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282 Phase I Selections from the 07.3 Solicitation

(In Topic Number Order)
G A TYLER ASSOC., INC.
1341 South Sunkist Street
Anaheim, CA 92806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 772-7668
Dr. Terry J. Brennan
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Adaptive Optics Compensation in Deep Atmospheric Turbulence
Abstract:Conventional adaptive optics technologies for compensation of weak to moderate atmospheric turbulence are ineffective in deep atmospheric turbulence. The challenges in this high Rytov regime are segregated into the two problems of developing an adaptive optics beacon and compensation of an optical field degraded well above the level of scintillation saturation. Techniques for compensation of the aberrated field based on segmented deformable mirrors and special handling of branch cuts in the phase for continuous surface deformable mirrors will be developed. An advanced technique for handling noise in very dim subapertures is also proposed. Two novel approaches for obtaining an adaptive optics beacon are proposed, one based on iterative illuminator techniques and another based on point source deconvolution from a moving target.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Vladimir Markov
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Adaptive Optics System for Mitigating Deep Atmospheric Turbulence Effect
Abstract:Efficient laser beam delivery on a distant extended target remains a key problem for practical implementation of laser systems. Since the conventional target-in-the-loop (TIL) adaptive optic concept is generally not effective in many operational environments, new solutions are needed. MetroLaser has developed an innovative approach for a TIL method to be applied for effective compensation of deep, turbulence-induced laser beam aberrations. The effect of compensation is based on building up a point-source beacon on a target and instantaneous detection of the complete wavefront formed by the beacon. The proposed approach is based on the analogy between the concepts of a TIL system and a laser resonator. Controlling the position and structure of the laser beam on the target at the image plane of the system enables essential reduction in the beacon formation time. During Phase I, we will study the operational performance of the proposed methods. The results will facilitate determining the optimal parameters of beacon formation on a scattering surface target for a laser beam propagating through a deep, turbulent atmosphere. This will reduce program risk and will lead to a robust brassboard system design that will be built, tested, and validated in Phase II.

MZA ASSOC. CORP.
2021 Girard SE Suite 150
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 747-6881
Dr. AaronMasino
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Adaptive Optics Compensation in Deep Atmospheric Turbulence
Abstract:Adaptive optics (AO) compensation of deep atmospheric turbulence remains a significant obstacle to the deployment of laser beam projection and imaging systems for a many applications. Tactical high-energy laser (HEL) weapon systems will be particularly limited by inadequate AO schemes as they will often be required to operate in engagement scenarios encountering deep turbulence. AO systems that employ a Shack-Hartmann WFS are particularly hampered in strong turbulence due to the presence of branch cuts in the sensed phase function. MZA proposes to investigate a novel multi-conjugate AO system concept, model a prototype in a tactical HEL weapon system context, and evaluate its performance in strong turbulence via wave-optics and experimentation. The concept, named SIRCAO, utilizes an SPGD driven DM conjugate to a location along the propagation path and a second DM, conjugate to the pupil plane, driven by WFS outputs, where the WFS is a Shack-Hartmann or SRI. Beyond HEL cleanup, the SPGD DM provides an intensity remapping of the BIL return before it is sensed by the WFS by applying a phase change and then reimaging. This reduces branch cuts in the phase and allows for significant performance increase of the WFS and the overall system.

NUTRONICS, INC.
3357 Chasen Dr.
Cameron Park, CA 95682
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 776-4301
Mr. Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Beacon Modulation Tomography for Compensation in Deep Turbulence
Abstract:The applicability of adaptive optical systems remains limited today by the inability to solve the problem of compensation for the effects of turbulence in the near-deep (Rytov numbers from 0.4 to 1.0) and deep (Rytov numbers greater than 1.0) turbulence regimes with an extended, non-cooperative target. In these turbulence regimes, the combined effects of beacon anisoplanatism and laser speckle make estimation of the branch point contribution to the phase function extremely difficult. Recent work by Barchers indicates that the most likely solution path is to develop a tomographic estimate of the turbulence along the propagation path, and then using this estimate, develop the optimal control commands to maximize power on the target. Nutronics, Inc. proposes an innovative approach merging phased array technology to form controlled laser beacons at the target. The multiplicity of beacons formed from the phased array can then be used to form a tomographic estimate of the turbulence along the path. Should the proposed effort be successful, there are many potential commercial and defense applications in the area of high energy lasers and long range remote sensing.

OPTICAL PHYSICS CO.
26610 Agoura Road Suite 240
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 880-2907
Dr. Richard A Hutchin
AF 07-002      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Green Function Inversion for Deep Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation
Abstract:For applications like tactical laser weapons which involve imaging or transmitting energy via lasers over long paths near the ground, the cumulative atmospheric turbulence effects exceed what conventional adaptive optics technologies can handle. To compensate for moderate to severe deep turbulence effects OPC has developed a new technique called Green’s Function Inversion (GFI). GFI can be used to characterize the transmission path between a high energy laser (HEL) and a target. Once the path is well characterized, the HEL beam can be adjusted to form a very high quality beam at any position. Even very high Greenwood frequencies can be accommodated using a ripple update. It is especially useful with conformal fiber laser arrays as a HEL source. During Phase I, we will perform a detailed wave-optic simulation of the GFI technique to demonstrate its performance under AF engagement conditions, with the sample scenario as a starting point. The ability to generate a target image suitable for aimpoint selection and maintenance will be shown and the ability to place a high quality hit spot on the designated aimpoint evaluated including point ahead offsets. Finally, a prototype flight design will be generated and a lab experiment laid out for Phase II.

DIRECTED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
890 Elkton Drive Suite 101
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 593-7848
Dr. Jay Brasseur
AF 07-003      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Cryogenic High Power Laser Pump Diodes
Abstract:Directed Energy Solutions is proposing to develop a compact, high-efficient cryogenic diode laser stack for optical pumping of a Yb:YAG laser. In phase I, Directed Energy Solutions will design, fabricate and test a 1 kW cryogenic stack. Multiple lensing techniques will be examined and tested. The operation wavelength will be 940 nm for efficient pumping of Yb:YAG. To accomplish this aggressive goal, Directed Energy Solutions will leverage existing cryogenic diode laser efforts, which have demonstrated world-record diode laser efficiencies of 84 % and the first all cryogenic Yb:YAG laser. In phase II of this effort DES will scale the device to the 5 kW level.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
582 South Econ Circle
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 359-7138
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
AF 07-003      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Advanced Packaging for Cryogenic Spray Cooled Laser Diodes Arrays
Abstract:Laser diode bars have demonstrated ultra high electro-optical efficiencies >80% when operated at cryogenic temperatures <150 K. Diode pumped-solid-state lasers utilizing cryogenically cooled laser diode arrays and gain material have the potential to increase the wall plug efficiencies to values over 40% compared to 10% for room temperature lasers. To realize these exceptionally high laser bar efficiencies a unique cryogenic cooling approach will be developed. In the proposed SBIR program RTI will: 1) utilize Spray Cooling with liquid nitrogen to show feasibility of cooling a cryo-diode laser array with an optical flux of 560 W/cm2, 2) establish the feasibility by design and experiment for a diode package tolerant of cryo temperatures by using innovative CTE matched material combinations, and 3) partner with diode vendors to construct a spray cooled, CTE matched diode array that will undergo mechanical temperature cycling tests to validate the design.

SPIRE CORP.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-6000
Dr. Kurt J. Linden
AF 07-003      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Cryogenic Diode Laser Array Pump for High Power YAG Lasers
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal describes a program that will design a cryogenic, liquid nitrogen (LN) cooling system for efficient operation of multi-kW level diode laser arrays, and determine the diode laser array design parameters for optimal LN operation with emission in the 800 nm to 950 nm spectral region. Such high power diode laser arrays are needed for optically pumping LN-cooled solid-state Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG lasers with superior operating characteristics. Phase I will investigate various forced-flow LN cooling configurations designed to avoid gas-phase interface formation at multi-kW level heat loads, utilizing materials with matched thermal expansion coefficients to minimize thermal stress. The naturally high thermal conductivity of most materials at LN temperature will be exploited. Diode laser design parameters such as epitaxial layer configuration and laser bar mounting details will be investigated for the favored optical pump bands for these solid-state laser materials. Phase II will deal with fabrication of a prototype cooling system to interface with the high power diode laser arrays for efficient YAG laser pumping. Spire’s laser bar fabrication expertise and current involvement with high power 630 nm LN temperature optical pump arrays will be of great benefit to the proposed program.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8173
Mr. Dane Phillips
AF 07-004      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Integrated wide-bandgap semiconductor photoconductive switch with a terahertz antenna
Abstract:Current and future applications of terahertz technology are demanding higher and higher powers to perform analysis. Wide band spectroscopy applications, in particular, could benefit greatly from the creating high power laser-induced semiconductor switches (LSS). To this end we have identified five materials for further development as high power, wide bandgap LSS materials. Emphasis was placed on materials with high breakdown voltage, good thermal conductivity, and fast carrier recombination times. These materials will be analyzed with respect to structural, electrical, and optical properties to maximize their potential use as semiconductor switches.

ODIS
Three Corporate Drive
Shelton, CT 06484
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 486-3466
Dr. Heath Opper
AF 07-004      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:An Optically Switched Thyristor as a Thz pulse Source
Abstract:Sources and detectors in the range of 300-10,000 GHz pose a unique challenge to implementation as semiconductor devices. Transistor oscillators do not have the bandwidth to generate these frequencies/wavelengths and optical devices do not have energy gaps small enough to provide effective stimulated emission. Intersubband transitions do provide these energies. The quantum cascade structure (QCL) is one approach to a THz laser using intersubband transitions. Photoconductive switches activated by high power optical pulses also produce THz emissions. In order to integrate the antenna and the electronics for a communication link, ODIS proposes a modulation- doped quantum well structure with an integrated thyristor as the optical source. THz radiation is produced by the relaxation of hot electrons in a quantum well. Compared to the QCL, the growth is simplified, the tunneling mechanism is replaced by conduction in a field-effect transistor channel, the operating voltage is 2V, the operation is fundamentally suitable for room temperature, and with alternate biasing the identical structure performs THz detection. The optical thyristor is part of an optoelectronic circuit platform, providing integrated electronics with 100’s of GHz bandwidth. In this SBIR, ODIS will develop the optically activated thyristor with integrated antenna output as a source of THz pulses.

SCI-ENG SOLUTIONS, LLC
3304 Lake Town Dr.
Columbia, MO 65203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 489-2776
Dr. Kenneth Fox McDonald
AF 07-004      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Highly Directional Photo-Switched Terahertz Source
Abstract:The successful culmination of this work will result in development of a highly directional integrated, photoconductive switch and source-antenna system that will generate high power THz radiation for a myriad of defense, homeland security, and civilian applications: including the ability to image objects at relatively far distances with high resolution and to establish undetectable communication links in military field operations.

APPLIED PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS, L.C.
PO Box 341149
Austin, TX 78734
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 264-1804
Dr. Jon R Mayes
AF 07-005      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Non-Linear Transmission Line Microwave Source
Abstract:Applied Physical Electronics, L.C. (APELC) offers this proposal to provide the U.S. Air Force with a solution to their near term need for a tunable, high powered (10s MW) RF source operating with a center frequencies from 750 MHz to 1.5 GHz, which is conformal to U.S. deployment strategies.

NUMEREX
2309 Renard Place SE Suite 220
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 277-4272
Dr. John W. Luginsland
AF 07-005      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Advanced Meso-Band RF Sources Based on Novel Non-Linear Materials
Abstract:Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) offer a novel technology for compact and robust sources of RF energy. By combining advanced material characterization capability and state-of-the-art electromagnetic and parametric modeling, NumerEx and General Electric Global Research will improve the understanding of NLTL, providing design tools for NLTL based on experimentally achievable circuit elements. Development of a proof-of-principle experiment to provide a NLTL for testing and evaluation will be detailed.

SPARKTRONICS, INC.
23765 Madison Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 529-8649
Dr. George Kirkman
AF 07-005      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Non-Linear Transmission Line Microwave Source
Abstract:Sparktronics proposes an innovative high frequency oscillator based on non-linear dielectrics. The system will combine the previously developed tunable high frequency pulse generators with a non-linear transmission lumped element line. During Phase I an analysis of material properties will be completed and a NLTL oscillator designed manufactured and tested with at least 10kV output voltage in the range 500MHz to 1GHz. Phase II will focus on extending this capability to the 100kV level.

KESTREL CORP.
3815 Osuna Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-2327
Mr. Paul Harrison
AF 07-007      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Intracavity Beam Control in Laser Resonators
Abstract:Most directed energy weapons systems separate beam clean-up and atmospheric compensation into two (or more) separate adaptive optics (AO) systems. This approach arose for a variety of reasons. The aberration structure of the high energy laser (HEL) is significantly different than that of the atmosphere resulting in different requirements on the deformable mirror and the wavefront sensors. The limited throw of the deformable mirror was thought to be insufficient to solve both problems simultaneously. If this could be accomplished, there would be significant gains in cost, complexity, size, and weight. We propose here to investigate a system architecture that would enable both the beam clean-up and the atmospheric compensation to be combined into a single AO system. Our approach involves leveraging the versatile distorted grating wavefront sensor (DGWFS) developed by Kestrel Corporation and a new deformable mirror technology developed by Active Optical Systems. We will begin Phase I of this effort with a detailed modeling and simulation effort that will investigate the efficacy of the proposed approach. The Phase I effort will conclude with a scaled-down laboratory demonstration of the approach. In Phase II, we propose to demonstrate a working system.

NUTRONICS, INC.
3357 Chasen Dr.
Cameron Park, CA 95682
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 776-4301
Mr. Jeffrey D. Barchers
AF 07-007      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Integrated Laser Beam Control
Abstract:As High Energy Laser (HEL) systems move closer to integration in operational systems, the importance of developing compact and rugged beam control system technology continues to increase. The conventional approach for integration of fine steering, beam clean-up and turbulence pre-compensation subsystems uses a stove-piped approach that leads to bulky, complex, and difficult to integrate systems. Nutronics, Inc. has developed the Integrate Laser Beam Control (ILBC) approach which includes two innovative approaches for integration of beam control functions with HEL systems that both offer potential for significant reductions in size, weight, power, and complexity. The two approaches, ILBC-A and ILBC-R, respectively, are optimized for use in a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) configuration (ILBC-A) and an unstable resonator configuration (ILBC-R). The approaches are highly flexible and suitable for use with a wide range of sensing and control methods. The ILBC-A configuration offers a highly innovative approach that includes both a beam clean-up DM and turbulence compensation DM in low power beam paths with wavefront sensing accomplished on isolated beam paths to minimize dynamic range requirements.

APPLIED PULSED POWER, INC.
2025 Dryden Road P.O. Box 348
Freeville, NY 13068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 844-3426
Mr. Howard Sanders
AF 07-008      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Solid State Switch for high voltage sub-microsecond pulsed power
Abstract:Applied Pulsed Power, Inc. (APP) proposes to develop a solid state switch for high voltage sub-microsecond pulsed power, using silicon carbide devices. The objective of the solicitation is to develop a compact, solid state pulsed power switch capable of switching 20-50 kV, and I > 5 kA with low jitter, fast rise time (~20 ns), L < 20 nH, pulse length 100 to 1000 ns, and up to 1000 Hz prf. APP has developed and presently sells solid state switches capable of switching 20-50 kV, and I > 5 kA with low jitter, pulse length to 1000 ns, and up to 1000 Hz prf using silicon thyristors. These switches are used for applications with pulsewidths >200 ns and di/dt of <100 kA/us. Patented packaging and triggering techniques are used to produce 20-60 kV switches from multiple identical lower voltage modules. We will apply these techniques to silicon carbide devices to produce low inductance (< 1nH/kV) switches with <20 ns risetimes.

SCI-ENG SOLUTIONS, LLC
3304 Lake Town Dr.
Columbia, MO 65203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 489-2776
Dr. Kenneth Fox McDonald
AF 07-008      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Photon Initiated Thyristor Switches
Abstract:The proposed solid-state "Photon Initiated Thyristor Switches" are a low risk approach that offer an outstanding opportunity to fulfill the near term switching requirements for numerous DoD systems including many of those pertinent to High Power Microwave sources for crucial Directed Energy applications.

SCI-ENG SOLUTIONS, LLC
3304 Lake Town Dr.
Columbia, MO 65203
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(573) 489-2776
Dr. Kenneth Fox McDonald
AF 07-008      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Photo-Conductive Silicon Carbide Switches
Abstract:The proposed solid-state "Photo-Conductive Silicon Carbide Switches" offer an outstanding opportunity to fulfill the switching requirements for numerous DoD systems including many of those pertinent to High Power Microwave sources for crucial Directed Energy applications.

ADELPHI TECHNOLOGY, INC.
981-B Industrial Road
San Carlos, CA 94070
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 598-9800
Dr. Melvin A. Piestrup
AF 07-009      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Short Pulse Neutron Generator
Abstract:A short-pulsed neutron generator is proposed for the detection of concealed high explosives. A recently developed RF-excited plasma neutron generator will be pulsed to produce the activating neutrons whose pulse length is 5-10 ns with a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Using the D-T nuclear reaction, we expect the proposed generator to produce an average yield of 10E9 n/s at this pulse length and rate. In Phase I an existing neutron generator will have a set of electrodes installed to chop the ion beam to produce the desired neutron-pulse time structure and a high peak yield. The present deuterium generator will be redesigned to support the safe use of tritium. The proposed system will be designed to be low cost, transportable, and mechanically and electronically robust, to ensure its wide useage. Unlike penning diode sources, the generator is expected to have a long lifetime. The project has a high probability of success based on the recent development by Adelphi Technology Inc. and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of new RF plasma neutron generators.

ALAMEDA APPLIED SCIENCES CORP.
626 Whitney Street
San Leandro, CA 94577
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(510) 483-4156
Dr. Brian Bures
AF 07-009      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:A fast pulsed, high flux neutron source for remote 3D imaging of IEDs
Abstract:Alameda Applied Sciences Corp proposes to develop a fast pulse, portable, fast neutron source to detect IED in the field. Our source offers a <10ns neutron pulse with a repetition rate up to 1kHz. The Ph I program will demonstrate the critical features of the source including pulse width, reproducibility and neutron yield.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Dr. Michael McGuirk
AF 07-009      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Monochromatic 5ns Pulse High Intensity Neutron Source
Abstract:Recently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has shown that short pulses (~5 ns) can greatly simplify detection algorithms and enhance safety. Busek proposes to leverage its expertise in ion thrusters to produce a pulsed H ion injector with approximately 100:1 temporal compression of the pulse. This reduces the current density requirement on the plasma ion source. Busek is teamed with Dr. William Nunnally, who has developed, in conjunction with LLNL, both Stacked Blumlein Layer (SBL) accelerators and compensated SiC switches to trigger the SBL. Our baseline geometry has the switches integrated with the SBL. Dr. Nunnally will assist Busek in modeling and constructing an efficient SBL accelerator for this particular application. Busek will utilize its materials and power processing electronics expertise to develop and demonstrate the injector/accelerator/target system. Phase I will demonstrate the pulse compression and pulse duration while accelerating ions to appropriate energy, but for cost and safety reasons will not produce neutrons. Phase II will scale up the accelerator current and will produce neutron pulses of the desired energy, pulse duration, flux and spatial distribution.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Ryan Kilgore
AF 07-010      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Four-Dimensional User-Defined Spatio-Temporal Enhanced Interface Technologies (FUSE-IT)
Abstract:To effectively control the battlespace, AOC warfighters must rapidly perceive and understand complex geospatial and temporal relationships (e.g., the evolving 3D geometry of SAM-site threat envelopes, the potential for flight path conflicts over mission duration). Advanced 4-dimensional Common Operating Picture (4D COP) technologies are required to better support the cognitive challenges of these efforts. To address this need, we propose to design and demonstrate Four-Dimensional User-Defined Spatio-Temporal Enhanced Interface Technologies (FUSE-IT). FUSE-IT technologies will allow AOC warfighters to rapidly define, explore, and exploit battlespace visualizations that are automatically correlated in time and space. Two major components comprise our approach. First, we will use an iterative, work-centered analysis, design, and evaluation process to identify 4D visualization and interaction methods for the presentation and manipulation of critical battlespace information and meta-information. Second, we will design these methods to support the fusion and display of heterogeneous information resources through a single, rapidly customizable user interface. We will assess the feasibility of our approach by leveraging existing in-house, COTS, and GOTS components to rapidly design and prototype promising FUSE-IT visualization and interaction concepts. We will also design a plan for evaluating these prototypes with subject matter experts in a spiral design and implementation effort.

SONALYSTS, INC.
215 Parkway North P.O. Box 280
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 326-3621
Ms. Margaret Bailey
AF 07-010      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:User Definable 4-D Common Operating Picture (COP)
Abstract:Sonalysts will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a 4-D Common Operating Picture (COP), the elements of which are user selectable and automatically correlated in time and space. The 4-D COP will allow the user to project forward in time and analyze possible outcomes of pending operations. This research will produce a design for a system that allows the operator at the Air Operations Center (AOC) to view, process, and affect the data needed to complete their tasking. The design for the 4-D COP will draw on Sonalysts’ successful gaming engine and Flight TraX™ operations control system to link geospatial and temporal perspectives in a coherent way, producing a system that improves AOC functioning.

THE DESIGN KNOWLEDGE CO.
3100 Presidential Dr Suite 103
Fairborn, OH 45324
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 427-4276
Dr. James McCracken
AF 07-010      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:User Definable 4-D Common Operating Picture (COP)
Abstract:TDKC proposes adaptation of their STEED environment to the air operations center domain. An existing 3D, 2D, and data visualization capability with service-oriented architecture capability will be re-engineered to provide the 4D COP functionality.

INTERSENSE, INC.
36 Crosby Drive Suite 150
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 541-7603
Mr. Eric Foxlin
AF 07-011      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Participant Tracking in Immersive Training and Aiding Environments
Abstract:Large volume, immersive simulation environments provide a compelling way to train and simulate operational systems. To provide realism to these training scenarios, tracking the absolute location (both position & orientation) of both the player under training and the devices that the player must interact with becomes paramount. In multi-user training environments, each player must also know the absolute locations of the other players for a successful training mission. In immersive Virtual Reality (VR) training with multiple users in a fixed environment, the absolute position and orientation of the head, weapon or virtual handheld devices (i.e. virtual binoculars) are not as important as resolution, latency and weight. For Augmented Reality (AR) training, the position and orientation of the display needs to be tracked accurately relative to the same world coordinate system in which objects in the environment are mapped. We are proposing autonomous tracking solutions that offer a wireless and networkable approach to instrumenting multiple players and devices in an indoor environment with minimal tracking reference infrastructure. Differing from Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) type tracking approaches, the proposed solutions will meet or exceed “AR-type” tracking accuracies of 0.1 degree in angle and 3 mm in position.

PROPAGATION RESEARCH ASSOC.
1275 Kennestone Circle Suite 100
Marietta, GA 30066
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 795-8181
Dr. Jim Stagliano
AF 07-011      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Training Environment Positioning and Orientation System (TEPOS)
Abstract:Propagation Research Associates, Inc., (PRA) proposes the Training Environment Positioning and Orientation System (TEPOS) effort to provide accurate orientation and position information for platforms (participants and devices) within an immersive training environment. Utilizing waveform diversity, polarimetric antennas, a distributed receiver system, with PRA’s proprietary waveform processing and PRA’s unique rapid estimation technology, the position and orientation is determined for multiple platforms simultaneously in real-time.

Leveraging PRA technologies developed under previous SBIR contracts such as the Precision Pulse Positioning System, Precision Orientation System, and its proprietary Orthogonal Polarimetry technology, PRA will design a system that provides accurate position and orientation information of a platform in a completely wireless fashion yet add mere ounces (tens of grams) of mass to the platform. The advantages of this system are highly accurate position and orientation information updated in real-time, completely wireless between platform and imagery generator, each platform is uniquely identified allowing individual tracking in an environment containing many platforms, and mitigation of multipath fading thereby assuring optimum performance. Using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware, PRA will design (Phase I) and ultimately fabricate (Phase II) a low-cost, effective TEPOS technology.

TIME DOMAIN CORP.
7057 Old Madison Pike, Suite 250
Huntsville, AL 35806
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 428-6324
Mr. Brandon Dewberry
AF 07-011      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Participant Tracking in Immersive Training and Aiding Environments
Abstract:We propose enabling a large-volume immersive simulation environment by fusing Time Domain Corporation’s (TDC) ultra wideband (UWB) wireless tracking tag with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer sensing. These tracking technologies integrated with a complementary Kalman filter will form the basis for a UWB/Inertial Navigation System (INS). The resulting system will combine the advantages of each technology to provide a tracking system with precise position and attitude sensing over a large, easily expandable measurement volume. Recent advancements in UWB tracking tags and small, low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) IMUs have provided a unique opportunity. TDC has commercially released a small, lightweight, battery power Real Time Location System (RTLS). Each cell of this system supports a warehouse of up to 2500 wristwatch-sized lightweight tags transmitting at 1Hz and utilizing coin battery power for over 4 years and provides wireless data transfer from the tag to the infrastructure. Integration of inertial sensors for expansion into high fidelity tracking markets is a logical next R&D step. MEMS IMU devices become smaller, more affordable, and more capable of precision attitude measurements. To support accurate position translation they require a synergistic external localization technology such as the TDC RTLS tracking system. A miniature UWB/INS tags will provide the best of both worlds: real-time precision wireless position and orientation with small sensors deployable to track multiple kinematic motions on many people in the tracking area. The Phase I will compare system requirements with the current state of the art capabilities; analyze various architectures and trade-offs for accuracy, distance, size, and power consumptions; develop, test, and evaluate a single fused high-speed RTLS/IMU tag; and provide an integrated system design and plan for follow-on development. The feasibility to be demonstrated is to meet the positioning requirement, tentatively 4cm for accuracy and 2cm RMS for precision that will feed into the development and construction of a testable prototype in Phase II.

ADVALUE PHOTONICS, INC.
4585 S. Palo Verde, Suite 405
Tucson, AZ 85714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(520) 790-5468
Dr. Shibin Jiang
AF 07-012      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Terahertz Source and Spectrometer
Abstract:We propose to develop a fiber-based, high power, narrow linewidth, and tunable THz source to implement a novel THz spectroscopy system by leveraging our proprietary fiber laser technology. This proposed high power fiber-based THz source will be generated by using a nonlinear crystal based on difference-frequency generation (DFG) pumped by high power pulsed fiber lasers in MOPA with high repetition rate (quasi-CW), which will reach a high power of ~ 1 W, a widely tuning range of 0.1-7 THz, and a narrow linewidth of 50-100 MHz. This proposal will use an external power cavity to enhance the conversion efficiency of parametric THz generation. The spectral resolution for the proposed THz spectrometer can be better than 200 MHz due to narrow linewidth, frequency accuracy, fine wavelength tuning step, and low phase noise for the proposed fiber-based THz source.

