort is to enhance the capability of TICS detection for these applications through advanced nanofabrication processes and realize a small, versatile, and sensitive detector for TICS.

SENSORCON, INC.
125 Main St.
Reading, MA 01867
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 864-9884
Mr. Mark Wagner
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Nanotechnology-Enhanced Sensor for Toxic Industrial Chemicals
Abstract:Toxic industrial chemicals (TICS) include widespread substances, such as ammonia, chlorine, and hydrogen cyanide. In order to help DOD with its efforts to detect TICS in military operations, Sensorcon is proposing to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into its micro electrochemical sensors (MECS) by means of a highly scalable process. MECS is a new platform sensor technology that is smaller, less expensive, and more rugged than traditional electrochemical sensors. CNT-enhanced MECS will have enhanced sensitivities that are at least 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the leading commercial sensors. This will enable the detection of some TICS in the PPT-PPB range, which is highly desirable for urban combat scenarios, where a threat may exist in a nearby vehicle. In Phase I, the processing techniques will be developed to create & test CNT- enhanced MECS. Phase II will refine the process and incorporate additional nanomaterials for further enhanced performance. Testing will focus on TICS of DOD interest, with an initial focus on comparative tests with chlorine & nitrogen dioxide sensors.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 713-1220
Dr. Michael Vogt
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Nanotechnology-Enhanced Sensor for Toxic Industrial Chemicals
Abstract:Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon during World War I and has reemerged as a threat in Iraq compounding the dangers from existing improvised explosive devices. One of the significant challenges with preventing attacks that involve toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) like chlorine, ammonia is that they have genuine civilian uses for water treatment, in refrigeration systems, and others, that makes it impossible to outlaw their sale and possession. In order to address this, Streamline Automation proposes to develop a thin- film voltammetric gas sensor that utilizes nano-scale features to enhance sensitivity to TICs. This will involve doping the sensor materials with catalysts that enhance reactions with specific chemicals of interest through techniques such as ion implantation. The use of thin-film fabrication techniques will enable an array of voltammetric sensing cells to be laid down in a very small area and tailored to the detection of a range of TICs. The Phase 1 effort will focus on demonstrating that a thin-film sensor behaves as expected with the addition of a dopant, and on identifying candidate dopants for several High Hazard TICs.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5926
Dr. Dolly Batra
DARPA 07-001      Awarded: 2/7/2008
Title:Nanotechnology-Enhanced Sensor for Toxic Industrial Chemicals
Abstract:Traditionally, concern over warfighter exposure to chemicals has centered on chemical warfare agents (CWAs), due to their acute toxicity and weaponized status. Recently, however, additional concern has arisen regarding toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), which are industrial chemicals that have the potential to cause adverse health effects in people through deliberate or accidental exposure. While they are not as lethal as conventional CWAs, TICs pose a threat to warfighters and civilian populations, simply due to their increased abundance and availability compared to CWAs. We propose to develop reagent-free sensing materials incorporating nanoscale features which will enhance the detection, identification and quantification of various TICs. Interaction between analyte molecules and the nanocomposite sensing material will result in a significant change in measurable properties of the material that can be easily monitored by standard techniques. In Phase I, we will fabricate nanoscale sensing materials, demonstrate their TICs detection capability and illustrate their improved performance brought about by the nanoscale components. The sensing materials will eventually be incorporated into a sensor array (Phase II) which enable the identification and quantification of the TICs.

MAGIQ TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
171 Madison Avenue Suite 1300
New York, NY 10016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-8300
Dr. Michael LaGasse
DARPA 07-002      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Innovative Pulse Programmers for Quantum Computing Applications
Abstract:Scaling up quantum computers is proving difficult due to the need for a scalable precision pulse generating platform. This proposal shows a scalable system architecture that packs 96 high resolution channels of multiple electronic outputs, 1 high speed analog, 1 high speed shaped radio frequency pulse, and digital serializable outputs that are each synchronized precisely in each commonly available commercial chassis. Multiple chassis can be synchronized, allowing an order of magnitude increase in the size of quantum computers from the present state of the art. The phase 1 proposal is for the detailed design of hardware, firmware, and software for such an apparatus.

DXE LLC
4005 Oak Grove Court
Flower Mound, TX 75028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 254-6063
Mr. James T. Plesa
DARPA 07-003      Awarded: 10/30/2007
Title:Crack Nucleation Prediction through Surface Roughness Measurement
Abstract:The "fear of failure" mindset which controls the management, deployment, design and usage of military assets is caused by the lack of understanding of a system's health. DARPA has developed the Prognosis program to study ways for improving state awareness and health prediction in order to address this very issue. One way of accomplishing this is by developing methods to predict fatigue. This study will focus on measuring surface roughness of critical aircraft components and correlating it to fatigue crack nucleation. DXE, LLC. will adapt its state-of-the-art surface profilometry technology for use in aircraft inspections by making it portable and easy to use. Phase I of the study, involves looking at different methods of obtaining surface roughness measurements from existing aircraft. DXE’s profilometer will be used to measure surface roughness both on representative and laboratory samples. These samples will be subjected to accelerated cyclic loading until failure occurs with surface roughness monitored throughout the tests. DXE, LLC. will produce data-driven models based on these measurements for use in developing predictive algorithms in Phase II. The algorithms developed in Phase II will be integrated into the Prognosis system to further enhance its prediction accuracy and reduce inspection intervals.

LUMINIT, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Dr. Jun Ai
DARPA 07-003      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Fiber-Image- Guide Airframe Roughness Profilometer
Abstract:To address the DARPA need for airframe crack nucleation prediction through surface roughness measurement, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new Fiber-Image-Guide Airframe Roughness Profilometer (FIGARP), based on a novel phase resolvable full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a handheld Fiber-Image-Guide (FIG) probe. OCT offers rapid tomographic imaging of strongly scattering materials. The FIG probe offers simultaneous acquisition of a 2D pixel array from a surface without physical contact. The portable FIGARP requires no anti-vibration measures. It can measure the surface topography of a real aircraft in < 0.1 ms, with sub-nanometer depth and sub-micron lateral resolution. The FIGARP will be built with COTS components and packaged in a 19-inch rack-mountable box. Measurement is controlled with user-friendly software on a laptop computer. In Phase I, Luminit will demonstrate the feasibility by studying physics and data-driven models on fatigue crack growth as a function of surface roughness, and developing a proof-of-concept FIGARP for inspecting aircraft Al alloys of varying surface quality. In Phase II, Luminit will develop algorithms and computer programs to simulate and predict crack nucleation as a function of measured surface roughness, and integrate the programs into a commercial FASTRAN software package.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir B. Markov
DARPA 07-003      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Fatigue Crack Prognostics by Optical Quantification of Surface Roughness
Abstract:Reliable and operationally simple methods that can be used in the field are needed for observationally-based prognosis of remaining fatigue life. Previous work in the fatigue literature and at MetroLaser has shown that surface roughness can be a key indicator of the fatigue state of a component and that light scattering measurement is a convenient method for characterizing this roughness. However, there still exists a significant gap in the modeling capability due to the relative novelty of this technique. During Phase I, we will show the feasibility of developing a framework for interfacing between the sensed data and remaining life prediction, as well as to show the feasibility of integrating the sensor with different fatigue monitoring methods. The ultimate result will be a complete prognosis solution for structural health monitoring. If the basic feasibility of this prognostic paradigm can be demonstrated, the Phase I results can be used in a subsequent Phase II effort to refine the sensor design and develop remaining life models. Such a complete solution for sensing and prognostics would enable substantial cost savings in defense and commercial aircraft maintenance particularly. The compactness and low cost of the sensor technology makes it especially attractive.

VEXTEC CORP.
750 Old Hickory Blvd, Building 2, Suite 270
Brentwood, TN 37027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 372-0299
Dr. Robert Tryon
DARPA 07-003      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Crack Nucleation Prediction through Surface Roughness Measurement
Abstract:Our commercial and military fleets operate safely but at a great cost. Downtime for structural inspections, elaborate sustainment equipment, long maintainer hours, expensive in-depot repair, continuous spectrum monitoring, and extensive component testing have effectively reduced the rates of structure-related accidents, but the costs are overwhelming. DARPA has proposed changing the paradigm of aircraft structural management by creating a new methodology to inspect, diagnose, prognosticate, and manage airframe life. VEXTEC proposes a unique approach to this challenging problem in utilizing pre-existing, non-contact sensor technology for surface roughness measurement coupled with our novel physics-based microstructural crack-modeling simulation tools, materials expertise, and metals-application knowledge base. The means and processes presented here – meant to implement a consolidated prognostics technology that uses structural surface profilometry, materials models, and early crack-progression simulation – will allow for the diagnostics and prognostics of small damage.

BLACK FOREST ENGINEERING, LLC
1879 Austin Bluffs Parkway
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-9501
Dr. Stephen Gaalema
DARPA 07-004      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Ultra-lightweight Infrared Camera
Abstract:Uncooled focal plane array (FPA) technology has evolved such that high performance is achieved in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) band with small pixel pitch. Small pitch, = 17 um, allows reduction in optics size and weight. Innovative folded reflective optics allows further reduction in optics thickness and weight. On-FPA analog-to-digital conversion and custom digital electronics significantly reduces power dissipation. This innovative optics, small pixel high performance uncooled FPA sensor and custom digital electronics on flexible substrates allows development of ultra-lightweight and low power cameras for use on Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Component packaging of thin optics, thin FPA assembly and electronics on flexible substrates creates a thin camera structure. Black Forest Engineering, on Phase I, will conduct a preliminary optics design and feasibility study to package all camera components in size < 10 mm x 30 mm x 30 mm with weight < 10 grams and power < 1 watt. The Phase I research will allow development of a LWIR camera on Phase II and integrated with MAV structural elements.

VERSATILIS LLC
488 Ridgefield Rd
Shelburne, VT 05482
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 985-4009
Mr. George A. Powch
DARPA 07-004      Awarded: 11/14/2007
Title:Synthetic Combinatory Bendable Substrates (CyCoBs) for Ultra-lightweight, Structurally Embedded Infrared (IR) Camera
Abstract:This SBIR effort will show feasibility of very thin, lightweight, integrated FPAs on a novel, flexible substrate which can double as the IR transmissive window and be readily transferred onto curved or conformal surfaces, or structural elements of a Micro-Air Vehicle (MAV). Versatilis will build and demonstrate a simple such (2x2) IR detector array using a ternary lead salt (PbCdSe) from BAE Systems. The technology will enable very lightweight IR cameras ~10g for MAVs for long endurance and higher power payloads (>90 mW-hr). Versatilis has developed a synthetic crystalline substrate material which can be used in such applications, branded “Versulite,” combined with a process for growing heteroepitaxial single crystal thin films atop it. Versulite is an extremely rugged, stable insulating material, fully transparent to visible and SWIR-NIR with a very high melting point (>>1000°C) compatible with Silicon processes, and lattice constants close to Silicon for epitaxy. A lamellar crystal, it can be cleaved into easily transferable, thin, flexible sheets. Package weight should result in an order of magnitude reduction in weight for the FPAs from ~25-50 g (current state-of-the-art). Adoption of such a compliant, flexible, substrate material can ultimately allow for fully integrated FPAs with much of the ROIC circuitry built onto the detector substrate itself, eliminating a whole series of interconnect issues, and decreasing mass and cost while increasing inherent reliability, with broad application in military and commercial applications. Silicon epitaxy on Versulite, in particular, can be an intriguing SOI technology for applications well beyond IR detectors, enabling integrated, flexible electronics for a variety of other applications.

POM GROUP, INC.
2350 Pontiac Road
Auburn Hills, MI 48326
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(248) 409-7900
Dr. Joohyun Choi
DARPA 07-005      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Spatial Control of Crystal Texture
Abstract:Single-crystal blades have proven to have longer thermal and fatigue life, and can be directly fabricated by laser with thinner walls. However, the benefits of single-crystal over conventionally cast and directionally solidified components critically depend on avoiding the introduction of casting defects, such as stray grains, freckles, or deviations from the required crystal orientation. Laser-based direct metal deposition (DMD) process has demonstrated that it can fabricate fully functional metal prototype parts, repair industrial tooling, die casting and forging, and restore wear resistant and corrosion resistant surfaces for turbine blades. The DMD process equipped with proper sensors and numerically controlled devices can help in overcoming those hurdles to fabricate the blades. Not only thermal control to provide uniform heat flow, but spatial control of crystal texture of the blades by feedback control devices is also essential. The goals of proposal are, (1) to establish DMD process conditions and seed grain requirements for secondary grain growth for Ni-based superalloy, (2) to develop and demonstrate a laboratory scale DMD process for spatial control of crystal texture, (3) to develop a process model utilizing phase-field method to describe how spatial control of crystallographic texture affects the performance of Ni-based superalloy turbine blade rotating components.

ADVANCED BRAIN MONITORING
2237 Faraday Ave Suite 100
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 720-0099
Ms. Chris Berka
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Maximizing Sleep Quality and Efficiency using Neurotechnology
Abstract:Military operations require sustained performance in challenging environments where vigilance, memory, decision-making are impaired by sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality. Evidence reveals that “power-naps” (10-20 minutes) taken throughout the day can ameliorate some effects of sleep deprivation. Additionally, the stages of sleep as measured by the EEG have been shown to differentially affect aspects of health, alertness, and memory. This knowledge cannot be applied in environments with non- optimal napping conditions. This proposal addresses this challenge, incorporating state- of-the-art sleep knowledge into a platform technology to facilitate optimal napping. The “NapCap,” designed around the Advanced Brain Monitoring’s (ABM) EEG Headset, incorporates bi-directional gating of sensory modalities to accomplish three goals—decrease sleep latency, increase sleep efficiency, and determine the best time to awaken. ABM’s Headset weighs 3-ounces and is powered by two AAA batteries. The envisioned NapCap will weigh ~8-ounces with battery life for ten 1-hour naps and fold into a small pouch (approximately 7”x3”x3”). The final NapCap will include real-time sleep staging that, in combination with knowledge of nap optimization, will trigger the components to encourage or discourage sleep process and stages. The investigators also anticipate that as new research discoveries are reported, NapCap will evolve to incorporate these findings.

ALPHATRAC, INC.
8670 Wolff Courtf, Suite 120 Sheridan Park #8
Westminster, CO 80031
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 428-5670
Mr. C. Reed Hodgin
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:Adaptive Recognition-Primed Emergency Support (ARES) System
Abstract:Crisis decision-making is difficult and error-prone because it usually involves high time- urgency, physical and emotional stress, chaotic conditions and poor data availability / quality. This SBIR project will investigate, develop and employ a hardware/software system to support key crisis decisions for crisis management and battlefield applications. This system will produce a revolutionary improvement in decision performance for experienced and novice decision-makers. Successful crisis decision-making employs a psychology termed “recognition-primed decision-making,” a method that uses event observations to force quick recognition of an analog scenario from a knowledge base. The Adaptive Recognition-primed Emergency Support System (ARES) will support rapid decision-making in operational emergency and battlefield use. The core of ARES will be an extensive relational database of decision scenarios – event / decision pairs tailored to a target decision-maker and decision set. Emulating the recognition-primed decision process, the capability will employ an advanced neural-networking algorithm to “walk” the decision-maker through a limited set of questions to a rapid choice of a scenario. The tool will then adapt the base scenario to actual event conditions, “tuning” the decisions for the specific event. ARES will be demonstrated for CBRNE emergency response, then expanded to battlefield and other crisis decision environments.

AUTOMEDX, INC.
12321 Midlebrook Road Suite 150
Germantown, MD 20879
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 916-9508
Mr. Adian Urias
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Technological Advancements to the Simplified Automated Ventilator (SAVe II)
Abstract:The proposed advancements of the SAVe ventilator will result in an easy to operate, small, lightweight, inexpensive, compressor-driven ventilator well suited not only to military applications and environments such as a battlefield (under the Tactical Combat Casualty Care doctrine), but civilian applications as well. The increased flow rate of a multiple pump design along with expanded control options of Tidal Volume, Respiratory Rate, Positive End-Expiratory Pressure, and Peak Inspiratory Pressure Limit allow the device to be safely used on a much wider patient population. The SAVe II will utilize lithium batteries to increase the operational time of the device up to 8-12 hours depending on the final configuration. The overall design of the SAVe II lends itself well to be used on a day to day basis or stockpiled for use in the event of a major pandemic. Due to lack of resources in a pandemic environment, it should be noted that the SAVe II is completely self-contained and does not require the need of a compressed gas source to operate. However, if oxygen is available, the SAVe II will accept supplemental O2 from a flow- regulated source and deliver an FIO2 range of 21-100%.

BIOMEDICA MANAGEMENT CORP.
760 Parkside Avenue Suite 210
Brooklyn, NY 11226
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 444-2788
Dr. Weiliam Chen
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Tissue Sealant for Intracavitary Non-compressible Hemorrhage
Abstract:ClotFoam is a novel crosslinked polymer designed to stop hemorrhage without compression in severe wounds outside the operating room. ClotFoam’s ability to promote hemostasis in cases severe bleeding is based on the physical and coagulation properties of a fibrin sealant embedded in a gelatin support and enhanced by procoagulants, ions and molecules that increase the affinity to collagen. It is presented in 2 solutions that when mixed form a strong coating over lacerated tissue. CloFoam is delivered through a Veress needle, and distributed throughout the cavity in the form of a foam produced by a non-toxic foam inducer. Studies in rats and rabbits have shown that ClotFoam adheres to the abdominal cavity, even under profuse bleeding, initiating a rapid clot formation. Phase I proposed studies will provide the “proof of concept” for the use ClotFoam in cases of non-compressible hemorrhage by establishing its ability to adhere to lacerated tissue in a pool of blood using a rat aortic model. Phase II studies will establish the efficacy and safety in military relevant models (pigs) with induced intraperitoneal non-compressible hemorrhage secondary to grade IV/V traumatic liver damage. The study will evaluate restoration of vital functions and survival and achievement of hemostasis,

BIOPHYZICA, INC.
307 N. Tioga Street, Suite B.
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 767-8345
Dr. Bashir Zikria
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 2/28/2008
Title:A Biophysical Therapeutic for Traumatic Brain Injury and other Battlefield Injuries
Abstract:Battlefield injuries are unique in terms of severity, types, and combinations. The ability to develop therapeutics designed to treat a broad spectrum of battle injuries is a unique opportunity with significant positive benefits. In particular, increased capillary permeability/leak and ischemia-reperfusion injuries play a significant role in military injuries such as battlefield trauma, hemorrhagic shock, burns/smoke inhalation injuries, traumatic brain injury, sepsis, pulmonary edema induced by chemical/biological agents, or infectious diseases. Therapeutics for traumatic brain injury presents the most pressing unmet need on the battlefield. BioPhyZica is developing an experimental drug, BPZ-302, as a medic deliverable broad spectrum therapeutic against injuries involving capillary permeability/leak and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a preclinical study, we have found that treatment with BPZ-302 results in statistically significant reduction in cerebral edema caused by cardiac arrest-induced global cerebral ischemia. This Phase I, will evaluate if BPZ-302 ability to reduce cerebral edema improves neurological outcomes in for military personnel with traumatic brain injuries

D&P LLC
3409 N. 42nd Pl.
Phoenix, AZ 85018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 518-0981
Dr. Lei Tang
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 11/26/2007
Title:Gas-Kinetic Simulation of Separated Flows
Abstract:This SBIR project proposes to develop a gas-kinetic CFD solver for separated flow simulation. Compared with the traditional macroscopic CFD approach, a gas-kinetic CFD approach is more suitable for turbulent separated flow simulation. This is because a gas- kinetic model with the turbulence relaxation time can represent rich and complex physics when projected onto hydrodynamic variables and the turbulence relaxation time naturally includes both the regular viscous effects and higher-order modifications. Unlike the traditional macroscopic CFD approach, the gas-kinetic CFD approach calculates the hydrodynamics fluxes across the surface near the walls based on the non-equilibrium particle distribution function without invoking any approximation to gradient information. This implementation of the wall boundary conditions has been found as the key for success of the gas-kinetic CFD approach for turbulent flow simulation. In Phase I, we will first systematically investigate the benefits of including the higher-order terms of the Chapman-Enskog expansion beyond the Navier-Stokes level for turbulent separated flow simulations. This will lay a solid foundation for fully development of an innovative gas- kinetic CFD solver for improved separated flow simulation in Phase II.

EIC LABORATORIES, INC.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 769-9450
Dr. Michael S. Wilson
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Heat Stable Nanoparticle Amplified Immunoassays
Abstract:The theater of operation for DoD immunoassays typically requires them to be sensitive, stable at temperatures up to 35 oC for up to two years, and be low power or power-free. Although enzyme-based assays are very sensitive, enzymes are usually unstable under such storage conditions. We propose a new photocatalytic nanoparticle-based immunoassay method that provides the amplification associated with enzyme-based assays but without the instability problems associated with enzymes. The method can be readily adapted to lateral flow immunoassays, which provide convenient testing in the field, but often suffer from poor sensitivity. In addition, the technology can also be used in biosensors and lab-based immunoassays.