ADVANCED ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
27 Industrial Boulevard, Unit E
Medford, NY 11763
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 514-0315
Dr. Hans Bluem
AF 07-012      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Terahertz Source and Spectrometer
Abstract:High power, high frequency (100 GHz to 7 THz) RF sources can provide revolutionary advances in several militarily significant areas. THz imaging, spectroscopy and communications are important emerging applications. A THz spectrometer making use of a high power, tunable source would provide an invaluable tool for exploring these applications and the effects of THz radiation on biological systems. The goal of this SBIR is to demonstrate such a source, and its use in a spectrometer system.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Baolong Yu
AF 07-012      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Tunable Terahertz Source and Spectrometer
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a terahertz spectroscopy system consisting of a tunable terahertz (THz) source, capable of generating energy from 0.1 to 7 THz with 1 W continuous wave (CW) output power, and a THz spectrometer with better than 200 MHz spectral resolution, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Tunable THz Source and Spectrometer (TUTSS). The proposed TUTSS is based on optical rectification of nonlinear chi^(2) medium for THz emitting and electro-optical sampling for THz detection. The system will offer tunable THz source energy from 0.1 to 7 THz at average power of 1 W CW output, and a spectrometer with spectral resolution of 150 MHz (25% better than the AF requirement). Innovative use of special crystals for the THz emitter and sensor will provide powerful and tunable THz radiation and detection. By varying the phase-matching angles of the THz emitter and sensor, the central frequency of the output THz wave is continuously tuned. In Phase I POC will determine the feasibility of TUTSS by designing and testing a laboratory breadboard prototype. In Phase II POC plans to develop, demonstrate, and validate the operational TUTSS system designed in Phase I.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2471
Dr. Amy Alexander
AF 07-013      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:Operator Functional State Assessment and Dynamic Aiding Performance Tool (OFS-ADAPT)
Abstract:As United States Air Force (USAF) missions become increasingly larger and more complex, the need for effective monitoring and assessment of operator state becomes ever more critical to mission success. Cognitive overload is, and will continue to be, a pervasive problem within a variety of operational settings. The potential for error is large, and the consequences of poor performance can be catastrophic to mission success. Solutions are needed to assist operators in maintaining optimal levels of cognitive functioning. In developing the Operator Functional State Assessment and Dynamic Aiding Performance Tool (OFS-ADAPT), Aptima and the University of Iowa Operator Performance Laboratory propose to conduct innovative research on integrating measures of psychophysiological state with performance on mission-relevant tasks. The keys to our proposed effort are: 1) leveraging advancements in psychophysiological, physiological, and system-based measurement technologies for obtaining reliable, real- time assessments of OFS; 2) establishing a conceptual model framework for classifying and integrating different types of measures; and 3) outlining a conceptual design of an adaptive aiding system, OFS-ADAPT, that will be useful across various roles, tasks, and domains. These Phase I efforts will lead to the design, development, and validation of OFS-ADAPT, which we will fully develop and evaluate in Phase II.

DESIGN INTERACTIVE, INC.
1221 E. Broadway, Suite 110
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 706-0977
Mr. Sven Fuchs
AF 07-013      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Integration of Psychophysiological and Performance Measures into an Adaptive Aiding System
Abstract:To meet the challenges imposed on command-and-control environments by next- generation weapons systems and continued reduced manning efforts, we will develop the Proactive Aiding in Command and Control Environments System (PACES) – an automatic agent, informed by real-time data streams from the system, the mission, and the operator’s cognitive state. PACES will use dynamic constraint-based task modeling to anticipate future mission state and operator functional state (OFS) ahead of time. An existing workload analysis method will be used to calculate expected operator load for the future task demands anticipated by the model in real-time. Given this information, preventive adaptations of the information display can be dynamically applied to avoid cognitive bottlenecks before they occur. In addition to preventive adaptation, PACES will employ physiological measures, specifically electroencephalogram and eye tracking, to assess the operator’s actual cognitive state and mitigate problems in real-time. Physiological measures will provide input to an intelligent Soar architecture to derive OFS indicators and inform PACES when adaptive aiding is needed. The model may further analyze workflow history and operator’s physiological and behavioral responses to system events in order to dynamically adjust and improve the predictive modeling component and mitigation strategies.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4752
Dr. Xiaokun Li
AF 07-013      Awarded: 2/8/2008
Title:A Psychophysiological and Performance Based Prediction System for Adaptive Aiding
Abstract:As military equipment becomes more sophisticated and complex, missions become significantly more cognitively demanding. In order to achieve the objective of preventing errors and reducing cognitive demands on military personnel, a system is needed that is able to assess and predict operator stress, attention and overload states and provide adaptive aiding to maintain the operator in a state of maximal situation awareness and response readiness. Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) proposes to develop an adaptive aiding system that uses a combination of performance and situational awareness assessments to tune the sensor integration algorithm to detect expected future states of cognitive overload, high levels of stress, and high and low levels of task-focused attention. The system will be based on three wearable devices that contain a total of nine wireless psychophysiological sensors. This project focuses on three key aspects of the system design: 1) comparing the efficiency and utility of Fisher Discriminant Analysis and artificial neural networks for integrating sensor data; 2) comparing two operator modeling systems (dynamic event-triggered pattern analysis and the Dynamic Integration Diagram) for predicting operator functional state based on psychophysiological, performance and environmental data; and 3) designing an adaptive aiding interface for assisting operators prior to cognitive overload.

QUANTUM APPLIED SCIENCE & RESEARCH, INC.
5764 Pacific Center Blvd Suite 107
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 373-0832
Dr. Robert Matthews
AF 07-013      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Integrated Adaptive Aiding System for UAV Control and Related Applications
Abstract:Over the last two years, the proposers have developed both an advanced physiologic state model of operator functional state (OFS) and a human capacity/human performance- based human-in-the-loop model (HITLM) for an Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV). The outputs of these two systems are currently combined to produce a numeric measure of current and future operator readiness, but are inherently adaptable to produce other cognitive and performance measures. Under this program we will add to this system a suite of adaptive aiding routines that modify the UCAV operator interface in order to provide the optimum level of information to the operator, and to guide the operator to adopt the optimum cognitive strategies. Candidate aiding approaches will be down-selected based on extensive experimental evidence and our related experience. The existing combined QUASAR physiologic and HITLM outputs and the aiding mitigations will be jointly optimized as a single integrated system. In addition to a state-of-the-art OFS evaluation and prediction capability, the QUASAR team offers a unique wearable sensor interface that has recently been extended to full wireless operation.

CORNERSTONE RESEARCH GROUP, INC.
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-1877
Mr. Jason M Hermiller
AF 07-014      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Adaptable Patient Litter System for Efficient and Modular Transport
Abstract:CRG proposes to revolutionize the patient transport unit by developing a new patient transport platform and by integrating current state-of-the-art telemedic equipment in order to improve the quality of care and outcome for the patient and increase efficiency of patient transport. Although a multitude of aircraft suitable stretchers exist, none fulfill all requirements of the Air Force. CRG’s design will capture the best features of current medical transport equipment such as lightweight and durability, while adding features such the ability to stack, add modules, and integrate electronics. CRG has teamed with TeleMedic Systems to more efficiently integrate their health monitoring system into the PTU, reducing redundant monitors and power sources. CRG will design a system that will create hollow spaces for storage, medical equipment/supplies, power sources, etc. The necessary module, based on the injuries of the solider, can be rapidly added and multiple units can be clustered using unified electrical and oxygen sources. CRG’s design will also address the flight conditions to be experienced during transport and will utilize the floor mounting systems present in most military and civilian aircraft. The list of design criteria is long but achievable through innovative design and modification of already developed medical equipment.

SPACE HARDWARE OPTIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7200 Highway 150
Greenville, IN 47124
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(812) 923-9591
Mr. Bruce Meador
AF 07-014      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Care and Monitoring Evacuation Litter (CAMEL)
Abstract:This proposal contains SHOT’s R&D concepts for a “Rapidly Configurable Modular Litter System for use in Aeromedical Transport.” The Air Force is currently using the old pole and canvas style litter from pre WWII for aeromedical evacuation. A variety of medical treatment equipment is haphazardly piled on, hanging from, or setting around the litter during transport. SHOT’s Care And Monitoring Evacuation Litter (CAMEL) provides an innovative system engineering solution consisting of a barebones, ergonomic, rigid litter and a quick-mate/de-mate Patient Attending Kit (PAK). The CAMEL is a self-contained, structurally stand-alone litter capable of installing directly into a variety of evacuation aircraft and can comfortably transport the patient from the battlefield to stateside. The optional PAK is a modular, scalable treatment facility, utilizing SHOT’s proven power management system, along with a consolidated control screen to eliminate redundant systems. The PAK can be customized to meet the patient’s changing needs during transport with hot-swappable medical tool suites. Furthermore, all patient data is collected and transferred to a central Nurses’ Station for upload in to the TRAC2ES system upon patient arrival. CAMEL provides the most cost-efficient upgrade path for the Air Force’s aeromedical transport system with the capability to accommodate future medical equipment.

TRIDENT SYSTEMS, INC.
10201 Lee Highway Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 691-7781
Mr. Michael Stoddard
AF 07-016      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Architecture Methodology Integration
Abstract:Almost all Air Force information systems are developed using a structured analysis methodology at all levels (i.e. system engineering, software design and code). The result is that the Air Force spends 70% of its software lifecycle costs on maintenance. The Air Force anticipates that it can save millions of dollars in maintenance cost each year by converting the structured-analysis code into object oriented code. Use of existing code converters to accomplish this task results in programs that do not take full advantage of the modular nature of object oriented code and does not achieve the cost reduction. What is required is a methodology and supporting environment that converts the available information at the system engineering level and allows for the traceability within the architecture and down into a new object oriented design from which true object oriented code may be developed and the cost reduction objective realized. A limited approach would be to performa straight mapping from structured analysis elements to object oriented elements. However this approach is not much better than the conversions listed above and is almost guaranteed to miss some important element of the structured model. In this Phase I SBIR Trident Systems proposes to apply its InterchangeSE technology in an effort to produce a more robust and complete object oriented model from structured analysis models. Trident will develop a mapping from the structured analysis model into a common data model based on the international systems engineering standard known as GEIA-927. A mapping will then be developed from the common data model to a new set of data that represents the object oriented model. Structured analysis and object oriented model elements will be considered to exist in different "engineering domains" thus allowing both models to coexist in the repository simultaneously. Traceability will be maintained and manageable between the two data sets. Also Trident will investigate the development of a "template" of relationships between structured and object oriented data so taht checks, and recommendations may be made as to the optimal structure of the object oriented model. Finally, Trident Systems will provide a means to share this data set with a wider DoD community by publishing mdeols and modules created in teh environment to an "Open Architecture Asset Repository".

WIZDOM SYSTEMS, INC.
1300 Iroquois Avenue Suite 140
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 357-3000
Mr. Steven Kroll
AF 07-016      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Architecture Methodology Integration
Abstract:The objective of this research is to develop and demonstrate new architecture methodology constructs for information systems to provide effective translation of structure architectures into object oriented architectures.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Jonathan D. Pfautz
AF 07-017      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Distributed Multidimensional Analysis of Battlespace Weather
Abstract:Weather is a critical factor in the success or failure of a wide variety of military operations. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict the weather and efficiently incorporate these predictions into operational planning and execution represents a significant advantage over any adversary. Weather situational awareness is hampered by the size of the data sets, particular as ensemble forecasting methods are used to generate statistical distributions over multiple model runs. To address the need for improved multidimensional weather data storage and access within the military decision making process, we propose to develop Meta-information-Enhanced Multidimensional Meteorological Online Repositories for the net-centric Enterprise (MEMMOR-E). This approach consists of three primary elements. To streamline data storage and dissemination we will design a parameterized approach to wavelet transformations for fusing raw weather data. To decrease the processing burden and speed up the analysis process within end-user applications/services, we will research and experiment with the latest multidimensional data optimization technologies, including coalescing and temporal and spatial cube blocking methods. Finally, we will design and evaluate a process that controls these optimization technologies by assessing the end-user’s information and meta-information requirements and correlating those requirements with the data and meta- data available from sources.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Mr. Jeffrey Morrison
AF 07-017      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:A New Approach for Distributed Multidimensional Analysis of Battlespace Weather using Dwarf Technology
Abstract:We propose to leverage our team’s critical expertise in weather data acquisition for weather effects modeling and innovative multidimensional database implementation to design a feasible proof-of-concept prototype that will demonstrate a revolutionary concept to improve incorporating weather effects within the air battle management process. Our design will include actual weather data and weather effects models, combined with state-of-the-art Dwarf technology, to generate real-world weather effects and efficacy metrics. Dwarf datacubes are orders of magnitude smaller than tradition datacubes even when they calculate and store every possible grouping aggregation while maintaining 100% precision (lossless). Our design will also accommodate the display of the weather effects using current mission planning system applications to ensure compatibility with the current air battle management process. The efficacy metrics will demonstrate the revolutionary speed, storage, and efficiency improvements due to the application of Dwarf technology to the required weather data, while FalconView will display the actual weather effects as tactical decision aid overlays. Our team consists of SSCI as the prime contractor and Dr. Nick Roussopoulos of Advanced Communication Technology Inc. as the subcontractor.

CODESOURCERY, INC.
9978 Granite Point Ct.
Granite Bay, CA 95746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 331-3385
Mr. Jules Bergmann
AF 07-018      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Using Next Generation Processors
Abstract:CodeSourcery will analyze homogeneous multicore systems (such as multi-core Intel Xeons), heterogeneous multicore systems (such as the Cell/B.E. processor), and special purpose multicore systems (such as Nvidia and ATI GPUs) to determine which characteristics of these processors determine how to provide high-performance implementations of fundamental mathematical operations such (such as FFTs and matrix multiplication). CodeSourcery will then determine how to modify the open-standard VSIPL++ signal- and image-processing API to take into account these factors to provide highly optimized versions for current and future multi-core systems. In Phase II, CodeSourcery will implement these approaches in Sourcery VSIPL++, CodeSourcery's implementation of the VISPL++ API.

IENTERACTIVE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY
16340 Sloan Dr
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 849-7411
Dr. Thomas Y. Yeh
AF 07-018      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Using Next Generation Processors
Abstract:The goal of this proposal is to provide better understanding and improve utilization of next generation computational resources for compute intensive systems. In practical terms, this translates to delivering tools to assist in selecting the most appropriate multi-core processor for different target compute problems and applying the appropriate optimizations. Due to the issues of increasing power (power wall), long memory latency (memory wall), and diminishing returns on exploiting instruction level parallelism (ILP wall), the doubling of uniprocessor performance has slowed from 18 months to 5 years. Instead of increasing clock frequency, the current primary method of increasing processor performance is to increase parallelism. Fortunately, Moore's law continues to provide more transistors per chip. All these factors point to the continued scaling of chip multi- processing into the future, where multiple processor cores are placed on-die. The chip multiprocessor (CMP) design space encompasses a wide variety of designs such as small scale homogeneous designs (desktop CPUs), heterogeneous designs (Cell), many- core application speci_c designs (GPU, PPU, ClearSpeed, SPI), and many-core general purpose designs (Larrabee and Tilera). This shift to multi-core processors comes with new challenges. The wide variety of designs utilizes different ISAs, memory models, programming models, and architectures. Different programming techniques and optimization strategies are required to optimize performance for the same problem across the spectrum of designs. Furthermore, the same application may require multiple implementations in order to compare across different architectures. The challenge from a system design point of view is to select the “optimal” processor design/s for each target problem and apply the appropriate software or system optimizations. One solution is to categorize high performance problems, the CMP architectures, and the available optimization techniques. Then, use this information to obtain optimal mapping of target workload to processor for system design.

MAXENTRIC TECHNOLOGIES LLC
2071 Lemoine Avenue Suite 302
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 272-8800
Mr. Houman Ghajari
AF 07-018      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Using Next Generation Processors
Abstract:Next generation processors attain better performance than existing microprocessors because the abstraction layers better expose the underlying VLSI resources (transistors, wires, pins, ...) and constraints (e.g., wire delay, power, ...). However, the management of these resources and constraints requires the development of more sophisticated hardware and software mechanisms, both to improve efficiency and to ease programmer burden. MaXentric believes the largest advances in the next decade of computer architecture will center around these mechanisms. Our vision is a tool chain of software support that helps the user parallelize applications from choosing the appropriate architecture to analyzing and profiling the application for potential re-organization and improvement. We propose one piece of this chain, codenamed PAMM (Problem- Architecture Mapping for Multi-core) that helps the user select an architecture for a given application and to make optimizations based on that architecture. Phase I efforts will establish a categorization of architectures and high performance problems, benchmark their relationships, and begin the design of the PAMM tool.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Ryan C. Marotz
AF 07-019      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Organically Assured Routing System (OARS) for the Airborne Network
Abstract:The Air Force has identified the need for an assured routing system for the Airborne Network (AN) that will protect the routing infrastructure from security attacks designed to disrupt the operation of the network. Subversion of the network routing function by attackers could be catastrophic for mission-critical applications running on the AN. This is because security attacks on the routing function could propagate misinformation within the routing tables resulting in misrouting of data packets in the network and consequent application failure. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes an innovative approach called Organically Assured Routing System (OARS) for implementing an attack- resistant routing infrastructure for the AN environment. The proposed Phase I effort will establish the implementation feasibility of OARS and lay the groundwork for a full-scale prototype (TRL 5 or 6) implementation of the technology in Phase II.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5209
Dr. Julia Deng
AF 07-019      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Secure Routing in Airborne Networks
Abstract:The envisioned Airbone Network (AN) is expected to provide seamless connectivity for operators in a large number of applications. All these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. The truth is that not all AN protocols have built-in security, and these protocols are highly vulnerable to various security threats due to the inherent characteristics of ANs. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI), in collaboration with Prof. Jing Deng at the University of New Orleans proposes an integrated Secure Routing scheme for Airborne Networks (SRAN) in order to provide various security characteristics, such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation. The proposed SRAN approach exploits existing technologies and makes them more applicable to the dynamic ANs. First, we formulate a two-level routing security mechanism performed at airborne backbone and edge network layer respectively. In both layers, network dynamics are addressed. Second, a set of security mechanisms previously designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and stable network (Internet) are extended to the domain of ANs, as we believe the AN shares some similarities with each of them. In particular, several mechanisms to reduce computational and communication overhead are specifically designed.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. Maher N. Kaddoura
AF 07-020      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:An End-to-end Hybrid IntServ Signaling Platform for Airborne Networks (HISA)
Abstract:Transporting multimedia information over multi-domain heterogeneous and dynamic networks has significant advantages in both the military and civilian arenas. . In order for these networks to be efficiently employed, there needs for methods that can guarantee a minimum level of Quality of Service (QoS) for critical and real time data. This is particularly important for the airborne networks. In order to reserve a specified bandwidth for an application flow between nodes, Integrated Services (IntServ) QoS is needed. However, currently there does not exist a solution that can provide an efficient end-to-end IntServ signaling mechanism across airborne network environments. This is true because of the characteristics of airborne network environments and of IntServ signaling protocols. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) will leverage its extensive experience in network technology to develop, evaluate and demonstrate an efficient end-to-end IntServ signaling techniques for airborne network environments.

MAYFLOWER COMMUNICATIONS CO., INC.
20 Burlington Mall Road
Burlington, MA 01803
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 359-9500
Mr. Wassim Ferzali
AF 07-020      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:QoS Assured Heterogeneous Airborne Network Technology (QAHANT)
Abstract:Mayflower proposes an Integrated Services (IntServ) QoS technology, the QoS Assured Heterogeneous Airborne Network Technology (QAHANT), to meet the Air Force objectives, namely, to design and develop protocols for providing Integrated Services- model (IntServ) Quality of Service (QoS) in an airborne network composed of heterogeneous network technologies. The proposed QAHANT system uses an open architecture Common Radio Resource Management (CRRM) framework for heterogeneous airborne network operation. The QAHANT reservation function, implemented within this CRRM framework, enables IntServ with minimal signaling overhead. QAHANT protocols are designed to provide reliable reservation in a network whose nodes are widely varying in capability, capable of high dynamics and high-speed mobility. Provision for interoperability with existing QoS protocols such as RSVP enables end-to-end QoS for Global Information Grid, of which airborne network is one component. The proposed QAHANT technology leverages Mayflower’s expertise in airborne networking, and builds on technology developed under several SBIR programs and Internal R&D. The QAHANT system, when proven feasible in the Phase I study for the Air Force application, has enormous potential for military and commercial applications. Mayflower will develop a cost effective QAHANT prototype system in Phase I and II, and ensure its commercialization in Phase III and beyond.

XPRT SOLUTIONS, INC.
615 HOPE ROAD, BUILDING 3B
EATONTOWN, NJ 07724
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 460-9001
Dr. George Elmasry
AF 07-020      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Reservation-based Quality of Service (QoS) in an Airborne Network
Abstract:This proposal is to investigate IntServ signaling protocol options suitable to provide reservation-based QoS in an airborne network composed of heterogeneous waveforms. The technical objectives of Phase I are: • to investigating potential IntServ signaling protocols  Aggregate RSVP with pre-emption  RSVP Proxy  Measurement-Based Admission Control • to establish a simulation environment for analyzing potential algorithms • to demonstrate analysis findings using simulation and provide recommendations The primary analysis simulation environment will utilize the OPNET Discrete Event Simulator. All three approaches will utilize the same basic framework, where the airborne backbone network is constructed as a medium fidelity representation, so that different levels of performance can be established, based on input from the Government sponsors. In higher fidelity, each approach will be modeled and analyzed as separate solutions and together as a total end-to-end solution. The results of this study will be used to produce final recommendations and serve as the basis for prototypes developed in Phase II.

ORIELLE, LLC
PO Box 8922
Moscow, ID 83843
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(208) 883-3816
Mr. Peter Mills
AF 07-025      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Web Services Rapid Application Assistant
Abstract:We propose to develop an intelligent assistant that enables the rapid creation and use of web services for the warfighter. We will design a web services toolbox, and a web- based assistant built on it, that extends public-domain interoperability technologies with capabilities for dynamic web service creation, tagging services and their history with semantic metadata, and browsing and invoking web services using client-side adapters. The assistant will incorporate a responsive JSF/AJAX web-based user-interface that guides novice users in the discovery and use of services. Such a web services rapid application assistant will prove of significant benefit for the warfighter.

TRAVERSE TECHNOLOGIES
4 Meadow Sweet Rd
West Newbury, MA 01985
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 395-7766
Mr. Joshua Lieberman
AF 07-025      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Metadata & Information Tagging Technologies for Application Interoperability and Services
Abstract:Traverse Technologies will develop a WISE Toolbox in the form of an adaptive network of proxy servers, providing an integrating communications overlay, supported by a distributed network of infrastructure servers providing indexing, search, annotation (tagging), and collaboration/workflow support. The functionality will be modeled after search and tagging capabilities now in common use on the world wide web, and will leverage, where possible, existing open source platforms. Capabilities developed under this effort will be made available under open source licenses.

ATC - NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 257-1975
Mr. Daniel Tingstrom
AF 07-026      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:WIRE – Web service Interface Revision Environment
Abstract:Upgrading a service in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can be costly and inefficient. ATC-NY, together with Architecture Technology Corporation, will develop WIRE (Web service Interface Revision Environment), a framework and toolset to efficiently manage version problems in a large distributed network of services. To determine feasibility in Phase I, we will first create versioning support for WSDL, then implement SOAP web services which will use our WSDL versioning scheme, create translation components to translate old requests, and finally create a prototype management system to efficiently launch and manage a large distribution of services. To provide an easy look-up method for requestors, WIRE’s toolset will also automatically update UDDI registries with new service versions and URI locations. In Phase I we will focus specifically on SOAP web services using WSDL interface descriptions, but WIRE will be designed to support a wide range of current SOA interfaces.

HARMONIA, INC.
1715 Pratt Drive, Suite 2820
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 951-5900
Dr. Marc Abrams
AF 07-026      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Interface Design and Versioning Framework
Abstract:Harmonia Inc., in partnership with Raytheon, will design, prototype, and demonstrate a technical and governance Harmonization Framework (HF) to design and version Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) interfaces. HF addresses a fundamental SOA problem: even though SOA may start with a coherent overall architecture driven by a business case, the coherency can be lost with poor service interface design compounded by erratic version evolution. HF counters with seven innovative components to coordinate the evolution of services providers and clients at design time, but also to allow clients to detect when a service provider makes changes unilaterally at run-time. The seven innovations are: design for extensibility and control via governance; a design decision tool to visually analyze the structure and behavior as well as validate the global impact of design decision points; a coordination protocol by which providers can propose, solicit comment, and roll out services in orderly fashion; registry-based version change notification to communicate changes; fingerprinting to detect when a provider makes a unilateral change; experimental exploration of change impact; and reducing the cost of up- front design for extensibility by providing guaranteed backward versioning compatibility through a chain of adaptors.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Mr. Benjamin L. Burnett
AF 07-027      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Reliable Services for Continuity of Operations (ReSCO)
Abstract:ATC will combine the fault tolerance and scalability of an Active Replication system with a dynamic Peer-to-Peer back-end to build a Reliable Services for Continuity of Operations (ReSCO) system. The ReSCO system will provide true dynamic automated application and service mobility while providing fast rollover of live systems. During an attack or disaster when COOP protocols are enacted, the network and the system need to quickly recover and allow for the transfer of critical applications to other sites and locations. By using Active Replication with redundant systems the transfer is nearly instant; allowing users to continue using the system remotely or locally, as needed. The ReSCO system will by built using application and service objects to provide service mobility and transfer, an Active Replication system to coordinate multiple redundant copies of services and applications, and a peer-to-peer back-end which will track and maintain the current state of needed services and handle the discovery and registration of resources to be used for dynamic allocation when needed.

SECURBORATION, INC.
695 Sanderling Dr
Indialantic , FL 32903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(850) 313-0177
Mr. Gary Aldrich
AF 07-027      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Variable Continuity of Operations/Service-Oriented Architecture (COOP/SOA) Services
Abstract:Continuity of Operations (COOP) has taken on new meaning in the 21st century with threats from terrorism, natural disasters and cyber warfare. The threat also extends beyond key personnel to Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence C4I. Prior to 9/11 COOP was a cold war relic that was focused on maintaining the government after a nuclear strike. Post 9/11 when the realization that terrorists could destroy significant parts of the government/infrastructure in a short space of time COOP took on new meaning and significant. On the natural disaster front, hurricane Katrina exposed the government’s inability to maintain operations when the storm devastated New Orleans transportation, communication, power, and financial infrastructure. The cyber warfare threat is best expressed as “China’s ambitions extend to crippling an enemy’s financial, military and communications capabilities early in a conflict, according to military documents and generals’ speeches that are being analyzed by US intelligence officials. Describing what is in effect a new arms race, a Pentagon assessment states that China’s military regards offensive computer operations as “critical to seize the initiative” in the first stage of a war.”1 The events described above have caused a major shift in the COOP paradigm to focus on C4I systems. Specifically COOP for the Air Force is centered on legacy stove-piped systems which are brittle and difficult to maintain. It’s critical that techniques be developed to provide a systematic consistent approach to migrate the Air Force C4I systems to an agile SOA environment that will support COOP to meet the 21st century threats. As stated in the solicitation current (COOPs/SOAs) solutions are complex, inflexible and costly as demonstrated by long delays between failure and full restoration of critical operations. The fundamental issue is the inability for systems to separate out the meaning/importance (semantics) associated with critical processes from the application and physical infrastructure. This semantic separation will ensure critical processes can run on both unlimited bandwidth and constrained bandwidth environments on virtualized infrastructure. The operational process will determine which environment resources will be used based on the selection of the web service that will provide the semantic capability required.

KEY BRIDGE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
8000 Towers Crescent Drive Suite 1350
Vienna, VA 22182
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(203) 413-3635
Mr. Jesse Caulfield
AF 07-029      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Proactive Determination of Networked Node Vulnerability
Abstract:We propose the development of an open source, modular security software framework into which independently developed 3rd party modules may be loaded to establish, extend and enhance the functionality of the platform. We believe such a framework is unique in the in the marketplace, satisfies large unmet demand and will be well received by the existing information and network security user communities; including Government, commercial, academic and non-commercial users. Our proposed software system is designed to run as a standalone, distributable service yet can be easily embedded into hardened appliances. We employ artificial neural networks, principal component analysis and robust analysis of real-time network traffic flows to profile endpoints and applications and to discover abnormal and anomalous behavior.

REAL-TIME INNOVATIONS
3975 Freedom Circle, 6th Floor
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 200-4753
Mr. Joseph Schlesselman
AF 07-029      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Proactive Determination of Networked Node Vulnerability
Abstract:Real-Time Innovations (RTI) proposes to develop a proactive capability to scan network nodes for security vulnerabilities. This proposal will incorporate recent developments in Active and Passive network traffic sniffing, node management, Complex Event Processing (CEP), high-performance network data distribution, and data persistence. The proposed Phase I effort will focus on the integration of best-of-class real-time middleware technologies by RTI and its world-leading partners Coral8 CEP and ANTS high-performance database with open-source system monitoring and intrusion detection technologies such as Ganglia and Snort. We intend to provide a working prototype demonstration at the conclusion of Phase I.

FETCH TECHNOLOGIES
2041 Rosecrans Avenue, Suite 245
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 414-9849
Dr. Steven Minton
AF 07-031      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Consolidating Entity Information from Heterogeneous Text Sources for Multi-INT Fusion
Abstract:Machine Learning has proven to be a useful approach for developing entity consolidation systems that can be tuned to a particular domain. However, the accuracy of learning algorithms often suffers in applications where there are “special cases” that learning algorithms systematically misclassify. To address this, we propose a new twist to the machine learning approach to entity consolidation in which a domain expert provides knowledge to the system about special cases. This knowledge enables the system to create models that explicitly handle these types of cases. In a sense, our approach combines the best aspects of machine learning with ideas from the older “rule-based” approach to entity consolidation. The objective is to take advantage of the statistical characteristics of data sets, while making it easy to create commonsense inference models that can utilize these statistics for high accuracy matching. We believe this approach will significantly improve upon the state-of-the-art accuracy of entity consolidation, particularly in applications that involve heterogeneous data, where special cases are more common. This includes applications where entity extractors harvest data from very different types of documents.

JANYA, INC.
1408 Sweet Home Road, Suite 1
Amherst, NY 14228
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(716) 565-0401
Dr. Thomas L. Cornell
AF 07-031      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Consolidating Entity Information from Heterogeneous Text Sources for Multi-INT Fusion
Abstract:In this project we propose to develop technology for computing the similarity between two Entity Profiles compiled from text sources by an Information Extraction (IE) engine. The similarity computation is based on contextual information from the text and also on the full range of IE results (entity attributes, relationships and events). We identify several types of features across the spectrum between readily extracted but imprecise information and more precise but scarcer information types. A machine learning based classifier is used to integrate similarity measures across these information types into a single output that determines whether the two profiles are about the same entity and should be merged. The resulting similarity measures can be used to implement Name Disambiguation for entity profile merging and also user-initiated searches for entities most similar to a given exemplar.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. John T. Langton
AF 07-033      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Attack-Centric Autonomic Detector of Insider Adversaries (ACADIA)
Abstract:Most state-of-the-art cyber security systems focus primarily on detecting and remediating external threats and do not address insider attacks. Any user who can log into a network locally or remotely constitutes an insider on that network. Such trusted entities often have access to details of their network’s infrastructure and security systems and can easily plan activities to subvert these systems. To address threats from insider adversaries we propose an Attack Centric Autonomic Detector of Insider Adversaries (ACADIA) that prevents insider attacks using multi-layered policy mechanisms, monitors insider activity using statistical and policy-based user modeling, detects insider threats using correlation algorithms, and responds to insider attacks using policy rule enforcement and data forensics via a multi-agent architecture. Our approach consists of a hierarchical collection of Bayesian belief networks (BN) for insider modeling, complex event processing (CEP) and prediction of insider attack; a configuration engine and cyber security architecture to support policy maintenance and accountability; a correlation engine comprised of statistical and BN learning algorithms for insider modeling, monitoring, and anomaly detection; and a network of autonomic agents to execute policy, aggregate network and host-based event data, and perform response and remediation.

DISTRIBUTED INFINITY, INC.
1382 Quartz Mountain Drive
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 681-3966
Mr. Allen E. Ott
AF 07-033      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Advanced Insider Threat Detection and Response
Abstract:Insider threats have become a major issue in the search to secure our military and global infrastructure. Insiders may already have all the relevant information they need to adversely affect the state and response capabilities of our defenses. Concurrently, insiders must be engendered with some measure of trust to effectively perform their duties. This combination of knowledge and capability make the insider threat more insidious and lethal than the generic attacker, who must expend time, energy, and resources to determine network layouts and vulnerabilities, and to gain access to the needed data and process capabilities on the network. Distributed Infinity will combine evolutionary algorithms for insider characterization with game theory for predictive tactical event analysis, and will utilize the Cybercraft environment for sensor data collection. This powerful combination will enable preemptive understanding of potential threat vectors including who is most likely to attack our networks, and how, with sufficient warning to take effective counter-measures.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 496-2467
Dr. Georgiy Levchuk
AF 07-034      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Monitoring MIssion MODels for Increased Mission Understanding (MIMOD)
Abstract:Effects-based operations and mission-driven network management are becoming increasingly focused on leveraging “Command Intent.” Arguably, the workflow of personnel can be linked to command intent, either by deriving command intent from the behaviors of personnel during missions, or evaluating workflow within the context of prescribed command intent. Although considering command intent within the context of missions is imperative, it is not easy to accomplish, as command intent and workflow are difficult to describe and require great effort to capture manually. Therefore, we identify the need for a system that passively monitors and models an individual’s workflow. The purpose of this phase I effort, MIMOD (Monitoring MIssion MODels for increased Mission Understanding), is to develop a proof of concept application that will passively examine users’ observable behaviors at their work stations (keystrokes, usage of resources, etc.) to create mission models of how they do their job. We plan to use a hierarchical, context driven, hypothesis testing approach to gathering data and constructing of the MIMOD models. These models will then be presented to the users in an effort to improve processes. The operators will also be able to augment their constructed mission model or comparison models when needed.

MILCORD LLC
1050 Winter Street Suite 1000
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 839-7138
Dr. Alper Caglayan
AF 07-034      Awarded: 1/16/2008
Title:Commander’s Learning Agent (CLearn)
Abstract:Traditional decision aid software requires the manual input of commander’s intent in the field, which is impractical as it requires an excessive amount of time to learn the various facets of the commander’s job, and requires an unrealistic adaptation capability as the commander’s mission changes dynamically in the field. Hence, there is a need to automatically capture the commander’s current mission, augment with contextual knowledge, and assign priorities to resources supporting the commander’s mission. Technically, this problem falls into the domain of interface agents with learning capability where the agent sits in between the user and application User Interface, passively monitors user behavior in the background, applies machine learning to discover the patterns in the background, and offers to assist the user in the real-time inference mode. Here we propose to develop Commander’s Learning Agent (CLearn) that leverages an existing hybrid Belief network and rule base knowledge management architecture, and prior experience in building such desktop learning agents, and server-based Web personalization agents. While CLearn is relevant to many applications, including information security management, we describe our approach in the context of Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace support for planning, operations, and assessment missions in Air and Space Operation Centers.

CALDERA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
3491 Trinity Drive, Suite B
Los Alamos, NM 87544
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 412-2345
Dr. Benjamin Warner
AF 07-035      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Biomolecular Taggants for Covert Tracking and Watermarking
Abstract:Caldera will use its R&D 100 award-winning XRpro technologyto develop functional biomolecular taggants for Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear/Explosive (CBRNE) targets. These taggants will possess functionality which will allow networks of interpersonal connections and travel to be determined, and will allow CBRNE MASINT to be tracked at a distance. Main features of these synthetic protein taggants are selectivity and affinity for CBRNE signature molecules and biomolecules, and optical reporting functionality.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Ms. Heather Kauth
AF 07-035      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Biomolecular Taggants for Covert Tracking and Watermarking
Abstract:Tracking of nuclear materials, military ordnance, and chemical and biological threat agents presents a significant challenge to the intelligence and military communities. The proliferation of non-tracked, illegally trafficked nuclear materials in particular has sparked considerable debate and is a cause for concern on the international stage. An effective system must be covert and ubiquitous; while encoding complex interaction information and supplying distinct identification of individual materials and material lots. In this Phase I SBIR proposal, Infoscitex proposes the use of a synthetic DNA-based taggant entrapped in a sol-gel material with attributes allowing for covert and secure labeling. This proposed material can be created using a combination of current technologies integrated into a novel detection and labeling system that is robust and covert.

MATERIAL INNOVATIONS, INC.
15801 Chemical Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 373-3070
Mr. Chuck Thaw
AF 07-037      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Novel High Power Microwave (HPM) Hardening Materials for Aircraft, Ground, & Space Systems
Abstract:An affordable conformal coating technology that provides broad band electromagnetic immunity through high EMI shielding effectiveness and low electrical faying resistance will be developed for sensitive avionics enclosures, and for shelters. The coating chemistry and application procedure will insure for simplicity with a scalable dispensation process that is production friendly. The conformal shielding coating will exhibit an average shielding effectiveness greater than 60 db over a 100 MHz to over 20 GHz range with attenuation levels greatly exceeding 80db at specific frequency spectra. The solution will leverage from current particulate coating developments at MII combined with the inclusion of nano-based metallic fillers. The synergistic effect of tailoring particulate morphology combined with interstitial nano-filling results in a coating system that is tunable to specific system needs. This has been demonstrated through preliminary shielding effectiveness tests and cursory environmental testing. This program will further develop this technology and refine performance to meet specific DoD system requirements. Analysis combined with laboratory measurements will be used for optimization. Application technologies will focus on spray deposition, demonstration of dip processing, and integration with prepreg composite lamina as alternative approaches. Phase 1 will develop performance data that will establish the production path carried into Phase 2.

METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES CO.
P.O. Box 356
Midway, UT 84049
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(435) 654-3683
Mr. George Hansen
AF 07-037      Awarded: 1/4/2008
Title:Advances in High Power Microwave (HPM) Hardening Materials
Abstract:A class of conformal coatings, composites and elastomers capable of shielding high power microwaves (HPM) is proposed. Based on nickel nanostrand technology, these coatings, composites and elastomers will extend both the frequency breadth and decibel depth of protection against HPM and other electromagnetic interference phenomena.

DIRECTED VAPOR TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.
2 Boar's Head Lane
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 977-1405
Dr. Derek D. Hass
AF 07-038      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Surface Processing for Enhanced Environmental and Creep-Fatigue Resistance
Abstract:The ongoing drive to increase the performance and efficiency of propulsion systems has led to increasingly severe operating environments, particularly for the components in the hot sections of turbine engines. One potential life-limiting area of future engines is the turbine disk where significant dwell fatigue may occur if engine temperatures are elevated. The mechanism for this reduction is not fully clear but is related to effects of grain boundary creep and surface oxidation / corrosion. The study proposed here will seek to develop advanced surface chemistry and modification techniques for the nickel- base superalloys used for turbine disks to limit dwell fatigue damage and promote higher operating temperatures in the engine. Key factors that will be studied include: (i) computational approaches to designing novel coating compositions that exhibit minimal interdiffusion and hence excellent compatibility with the substrate owing to chemical activity matching; (ii) the deposition, oxidation and compatibility testing of selected compositions; and (iii) the deposition of selected coated systems. Preliminary mechanical testing of the coated systems will be carried out. A targeted significant outcome of this study is the establishment of novel and cost-effective surface modifications that confer greatly improved component reliability and durability.

INTEGRAN TECHNOLOGIES USA, INC.
2541 Appletree Dr
Pittsburgh, PA 15241
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 975-6042
Dr. Virgil Provenzano
AF 07-038      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Surface Processing for Enhanced Environmental and Creep-Fatigue Resistance
Abstract:The applicant is proposing a novel, industrially-scaleable process for cost-effectively achieving surface alloying and microstructural optimization at selected areas of semi- finished superalloy components. The proposed approach involves (1) electrochemical deposition, followed by, (2) mechanical alloying via surface deformation, and (3) thermal treatment processes to achieve optimum degradation-resistant wrought microstructures. This novel process draws on the applicant’s proprietary grain boundary engineering (GBE) technology, which involves the strategic application of thermo-mechanical metallurgical processing to achieve a high fraction of “special”, low-energy, degradation- resistant grain boundaries in the alloy microstructure. The GBE technology was recently demonstrated (in a 2006 NASA Phase I SBIR program) to significantly improve the high temperature creep performance of conventional wrought Inconel 718 by markedly reducing the susceptibility of the alloy to intergranular crack initiation and propagation. The objective of this program is to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating surface alloying of Platinum (Pt) with the GBE surface treatment to achieve a homogeneous, fully recrystallized (wrought) Pt-alloyed (approx. 10wt%) microstructure in the near surface of the PM superalloys, ME3 and RR1000. The combined and possibly synergistic effects of Pt-alloying and increased content of “special” degradation-resistant grain boundaries is expected to yield environmental and creep-fatigue performance in gas turbine engine hot- section components beyond current limitations, and contribute to the advancement of next generation Air Force propulsion systems.

GVD CORP.
19 Blackstone Street, Suite 1
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0060
Dr. Erik S, Handy
AF 07-039      Awarded: 1/3/2008
Title:Novel Conductive Polymer Skins for Morphing UAVs
Abstract:GVD Corporation (GVD) proposes to develop highly-conductive, thermally-activated shape-memory polymer skins for morphing UAVs. These skins are based on GVD’s novel electrically-conductive polymer technology, which imparts low electrical resistivity to the skins. Conductive skin manufacture is simple, scalable, and easily inserted into current manufacturing processes. Conventional conductive skins suffer from poor mechanical properties and inhomogeneous heating (which leads to skin damage). GVD’s proposed solution preserves the desired deformability of the skin and enables efficient morphing. Further, the electrical properties of the GVD skin are not adversely impacted by significant in-flight deformation. In Phase I, a range of conductive skin formulations will be developed and screened. The most promising candidates will then be selected for mechanical testing to ensure their tolerance of real-world flight conditions. GVD’s conductive skin manufacturing approach will then be optimized in Phase II for prototyping and more rigorous testing in simulated flight environments.

NANOSONIC, INC.
P.O. Box 618
Christiansburg, VA 24068
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1785
Dr. J. H. Lalli
AF 07-039      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Highly Deformable Electrically Self-Healing Metal Rubber™ Skins for Morphing UAVs
Abstract:NanoSonic has developed Metal Rubber™, a highly electrically conductive nanocomposite with tailored surface resistivity (as low as 0.2 /) that can be repeatedly strained to greater than 1000% while maintaining electromagnetic integrity. Unlike typical dense, brittle nanocomposites that require up to 80 volume % filler; NanoSonic employs an elegant layered processing technique to achieve electrical percolation with <0.01 volume % of non-oxidizing metal nanoparticles. Lightweight (0.98g/cc) Metal Rubber™ is not a conducting polymer or a sputter coated polymer film, rather a free standing nanocomposite formed in-situ by chemically reacting monolayers of well defined electrically conductive nanostructured constituents with high performance copolymers. Durable elastomeric materials are realized; providing stable electrical conductivity over a wide dynamic thermomechanical range, currently from –60°C through 350°C, and in the presence of UV and ozone. Metal Rubber™ deformable skins are envisioned as a unique enabling technology allowing morphing unmanned aerial vehicles to maintain stable electromagnetic properties under disparate vehicle configurations. The nanostructured yet macroscale skins are currently available as free standing appliqués (up to 2’x8’) or as conformal coatings on aircraft structures. NanoSonic would work with a major defense prime on performance metrics and materials property evaluation to increase the TRL of Metal Rubber™ deformable skins.

ARKANSAS POWER ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
535 W. Research Center Blvd., Suite 209
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 443-5759
Dr. Roberto Schupbach
AF 07-040      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Very Low Profile Non-Intrusive Data Acquisition Systems for Turbine High Temperature Bearing Sensors
Abstract:APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a low profile, non-intrusive, high temperature (300 °C) bearing data transmitter system that will allow the in-situ monitoring and diagnostic of bearing health. The proposed high-temperature data transmitter system will be built on high temperature flexible substrates with integrated and thin film deposited electronics, eventually including thin film deposited wide band-gap silicon carbide or gallium nitride transistors (thus, eliminating wire bonds and die attaches). Bearing data will be wirelessly transmitted from the bearing sensor to a closely placed receiver unit. Signal paths will be “written” onto the surface of the turbine components, leading out of the turbine (thus eliminating the need for physical wiring, or eliminating the need to overcome the challenges of penetrating the turbine casing with RF wireless signal transmissions). The goal of this Phase I is to explore different design options with the objective of developing a high-temperature data transmitter design approach that is simple in concept, minimizes mechanical modifications, will utilize many electronics already proven reliable at high temperature, and shall present an adaptable approach that can be easily transitioned to other engine components.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Mr. Carl S Byngton, P.E.
AF 07-040      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:High-Temperature Wireless Data Transmission Technology for Turbine Bearings & ISHM
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Dr. Darrin Young of Case Western Reserve University, with oversight from turbine engine OEMs, propose to develop and demonstrate a high-temperature wireless data transmission technology for high speed bearing data with a goal of achieving a telemetry distance of more than 10 feet with operating temperature of 250 up to 300°C. This technology would be a key enabler for improved engine health management. Key tasks of the phase I effort include 1) full definition of the transmitter operating requirements including power availability (harvesting required?), data rates, amount of pre-processing, environmental specs, etc. 2) Design of the transmitter, most likely based on a low-power silicon-tunnel-diode-based oscillator which has been shown attractive for previous high temperature MEMS sensing and telemetry applications; 3) testing the performance of the prototype transmitter across a range of temperatures, transmission distances, input power levels, fundamental design parameters; 4) Providing metrics related to data loss from real vibration signals (generated from a bearing on a test stand and from various recordings of engine vibrations) as a function of the tested parameters; and 5) Analyzing the potential of the technology to meet Air Force goals in Phase II and beyond.

MEVICON, INC.
1185 Bordeaux Rd., Suite D
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 744-1335
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 07-041      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Extremely Low Areal Density Composite Isogrid Supported Hybrid Membrane Optical Shell Reflector
Abstract:Mevicon Inc., ManTech-SRS, and Foster-Miller, leading innovators in the area of lightweight Membrane Optical Systems, materials, and structures have teamed to propose the development of a novel and innovative method of realizing very low areal density, cost effective membrane reflectors based on a combination of 1) Mevicon Inc’s demonstrated scalable, cost efficient fabrication approach for “Strength Through CurvatureTM” enabled single surface membrane shells, 2) a range of proven figure control techniques, 3) SRS’s low CTE optical grade membrane polyimide materials and coatings (1.5 nm rms surface roughness, ë/20 thickness variation over 10 cm+ samples), and 4) Foster-Miller’s extremely lightweight CHIM isogrid boundary support structure technology. This combination yields extremely low areal density primary and secondary mirror surfaces and the required boundary support, leading to significant reduction of downstream system performance requirements and hence cost for space and eventually terrestrial reflective optical systems of interest to the AF and DoD. In the PI we propose to demonstrate the combination of the four areas, continue to refine membrane reflector production global figure authority and quantify readiness for flight and performance trends. This prepares the way for a PII focused on accelerated hardware based scaling demonstration and the subsequent PII/PIII transition opportunities.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. HeeDong Lee
AF 07-041      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Advanced Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid/Composite Mirrors (ULHCMs)
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program seeks to develop a new fabrication technology for producing an ultra-light hybrid mirror for space applications. The state-of-the art space mirrors made of glass and SiC are costly to produce. The areal density of the glass and SiC mirrors also do not meet the ULHCM concepts that require 1 to 5 kg/m2 of areal density. An innovative new process is needed to address these current issues. During the Phase I period, UES proposes to use a novel fabrication process to produce a space quality hybrid mirror. Substrate and laminate mirror facesheets (4-6 inch diameter) will be integrated by applying an inorganic adhesive. In the Phase II program, we will fabricate a large-sized mirror that is mechanically and chemically very stable, and shows an outstanding mirror quality that can minimize the loss of the needed optical properties.

SRICO, INC.
2724 SAWBURY BOULEVARD
COLUMBUS, OH 43235
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 799-0664
Dr. Vincent Stenger
AF 07-042      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Ion-Sliced Lithium Tantalate for Terahertz Radiation Detection
Abstract:Terahertz radiation occupies a largely unexploited band from 100 GHz radio frequency to 30 THz infrared. It is capable of penetrating fog and moderate density objects such as wood and fabric at substantially higher resolutions and shorter ranges than radar. THz imaging can be used to screen passers-by for weapons without the safety issues of X- rays. Using spectroscopic techniques, THz radiation can be used for stand-off detection and imaging of suspicious materials or chemicals. These features make THz technology ideal for both the soldier in the field and for continuous surveillance applications such as airport security. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project addresses the need for THz detectors that are compact and that operate efficiently at room temperature. The proposed technology employs novel materials processes to realize room temperature pyroelectric THz detector devices that are at least one hundred times more sensitive than commercially available devices. The technology is highly amenable to monolithic linear and two dimensional arrays for spectroscopic and imaging applications. Deployment of these newly developed detector devices would result in cost effective implementation of a large number of important industrial, medical and defense applications that could benefit from terahertz radiation technologies.

VIRGINIA DIODES, INC.
979 Second Street SE, Suite 309
Charlottesville, VA 22902
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 297-3257
Dr. Thomas W. Crowe
AF 07-042      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Materials for Terahertz Detectors
Abstract:VDI’s goal is to use new materials and processing techniques to achieve low barrier diodes that can be used as very sensitive zero-bias detectors and frequency mixers with extremely low local oscillator power requirements. The basic device goals, in terms of the materials study, are to achieve a controlled Schottky barrier height and reduced 1/f noise. The reduced barrier height will be controlled through the optimization of the alloy content of the semiconductor and the use of novel doping profiles. Advanced materials processing techniques will be used to reduce the 1/f noise. Through the successful conclusion of this effort VDI will achieve reductions in both the low-signal NEP and 1/f noise of state-of-the-art terahertz detectors and a fundamental reduction in the size and complexity of terahertz heterodyne receivers through the minimization of the LO power requirement.

TREX ENTERPRISES CORP.
10455 Pacific Center Court
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 646-5427
Mr. Paul Johnson
AF 07-043      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Hi-Def Low Light Detector
Abstract:Trex’s Photodiode on Active Pixel (POAP) image sensor technology provides high light collection efficiency (QE x Fill Factor) without the need for microlenses on a CMOS image sensor. This technology is particularly amenable to the fabrication of high sensitivity sensors that are capable of withstanding intense optical signals and countermeasures. The planar surface of the device allows for a good optical match with overlaid non-linear absorber material, and a high percentage of metallized surface area of the CMOS Read- out IC provides protection to the underlying circuitry for light that may get through any overlaid absorber. We propose to examine the POAP image sensor technology for susceptibility to optical countermeasures.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. George M. Williams
AF 07-043      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Development of High-Definition (HD), Low-Light-Level Detector
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR program, a low noise SOI CMOS high-definition (HD) low light level television (LLLTV) image sensor will be developed. The detector will be back-illuminated with a 300-micron thick silicon absorption region, for increased sensitivity and spectral- overlap with the night sky radiance. The imager will be configured with 1280 x 1024, 6- micron-square pixels, will operate at 60 frames per second, and will include a 14-bit analog-to-digital converter. The HD LLLTV Imager is based on a SOI (silicon-on-insulator) CMOS image sensor architecture. Fabricating imagers on SOI greatly improves performance. For example, CMOS circuitry is isolated from photo regions, allowing high- resistivity silicon to be employed. In addition, CMOS circuit ground returns for SOI are isolated, eliminating substrate bounce and transient coupling problems. This allows higher operating speeds and lower noise. SOI’s planar architecture also makes it easier to passivate surfaces for low dark-current generation. This advantage, in turn, makes the device much more resistant to high-energy radiation environments. Lower fixed pattern noise (FPN) and lower power consumption are also achieved. In Phase I, the HD image sensor will be designed, layed-out, and performance simulated, so that it can be manufactured and tested in Phase II.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2138
Mr. John Gordon
AF 07-044      Awarded: 1/3/2008
Title:Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Battery with Non-Porous Ceramic Separator
Abstract:Feasibility of a rechargeable lithium battery with sulfur cathode will be demonstrated. Air Force needs high specific energy, low cost rechargeable batteries for solar energy storage. Low cathode utilization and cycle fade have prevented Li-S batteries from reaching their potential. Cathode utilization can be improved dramatically using apolar and polar solvents in combination. Typically porous separators are used for lithium batteries, allowing constituents to migrate, resulting in cycle fade. To prevent inter-electrode constituent migration and capacity fading over charging cycles, a non-porous lithium ion conductive ceramic membrane will be utilized. The membrane developed recently at Ceramatec has conductivity of 1 mS/cm at 25C and 0.6 mS/cm at -20C. The membrane can be as thin as 10’s of microns with a laminated porous layer serving as mechanical support. The non-porous separator will prevent dendritic shorting, improving anode safety along with the use of an unreducible lithium salt. Specific energy theoretically is 2600 Wh/kg with a metallic lithium anode or 630 Wh/kg with a lithium carbon anode. Practical batteries would be >1000 or 250 Wh/kg with the two respective anodes. In Phase 1, several factors will be examined to determine their impact on capacity at different charge and discharge rates including a 0.5C rate, the highest rate anticipated for discharging.

YARDNEY TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
82 Mechanic Street
Pawcatuck, CT 06379
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 599-1100
Dr. Arthur Dobley
AF 07-044      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:High Energy Density Storage for Solar Power Generation Systems
Abstract:One of the major challenges of developing solar power generation systems is the storage of electrical energy. The energy system ideally has a large amount of energy with a very low weight. This equates to a high specific energy (Wh/kg). Lithium-air batteries offer the greatest theoretical specific energy for batteries at 11 kWh/kg. Yardney has extensive experience in requirements for battery power and metal-air cells. We specialize in lightweight batteries used in aerospace applications. We also research, develop, and sell high energy density metal-air cells. Yardney will advance the Rechargeable Lithium-Air Storage System by creating an advanced rechargeable air cathode with new catalysts, and testing these cathodes in actual lithium-air cells under various environmental conditions. These batteries will provide a lightweight high energy storage device for military applications.

MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP.
181 Gibraltar Road
Horsham, PA 19044
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 542-8400
Mr. Richard Foedinger
AF 07-045      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Carbon Nanofibers, Testing, and Fabrication (MSC P7027)
Abstract:Current satellite structures and spacecraft components utilize carbon fiber reinforced composites to achieve low weight, high stiffness, strength and multifunctional performance capability. In order to meet the multifunctional performance and weight goals for future satellite systems and spacecraft components, the Air Force has identified a need for new carbon fibers that provide a balance of high stiffness, strength, fracture toughness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Advances in nanotube reinforced fiber development and processing research provide a significant opportunity for meeting these multifunctional performance goals, but further research and process development is needed to improve the interface characteristics and understand the microstructure/property relationships to optimize properties. The Phase I research proposed here involves the development, characterization and production of multiwall nanotube (MWNT) reinforced pitch- and PAN-based carbon fibers to provide improved multifunctional performance. Both melt spinning and solution spinning of MWNT/carbon fibers will be performed at different MWNT loading concentrations and process conditions to achieve the optimal fiber material properties. The research draws on the significant related research performed by the Phase I team, where long lengths of MWNT/carbon fibers have been produced to achieve higher tensile strength and strain-to-failure over unreinforced PAN-based carbon fibers.

SIGMA-K CORP.
511 Clayton Road
Durham, NC 27703
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(919) 596-8487
Dr. P. Douglas Kirven
AF 07-045      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Carbon Nanofibers, Testing, and Fabrication
Abstract:Carbon Nanotubes have great potential of adding strength in composite materials. In order for carbon nanotubes to be used in prepregging, fibers with diameters in the 7-10 micron range are needed. The carbon nanotubes need to be bundled and twisted to form appropriate size fiber tows. Current technology does not allow carbon nanotubes to be spun at a high enough rate to effectively produce enough tows for large scale projects. Sigma-K Corporation recently demonstrated the concept and will develop a high speed spinning system to spin the carbon nanotubes into yarns with tow size diameters. Our system will allow carbon nanotubes to be used in composites that are needed in high strength applications such as armor and air frames.

AQWEST
8276 Eagle Road
Larkspur, CO 80118
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 681-0456
Mr. Jan (John) Vetrovec
AF 07-046      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:High Capacity, Lightweight , and Compact Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Technologies and Systems
Abstract:Aqwest proposes to develop novel, high-performance thermal energy storage (TES) technologies and a TES integration concept for thermal management (TM) of directed energy weapons (DEW). In particular, we will develop a packed bed (PB) and sorption- based (SB) TES concepts, and a TES integration into a high-performance (HP) thermal management system (TMS), each offering unparalleled compactness and lightweight. The proposed project will produce major benefits to the Air Force: 1) TES with up to 250 kJ/kg & 254 MJ/m3 @20°C; and up to 600 kJ/kg & 430 MJ/m3 @40°C, 2) TES integration concept offering 3-10x reduction in size and weight, 3) Gravity independent TMS: compatible with maneuvering airborne platforms, 4) TMS operation independent of DEW power supply, and 5) TMS response <<1 second from cold start. In Phase I, we will develop TM requirements for a solid-state HEL on a C-130 tactical platform, evaluate the concepts for PB and SB TES, and optimize the concept for TES integration into HP-TMS. In Phase II, we will complete the design and construct each a subscale PB-TES, BS-TES and a subscale HP-TMS for demonstration testing under representative conditions. Other applications of the proposed technology include high-capacity cooling of intermittent heat loads in commercial systems.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Robert P. Scaringe
AF 07-046      Awarded: 1/9/2008
Title:Demonstration of a High Energy Density Phase-Change Storage System
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to demonstrate an innovative phase-change thermal storage system that can exceed the 1000 kJ/kg and 180 MJ/m3 thermal storage objective sought in the SBIR topic description. This Phase I effort will address a current need of the airframe system integrators for a thermal energy system for directed energy applications. Phase I will experimentally demonstrate a new concept that will reduce the size and weight of the necessary thermal storage system. The focus of the Phase I effort will be to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed phase-change thermal control approach with experiments, develop a preliminary overall design configuration, and provide a detailed comparison with SOA alternatives. The effort is significant because the proposed system will exceed the thermal storage objectives for the complete thermal control system. Clearly, Mainstream has the prior experience in this area, and the effort proposed in Phase I, which includes a preliminary design and bench-top demonstration experiments, exceeds the scope of effort proposed in the Phase I solicitation; however, Mainstream is well into this research and excited about the commercial potential for this technology. Phase II will address the fabrication and demonstration of a complete system.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Dr. Bryan Dickerson
AF 07-047      Awarded: 1/8/2008
Title:Remote Site Detection of Chemical Agents Using Functionalized Nanoparticles
Abstract:Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a of stand-off covert method of detecting chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals using functionalized nanocrystals. Alterations of the near infrared spectra from the distributed nanoparticles under laser illumination will be analyzed using a compact high-sensitivity spectrometer integrated with telescope collection optics. The chemistry of the functionalized nanoparticles will be tailored to identify a specific set of target chemicals according to their combination of functional groups. This system can be used from the air or from the ground to monitor local atmospheric or surface contamination.

VOXTEL, INC.
12725 SW Millikan Way Suite 230
Beaverton, OR 97005
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(971) 223-5646
Mr. George M. Williams
AF 07-047      Awarded: 12/20/2008
Title:Stand-Off Detection of Functionalized Nanoparticles
Abstract:In this Phase I SBIR, the feasibility of a chemical, biological, or explosive (CBE) agent micro-taggant monitoring system will be demonstrated. In Phase I, existing CBE-taggants will be evaluated and compared to a novel, solar-insensitive, invisible, lanthanide oxide quantum dot nanocrystal microtaggant. The developed CBE-taggants will emit in the near- infrared (NIR) and shortwavelength infrared (SWIR), enabling US warfighters with unique detection equipment. The lanthanide oxide nanocrystals will be coupled to proteins or secondary antibodies, to enable a variety of specific chem-bio conjugates - optimizing their functionality for CBE agents. The CBE mictotaggants will be tested against environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and smog, and other known risk item, and the microtaggant system will be tested in the laboratory suing commercial off the shelf (COTS) interrogating laser probes and NIR and SWIR cameras. Using the developed concept of operations (CONOPS), we will refine the micro-taggant monitoring system, so that in Phase II, a small-sized, lightweight, prototype system, compatible with man-portable or UAV operation, can be field demonstrated for interrogation, activation, and detection of functionalized nanparticles at over 100 meter distance. The system will be delivered to the AF at the completion of Phase II.

ORBITAL RESEARCH, INC.
4415 Euclid Avenue Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(216) 649-0399
Mr. Mike Willett
AF 07-048      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Temperature-Tolerant Processor for Reliable Control
Abstract:High temperature electronics will benefit Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) and Electronic Engine Control (EEC) in an aircraft by reducing or eliminating the need for fuel cooling of electronics. Orbital Research Inc. proposes the development of a high temperature Controller for use in future aircraft FADEC designs that will consist of the following: An ASIC chip and high temperature capacitors, resistors and pcb substrates. The Phase I effort will be primarily to collect data on existing FADECs and EECs, and analyze the data to determine the most appropriate microprocessor to use as the core of the controller. Following the identification of the optimal micro Orbital Research Inc. will design a controller, using a custom-designed ASIC which will provide computational power needed for future FADEC designs. In Phase II Orbital will build a breadboard for testing from the designed circuit. The critical test parameter is adequate processing power in a rugged package that does not need liquid fuel cooling.

SCIENTIFIC MONITORING, INC.
8777 E.Via de Ventura Suite 120
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(440) 328-5832
Dr. Walter Merrill
AF 07-048      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Reliable, High Temperature Engine Control
Abstract:Scientific Monitoring will develop a high temperature (~200C) FADEC architecture for reliable turbofan engine control. Initially, two competing architectures will be studied to address the need for control distribution and multiprocessing. A software design environment will be specified that will enable control law implementation within a real time context in the high temperture architecture. This may entail the use of sophisticated software redundancy approaches to achieve reliable operation. Phase I will result in a prototype processor demonstration at high temperature as well as a recommeded architecture.

ADVANCED COOLING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(717) 295-6104
Dr. William Anderson
AF 07-049      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:FADEC Cooling Using High Temperature Loop Heat Pipes
Abstract:The Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) controls engine operation. It is historically mounted on the engine case to minimize the routing length of the sensor and actuator wiring. The FADEC must be maintained below 63°C, while the environment can be as hot as 170°C. The current design uses fuel to cool the FADEC, however, this often limits the allowable ground or flight idle time before the fuel is too hot to cool the FADEC. This SBIR project will develop a loop heat pipe (LHP) thermal management system that will transport the FADEC heat load to an alternate sink, typically located 2 m away. The Phase I project will develop a model of the thermal management system, which will include heat pipes to lower the internal ÄT in the FADEC box, and LHPs to transport the heat to a heat sink. This will eliminate the use of fuel for cooling the FADEC, isolating it from the fuel cooling system. The benefits include an increase in the allowable fuel temperature, increasing idle time. The goal of the Phase II project will be to design, fabricate and test a LHP thermal system for cooling the FADEC.

RINI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
582 South Econ Circle
Oviedo, FL 32765
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 359-7138
Dr. Daniel P. Rini
AF 07-049      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Passive Two-Phase FADEC Cooling System
Abstract:Rejecting heat from a FADEC unit 2m away over a temperature differential of only 13oC results in a very challenging problem for a LHP cycle, especially when considering the body forces expected on an aircraft. An ideal LHP cycle with only hydrostatic pressure head considerations shows that ammonia is the only fluid that could potentially provide 2m of coolant transport. Even with ammonia, a combination of heat leak to the compensation chamber, high ambient environment, high internal pressure, high g maneuver and low temperature budget makes it unlikely that a LHP can transport heat from the FADEC to the heat sink. RTI proposes to instead use their innovative Liquid Retention Evaporator for a Loop Thermosyphon which rightly suits the needs of this cooling problem. The Loop Thermosyphon offers a passive long-distance/low-temperature-differential cooling application which when combined with the Liquid Retention Evaporator can offer a huge cooling buffer for transient high g periods, lasting minutes.

P.C. KRAUSE & ASSOC., INC.
3016 Covington Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(765) 464-8997
Dr. Alex J. Heltzel
AF 07-050      Awarded: 12/18/2007
Title:Advanced Heat Exchanger (HEX) Scaling Methodologies for High-Performance Aircraft
Abstract:The well-known consequence of high-performance, low-observable, more-electric strike aircraft is the increased thermal loading that can ultimately threaten mission-critical components. The ability to efficiently transport the resulting waste energy to onboard coolants is now understood to be an airframe-level design point that should be considered with a priority approaching that of thrust, range, or rate of climb. In this regard, attention has been focused on advanced heat exchanger technologies which offer the potential for increased volumetric heat transfer capacity. PCKA proposes to simulate candidate heat exchangers by discarding flow approximations in favor of 3-D solutions of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations in both solid and liquid domains. Wide parametric studies can be performed, generating performance curves for several candidate heat exchangers, which will include the effect of design modifications on resultant heat exchange capacity and pressure drops. With the acquisition of physics- based performance data, a methodology is outlined by which the CFD can be integrated into a system-level model, where “CFD-in-the-loop” capability can truly contribute to an airframe-wide virtual design tool. The proposed tool is inherently general to non-specific airframes, but can be applied directly in thermal management models already developed for the F-22 and F-35 systems.

SPIRITECH ADVANCED PRODUCTS, INC.
731 N US Highway 1 Suite 1
Tequesta, FL 33469
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 741-3441
Mr. Eric Gamble
AF 07-050      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Advanced Heat Exchanger (HEX) Scaling Methodologies for High-Performance Aircraft
Abstract:A Heat Exchanger analytical tool is proposed for rapid thermal analysis and design optimization of advanced heat exchangers. The numerical model incorporates a user- friendly interface capable of modeling the details of the heat load calculation throughout the heat exchanger, including the details of the coolant flow network. The tool is comprised of a Thermal Model to calculate heat flux and wall temperatures for various heat exchangers; a Flow Model to calculate the coolant pressures and temperatures; a Structural/Weight/Cost Model to calculate the minimum HEX thickness and corresponding weight and cost; an Optimizer Model to optimize the heat exchanger design for thermal performance, cost, and weight, and a Properties Model to provide built-in libraries of material and coolant properties. Heat exchanger characterization and scaling laws are incorporated into each of the models through application of fundamental physical equations. The Phase I effort will develop the basic tool, integrating the scaling laws and cost model for a plate-fin heat exchanger. The models will be integrated into a module for incorporation into Simulink. The Phase II effort will further develop the tool by adding a library of heat exchanger types, transient thermal analysis capability, and detailed flow model and will provide validation data.

TTC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. Box 1527
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-7127
Dr. Ken Alabi
AF 07-050      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Advanced Heat Exchanger Characterization and Scaling Methodologies for High-Performance Aircraft
Abstract:An advanced software tool for heat exchanger (HEX) characterization and scaling for high-performance aircraft is proposed, with the objective of removing the limitations associated with the existing methods of analysis. In addition to supporting the conventional methods of analysis, which are based on the lumped approach, the proposed tool will enable highly-accurate and computationally-efficient simulation methods that consider conditions existing in service, such as variable ram air flow rate from ram air cooling. This has not been possible with any previous HEX characterization method. The proposed predictive tool will also provide unparalleled modeling capabilities for in- flight and installation effects, which are usually not considered in conventional HEX models. Other innovations are the ability to scale heat exchangers and the multi-scale optimization procedure. To develop the proposed tool, TTC Technologies, Inc. (TTC) will leverage its experience in advanced heat exchanger modeling and software marketing. TTC will also partner with Hamilton Sundstrand, for validation data and manufacturing related to the proposed tool, and with Modelogics, Inc., whose expertise in developing interface for modeling and simulation tools for rapid simulation of aircraft flight systems has been used by most of the aerospace industry leaders.

FLORIDA TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6340
Mr. Dan Davies
AF 07-051      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:Affordable Thermomechanical Fatigue Testing under Turbine Airfoil Conditions in the Hyperbaric Advanced Development Environmental Simulator (HADES)
Abstract:Advanced gas turbine aircraft engines are designed to operate at higher overall pressure ratios, elevated turbine temperatures, and more severe duty cycles. Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) is expected to be the leading failure mode for hot-section components in these engines, a behavior typically dominated by adverse thermal gradients combined with cyclic thermal and mechanical loading. Improvement in TMF predictive modeling is needed to maximize reliability and affordability of component designs. Characterization at gas turbine operating conditions is needed to support the development of first-principles based material models. The HADES rig (Hyperbaric Advanced Development Environmental Simulator) is a low-cost test device capable of subjecting test articles to turbine gas-path conditions, surface temperatures exceeding 2000F and a very high heat flux. A prototype rig developed by Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) has been demonstrated. Feasibility studies of a new rig with enhanced capabilities, including tensile and compressive loading of specimens, autonomous cyclic operation, and full-field measurement capability is the subject of this Phase I SBIR proposal. Rig manufacturing, assembly, installation and validation testing are proposed for Phase II. Leased production versions of this rig would then be installed at the customer’s site, with training, technical and engineering support and analysis options offered by FTT.

TEST DEVICES, INC.
6 Loring Street
Hudson, MA 01749
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 562-6017
Mr. Bruce deBeer
AF 07-051      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Test Method for Inducing Steep Thermal Gradients in Thin-Walled Structures
Abstract:Test Devices, Inc. (TDI) will demonstrate the technical feasibility of and develop a detailed design for a test facility to impose representative steep through-wall temperature gradients, heat flux, and thermo/mechanical loads on turbine airfoils tested outside a running engine. The proposed facility will test actual turbine airfoils and/or specimens of similar material composition and geometry (including TBCs), and provide for representative cooling flows in order to examine the effects of film cooling. The facility will provide the capability to simulate operating strain histories, i.e. Thermal Mechanical Fatigue (TMF), which will be used to make more realistic service life predictions for turbine components.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(503) 659-1584
Dr. Bauke Heeg
AF 07-052      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Optical Temperature and Strain Imaging for Turbine Engine Applications
Abstract:Two optical measurement techniques are presented for imaging of strain and temperature of high temperature materials used in turbine engines. The proposed strain measurement capability is provided by a variant of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), whereas temperature imaging is achieved with thermographic phosphors. The proposed methods are suited for use on both coated and uncoated specimens, and will be designed around thermo-mechanical fatigue test facilities under development elsewhere. One particularly innovative aspect is the prospect of depth resolved lateral strain imaging within and through a ceramic coating. The Phase I work plan consists of a demonstration of the measurement capabilities, an analysis of critical components and feasible operating envelope, and a detailed Phase II design and development strategy.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Electro-Optics and Holography Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Shilpa Pradhan
AF 07-052      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Thermal Imaging Laser Speckle Interferometric Sensor
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for an accurate, full-field temperature and strain measurement system for turbine airfoils, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Thermal Imaging LAser Speckle Interferometric Sensor (TILASIS). This proposed device is based on the principle of laser speckle interferometry combined with a thermal imaging technique for noncontact full-field measurement of strain and temperature. The innovation in using an infrared laser for full-field laser speckle interferometry, in combination with a thermal imaging camera, will enable us to quantitatively measure and understand the behavior of thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) in turbine engine components under severe thermal and mechanical loads, and to validate a first-principles-based approach for TMF modeling. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of TILASIS by developing a detailed design and performing initial testing by simulation and laboratory validation. In Phase II POC plans to develop, demonstrate, and validate a prototype to accurately measure full-field temperature and strain in thin-walled test specimens.

UES, INC.
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 426-6900
Dr. Rabi S. Bhattacharya
AF 07-053      Awarded: 12/17/2007
Title:Spall Propagation-Resistant Hybrid Bearings for High-Performance Turbine Engines
Abstract:The objective of this SBIR project is to develop spall propagation resistant turbine engine mainshaft bearings for improved reliability, safety, and performance margin of aircraft propulsion systems. New case carburized Pyrowear 675 steel has been developed for bearing races that has been shown to resist surface fatigue initiation and therefore improve the fatigue life compared to the M50 steel. However, once the initiation occurs, fatigue cracks can propagate rapidly resulting in increased spall rate in Pyrowear 675 races. This aspect of the fatigue properties of Pyrowear 675 has not been studied in great detail. In this Phase I SBIR project, UES proposes to identify the key properties of Pyrowear 675 such as microstructure, and near-surface fracture toughness that control the spall propagation rate. For this purpose, Rolling Contact Fatigue tests will be conducted under selected stress cycles, and the neighborhood of spalled area will be investigated. Spalled areas of failed bearings will also be investigated, if available. Also, computer modeling and simulation will be used to understand the role of dynamic operating conditions such as load and speed on the spall propagation.

AERODYNAMIC SOLUTIONS LLC
332 Grissom Rd
Manchester, CT 06042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 649-0764
Dr. Ron-Ho Ni
AF 07-054      Awarded: 12/26/2007
Title:Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis Capability for Gas Turbine Component Design
Abstract:Turbine performance increases through increasing turbine inlet gas temperature which can result in reduced turbine durability. Currently the design practices employed by the major OEM’s for cooled turbine airfoils are generally very empirical in nature and can easily miss important physical behavior thereby compromising airfoil durability. This in turn leads to turbine airfoil durability issues resulting in higher operating costs and weapon system reliability shortcomings. AeroDynamic Solution LLC is propose to develop a robust physics based conjugate heat transfer analysis approach and computational methods that can be readily integrated into the design systems of gas turbine industry OEM’s.

FLORIDA TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
1701 Military Trail Suite 110
Jupiter, FL 33458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(561) 427-6250
Mr. James Downs
AF 07-054      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:Practical Conjugate CFD Heat Transfer Design Methods for Complex Turbine Components
Abstract:Modern cooled gas turbine components are typically characterized by small-scale features (turbulators, impingement holes, and film cooling holes) and complex physics (boundary layer transition, separated shear layers from turbulators, and unsteady mixing of film coolant into the mainstream). The geometric complexity and computational rigor required to resolve the physics yields conjugate CFD/heat transfer analysis durations that are not practical for a target component design iteration cycle of ~4 weeks. Consequently, current technology limits use of conjugate CFD to sub-models models of reduced physical rigor (RANS), or simplified cooling schemes (i.e.: no film holes). Component designers require accurate prediction of the stress/temperature field over the entire component; accordingly, industry needs a method of physically rigorous modeling (DES/LES) in critical regions. For non-critical regions, the proposed conjugate CFD/thermal design methodology omits the small scale features (impingement holes, film holes, or turbulators) from the mesh, and instead meshes only the large-scale flowpath and internal cooling passages. Grid extraneous source terms (mass/momentum/energy) are used to capture the effect of small-scale features in non-critical regions to keep the analysis time practical. The novel aspect of this approach is the manner in which source terms are created, controlled, and integrated into the converging full-scale conjugate solution.

DEICON, INC.
919 Aaron Nutt Rd.
Dayton, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 885-4134
Dr. Reza Kashani
AF 07-055      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:Improved Damping Modeling for Afterburners
Abstract:In phase I of this SBIR project we propose the development of a software tool for designing passive acoustic treatment for adding acoustic damping to the low-frequency (<1000 Hz) modes most sympathetic to heat release perturbation in an augmentor, i.e., the first tangential and first radial modes. Considering that the resonant frequencies of these modes are reasonably constant (do not change appreciably with operating conditions) and their corresponding frequencies are spaced apart from each other, passive tuned acoustic treatment is proposed as the candidate solution. The physics- based software tool will be considering the effects of grazing flow, cooling flow, and distributed (not discrete) dynamics of the absorber itself. The design tool will be developed in COMSOL finite element analysis environment. The software tool will be used to design 2 acoustic dampers tuned to the first tangential and first radial modes of an augmentor with the same geometry and attributes as that of F136 engine . The effectiveness of the designed dampers will be numerically demonstrated by implementing them in the finite element aeroacoustic model of the candidate augmentor.

ENGINEERING RESEARCH & ANALYSIS CO.
340 SENTINEL OAK DRIVE
DAYTON, OH 45458
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 291-3800
Dr. Mohammed Mawid
AF 07-055      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Improved Damping Modeling for Afterburners
Abstract:A novel damping model to damp acosutic pressures in gas turbine afterburners is proposed for development and validation in this SBIR project. The proposed model will account for as many of the physical phenomena present in the afterburenr as possible which will include grazing, bias, and mean flows, and heat release fluctuations that excite certain pressure modes and potentially cause screech.

ALLCOMP, INC.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry, CA 91746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 369-1273
Mr. Wei Shih
AF 07-056      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Novel Heat Exchanger Materials for Fuel-Air Cooler Heat Exchanger
Abstract:Open cell foam, which provides the highest heat transfer surface areas per unit volume, is considered as an excellent heat exchanger core material. Pyrolytic Carbon coated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam, which offers highly conductive foam ligaments and is available in different pore sizes and density, provides wide design options. A hybrid heat exchanger composed of carbon foam as heat transfer core and metallic parting sheet can provide efficient heat transfer performance, acceptable pressure drop, sound structure that is compatible with external ducting, and meet leak tightness required for a fuel-air heat exchanger. Under this program, we plan to further optimize existing RVC based carbon foams to achieve improved thermal performance with minimum impact on the flow resistance. We also plan to further improve the reliability of joining between carbon foam and aluminum parting sheet meeting both thermal and structural requirements. In addition, we plan to identify and demonstrate new foam materials for advanced heat exchanger applications.

CERAMATEC, INC.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 978-2134
Mr. Merrill Wilson
AF 07-056      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Next Generation Heat Exchangers Using Ceramic Materials and Surface Morphologies
Abstract:A ceramic material is proposed wherein surface morphologies are used which enhance the heat transfer performance and reduce heat exchanger weight and volume. This technology would provide a means by which next generation return fuel/air cooler (RFAC) heat exchanger systems could be improved upon. The basic concept is to increase the area-to-volume ratio by fabricating materials which have porous structures allowing for increased heat transfer over a reduced volume. Fabrication and testing will be done using silicon carbide as the ceramic material. In the Phase 1 Program, Ceramatec, Inc. will evaluate, fabricate, demonstrate and characterize the performance of these materials at a sub-scale level.

ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH, INC.
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(860) 528-9806
Mr. James R. Markham
AF 07-057      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:High-Speed Thermal Imaging of In-Service TBC Blades
Abstract:Ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) on first-stage turbine blades is a vital component of advanced engines under development for future military aircraft, protecting the metal alloy blades from the extreme combustion temperature in these high-performance engines. TBC must be proven as a reliable means to prevent blade failure but current engine development programs are hindered since there is not a sensor available to map the surface temperature of TBC blades during engine operation. In fact, the engine sensor community has identified surface temperature mapping of TBC blades as a high priority sensor development need. This Phase I project will demonstrate feasibility for an advanced optical imaging system for both on-board TBC emissivity mapping and TBC temperature mapping. Knowledge of TBC emissivity is critical for accurate temperature measurements, and jet fuel combustion influences emissivity at the coating surface. The TBC emissivity maps will be used with the TBC thermal maps to improve the absolute accuracy of on-engine TBC temperature mapping. On-board emissivity monitoring will also provide an additional diagnostic for high-resolution monitoring of TBC breakdown resulting in metal substrate exposure.

SURFACE OPTICS CORP.
11555 Rancho Bernardo Road
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 675-7404
Mr. Leif Hendricks
AF 07-057      Awarded: 12/12/2007
Title:Innovative High-Speed Sensing System for Operational Monitoring of Jet Engine Turbine Blade Ceramic Coatings
Abstract:Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), teamed with Pratt and Whitney (P&W), is proposing an innovative solution for operational monitoring of the health of Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) on jet engine turbine blades. This solution is based on extensive work performed by both team members that has been directed towards problems of similar nature over many years. The problem is that turbine blades are nickel-based superalloys with a CMC thermal barrier that protects them from temperatures as high as 4000 F (the melting point of the steel is ~ 2900 F). The role of the CMC layer is to assure that the temperature of the steel blades does not exceed ~ 1700 F. Premature (occurring before routine scheduled maintenance) degradation or failure of the CMC blanket can lead to engine failure. The possible solution for which the feasibility will be determined in a Phase I program is to monitor in real time the condition of the CMC coatings on each and every blade in the turbine. Our Team solution is to apply proven SOC real-time hyperspectral imaging with continuous automated analysis and reporting of the health of the blade CMC coatings. This solution is discussed in Sections 1.0 through 3.0 of this proposal with a work plan tailored to, and focused on, its efficacy.

BUSEK CO., INC.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(508) 655-5565
Mr. Nathaniel Demmons
AF 07-058      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Atomizing Liquid Fuel Injector for Hypersonic Propulsion
Abstract:In hypersonic flight vehicles, the limited residence time of fuel in the engine necessitates extremely fast mixing and combustion. Conventionally atomized fuel droplets are typically too large and polydisperse (several to hundreds of microns in diameter) to mix and completely burn during the short 1-3ms residence time in the engine. Busek proposes to investigate a novel approach for creating monodisperse micron-sized droplets at the high mass flowrates required for hypersonic combustion engines. Busek has already achieved the desired droplet sizes and performed successful combustion testing of unmodified JP-8 at low mass flowrates. The goal of the Phase 1 effort shall be to test an augmentation technique for increasing mass flowrates by 1000-fold, culminating in a proof-of-concept functional and characterized fuel injector.