IONIAN TECHNOLOGIES
3595 John Hopkins Ct.
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 642-0998
Dr. Richard Roth
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:The potential for a biowarfare attack looms large in today’s society as terrorist organizations become more sophisticated in their technological means, putting our military, first responders and citizens at high risk. There are a myriad of bacterial and viral pathogens that are well suited for use as biowarfare agents. An ability to detect these agents in an ultra-rapid, sensitive, robust and economical fashion is of vital importance to ensure the safety of our military, first responders and civilians. Although diagnostic systems exist that are able to detect these agents, they are lacking the portability, speed, sensitivity, or robustness to be of real-time use in the field. We propose to develop a field deployable handheld detection device that can be used by the military and first responders to simultaneously detect the presence of multiple biothreat pathogens by using an ultra-rapid and sensitive target amplification approach coupled to a highly multiplexed solid surface probe array detection technology. This is a robust approach that will provide near real-time detection and identification of multiple pathogenic agents in less than 10 minutes using initially prepared nucleic acid or endospores as a target for amplification, even in the presence of environmental contaminants and near-neighbor clutter.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC.
5764 Pacific Center Blvd Suite 107
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 200-2497
Dr. Peter Turner
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Thermoelectric Power System for Body Worn Sensors
Abstract:Recently, the power density of thermoelectric thin film devices has increased by a factor of 15. In the same period, the power needed for wearable physiologic sensors, associated data acquisition and wireless transmission systems has rapidly decreased. We have suddenly reached the point that a variety of wearable soldier health and injury monitoring systems can be powered by the body heat of the person being monitored. In this program, Quantum Applied Science and Research (QUASAR) Inc., a leading innovator in wearable electrophysiologic measurement systems for heart, brain and muscle function, will team with the Research Triangle Institute, the developer of the new thermoelectric materials. We will develop the first truly noninvasive wearable monitoring system, one that needs no action or maintenance by the user, other than to put it on. The system will have immediate application to the soldier ballistic impact detection system being built by QUASAR for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and for cardiac, respiration, body temperature, hydration, and brain monitoring systems being developed by QUASAR and others. In addition, significant opportunities exist in long-term medical monitoring and sports equipment markets, and will be addressed in part via QUASAR's partnerships with Advanced Neurometrics and Adidas.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. David S. Bomse
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 10/24/2007
Title:Advanced Development for Defense Science and Technology
Abstract:Southwest Sciences proposes the development of an ultra-sensitive optical spectroscopy technique having applications in explosives and chemical agent detection, and rapid health screening/monitoring for warfighter field diagnostics and health care. The technique, called noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS), was invented about 10 years ago, but has remained a research laboratory technique. It was considered too complex for commercial development. We plan to take advantage of recent improvements in enabling technologies to make NICE-OHMS a reliable, field-rugged, and portable method. If successful, we anticipate two- to four-orders of magnitude sensitivity improvement over competing spectroscopic methods at only modestly higher expense. The proposed technology has numerous military and commercial applications. Our approach starts with the detection of ultra-trace (part per billion, or lower concentrations) gases in exhaled breath that are markers for disease and injury. This application has both military and civilian uses. Obvious target compounds include nitric oxide, acetone which is a marker for diabetes and ketosis, ethylene as an indicator for radiation exposure, ethane and higher alkanes as markers for lipid damage, and dimethyl sulfide for kidney function. In addition, numerous metabolic tests involve ingestion of 13C-labeled compounds followed by time-resolved, high precision measurements of 13CO2/12CO2 changes.

VIASIM
519 Interstate 30 #247
Rockwall, TX 75087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(972) 722-9255
Mr. J. Chris White
DARPA 07-006      Awarded: 11/30/2007
Title:Development of a Next-Generation, Simulation-Based Project Management Tool
Abstract:Most project management (PM) tools on the market today use some type of PERT and/or CPM methodology as its primary underlying methodology. PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) was invented by the U.S. Navy in the 1950’s to manage the Polaris submarine missile program. CPM (Critical Path Method) was invented about the same time in the private sector. These two approaches are synonymous and are often interchanged or even collectively called PERT/CPM. To date, improvements to PM tools have been evolutionary and not revolutionary. PM tools are still based on the PERT/CPM approach. The improvements that occur with each round of new PM tools are merely interface “bells and whistles” (e.g., better tracking of resources, uploading from spreadsheets) or perhaps enabling the tool to be used over the internet. Unfortunately, a 50-year old methodology delivered over the internet is still a 50-year old methodology. The purpose of this research effort is two-fold: 1. To demonstrate that common management decision-making processes can be incorporated into a simulation model of a project; and 2. To prove that incorporation of these management activities into a PM tool is a superior approach to current PERT/CPM methods.

C2 INNOVATIONS, INC.
102 Peabody Dr
Stow, MA 01775
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 257-4820
Mr. Arnis Mangolds
DARPA 07-007      Awarded: 2/6/2008
Title:Straight Jacket -Tracked Vehicle Barriers
Abstract:Straight Jacket is a combined effect system laid down as a mat that attacks the running gear of tracked vehicles using a combination of effects. Rather than counter the mass and power of the heavy armor head on, the Straight Jacket system is a subtle approach and uses the running gears design vulnerabilities to its advantage. The system target area is large (9m diameter) and has already been shown to weigh less than 10lbs. The Straight Jacket system can be deployed in 2 minutes and repackaged in 4 minutes by a single person.

EXOGI LLC
3680 Boulder Hwy.
Las Vegas, NV 89121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(702) 845-4582
Dr. Craig Steele
DARPA 07-008      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Object-Accelerated Computational Fabric
Abstract:CPU technology has progressed to a point of diminishing marginal returns in its current direction. The great success of the highly pipelined sequential processor has now become a hindrance to the efficient scalability for the evolutionary escape route of cookie-cutter chip multi-processor (CMP) designs. RISC instruction sets exist because they are easy to decode and pipeline, but they have relatively low information density and operate on similarly primitive data types. If we look at the codes these CPUs are running, they are largely object-oriented languages. The lesson learned in the software world is that programmer productivity is relatively constant number of lines of code per day, whether assembly language or a much higher-level of abstraction in a modern object- based language. The information density and expressivity of the object-oriented language is much greater, as is the computational effort induced by each object method invocation. This is a good thing and should be emulated by hardware designers. We propose a package of novel several hardware-assisted object-based techniques to increase the value of our limited processor-to-network interfaces and the generally useful scalability of future CMP designs.

MYMIC LLC
200 High Street Suite 308
Portsmouth, VA 23704
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 391-9200
Dr. Reejo Mathew
DARPA 07-008      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Novel Architectures Development
Abstract:Available parallelism in a computer program, whether Instruction Level Parallelism (ILP) or Task Level Parallelism (TLP), offers the opportunity for improved performance by identifying independent instructions to execute concurrently. At the architectural level, superscalar and Very Large Instruction Word (VLIW) architectures address ILP while multithreaded architectures address TLP. Superscalar and VLIW architectures require no changes in programming paradigms, but multithreaded architectures require threaded applications. It is proposed that by looking at specific problem domains, TLP can be found through enhanced hardware support without changing the programming paradigm. The Discrete-Event Simulation Central Processor Unit (DESCPU) proposed here addresses inherent TLP in discrete-event simulations (DES). DES involves the execution of events at scheduled simulation times, with the potential for concurrent events at the same simulation time. This inherent property of the paradigm opens the opportunity for Event-Level Parallelism (ELP) as a subset of TLP. DESCPU would provide an enhanced Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) acting as an interface between the simulation executive and the hardware for event scheduling and execution. DESCPU would also provide hardware support for maintaining event lists and invoking events for execution. DESCPU would also provide multiple event execution paths to support concurrent event execution, while sharing common functional units.

STREAM PROCESSORS, INC.
455 Deguigne Dr
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 616-3341
Dr. Brucek Khailany
DARPA 07-008      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:Novel Stream Processor Architecture Development
Abstract:Stream processors form a new class of architectures that offers performance scalable to TeraOPS on a single chip, have cost and power efficiency comparable to ASICs, and are completely software programmable from high-level languages. Stream processor technology was developed over 8 years from 1997-2004 of DARPA-funded research at Stanford University that resulted in a working prototype IC, software tools, application software, and evaluation board. Stream Processors Inc. (SPI) has commercialized this technology with the recently-announced Storm-1 product family - with performance up to 112 GMACS at cost and power dissipation levels suitable for embedded systems. This technology provides a 4-20x improvement in GOPS and GOPS/Watt compared to other leading commercially-available software-programmable DSPs. As this architecture is scaled to 45nm and smaller CMOS technologies, it will be feasible to integrate hundreds to thousands of ALUs on a single chip, providing TeraOPS of performance. In this proposal, we intend to explore tradeoffs in how best to scale the architecture from current designs with 80 ALUs on a chip to novel stream processor architectures with over 100s of ALUs at higher clock rates for over 10x the available peak performance. The goal is to design an architecture capable of efficiently supporting thread-level, data-level, and instruction- level parallelism, while retaining the advantages of compiler-managed data movement and storage hierarchy afforded by stream processing. This stands in contrast to typical multi-core architectures which rely primarily on programmer-managed thread-level parallelism for performance, rely on cache-based memory systems for managing data movement, and do not provide the efficiency advantages provided by stream processing.

ARCHINOETICS, LLC
700 Bishop St. Suite 2000
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 221-2131
Dr. J. Hunter Downs III
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Self-Aware Planner Interface and Engine (SAPIEN)
Abstract:Processing systems, while complex, are often static; algorithms that are utilized are selected based on their evaluation in a static environment. However, the performance of an algorithm or algorithmic system is greatly affected by the environment, concurrent processes, and even implementation details. The SAPIEN (Self-Aware Planner Interface and Engine) system is a control platform that adapts a system in real-time based on constant monitoring of system metrics that affect the performance of the system towards its goal, whether it be low power consumption or optimized computing power. SAPIEN consists of a planner engine that utilizes smart heuristics and contingency planning for intelligent system control. Work proposed in Phase I of this project includes the development of the SAPIEN system and implementation of the planner engine with smart heuristics in a sensor network application.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Dr. John Engel
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Self Aware Processing
Abstract:Predetermined, hard-wired processing architectures with static resource allocation and task distributions suffer from single points of failure, inefficient performance or failure in dynamic situations and have little to no run-time decision making ability concerning task redistribution and optimization. By using unique multi-agent system methodologies and leveraging core capabilities, Areté proposes to design a self-aware, agent-based system for development, parallelization, optimization and execution of code on distributed systems with the ability to adapt and re-optimize resources and tasks as situations dictate. Through continuous self-modeling and prediction, self-aware, self-healing systems can enhance current distributed system performance and allow for the deployment of systems in situations never before possible with current fault-tolerant techniques.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Modular Affective Reasoning-based Versatile Introspective Architecture (MARVIN)
Abstract:Robotic vehicles, unmanned systems, and critical command and control networks rely on systems that need to operate effectively in complex, dynamic, and adversarial environments. Currently fielded systems are not up to par—they can be immobilized by simple component failures. Future operations will not tolerate such brittleness, especially given the interconnectivity demanded by future concepts of network-centric warfare. Future fielded systems throughout the military will need more dynamic processing capabilities that can adaptively use resources. Self-Aware Computing attempts to resolve this problem through metacognitive approaches to generating dynamic capabilities based on research into human adaptation. However, these approaches tend to ignore the impact of human emotions in that adaptation. Emotions provide humans with approaches for instantly and broadly adapting to threats, for persisting adaptations across situations, for learning future reactions to similar events, and for effectively communicating those threats to others. We therefore propose to develop the Modular Affective Reasoning- Based Versatile Introspective Architecture (MARVIN) to develop components that enhance self-aware systems by exploiting human affective mechanisms to (1) adapt quickly to time-critical, situations, (2) learn to adapt quickly to new situations and carry learning over to additional situations, and (3) interact with other networked systems in an efficient social manner.

COLORADO ENGINEERING, INC.
1310 United Heights Suite 105
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 388-8582
Mr. Mike Hammel
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Self Aware Processing (LABPM)
Abstract:The problem of reallocating available and appropriate computing resources to a given application has been addressed in many enterprise environments through the use of automated provisioning systems. Commercial solutions such as RLX Technologies Control Tower (now owned by HP) offer blade-server based data centers the ability to re- provision systems based on various criteria predefined by a central manager. This SBIR defines requirements for end-to-end solutions that can migrate mission applications between related remote computing systems given both predefined policies and learned actions. While some commercial provisioning solutions can address application migration, they are generally not designed around learning agents. Instead, they focus primarily on defined policies to apply provisioning and migration actions. CEI proposes a system that utilizes techniques common in enterprise provisioning systems integrated with methods for implementing learning agents that can autonomously make decisions about application migration. These decisions will be based on metadata from remote hosts related to system health, resource utilization, location with respect to application archives, community memberships and defined policies from a central authority.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Self-Aware Processing for Adaptive Resource Optimization of Advanced Computing Systems
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology and our commercialization partner Raytheon, propose to develop and demonstrate a suite of core self-aware processing technologies that can autonomously adapt available computing resources based on the real-time processing requirements and state awareness of the overall computing environment. Building on the team’s expertise in real-time prognostics and health monitoring for digital electronic systems, our proposed approach will integrate state-of-the-art electronic system fault detection with higher level cognitive modeling techniques to provide the constituent capabilities for advanced, reconfigurable computing. The self-aware system will utilize artificial intelligence technologies such as probabilistic neural networks as underlying software agents within a distributed reasoning process similar to cognitive capabilities in human thinking processes. These systems will balance resources, efficiencies, and mission priorities to efficiently use system resources to dynamically and effectively meet changing operational requirements. In doing so, it is anticipated that the performance of the systems can be enhanced several times when compared for such critical metrics as power consumption, fault-tolerance, and reliability.

SENTAR, INC.
4900 University Square Suite 8
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 430-0860
Mr. Gordon Streeter
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Self-Aware Reconstituion, Reconfiguration, and Repurposing (SAR3)
Abstract:In today’s information-based society, global operation in virtually any domain is significantly, if not completely, dependent upon high-performance processing systems. These high-performance processing systems are complex and frequently composed of heterogeneous processor subsystems. Such systems are typically static in nature, and predetermined prior to deployment. If mission dynamics or system performance change, these systems are limited to their originally pre-determined mode of operation, resulting in inefficient use of resources and performance penalties at best and catastrophic failure at worst. Interruption in operation whether the result of cyber attack or system failure due to inefficient or incorrect usage often leads to catastrophic consequences. System failure and attacks on information systems and infrastructure are everyday occurrences. To address an area that needs immediate attention in the protection of mission critical systems, Sentar proposes a system for Self-Aware Reconstitution, Reconfiguration, and Repurposing (Self-Aware R3). The opportunity exists to develop broadly applicable self- aware systems that are capable of reconstitution after a successful attack or system failure, reconfiguration to balance resources, and repurposing to address dynamically changing priorities.

SOAR TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3600 Green Court Suite 600
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(734) 327-8000
Dr. Michael Quist
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Soar-Longevity: A Sustainable Autonomic Architecture for Organically Reconfigurable Computing Systems
Abstract:Soar Technology proposes the Soar-Longevity autonomic architecture for self-adapting sustainable performance. Soar-Longevity utilizes a two-tiered approach to synergize lower-level organic computing elements and upper-level cognitive supervisory elements. Soar Technology’s Cognitive Layer monitors the organic computing elements with respect to mission performance specifications. The Cognitive Layer also leverages the organic computing elements' reporting capabilities to assist in fault isolation, resolution, and avoidance of undesirable emergent behaviors at the system level. The Organic Layer resides beneath it and is composed of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) containing Functional Elements (FEs) and Autonomic Elements (AEs). Thus, each FPGA is imparted with an independent capability to self-monitor and self-repair using the techniques developed and demonstrated by the University of Central Florida (UCF). Soar Technology, Inc., teaming with researchers from UCF, will design and develop the integrated architecture. Soar-Longevity will be capable of maintaining mission requirements through monitoring and management of functionality to independently sustainable FPGAs, optionally including the FPGAs that comprise components of the Cognitive Layer itself.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 969-3774
Dr. Charles Earl
DARPA 07-009      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:ADisSAS: Adaptive Distributed Self Awareness System
Abstract:We propose to build a platform to support the development of self aware processing systems. There are several contributions that the project makes. First, drawing upon our expertise in developing intelligent systems for system management, we define essential self awareness capabilities and define classes of core computations to support self aware processing. Secondly, we develop an interface that will allow human users to configure and direct a self awareness system. We define an architecture for deploying self awareness processes in an existing system using previous work on secure, self- configuring overlay networks done by ourselves and others. We provide an architecture that permits the coordination of multiple levels of self awareness based on our previous work on distributed workflow management. Finally, we explore how core self- awareness algorithms can structured to leverage multiple-core or reconfigurable microprocessors for acceleration. This will lay the foundation for the development of an appliance or board that could provide self awareness capabilities for many military and enterprise systems. Such a system could be developed as a commercial product during Phase III of this effort. At the conclusion of Phase II, the result will be a system that could be effectively deployed in a variety of important Military and Commercial civilian settings. For example, a version of our system could be deployed for managing a Future Combat Systems (FCS) based network. Alternatively, core self aware processing functions could be packaged in an appliance based upon COTS accelerator hardware and could provide enhanced self aware processing capabilities for blade or rack systems deployed in settings such as Air Operations Centers. We believe that our system, called ADisSAS (Adaptive Distributed Self Awareness System), could provide tremendous advances in system reliability and performance.

ALLOY COMPUTING, LLC
6290 Firethorn Lane
Clarksville, MD 21029
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 854-3237
Mr. Donald Davis
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:Effective Multi-core Software Development
Abstract:Multi-core processors pose a significant challenge for software application developers. This is because the vast majority of algorithms and applications have been - and continue to be - developed using methodologies and techniques that assume sequential runtime execution. The key to efficiently and effectively leveraging multi-core processors is the ability to expose, extract, and exploit concurrency at the application level. This requires a profound change in the way that software applications are designed and implemented. Our goal is to provide a compelling, integrated tool suite to address the compute, embedded, and realtime challenges facing multi-core software application developers. Our approach is to focus on a methodology and tools that address analysis, visualization, and automation of multi-core application development. We envision a suite of tools that can ingest a software application written in C or C++ and provide a comprehensive analysis of the program structure, flow, and dependencies. This analysis will provide the developer with the insight needed to make effective choices when creating or adapting applications for concurrent execution. In addition, the tools will automate the implementation of the programming constructs necessary to realize concurrent processing. This tool suite will revolutionize developer effectiveness and application performance for multi-core targeted software.

ARETE ASSOC.
P.O. Box 6024
Sherman Oaks, CA 91413
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 571-8660
Dr. John Engel
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Agent-Based Intelligent Parallelization for Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:Processor manufacturers are no longer able to rely on near Moore’s Law like increases in straight line instruction throughput and clock frequency to provide users with the performance increases that they have become accustomed to. Instead, hardware developers have begun to take a different approach to capitalizing on the increasing number of transistors available by developing processors with multiple execution cores. Areté Associates will develop a scalable, agent-based, parallel processing architecture enabling application developers to efficiently utilize multi-core processors in environments including high-end and embedded systems. This object-oriented software architecture will be embodied in a C++ class library that will provide software developers with parallel processing capability while insulating them from details of the processing hardware. The approach used to develop this capability is an extension of an innovative algorithm component framework being developed at Areté for expediting the migration of algorithms to embedded processing systems. This architecture will be extended to provide a framework and tools for developing multi-core processing algorithms through a combination of a multi-agent system coupled with an optimized task mapping algorithm.

CILK ARTS, INC.
12 Waltham St
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 325-0820
Mr. Charles E. Leiserson
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:Multicore technology is forcing concurrency into the mainstream of programming. In general, the application developer will have little control over the execution environment, such as the number of cores. New tools will be needed to help application developers identify parallelism, write correct and scalable code, and analyze performance bottlenecks. We propose to use dynamic instrumentation to build a general framework for implementing such tools for the Cilk++ multithreaded programming environment. Specifically, we propose to build a build a race-detection engine and a performance- analysis engine that can analyze work, span, parallelism, granularity, lock contention, and false sharing. We also propose to explore the feasibility of automatic performance tuners and parallelism estimators within this framework. A key property of our proposed tools is that they operate on the logical dependencies among the threads of a multithreaded computation, rather than on how the computation happens to be scheduled in any specific execution run.