GOHYPERSONIC, INC.
714 E. Monument Ave Suite 201
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 531-6678
Dr. Lance Jacobsen
AF 07-058      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Hypersonic Propulsion-Airframe Integration
Abstract:This SBIR presents an opportunity to study alternate scramjet engine configurations in an effort to increase spillage to levels between inward-turning and planar inlets while understanding the impact on engine and vehicle performance from a systems level perspective. To accomplish this, our team proposes to integrate new inlet, nozzle, and vehicle flow surface design and analysis capabilities into the Eco suite of tools. Inlet design strategies will focus on developing planar flowlines and new alternative inlet design methodologies including streamline tracing through alternate genera flowfields to explore the design space between the two classes of inlets. Parametric surface flowline optimization CFD techniques will also be employed to further enhance and analyze any promising new inlet designs developed in this study. Furthermore, new planar nozzle flowlines generation routines will also be examined to provide alternative means for the design of the back end of the engine-integrated vehicle configuration. New vehicle surface routines will also be created to allow alternative spatula and waverider vehicle configurations with planar and alternative inlet designs. Flowlines generated with these new tools will be validated using viscous CFD and the resulting configurations will be compared to the baseline inward-turning scramjet configurations over a selected mission.

INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS, INC.
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-6546
Dr. Sukesh Roy
AF 07-059      Awarded: 1/14/2008
Title:Measurement Techniques for High-Pressure, Liquid-Fueled Combustors with High Soot Loading
Abstract:The primary objective of this Phase-I research effort is to build an ultraviolet (UV) hyperspectral sensor at ~310 nm to perform spatially resolved temperature and OH concentration measurements based on multi-line laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of OH molecule in reacting flows. The proof-of-the-concept demonstration measurements will be performed in an atmospheric-pressure, near-adiabatic H2-air Hencken burner for various equivalence ratios. The potential of two different concepts of generating UV light using hyperspectral sources will be evaluated. These are: (1) generating UV light by sum-frequency mixing of 5W 532 nm light with a high-power hyperspectral source at ~763 nm in a nonlinear crystal and (2) development of an UV hyperspectral source based on native ultraviolet gain, e.g., using quadrupled Nd:YVO4-pumped Ce3+:LiCaAlF6 or Ce3+:LiLuF4 crystals which can provide broadband gain in the 280-333 nm range. High- bandwidth LIF measurements based on continuous-wave (CW) lasers is limited by the low power output of typical distributed feedback (DFB) diode-lasers used for their construction. Hyperspectral sources will allow generating high-power CW laser-light at the desired frequency, i.e., either at ~763 nm or ~310 nm. This feasibility study will pave the way for designing the optimum UV source for implementation in a high-pressure test- rig at WPAFB during the Phase-II research effort.

SPECTRAL ENERGIES, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Dr. Sivaram P. Gogineni
AF 07-059      Awarded: 1/7/2008
Title:Spatially and Temporally Resolved Temperature and Species Concentration Measurements in High-Pressure Combustors using fs- CARS
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase-I research effort is to develop femtosecond (fs) laser-based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy for providing quantitative high-speed (1-10 kHz) temperature and species concentration measurements in unsteady reacting flows. The initial frequency-spread dephasing rate of the Raman coherence induced by the ultrafast (~85 fs) Stokes and pump beams will be used to measure gas-phase temperature for high-pressure combustion. This initial frequency- spread dephasing rate of the Raman coherence is completely independent of local molecular collisions and depends only on the frequency spread of the Raman transitions at different temperatures. Single-shot CARS thermometry will be performed by obtaining time-resolved CARS spectra from chirped probe pulse. A simple theoretical model based on the assumption of impulsive excitation of Raman coherence will be developed to interpret and extract high-speed, single-shot temperature from the interaction of a chirped probe-pulse with the Raman coherence. During the Phase-I research effort measurements will be performed in laboratory flames. Successful implementation of the proposed technique will pave the way for the application of fs-CARS for high-speed temperature and species concentration measurements in high-pressure gas-turbine test rig and augmentor at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) during the Phase-II research effort.

METACOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
28632 Roadside Drive, #255
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 735-4883
Dr. Uriel Goldberg
AF 07-060      Awarded: 12/13/2007
Title:Computational Fluid Dynamics Enhancements for Scramjet Flow Simulations
Abstract:Combusting flows in general, and scramjet flows in particular, strain the performance of existing CFD solvers to their limit, the weakest link being the turbulence closure. Prediction of high-speed combusting flows is particularly sensitive to the level of accuracy in computing mass transport. Solvers based on eddy viscosity models relate turbulent mass flux to species gradients through an exchange mechanism involving eddy viscosity and a so-called turbulent Schmidt number (Sct). A similar approach is used for energy transport, the equivalent parameter being the turbulent Prandtl number (Prt). Both numbers are treated as constants throughout the flow-field. However, experimental evidence suggests that these parameters vary significantly, thus models that treat them as constants cannot predict the flow details with sufficient accuracy. The proposed approach introduces a method for computing variable Sct and Prt numbers with the potential to significantly improve scramjet flow predictive capability.

TTC TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
P. O. Box 1527
Stony Brook, NY 11790
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 285-7127
Dr. Xiaodan Cai
AF 07-060      Awarded: 12/14/2007
Title:Computational Fluid Dynamics Enhancements for Scramjet Flow Simulations
Abstract:Several high-fidelity computational schemes and turbulence-combustion interaction models, including the option for high-order spatial and temporal calculations, are proposed to significantly improve the accuracy and turnaround time for practical scramjet engine design and performance analysis. The proposed enhancements of existing tools, such as the government-owned VULCAN computer program, focus on accuracy, speed of execution, and general user interaction with the tools. The project targets issues associated with physics-based modeling of supersonic combustion, aerodynamics, turbulence, and their interactions, with the overall goal of providing accurate and computationally affordable tool. To develop the proposed software, TTC Technologies, Inc. (TTC) is leveraging its extensive experience in the relevant research for the topic and in developing truly advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions at all speeds (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic). TTC will also partner with ATK GASL, Inc., who will provide quality data to validate the proposed tool, and leverage its extensive research and realistic scramjet manufacturing experience.

GENERAL NANO LLC
PO Box 6554
Cincinnati, OH 45206
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(513) 556-4132
Dr. Mark J. Schulz
AF 07-061      Awarded: 1/4/2008
Title:Super Long Carbon Nanotubes for Manufacturing Electrical Fiber
Abstract:This project is to address the feasibility of manufacturing carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber that can replace copper wire for electrical power applications in the Air Force. The proposed work will focus on three critical aspects for fiber production that we believe are unique, and that will allow mass production of high quality electrical fiber. The approaches we selected to attack this scientific and technological challenge are: (1) synthesis of large area, cm long multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) using our novel composite catalysts for which a US patent is pending; (2) spinning long MWCNT into fiber based on existing and widely available industrial spinning technology which is only possible by using cm long nanotubes; and (3) post treatment of the produced CNT fibers for improved electrical conductivity. In practice, MWCNT and hence electrical fiber will always contain defects. A post treatment step integrated within the spinning procedure and based on thermal and plasma annealing is chosen to heal defects and improve the strength and conductivity of the fiber. Electrical fiber after such treatment is expected to be highly electrically conductive, and also flexible, bendable, fatigue resistant, and load bearing for multifunctional applications. All these fiber properties will be vigorously characterized.

NANOCOMP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
162 Pembroke Road
Concord, NH 03301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 442-8992
Dr. David S. Lashmore
AF 07-061      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Longer Length Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) for Electric Power Applications
Abstract:Nanocomp has demonstrated a continuous fabrication process for SWCNT wires and a batch process for very long SWCNT tapes. Modifications to the conductivity, proposed here, may improve the EM absorption characteristics of these sheets. In this proposal we posit that a CNT wire may be used as a current conductor for both dc and ac frequencies under a wide variety of conditions. Some preliminary data on the electrical characteristics of the wire are presented. We note that at ambient temperature the electrical resistivity is about 1 x 10-4 ohm-cm (1x106 S.m-1) at a wire density of about 0.2 g/cc which on weight basis is close to that of industrial copper (58.6 x 106 S.m-1) whose density of 8.96 g/cc. At high frequencies (>2 GHz) the nanotube wire becomes very much more effective than copper thereby saving considerable weight. At frequencies less than 50 MHz, a power savings for the same capacity can be achieved only if the nanotube conductivity is increased[1]. Widespread commercial applications of CNT wires requires improved conductivity. Means of accomplishing this include doping during or after synthesis, and a novel means of Chirality control implemented during synthesis.

HELIOS REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS, INC.
101 Bleecker Street
Utica, NY 13501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(315) 732-0101
Mr. Walter E. Szczepanski
AF 07-063      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:Generation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Radar Waveforms
Abstract:Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. proposes to identify and develop techniques to produce a high number of orthogonal waveforms with optimal rejection for use in waveform diverse MIMO Over-The-Horizon radar applications. We will investigate issues pertaining to simultaneously generating and coherently processing a large number of transmitted and received waveforms each of 25 kHz bandwidth and all at a carrier frequency of 5 MHz. Issues to be considered include ambiguity function and cross ambiguity function performance including autocorrelation sidelobe levels and waveform cross correlation, matched filters’ signal rejection properties, mutual coherent interference, atmospheric and phenomenological degradation impact, and output signal-to- interference-plus-noise ratio. Advanced orthogonal waveforms and adaptive mutual coherent interference rejection, compatible with CW and pulsed MIMO OTH radar architectures, will be researched, designed and validated using computer simulations. Of particular interest are telecommunications waveforms, nested Costas codes and noise- like waveforms which possess spatial, temporal, and frequency diversity. Also, we believe that severe mutual coherent interference and phenomenological degradation effects (atmospheric, multipath, etc.) could significantly degrade performance of “fragile” orthogonal waveforms. Therefore, an integral part of the proposed waveform architecture design is adaptive mutual coherent interference rejection processing to mitigate these degrading effects.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICE CORP.
1900 S. Sepulveda Blvd Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 576-2393
Dr. Carroll Nunn
AF 07-063      Awarded: 3/13/2008
Title:Generation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Radar Waveforms
Abstract:MIMO is an innovative radar technique that can provide angle and velocity resolution advantages in phased array radars such as OTH systems. TSC plans to: 1) identify the architectural design requirements for signal generation and matched / mismatched filtering, and 2) develop simulations predicting the performance of the proposed system architecture. TSC will investigate the issues pertaining to simultaneously generating and coherently processing a large number of transmitted and received waveforms. TSC’s approach for generating the WFs and mismatched filters is unique and powerful, and has been successfully demonstrated on several different radar programs. We will start by using various candidate WF modulations as seed functions. We will then use our mature search and constrained optimization tools to find the best set of waveforms and mismatched filters for the weighted Doppler tolerance, peak and integrated sidelobe level, resolution degradation and SNR loss, and other criteria. We will also investigate the effects of propagation and hardware (e.g. the antenna, transmitter and receiver) on the performance of the waveforms. In this manner, the user will be able to tailor the WFs to best suit an individual surveillance requirement.

Q-TRACK CORP.
515 Sparkman Drive
Huntsville, AL 35816
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 489-0075
Dr. Hans G. Schantz
AF 07-064      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:Wideband, Dual-Polarized, High-Frequency (HF) Element
Abstract:Antenna performance (gain) is proportional to antenna size. Q-Track proposes a combined vertical polarization (V-pol) and horizontal polarization (H-pol) ultrawideband (UWB) antenna element with bandwidth capable of covering the entire 6-28MHz bandwidth. This element will have a height of approximately 20m (60ft) to achieve a lower frequency of 6MHz. Q-Track further proposes to establish a scale-bandwidth relationship for this element to demonstrate how more compact tuned versions of the element could be used at the cost of a more restricted simultaneous bandwidth. Alternatively, the bandwidth of a 6-28MHz element can be extended down to 3MHz or even lower using such tuning. Q-Track will validate theoretical predictions by measurements on scale models of the elements. Q-Track’s approach will conclusively demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design and allow the Air Force to make an informed decision on an appropriate size element to achieve desired performance.

AGILE RF, INC.
93 Castilian Drive
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-5159
Mr. Albert Cardona
AF 07-065      Awarded: 3/11/2008
Title:Tunable Filters for the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)
Abstract:Agile is proposing to develop novel switched high-Q acoustic filters where the switching and filtering functions are included in the devices monolithically leading to very small, high performance tunable filters.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
AF 07-065      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:High Dynamic Range Tunable Filters for JTRS Software Defined Radios
Abstract:Space Micro has developed three innovations addressing size and IP3/linearity needed in the JTRS software defined radio. These monolithic solutions are expected to be size and cost effective and realized with practical manufacturing methods. The innovations are a High Dynamic Range Digitally Tunable RF Preselector (TRaPr), a High Q, digitally tuned and Controlled OverModed Resonator RF Preselector (COMbeR) and Enhanced dynamic range Sampling IF filter (eSIF). These innovations provide high dynamic range and high breakdown voltage switches, low loss and parasitic switches for switched capacitor arrays and high Q size reduced inductors, all together providing a suite of tunable filters with a high dynamic range (>+40 dBm) applications below 450 MHz, but will be developed for higher frequencies as well (through L band). Size/volume is expected to scale by 30% from conventional inductor design.

APPLIED EM, INC.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Dr. C. J. Reddy
AF 07-066      Awarded: 3/13/2008
Title:Wideband Antenna Structure for Airborne Communications Systems
Abstract:Much effort have been devoted in recent years to develop compact broadband antennas to address antenna congestion on small aerial platforms (including small Unmanned Airborne Vehicles) and the explosive growth of communication and connectivity needs. Over the past few years, Applied EM developed and marketed antennas for direction finding and communication purposes with particular emphasis on the 30-2000MHz continuous bandwidth. Under this effort, we propose a 2-2000MHz single aperture that is at least 4 times smaller than current designs. Key elements of the proposed design are (a) optimal volumetric design for shape and topology optimization, (b) novel ultawide band material ground plane to realize a thin structure, and (c) magnetodielectric loading in place of reactive loading for optimal impedance matching. Each of these topics have been examined separately in the past, and will be integrated for the first time to provide a new paradigm in ultrawide band antenna design. Representative antenna elements will be farbricated and tested in the anechoic chamber to verify and guide re-designs. In addition, the performance of the new antenna will be examined on typical unmanned aerial vehicles via simulations. Passive and active impedance matching will be also considered for further improvements over bands of interest.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
2790 Indian Ripple Road Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
Dr. Daniel D. Reuster, Ph.D
AF 07-066      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Low-profile, Wideband Antennas for the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed program is to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a prototype wideband antenna that is operational over selected portions of the service bands (2-2000 MHz) required by the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). In addition, the designs will address the following technical objectives: (1) minimize the voltage-standing- wave ratio (VSWR) with a target VSWR of 2.0, (2) maximize the radiation efficiency, (3) demonstrate an omni-directional radiation pattern in the azimuth plane, and (4) exhibit an elevation pattern that is equivalent to that of a quarter-wavelength monopole for line of sight waveforms. In addition to the above criteria, the antenna will be low profile for improved aerodynamics. In particular, aircraft platforms typically mount antennas a distance of one-quarter wavelength above the ground plane to provide maximum broadside gain by constructively adding the primary and reflected antenna signals. If the distance is less than one-quarter wavelength, the primary and reflected signals will partially or completely cancel each other, thus limiting the bandwidth of the antenna. This effort will investigate and demonstrate novel approaches to overcoming the bandwidth limitations associated with wideband, low-profile antennas including, but not limited to, the use of magnetically conducting ground planes.

MASTER SOLUTIONS
1880 Office Club
Colorado Springs, CO 80920
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 272-8018
Mr. Kenneth G. Behar
AF 07-067      Awarded: 2/19/2008
Title:Efficient Radar Search Modes for Deep Space (DS) Surveillance
Abstract:The purpose of this SBIR is to establish and demonstrate an improved capability for conducting deep space searches by developing and deploying new signal and data processing technology for existing space surveillance radars. The effort will identify practical solution bounds for erecting leak proof search volumes for both elliptical and circular deep space orbital regimes, including the geosynchronous belt. The resulting solution space will then be characterized in terms of applicable radar measurements, and a solution approach will be proposed for conducting searches and detecting and tracking unknown space objects within these orbital regimes. The proposed solution approach will also provide flexibility to adapt the search volume for varying altitude bands, object sizes, probabilities of detection (Pd) and be tailored to the existing radar frequencies and be applicable to new surveillance radars that could be developed in different bands to improve detection/tracking accuracy. During Phase I an assessment of coherent integration, batch filtering, and Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) will be conducted and an explanation how each enhancement can improve deep space surveillance and to what extent (range, size object, probability of detection)will be provided.

NEVA RIDGE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4750 Walnut Street Suite 205
Boulder, CO 80301
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 443-9966
Mr. Richard Carande
AF 07-068      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:Three-Dimensional (3-D) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Image Formation and Exploitation
Abstract:Neva Ridge Technologies proposes to develop and implement an improved three- dimensional SAR processing algorithm and related data acquisition strategy focused on persistent surveillance circular staring SAR data. The main challenge to be addressed in the phase one effort will be to demonstrate a minimization of the limitations associated with the sparse nature of the anticipated elevation aperture through signal processing techniques to improve the elevation impulse response function, and a careful data collection process. This will be first demonstrated using phase one generated simulated multi-pass data, and available circular SAR data from prior (2006) collections. In addition to image data quality issues, we will establish requirements on flight lines, motion measurement systems and other system engineering related concerns. Results of these simulations will be made available to support a summer 2008 data collection.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Mr. Carl Frost
AF 07-068      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Three-Dimensional (3-D) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Image Formation and Exploitation
Abstract:Our main objective is to develop, implement and test novel level-set surface reconstruction methodologies as applied to SAR data that has been collected over a sparse 3D aperture. We believe a tomographic surface reconstruction can best exploit nonlinear models and sparse data collection geometries: These configurations are not readily amenable to more traditional Fourier-based or filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction methods. Phase I of this effort will comprise a proof-of-concept stage during which both the radar signal processing, imaging algorithms and hardware implementation concerns will be addressed directly. We will demonstrate a functionality that will effect 3D imaging using existing, albeit augmented, techniques, as well as new capabilities that will effect 3D surface reconstruction via novel level-set techniques. Throughout we will emphasize the development of a solution methodology that is aligned with the end-to-end goal of obtaining a fieldable and modular set of integrable components. Phase II will concentrate on the further development, larger-scale implementation, testing and performance analysis of the techniques developed under Phase I. This includes integration and testing in a lab setting of a modular prototype system using the components developed in Phase I.

GOLETA STAR LLC
24085 Garnier St
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 263-9057
Dr. Mehrdad Soumekh
AF 07-069      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Feature-Aided Tracking, Detection, and Identification of Moving Targets Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Abstract:Goleta Star LLC with support from academia, Quinstar and other supporting businesses proposes to develop advanced capability for feature-aided tracking, detection and ID of Moving Targets using SAR. This effort is concerned with single or dual receiver channel SAR data processing to detect, track and image moving targets in real time. For this purpose, we propose a subaperture-based method via which a Moving Target Indicator (MTI) is generated based on a rapidly-formed range-azimuth image of the interrogated scene. To improve the system sensitivity to detect subtle targets (such as dismounts), we propose the use of a nonlinear flight path. A nonlinear flight path also improves the system capability to detect targets that move at variety of directions. This in turn provides a better estimate of the moving target velocity vector for tracking and imaging purposes. The subaperture processing not only reduces the size of the data for analysis but also is the key for the hardware (RF) implementation of the algorithm for persistent and staring- mode airborne radar. Each individual subaperture data provide pertinent information regarding the moving targets in the imaging scene; however, the data extracted from each of the subapertures could be combined to get a better understanding of the dynamics of the interrogated moving targets. In addition to the data that may be provided by AFRL-WPAFB, Goleta Star can collect nonlinear SAR-MTI data with its Ka-band UAV radar, even during Phase I.

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS CO., INC.
500 West Cummings Park - Ste 3000
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 933-5355
Dr. Robert Weisenseel
AF 07-069      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Continuous-Look Image-Change SAR Tracking (CLICS-Track)
Abstract:Successfully detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts through urban environments has emerged as a significant challenge in modern operations, particularly for counter-insurgency efforts. Currently available sensor exploitation technologies are insufficient to reliably track insurgents and their vehicles through urban environments, allowing these threats to strike again. Our troops need persistent wide-area surveillance technology capable of tracking threats through urban areas. Such tracking capability could provide our soldiers with the positive threat identification they need to successfully prosecute anti-insurgent operations. We are proposing to couple vehicle/dismount tracking with continuous, persistent Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging such as that developed for the GOTCHA program. When coupled with near-real-time Change Detection (CD) for urban clutter suppression, the proposed system will provide a new and effective tool for positively identifying and tracking threats through urban environments. With this project, SSCI will bring together the key technologies of real-time SAR CD for urban clutter suppression, moving target focusing, and multi-hypothesis target tracking to put the ability to identify and track urban threats into the hands of the warfighter.

MRLETS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
616 Brookmeade Ct.
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 902-1434
Dr. Lang Hong
AF 07-070      Awarded: 2/22/2008
Title:Multi-carrier Waveform Optimization for Electronic Warfare Countermeasures Development
Abstract:The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative efficient and flexible electronic counter measure waveform generation algorithm. Specifically, a novel multi-carrier based waveform generation algorithm is proposed to generate and mimic any electronic warfare waveform. By taking the frequency domain sampling of typical electronic warfare waveforms and varying the phase and amplitude parameters of each and every frequency sample, this algorithm is capable of generating all electronic warfare waveforms efficiently. Furthermore, due to its natural flexibility in generating waveforms, it is also very easy for this algorithm to adapt to environment change and generate multiple waveforms simultaneously. This algorithm is developed from our expertise and mature technology in multi-carrier transmission and waveform design experience.

GMR RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY, INC.
1814 Main Street
Concord, MA 01742
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 461-2800
Dr. Gil Raz
AF 07-071      Awarded: 2/5/2008
Title:Nonlinear Signal Processing for Advanced Digital Receive Systems
Abstract:GMR Research & Technology (GMR) proposes to investigate digital methods to compensate for nonlinear distortions in RF receivers including all components. In particular we will address harmonic distortions caused by amplifiers, mixers, and Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). In particular we propose to investigate the combined techniques of digital nonlinear equalization of harmonic distortions (NLEQ) and of digital equalization of interleaved modalities (iNLEQ). These two techniques use similar underlying algorithms and are complementary to each other. In conjunction these techniques have the potential for reducing spurious signals and expanding the bandwidth of receiver systems. In the first phase of the SBIR effort we will develop this approach for a receiver system determined by the government in conjunction with GMR. We will verify the approach through software simulation. In the second phase of the SBIR effort we will design, build, and test a digital receiver which will incorporate our nonlinear signal processing approach on a field programmable gate array (FPGA). We expect this type of receiver to have many benefits for the military by significantly increasing the linear dynamic range of receiver systems such as radars and SIGINT platforms. Moreover we expect this solution to be relatively inexpensive and easy to implement.

V CORP. TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
7042 Nighthawk Court
Carlsbad, CA 92011
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 931-1011
Dr. Scott R. Velazquez
AF 07-071      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Advanced Linearizer for Digital Receivers
Abstract:This project demonstrates an advanced linearization algorithm for ultra high-performance digital receiver systems to dramatically reduce harmonic and intermodulation distortion by up to 30 dB over a wide range of input frequencies, signal types, and amplitudes. The real-time processing significantly improves the performance of analog-to-digital converters and the combination of devices in an RF receiver chain (e.g., amplifiers, mixers, converters). This technology improves the dynamic range, which enables very accurate and efficient sampling of wideband signals at very high intermediate frequencies (IF) or directly at high RF. This eliminates stages of downconversion electronics and thereby lowers the power, mass, and cost while improving performance. The linearizer is based on V Corp’s proprietary phase-shift functional model which has been successfully implemented with devices that exhibit traditional nonlinear characteristics (e.g., second and third order harmonics and intermodulation due to compression effects). The advanced linearizer uses a higher order curve to model the nonlinear distortion profile, which is more accurate and stable than second and third order polynomials. This advancement provides a very accurate model of the distortion transfer function such that errors can be subtracted out. The architecture will always exceed state-of-the-art because it can easily be upgraded as new, more powerful converter and receiver devices become available. During Phase I, V Corp will demonstrate the advanced linearizer technique via real and simulated data from various commercial-off-the-shelf A/D converters. During Phase II, a real-time prototype will be implemented and tested for use with advanced digital receivers.

APPLIED EM, INC.
144 Research Drive
Hampton, VA 23666
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 224-2035
Dr. C. J. Reddy
AF 07-072      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Miniature GPS Antenna Arrays Using Novel Materials
Abstract:Ubiquitous applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) systems imply a requirement for smaller GPS antennas and arrays to be adapted in all sorts of military and commercial platforms from missiles to small UAVs and even for hand-held applications. Current anti- jamming GPS antennas are approximately 14" in diameter, making them too large for several platforms of interest such as unmanned aerial vehicles, missiles and fighter aircrafts. Applied EM proposes to develop a six element controlled-radiation-pattern- antenna-array (CRPA) operating at both the L1 and L2 frequency bands using a 3.5" aperture. The realization of this small CRPA (S-CRPA) requires the design of a miniature antenna element, about 1” in diameter. To achieve this goal, low and high risk approaches are outlined to realize an antenna element that will approach the fundamental limits of miniaturization. Multilayered high contrast dielectrics, metamaterials structures and compact feeds are proposed. Low inter-element coupling and gain improvements at near gazing angles are also emphasized in our approaches. The proposed designs builds on recent GPS antennas developed at Applied EM, and specific improvements are outlined to achieve the stated design requirements.

SPECTRA RESEARCH, INC.
2790 Indian Ripple Road Russ Research Center
Dayton, OH 45440
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-5999
Dr. Gordon R. Little, Ph.D.
AF 07-072      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Materials/Techniques for Small/Dense Global Positioning System (GPS) Antenna Arrays
Abstract:Successful operation on the present day battlefield is critically dependent on the utilization of Global Positioning Systems (GPS), while jamming of the GPS signal may limit the viability of systems that rely on high levels of GPS accuracy. Air based weapons and aircraft require Anti-Jam (AJ) technology that is dynamic from the standpoint of creating nulls in the direction of the jammer while minimizing the impact to satellite visibility. For air based platforms, line-of-sight (LOS) to the jammer is constantly changing, thus creating a dynamic environment for the AJ system to adapt to ground based jammers. In this arena, the utilization of a controlled reception pattern array (CRPA) is frequently employed to provide a reasonable level of anti-jam protection while providing usable GPS reception. These CRPA systems employ large circular arrays (frequently up to 13 inch diameter), and require very expensive, complicated electronics packages for maintaining nulls in the direction of potentially multiple jamming. Spectra Research proposes an innovative approach to accomplishing the program objectives for improved compact controlled reception pattern arrays (CRPAs) and the development of ultra small low cost GPS jamming suppression systems by employing advances in fragmented aperture antenna designs, metamaterials, and its extensive advanced modeling capabilities.