EVOLVING LOGIC
21280 Colina Dr.
Topanga, CA 90290
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 351-7377
Dr. Steven C Bankes
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 7/10/2008
Title:Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:This proposal describes a software infrastructure called CompX that can usefully generate large numbers of independent threads for a wide range of applications, providing parallel processing capabilities without burdening the application developers with threading issues. CompX would provide an infrastructure layer between applications and the threading facilities of the operating system, and present an interface to application developers that would not require any knowledge of threading issues.

GRAMMATECH, INC.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 273-7340
Dr. David Melski
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Static Analysis of Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:The goal of this project is to develop a static analysis tool that identifies program flaws that may arise when executing on a multi-core processor. In particular, we will target flaws that arise in lock-free algorithms. Concurrent programs are often plagued by race conditions on shared data. Lock-based solutions to this problem are conceptually simple and work reasonably well. However, they typically do not perform well for the fine- grained concurrency that is often needed on multi-core processors. As the number of processor cores increases, lock contention also increases and many processors are left idle. Lock-free algorithms achieve much greater processor utilization (and better performance) as the number of cores increases. However, lock-free algorithms are difficult to reason about. (To make matters worse, multi-core processors often use a relaxed memory model.) This project will focus on using bounded model checking in order to verify libraries that implement lock-free algorithms.

KESTREL TECHNOLOGY LLC
4984 El Camino Real, Suite 230
Los Altos, CA 94022
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 967-4408
Dr. David Lindsay Errington
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 2/28/2008
Title:TFX: A System for Deriving Multi-Core Applications
Abstract:The physical and economic limits of processor advances are driving the industry toward multi-core architectures. In a short time, they will find their way into systems ranging from high end servers down to embedded systems. Parallel programming in one form or another will become much more common, because it will become competitively necessary. At present, however, there is inadequate tool support for developing applications that take advantage of the underlying parallel architecture. High-level abstractions and parallelizing compilers rarely yield good processor utilization. Thus developers typically resort to programming at a low-level of abstraction where the complexities of the target architecture are exposed to the application developer. This is time consuming, error-prone, and hard to test: in short, uneconomical. We propose the development of TFX to make a radical improvement in the productivity of developers, while still yielding high-performance and high processor utilization. TFX will be based on a novel, two-pronged approach to developing multi-core applications. Recognizing the benefits of abstraction in improving productivity, TFX will support user-directed refinements from a high level language. Recognizing the importance of specialization, TFX will integrate platform-specific optimization templates for achieving high performance and for making the most efficient use of the resources provided by the architecture.

SEMANTIC DESIGNS
13171 Pond Springs Road
Austin, TX 78729
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 250-1018
Dr. Ira Baxter
DARPA 07-010      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Multi-Core Compilers
Abstract:The coming generations of multicore systems will provide multiple heterogeneous distributed processors with SIMD capabilities. Effective programming tools must address this variety and the fast rate of architecture evolution of such systems, as well as the variety of parallel applications. An existing parallel programming, PARLANSE, presently proven for fine-grain task parallism on SMP systems, will be extended to include additional parallelism paradigms: nested data parallelism and pipelined streaming operations. Semantic Designs (SD) will define an architectural description language to describe specific multicore systems, including multiple instruction sets, memory hierarchies, performance, and communication primitives. SD will build a PARLANSE compiler ecosystem driven from the architecture description. Whole program analysis and optimization will be used to maximize performance; this in turn will require parallel computation on scale to make it practical. A unique internal data flow representation graph will be used to represent whole source programs, enabling optimization and program partitioning across processors. SD will use its DMS system (already implemented in PARLANSE) to implement the tool set, thereby minimizing risk and providing access to large-scale parallelism needed to support the multicore compiler.

ABLELINK TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
528 N. Tejon St., Suite 100
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 592-0347
Mr. Daniel K. Davies
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 2/20/2008
Title:Ai1: A Cognitive Prosthetic to Support Independence in Executive Functioning for Soldiers with TBI
Abstract:Very little research and development has been done to address the unique assistive technology needs of individuals with traumatic brain injuries. In response to the immediate need for executive functioning supports for soldiers with TBI/PTST, an all-in-one (Ai1) system is proposed to provide independent access to message recording, personal schedule maintenance and cellular telephones for soldiers with TBI. The system will be developed on a Pocket PC with a customizable multimedia interface that can be configured to meet the needs of soldiers exhibiting different symptoms and severity of symptoms of TBI/PTST. It will 1) allow users with TBI to create and retrieve voice recordings to aid in information retention and recall, 2) provide a straightforward interface for creating and reviewing scheduled appointments and events, along with simplified review of scheduled activities, and 3) an accessible multimedia cell phone that will provide intuitive access to incoming/outgoing calls and essential features. This will be accomplished by development of a working Phase I prototype system that will undergo usability testing by both soldiers and citizens with traumatic brain injuries. The importance of this project is underscored by the immediacy of the need to provide independent functioning supports for soldiers with TBI/PTST with practical tools that can provide needed benefits within a relatively short research cycle.

ARCHINOETICS, LLC
700 Bishop St. Suite 2000
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 221-2131
Dr. J. Hunter Downs III
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:Context-Aware Independence Recovery Network (CAIRN)
Abstract:Over the past 12 years, the incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) has increased from an annual rate of 500,000 to 1,000,000 new cases a year. This project will focus primarily on people that have sustained a traumatic brain injury and recovered to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) level of 11 or better six months post-injury. With the needs of the target population in mind, the project team proposes the following project to develop the CAIRN, the context-aware independence recovery network to assist people who have sustained a moderate head injury regain an independent lifestyle. The CAIRN project will initially be focused on inferring context from multiple sensors, both worn and environmental, to direct memory cueing and sequencing but it will build the framework to assist, on a number of other axes, the individual on the road to recovery and functional independence.

AT SCIENCES, LLC
160 N. Craig St. Suite 117
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(412) 687-1181
Dr. Edmund LoPresti
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:Cognitive Assistance Tools for Victims of Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:We propose to develop a critical enhancement to an existing interactive task guidance system, integrating the capability to utilize data from sensors and control actuators. The system will allow caregivers or rehabilitation professionals to incorporate sensors and actuators into a task script in order to detect task state; detect user state; detect environmental context; detect safety risks; or partly automate a task. The system will be extensible, allowing arbitrary sensors and actuators to be incorporated into the system as needed for a specific client, or as new sensors and applications emerge. In Phase I, the following subtasks will be achieved: • Develop an infrastructure that supports integration of arbitrary sensors and actuators. • Integrate one representative suite of sensors and actuators as a proof of concept. • Evaluate system usability for a sample of people who have experienced traumatic brain injuries. • Develop a user interface for designing tasks which incorporate sensor responses and actuator control into task plans. • Evaluate the usability of the task design user interface. • Demonstrate interoperability between the task design interface and the cueing system. • Evaluate results from both usability trials and integrate into a design for the Phase II system.

ATTENTION CONTROL SYSTEMS, INC.
650 Castro Street Suite 120, PMB 197
Mountain View, CA 94041
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 773-3017
Mr. Richard Levinson
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Increasing Independence after Brain Injury with Autonomous Sensing, Planning, and Cueing
Abstract:PEAT is an advanced cognitive aid which uses NASA's autonomous planning and control methods to compensate for cognitive impairments due to brain injury, stroke and other disorders. The system is used by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to help Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans with brain injury. PEAT assists users with planning and execution of daily activities, monitors progress and replans when changes occur. PEAT’s monitoring relies on users to self- report progress by pressing Start and Stop buttons, which has obvious limitations. We propose to solve this problem by adding advanced sensor and activity monitoring methods. Sensors will track user location, objects they grasp, and other state properties. We will integrate PEAT running on a cellphone with GPS, experimental RFID reader bracelets, and advanced cognitive sensory interpretation methods developed by Co- Investigator Henry Kautz. This will provide more reliable monitoring, more flexible plans, less intrusive cueing, and assistance that currently requires a caregiver. Our Advisory Board of brain injury experts from the VA, California Department of Rehabilitation, and a county hospital, are all PEAT customers who will provide guidance about clinical and commercial considerations.

MBFARR, LLC
93 Mt. Hamilton Rd
San Jose, CA 95140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 259-2675
Rick L Moncrief
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:High Fidelity Virtual Reality Driving Rehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:Development proposal of a concept prototype for a NEW type of high fidelity virtual reality driving rehabilitation trainer is proposed for brain injured soldiers. The TBI Model T2 rehabilitation trainer will teach a graduated difficulty lesson plan of operational, tactical and strategic driving skills wrapped in a NASCAR race simulation to maximize training motivation and trainee attention. To optimize learning, this system will provide immediate, video playback and summary performance feedback. Pilot testing will provide guidance for development of a production prototype and application of the trainer. A main goal of integrating the engaging NASCAR race simulation with the functions of the trainer is to increase acceptance of and motivation for the long hours of practice needed to optimize rehabilitation. The NASCAR race scenarios will function much like the jacket of a pill that increases the acceptance of its medical payload. In addition to training, the TBI Model T2 will assess one’s readiness to begin rehabilitation, identify the entry level of rehabilitation, and assess the improvements achieved through rehabilitation.

SENDERO GROUP LLC
1118 Maple Lane
Davis, CA 95616
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(530) 757-6800
Mr. Michael May
DARPA 07-011      Awarded: 2/23/2008
Title:Cognitive Assistive Technology for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:Need. A fully accessible wayfinding device to increase independent navigation and decrease reliance on caregiver support for individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury and other cognitive disabilities. Goal. To develop a prototype utilizing features from both the Sendero GPS customizable software platform and University of Washington (UW) intelligent wayfinding software to address common travel difficulties experienced by persons with TBI. * Short term (Phase I) goal: To fully implement and deploy one function (automatically identifying the mode of transport) in a prototype using the existing Sendero GPS software platform. * Long term goal (detailed in Phase II below): To investigate methods for implementing and deploying 5 functions of UW’s intelligent wayfinding software on a robust, commercial personal GPS platform. Objectives. This project targets 4 specific, measurable objectives. 1. By October 31, 2007, determine the appropriate platform for software. 2. By December 15, 2007, port Sendero GPS software to the platform defined in Objective 1. 3. By March 15, 2008, incorporate mode of transport function into Sendero GPS software and complete functioning prototype. 4. By March 31, 2008, Project summaries and reporting. Work Plan. Capitalizing on the accessible GPS platform created by Sendero Group and the TBI and computer science expertise of the UW and Rochester teams, this project will develop a prototype running Sendero GPS with intelligent wayfinding features added. The project application targets specific wayfinding problems encountered by persons with TBI.

ANACAPA SCIENCES, INC.
301 East Carrillo Street 2FL P. O. Box 519
Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 966-6157
Dr. Tricia Mautone
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Game World
Abstract:In spite of the growing interest in developing games designed to target specific instructional objectives, and recent improvements accessibility of gaming technology, designing a game from scratch is still an expensive and time consuming endeavor, particularly for non-programmers working on a limited budget. Furthermore, there are few guidelines about how to design a game that is both fun and has learning value. If the promise of game-based instruction is to be fully met, we need to develop a game design system that provides instructors with the necessary tools to design, create, and evaluate effective instructional games. The primary objective of Phase I will be to analyze the feasibility of developing a web-based system that (1) guides instructors through the game design process and provides a set of empirically-based guidelines that aid in the selection of effective game element variations; (2) takes the game element selection input and interfaces with game engines to create a game; and (3) provides a means to evaluate the learning values of the created games. The long-term goal is to develop a system that enables instructors with little programming experience to design, implement, and assess simple, but effective games in an informed and time/cost-effective manner.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Dr. Matthew D. Lichter
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:Statistical Algorithms for Assessing the Efficacy of Community-Generated Educational Games
Abstract:The strength of the United States military is highly dependent upon the continued superiority of intellectual resources and technology in the battle arena. Emerging trends indicate that fewer students are pursuing education in the sciences and technology. In an effort to reverse this trend, researchers are working to engage students through interactive educational software. However, a recent U.S. Department of Education study suggests that current educational software is no more effective than traditional methods. Barron Associates propose a novel collaborative community approach to educational game development. Within this framework, educators will use an amateur-friendly game development platform to created games that fulfill current educational needs. The games will compete in Darwinian survival of the fittest allowing truly effective games to be set aside for pedagogical use. The centerpiece of this framework, and the focus of this research, will be Barron Associates’ Teaching Efficacy and Skill Tracking algorithm – or TEST. As students interact with video games, TEST will examine player scores and estimate each game’s educational effectiveness and each player’s skill level. This information will be used as feedback to help developers produce better games and to inform players of their progress.

GAMESTHATWORK
620 Lakeshore Drive
Duluth, GA 30096
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 806-5428
Dov Jacobson
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Game World
Abstract:Trainers and educators watch the videogame player enviously. Patiently and passionately, the player develops skills to beat the game. He devotes intense hours to exploration, learning and repetitive practice. This same player often neglects schoolwork, or lags in job training. How can the videogame be harnessed, so that the learning that wins the game matches the learning that wins in school and workplace? While many educators agree that games hold promise, few games try to deliver on it. Fewer still are rigorously tested. And clearly, no "killer app" has yet emerged. It may never emerge - without a fertile field of competing products, driven by an active market. Game World uses centralized funding to stimulate decentralized creativity. It puts code-free collaborative tools into the hands of educators, trainers and learners. With proper incentives, many games will flourish, all addressing a single domain, each using a different approach. This topic suggests an elegant model of assessment: If multiple games test the same skill domain, any one game can be judged by the degree to which it elevates first-time performance on all other games. GamesThatWork proposes to implement a full-featured online environment devoted to the emergence of successful game-based learning.

MOSAIC ATM, INC.
1190 Hawling Pl SW
Leesburg, VA 20175
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(800) 405-8576
Mr. Matt Brinton
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Game World
Abstract:In response to the DARPA Game World SBIR solicitation topic, the Mosaic ATM team, including Utah State University, proposes the Instructional Simulation Author and Play System (ISAPS). ISAPS will leverage the passion and creativity of many of our Nation’s educators to create hundreds of free, highly educational simulation games spanning a broad range of science learning. Innovative aspects of this research effort include advanced instructional simulation authoring capabilities for non-programmers, and accurate analysis of game teaching effectiveness based on domain-specific pedagogical models. We will leverage our existing Simulation Learning Platform, developed under funding from the National Science Foundation, to accurately assess the feasibility of these innovations. Our team has extensive expertise and experience in quantitative methodology and research and development of instructional simulation games, spanning fields from science learning to training of emergency responders. Mosaic ATM will deliver commercial products based on our existing technology in the 2007 calendar year which will provide a test bed for future research.

MUZZY LANE SOFTWARE
44 Merimac Street
Newburyport, MA 01950
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 499-9099
Mr. David B. Martz
DARPA 07-012      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Game World
Abstract:Computer games are a unique, powerful medium with great educational potential. Interactive games are the medium of attention for youth, who spend large numbers of hours playing these games. Muzzy Lane and its collaboration partner on this project, The Federation of American Scientists, both identified and appreciated the educational power of games long ago. Over the past four years, both Muzzy Lane and the FAS have separately developed sophisticated educational games, and have the practical experience of implementing educational games. Combined, we represent two of the most significant contributors to the Serious Games space since its emergence four years ago. There is an important opportunity for learning environments that can be used by anyone who want to leverage games as a medium to teach, train or instruct. These individuals have traditional content and instructional materials; want to deliver that information in a game world with built-in assessment – but do not have the engineering expertise, or the resources to build a game from scratch. They need an easy-to-use game development environment – one that puts the power of developing games in the hands of non-game- developers. Muzzy Lane will team with the Federation of American Scientists to develop such a learning environment.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
DARPA 07-013      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Construction and Validation Environment for Social Simulations (CAVES)
Abstract:U.S. political and military decision makers need to make decisions about extremely large, complex socio-political systems. Our objective is to enable these decision makers to evaluate and plan courses of action (COAs) with the aid of computer-based simulations that predict the possible effects (including second and third-order effects) of COAs being considered. We propose to develop a suite of tools to support the development, validation and use of such large-scale socio-political models. We will provide tools based on proven modeling technologies that support the development of a variety of socio-political models that range in scale from nations to individual leaders. We will provide analysis tools that use meta-models to support the debugging, understanding, and validation of such models. Finally, we will provide decision-makers who are using the models with additional insights into both the strengths and weaknesses of the models they are using and the kinds of information that they could gather to improve the predictive performance of the models.

EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH, INC.
1595 Spring Hill Road Suite 250
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 893-6800
Mr. Jimmie McEver
DARPA 07-013      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:Validating Large Scale Simulations of Socio-Political Phenomena
Abstract:There is a growing recognition that simulations representing social and political phenomena are very useful to today’s military to support planning and execution of operations associated with irregular warfare. While many technical challenges are being addressed by DARPA, social science simulations still present an overarching problem: methods and capabilities to show that a simulation is working correctly for an appropriate class of applications are not sufficiently developed for a sponsor/user to confidently apply it in an operational environment. It is EBR’s belief, supported by related experience, that the credibility of such simulations can be established if 1) the use is appropriate for the type of simulation; 2) the simulation has been designed to be validatable for that use; and 3) a complementary set of validation and verification capabilities and techniques are available. This work will provide DARPA with a vision for validatable simulations, including appropriate use classes, simulation capabilities needed to enable validation, and promising tools and techniques to assess the degree to which a simulation is sufficiently credible to support the identified classes of applications. This research will identify technical challenges associated with this vision and selected a set of solution options for development in Phase II.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5242
Dr. Roger Xu
DARPA 07-014      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:A Practical Transcription System for the Hearing Impaired
Abstract:In this proposal, we propose a novel handheld system to automatically identify the current speaker and recognize his/her speech. The system consists of several parts. First, the acoustic signal collected by the commercial off-the-shelf array microphone is first passed through the state machine based speech segmentation module to extract the speech segments. The speech segments are then enhanced by speech enhancement module to compensate the channel distortion and background noise. The enhanced speech is then fed to speaker identification and speech recognition modules. For each recognizable speaker, the speaker adaptation module is continuously adapting its models for both speaker identification and speech recognition.

LI CREATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
30 A Vreeland Road, Suite 130
Florham Park, NJ 07932
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 822-0048
Dr. Qi (Peter) Li
DARPA 07-014      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Handheld Transcription Device for the Hearing Impaired
Abstract:The purpose of this proposal is to present a unique and promising solution for a handheld device for hearing impaired individuals. In a conversation situation with multiple English speakers, the device will display on a screen, “Speaker 1: …,” “Speaker 2: …,” …, “Speaker N: …,” and all the English conversation will be transcribed into English text. Our novel solution consists of both hardware and software. The hardware is a handheld computer with a four-sensor microphone array. The software includes two features: speaker recognition and speech recognition. The microphone array will be modified from this company’s new USB-based microphone array product named CrispMic™ which can give us several advantages. Furthermore, as inspired by the human auditory system, we have proposed a novel, auditory-based feature extraction algorithm, which has the potential to improve the performance and robustness of both speaker and speech recognition significantly. The entire system will be implemented with a low-cost, handheld computer.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Mr. Uday Jain
DARPA 07-014      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:Handheld Transcription Device for the Hearing Impaired
Abstract:We propose the melding of various technologies for our unique handheld transcription device for speech and speaker recognition. Our solution will utilize beam-forming coupled with the POCKETSPHINX speech recognizer to provide transcription on the hand-held device. To achieve further reduction in recognition error rate through robustness to background noise and environment conditions we will combine multi-channel signal enhancement techniques such as blind source separation with single-channel signal enhancement techniques such as spectral subtraction and feature enhancement techniques such as cepstrum normalization. An initial design of our prototype transcription device is also presented.

SPEECHGEAR, INC.
516 West Fifth Street
Northfield, MN 55057
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(507) 664-9123
Mr. Robert Palmquist
DARPA 07-014      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Handheld Transcription Device for the Hearing Impaired
Abstract:The team’s long-term mission statement for this program is “to commercialize a handheld device that provides speaker-identified speech-to-text transcription of multiple English- language speakers in noisy environments.” In Phase I, the team will conduct research in the required technical areas and determine the commercial feasibility of achieving this objective. Specifically, the team will identify and investigate design options for the transcription system and select the best option(s) to pursue in making the design a reality. SpeechGear will team with Sail Technologies and Acoustic Magic on this effort. This project will directly leverage the capabilities of all three firms, with significant research being applied to the DARPA-Hard aspect of identification and extraction of each speaker’s voice from noisy environments. The commercial feasibility of this design will be investigated by identifying viability of the product, production and support costs, and user requirements such as interface modes and response times. By combining the technical and commercial elements with the end user’s needs, a complete feasibility study will be generated. At the end of the Phase I effort a final report will be delivered to the government representative(s) that documents the Phase I results and provides recommendations for follow-on research and development in Phase II.