WIRELESS-TECHNOLOGY ASSOC., INC.
10 Technology Drive Suite 3
Setauket, NY 11733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(631) 689-7877
Dr. Hoon Ahn
AF 07-073      Awarded: 3/21/2008
Title:Digital Beamforming (DBF) for Satellite Operations (SATOPS) Support
Abstract:A novel, cost-effective Digital Beamformer (DBF) architecture is proposed. The application of COTS components, used in the manufacture of consumer wireless communications devices, offers a major cost reduction methodology that should lead to the realization of an affordable DBF for a large phased array (thousands of elements). Compared to analog beamforming methods, a DBF offers significant improvement for satellite tracking, aperture resource management, array calibration, and adaptive pattern control for interference suppression. During the Phase I effort, a DBF architecture and design trade- off analyses will be conducted and an optimum DBF architecture will be selected. In addition, the Phase II work plan, which includes the DBF steering of a 4x4 array of horns, will be generated.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 750-6345
Mr. Raymond Eastwood
AF 07-074      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Multi Channel Anti Jam RFASIC
Abstract:The proposed part is a 4-Channel, Low Power, High Anti-Jam RF ASIC, which is being designed as an upgrade for the Defense Advanced Global Positioning System Receiver (DAGR) developed by Rockwell Collins, and similar handhelds. It will support 30 dB of broadband jammer cancellation allowing GPS tracking with up to 100 dB J/S. The chip will have four parallel channels with a common local oscillator (LO) and image rejection mixers for the first downconverters. Each downconverter can be used for high side or low side mixing permitting simultaneous L1 and L2 operation or all channels on the same frequency. The High A/J RF ASIC will use differential circuitry throughout and balanced off chip filters at both the first IF and second IF or baseband as dictated by the digital receiver interface. The chip will use programmable LO and sample clock synthesizers to accommodate different reference frequencies and frequency plans. PI Ray Eastwood (Nu-Trek) is a GPS architect who has designed cutting edge GPS receivers for Raytheon; and Wayne Dietrich (Raytheon) has designed over ninety military ASICs.

RBS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
2703 Sycamore Ridge Ct
Beavercreek, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 320-8191
Dr. Raymond Siferd
AF 07-074      Awarded: 2/22/2008
Title:Multi Channel Radio Frequency Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (RFASIC) for Handheld GPS Receiver Anti Jam Enhancement
Abstract:The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a vital element in numerous military and commercial applications. It is required that GPS receivers operate efficiently in hostile jamming environments and in the presence of interference caused by multipath. A critical need is the development of a RF Front End ASIC which will enable incorporation of advanced anti- jam techniques such as STAP into handheld GPS receivers. Basic design goals for the RF Front End ASIC are the capability to receive the GPS modernization signals in the L1 and L2 frequency bands, provide multi channel down conversion of the L-band signals to an intermediate frequency (IF) suitable for sampling and digitizing, and provide for the analog-to-digital conversion of the IF signal for subsequent anti-jam processing. RBS Technologies and its subcontractor Wright State University propose to develop an RF Front End ASIC with the required performance to support anti-jam signal processing and maintain compatibility with handheld GPS size and power constraints. Three basic RF Front End Architectures will be analyzed during the Phase I effort with the objective of identifying a frequency plan and combination of analog and digital building blocks that will meet the stringent demands for low noise figure, channel matching, and linearity.

D & S CONSULTANTS, INC.
P.O. Box 7259
Freehold, NJ 07728
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(732) 542-3113
Mr. Brien Housand
AF 07-075      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Agile Optics and Optical Systems for Autonomous Aerial Surveillance Cameras
Abstract:In response to AF 07-075 (Agile Optics and Optical Systems for Autonomous Aerial Surveillance Cameras) a concept is presented using a modular design approach capable of covering a wide resolution range and adaptable to cover any of the wavelength spectrums outlined in the solicitation. The concept is fully compliant with the stated weight requirement with possible growth to the ultimate weight goal. Line-of-sight steering without the use of mechanical gimbals is satisfied without resorting to weighty power consuming electro-optical beam steering technologies. The concept relies heavily on advanced lens design, recent but proven advances in optical component fabrication and focal plane arrays, as well as advanced image processing techniques. As such, the concept uses practical proven technology in an unconventional way; providing a medium risk approach to achieving over all program goals.

HOLOCHIP CORP.
1009 Bradury SE Suite 05
Albuquerque, CA 87106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 906-1064
Dr. Robert Batchko
AF 07-075      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Design and Analysis of Agile Optical-Zoom and Field-of-View Steering Systems for Small-Scale UAV Cameras
Abstract:UAV based electro-optic imaging sensors are now an integral tool in target detection, identification, engagement, and battle damage assessment. To further this tactical advantage, EO sensors must become adaptable to a variety of mission profiles and platforms. Our principal objective is to develop a refractive imaging system capable of zooming and scanning over a wide field of regard, while significantly reducing the size, weight, and power compared to conventional technologies. We propose to accomplish this via a (unique) Risley prism scanner combined with an adaptive polymer based zoom lens system.

TECHNEST HOLDINGS, INC.
10411 Motor City Drive Suite 650
Bethesda, MD 20817
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 767-2810
Dr. Steven Yi
AF 07-075      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Agile Optics and Optical Systems for Autonomous Aerial Surveillance Cameras
Abstract:Funded through several Navy and allied programs, Technest Holdings, Inc. (Technest) has successfully developed miniature and rugged optical sensors for autonomous operation of Unmanned Aircrafts and Helicopters. Leveraging these experiences, Technest proposes in this SBIR Phase I effort to develop a low power, light weight, mission adaptable, electronic zoom and slewing capable, and image stabilized day/night sensor SpectralBird. Figure 1 shows the opto-mechanical model of the SpectralBird system. SpectralBird has modularly designed SWIR/Vis-NIR optic, fast steering mirror for slewing and vibration compensation, gyros for dual axis stabilisation, and a day/night InGaAs SWIR imager. SpectralBird system is projected to be only 2”x2”x3” in dimensions, and weights only 375g (SWIR only) or 401g (SWIR/Vis-NIR).

21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
4515 Seton Center Parkway Suite 320
Austin, TX 78759
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 342-0010
Mr. Thayne Coffman
AF 07-076      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Spotter: Exploiting Large-Format Imagery via Foveated Visual Search
Abstract:The proposed Spotter effort develops the algorithms necessary to exploit large format (LF) imagery in an operational environment with layered sensor platforms by cueing high- resolution sensors in order to reduce downstream data volume. In order to support analysts conducting intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions, image exploitation workstations must have automatic target recognition algorithms (ATR) suitable for LF sensor data which can cue close-in sensor platforms. Spotter addresses this technical challenge by developing a suite of ATR algorithms designed for LF image sources, methods to register and fuse the outputs of these algorithms, and a cueing strategy based on efficient platform tasking. We propose a suite of algorithms inspired by our work in foveated vision systems and ongoing research in human visual search. Spotter will combine ATR results using a method modeled after the top-down theory of human gaze selection. We will quantify the sensitivity of the Spotter approach to variations in LF sensor and platform configuration. Based on our sensitivity study, we will survey available LF imagery and identify sensors for which Spotter is a feasible approach. The Spotter effort builds on a large body of our existing work in innovative techniques for foveated vision and sensor tasking.

ARGUSIGHT, INC.
6350 Rolling Mill Ct Unit 103
Springfield, VA 22152
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 451-1777
Dr. Geoffrey Egnal
AF 07-076      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Automated Target Recognition in Gigapixel Video
Abstract:The objective of the proposed program is to develop a long term image-based tracking camera system. Our goal is to allow fewer personnel to analyze and respond to threats detected in aerial video, making large format video useful in real time analysis. We propose to exploit long term ‘contextual’ information gathered over long periods of time over wide areas to improve tracking performance. Further, we provide identification and classification of thousands of simultaneous targets using both tracking information and previously gathered identity data. In the first phase, we propose to study three algorithms – short term tracking (0-30 seconds), medium term tracking (30 seconds – 1 hour), and long term tracking and identification (1 hour – 24 hours). ArguSight personnel have significant experience in large format imagery and video analysis, and are well qualified to address all parts of the work effort. We will be working with subcontractor Carnegie Mellon University (CMU, a premier computer vision research center.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 241-5857
Mr. Jason Gregga
AF 07-076      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Exploitation of Large-Format (ELF) Electro-Optic (EO) Data
Abstract:Large Format Electro-Optical video data, available from sensors such as Angel Fire, provides a unique capability to see a wide area at sufficient resolution to see small objects such as vehicles. Currently, Angel Fire allows users to see their region of interest in near real-time. However, there is not currently a good way to tie this impressive capability to the next layer of sensing. Without an automated ability to cue other sensors, time consuming steps must be taken by users. This limits the utility of the LF data. SET has chosen to pursue the integration of video from ground-based cameras with the synoptic imagery provided by persistent sensors such as Angel Fire. This topic has enormous potential to dramatically increase our knowledge of the identity and movement of vehicles of interest, by overcoming the limitations of both classes of sensors when used alone. Many ground cameras are currently deployed in theater. Knowledge of the locations and fields of view (FOV) of the ground cameras allows the system to cue them to watch for a vehicle at a particular time and location. High resolution, color video, at highly discriminatory viewing angles can then be used for classification, and precise identification.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Mr. Curt Wu
AF 07-077      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Framework to Ensure and Assess Trustworthiness in Sensor Systems
Abstract:Current trends suggest that in future concepts of operations a host of ubiquitous sensors will transparently provide ISR and decision support “on demand” to the warfighter without the need for tasking or querying individual sensors. Before this can happen, however, it is essential to significantly improve the reliability and trustworthiness of existing and envisioned sensor networks. During operations, the sensor network must be robust to deception, node compromise, and various other attacks, while maintaining the operator’s situational awareness regarding the health and integrity of the system. To address these needs, we propose a Framework to Ensure and Assess Trustworthiness in Sensor systems (FEATS) to identify attacks on sensor system integrity and inform the operator of sensor data trustworthiness. The framework provides for three critical functions: 1) attack detection via anomaly detection algorithms, including statistical rules and fixed-width clustering, 2) probabilistic threat assessment incorporating the current operational context using Bayesian belief networks, and 3) trust management provided by a human-system interface that uses meta-information visualization to portray the trustworthiness of critical sensor data.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Mr. Alexander Milovanov
AF 07-077      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Data-Over-Chaos Sensor Web with Advanced Trust System
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for improved security and enhanced trust to end-nodes of smart web networks, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop the new intrinsically intelligent Data-Over-Chaos Sensor Web with Advanced Trust (DOCSWAT) system, based on the novel Data-Over-Chaos (DOC) method of data hiding and transportation, upgraded 6LoWPAN standard, and antitamper technologies. This DOC encryption method, along with a novel device authentication algorithm, eliminates all additional data encrypting methodologies, and provides extra data security and high level of trust to the end-nodes in case of electronic attacks. The upgraded 6LoWPAN standard helps eliminate standard weaknesses and gaps in data security, provides self-protection, reliability, and advanced trust to the network nodes. DOCSWAT defines itself if any attempts of unauthorized access is occurred or if some trusted neighboring sensors are not able to communicate. The system then reconfigures/self-heals itself to continue secure communication. Antitamper technologies protect the sensor web from exploration, intrusions, attacks, and reverse engineering. The Phase I system prototype will demonstrate secure communication using the DOC algorithm for data hiding. The Phase II DOCSWAT prototype will be optimized to demonstrate real-time highly reliable and intrusion/attack/tamper-protected web sensors with enhanced trust to end-nodes.

PARIETAL SYSTEMS, INC.
510 Turnpike Street Suite 201
North Andover, MA 01845
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 327-5210
Dr. Robert B. Washburn
AF 07-078      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Multi-Sensor Resource Management for Layered Sensing
Abstract:The implementation of ISR architectures such as layered sensing will significantly increase the number and types of sensors available for ATR, but at the same time the ISR problem is becoming become more difficult (e.g., thousands of targets, dismounts, urban terrain, extended operating conditions). To exploit fully these new sensing capabilities, it is necessary to develop multi-sensor resource management algorithms capable of computing near-optimal tasking decisions in real time for thousands of targets and dozens of sensors, and be responsive to changes in sensor performance capabilities versus different target types and operating conditions. To develop such a multi-sensor resource manager we have proposed an innovative combination of generalized multi-armed bandit algorithms and approximate dynamic programming to compute efficient far-sighted solutions of the sensor allocation and scheduling problem. The sensor manager is a model-based approach that can adapt easily to different sensor performance models or optimization criteria, allowing it to respond to different operating conditions and mission requirements. While developing the sensor management algorithm, we will compute bounds on expected optimal ATR fusion performance for the specified level of sensor resources. These performance estimates will be used to quantify the optimality of the algorithms.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Gaemus E. Collins
AF 07-078      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:Technology Enablers for Layered Sensing
Abstract:Toyon Research Corporation and University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) propose to develop and demonstrate key technological enablers for effective layered sensing to optimally employ Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) sensors and platforms. A wide variety of new sensor and platform types, along with much of the infrastructure necessary to exploit the resultant data, form a "layered sensing" architecture. We propose to develop technologies that bring together the pieces of this architecture to form a working system, with the ability to acquire, process, analyze, and propagate actionable data, that is effective in a highly dynamic battlespace. This effort will make key advancements in several enabling technology areas: (1) sensor and platform resource management to provide automated routing, mode management, and sensor cross-cueing to optimize the use of available resources; (2) geo-location/geo-registration methods and algorithms to accurately fix objects/events in time and space through knowledge of platform and sensor position, velocity and time; (3) intelligent bandwidth utilization to provide maximum benefit from available communication networks; (4) improved target surveillance and tracking performance, with higher accuracy target position estimates and longer track lifetimes through target handoff between multiple sensors; (5) leveraging phenomenological diversity by fusing radar and electro-optic data into a single tracking system; (6) distributed control algorithms for sensor system self-organizing, to get the best possible information to the right place at the right time; and (7) wind compensation algorithms into UAV resource management to improve performance in extended weather conditions.

C & P TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
317 Harrington Avenue Suites 9 & 10
Closter, NJ 07624
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(201) 768-4448
Mr. Ke Yong Li
AF 07-079      Awarded: 6/2/2008
Title:Reconfigurable Subaperturing for Endo-clutter Processing
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop a dynamically reconfigurable subaperature array architecture to achieve enhanced endo-clutter and interference suppression and realize target detection and identification. In addition, protection against mainbeam jamming is also addressed here using distributed Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) sensor technology. Generally, array manifold errors make it more difficult to perform clutter nulling while placing a sharp null exclusively on the jammer. For this purpose smart transmit subaperture beamforming together with adaptive nulling algorithms at the receiver side are proposed. The transmit subarray patterns will be synthesized to minimize the impact of the jammer. As a result, the clutter strength is significantly reduced thus enabling target detection. The return signals are used to generate adaptive weight vectors to combine the receiver outputs in such a way as to place effective nulls automatically along the jammer directions, thus enhancing the output signal to interference/jammer plus noise ratio. Thus a transmit pattern synthesized from subaperture manifolds together with an adaptive receiver array in the MIMO mode results in superior clutter nulling. In this context, the question of partitioning the original array manifold to generate an optimum subaperture manifold is addressed.

SIGNAL LABS, INC.
1950 Roland Clarke Place Suite 120
Reston, VA 20191
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 391-9771
Dr. Braham Himed
AF 07-079      Awarded: 6/4/2008
Title:Reconfigurable Subaperturing for Endo-clutter Processing
Abstract:The objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate innovative approaches to dynamically configure array antenna sub-aperture architecture for enhanced endo-clutter processing, while operating in complex signal environments. Radar performance is driven by the illumination of the target and clutter by the antenna, the waveform spectral characteristics, number of sub-apertures employed, size, configuration, and degree-of- overlap. Several constraints will be used in the development. The output SINR is first used since the solutions are typically easier and will be used as baseline. The probabilities of detection and false alarm are then used as constraints, since they dictate radar operations. It involves using the appropriate probability density functions of the underlying clutter, which can be cumbersome in some cases. A Monte Carlo approach is used if closed form expressions are available. Knowledge-aided prediction and estimation techniques for adaptive sub-aperturing are then developed, since they complement traditional adaptive techniques by aggregating information of the clutter environment from both observations and other data sources. Finally, a joint adaptive sub-aperturing technique and parametric approach, which can further improve performance, will be developed. This approach is particularly useful for target detection in heterogeneous environments or in environments where the training data is range-dependent.

BARRON ASSOC., INC.
1410 Sachem Place Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(434) 973-1215
Dr. Michael DeVore
AF 07-080      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Propagation of Uncertainty in Anticipatory Image Exploitation Using Polynomial Chaos Random Process Representations
Abstract:The ability to accurately anticipate target behavior on the basis of surveillance data is critical in many military and civilian contexts. Information regarding target behavior may be drawn from a variety of sources, each of which suffers from uncertainties in the form of noise, inaccuracies, and outright errors. This proposal seeks to develop novel methods for dealing with this uncertainty by vertically integrating uncertainty models in a common framework through all levels of data processing, by adapting uncertainty models over time to incorporate newly observed behaviors and interactions, and by leveraging powerful new adaptive processing techniques. The resulting technology will propagate uncertainties from inputs and models, producing a distribution over anticipated behaviors and a characterization of the most likely future target tracks and associated likelihood measures. This output can be used to intelligently manage sensor and targeting assets, to minimize the need for a human operator to supervise system operation, and to quickly detect targets that deviate from predicted behavior.

DECISIVE ANALYTICS CORP.
1235 South Clark Street Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 414-5106
Mr. Mike Colony
AF 07-080      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:SRM driven by a Traffic Anticipation and Response Engine (STARE)
Abstract:Today’s threats tend to maneuver in commercial vehicles through dense, cluttered urban streets where detection and tracking become exceptionally difficult. First, the high volume of background traffic makes it difficult to maintain tracks within the clutter of large numbers of confusing targets. Second, urban structures present obscuration problems that create gaps in coverage. Both of these problems cause frequent track losses, motivating the need for two specific capabilities. First, in order to effectively task sensor assets such that their probability of reacquiring the target is optimal requires the use of algorithms that can fuse all available information into an anticipatory model that exploits traffic trends to predict the likelihood of future locations of vehicles of interest. This capability can be utilized in concert with sensor resource management (SRM) algorithms to improve the ability to reacquire lost targets. Second, novel techniques are needed to improve track correlation and continuity once new sensor observations are provided. The DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation will leverage their experience in developing inference- driven sensor management systems to achieve the goals of this SBIR. We will utilize unparalleled techniques in computational probability to provide anticipatory traffic modeling to drive our SRM, as well as to provide improved track correlation.

APTIMA, INC.
12 Gill Street Suite 1400
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 842-1548
Dr. Yuri Levchuk
AF 07-081      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Contextualized Pattern Recognition (CoPR)
Abstract:Modern warfare is intensely information centric with vast amounts of information transmitted around the battlespace. Within this environment, it is critical to provide predictive and timely intelligence in planning and execution of operations. A tool is necessary to provide direction of ISR in the tasks of collection, exploitation, analysis, and dissemination. The tool resulting from this research will support operational commanders by providing information to support aerospace operations in dynamic environments.

CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 491-3474
Dr. Scott Neal Reilly
AF 07-081      Awarded: 2/11/2008
Title:Architecture for Perceptual Sensing and Information Displays (PERSEID)
Abstract:The evolution of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies and their integration into network-centric operations has provided significant advances in providing critical information to C2ISR operators and the Commanders that they support. However, these sensors gather so much data that the C2ISR operators are becoming overwhelmed and actionable intelligence is being lost in the wave of data. The solution to this problem is not to attempt to replace the human operator, but to leave humans to do what they do well while providing attention-focusing decision support systems that are able to reason about the Commander’s intent and the current operational context. We propose to design and demonstrate the feasibility of an architecture for Perceptual Sensing and Information Displays (PERSEID). PERSEID provides an integrated human/machine approach to creating decision aids that assist C2ISR operators. PERSEID provides an intuitive interface for C2ISR operators to describe the Commander’s intent and relevant contextual information that the system incorporates into its C2ISR support tasks. PERSEID uses technologies and methodologies from the areas of cognitive modeling, evolutionary algorithms, and information/meta-information display to draw the attention of the operator to the most salient information.

ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
9971 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(952) 829-5864
Dr. John R. Budenske
AF 07-082      Awarded: 2/13/2008
Title:Continuous and Coordinated Target Tracking and Engagement
Abstract:In order to provide the best protection to our armed forces, and to our country, we need to know where our opponents are, and what they are doing. This includes tracking their movements over long periods of time, and across large areas such that multiple sensor and seeker systems would need to be utilized. Architecture Technology Corporation (ATC) proposes to design a coordinated targeting and engagement system for the sensor and seeker/weapons management domain that will coordinate the tracking of targets utilizing multiple systems from space to surface, and coordinate the hand-off between sensing and seeker systems. The desired result will be a collection of software components that can be easily integrated into a distributed sensor and seeker management system, and that can be used for a variety of DOD target tracking missions. Phase I will concentrate on design and analysis, and Phase II on implementation and test within a mutually agreed upon simulation environment. Phase III will focus on insertion into an on-going DOD program.

MIAMI VALLEY AEROSPACE, LLC
2815 N. Hampton Rd.
Springfield, OH 45502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 750-5046
Mr. Steve Rasmussen
AF 07-082      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:Vertically Integrated Sensing, Tracking, and Attack (VISTA)
Abstract:As demonstrated by recent world events in the Global War on Terror, it is vital to exploit technology to dominate asymmetric conflicts in urban areas. There is an increasing demand for the ability to prosecute strategic targets of interest in urban areas, accurately, in a timely manner, while limiting collateral damage. Teams of Unmanned Systems are key force multipliers in a Vertically Integrated Sensing, Tracking, and Attack (VISTA) architecture that can cooperatively locate, track, and prosecute targets of interest in a complex urban environment. Since the different types of Unmanned Systems, from ground-based to space-based, have complementary capabilities, there is potential to integrate these systems to be able to rapidly locate and strike high value targets in urban areas.

ADVANCED RESEARCH CORP.
4459 White Bear Parkway
White Bear Lake, MN 55110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(651) 789-9004
Mr. Greg Wagner
AF 07-083      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Polarization Selective Infrared Detection
Abstract:To date, both IR polarization and spectral detectors have been developed and employed for the purpose of object discrimination imaging. Each of these detector families provides unique and complimentary data for object discrimination analysis. A hybrid detector, which is capable of both polarimetric and spectral detection would greatly enhance the range and capability of object discrimination imaging. We propose to develop a detector capable of simultaneous and congruent detection of both polarimetric and spectral source emission characteristics. This will be accomplished with the application of NanoImprint Lithography (NIL).

APPLIED NANOFEMTO TECHNOLOGIES LLC
181 Stedman St. Suite #2
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 761-4293
Dr. Zhengmao Ye
AF 07-083      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:A Monolithically Integrated Multi-spectral Polarimetric Photodetector and focal plane array
Abstract:Polarization sensitive multi-spectral photodetectors are of great importance in target detection, characterization and discrimination. Most current existing multi-spectral sensing systems employ dispersive optics (gratings or prisms), or external polarizer technologies to obtain spectral and polarimetric characteristics of targets. These systems are usually heavy, bulky, having arrow incident angles, and unable to simultaneously detecting polarizations at different angles. The SBIR proposal aims to develop a new type of monolithically integrated polarimetric photodetector capable of voltage-tunable waveband selection and simultaneous polarization sensing with significantly reduced device size and enhanced reliability. Successfully developing the proposed innovation is expected to provide an enabling technology for ultra-compact, waveband and polarization agile imaging systems suitable for space and airborne applications. In phase I, a preliminary monolithically integrated polarimetric photodetector with wide-spectral coverage (2-14 micro-meter), high polarization extinction ratio, and voltage-tunabl waveband selection will be developed for proof-of-concept demonstration. In Phase II, an ultra-compact focal plane array (FPA) prototype with voltage-tunable waveband selection and simultaneous polarimetric imaging capability will be developed and hybridized with readout circuits. A preliminary voltage-tunable multi-spectral polarimetric IR camera will be also demonstrated and delivered to Air Force research lab in Phase II.

PRIME RESEARCH, LC
1750 Kraft Dr Ste 1000-B
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-2200
Dr. Raymond Rumpf
AF 07-083      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Nano-Optical Elements for Polarization Selective Infrared Detection
Abstract:Prime Research and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte propose developing space-variant nano-optical elements to integrate passive spectral and polarization filters directly into infrared focal plane arrays. This novel technology will enable pixels to be uniquely tuned for wavelength and polarization across a focal plane array using a simple fabrication process that is suitable for volume production. Photonic crystals will perform the filtering functions and provide additional mechanisms to further enhance performance. Key performance goals are broadband operation and consistent behavior at oblique angles of incidence. Developmental efforts include design and experimental testing of space-variant photonic crystal filters with integrated polarizing elements. Exploratory concepts include incorporating left-handed materials to achieve omni-directional performance and self-collimation to reduce blurring and defocusing through the element. The proposed technology promises revolutionary advances in remote sensing, surveillance, target discrimination, imaging, spectroscopy, and more.

AGILTRON CORP.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 935-1200
Dr. Lawrence Domash
AF 07-084      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Actively Excited Bio-Taggant Sensor
Abstract:Leveraging on our extensive experiences on system design and, AGILTRON proposes to realize a new taggant reader system with low light detection and ambient light insensitive abilities, targeted for taggant emission remote identification, locating, and tracking applications. The proposed taggant reader is intrinsically insensitive to various environments and can be operated over a wide target distance range up to 10 km. The design is simple in construction and ready to be implemented and tested based on commercial available components / subsystems. In Phase I, the design will be optimized and a functional prototype will be demonstrated. The system will be further optimized for the taggant material during phase II, along with the fully integration of the system into a stand alone unit.

INTELLIGENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(424) 263-6319
Dr. Glenn Bastiaans
AF 07-084      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Quantum Dot Labeled Bio-Taggants for Enhanced Remote Detection
Abstract:The use of taggants to mark and identify objects and materials is an emerging technology with many potential applications. One very important taggant application is the ability to remotely identify appropriately tagged materials and objects from airborne platforms. Biological materials, or bio-taggants, have the potential to effectively and selectively mark targets of high interest. Intelligent Optical Systems proposes to enhance the detectability of bio-taggants via a two pronged approach: attaching specialized, biocompatible quantum dots (QDs) to bio-taggant agents, and using a specialized time-correlated photon counting system designed to sensitively detect QD fluorescence excited by eye safe laser radiation. Previous studies and calculations indicate that it should be possible to detect QD labeled bio-taggants at altitudes of 100 m and greater. Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, and determine the limits of detection in terms of distance and the surface concentration of the taggants on targets. Phase II studies will result in the demonstration of a prototype system ready for commercialization.

TIAX LLC
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 498-5071
Dr. William Barney
AF 07-084      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Actively Excited Bio-Taggant Sensor
Abstract:In the new global theater of war, there is a critical and highly urgent need to reliably detect, identify, and track high priority targets such as those related to terrorist networks and Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear/Explosive (CBRNE) threats. The specialized bio-taggants being developed by the Air Force could provide a transformational technology to help detect and covertly track such important assets. In the proposed effort TIAX will design and develop sensor systems for detecting, identifying and tracking objects coated with these bio-taggants via airborne operations from long operating ranges. TIAX will use an innovative technical approach to design sensor systems tailored for the specific bio-taggants and operational scenarios of interest to the Air Force. We will carry out this effort in close conjunction with the bio-taggant development and signature characterization efforts of the Air Force. Our approach will significantly accelerate the development process, while also reducing the development costs dramatically. This technology can serve a variety of unmet Tagging, Tracking and Locating (TTL) needs, and has a vast number of potential applications in US military, homeland security, and civilian/commercial markets.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Dr. Srinivasan Arunajatesan
AF 07-086      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Store Trajectory Response to Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:The development of a trajectory envelope prediction tool, capable of identifying stores that may experience significant trajectory deviations due to unsteady loading is proposed. The Phase I part of this program will provide a comprehensive demonstration of the significance of these unsteady loads in determining trajectory envelopes and conceptualize a modeling approach to predict this effect. The modeling tool will be subsequently developed and matures in Phase II through the synergistic use of experimental and computational tools. The methods and procedures used in this program will be collected into a set of testing and analyses procedures for the store certification and clearance process. The incorporation of these into the certification process will improve the accuracy and reliability of this process while expanding its capability with modification to the process. The successful completion of this program will affect current platforms such as the F/A-22, the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) as well as future platforms such as the Long Range Strike Aircraft (LRSA).