COLE ENGINEERING SERVICES, INC.
3361 Rouse Rd. Suite 215
Orlando, FL 32817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 384-9956
Mr. John Stevens
DARPA 07-015      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Simulation Center in a Box
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a system to provide battalion level training in a single, airline carry-on sized package, without requiring specially trained support personnel. A system, built with portability in mind, consisting of small footprint, yet capable computing platforms, including software interfaces and improvements allowing minimal role players and no support personnel could answer this training need at home station, in transit and in the field.

STACKFRAME, LLC
455 Douglas Ave. Suite 2455
Altamonte Springs, FL 32714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 206-8908
Mr. Gene McCulley
DARPA 07-015      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Simulation Center in a Box
Abstract:We propose to leverage our experience with network administration infrastructure to prototype a system which can perform automatic multi-host configuration and enhance OneSAF to take advantage of this system.

DIGITAL ARTFORMS, INC.
15466 Los Gatos Blvd #214
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 356-9100
Mr. Jeffrey Bellinhausen
DARPA 07-016      Awarded: 7/15/2008
Title:An HTM-Based C4ISR Visualization Environment
Abstract:THE PROBLEM The modern battlefield has become overwhelmingly complex. The sheer volume of data, its multimodal, rapidly evolving, and often spatial nature dictate a new approach that allows commanders to more quickly and effectively interpret and interact with the data. While techniques are under study to automate the process, they are often ineffective in interpreting noisy, contradictory, or incomplete data. Furthermore, current architectures don't adequately support the delegation of intel gathering among human operators, nor the division of the task between human and programmatic agents. Ultimately, we need better techniques for enhancing or replacing the human operator wherever possible in battle command. THE SOLUTION We propose to incorporate and validate a cortically-inspired approach, Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) [1] , for dynamic pattern recognition in the domain of C4ISR. HTM is showing great promise in complex pattern recognition, particularly where data is incomplete or ambiguous. We propose to build an intuitive and natural visualization environment embodying this technology. The result will be an easy-to-use system that can infer the intentions of hostile forces from their movements, one that can be deployed into real-world C4ISR data environments. The result will be improved decision-making in the field.

NEXT CENTURY CORP.
7075 Samuel Morse Drive, Suite 250
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(443) 545-3151
Mr. Clark Dorman
DARPA 07-016      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Hierarchical Situation Visualization
Abstract:Next Century is proposing to research, design, and build the Command Hierarchical Intelligent Portrayal (CHIP) system, a system that will dramatically increase the complexity and scaling of the neocortical model as applied to the problem of interpreting and displaying battlefield data for commander situational awareness. We have teamed with Group W, Inc, to use STORM, a campaign-level simulation widely used across the military community, to provide data for developing and testing the CHIP system. Next Century has experience developing advanced algorithms and distributed systems, and has staff members with experience in neural modeling. Group W has experience developing and using military analytical tools, including running large-scale simulations of complex military operations. Our Phase I technical objectives focus on the design and prototyping of innovative algorithms, infrastructure, and paradigms for the application of the Memory- Predication Framework (MPF) to hierarchical visualization. Our Phase I work plan culminates with delivery of a proof-of-concept prototype that interactively demonstrates our innovative techniques and methodologies. Key innovations include: 1) multi-level, Memory-Prediction Framework application; 2) application of CHIP to a proven campaign- level simulation; 3) dynamic, intuitive display of results; and 4) improved MPF nodes and processing, including the addition of feedback mechanisms.

LOGOS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 621-9345
Dr. Geoff Hazel
DARPA 07-017      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Contextually Adaptive False Alarm Mitigation
Abstract:Logos Technologies proposes to develop a processing chain that creates local background models based on spectral and texture based features to improve the detection and false alarm performance of change detection, tracking, and target detection systems for wide area persistent surveillance. Our innovative approach extends proven methods in hyperspectral image processing to provide updatable context-dependent models that support mitigation of important sources of false alarms and track misassociation for wide area persistent surveillance data. It does not need a detailed urban model and/or complex rules for target behavior but builds models based on intrinsic properties of the scene. These rules can be combined with other context dependent factors, such as pre-existing traffic or proximity to buildings. We will provide analytic support for the approach, develop all key elements of the processing chain, and demonstrate improved performance using relevant data from EO sensors. We will develop this concept in a form applicable to sensor architectures that provide only limited spectral information, including the anticipated ARGUS-IS system. As part of our commercialization strategy, will demonstrate its applicability to future variants of the Light Hawk wide area persistent surveillance and exploitation system.

OBJECTVIDEO
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive Suite # 290
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 654-9300
Dr. Khurram Hassan Shafique
DARPA 07-017      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:A unified framework for false alarm reduction using scene context from airborne sensors
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of utilizing scene and geometric context to improve target detection in aerial videos. The key innovation in this effort is a unified framework to place localized target detection in the context of the overall 3D scene, its constituents, and activities by modeling the interdependence of targets, scene elements, scene and sensor geometry, and target-movement patterns. In addition, enabling technologies will be developed to extract relevant scene and geometric context directly from the scene observables. These include extraction of scene elements (such as, roads, vegetation, buildings), scene geometric properties (e.g., rough surface orientations, relative depths, parallax motion field), and models of spatio-temporal properties of the targets in the scene (e.g., positions, scales, traffic patterns, etc.). Extraction of context directly from videos will ensure the independence of proposed architecture from prior knowledge regarding the scene. The proposed framework will be able to ingest the output of any target detector and apply contextual information to reject detections inconsistent with the extracted context model. The Phase I effort will include: development of enabling algorithms, implementation of the framework, demonstration of proof of concept, and quantitative evaluation of the proposed technologies.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Tony Falcone
DARPA 07-017      Awarded: 11/21/2007
Title:Contextually Adaptive False Alarm Mitigation
Abstract:In aerial images collected by wide-area sensors, targets of interest such as vehicles and dismounts are extremely small compared to the footprint of the image. The limited information that can be extracted from few pixels on target often means the targets of interest can be easily confused with other objects. Commonly used target detection systems in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platforms can provide high detection rates but at the cost of high false alarm rates. Fortunately, potential objects of interest need not be viewed in isolation. Rather, when they are considered in the context of other information, many of the false alarms can be mitigated. In this effort, we propose a Machine Learning based approach to Contextual Rule Discovery for False Alarm Mitigation. A Learning Classifier System will be used to discover contextual rules of the form IF THEN , which can then be used to determine if a potential target flagged by an unreliable low level detector is indeed a true target. The Learning Classifier System must be trained to derive these rules, but we propose a method to conduct on-line automated training of the LCS without any human-in-the-loop. Contextual information is modeled through the automated generation of background class information. The system will be adaptive, in that background classes and contextual rules can be updated to deal with changes in environment during a mission. Scientific Systems Company, Inc. will be joined in this effort by Mercury Computer Systems and Dr. Robert Smith.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Andrew P. Brown
DARPA 07-018      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Computationally Efficient Parallax Processing
Abstract:Automated video processing for airborne surveillance applications requires accurate registration of the video frames. For example, change detection processing for moving target detection requires accurate frame-to-frame alignment of the image plane projections of world points. When the surveillance platform is moving, significant parallax effects are observed due to the varying ranges to and orientations of objects and surfaces in the scene. Thus, advanced algorithms are required to accurately model, estimate, and apply the registration transformations. Toyon’s approach to computationally efficient parallax processing is based on a detailed understanding of projective imaging geometry and robust statistical estimation. Besides frame registration, Toyon’s algorithms can be used to provide additional parallax mitigation capabilities, including identification and, optionally, filling in of missing data due to occlusion effects. All this is achieved with computational complexity that is linear in the number of pixels. When fully developed in commercially available hardware, this technology is expected to provide significant improvements in exploitation of aerial video surveillance data, in real time.

KITWARE
28 Corporate Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 371-3971
Mr. William Hoffman
DARPA 07-019      Awarded: 11/17/2007
Title:Wide Area Video Image Storage Techniques
Abstract:Very large aerial video collectors (VLAVCs) are of increasing interest, such as Constant Hawk, Sonoma, Angel Fire and the planned ARGUS video sensor. These sensors can generate tremendous amounts of data. This proposal addresses the issue of how to efficiently compress video streams from such sensors. The proposed approach is to represent the area under surveillance as a virtual world by automatically constructing 3D surface geometry, where VLAVC frame images are used to texture the surface. Vehicles and dismounts will be automatically tracked and placed in the virtual world creating a very low bandwidth portrayal of the video stream. The compression rates from this approach could reach 10,000:1, allowing for an increased ability to store and disseminate the data from these sensors.

LOGOS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3811 N. Fairfax Drive Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 621-9345
Dr. Geoff Hazel
DARPA 07-019      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Wide Area Video Image Storage Techniques
Abstract:Logos Technologies (Logos) will design an innovative imagery compression system capable of coding and storing airborne Wide Area Persistent Surveillance (WAPS) imagery at 20 Gigapixel/second rates (2 Gigapixel frames, 10 Hz frame rate). The proposed Logos system will co-register and combine frames from the WAPS image sequence into reference imagery, which will represent the stable background scene used by the compression coder/decoder (codec). Salient scene motion (moving vehicles, humans, etc.) will be detected by differencing frames from the reference data, and this data will be filtered, compressed, coded and stored. Frame data will be reconstructed using the reference data, frame to reference registration parameters, and the coded residual difference data. The Logos team will validate its design by building a prototype system and evaluating codec quality with standard image and motion imagery quality metrics, as well as measures based on imagery analysis tasks. Concurrent to the codec design and experimentation, Logos will specify and validate an airborne processing and storage system properly sized to the WAPS 20 Gpixel/second stream.

RNET TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
555 Bryant Street #578
Palo Alto, CA 94301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 433-2886
Dr. Gerald Sabin
DARPA 07-019      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:PAVO: Petascale Storage for High Resolution Wide Area Video
Abstract:Gigapixel cameras can generate petabits of data every hour, requiring vast bandwidth and storage in order to store the entire video sequence for offline forensic analysis. Realtime compression techniques will be developed to greatly reduce the storage requirements. Key requirements of the compression algorithm are computational power, such that the system is power and space efficient, high compression ratios and minimal artifacts. The compression algorithm will operate in a data parallel manner, allowing for very good scalability. RAID partitions will be used inorder to create large storage volumes, and to allow a configurable level of data reliability. Embedded processing elements (e.g., FPGA, FPOAs, GPUs) will be used to implement the compression algorithm in a cost and power efficient system.

BLACK RIVER SYSTEMS CO., INC.
162 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-7385
Mr. Jeffrey Brandstadt
DARPA 07-020      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:Anomaly Detection and Intelligent Sensor Resource Management
Abstract:Recent DoD programs have furthered intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) objectives by advancing the state-of-the-art in sensor resource management and target tracking. The majority of this work, however, has focused upon the problem of tracking a handful of high value targets for lengthy periods. There is a need to develop systems that detect anomalous activities that have the potential to be threatening or to be militarily significant. Such detections may result in high value target tracks, but the objective of this effort is to manage a constrained set of ISR assets to detect anomalous events. This requires the an automated resource manager to actively command sensors and modes, and to do so in a manner that de-conflicts parallel, competitive tasks. The sensor suite must simultaneously build normalcy models, detect anomalies, command sensor timeline to evaluate anomalies, and manage concurrent, high value tracks. Black River Systems proposes to develop a system architecture that manages sensor resources to execute four concurrent objectives: normalcy monitoring, anomaly detection, anomaly interrogation, and high value target track. Leveraging our tracking, sensor resource management, and simulation and modeling experience, we will demonstrate and analyze system performance through trade studies and simulations.

PARIETAL SYSTEMS, INC.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
Dr. Robert B. Washburn
DARPA 07-020      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Motion Pattern Anomaly Detection System (MPADS)
Abstract:The basic goal of this research is to improve the capability to detect, locate, and characterize emerging abnormal activities in cluttered environments based on motion pattern analysis. Parietal Systems, Inc. (PSI) proposes to do this by developing novel closed-loop pattern detection and sensor management algorithms to detect significant motion anomalies in normal background activity and to manage sensor resources to optimize anomaly detection performance. The anomaly detection algorithm will utilize techniques and results of scan statistics to process large MTI data sets efficiently without requiring well-formed tracks. This statistical approach works equally well with MTI radar, video, or other types of sensors capable of detecting moving objects. The sensor resource management algorithm will employ an innovative approach based on generalized multi-armed bandits to develop an online algorithm with minimal processing requirements. Because this approach accounts explicitly for future sensor observations, it is able to generate non-myopic resource decisions that achieve near-optimal performance. The research will also apply innovative performance analysis methods to characterize the expected anomaly detection and resource management performance of this approach as a function of sensor capabilities, resource usage, and the contrast between anomalies and normal background activity.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 268-1249
Mr. Allan Corbeil
DARPA 07-020      Awarded: 12/3/2007
Title:Anomaly Detection and Intelligent Sensor Resource Management
Abstract:Advanced UAV-based GMTI radars such as AACER and VADER offer the potential to reliably detect the anomalous behavior of both military vehicles and dismounted troops in real-time to cue narrow field-of-view EO/IR sensors and identify enemy targets amongst civilian vehicle and foot traffic. In Phase I, TSC proposes to explore a GMTI surveillance radar concept for adaptively allocating radar resources to efficiently learn specific regions and schedules of human activity. Models of normal human movement and measured human characteristics will be employed to recognize anomalies. TSC plans to exploit contextual information on populated areas and take advantage of cues including stopped vehicles to control radar waveforms and coverage areas. In Phase I, TSC will develop algorithms to operate in a challenging high density and dynamic target environment such as urban / suburban areas. TSC will extend our innovative anomaly detection algorithms, which were originally developed to recognize unusual vehicle behaviors, to find groups of dismounts which present threats. TSC will modify our existing GMTI radar simulation and scenario generator to develop and test these algorithms, and will then conduct computer experiments to evaluate their performance. In Phase II, TSC will develop a radar resource manager and prototype software for field testing using available GMTI sensors.

GOLETA STAR LLC
24085 Garnier St
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1111
Mr. Cheng Pao
DARPA 07-021      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:Ultra-Light Interlaced Active Electronically Steerable Antennas (ULI-AESA)
Abstract:Goleta Star LLC with support from academia, Quinstar and other supporting businesses proposes to develop an Ultra-Light Interlaced Active Electronically Steerable Antennas (ULI-AESA) at two frequencies to support dual shared aperture usage. There are a number of alternative solutions that will be traded off in Phase I. The baseline proposed approach balances front-end innovation and advanced back-end processing techniques to evolve a cost-effective product for relatively small size UAV applications, with weight and power goals of < 10-lbs and < 100-watts respectively. The target system provides wide FOV coverage, with wide bandwidth for high resolution SAR and potentially wideband directive communications. The Phase I tradeoff effort will enable DARPA to select a preferred approach, from among the candidate options presented, for detailed design, development and evaluation in a Phase II. Limited lab testing and demonstration will be performed during the basic Phase I effort to assist in the tradeoff analysis and option formulation.

HITTITE MICROWAVE CORP.
20 Alpha Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 590-1112
Mr. Christopher Hay
DARPA 07-021      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Conformal, Ultra-Light Interlaced Active Electronically Steerable Antenna (UL-AESA) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radar and COMINT(2007026)
Abstract:Hittite proposes to develop a small, light-weight, interlaced AESA to provide ground surveillance radar and COMINT capability from a small UAV. The development will focus initially on the Ka-band radar antenna. This thin (e.g., 85 mil), 256-element (8 x 32) 35 GHz radar array will conform to and be structurally integrated with a 1.35” x 5.4” x 0.06” section of the bottom of the fuselage. The array itself will weigh about 0.17 # and consume 36 W. Including power conditioning increases the weight to 0.4# and the power consumption to 43 W. The array will radiate 9 W average power and provide a sensitivity of 21 dB. Beams will scan at least +- 60o will sufficient agility to compensate for UAV maneuvers. The L-/S-band COMINT antenna will span 1 – 4 GHz, although only a small portion of the band will be observed at any one time. The notional 64-element array will measure 7.4” x 20.7” x 0.06” and consume less than 40 W. Its 4:1 frequency range requires evolving, wideband radiator techniques to minimize its weight. If the technology proposed for the Ka-band antenna applies to the L-/S-band antenna, then it will weigh about 4#. The active T/R circuitry will be realized in MHEMT technology for low noise figure and high PA efficiency and low power dissipation. Digital beam former circuits will be built in SiGe BiCMOS technology at IBM through DoD’s ITAR-compliant, Trusted Foundry (TF) agreement. Digital Sub-Arrays (DSAs) realized with wafer-scale antenna (WSA) technology will contain all the site-specific electronics for 64 radiating elements plus data conversion and digital beam forming. True-time delay beam forming will minimize squint. The Phase I effort will focus on a Ka-band AESA. The feasibility of realizing the AESA within the size, weight, and power (SWaP) constraints of a small UAV will be assessed. Critical circuitry will be developed during Phase II prior to fielding a complete antenna in Phase III. Interleaving the L-/S-band antenna will be considered separately.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Michael P. Grace
DARPA 07-021      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Ultra-Light Interlaced Active Electronically Steerable Antennas (ULI-AESA)
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a very lightweight, power-efficient Ku- band AESA antenna to meet the needs of small UAVs performing ISR missions over the battlefield. The antenna utilizes a space-feed to minimize antenna mass as has been proven on previous space-radar programs. The AESA electronics also utilize state-of- the-art MMICs that have been optimized for power-efficient operation. Nestled within the Ku-band antenna structure is a SIGINT/COMINT interferometer array covering most of the commercial communications bands. A series of low-frequency adjunct antennas that can be easily integrated into the UAV wings and control surfaces is also provided, allowing small swarms of similarly equipped UAVs to cooperatively geolocate tactical military radios, walkie-talkies, etc. The Ku-band arrays can then be used to image the suspected target area or to track moving emitters. The Ku-band array can also be used to communicate target data via satellite link, for maximum multi-functionality. A clever low- power digital receiver design based on COTs components is integrated into this antenna system providing scalability to various classes of UAVs.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Dr. Y. Kevin Zou
DARPA 07-022      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Optical Localization Techniques for Micro-Sensor Network Devices
Abstract:Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has been envisioned to revolutionize the way humans perceive and interact with the surrounding environment. The sensor nodes form a network and collaborate (to compensate for the extremely scarce resources available to each of them: computational power, memory size, communication capabilities) to accomplish the mission. Through collaboration, redundancy and fault tolerance, the WSN is then able to achieve unprecedented sensing capabilities. The exploitation of wireless sensor networks very often requires knowledge of the location of each device within the network. In this proposal, Boston Applied Technologies, Inc. (BATi) proposes to develop an optical wireless ad hoc localization technique for wireless sensor network. This free space optical link offers a viable alternative to RF sensor network localization and communications where wireless high performance and high security links are necessary. High data rate, small antenna size, narrow beam divergence, and a narrow field of view are characteristics of free space optical link that offer a number of potential advantages for system design.

DELLA ENTERPRISES, INC.
3425 North County Road 3
Loveland, CO 80538
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(970) 686-6898
Dr. Chris Wieland
DARPA 07-022      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Optical Localization Techniques for Micro-Sensor Network Devices
Abstract:We present a novel approach to the optical localization of remote sensors. Using a proprietary solution, we are able to determine longitude, latitude and altitude of a randomly placed remote sensor by purely optical means or by a combination of optical and RF communications techniques. Our approach is low-cost, eye-safe, stealthy, and minimizes or eliminates the need for human involvement in the localization process. Further, our approach easily handles hundreds of sensors spread over many miles of difficult terrain. Localization is quick and reliable. Our technology is easily integrated into existing and new designs for remote sensing.

OMEGA ADVANCED SOLUTIONS, INC.
1223 Peoples Avenue
Troy, NY 12180
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(518) 387-4138
Dr. Nezih Pala
DARPA 07-022      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Optical Localization Techniques for Micro-Sensor Network Devices
Abstract:In this project, we introduce novel free-space-optical (FSO) components and localization algorithms to improve the localization in MANETs to very large scales. We propose to leverage directionality of FSO communications in a cross-layer manner, to construct a virtual coordinate system, despite sparse interconnectivity of the network. A crucial benefit of FSO components is the “directional” communication capability. FSO directionality provides a way of estimating orientation of communication taking place with a neighbor. Given this orientation in addition to range estimations, it becomes possible to localize nodes of a network as long as it is connected, as only one localized neighbor node is needed. In comparison to traditional triangulation methods requiring at least three localized neighbors, this method of using both range and orientation information simultaneously achieves localization a lot more efficiently with the cost of requiring “orientation” information. We propose to use a novel 3-D spherical “optical antenna” to offer rapid, automatic discovery and tracking of line-of-sight (LOS).