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8129
Mr. Shawn Westmoreland
AF 07-086      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Store Trajectory Response to Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:Modern weapons bay environments coupled with a trend toward lighter and less stable weapon designs give rise to the potential for extreme sensitivity to flow-field unsteadiness. Ultimately, what is needed is a tool or a functional relationship which will allow bay/store combinations which exhibit this sensitivity to be identified easily. To this end, Digital Fusion Solutions, Inc. proposes the following as a Phase I SBIR effort: -To use OVERFLOW2 to assess the degree that unsteadiness in the flow-field can affect the motion of a store. -To use OVERFLOW2 to generate “grid” data similar to that in wind- tunnel testing with the exception that the flow history will be recorded. Mean aerodynamic coefficients will be extracted as well as a database of perturbations to that mean at each location. -To modify a 6-DOF code which utilizes a table look-up routine so the database of perturbations can be sampled Monte-Carlo style in an effort to simulate unsteadiness. -To demonstrate the usefulness of the modified 6-DOF as a predictive tool for parametric studies of store separations. In the Phase II follow-on, the modified 6- DOF would then be used for investigating the existence of the functional relationships described above.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS CO., L. L. C.
PO Box 6971
Chesterfield, MO 63006
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(314) 373-3311
Dr. Alan Cain
AF 07-086      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Prediction of Store Trajectory Response to Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:We are proposing an approach to the use of CFD that will include the determination of large scale unsteadiness in the flow over the weapons bay. The effects of release of the weapon, the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a given weapon as it leaves the bay and its continued descent will be determined. Metrics for both the large scale unsteadiness associated with flow over the bay, as well as metrics for the influence of such unsteadiness on a given weapon will be produced. One of the motivations for these simulations is to determine which weapon/bay combinations are likely to have erratic trajectory outcomes – one release behaving substantially different than the next. The second motivation is to define the bay/ weapon metrics that predict the probability of these erratic trajectories. The final important aspect of the approach is to achieve these objectives in orders of magnitude less computing time than would be required if a standard, straight forward time accurate simulation were used. The straight forward approach being the bay/weapon release and descent trajectory computed for a collection of different weapons and multiple releases for each weapon.

M4 ENGINEERING, INC.
2161 Gundry Avenue
Signal Hill, CA 90755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(562) 981-7797
Mr. Kevin Roughen
AF 07-086      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Store Trajectory Response to Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads
Abstract:M4 Engineering proposes to develop a method for predicting store trajectory response subject to unsteady aerodynamic loads. This method will combine low-fidelity data with high-fidelity data in a novel way to represent the deterministic and probabilistic portions of the unsteady aerodynamic response. This development will enable increased efficiency in the use of test and time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data allowing for more accurate simulations to be calculated using fewer resources. The proposed technique will be an excellent compliment to modern test and analysis methods.

COMBUSTION RESEARCH & FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 766-1520
Mr. Neeraj Sinha
AF 07-087      Awarded: 12/21/2007
Title:Enhanced Acoustical Environment for Modern Weapons Bays
Abstract:The JSF weapons bay experiences severe acoustic loading when exposed to the freestream. The severity and attenuation of this loading is exacerbated by the flight envelope of the JSF aircraft, as well as the requirement to carry and release “smart” weapons over an extended envelope. This extremely harsh environment impacts components that are mounted within the bay, including carriage stores that contain sensitive electronics and control surfaces. Implementation of a suitable noise suppression solution is complicated by its non-rectangular bay shape bay and multiple-sweep leading edge that challenge aircraft integration. CRAFT Tech proposes development and demonstration of a robust flow control strategy that effectively lowers the dynamic loading of the JSF weapons bay, while minimizing additional aircraft weight. This strategy will selectively employ flow control techniques applied to both the forward and/or aft portions of the bay, producing attenuation over the entire flight envelope. Phase I will involve technology maturation through high-resolution Large Eddy Simulation (LES), complemented by comprehensive wind tunnel testing with advanced optical diagnostics. The flow control will be fully integrated with JSF’s highly non-rectangular weapons bay and its multiple-sweep leading edge. Acoustic benefits of the system will be traded against weight, cost, and/or aircraft/mission penalties.

DIGITAL FUSION
5030 Bradford Drive Building 1, Suite 210
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 327-8143
Dr. Robert Tramel
AF 07-087      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Enhanced Acoustical Environment for Modern Weapons Bays
Abstract:The ultimate aim of this program is to experimentally demonstrate the ability of a passive, light weight flow control device to successfully produce acceptable acoustic noise levels in a geometrically complex cavity such as the main cavity of the JSF aircraft during a flight test. The goal of the Phase I effort is to perform both state of the art CFD analysis and complementary small-scale wind tunnel tests to assess the ability of a rod-in-crossflow (RIC) to perform this task. Phase II will build on these results and consist of analyses of both passive and actively actuated RIC treatments on both subsonic and supersonic cavity flows.

QUARTUS ENGINEERING, INC.
10251 Vista Sorrento Pkwy Suite 250
San Deigo, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 875-6000
Dr. Thomas Yurick
AF 07-088      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Structurally Optimized All Composite Deep Wing Concept for Large Transport Aircraft
Abstract:The current fleet of mid-size USAF cargo airplanes includes the C-130 and C-27J. These vehicles were initially designed more than 40 years ago and use conventional metallic construction approaches. Significant improvements in structural efficiency and manufacturability may be achieved by applying advanced structural analysis optimization methods and innovative joint designs for bonded composite structures. The new work described in this proposal would leverage and complement the accomplishments of the Composites Affordability Initiative lead by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In this Phase I effort, our overall objective will be to combine advanced computational techniques, including finite element analysis and topology optimization, with novel designs for the spar web-to-wing skin bonded joint. The overall goal will be to create a structurally optimized deep wing concept that will improve design flexibility, joint strength, and manufacturability. The concept technologies will be applicable to future military applications, such as the Advanced Joint Air Combat System (AJACS), as well as commercial aircraft.

TECHNOVA CORP.
3927 Dobie Road
Okemos, MI 48864
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(517) 485-9583
Dr. Anagi Balachandra
AF 07-088      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:Innovative Structural Concepts for Deep-Winged Large Transports
Abstract:Future deep-winged large transport aircraft would challenge the conventional approach to aircraft structural design. The tremendous size of deep-winged transports offers new latitudes to rethink structural configurations which efficiently meet the escalated structural demands. Conventional aircraft wing structures comprise a multitude of elements, only some of which make major structural contributions. Inefficient load paths are used in conventional designs to transfer wing structural forces to the fuselage; the susceptibility to local and global structural instabilities further undermines the efficiency of conventional structures. As a result, the working stresses in today’s aircraft wing structures are relatively low, only about 10% of the tensile strength of high-performance fibers. A new structural concept is proposed here for achieving improved levels of structural efficiency through: (i) replacement of the multitude of semi-structural and structural elements with a streamlined, multi-functional structure that is capable of mobilizing optimum load paths and effectively resisting structural instabilities for achieving higher levels of efficiency; (ii) Optimal use of the prestressing technique to effectively exploit the high tensile strength of advanced fibrous materials towards improvement of structural efficiency; and (iii) streamlined transfer of wing structural forces to the fuselage by mobilizing the efficient structural performance of fuselage under hydrostatic pressure using the wing prestressing tendons, which also benefit the fuselage performance under cabin pressure. The main thrust of the proposed Phase I research is to validate and quantify the gains in structural efficiency and safety resulting from application of the proposed structural concept to deep-winged transport aircraft. The Phase I research will: (i) identify viable ranges for the primary design variables of the proposed structural concept, and establish optimum sets of design variables with existing and emerging selections of materials; (ii) experimentally verify the optimum design with existing selections of materials; (iii) assess the competitive position of the new structural concept versus conventional designs; and (iv) devise and validate strategies for improving the competitiveness of the new concept.

V SYSTEM COMPOSITES, INC.
1015 E. Discovery Lane
Anaheim, CA 92801
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(610) 619-8560
Mr. Scott Holmes
AF 07-088      Awarded: 12/20/2007
Title:Innovative Structural Concepts for Deep-Winged Large Transports (PVSC07-033)
Abstract:The next generation tactical transport must achieve greater performance that its C-130 and C-141 predecessors, with even more demanding missions and operational requirements, at an affordable price. New mobility concepts have emerged with more radical configurations for potential operational performance benefits. The challenge of this proposed SBIR program is to combine emerging materials and process technologies with advanced innovative design concepts, to achieve even greater impact on structural efficiency and affordability demanded by the next generation transport aircraft. The aerodynamic and structural arrangement that meets next generation transport mobility requirements will lead to higher risk airframe and wing arrangements with possible irregular, non-constant cross sections in multiple planes. The VSC Team proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of innovative HyPerVARTM®/AFI™ design and manufacturing approaches for deep-section wing applications applicable to next generation mobility transport platforms. Several innovative structural concepts will be evaluated that can leverage 3-D performing technology and advancements in design and manufacturing of these structures to achieve lower costs with greater structural efficiency. The Phase I program will demonstrate the feasibility of the VSC solution through engineering trade studies, virtual and physical manufacturing process demonstrations, followed by development of a panel/element/component test plan.

21ST CENTURY SYSTEMS, INC.
6825 Pine Street, Suite 141
Omaha, NE 68106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(808) 954-6049
Dr. Amber Fischer
AF 07-089      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Otto
Abstract:Multi-UAV supervisory control and UAVs operating along side of manned operations in the terminal approach area will not occur until improvements are made in UAV mission management. Indeed, the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board indicated that significant advancements needed to be made in the realm of mission management, vehicle autonomy, and human-computer interfaces. 21st Century Systems, Incorporated is pleased to propose to research and develop our concept called Otto. Otto applies innovative research and techniques in order to yield a visual-based navigation capability for station keeping and approach to landing. Our concept uses video input to guide an unmanned aircraft through an approach pattern and provide a constant-glideslope descent to the touchdown point. It requires no powered equipment on the ground and works with any existing UAV that has a camera capable of facing forward on approach. No changes are required on the aircraft as the Otto concept is a software upgrade required in the Ground Control Station only. This advancement in mission management technology is a visual navigation capability that will allow a UAV to autonomously maintain position while the operator stays “on-the-loop” with his/her “head out of the cockpit” and will improve UAV responsiveness in the terminal area.

MOSAIC ATM, INC.
801 Sycolin Road, Suite 212
Leesburg, VA 20175
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(703) 737-7637
Mr. Chris Brinton
AF 07-089      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Autonomous Command, Control and Communication for Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the Terminal Control Area
Abstract:The current command and control paradigm for management of air traffic is highly dependent on voice communication. This approach has benefited the development of Air Traffic Control (ATC) over the last century in many ways, including a low-level of required aircraft equipage and the ability to handle contingency situations and adapt to new requirements easily. However, the reliance on voice communication in ATC operations presents challenges to the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs). The remote pilot must interpret each ATC command, direct the aircraft accordingly, and communicate the appropriate response back to ATC. In this proposed effort, we apply advanced speech recognition concepts to the interpretation of ATC communications to enable autonomous communication between ATC and the Unmanned Aircraft (UA), removing the remote pilot from the communication loop between the UA and ATC. The key challenge in this approach is to ensure the required level of accuracy and reliability of the ATC speech recognition. To achieve complete autonomy, the UA must also be able to generate and transmit an appropriate response to ATC clearances. Thus, we do not require a speech recognition capability alone, but, rather, we require a fully autonomous command and control capability on-board the UA.

SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS & RESEARCH ASSOC., INC.
6300 Gateway Dr.
Cypress, CA 90630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(714) 224-4410
Mr. Alon Yaari
AF 07-089      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Autonomous Control Technologies for Terminal Area Operations
Abstract:Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) participation in controlled airspace requires that the UAV behave just as a human-piloted aircraft. Forward airbases with Air Traffic Control (ATC) can be complex when considering ATC commands, localization in a GPS denied environment, flight restrictions, FAA rules, and dynamic obstacles. SARA proposes a behavior-based system that deconfliction these complexities, allowing the UAV to operate safely in the Terminal Area of Operations (TAO). The proposed behavior- based “Autonomous Pilot” uses concurrent simple behaviors to produce emergent complex behaviors. An objective function based solver calculates weights and preferred actions of the individual behaviors to arbitrate an optimum vehicle action. To facilitate development and eventual transfer of the Autonomous Pilot to actual UAV hardware, SARA proposes a modular control architecture. Our proposed “Autonomous Pilot- Multi- Objective Deconfliction” (APMOD) system is based on the “Mission Oriented Operating Suite” (MOOS) architecture. The modularity allows simulation modules during the development phase to be replaced with hardware integration modules as the program develops into hardware-in-the-loop solutions and eventually into actual UAV platforms.

AVID LLC
1750 Kraft Drive, Suite 1400
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 961-0067
Mr. Paul Gelhausen
AF 07-090      Awarded: 1/11/2008
Title:Flapping Wing MAV Design Software Suite
Abstract:AVID LLC, in partnership with Dr. Rick Lind of the University of Florida, proposes development of an integrated design suite for flapping wing MAVs. Such a tool fills a void present in the existing MAV development process, where new concepts are rarely subject to rigorous engineering analysis and design optimization before construction. Existing software will be extensively leveraged to yield a highly capable tool by the end of Phase I. During Phase I, three main areas will be addressed. First, AVID will develop an aerodynamic analysis tool based on an existing unsteady vortex lattice code with corrections for boundary layer and flow entrainment effects. Second, Dr. Lind will develop a flight dynamics and closed-loop control model, again using existing simulation components. Finally, AVID will integrate the aerodynamics and control modules using the existing AVID OAV vehicle design framework. Flight simulation output will also be linked to the AVID SPOT sensor evaluation tool.

BIHRLE APPLIED RESEARCH, INC.
400 Jericho Turnpike
Jericho, NY 11753
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(757) 766-2416
Mr. David Gingras
AF 07-090      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:A Multi-physics Aircraft Simulation Tool (MAST)
Abstract:A comprehensive Multi-physics Simulation Tool (MAST) is proposed to address the void in simulation tools that address the specific needs of the MAV engineer. The MAST provides an enhancement to Bihrle’s commercially successful PC-Based simulation environment D-Six by providing a project structure suited to model flapping-wing and rotary-wing flight vehicles. A project wizard will guide the user in the configuration of the project to account for the specific MAV characteristics to be modeled. The Bihrle Phase I effort lays the foundation for a reconfigurable simulation tool to allow engineers and control designer solve critical issues regarding the control flight of MAVs. At the end of Phase I an element-based set of equations of motion will have been implemented as a new project structure in D-Six and demonstrated. Critical issues regarding the modeling of aerodynamics, aeroelastic-effects, and control-law will be identified for further design during a Phase II effort.

ASTROX CORP.
3500 Marlbrough Way Suite 100
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 278-5051
Dr. Christopher Tarpley
AF 07-091      Awarded: 12/28/2007
Title:Rapid Design, Analysis, and Test of Hypersonic Propulsion Integrated Configurations
Abstract:The Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate needs to be able to rapidly develop hypersonic vehicle concepts and to do so with as little risk as possible. A new technology called Rapid Prototyping will assist the Air Force in reducing risk in choosing the best path for fielding hypersonic vehicle systems. This technology will allow the rapid testing of many concepts, thus adding concrete knowledge to the design space and promoting good choices during early design stages.

GOHYPERSONIC, INC.
714 E. Monument Ave Suite 201
Dayton, OH 45402
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 531-6678
Dr. Lance Jacobsen
AF 07-091      Awarded: 1/3/2008
Title:Combined Cycle Propulsion Integration
Abstract:The work proposed here provides an opportunity to take what we have learned within the DARPA Falcon program on TBCC inlet design and our current AF RBCC/TBCC nozzle research and integrate them into our Propulsion-Airframe Integration (PAI) tool, Eco. Once integrated into Eco, representative TBCC and RBCC combined-cycle air-vehicle concepts will be created. We propose to apply these new capabilities towards the design, fabrication, and testing of a small-scale version of the TBCC air-vehicle concept inlet in the Mach 3-4 flight regime. The design would utilize the methodologies developed and lessons learned by our team on previous TBCC inlet studies supplemented by a limited amount of CFD to ensure concept starting and operability. Fabrication would utilize our experience base with rapid prototyping technology to produce a complex model within a relatively small budget. The tests would serve to demonstrate and confirm the following at the mode transition flight speed: Inlet starting of the scramjet and turbojet ducts under back-pressure and transition from TBCC operation to pure Scramjet operation. Success here could lead to further tests with this model at other speeds, testing of additional combined cycle nozzle components, or larger-scale engine derivatives within a Phase II SBIR effort.

HYPERCOMP, INC.
31255 Cedar Valley Drive Suite 327
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 865-3710
Dr. Ramakanth Munipalli
AF 07-091      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:High-Speed Airbreathing Propulsion Integration
Abstract:In this proposal HyPerComp Inc., jointly with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, GASL and the University of Texas at Arlington, seeks to create a high performance rapid test environment for hypersonic multimode airbreathing vehicle development. This will be achieved by a systematic sequence of advancements in both computational as well as experimental methods being used in the study of such systems. While due care will be taken to accurately represent the basic external aerodynamics, structural mechanics and heat transfer phenomena, the emphasis of this project will be placed on the study of dual- mode propulsion systems with integrated inlets/nozzles and multiple combustor paths, that are a vital ingredient in major ongoing vehicle programs such as the DARPA-FALCON. The integrated multiphysical approach to the study of the vehicle performance proposed here is aimed to supersede current techniques in component-wise modeling, external integration and lumped performance estimates. Developments in this area are timely, given the rapid pace of activity in hypersonic vehicle design concepts in recent times, such as in the X-51, FALCON-HTV/HCV and allied programs. The proposing team consists of industry leaders in flow simulation, testing, vehicle design and integration.

HYPERTECH SYSTEMS
4 Dickens Court
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 477-1019
Dr. David Slater
AF 07-093      Awarded: 2/26/2008
Title:Pre-processing Algorithms for Exploitation of Remotely Sensed Optical Spectral Imagery for Automated Target Recognition/Cueing and Multi-INT Fusion
Abstract:We will develop the SenseMod system for the modeling of HSI sensors. The new sensor models will be used to advance the capability of hyperspectral pre-processing algorithms. SenseMod is based on an innovative approach for sensor characterization and for representing spectral differences between sensor measurements and model-based signature predictions. These differences depend on calibration uncertainty, approximation error, and sensor noise. The sensor models will be incorporated into state-of-the-art algorithms for detection and characterization. The use of the new models will be particularly advantageous for the detection and characterization of targets with low spectral contrast. The new models will also allow for the utilization of optimized algorithms by sensor systems with a wide range of properties. We will demonstrate the ability of SenseMod to improve the performance of algorithms during Phase I using a range of HSI data acquired by several sensors. The algorithms will be structured to allow real-time operation on COTS hardware. A detailed commercialization plan is given for the new software.

SET ASSOC. CORP.
1005 N. Glebe Rd. Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 965-9964
Dr. Reuven Meth
AF 07-093      Awarded: 2/21/2008
Title:High Performance Subpixel Hyperspectral Image Target Identification for Space-Based Sensors
Abstract:Existing target identification technologies for space-based hyperspectral sensors do not attain the high detection and low false alarm rates required for effective battlefield awareness. The low and sub-pixel nature of targets in these images presents significant challenges to reliably recognize targets and separate them from surrounding clutter. We propose a phenomenologically based approach to hyperspectral image (HSI) target detection that addresses all stages of the processing chain – from optimized background characterization to phenomenologically-based subpixel detection to adaptive threshold estimation – that surpasses existing technologies in separating target from clutter. By incorporating physically meaningful constraints within the design, detection is enhanced while false alarms are suppressed. This approach is specifically designed for low spatial resolution where targets are subpixel in nature. Our approach for automated variable threshold determination is applicable to a wide variety of detection algorithms to provide enhanced performance in operational scenarios. We will demonstrate superior detection performance for our detector relative to current detection technologies. Feasibility of the proposed approach will be demonstrated in Phase I, with Phase II focusing on development and rigorous evaluation of a system prototype.

DEFENSE ELECTRONICS CORP.
2904 44th Avenue North
Saint Petersburg, FL 33714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(727) 548-0522
Dr. Stephan Athan
AF 07-094      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Design-Hardened Radiation Tolerant Microelectronics
Abstract:This proposal describes an innovative radiation hardened by design approach for improving integrated circuit reliability while minimizing impact on area overhead, power consumption, and electrical performance degradation over indigenous libraries. The approach is based on an innovative built in current sensor (BICS) technique designed to provide portability across alternative foundries, newly developed processes, and diverse combinational and sequential digital, analog, and mixed signal design architectures including full custom, semi custom, standard cell, and programmable array integrated circuits. The BICS approach will be characterized and validated against a standard set of metrics, including design, area overhead, performance, and power consumption, and will determine its efficacy within a system integration recovery (SIR) environment developed by L3, our DEC teammate. Phase I will include simulation and modeling of feasible designs, process variations, subthreshold leakage, radiation effects, and reliability monitor. Design portability will be investigated for digital/analog full custom, semi custom, standard cell, and programmable array architectures. These results will become the baseline research for a transition into a Phase II contract. With the effective modeling and simulation approach conducted in Phase I, the Phase II project will develop the detailed design, fabricate and validate the BICS solution set.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 294-1962
Mr. Michael Sibley
AF 07-094      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Design-Hardened Radiation Tolerant Microelectronics
Abstract:Producing components that satisfy all of the BMDS space and interceptor environment specs traditionally has been not only costly but also untimely. One of the most difficult design constraints is making the components unaffected by the radiation environments of space. We propose to develop and demonstrate a standard cell structured ASIC approach that will ultimately produce radiation hardened components faster and cheaper than historically possible. This approach can take advantage of either RHBD or RHBP libraries. Because this approach is based on a standard cell approach it facilitates migration to new processes seamlessly and almost effortlessly. Once the one base structured ASIC is manufactured the AFRL and other DoD programs will be able to manufacture components with only two personalization via mask layers as opposed to creating all process masks which are expensive.

APPLIED THIN FILMS, INC.
1801 Maple Ave. Suite 5316
Evanston, IL 60201
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 287-6292
Mr. Benjamin Mangrich
AF 07-095      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Inorganic Radiation Resistant Solar Cell Coverglass Adhesives
Abstract:The USAF is seeking to replace UV-susceptible adhesive that bonds the solar cell to a cover glass for enhancing conversion efficiency and to improve durability. Adhesives used for space solar modules need to meet many critical requirements including adhesion strength, optical transparency, thermal stability, and resistance against a broad range of radiation present in space environments including UV. In addition, system compatibility requirements need to be met with regards to optical matching with adjacent layers. With these critical requirements, the choices are limited and the technical challenges to be met for processing and performance at affordable costs are significant. This Phase I effort will explore an entirely new adhesive concept based on an extremely thin, highly transparent, inorganic adhesive that looks promising to meet many of the requirements. The material exhibits excellent thermal and chemical stability/inertness which is essential for this application while offering an easy to apply and rapid processing method for transitioning the technology to production. Phase I will be conducted in close collaboration with an industrial partner engaged in developing and manufacturing solar modules for space and other applications. Phase I work plan will include development of adhesive and testing of primary property requirements.

INFOSCITEX CORP.
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 890-1338
Mr. James Belcher
AF 07-095      Awarded: 1/18/2008
Title:Radiation Resistant Optical Bonding Technology for Solar Cell Coverglass
Abstract:This proposal addresses the space optic community’s need for an optical bonding material with superior stability in the harsh space environment. Adhesives used in space must exhibit near-zero degassing, tolerate drastic temperature changes and be hardened to ionizing sources of radiation. The tolerance for these properties are restricted even further when applied to adhesives in the optical path, as is the case for solar cell coverglass adhesives. As the power systems have become more advanced, the limits of Dow Corning’s DC93-500 have been exceeded. Infoscitex proposes to develop a space grade optical bonding technique comprised primarily of a radiation-hardened silicate-like network combined with elastomeric linkages. The proposed silicate-elastomer hybrid bond (SEHB) will exhibit the following advantages over DC93-500: Enhanced resistance to radiation, optical transmittance and charge dissipation. Thermal shock durability and near- zero outgassing will also be demonstrated. Infoscitex is uniquely positioned to insert candidate bonded samples into ongoing radiation resistant coverglass development testing. Phase II prototype coverglass interconnected cells (CICs) fabricated with the SEHB technology will be delivered to AFRL or platform manufacturers for prequalification. Infoscitex has teamed with an optical products supplier and a solar array manufacturer to commercialize the SEHB technology after the SBIR Phase II.

OXAZOGEN, INC.
1910 West St. Andrews Road
Midland, MI 48640
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(989) 832-5590
Dr. Jin Hu
AF 07-095      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Radiation Resistant Elastomer Containing POSS, Phenylsiloxane and Ce(IV) Compositions for a Space Solar Cell Adhesive
Abstract:There is an unmet need for an adhesive for advanced multiple-junction space solar cells to provide improved long-term resistance to electron, proton and UV radiation, while maintaining high transparency over the range of 400 nm to 2000 nm. The adhesive must also provide robust adhesion to the solar cell and cover glass in order to avoid delamination caused by the extreme thermal cycles of space. Oxazogen proposes a multiply-functionalized low Tg elastomer containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), phenylsiloxane and Ce(IV) compositions for this application. The combination of POSS, phenylsiloxane and Ce(IV) compositions will lead to improved proton, electron and VUV/UV resistance, and enable the maintenance of high transparency over the range of 400 nm to 2000 nm for an extended life time. The adhesive will also have outstanding adhesion to the solar cells and cover glass due to the incorporation of multiple adhesive functionalities.

MAXPOWER, INC.
141 Christopher Lane
Harleysville, PA 19438
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 256-4575
Dr. Benjamin Meyer
AF 07-096      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Applications
Abstract:The US Air Force has a need for a corrosion-resistant lithium-ion battery terminal seal capable of twenty years of service life in a space environment. Key requirements include a terminal seal technology that provides electrical isolation, hermeticity, and is compatible with cell electrolyte. Ideally, the hermetic seal should have the design flexibility with respect to size, selectivity of materials for the terminals consistent with the required current handling capability, while maintaining hermeticity over the required life of the batteries. In this Phase I effort, the ¡°hermacrimp¡± seal technology, which is emerging to be a very viable seal for aerospace application, is proposed to fulfill the 20 year long life objective. We have proposed a baseline seal design that is capable of surviving ultra conditions such as low to high temperature and also thermal stress. We propose to use also scaled terminal seals that are designed for large capacity Li-ion cells; i.e., ¡Ý 20 Ah. These seals will be subjected to planned test matrices to permit long life projections.