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Mr. Andrew P. Brown
DARPA 07-022      Awarded: 11/21/2007
Title:Optical Localization Techniques for Micro-Sensor Network Devices
Abstract:Wireless networks of micro-sensor devices have numerous military, scientific, and commercial applications. In many cases, accurate knowledge of the locations and orientations of the devices is essential; applications include efficient packet routing, target tracking, and generally for providing context to measured data. To meet the need for accurate localization and orientation estimation, Toyon proposes to develop and demonstrate advanced technology based on controlled optical transmission and reception between the micro-sensor devices. The location and orientation estimation algorithms are based on optimal Bayesian considerations, which integrate information from multiple inter- device angle measurements, and which take into account the effects of statistical correlation between the estimation errors of the multiple devices. Notably, the algorithms are formulated to distribute the computation throughout the network to provide significant improvements in computation and communication efficiency. Ultimately, the resulting developed technology is expected to provide significant added value in micro-sensor wireless networks through improved power efficiency and localization accuracy.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5255
Dr. Wilbur Peng
DARPA 07-023      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Frameworks for Semantic Integration of Intelligent Sensor Processing Systems
Abstract:The problem of unifying symbolic knowledge and concept representations and systems with the sensor inputs from the external environment is fundamental to the development of autonomous sensor-to-symbol systems. Existing approaches do not provide ways for allowing systems to rapidly incorporate new knowledge. The proposed sensor-to-symbol framework addresses the following key capabilities: • Provides a unified approach to representation that encompasses sensor data, features, similarity representations, and classes/categories/types. • Defines an integrated architecture and system engineering approach that focuses on iterative development, adaptation, and knowledge acquisition. • Support for integration of heterogeneous computation models through model-driven system development approaches. The Phase I effort will focus on defining the key technologies, requirements and design approaches of the sensor processing framework. A key innovation of the proposed approach is that it aims to provide a unified knowledge and concept representation across all abstraction layers, paving the way towards semantic integration of large-scale machine intelligence systems. Semantic integration is a promising approach because it facilitates a system’s ability to model and describe itself and hence provides the means for adaptation and learning competencies to interact with the competencies that perform processing and reasoning.

TRACLABS, INC.
8610 N. New Braunfels, Suite 110
San Antonio, TX 78217
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(281) 461-7884
Dr. David Kortenkamp
DARPA 07-023      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Building a coherent world view from sensory data
Abstract:The number of sensors mounted on unmanned vehicles, satellites, surveillance cameras, etc. continues to grow. These sensors offer a wealth of data, but converting these sensors into a coherent, symbolic world view that is relevant to the task-at-hand is a challenge. TRACLabs Inc. is proposing to integrate the Polyscheme cognitive architecture with an agent-oriented architecture to produce a complete system for providing task- relevant, symbolic data to human stakeholders. Polyscheme is a cognitive architecture for implementing more robust intelligent systems by combining multiple kinds of data structures and algorithms. TRACLabs' agent-oriented architecture is called DCI and was developed via NASA funding to aid distributed human teams in working with autonomous systems. Our integrated system will have the capability to combine a variety of sensory data into a coherent, symbolic world view that is made available to human stakeholders and is defined by a ontology. The symbolic world view is flexible and the cognitive aspects of our system allow for new symbols and categories of symbols to be created with minimal human involvement. The result is a system that easily ties multiple human stakeholders into the cognitive system while at the same time relieving these human stakeholders of routine cognitive tasks.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
16115 SW 117th Ave. A-15
Miami, FL 33177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. David D. Li
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Novel Integrated Waveguide Optical Isolator Based on Nonreciprocal Mode Conversion
Abstract:Optical feedback into semiconductor lasers can have detrimental effects to laser stability. Optical isolators with high forward transmission and very low return are used to ensure laser stability. Conventional optical isolators including fiber coupled ones consist of a Faraday rotator, a permanent magnet, and other optical components. They work exclusively based on the non-reciprocal Faraday polarization rotation principle. These isolators and their modified waveguide version cannot satisfy monolithic integration requirement with laser array chips owing to the incompatibility of the fabrication processes and packaging (need magnet). New Span Opto-Technology proposes to develop a novel waveguide optical isolator based on nonreciprocal mode conversion rather than using magneto-optical materials. The new waveguide isolator can be fabricated on any waveguide substrate including glass, polymer, and semiconductor materials. The concept of the isolator is supported by the mode conversion theory and has been verified by the beam propagation simulation and our preliminary experiments. The Phase I research will design and develop a prototype waveguide optical isolator. The successful demonstration of the waveguide optical isolator without using Faraday effect will have significant impact to optical science and engineering, and to variety of military and commercial applications using photonic lightwave circuits for computing and communications.

PHOTODIGM, INC.
1155 E. Collins Blvd. #200
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 725-8772
Mr. David Bour
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/21/2008
Title:A1GaInAs/InP based Integrated Waveguide Optical Isolators at 1.5 microns
Abstract:The goal of this SBIR project is to demonstrate an integratable optical waveguide isolator in the InP alloy material system that can be integrated with a semiconductor laser and other photonic components. The structure of this isolator is designed to exhibit a non- reciprocal resonant loss in the presence of a magnetic field. This device can provide an isolation of 30 dB with an insertion loss of 1.56 dB with a length of 1.25 mm. A number of devices including polarizers, filters and modulators can be made and/or improved by using this Resonant-Loss-Layer Effect (RLLE). Diode lasers and amplifiers used in communication, signal processing, and computing benefit greatly if used in conjunction with isolators capable of preventing reflections from reentering the laser or amplifier. Integrated isolators would also greatly benefit a number of semiconductor lasers, laser arrays, optical amplifiers, and optical amplifier arrays that have been developed for high power application in the last few years. The biggest impact of the proposed isolator technology is that it is a key enabling technology required for large-scale photonic integrated circuits and chip-scale optical systems.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, INC.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 689-0003
Dr. Juan Montoya
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Surface Plasmon Enhanced Integrated Optical Isolator
Abstract:Integrated photonics offer the promise of combining many optical devices on a substrate, leading to miniaturization and increased functionality on a chip. Isolators are critical elements for optical systems, since backscattered light creates noise and laser source instability, particularly in integrated platforms where the potential for backscattering increases with device density. Despite the need for integrated optical isolators, practical realization of such devices is challenging due to the lattice mismatch between materials, such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG), utilized to fabricate bulk magneto-optic isolators and materials, typically InP or GaAs, used for photonic chips. To address this need, we propose to design, model, and demonstrate an optical isolator capable of producing <3dB insertion loss and >30dB isolation that can be integrated with standard III-V semiconductor materials. Our approach exploits the known property of surface plasmons waveguides to enhance the magneto-optic response in a magnetically doped III-V semiconductor.

STRUCTURED MATERIALS INDUSTRIES
201 Circle Drive North Unit # 102
Piscataway, NJ 08854
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 302-9274
Mr. Bruce I. Willner
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Integrated Waveguide Recuperative Optical Isolators
Abstract:Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI) and the Cornell Nanophotonics Group propose to develop and commercialize a new form of optical isolator which can be incorporated into integrated photonics platforms. The Recuperative Optical Isolator is of a completely new design based upon waveguide birefringence allows directionally dependent scattering, optical properties not previously used for optical isolation. Our design takes advantage of the effects of waveguide birefringence for semiconductor optical waveguides, and does not require exotic materials with strong magneto-optical properties. The recuperative optical isolator can be fabricated using standard semiconductor fabrication materials and processes. SMI proposes developing this isolator and implementing it on our silicon CMOS-compatible integrated photonics platform currently under development. In Phase I of the program we will model and refine the isolator design and in Phase II the isolator will be fabricated at a commercial CMOS foundry.

TIPD, L.L.C.
5507 N. Paseo ventoso
Tucson, AZ 85750
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 626-0936
Dr. Robert A. Norwood
DARPA 07-024      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:Integrated Waveguide Optical Isolators
Abstract:A waveguide optical isolator is proposed based on ultrahigh Verdet constant s. Prelminary measurements on these materials indicate Verdet constants with magnitudes ranging from that of YIG to that of BIG. Verdet constant measurements and waveguide loss measurements on the magneto-optic polymers will be performed to confirm feasibility for both high isolation (>30 dB) and low loss (<3 dB) operation. Excellent transparency at 1550nm is evident from thin film UV-VIS measurements. Both Faraday rotation and non- reciprocal Mach-Zehnder designs will be explored with both BPM and mode solver software. These designs will take advantage of photopatternable sol-gel cladding technology that allows for low loss coupling to optical fiber (< 0.5 dB per interface), refractive index tuning to eliminate waveguide birefringence, and increased photostability for high power applications. Wafer manufacturing economic analyses will be performed and a waveguide Faraday rotator demo will be prepared to demonstrate feasibility prior to Phase II.

APPLIED QUANTUM TECHNOLOGIES
4602 Sycamore Shoals Rd
Durham, NC 27705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 969-7571
Dr. Jungsang Kim
DARPA 07-025      Awarded: 2/5/2008
Title:Wide Field of Regard Imaging System using MEMS mirrors
Abstract:We propose an optical imaging system utilizing a pair of MEMS mirrors to achieve a wide field of regard and zooming characteristics. This system is anticipated to meet the challenging constraints put forth in this program: a total field of regard of up to 80 degrees, fast scanning speeds, and up to 5x optical zoom.

HOLOCHIP CORP.
1009 Bradbury SE, Rm 05
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 906-1064
Dr. Robert Batchko
DARPA 07-025      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Micro-Actuated Optics for Wide Field-of-View (FOV) Imaging with Random-Access Optical Zoom Capability
Abstract:Presently, scanning and zooming of imaging optics is achieved with bulky mechanical gimbals or using multiple focal plane arrays and associated optics to cover the wide field of view. These approaches are not only expensive in terms of power, size and weight, but also costly. Alternatively, the use of liquid crystal (LC) lenses, LC spatial light modulators and LC scanners in zooming and scanning systems have been extensively researched but LC’s suffer from drawbacks in terms of speed, aberrations and transmission. These limitations in zoom technology have been largely overcome with the development of Adaptive Polymer Lenses by Holochip Corporation. Holochip Corporation, in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories, has previously demonstrated compact adaptive optical zoom and aberration correction, using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLMs), LC lenses, and deformable mirrors. We have realized the benefit of eliminating the mechanical motion of static lenses and mirrors, demonstrating a significant reduction in the power and footprint of the system, and an increase in the speed of scanning/zooming. Further improvements will produce a high-speed, random-access, wide field-of-view, low-power zooming and scanning technology.

NEW SPAN OPTO-TECHNOLOGY, INC.
16115 SW 117th Ave. A-15
Miami, FL 33177
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(305) 321-5288
Dr. Jame J. Yang
DARPA 07-025      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Non-mechanical Scanning Dual-Imaging-Mode Optical Sensor
Abstract:Wide field-of-view (FOV) imaging sensors with high resolution ability have significant applications in military and commercial fields. Current methodology of employing FLIR or video imaging sensors to search and acquire potential targets is time and power consuming since continuous scanning in a wide FOV and zooming in a local interest area is performed using a gimbaled or moving mechanism. Various efforts have been placed on development of innovative imaging optics or architectures to enable rapid and random access scanning of a FPA over a wide field of regard, while reducing the size, weight, and power compared to conventional scanning technologies. These developments include micro-electro-mechanical focusing mirrors, programmable 2-axis scanning imaging micromirrors, and active pixel sensors, et al. Each technology demonstrated its advantages and weaknesses. New Span Opto-Technology Inc. proposes a new method to implement wide FOV imaging sensor by the use of simple Electro-Optical components. This is a real-time, non-mechanical scanning, and reconfigurable imaging system. It allows wide FOV surveillance with localized high resolution in interested areas. This reconfigurable system realizes fast target detection in one compact system and also overcomes the typical image-processing data throughput bottleneck. In phase I, the feasibility study of the concept design will be performed.

ZIVA CORP.
6160 Lusk Blvd C-206
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 735-2496
Dr. Anis Husain
DARPA 07-025      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:Micro-Actuated Optics
Abstract:Ziva with team member UCSD propose a ground-breaking new micro-scanning technology capable of rapid scanning over a wide Field of Regard while reducing the size, weight, and power by 10 – 100x compared to conventional scanning technologies, making it ideally suited to micro-vehicle applications, unattended ground sensors, and man-portable applications. The proposed meso-hydraulic-based technology is unique because it: • Represents a breakthrough in realization of a robust and precise pump/valve via a new 3D molding process using precision lithographic processes, enabling nL volumes to control mL volumes of liquid in a minute size and at a low cost. • Exploits “muscle wire” actuation technology which brings weight down to < 20g. • Uses a closed system filled with an incompressible fluid where volume displacement is transmitted at speed of sound, enabling fast saccades between targets/views. In Phase I, Ziva/UCSD will conduct a feasibility study for the concept design for micro-actuated optics which has the capability of 80x80 degree scan angles, with 5X optical zoom and weight of < 20g and scan time for the 80 degrees in < 30ms. We will assess the feasibility to achieve these goals by mechanical (ANSYS) and optical (ZEMAX) simulations and a demo of the principle.

INNOVATIVE MICRO TECHNOLOGY
75 Robin Hill road
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 356-4717
Dr. Jaquelin Spong
DARPA 07-026      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Reliable MEMS Ka-Band Filters
Abstract:We plan to use an innovative cantilevered MEMS switch design developed at MIT- Lincoln Labs in a tunable Ka band filter component, which performs according to the requirements of this SBIR solicitation. In conjunction with MIT and subcontractor Dr. Andy Brown, we plan to design and develop the tunable filter component and present the design to a prime DoD contractor Raytheon, L-3 or Rockwell for inclusion into their radar arrays.

MEMTRONICS CORP.
3000 Custer Road Suite 270-400
Plano, TX 75075
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(214) 552-7055
Dr. Charles Goldsmith
DARPA 07-026      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Reliable MEMS Ka-Band Filters
Abstract:In today’s dense electromagnetic environment, proper allocation and management of spectrum is an overriding concern for US military forces. The migration to higher microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies has made much needed bandwidth available for military radar and communications. This migration, however, has also highlighted the need for high-performance filtering to mitigate jamming and co-site interference. This has translated into the need for frequency-agile filters with narrow fractional bandwidth that still possess reasonable losses. To this end, this proposed program will marry the highest performance MEMS technology, that of microencapsulated, capacitive MEMS switches, with the lowest loss transmission media, that of metal waveguides. these two technologies- one old and one new- will enable tunable filters at Ka-band frequencies which overcome the present limitations of tunable filters with unloaded Qs in the range of 50-150. This novel component technology will usher in a new generation of MEMS-tuned filters with narrow bandwidths, low loss, and high intercept point. This will be of great benefit to next generation military radar and communications systems where adaptive frequency management is required.

ACREE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1900 Bates Ave. Suite G
Concord, CA 94520
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(925) 798-5770
Dr. Mike McFarland
DARPA 07-027      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:MEMS/NEMS High Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings
Abstract:The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using Micro-Electro- Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (NEMS) technologies to create high performance thermal barrier coatings (TBC) that will improve the performance, efficiency and lifetime of gas turbine engines. The goal is to produce TBCs that have better thermal barrier properties, lower diffusion rates for impurities, and better mechanical stability than today’s TBCs. Additionally, innovative design approaches will be developed that incorporate, for example, micro-cooling channels into the TBC layer using High Aspect Ratio Microscale Structures (HARMS).

SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC.
15 WARD STREET
SOMERVILLE, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 547-1122
Dr. ALLEN FLUSBERG
DARPA 07-027      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:MEMS/NEMS High Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings
Abstract:We propose to develop a potentially revolutionary technological innovation that will significantly increase the efficiency, lifetime and reliability of gas-turbine engines. Despite the tremendous improvements in coating technologies to enable huge increases in operational temperatures, continued advances using conventional, purely materials- science approaches have resulted in diminishing marginal returns in the last 25 years. The problem is that the turbine blades heat up as a result of conductive and radiative heat transport. Using MEMS-fabrication methods, we will develop a technique to imbed structure within the thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) currently bonded to turbine blades that will decrease the thermal conductivity by a factor of 2, thereby attenuating phonon transport of heat and providing the means to (1) increase turbine-blade lifetime and (2) attain considerably higher operating efficiencies by operating the engines at significantly higher temperatures. In Phase I we will (1) fully characterize and design the requisite imbedded structure; and (2) fabricate test samples and measure the decrease in their thermal conductivity. In Phase II we will demonstrate an optimal system—fabricated utilizing MEMS technology—that is designed to minimize phonon heat transport in materials that are appropriate for TBCs.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Dr. Vladimir Kochergin
DARPA 07-028      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:Superlens for 193nm Lithography
Abstract:Luna Innovations proposes to design and develop a superlens structure that will achieve 30nm resolution at 193nm wavelength for high resolution photolithography used in IC production in military and commercial applications. The unique design of the proposed superlens provides a means to overcome the problem of the absence of natural high- quality metal and sufficiently transparent dielectric materials with close absolute value of the real part of dielectric permittivity. Careful selection of the materials and fabrication processes will ensure the development of a manufacturable superlens structure. In Phase I, Luna will design the superlens and will prove the feasibility through Finite Different Time Domain modeling. A concept of the photolithography system utilizing the designed superlens will be developed. In Phase II, Luna will revise the superlens design, will fabricate a 193nm superlens and will experimentally demonstrate the resolution significantly exceeding the diffraction limit. The key components of the photolithography system employing the developed superlens will be demonstrated. The cost-effective fabrication of the superlens will be shown. By the end of Phase II a prototype superlens and an acceptable quality photolithographic process with resolution approaching 30nm will be demonstrated. In Phase III Luna will team with primes to commercialize the developed technology.

TANNER RESEARCH, INC.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 471-9700
Dr. Ravi Verma
DARPA 07-028      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:Non-contact lithography based on optical superlensing at 193 nm
Abstract:We are proposing the development of a “negative-index” material at 193 nm for use as a “superlens” for high resolution lithography. Superlensing has already been demonstrated at 365 nm, and this work will simply extend the demonstrated principles to 193 nm with a new set of materials.In Phase I, we will demonstrate this superlens with 30 nm half-pitch features, while restricting ourselves to a contact mask. In Phase II, we will extend the scheme to non-contact lithography based on superlensing at 193 nm.

IONIC SYSTEMS, INC.
2161 O'Toole Avenue Unit H
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 435-2680
Dr. Roand M. Kubacki
DARPA 07-029      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:High efficiency EO directional coupler modulator
Abstract:We have a unique approach to forming non linear optical materials. Also known as poled polymers, they are unstable and have severe and rapid degradation. We will use unique materials and a poled plasma process to produce a stable EO material with greater than 100 pm/V sensitivity and less than 1 dB/cm loss. We are able to use these low cost and highly efficient materials to fabricate a variety of devices including optical switches to direct optical data streams, optical modulators for impressing data on the light stream, or combining them with other photonic planar waveguide devices to provide wavelength agility for increased bandwidth and functionality. In photonics significant advances will require new materials and processes to achieve higher performance and lower costs. The proposed material is a new approach to DWDM providing superior performance with higher electro-optic susceptibility to reduce operating voltages and power consumed making integration to digital devices more successful than lithium niobate devices requiring hundreds of volts. We are striving for losses in the 10 dB per meter range or less in Phase 1.

LUMERA CORP.
19910 North Creek Parkway Suite 100
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 398-6528
Dr. Raluca Dinu
DARPA 07-029      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:Electro-Optic Polymer Based Ultra-Linear Directional Coupler
Abstract:EO polymer modulators have been demonstrated to operate with very low switching voltages (~0.4 V) due to the high activity of EO polymers. EO polymers also utilize spin-on fabrication processes and semiconductor like processes that allow precise device fabrication at high volumes. However, the optical loss in the state-of-the-art EO polymer material is somewhat high (3-4 dB/cm). Lumera is motivated and confident that if selected, we will develop and/or collaborate with University of Washington (UW) scientists to modify the current materials systems to demonstrate and validate EO polymer materials with high EO activity and relatively low optical loss, and develop ultra- linear, multi-sectioned directional couplers incorporating state-of-the-art, stable, high EO coefficient polymers with low optical loss.

OMEGA OPTICS, INC.
10435 Burnet Rd., Suite 108
Austin, TX 78758
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 996-8833
Dr. Alan Wang
DARPA 07-029      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:EO Polymer-based Bias-Free Highly-Linear Domain Inverted Directional Coupler
Abstract:provide a linear modulation curve good enough for a high spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) for RF photonics. In Conventional Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulators achieves a low driving voltage V to 1 volt but fails to this program, Omega Optics proposes a 1x2 Y-fed directional coupler together with a multiple domain inversion poling technique, which is exclusively available for EO polymer thin film. The 1x2 Y-fed configuration provides us with a bias-free approach while the multiple domain inversion provides the linear transfer curve with SFDR well above 121 dB/Hz, which is well above that can be provided by MZ modulator. With the availability of MORPH EO polymer having an ?33 as large as 300pm/V at 1.3 m, V < 1 volt can be easily achieved. More importantly, more sections of domain inversion can be realized to further upgrade the linearity of the transfer curve which creates significant improvement of the SFDR that is not achievable through other competing technologies. In Phase I, we will demonstrate a domain inverted polymer waveguide modulator with projected linearity and device insertion loss with a detailed plan of phase II demonstration. A traveling-wave MORPH EO polymer based modulator with 40 GHz bandwidth and fiber to waveguide coupling loss at <0.7 dB/facet will be demonstrated in phase II.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Matthew J. Miller
DARPA 07-030      Awarded: 2/15/2008
Title:TimeScan: A Scalable Wireless Imaging Sensor Network
Abstract:Wireless automated threat detection networks currently concentrate on non-imaging technology such as acoustic, seismic, and magnetic data. This proposal details our innovative “TimeScan” solution to fully enable video imaging devices to become a powerful yet economical addition to the arsenal of automatic threat detection sensors. Our solution encompasses the end-to-end goal of achieving reliable, high probability threat detection via image processing immediately at the sensor and subsequently at the network base station, with strong consideration for the networking and data distribution in between. With a systems-level perspective, we offer a powerful, practical capability to achieve very low false alarm and very high detection probability via a modular, layered, time-buffered solution that concurrently optimizes in-network data processing, cross- sensor correlation, and communication bandwidth. Modular components yield obsolescence-proof high performance at low cost. Multi-stage processing yields scalability with high system-level threat detection reliability.

WAVETEK ENGINEERING, INC.
2465 Centreville Road J17 Ste. 208
Herndon, VA 20171
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 310-7195
Mr. RICHARD KRINSKY
DARPA 07-030      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Scalable-Network Wireless Imaging Sensors for the Battlefield
Abstract:The capability of instantly transmitting images of interest from video sensors deployed in the battlefield back to the commander’s base station is an important combat operational advantage. To be able to have “extra eyes” in a combat zone is indeed the goal of any surveillance network. However, design and development of such a functional video network involves solving many technical issues. Some of these issues are day-night vision capability, power conservation, image resolution, range, line-of-sight, stealth- camouflage, robust transport protocols, video packet transmission integrity, bandwidth availability, anti-tampering and finally, an integrated video sensor system that is cost effective, as some of these components are necessarily disposable in a combat zone. In order to cover various area sizes, the video network needs to be able to expand, i.e., scalable, to meet the changing demands. This proposal presents a cohesive wireless video sensor network that would provide real-time battlefield situation awareness by instantly transmitting target surveillance images to the base station on demand or when triggered. This video sensor network can function alone, or in combination with sensor systems such as seismic, acoustic, magnetic and thermal. This network will also be scalable to meet changeable coverage requirements.

HITRON ASSOC.
12154 Darnestown Road Suite 202
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 789-1770
Dr. H. E. CHAN
DARPA 07-031      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Physically Small Superconducting Antennas
Abstract:This proposal presents a feasibility study and design of a small high temperature superconducting (HTS) antenna employing SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) technology that serve to target origination of RF energy and therefore provide accurate direction finding in a dense interference environment. The technical objectives are to design a HTS antenna that employs Josephson Junction SQUIDs. 3 devices will be formulated under this proposal for accomplishing the objective of locating RF emanation and directional finding operation in a dense environment scenario. These devices are: 1. Single SQUID Magnetometer, 2. Multiple SQUID Magnetometer, and 3. Small HTS SQUID Antenna.The HTS-SQUID antenna design concept is to use three co-located loops orthogonal superconductor loop antennas with a common center point, each connected to suitable signal processors. These processors would analyze and calculate the signals received by each of the three antennas. By measuring Hx, Hy and Hz of an incoming signal, one can deduce the amplitude and direction of arrival of the incoming signal. The concept is that the three orthogonal loops would occupy a much smaller volume, in the range of several cm. on each edge and thus could be deployed on an airborne platform.

HYPRES., INC.
175 Clearbrook Road
Elmsford, NY 10523
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(914) 592-1190
Dr. Oleg Mukhanov
DARPA 07-031      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:HF Direction Finding
Abstract:HYPRES is pleased to propose is to develop the physically small antenna Direction Finding (DF) subsystem capable of environmental noise limited reception based on SQIF technology and implemented using HTS materials. In this phase I project, we will focus on the analysis and design of the integrated SQIF antennas and low-noise amplifiers configured for HF DF applications. We will analyze and optimize DF antenna configurations capable of achieving high direction estimation accuracy of <~2 degree. The analysis will also be focused on achieving high gain, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, and spur free dynamic range. Detailed test plans will be prepared for full evaluation of these devices at a field test range

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Alex Feinman
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Gradual Revelation of Organized Information via Interactive Transmission (GROKIT)
Abstract:PowerPoint™ is ubiquitous within government, military, academic, and commercial organizations, yet has many drawbacks that impair knowledge transfer. Authors must fit information into a linear array of slide-size chunks, built from generic primitives like bullets and clipart. This organization can obscure information, and ignores the human capacity for “visual cognition.” There is no interaction support for the briefer or the audience, nor is there any support for maintaining the presentation as an evolving representation in an organization. The proposed system for Gradual Revelation of Organized Knowledge via Interactive Transmission (GROKIT) directly addresses all of these problems. GROKIT employs complementary representational levels; a structural level that establishes a nonlinear “briefing map,” and a feature level that embeds domain-specific artifacts. GROKIT simplifies the creation of quality briefings, provides the briefer with a way to monitor audience comprehension, and provides the audience with a way to annotate and explore the briefing map. GROKIT briefings will be made web-accessible so domain- specific artifacts can be reused and adapted, and so that the briefing can serve as an organization’s evolving “knowledge receptacle.” These features are informed by research on visual communication, and will improve the accuracy of representation, efficiency of transfer, and recollection of knowledge.

DEAL CORP.
266 Xenia Avenue, Suite 202
Yellow Springs, OH 45387
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 767-1900
Mr. Steven V Deal
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:CogniBrief; A Structured Presentation Tool for Rapid Knowledge Transfer
Abstract:The poor representation and communication of ideas impedes progress and can result in direct threats to life and property. It is well known that tools impact the way in which work is performed. Popular presentation support tools lend themselves to poor conceptualization and superficial analysis. They offer a poor means of transmitting knowledge even when the underlying analysis is solid and the presentation well prepared because they encourage a focus on the presenter’s ideas at the expense of the audience’s knowledge needs. Our strategy for improving knowledge transfer builds on the cognitive fundamentals of how ideas are assimilated naturally and discourages over reliance on poorly structured and mind numbing detail as induced by the linear, didactic style of current presentation tools. With our proposed approach, which is based in well- researched principles underlying the development of expertise, authors will be able to populate their presentation with considerable detail but will be encouraged, through product functionality, to base that detail on a systematic and careful analysis and to structure it so that it is contextualized to become meaningful to others during the brief and in later interactive exploration of the briefing material.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5901
Dr. Marc Abrams
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer
Abstract:Using our 50+ person-years of experience with presentation briefing for Fortune 500 companies and DoD, XML processing, and HCI tool design, we aim to dramatically improve the effectiveness, analytic quality, and accuracy of conveying complex ideas, plans, quantitative analysis, and concepts through asynchronous or synchronous briefings. We make a major departure from the linear slide model of presentation that predates computers. Through a notion of domain-specific vocabularies – visualization components that are matched to information needs either manually through best practices or automatically via cognitive learning – we provide uAuthor, a tool to create a network of briefing components described in an XML meta-language, BriefM. The next innovation is to provide an interactive briefing agent, called uExchange, which both the briefer and the audience run on their own machines. Different audience members can see their own view of the doc. Briefings can be annotated with uExchange, so that the briefing is a living document available that records the thought process and any decisions from the community exposed to the briefing. Vocabularies can be designed that are specific to the Army, Navy, companies, industries, and so on, to provide standard and proven components as the basis of all briefings.

INTELLIGENT MODELS, INC.
10303 Sweetwood Ave
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 401-9746
Dr. Yuri Levchyk
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Strategic Interactive Narration and Presentation Tool (SINAPT)
Abstract:In a world of increasingly complicated ideas, stakeholders need to rapidly, accurately, and effectively communicate ideas to audiences. Three main types of problems detract from this communication. First, the neural structure of the brain inhibits learning through several mechanisms. Second, audience understanding is partly dependent on interaction with the presenter and other members and buy-in to the contents of the presentation. Presentation tools often fail to provide this. Third, presentations often fail due to a presenter’s failure to account for attributes such as culture and preferred modalities. To these three problems, SINAPT will present a three-pronged functionality: (1) algorithms to evaluate and improve presentations to conform to cognitive learning principles such as flashbulb memorization and memory consolidation; (2) it will allow both presenter and audience to interactively navigate through a modified and extended concept map of the presentation, so that participants aree able to alter the presentation in real-time and take home a interactive copy of the presentation at the end; (3) it will allow one to automatically test a presentation against a simulated or real audience and provide feedback to improve the presentation. Through these three functionalities, SINAPT can greatly assist both presenter and audience with communication of ideas.

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
3250 Ocean Park Blvd. Suite 100
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 581-5440
Dr. Azad M. Madni
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 1/10/2008
Title:RAIDER™: Rapid and Accurate Idea Exchange and Retention
Abstract:Current presentation-oriented methods of communicating complex ideas, plans and analysis results are not conducive to rapid idea transfer and retention. In particular, the way office productivity tools such as PowerPoint are used today violate the human’s cognitive style, processing limitations, and tenets of the learning sciences. This project is concerned with dramatically enhancing the transfer and retention of complex ideas, plans and high quality analyses by exploiting information design principles to replace a presentation only paradigm with a combination of mass briefing and active essay usage paradigm. Phase I of this effort will result in: novel, realizable information design concepts that are sensitive to the needs of authors, briefers, and audiences; a focused prototype that conveys solution approaches to the most challenging aspects of the problem; and a feasibility, usability and utility validation through illustrative use cases and operational concepts.

KITENGA CO.
2195 Tahoe Circle
Tracy, CA 95376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(209) 834-1270
Mr. Mark Davis
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Ofamind Informer: A New Information Design for Briefings and Presentations
Abstract:PowerPoint has emerged as the de facto tool in military, business and academic briefings and presentations. Still, organizations have increasingly called into question PowerPoint’s limitations even as its usage has become widespread. The technology has been criticized for being overused, for simplifying complex ideas, and even for contributing to Space Shuttle failures. Overcoming these limitations requires radically rethinking the way that briefings and presentations are authored, disseminated and reused. We have developed a new model for authoring presentations and briefings called Ofamind Informer that has the potential to improve the speed and quality of those presentations by enhancing the authoring process and preserving the information context that informed the author. The methods we plan to use build on deep research in cognitive psychology, human-computer interaction and information design, and will result in early proof-of- concept designs and prototypes that demonstrate key functions of the proposed system.

PERIGEAN TECHNOLOGIES LLC
8108 Lee Jackson Circle
Spotsylvania, VA 22553
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 429-8126
Mr. Brian Moon
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer
Abstract:This proposal offers a revolution in the way that we think about capturing and sharing human thought. We submit that improvements in the rapidity and accuracy of transfer of human thought will follow naturally when the initial transfer is done right – that is, when knowledge is first made meaningful and objective. Concept Maps are a graphical display of knowledge that is comprised of concepts connected by directed arcs encoding brief relationships between pairs of concepts. These relationships usually consist of verbs, forming propositions or phrases for each pair of concepts. Drawing on the basic characteristics of concept mapping, new approaches for the presentation of human thought are currently being developed by our team. This proposal seeks to build upon the current capabilities for creating Concept Maps offered by CmapTools, and through this research our team will develop revolutionary ways to improve rapid and accurate idea transfer. Most importantly, we have already identified a Commercialization Strategy and are working closely with a commercialization partner.

SMART INFORMATION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, D/B/A SIFT
211 N 1st St. Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(612) 716-4015
Dr. Christopher A. Miller
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:Kulit – A Workflow for High Resolution Communications
Abstract:The Kulit communication software breaks free of the foil on an overhead projector model, with an efficient flexible workflow that goes from the author to the audience. Kulit emphasizes a tactical approach to creating an effective communication, by thinking about what message needs to be communicated, brainstorming about the message content, and then providing the author expert guidance to ensure all the important points are covered in a logical order. Kulit guides, but never limits what an author can do. The final Kulit document is embedded with hyperlinks to original sources, and semantic markers. The semantic markers are a byproduct of the brain-storming stage, but the markers allow Kulit to “know” about sections of the document without forcing the author to enter obscure markup language. The markers allow Kulit to present the document differently based on need. Kulit can present one version on a screen for an audience, and a synchronized high-resolution version on the audience’s laptop customized for their role and task. Kulit ensures the audience gets what it needs out of the communication, before during and after the presentation. Kulit allows meeting time to be spent on tactical interaction with the speaker.

STOTTLER HENKE ASSOC., INC.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., STE 360
San Mateo, CA 94404
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 545-1478
Mr. Terrance Goan
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 11/29/2007
Title:Aggregating Presentation Design Knowledge to Improve Idea Transfer
Abstract:Rapid and effective knowledge transfer is essential to timely and effective decision making in organizations of all types and sizes. We propose an innovative approach that will overcome the primary challenges to the rapid and accurate presentation of ideas, analysis, and plans. At the core of the proposed PresentWell system is a just-in-time authoring aid that will support users in the selection and application of principles and patterns for briefing design. Through a natural human-system dialog, this aid will incrementally elicit the user’s intent as well as gather important contextual information (e.g., available presentation time and the profile of the target audience). With this information the aid will be able to guide the user in the selection of appropriate presentation elements as well as the overall organization of the presentation. During the briefing PresentWell will provide real-time guidance to the presenter regarding how to best utilize their remaining time. Finally, we will explore the potential for judiciously collecting real-time feedback as a means for providing the presenter with an awareness of the uncertainties of the audience. In Phase I we will build a prototype to prove the feasibility of this approach.

SYSTEMIC MANAGEMENT SCIENCE CORP.
P.O. Box 4283
Charlottesville, VA 22905
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 249-3012
Mr. Jae W. Pak
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer
Abstract:The consequences of inaccurate idea transfer in the armed forces as well as diplomatic and commercial realms can be quite dire with loss of lives and assets of national and international significance. Thus, an innovative R&D effort is proposed to investigate the feasibility of a briefing software program that can be used to rapidly and accurately communicate complex ideas, plans, and high-quality analyses. Within the timeframe of this phase, this firm will complete its existing prototype and test it for efficacy and preference with graduate students as the presenters and college students as the audience. The prototype software will be compared against Microsoft PowerPoint 2007. Phase 1 feasibility will be claimed if the prototype demonstrates measureable efficacy improvement over PowerPoint.

Teknowledge Corporation
1800 Embarcadero Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 578-5350
Neil Goldman
DARPA 07-032      Awarded: 3/17/2009
Title:Presentation Webs
Abstract:The predominant mode of presentation in most government, business, and academic settings confines itself to limitations originating in the technology of the overhead projector and hand-drawn transparency. Although software applications, such as PowerPoint, have facilitated the creation of such presentation material, and electronic projectors have eliminated the use of a physical medium, format and content of the material presented are dominated by assumptions from the overhead era: that all audience members are viewing the same material at the same time; that they are viewing the material projected at a distance far greater than ordinary reading distance; and that audience members will view material in the order predetermined by the presenter. Our presentation paradigm takes advantage of technology widely available in today's meeting venues: audience members with laptop computers with high-resolution displays, communicating over a high bandwidth network. Electronic presentation materials can be actively navigated by audience members during the presentation, as well as after the presentation ends. The presentation tool will be aware of the presentation's content, allowing purpose-guided navigation and reorganization to produce dynamically determined comparisons of interest.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
DARPA 07-033      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:A Linked, Integrated Visualization System for IO (LIVIO)
Abstract:Numerous advances have been made to provide the Commander with visualizations of the physical spatio-temporal battlespace, but efforts to visualize Information Operations (IO) concepts are lacking. While physical, kinetic operations map naturally to particular visual elements (e.g., maps, symbols, timelines), the factors (and the relationships among factors) considered in IO do not have such straightforward visual analogues. One promising approach is to provide an accessible interface for the Commander to visualize patterns of causal relationships between ill-defined IO concepts and their observable, kinetic effects. We propose to design and demonstrate a Linked, Integrated Visualization System for IO (LIVIO) to represent causality within IO and integrate those representations into kinetic visualizations. Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a work domain analysis on a specific scenario to develop a structured categorization of unobservable concepts in IO that warrant symbolic representation. Second, we will develop a symbology for the identified IO concepts. Third, we will design accessible user interfaces to enable the visualization of causal patterns and integrate these causal visualizations with existing kinetic visualizations. We will leverage our team’s expertise in UI design and the development of empirically validated visualization systems to rapidly design the proposed system.

PERCEPTRONICS SOLUTIONS, INC.
3527 Beverly Glen Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 461-9150
Dr. Amos Freedy
DARPA 07-033      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Common Operating Picture for Information Operations
Abstract:A growing challenge for Joint Forces commanders concerns the integration of information operations (IO) capabilities and resources into an overarching campaign strategy relevant to the full spectrum of operations, from the strategic down to the tactical level. Perceptronics Solutions, Inc. and the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories, joined by consultants Dr. Robert Jacobs and CPT Jesse Sellars (USA Ret), are pleased to present this proposal to develop an innovative, cognitively-based methodology for providing a common digital operating picture (DICOP) for information operations (IO). Our technical objective is to apply recent advances in cognitive engineering, cultural modeling and command and control display technology to create a new information display infrastructure that meets the pressing needs of IO planning, monitoring and evaluation. The Perceptronics Solutions team is uniquely qualified to execute a well-planned and executed SBIR project that has both sound scientific grounding and the technology necessary to assure a successful proof-of-concept demonstration, with subsequent full development and transition to operational systems –in both the military and non-military applications. Our team has already made significant progress toward achieving the project goals, and our technical approach is based on innovative research and development products already contributed by our team members.

BOSTON APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
6F Gill Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-2800
Dr. Pi-Ling Huang
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 2/14/2008
Title:Upconverting Films
Abstract:Recent advances in the single wavelength excitation to induce upconversion emission in transparent colloids of Lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals provide the opportunity for significant performance in biological tagging applications. For many military missions, a cost-effective, ultra-compact, passively infrared detection is also required to take advantage of the weak fluorescence. Upconversion has been shown to be an efficient way to generate visible radiation because high pumping density is not required. Boston Applied Technologies, Inc. (BATi) proposes a multi-wavelength up conversion responsible material made by rare earth-ions co-doped SiO2 glass film that can fulfill the requirement of this solicitation and also provide a method to explore how to improve photon collection and conversion efficiencies, dynamic range, sensitivity, image formation, and resolution, and would enhance efforts in developing tactical optical systems.

IPITEK
2330 Faraday Avenue
Carlsbad, CA 92008
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1010
Dr. De Yu Zang
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 3/26/2008
Title:2D OLED Array Using High Upconversion Efficiency Nanoparticles for Directly Converting IR to Visible Light
Abstract:Based on recent advancement in high upconversion efficiency rare-earth-element (REE) nanoparticles and their application in organic polymer LEDs (OLED), IPITEK, teamed with Prof. Andrew Steckl of the University of Cincinnati, proposes a novel two-dimensional OLED Array (2D-OLEDA) to address dual use infrared (IR) sensing and detection needs. The 2D-OLEDA represents a new generation IR detection system, incorporating novel REE-nanoparticles with high upconversion efficiency into OLED device structures. The proposed 2D-OLEDA system will combine many attractive new features: a) ultra- compact and light weight compatible with a goggle-type lenspiece in less than 50 grams; b) low-power consumption; c) highly transmissive at visible wavelengths; and d) cost- effective. Phase I will address feasibility and assess detection sensitivity, selectivity, spatial, temporal and radiometric resolution, visible spectrum transmissivity, and fabrication technology. Phase II will develop the materials and methods to demonstrate a proof of concept lenspiece.

MESOLIGHT, LLC
4301 West Markham Street
Little Rock, AR 72205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 799-3368
Dr. Yunjun Wang
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Upconverting Films
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will develop highly bright and stable doped nanocrystal/polymer nanocomposite thin film as light up-converting medium for infrared light visualization applications. Upconversion of higher energy light from lower energy radiation are realized through the use of trivalent lanthanide ions, actinide ions, or transition metals doped in a solid-state host. Oxides and halides are the two commonly used hosting materials for upconversion ions. In halides, the nonradiative rate is low and the upconversion luminescence efficiency is high. However, many halides are sensitive to moisture and unstable in air. Oxides are stable in air, but the upconversion of oxides is usually very low due to the rapid relaxation induced by large phonon energy. In this SBIR project, several doped semiconductor nanocrystals with the high upconversion efficiency and stability will be developed as the upconversion medium. These nanocrystals will be dispersed into optically transparent polymer matrices through an in situ polymerization process to form an upconversion thin film that can be used in infrared visualization instruments.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics & Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alexander Parfenov
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Infrared to Visible Light Upconversion by Nano-Structures Confined in Microporous Alumina
Abstract:To meet the DARPA need for innovative technologies to directly convert infrared incident light into visible bands, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop new advanced Infrared to Visible light Upconversion by Nanostructures (IRVUN) upconverting material and fabrication technology. IRVUN contains a microporous alumina film with luminophore nanoparticles impregnated into pores and transparent electrodes on both sides of this film, connected to a bias voltage source. One electrode creates Schottky contact with the luminophore material, while the other creates ohmic contact. Because of its unique material structure IRVUN will be very efficient and sensitive in upconversion from the IR (2-3 microns) into the visible and can be tailored to be spectrally selective in desired IR and corresponding visible bands with high spatial, temporal, and radiometric resolution. The material will also have 70 percent visible transmission in a thin film form, applicable to a curved substrate. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the IRVUN for IR-to-visible light conversion by analysis and by fabricating IRVUN samples. In Phase II we will advance the development of IRVUN materials and methods of fabrication, and demonstrate IRVUN as a lenspiece for ballistic protective goggles.

QUSEMDE (FORMERLY MESO.D)
101 Industrial Road, Unit 14
Belmont, CA 94002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 551-0328
Dr. Wayne Richardson
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Detection of Infrared Radiation and Upconversion using Semiconductor Nanostructures
Abstract:The goal of this investigation is demonstration of the feasibility of a new class of extremely sensitive detectors of infraRed (IR) radiation. As is well known, it has proven to be very difficult to improve the sensitivity of IR detectors. In the last few years there have been tremendous advances in the fabrication of silicon nanostructures and arrays of nanotubes. Single-electron transport effects, and the infrared properties of nanotubes have been measured. There has also been progress in the theory and modeling of electrical and optical properties of nanoscale mosfets and nanotubes. Here we propose to use the unique characteristics of carbon nanotubes to design sensitive detectors and detector arrays for the IR. In addition the IR to optical conversion characteristics of arrays of nanotubes will be specified. A novel IR detector that is based on silicon nanoscale mosfets will also be presented. And the feasibility of IR to optical conversion using nanoscale silicon devices will be investigated. In phase I, the contribution of the different detection mechanisms will be determined. Analysis of the detector's noise, bandwidth, and detectivity will be included. The design will be specified as well as the steps in the fabrication process.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. David Schut
DARPA 07-034      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Upconverting Films
Abstract:In this Phase I program, an infrared-sensitive visibly-clear, optical-grade material, capable of upconverting (UC) infrared (IR) scene information into three visible wavelengths will be developed. Ballistic protection goggle-compatible laminates, easily incorporated into swappable lenses, will be made from visibly-transparent semiconductor nanostructures that are sensitized with infrared upconverting additives. In order to generate a thin film for IR detection, nanostructure surface functionalization will be performed to provide matrix- element compatibility and promote UC efficiency. To optimize detectivity and UC efficiency, in Phase I, we will synthesize the nanocrystals and UC materials. Using an orthogonal design experiment, the detector sensitivity, spectral response, optical clarity, visible- spectrum transmissivity, and fabrication technology of the thin-film IR-sensitive UC appliqué will be optimized. Working with an industrial glass laminate manufacturer, we will design the materials to be compatible with optical grade polycarbonate lens that can be can be interchanged quickly for increased situational awareness, yet provide best-in- class protection. The appliqué will have a total weight less than 50 grams and will provide greater than 70% visible transmission, while converting at least three non-visible spectrum bands into different visible spectral wavelengths. In Phase II, these materials and will be demonstrated in a proof-of-concept goggle lens.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8167
Mr. Mark Fowler
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Design of Negative Index Metamaterials for the Visible Spectrum
Abstract:Optical imaging systems are used extensively in everyday life for military and civilian applications. Just like any other technology there is always a push to improve the performance over what is the current state of the art. Unfortunately, all optical systems are constrained by the fundamental limit of diffraction. This constraint limits the resolution of a system to approximately half of the illumination wavelength. One can adjust design elements of a system to increase resolution however, due to operating specifications these parameters are not available to change. A new class of materials, called negative index of refraction (NIM), is being developed to overcome the diffraction limit. Digital Fusion Solutions, Inc. proposes to develop a negative index of refraction material that is designed for the visible spectrum using transparent metallo-dielectric photonic band gap technology coupled with a far-field superlens grating.

DMS TECHNOLOGY, INC.
2905 Westcorp Blvd. Suite # 220
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 536-4346
Dr. Aniruddha Achari
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Metamaterials Lens
Abstract:We provide a novel approach to realizing negative index lenses and lenslet arrays at optical frequencies using a naturally occurring material such as cis-vitamin A, a constituent in some commercially available cod-liver oils. This form of vitamin A has been recently found in the eyes of lobsters and hypothesized to be responsible for negative index lensing in their superposition eyes. The proposed work will comprise devising simple experiments to determine propagation of light through a mixture of positive and negative index material, fabrication of lenses and lenslet arrays using a periodic deformable wire mesh, and evaluating these lenses using a novel z-scan technique recently developed for linear PLZT microlenses. In the process, we also aim to determine the role of possible chirality which may be responsible for the negative index in such biological materials. We also propose to use the method to determine the amount of negative index material in a mixture, which may be important in testing available forms of naturally occurring materials for their cis-vitamin A content, recently hypothesized to treat autism.

DYMAS RESEARCH, INC.
22 Pond View Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-4464
Dr. Wei Hu
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 2/23/2008
Title:Metamaterials Lens
Abstract:Scientists have made a lot of efforts to achieve subwavelength imaging or super- resolution imaging with a slab of metal film. It is very hard to obtain far-field super- resolution image in the visible range. In this SBIR program, we will carry out theoretical and experimental study on super-resolution imaging using novel transparent structures. We are confident that this proposed study will provide a promising solution to achieve far- field super-resolution image in the visible range.

GALILEO SYSTEMS
2229 Larimer St.
Denver, CO 80205
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 984-7490
Mr. Wil McCarthy
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 4/28/2008
Title:Metamaterials Lens
Abstract:Through the use of nanopatterned metal electrodes on top of semiconductor quantum wells, it is possible to produce tunable quantum dot arrays that operate at room temperature, and at energies appropriate for absorption and emission in the NIR-optical range. Such devices have unique application as both tunable upconverting films and tunable metamaterials, as well as tunable emitters (e.g., LEDs) and absorbers (e.g., filters).

LUTRONICS
1236 Lawn Lake Trl
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 387-9685
Dr. Yalin Lu
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Negative Refraction Superlattice Super Lens
Abstract:A new superlattice negative index material concept is proposed. Such a NIM superlattice offers the uniqueness toward realizing the negative refraction in optical frequencies, a planar architecture for making future super lens, and a great frequency tunability for making other tunable photonic components.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. Richard O. Claus
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 2/23/2008
Title:Bottom-Up Self-Assembly of Visible Wavelength Metamaterials
Abstract:This program would investigate the feasibility of molecular-level “bottom-up” chemical processing to form metamaterials for operation in the visible and near-IR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) processes would be used to pattern multilayer arrays of straight and curved conducting segments dimensioned to resonantly absorb electric and magnetic field components. ESA has been used through prior work to manufacture multilayered and patterned materials with controlled multiple constitutive properties, specifically high electron transport efficiency. Resonant segments would be formed from sparse arrays of individual metal nanoclusters. Electron transport in such arrays occurs by quantum mechanical electron hopping rather than by conventional drift field mechanisms such as those in bulk metal conductors; NanoSonic’s Metal Rubber™ is an example of a material that exhibits such behavior. Two “top-down” photolithographic patterning methods would be studied for integration with the self- assembly process, as an alternative to strictly patterning at the molecular level. The bottom-up and top-down processes would be compared in terms of resonant element patterning resolution and array periodicity, and the ability to potentially transition to large area spatial formats. Measurements of material properties, patterning resolution and far- field propagation would be used to downselect the optimal process for further development.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Xiaowei Xia
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 3/13/2008
Title:Tunable Achromatic Metamaterials Imaging Lens
Abstract:To address the DARPA need for a metamaterials-based lens capable of imaging beyond the diffractive limit in the far field at visible wavelengths, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Tunable Achromatic Metamaterials Imaging Lens (TAMIL) based on a metamaterial slab of periodic layers of polymer and liquid crystals (LC). The innovation in the design, nanostructured metamaterials layers incorporating LC, will enable the device to achieve achromatic imaging of far field objects with subdiffraction resolution. The device will operate over the tunable visible wavelength range with a simple application of low voltage to the device within microsecond time. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of TAMIL by completing a theoretical design, identifying a fabrication process, and fabricating and testing a conceptual prototype. In Phase II POC plans to further refine the TAMIL design to develop a reliable, practical metamaterials-based lens for super-resolution civilian and military biomedical imaging and other applications.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Keith Higginson
DARPA 07-035      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:3-Dimensional Isotropic Metamaterials Lens(1001-124)
Abstract:Triton Systems’ team proposes to identify and develop a metamaterials-based lenses system capable of imaging beyond the diffraction limit in the visible spectrum. The use of negative index of refraction to resolve features beyond the diffraction index limit has been demonstrated for wavelengths outside of the visible. Triton’s team will expand the theory and experimentally demonstrate metamaterials-based systems that will allow far-field resolution of features beyond the diffraction limit in the visible spectrum. Phase I will demonstrate the theoretical capability supported by experimental results, while in Phase II the lens system will be further refined and developed to show an array element.

ASHWIN-USHAS CORP., INC.
206 Ticonderoga Blvd.
Freehold, NJ 07728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 462-1270
Dr. Prasanna Chandrasekhar
DARPA 07-036      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Unique, Highly IR- and Visible-Reflective, Highly Stretchable Membranes For Reflective Sights, Adapted From IR Electrochromics Technology
Abstract:In prior, unrelated work at this firm in IR electrochromics, unique, highly flexible/stretchable Au-coated membranes have been developed which have very high IR reflectance (nearly 100% in the 2.5 to 25 micron region) as well as Vis-NIR reflectance (ca. 99% in the 0.5 to 2.5 micron region). These membranes show no effects of extreme physical abuse (bending, flexing, stretching, dropping, shock) and have very wide operating temperature ranges ((-) 70 to (+) 175 C). A proprietary property of these membranes gives them the unique metal adhesion and high IR reflectance. This technology will be adapted in the present work to highly flexible, stretchable, membranes based on polysiloxanes or similar polymers. Preliminary work done specifically for this proposal (data herein) shows highly flexible, durable, highly IR-reflective Au/PDMS membranes that retain all their properties on > 70% flexure. Proposed Phase 1 work will fabricate, optimize these membranes, with Au, other metals (e.g. Ag, Pt), using a number of variables. An optical device (reflective telescopic sight) will be fabricated and its projection of an image at various F numbers, focal lengths and apertures recorded in the Visible and IR. A detailed design, including control electronics for optical and electronic zoom, will also be arrived at.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8117
Dr. Michael W. Jones
DARPA 07-036      Awarded: 2/6/2008
Title:Optically Reflecting Flexible Membrane
Abstract:Military imaging optics, such as rifle scopes, spotter scopes, and optics found on unmanned vehicles could be substantially better if the mechanical movement of optics for focus and zoom could be eliminated, without creating new problems associated with the rugged and harsh environment. The technology of liquid lenses has surfaced as a possible solution, but these lenses have problems with environment and limited wavelength range. Other materials and techniques must be investigated in order to meet the environmental requirements and spectral requirements simultaneously. For a single optic to cover the broadband range desired (0.4 to 5 µm), the idea of reflective optics comes to the forefront. The optic must be physically flexible in order to change its shape (curvature/focus), and be actuated by some non-mechanical means. This leads to the investigation of several classes of materials such as magnetostrictive and electrostrictive substrates and films to accomplish this task.

LUMA SYSTEMS, INC.
171 Clouse Lane
Granville, OH 43023
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(740) 587-1600
Dr. William C. Dickson
DARPA 07-036      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:Optically Reflecting Flexible Membrane
Abstract:Luma Systems proposes the development of a novel autofocus and zoom technology for telescopic imaging systems. The proposed technology is designed to address the increasing need in military optical and imaging systems for a rapid autofocus and zoom capability spanning the visible and IR wavelengths from 0.4 μm to 5.5 μm. Applications include riflescopes, spotter scopes, imaging for missiles, UAV-based overhead surveillance, land-based surveillance for unattended sensors/motes, robotics, and laser pointing and designating. Currently, autofocus and zoom are performed by moving bulky lenses mechanically. The proposed technology would satisfy the military need for a rapid autofocus and zoom capability from visible wavelengths to far IR with no moving parts.

GEOPHEX LTD.
605 Mercury Street
Raleigh, NC 27603
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 839-8515
Dr. Stephen Norton
DARPA 07-038      Awarded: 10/25/2007
Title:Wireless Power Transmission with Electromagnetic Inductive Coupling
Abstract:This project addresses the problem of the wireless transfer of power between a source and nearby mobile platform such as a robotic vehicle. The primary objective of this research will be to design and evaluate, by analysis and computer modeling, an inductively-coupled system consisting of an optimally-designed configuration of transmitting coils to maximize the coupling efficiency though a target receiving coil. In particular, the concept of “inductive focusing” or “flux focusing” will be explored. Briefly, this is the idea of controlling the currents in a set of concentric transmitting coils to “concentrate” the magnetic flux through a receiver coil. That is, the transmitter is designed to maximize the flux linkage through the receiving coil while minimizing the flux elsewhere. This can be done by selecting the currents in the coils to reinforce the field linking the receiving coil while simultaneously canceling the fields outside of this coil. This can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem. The advantage of this approach is that minimal power is wasted due to the induction of currents in conducting material outside the target coil.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. James Goldie
DARPA 07-038      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:Wireless Power Transmission with Electromagnetic Inductive Coupling
Abstract:DARPA topic DARPA 07-038 initiates development of devices that will employ inductive electromagnetic coupling to efficiently transmit power wirelessly over “short to medium” distances, citing a number of advantages relative to other methods, including (1) no requirement for an unobstructed line-of-sight or precision tracking between the transmitter and receiver, (2) reduced vulnerability to interference, (3) reduced size and weight relative to directed radiation, and (4) the ability to simultaneously distribute power to multiple receivers. Phase I will evaluate the feasibility and performance possible with the inductive power transmission over distances as large as 10 m. Specific applications will be considered, including small clustered satellites that range from nano- and pico- satellites (< 10 kg) to mini-satellites (< 500 kg), with corresponding characteristic dimensions of 10 cm to 1m, respectively. During Phase I the project team will (1) develop a parametric analytical/computational model for efficiency and transmitter/receiver sizing; (2) perform size/weight vs. efficiency tradeoffs to find optimum transmitter and receiver geometries for two disparate satellite cluster applications; (3) identify the practical system elements necessary to achieve optimized performance, and (4) perform prototype testing to demonstrate performance under realistic conditions, including the presence of nearby ferromagnetic and conductive materials and motion of the receiver.

RADIO-HYDRO-PHYSICS LLC
364 Patteson Drive, Box 287
Morgantown, WV 26505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 384-6602
Dr. Douglas G. Currie
DARPA 07-039      Awarded: 12/19/2007
Title:A Sensor for Relative Position and Attitude Determination
Abstract:Design miniaturized sensor based on Dispersed Fourier Transform Spectrometer ("DFTS") technology to provide 3-space position and attitude determination between host and target satellites. The DFTS has demonstrated a capability to establish orbital accuracies in near-real-time at an accuracy of 0.5 meters in range as well as position against the plane of the sky. Even higher accuracies are anticipated using the DFTS without the encumbrance of the turbulent atmosphere. An active laser illuminator, and CCD camera will complement the Michelson-interferometer, metrology sub-system, and diffraction grating of the DFTS to achieve these positional accuracies.

TETHERS UNLIMITED, INC.
11711 N. Creek Pkwy S., Suite D113
Bothell, WA 98011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(425) 486-0100
Mr. Nestor Voronka
DARPA 07-039      Awarded: 11/8/2007
Title:Multi-Axis Doppler Direction Finder System for Relative Position and Attitude Determination
Abstract:The interest in formation and cluster-based satellite applications has grown considerably in recent years, especially as launch costs have dropped and the availability of secondary rides have increased. Unfortunately, the realization of these applications has proven difficult because of challenges such as station keeping and collision avoidance. In this proposed Phase I effort, TUI will demonstrate the performance of a relative attitude and position sensor that uses a unique combination of omni-directional antennas, Doppler direction finding techniques, and a deeply integrated ranging channel. Previous experiments done by TUI indicate that angular accuracy will easily exceed +/- 0.5 degrees while ranging measurements are expected to be at least +/- 10 cm. Because of the short distances typically used in formation-based micro-satellite applications, the power requirements—and hence the mass and volume requirements—will be relatively small. The performance-to-cost ratio of the proposed sensor is also expected to be quite high due to the use of readily available, low power RF components and high-speed digital logic. This will allow easy integration of the sensor into nano and micro-satellite platforms, facilitating the development of clustered spacecraft systems such as formation flying synthetic apertures and fractionated spacecraft architectures.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Mr. Nathan D. Richards
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 10/18/2007
Title:Novel Actuation and Control for Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC) Shallow-Water Behavior
Abstract:Military operations in littoral and riverine environments are increasingly important, and unmanned underwater riverine craft (UURC) are likely to play a key role in such operations providing surveillance, delivering payloads (including human divers), etc. Operation in the riverine environment, however, presents a number of unique difficulties, including tidal variations, complex currents and turbulence, suspended sand and particulates, changing bottom conditions, moving obstacles, etc. To perform complex missions in this environment, UURC systems will require innovative effectors, intelligent control methods, and advanced sensors. The proposed plan of research seeks to develop (a) novel effectors and combinations of diverse effectors suitable for maneuvering in the riverine environment, (b) intelligent control methods that learn about the vehicle and environment, adapt to changes, and coordinate action among the diverse effectors, and (c) intelligent path-planning methods that can string together key behavioral primitives (swim, crawl, hover in turbulence, sleep, etc.) in a way that minimizes power consumption and maximizes the probability of successful completion of the UURC mission. It is anticipated that the result will be a set of key enabling technologies that can be applied to a wide range of future UURC systems.

INTELLITECH MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
4931 Tesla Drive Suite B
Bowie, MD 20715
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 860-0825
Dr. Prashanth Krishnamurthy
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 11/20/2007
Title:An Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC) with Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance Capability
Abstract:In this Phase I effort, two key technologies in developing an Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC) are targeted. The first key technology is the vehicle and the second key technology addressed is the navigation, path planning, and obstacle avoidance system for the vehicle. IntelliTech Microsystems, Inc. is teaming with the BAE Systems proposing an innovative and proprietary navigation and obstacle avoidance system for a recently developed state of the art vehicle by BAE Systems. During the Phase I effort, the UURC navigation, path planning, and navigation, situational awareness, and obstacle avoidance technologies, including the overall system architecture, sensors and sensor data processing algorithms, obstacle avoidance rules, logic and computational algorithms, and interfaces with the auto-pilot will be considered. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept by model development and extensive simulation studies performed for the actual vehicle by BAE Systems. Phase II will involve validation and testing of the complete navigation and OAS system in sea trials in shallow water utilizing the UURC by BAE Systems.

LEEOAT CO.
2631 Colibri Lane
Carlsbad, CA 92009
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 438-1439
Dr. Eli Wiener-Avnear
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Micromachined Forward-Looking Sonar Sensor for Unmanned Shallow Underwater Vehicles
Abstract:In Phase I of the SBIR program, LEEOAT Company will develop the autonomous forward looking sensor for unmanned shallow underwater vehicles. Based on its patented micromachining processes and aerospace technologies, LEEOAT Company will design, simulate and reduce to practice the crucial elements of the ultrasound forward looking sonar camera (FLSC), for surveillance/reconnaissance in shallow waters. Finally we will estimate the cost/effort for the fabrication and testing the FLSC prototype during Phase II of the SBIR program.

NEXTGEN AERONAUTICS
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 626-8652
Mr. Dana Howard
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Smart Materials and Adaptive and Novel Technologies Applied to Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (MANTA-UURC)
Abstract:Our basic concept consists of a bio-mimetic manta ray like autonomous underwater vehicle which incorporates SMA actuated mechanical structure surrounded by compliant skins to duplicate the efficient and silent movement of a manta ray for use in shallow, riverine, or sensitive marine environments. Several beneficial features of the concept include: stealthy operation through low / zero noise actuation / propulsion, low- obserability through resemblance of a marine animal, and ability to carry relatively large payloads. At the end of Phase I, the following will be completed: (1) definition of optimal propulsive movement through CFD and analytical modeling of the flexible manta drive structure design, (2) simulation of the SMA actuation system, vehicle structure, and control systems, (3) a proof-of-concept laboratory underwater test of an actuated segment of the Phase II vehicle wing, (4) preliminary design of the proposed Phase II demonstration vehicle, and (5) roadmaps established for vehicle scaling and technology transition. Phase II will focus on the fabrication and testing of the proposed demonstration craft in an operational environment.

SEALANDAIRE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1510 Springport Rd Suite C
Jackson, MI 49202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 784-8340
Mr. Brian Montague
DARPA 07-040      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC)
Abstract:There is an operational need to carry out clandestine surveillance tasks in Riverine and shallow water environments. Successful execution of these tasks will require an Unmanned Underwater Riverine Craft (UURC) with specialized capabilities. This response to SBIR072-040 will initiate development of a UURC capable of: Navigating submerged in rivers, inlets, and harbors as well as in coastal and shallow water areas Providing persistence in these areas and of providing surface and underwater surveillance with onboard and deployable sensors under low visibility conditions Autonomous operation and evasion procedures underwater including hostile bottom conditions Communicating surveillance and positional data to remote operators Deployment by air-drop, surface launch and subsurface launch Propelled motion and bottom locomotion Energy harvesting and entering “sleep” and “hibernation” modes for sustained endurance Phase I will identify various UURC enabling and/or critical technologies that support persistent underwater surveillance/reconnaissance missions in riverine and other shallow water operational environments. Define technical concepts and provide analysis to support performance projections and current maturity. Assess their feasibility and investigate how they contribute to the overall operational capability and mission effectiveness of the UURC.

DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS CORP.
10 Technology Drive
Wallingford, CT 06492
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 678-2128
Mr. Luke Dalton
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 2/6/2008
Title:Passive Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell for Very High Altitude Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:Practical use of a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) for solar powered aircraft and similar applications has been limited due to a lack of proven technology designed for the mission requirements. The concept of the static feed unitized regenerative fuel cell, successfully demonstrated in the laboratory in the DARPA/NRL Water Rocket program and two NASA SBIR contracts provides a strong basis for a derivative technology for the high altitude long endurance (HALE) aircraft application. Three critical technology areas need to be addressed before a URFC can be applied to the HALE platform. First, the membrane-electrode assembly must be demonstrated that allows the URFC to operate with little or no performance penalty compared to the discrete electrolyzer and fuel cell components. Second, a thermal management system internal to the cell stack must be developed to allow the cell area and number of cells to be scalable to the power ranges required by the HALE application. Third, the passive water management technology must be demonstrated to be stable over extended durations of continuous operation.

ENRG, INC.
155 Rano Street
Buffalo, NY 14207
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 465-0558
Mr. James Newkirk
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 9/25/2007
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems are forecast to achieve excellent energy efficiency and performance targets, and to be able to achieve commercially viable economics through the next decade. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been working on SOFC technology for the aeronautics’ industry for several years and their approach is significantly different than the approaches being pursued by the Department of Energy’s Solid Energy Conversion Alliance companies. The NASA Bi-Electrode Supported Cell (BSC) SOFC technology has the potential to provide a significant increase in power performance per weight (W/kg) and increased reliability of the fuel cell stack. ENrG has an agreement with NASA to continue development and commercialization of the technology. For applications such as very high altitude, very long endurance solar aircraft, the BSC technology offers the potential to significantly reduce the weight of the fuel cell stack compared to PEM technology and increase the conversion efficiency of both the fuel cell and electrolyzer. In addition to the direct savings from the use of the NASA SOFC technology, the use of SOFCs has enabled our team to identify several other significant weight reductions from the balance of plant needed to operate the fuel cell stack and fuel storage system.

EXCELLATRON
263 Decatur Street
Atlanta, GA 30312
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 584-2475
Dr. Prabhakar Tamirisa
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:The Lithium-oxygen electrochemical couple has the potential to form the basis of a very high specific energy, rechargeable battery for the very high altitude, very long endurance solar aircraft. Recent progress in the application of non-aqueous electrolytes to realize the benefits of this chemistry has resulted in limited success in terms of providing a long endurance, regenerative system. We propose to investigate a variety of approaches to improve the cycle life, reliability, and safety of the Lithium-oxygen battery, both in an oxygen atmosphere and in an “air breathing” mode. Our work on improving the performance characteristics of the Lithium-oxygen/Lithium-air battery will focus on the implementation of a solid state, Lithium ion electrolyte in the battery to provide a stable interface with both the anode and cathode to control passivation phenomena at the electrodes, promote good morphology of redeposited Lithium metal during charging, and protect the anode from chemical reaction with the cathode reactant. Polymer(s) or ceramic/glass electrolytes will be the choice for the solid state electrolytes, and may be used in conjunction with liquid electrolytes. In addition, the application of ionic liquid based electrolytes in the Lithium-oxygen battery technology will be explored. Furthermore, we will maintain adequate power density in the battery despite the introduction of solid-state Li+ conductors in the battery through interface engineering.

FUCELTECH
11 Glengarry Way
West Windsor, NJ 08550
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 584-9696
Dr. Renee Hou
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 11/1/2007
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:Electric propulsion aircrafts such is HALE (high altitude, long endurance) would need medium power fuel cells of high efficiency with very high specific energy. The fuel cells should also act as electrolyzers to convert the solar cell energy during daytime operation into fuel for the system for the night time operation. The system should be operational for many years delivering power over a long duration. A specific energy of >2kW-hr/kg would be very desirable for such a system. Fuceltech proposes a radically new technology approach for fuel cells which offers the potential for very high specific energy of >3kW-hr/kg. The cell is over 10x lighter weight and smaller volume compared to conventional technology fuel cells because of its architecture as it avoids the materials which contribute to most of the weight of the conventional fuel cells and uses very lightweight materials for its construction. The concept of the fuel cell has already been demonstrated and can be developed into long duration fuel cell/electrolyzer with a specific energy of over 3kW-hr/kg.

VERSA POWER SYSTEMS, INC.
8392 S Continental Divide Rd. Suite 101
Littleton, CO 80127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(403) 204-6146
Mr. Casey Brown
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 3/4/2008
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a high specific power (1000 W/kg) SOFC stack capable of operating both as a power generator and an electrolyzer while achieving high electrochemical efficiency (approximately 70%) and long operating life (one to two years). A SOFC stack achieving these performance characteristics enables the development of a regenerative power system with a system average specific energy of over 2000 W-hr/kg for use in a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) aircraft with multi- month endurance. Based on Versa Power Systems’ well-established SOFC technology baseline, the approach for demonstrating feasibility is based on deconstructing technical issues into deterministic engineering problems while avoiding fundamental changes to the technology baseline. The work encompasses a preliminary design of a high specific power stack, an empirical evaluation of innovative interconnect materials, and an empirical evaluation of the impact of electrolysis on component durability. Subsequent development will focus on the physical implementation of the components identified in Phase I, including ground-based functional stack and power system testing and eventual incorporation into a flight-test vehicle.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Arthur Dobley
DARPA 07-041      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Energy Storage Systems for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:One of the major challenges of developing aircraft is the development of an appropriate energy system. The energy system ideally has a large amount of energy with a very low weight. This equates to a high specific energy (Wh/kg). Lithium-air batteries offer the greatest theoretical specific energy for batteries at 13 kWh/kg. Yardney has extensive experience in requirements for battery power and metal-air cells. We specialize in lightweight batteries used in aerospace applications. We also research, develop, and sell high energy density metal-air cells. Yardney will research a Rechargeable Lithium-Air Storage System by creating an advanced rechargeable air cathode, and testing these cathodes in actual lithium-air cells under various environmental conditions. These batteries will provide a lightweight high energy storage device for military applications.

ADHERENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 346-1685
Dr. Andrea E. Hoyt Haight
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 11/7/2007
Title:Inflatable, UV Rigidizable Wings for High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:DARPA is seeking technologies that will enable the production and use of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) aircraft. Requirements for this application include a light weight and low storage volume to allow easier delivery of the vehicle to such altitudes. Ultraviolet (UV) light rigidizable inflatable wings offer a means of achieving the high packing efficiency required as well as offering the capability of higher L/D that is required for HALE applications. Rigidization of inflatable wings is the key, providing several potential advantages, including reduced vulnerability to punctures, increasing stiffness and load-carrying capability, allowing a higher aspect ratio for high altitude efficiency and longer missions, and reducing weight by eliminating the make up pressurization supply. In the Phase I program, an initial inflatable, rigidizable design for a high L/D wing will be conducted, fabricated, and wind tunnel tested. The design will incorporate UV LED lights and rigidization on command (TM)resins for low temperature, rapid cure.

ANDREWS SPACE, INC.
505 5th Ave S Suite 300
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(206) 438-0630
Dr. Dana Andrews
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Low-Stored-Volume Wings for a Very High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:Andrews Space proposes an inflatable rigidizable wing that can be stored folded or rolled up, and deployed at altitude via an inflation system, and will then cure to form a rigid wing improving the reliability and reducing the risk of an inflatable wing. It will also be much lighter and have a much smaller storage volume than a mechanically folding wing. A high altitude, long endurance aircraft can be delivered to high altitude by either flying it up from the ground or by deploying it at altitude by rocket. For rocket deployment the wings must have a low storage volume, so it can be packaged into a payload fairing. Inflatable wings are ideally suited to this mission since they provide the smallest storage volume possible. An inflatable rigidizable wing has the advantage that once rigid it would no longer need internal pressure to support it, thereby greatly improving the reliability and reducing the risks. Since it will only need internal pressure for a short duration, a small leak will not pose a significant threat to the mission. The longer the intended duration the more important it is to have a rigid wing that doesn’t require internal gas pressure support.

KAZAK COMPOSITES, INC.
10F GIll Street
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 932-5667
Mr. Nate Gravelle
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:High Altitude, Deployable, Carbon Fiber Composite Wing Kit with Very High Lift to Drag Ratio
Abstract:A difficult challenge for high altitude, long endurance aircraft is the structural design and packaging of very high aspect ratio wings. Trade studies have identified a requirement for deployable wings which are far too long for the conventional solution of simply pivoting outward from the wing root. KaZaK proposes to develop an alternative wing deployment design that can roughly double the span of the deployed wing compared to a conventional pivoting solution. The proposed technology is derived from similar Air Force SBIR funded development work performed by KaZaK for much smaller wings. Deployable wings provide attractive aerodynamic, structural and packaging characteristics that increase aircraft range while requiring comparatively little pre-launch volume. KaZaK’s deployable wing concept will allow increased wing span and aspect ratio compared to current technologies, resulting in improved aerodynamic efficiency (L/D) and greater range. In Phase I, KaZaK will develop and demonstrate a pultrusion-based technique for making low cost composite airfoils. The proposed pultrusion process is ideally suited for making lightweight, low cost, high strength, low signature, high aspect ratio composite wings that will not corrode during storage. The key to this performance is an extremely lightweight and aerodynamically efficient cross section.

LGARDE, INC.
15181 Woodlawn Avenue
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 259-0771
Mr. David Lichodziejewski
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 9/19/2007
Title:Low Stored Volume Deployable Wings for High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:Of great interest and strategic advantage to the military is the rapid deployment of surveillance assets to monitor a point of interest or quickly changing situation. An ideal solution would be a rocket deployed unmanned air vehicle (UAV) able to be accurately positioned and then capable of long endurance over the point of interest to relay critical information. This technology hinges on packaging a highly efficient flight vehicle within the confines of a small shroud, and reliably deploying the vehicle over the target. For long endurance this vehicle must have high aspect ratio wings to achieve the high lift to drag ratios required for efficient high altitude long duration flight. Inflatables have long enjoyed the advantages of flexible packageability and robust deployment. Recently, through advances in design and materials, these advantages can be focused on the needs of deployable flight vehicles. The use of inflatables in space, for the above advantages, has received much attention and L’Garde intends to bring that expertise and development to the area of deployable flight vehicles. Using our patented conical deployment technique for booms to sequentially and reliably deploy wing sections, and advanced materials technology to allow high strength high aspect ratio wings, we intend to develop a system design to meet the challenges of rapid deployment of long duration air vehicles.

NEXTGEN AERONAUTICS
2780 Skypark Drive Suite 400
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 891-2814
Dr. Jay Kudva
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 10/31/2007
Title:Stowed Unmanned Air Vehicle Engineering (SUAVE)
Abstract:NextGen Aeronautics has teamed with Dr. Jamey Jacob of OSU and Dr. Suzanne Smith of UK on this program entitled ¡°Stowed Unmanned Air Vehicle Engineering (SUAVE),¡±in response to SBIR Solicitation No. DARPA 07-042. The NextGen team has in-depth experience and expertise in morphing and inflatable wing design, development, and flight testing. The goal of our effort is to develop viable, low-stored volume wing designs for high-altitude, long-endurance (HALE) aircraft and validate the design by conducting wind tunnel and laboratory experiments in Phase I and a balloon launched flight experiment in Phase II. At the end of Phase I, the following will be completed: (1) aerodynamic design of a high- aspect ratio wing with a lift/drag (L/D) ratio ¡Ý30 at a nominal altitude of 90,000 ft; (2) structural design of a ¡®hybrid¡¯ wing providing an aspect ratio of around 24; (3) wind tunnel tests on suitably scaled models to quantify L/D; (4) actuation and deployment tests of the expandable/inflatable wing section; and (5) analytical trades studies to guide scaling-up to an operational vehicle and establish roadmaps for technology transition. The focus of a potential Phase II program will be to conduct a balloon launched flight test experiment to validate aerodynamic performance as well as wing deployment

VERTIGO, INC.
20590 Cereal Street, Suite 100 P. O. Box 117
Lake Elsinore, CA 92531
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(831) 425-5147
Mr. Glen Brown
DARPA 07-042      Awarded: 9/25/2007
Title:Low-Stored-Volume Wings for a Very High Altitude Aircraft
Abstract:This research addresses a deployable wing for a rapid response high altitude long endurance aircraft that is delivered to a high altitude over a location of interest in a low volume stowed configuration. The challenges are multi-disciplinary and relate to aerodynamics, structures, materials and manufacturing technology. The proposed technical approach is a high L/D inflatable wing with a number of innovations, including: the use of thin film materials for low volume storage, the use of structural fiber reinforcement for tailored strength and stiffness characteristics, a design that transfers of tension from the inflatable spar to the wing skin to promote airfoil accuracy, inflatable ribs, and compatibility with a Hydrazine-based inflation subsystem. A feasibility assessment is made, based on a baseline configuration that uses a high-TRL propulsion system to remain at 90,000 ft altitude for 24 hours. The feasibility assessment is supported by analysis and by a subscale demonstration article. A development plan is created that addresses all technical challenges necessary for a full scale flight demonstration with wing deployment at 90,000 ft. altitude.

4POWER LLC
PO Box 416
Windham, NH 03087
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 304-9440
Dr. Tom Langdo
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 11/6/2007
Title:Photovoltaic Cells for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:We propose a research and development path that leads to the creation of triple-junction, high efficiency (30%, and greater in time) III-V cells on 200mm Si substrates, manufactured in a volume-scalable 200mm silicon manufacturing infrastructure. This combination of efficiency, weight, and cost is not possible with any other technology. Our estimates show that specific weight, cost per W, and specific cost of >2000 W/kg, $50/W, and 8x10^4 $/kg, respectively, are achievable within a 5-year time frame. In addition, this advance would alter the business models for delivering high efficiency solar. By being able to access low cost silicon manufacturing infrastructure, scaling demand requires much less capital and time. Thus, demand spikes and access to high volumes of cells can be accommodated using this technology platform for high efficiency solar.

BANPIL PHOTONICS, INC.
2953 Bunker Hill Lane Suite 400
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 282-3628
Dr. Achyut k. Dutta
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 12/7/2007
Title:Photovoltaic Cells for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:For next decadal space appalications, space-borne systems require power system with long life capability and high reliability and offering significant mass and volume savings and significantly improved conversion efficiency compared to the state of art devices. Photovoltaic cell (a.k.a.“Solar Cell”) where light is converted into electric power, has been prevailing in a wide range of application fields such as consumer electronics, industrial electronics and space exploration. High-efficiency solar cell are required for various ground-based, air-borne, space-borne, and commercial systems, including remote sensing, surface topography, range detection, security, communication, and real-time monitoring of biological systems etc. The existing solar cells especially for space applications, are currently limited in efficiency by the complexity of adding more junctions to increase absorption of the solar spectrum. It is highly desirable to develop solar cell that has higher conversion efficiency (>40%) and cost-effective for numerous applications. The proposed project overcomes the limitations of achieving efficiency and can provides an affordable, power rich environment utilizing the conventional material and process technology. A goal of Phase I is to design and optimize solar cell structure for conversion efficiency of > 40%, utilizing the standard material such as CdS-CdTe for space application. Also, other goal is to fabricate the test structure to achieve conversion efficiency over 30% and comparing with the standard cell. The design, performance simulation, and also physical parameters optimization will also be carried out as a part of the Phase I activity.

LUMINIT, LLC
20600 Gramercy Place, Suite 203
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-1066
Dr. Fedor Dimov
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 12/11/2007
Title:Wideband Holographic Solar Concentrator based on Substrate-guided Holograms
Abstract:To address the DARPA need to collect solar energy in a system with minimal mass that can meet the electrical, physical, design life, and environmental requirements suitable for use on a solar HALE aircraft at relatively low cost, Luminit, LLC proposes to develop a new Wideband HOLOgraphic Solar COncentrator based on substrate-guided holograms and flexible off-the-shelf thin film Photovoltaic cells positioned on the Edge of the hologram (WHOLOSCOPE). This proposed thin film solar concentrator is based on flexible highly efficient multiplexed substrate-guided holograms (SGH) recorded for the wide band of solar light with a PV cell attached to the edge. The device will enhance solar energy conversion more than 300-fold and will withstand the temperature and pressure typically encountered by HALE aircraft. In Phase I Luminit will demonstrate the feasibility of WHOLOSCOPE by presenting a proof-of-concept laboratory system with output power of ~500 W/m^2 at the cell level. In Phase II Luminit plans to demonstrate a 0.5m^2 thin film solar concentrator capable of meeting all of the requirements (except design life goal) in a simulated environment.

MICROLINK DEVICES
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 588-3001
Dr. Noren Pan
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 9/25/2007
Title:Photovoltaic Cells for Very High Altitude Very Long Endurance Solar Aircraft
Abstract:The significance of the innovation in this Phase I SBIR is the development of a technology which will enable the manufacture of a light weight, low cost cost , multi-band gap compound semiconductor material containing high efficiency compound semiconductor multijunction solar cells suitable for deployment for in very high altitude, very long endurance (HALE) solar solar aircraft. This will be accomplished by applying a production production-worthy Epitaxial epitaxial Lift lift-off (ELO) process to a multi- band gap junction solar cell structure fabricated on a large area GaAs substrates. These efficient solar cell structures will be removed from the substrate in the form of a thin film and will be attached to lightweight, flexible carriers suitable for mounting on an aircraft wing. Low cost can be achieved due to the recycling of the GaAs substrate after the lift- off is performed Our focus will be focus will be given to GaAs-based solar cells and , in particular lattice-matched and highly disordered InGaP materials, because of the demonstrated efficiency of these structures. We will provide a clear path towards realizing develop a solar cell design capable of >30% efficiency target under AMAir Mass 1.5 illumination at 1 sun conditions. We will also define design a process where by which thin epitaxial layers will be transferred onto very a flexible conductive or non- conductive substrates. The resulting solar cell structures are expected to have an array mass density of <325 g/m2, and to be capable of operating for long durations in a 60 knot airflow at 100,000 feet.

SVT ASSOC., INC.
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 934-2100
Dr. Peter Chow
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 11/15/2007
Title:High Efficiency Multi-Junction Photovoltaics on Silicon Substrates
Abstract:SVT Associates proposes a 6-month Phase I investigation to create high efficiency photovoltaic cells on silicon substrates through the use of multiple junction absorbing layers. The key technology to be investigated is the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductor on Si. Si substrates are favored for the low density, low cost, large area and mechanical robustness.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Dr. Scott Morrison
DARPA 07-043      Awarded: 9/20/2007
Title:Innovative Ultra Thin Flexible Solar Technology(1001-101)
Abstract:Triton Systems Inc. and its partners propose to develop an Ultra Thin Flexible Solar (UTFS) technology using an innovative process that combines the high efficiency of crystalline- based photovoltaics with the low cost, flexibility, and light weight of thin-film photovoltaics. The proposed UTFS photovoltaic technology has the potential for significant savings in materials costs, as well as achieving a flexible, lightweight system with >22% AM1.5 efficiency in the Phase I, and >35% efficiency in