QUALLION LLC
12744 San Fernando Road Building 4
Sylmar, CA 91342
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(818) 833-2016
Dr. Hiroshi Nakahara
AF 07-096      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Applications
Abstract:Quallion currently manufactures hermitically sealed, prismatic 15Ah and 72Ah lithium-ion cells for the aerospace community. The cells are undergoing real-time life testing at varios government agencies, in which the 15Ah cell has demonstrated over 12,000 LEO cycles at a 60% depth of discharge (DOD). Under these conditions, Quallion expects the cell to perform over 50,000 cycles. Quallion’s response to this solicitation calls for the evaluations of new designs of a terminal seal to remain hermetic during its expected 20 year service life and provide resistance to electrolyte corrosion.

MICROELECTRONICS RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORP.
4775 Centennial Avenue, Suite 130
Colorado Springs, CO 80919
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 531-0805
Mr. Dean Allum
AF 07-097      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Space Qualified SDRAM Memory
Abstract:The Phase 1 effort is aimed at finding the specific physical defects which prevent a Commercial SDRAM at the 512 Megabit density from being Space Qualified. The goal is to find the exact failure locations of Radiation “Soft” circuits. Scanning Laser Microscopy will locate latch-up sites. Heavy Ion Exposure will be used to find multiple bit error rates. Emission Microscopy will be used to locate leakages induced by Total Ionizing Dose exposure. During Phase 2, the design team of the Commercial SDRAM manufacturer has agreed to partner with Micro-RDC to modify the SDRAM circuits so that higher radiation levels can be tolerated. The goal is to make the Space Qualified SDRAM immune to latch- up, tolerate greater than 100 krad(Si) total ionizing dose, and work over the Mil-Spec temperature range. The SDRAM will also remain functional due to Single Event Effects, but Single Event Upsets of data bits is anticipated to be corrected at the system level using Error Detection and Correction methods. A survey of end customers of Space Qualified SDRAMs will also be conducted during Phase 1 so that the required form and function can be determined.

SILICON SPACE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
3620 Lost Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78735
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(804) 550-3938
Mr. Bob Fuller
AF 07-097      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Space Qualified SDRAM Memory
Abstract:Silicon Space Technology (SST), working with Texas Instruments (TI), proposes to demonstrate an innovative approach for manufacturing radiation hardened (RH) high- density SDRAM¡¯s for space applications by adding two proprietary RH modules plus a simple stacked capacitor structure to TI¡¯s baseline 130nm process flow. SST has solved the major space radiation problems, Single-Event Effects (SEE), Total Ionizing Dose (TID) & Dose Rate (DR), by combining process modifications and layout design innovation. Our proven-in-silicon approach enables production of radiation-hardened integrated circuits at leading-edge circuit densities within any commercial silicon foundry, for use in both terrestrial and space systems. Sequences of radiation tests have shown SST¡¯s Buried Guard Ring (BGR) significantly improves SEE performance (e.g., SEL, SET, & SEU). BGR also significantly improves Dose Rate performance by >23x higher than non-BGR protected circuits. SST¡¯s Parasitic Isolation Device (PID) structures have shown complete TID immunity to > 1Mrad. These methods do not adversely affect either circuit performance or yield. The simple stacked capacitor will be based on structures previously used by mainstream DRAM manufacturers. While this will not result in state of the art DRAM densities, it will enable manufacture of much denser RH memories than currently available.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0701
Mr. David R. Czajkowski
AF 07-097      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened SDRAM Memory
Abstract:Space Micro has developed RHBD innovation hardening techniques, HF-Core Memory Controller and “Architecture” Hardening, that in combination with other known industry standard hardening techniques, plus the innovative use of embedded DRAM and ASIC technologies. We propose to apply these techniques to design and manufacture a radiation hardened, dense and high-speed RH-eDRAM memory integrated circuit from commercial technologies. The new design techniques are portable across advanced geometry, CMOS foundries and can be easily re-applied as commercial SDRAM suppliers migrate to smaller geometries and increased memory sizes. In Phase I. Space Micro will demonstrate the new RHBD radiation mitigation techniques, covert the techniques to circuits and radiation test the innovation. Using these results, we will provide a refined design of the RH-eDRAM design to be manufactured in Phase II. The resulting design will meet and exceed Air Force and other satellite radiation and reliability design goals, providing future satellite hardware designers a dense DRAM memory integrated circuit for computing platforms and solid-state mass memories.

CERMET, INC.
1019 Collier Road Suite C1
Atlanta, GA 30318
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(404) 351-0005
Dr. Ming Pan
AF 07-098      Awarded: 1/28/2008
Title:InGaN-based Thin Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:InGaN-based thin multijunction solar cells will be developed to achieve an efficiency as high as 40%. These solar cells are of light weight and high radiaton hardness which are most suitable for space application.

EPITAXIAL LABORATORY, INC.
25 Tiana Place
Dix Hills, NY 11746
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(516) 508-0060
Dr. Jie Piao
AF 07-098      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Thin Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:As future demands are made for higher efficiency (30+ %), improved Watt/weight (1000 W/kg), it is clear that new approach that combine best attribute of crystalline and thin film solar cells to achieve 1000 W/kg is needed. ELI propose to develop (1) Inverted structure of InGaP (1.8 ev)/GaAs (1.4 ev)/InGaAs (1.0 ev) triple junction solar cells (shown in Fig. 1a, similar to NREL structure) using combined in house Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and MOCVD approach for combining the best attributes of MBE and MOCVD to achieve 35+% efficiency with thinner structure for scale up production with reduced cost. MOCVD will be used to grow top two lattice matched sub cells(InGaP/GaAs) on GaAs substrate, and MBE will be used to grow strained buffer and bottom third InGaAs subcell (2) Novel scalable processes for removing GaAs substrate from inverted structure, and utilizing noval method(patent pending) to produce crack free solar arrays that is bonded to lightweight flexible substrate (1 mil thick Ti foil, or flexible kapton or polymer) for 1000 W/kg specific power and stowability.

MICROLINK DEVICES
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(847) 588-3001
Dr. Noren Pan
AF 07-098      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Thin Multijunction Solar Cells
Abstract:The innovation in this Phase I SBIR is the development of a technology, which will enable the manufacture of a lightweight and low cost, InP wafer based high efficiency multijunction solar cells suitable for deployment in space applications. InP based based materials are best suited for space applications because of their demonstrated radiation hardness properties. The key technological step is the application of a production epitaxial liftoff (ELO) process to a multijunction solar cell structure fabricated on a large area InP substrate. Our focus will be on InP-based solar cells, in particular lattice-matched dual junction solar cell of InP and InGaAsP materials. InP solar cells in combination with GaAs based solar cells have the potential to achieve the highest efficiency ever to be produced by compound semiconductor materials

GRATINGS, INC.
2700-B Broadbent Pkwy., NE
Albuquerque, NM 87107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 345-9564
Dr. Saleem H. Zaidi
AF 07-099      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Scalable Hyper-Thinning of Si for Three-Dimensional Space Electronics
Abstract:This phase I proposal addresses ultra-thinning (~ 5-10 micrometer) of Si wafers and memory dies through a mix and match approach in which advanced deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)and pulsed laser etching (PLE)methods are used for coarse and plasmaless XeF2 vapor etching for fine thinning. Die-thinning in sub 10-micrometer regime is a subject of enduring interest in ultra-dense 3D MCM packaging and radiation-toleration enhancement of Si circuits for space environment. Considering the inability of processing ultra-thin dies and wafers, die-thinning is ideally done following circuit fabrication and lamination to a carrier substrate. Both DRIE and PLE methods are desirable for their low- temperature directional etching. Pulsed laser methods are also attractive due to their direct writing capabiity. Intial experiments using DRIE and XeF2 etching methods have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. In this phase I proposal, we will conduct comparative assessment of both DRIE and PLE approaches to determine an optimum thinning method in terms of resolution, uniformity, cost, and througput. In collboration with GE Global Research, we will evaluate radiation tolerance of ultra-thinned memory dies during phase I and develop ultra-dense 3D MCM packaging during phase II.

NSCRYPT, INC.
2100 N Alafaya Trail Suite 200
Orlando, FL 32826
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(407) 275-4720
Dr. Kenneth H Church
AF 07-099      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Integrating Field Gate Programmable Arrays on Flexible, Thin, and Layered Substrates
Abstract:If we could translate the benefits of 2-D integrated circuits into the third (vertical) dimension, it may be possible to extend Moore’s Law to the year 2060, creating dramatic new possibilities in missile and space systems. By tightly integrating a Field Gate Programmable Array (FPGA) with an often large population of peripheral components into a miniaturized 3D structure, the development and fabrication timeframe of the overall system will be reduced by concealing the complexity of the FPGA from system designers. Through miniaturization and reduced trace lengths resulting from 3D form, parasitic impedances will be reduced and consequently will improve the system by 1) reducing ground bounce and voltage droop in the FPGA’s power network, 2) reducing losses in high speed data buses, and 3) improving Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) performance of the overall system. By eliminating the complexity of the hundreds or thousands of peripheral components from the system designer, reconfigurable devices will be deployed in DoD and military applications with a dramatic reduction in both time and effort.

R3LOGIC, INC.
30 Fuller Rd.
Lexington, MA 02420
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 652-0048
Dr. Lisa McIlrath
AF 07-099      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Ultra-Dense Three-Dimensional Electronics for Space
Abstract:R3Logic, Inc., in collaboration with Tezzaron Semiconductor will develop a rad-hard multi- core embedded processor / memory system that will be fabricated in a multi-layer 3-D integrated circuit. Phase I will focus on the system design. We will complete the RTL to GDSII synthesis of the processor and system components. The stack will incorporate Tezzaron’s patented 3-D Octopus memory, which has built-in self-test and repair capability. In Phase II we will use Tezzaron’s 3-D process to fabricate a prototype device.

TEZZARON SEMICONDUCTOR CORP.
1415 Bond St. #111
Naperville, IL 60563
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(630) 505-0404
Mr. Robert Patti
AF 07-099      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Ultra-Dense Three-Dimensional Electronics for Space
Abstract:Tezzaron proposes the development of a 3D integrated memory on processor or host device. The proposed device is made from a very high-performance 3D integrated 512Mb DRAM memory device and a structured array with single layer customization. Both devices in the ultimate 3D integration have a high degree of radiation hardness and also have low power and an ultra-compact form factor.

NU-TREK
17150 Via del Campo Suite 202
San Diego, CA 92127
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(541) 929-8116
Dr. Philip Coleman
AF 07-100      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Ultra-Low-Power Radiation-Hard Electronics
Abstract:We propose to build and test prototype circuits that use a novel, programmable, microfabricated continuously variable resistor (CVR) composed of a metal-chalcogenide alloy. Our Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of using this unique device in actual circuit applications. The CVR is a unique circuit element that does not operate as either a phase-change chalcogenide variable resistor or an ion-conducting chalcogenide variable resistor. It has been shown in the laboratory to be capable of producing a continuous range of resistance values from < 1 kOhm to > 10 MOhm, achieved by programming the resistor using fast pulses (< 10 ns) with selective voltage amplitudes.

SITUS LOGIC
1442 Lomita Drive
Pasadena, CA 91106
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(626) 395-6549
Mr. Alain Martin
AF 07-100      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Asynchronous Techniques for Ultra-Low-Power Radiation-Hard Electronics
Abstract:The design of an asynchronous MIPS microprocessor and of an asynchronous 8051 microcontroller (both developed in the proposer's laboratory) have demonstrated that asynchronous techniques, in particular quasi-delay-insensitive (QDI) techniques, can produce circuits with high throughput and low power consumption. Furthermore, the absence of almost all delay assumptions in QDI design results in a remarkable robustness to parameter variations which has been observed both through simulation and in testing of actual chips. A novel approach to make QDI circuits entirely tolerant to soft errors is proposed. The method does not rely on any particular fabrication technique---standard CMOS process (bulk or SOI) is used---and does not use TMR. The correction of a soft error is entirely done at the logic level. Several soft errors can be simultaneously corrected provided they do not happen too close to each other in space and time. The first objective of this project is to develop and test prototypes soft-error tolerant microcontroller, memories, and FPGAs based on this approach. The second objective is to select and specify a first design for commercialization.

COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, INC.
2600 Campus Drive, Suite D
Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 664-0394
Dr. Robert Taylor
AF 07-101      Awarded: 1/15/2008
Title:Low Cost Solid Surface Deployable Reflector
Abstract:Future Air Force satellites will require large aperture RF antennas for various missions in communications, signals intelligence, and Radar. At the same time, Operation Responsive Space (ORS) is striving to develop small satellite technology to provide flexibility and adaptability to meet new and evolving mission needs quickly. However, existing deployable antenna systems do not meet the cost requirements of ORS, therefore new deployable antenna systems with simple and elegant designs are required. The proposed technology is a thin, flexible, one-piece solid reflector that has a relatively simple deployable backing structure. These antennas will be low cost due to their inherent simplicity, and have the potential of operating at high frequencies because of the use of: 1) a solid reflective surface, and 2) CTD’s novel elastic memory composite materials in multi-functional components that provide substantial deployed stiffness, as well as deployment force and damping. However, achieving high-frequency capability will ultimately require the use of tuning adjustors (between the solid-surface deployable reflector shell and its backing structure) to correct for minor errors in the shape of the thin reflector shell. The proposed research will demonstrate the technical feasibility of a low cost deployable backing structure with built-in adjustment features.

MEVICON, INC.
1185 Bordeaux Rd., Suite D
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 744-1335
Mr. Eric M. Flint
AF 07-101      Awarded: 1/17/2008
Title:Integrated Support Structures for Tensionless Reflective RF Surface Apertures
Abstract:Mevicon Inc., a leading innovator in the area of lightweight tensionless membrane reflective surfaces, and ATK-Space Deployables, a leading developer of deployable space structures are pleased to propose an alternative fully passively self deploying integral RF reflector shell/support structure approach. The concept is based on Mevicon’s Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) and ATK’s space flight heritage experience with stowable elastically self deploying composite materials and structures. In particular, we propose the Mevicon’s proven RF MAST shell approach be augmented with 1) innovative shell stowage approaches, 2) co-stowable support spars to increase the number of discrete boundary supports and 3) co-stowable shell periphery support flange techniques. In the Phase I, building on the team’s base of past research, we will establish the 1) hardware feasibility studies of the basic fabrication concepts 2) expand preliminary analysis about scalability to large sizes, and 3) address other key issues critical toward realizing “readiness for flight” such as thermal CTE concerns, and improving TRL levels. This will prepare the way for a Phase II/Phase III space flight demonstration which is a key step in any realistic commercialization plan for space hardware.

STARSYS, INC.
1722 Boxelder St.
Louisville, CO 80027
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(303) 530-1925
Dr. Jason Hinkle
AF 07-101      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Low Cost Deployable Reflector Support Structure
Abstract:A variety of DoD and commercial space-based RF applications have motivated substantial development of deployable antenna reflectors over the last few decades. Of the multiple reflector architectures that have been developed, mesh antenna systems have dominated the medium-to-large (5 – 20 m) reflector markets. As operating frequencies extend beyond 10 GHz into the Ku and Ka bands, reflector surface precision requirements lead to high part count and fabrication cost for mesh architectures. Even with the relative maturity of mesh antenna systems, demand remains high for a more cost effective approach to antenna reflector deployment. The proposed precision deployable reflector system will offer a design solution that combines a thin membrane composite reflector with a concentrated strain deployable reflector boom to produce a highly capable, reliable and cost effective solution to critical DoD and commercial applications including frequencies through the Ka band. The proposal will develop a packaging architecture that will provide scalability of the reflector system from 1 to greater than 5 meters in diameter while meeting surface profile requirements to meet broadband frequency needs. The reflector apertures will be adaptable for on and off axis feed geometries.

SENSORMETRIX
10211 Pacific Mesa Blvd., Suite 408
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 625-4458
Dr. Anthony Starr
AF 07-102      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Structural Electromagnetic Metamaterials for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:It is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating advanced large area tunable structual metamaterials for space applications. Metamaterials offer unique EM possibilities. It has been shown that these may be combined is a structural material. This project seeks to add tunable properties without compromising the structual load bearing capabilities.

SI2 TECHNOLOGIES
267 Boston Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 495-5300
Mr. Tom Fusco
AF 07-102      Awarded: 1/29/2008
Title:Design and Manufacture of a Symbiotic Satellite Structure to Improve the Performance of Phased Arrays (1000-088)
Abstract:SI2 Technologies, Inc. (SI2) proposes to develop a symbiotic satellite structure with improved phased array performance by engineering the transmittance and reflectivity to match the structure and reducing the impact of surface waves. The proposed concept utilizes SI2’s proprietary conformal electronics manufacturing technology to transform the structure of the satellite into an integral part of the system. The resulting symbiotic structure will retain its desirable structural properties while increasing the performance of the phased array antenna. To help ensure applicability of our efforts, and to begin work towards technology transition, SI2 has teamed with a prime contractor who will provide system requirements and implementation opportunities. The Phase I program will demonstrate the electromagnetic (EM) and structural performance of the symbiotic satellite structure through simulation and testing. The manufacturability and ability to integrate the EM and mechanical properties into a single structure will be established through the design and manufacture of a hardware demonstrator. The follow-on Phase II program will refine the concept and develop a specification for a prototype with the Air Force. A full-scale prototype symbiotic satellite structure will be designed, manufactured and tested.

SPECTRUM MAGNETICS, LLC
318 Mourning Dove Dr.
Newark, DE 19711
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(484) 319-7948
Dr. Michael Bonder
AF 07-102      Awarded: 2/19/2008
Title:Satellite Structures with Engineered or Variable Electomagnetic Properties
Abstract:A novel methodology is proposed for the integration of low volume fractions (~5% by vol) of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic nanomaterials into structural composite materials, to engineer electromagnetic properties in the microwave regime. The general approach is to disperse the nanomaterial (flake form) in a thermoplastic polymer that is selected to be the same as the toughening agent in the structural thermoset resin. The flake/polymer film is then used as an interlayer between layers of structural prepreg during composite fabrication and can be positioned at specific locations within the composite, during fabrication. During composite cure, the thermoplastic dissolves into the thermoset resin, locking into place the flake dispersion and alignment characteristics. Electromagnetic properties are dependent on the flake dispersion, alignment and surface characteristics and can be engineered for absorption, reflectivity or low-loss properties. The Phase I effort will demonstrate this concept in an aerospace grade structural prepreg with Fe flakes dispersed in a sulfonated thermoplastic. Electromagnetic and mechanical properties will be characterized and models developed for property predictions.

ARTEP, INC.
2922 Excelsior Springs Court
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(202) 767-2023
Dr. David D. Babcock
AF 07-103      Awarded: 1/31/2008
Title:Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (DASH) for Measuring Winds in the Upper Atmosphere (90-300km)
Abstract:The primary goal of Phase I of this SBIR is an exploratory development to determine the instrument requirements needed to measure neutral winds in the upper atmosphere (90- 300km) by passively measuring the Doppler shift of atomic oxygen airglow emission lines with a field-widened Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne interferometer (DASH) instrument aboard a satellite platform in low Earth orbit. DASH interferometers are a new development of the optical technique of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) and offer the potential to provide low-power, light weight miniaturized instruments capable of wavelength resolutions required for measuring upper atmospheric winds to an accuracy of better than 20m/s through Doppler shift measurements. The conceptual flight design to be completed in Phase I will determine the mass, power, size and estimated cost of building a miniaturized DASH instrument to observe both the upper atmospheric green line and red line airglow emissions at 557.7nm and 630nm, covering the requirement altitude range of 90-300km. The secondary goal for Phase I is to complete a conceptual breadboard design for a ground-based DASH instrument to measure upper atmospheric winds. A breadboard design provides the basis for a Phase II SBIR where a DASH breadboard instrument would be built and fielded.

CREARE, INC.
P.O. Box 71
Hanover, NH 03755
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(603) 643-3800
Dr. Odile Clavier
AF 07-103      Awarded: 2/4/2008
Title:Micromachined Nano-G Accelerometer
Abstract:Micro- and nano-satellites are being planned for use on future scientific space missions. However, since their payloads are much smaller than traditional satellites, the instruments used on these next generation satellites need to be miniaturized (in mass, size, and power). In order for small satellites to be used to map and model the atmosphere, a miniaturized accelerometer that can measure accelerations as low as 10 nano-g is required. Creare and our collaborators from Stanford University’s Gravity Probe B instrumentation team propose to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a micromachined nano-g accelerometer. Our micromachined accelerometer is based on previously demonstrated technologies: innovative micromachined structures; capacitive position sensing; electrostatic actuation; and advanced signal processing of spectrally shifted acceleration measurements. These sensing techniques have been demonstrated on Gravity Probe-B to be capable of measuring 10 pico-G. By combining these previously demonstrated technologies in an innovative way, we expect to develop a nano-g accelerometer with mass less than 300 grams, that occupies volume less than 200 cubic centimeters, and which consumes less than 10 W of power. During Phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. During Phase II, we will fabricate, test, and deliver a prototype micromachined nano-g accelerometer based on our innovative design.

SPACE MICRO, INC.
10401 Roselle Street Ste. 400
San Diego, CA 92121
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 332-0700
Mr. Michael Fennell
AF 07-103      Awarded: 2/6/2008
Title:Space Weather Ion/Neutral Sensor
Abstract:Space Micro Inc., teamed with the US Air Force Academy Physics department, offer a novel yet producible solution to ultra miniature space weather instruments. Our approach features the following attributes and benefits: 1.Our instrument will address both neutral wind and thermal plasma 2.Ultra miniature with MEMS technology and advanced electronics packaging 3.Use in LEO, but also capable of GEO and highly elliptical orbit operation 4.Applicable to space weather and also SSA and ORS initiatives 5.Space Micro will include as part of our space weather suite of instruments (supports Air Force missions such as TSAT and ANGELS) 6.We can provide flight hardware by the end of Phase II

ASPIRE SOLUTIONS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd MS 28
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 236-5036
Mr. Randy Kirk
AF 07-105      Awarded: 7/30/2008
Title:Just In Time (JIT) Component Presentation
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop inventory flow tools based on Just In Time (JIT) principles and integrate them into the Manufacturing Repair Overhaul (MRO) environment. The Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) current processes vary greatly based on the specific needs of an aircraft and the condition of the aircraft’s parts. Properly planning for both the routine and ad hoc requirements is essential to inventory management concepts and their application within the MRO environment. Depot MRO has its own unique set of challenges that make it different then traditional manufacturing. The age of their aircraft and the different operating environments of each aircraft further compound issues not addressed in traditional manufacturing. To address the unique needs of the MRO environment, we propose to develop inventory optimization and flow tools that address both the inventory aspect of the MRO environment and the JIT delivery concepts. These tools will utilize optimization theory and be designed to enable the OC- ALC to react to the short lead-time environment common with its unpredictable repairs.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Mich979ael Graul
AF 07-105      Awarded: 8/8/2008
Title:MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND OVERHAUL (MRO) PHYSICS AND PRINCIPLES
Abstract:The purpose of the proposed effort is to assist depot managers in the discovery and application of maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) enterprise policies supporting improved agility, throughput, and system responsiveness amidst ever-changing demands, priorities, and resource constraints. To support this role, we propose to research and develop Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MRO) Physics and Principles of Operation (MP2O) resource management policy simulation methods and tools. The Phase I project will (i) establish MP2O requirements, (ii) research MP2O methods and tools, and (iii) formulate a Phase II technology transition approach. The key products of the Phase I effort includes research to leverage, enhance, and configure MP2O technologies resulting in the following functionalities (i) Parts allocation policy analyzer; (ii) Dispatching policy impacts analyzer; and (iii) Back shop workload staging impacts analyzer. Key innovations include (a) Strategy to complement existing and emerging management training, knowledge development, and operations management methods and systems; (b) fusion of multiple disciplines to provide effective policy analysis support; (c) Leveraged application of well-established manufacturing and sustainment physics research to deliver practical insights and MRO operations knowledge.

TEXAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE AUSTIN, INC.
9063 Bee Caves Road
Austin, TX 78733
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 263-2101
Mr. David Forsyth
AF 07-106      Awarded: 5/30/2008
Title:Penetrant Material Waste Reduction and Process Improvement
Abstract:Conversion to water washable penetrants and use of dry powder developers shows promise to improve performance while significantly reducing waste streams by elimination of hydrophilic emulsifier and water based developer. These materials also will reduce equipment maintenance costs and costs associated with process control. Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. (TRI/Austin), in collaboration with Team Industrial Services, Inc. (TISI) and AP/ES Inc., proposes to conduct a probability of detection (POD) study to document the performance of Method A penetrants and compare the results to the performance of Method D. In addition, the TRI team will document the performance of form A developers and compare to forms B and C as well as propose a method to apply and remove developers in an automated system. In the Phase I work, TRI/Austin will manufacture crack specimens that will be inspected by TISI following guidelines from an experimental POD program developed by TRI. The results of the POD study will provide data to assess the performance of Method A penetrants and form A developers.

DULY RESEARCH, INC.
1912 MacArthur Street
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 548-7123
Dr. Ping Chen
AF 07-107      Awarded: 8/22/2008
Title:Microparticle Insulation Mixture for Sulfur Hexaflouride (SF6) Replacement or Reduction
Abstract:SF6 is widely used as an insulating gaseous medium in electric power industry, high voltage research and military applications because of its superior dielectric and chemical properties. However, SF6 is one of the six greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol due to its high global warming potential (GWP) and its long lifetime in the environment, its release to the atmosphere needs to be limited. Intensive research on the electrical insulating properties of compressed gases and gas mixtures, including N2/SF6 gas mixtures, has been carried out for many years and is stimulated by the desire to find alternatives to SF6 gas. But to date no equivalent alternative gas has been identified because of the many basic and practical requirements that a gas must satisfy and the many studies and tests that must be performed to allow confident use. In this project, we propose one type of insulation mixture, comprising micro-particles of a solid insulator and SF6 gas, to reduce the quantity of pure SF6 gas in high voltage applications. Initial experiments will adopt quartz powder mixed with SF6. Experimental data and analysis indicate that the mixture is promising for use in high voltage applications.

GENERAL SCIENCES, INC.
205 Schoolhouse Road
Souderton, PA 18964
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(215) 723-8588
Dr. Peter D. Zavitsanos
AF 07-107      Awarded: 7/16/2008
Title:Sulfur Hexafluride (SF6) Replacement or Reduction in High Voltage Switchgear and Airborne Radar
Abstract:Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is currently used in high voltage switchgear and airborne radar systems to prevent arcing between electrical contacts. SF6 is potentially damaging to the environment; solutions to the challenge of SF6 replacement in airborne radar systems are proposed with a high probability of success. Permanent gases with the desirable electron attachment properties will be evaluated and are predicted to be more effective than SF6 used at lower quantities, lower pressures and lower leak rates thus lowering the Global Warming Potential (GWP). Another concept provides in situ generation of gaseous metal oxides or micro to nanosize particulates (aerosols) known to be extremely efficient electron getters and plasma suppressors, even in high temperature environments. Methods to generate such unique species are proposed as well as measurements to screen and evaluate performance relative to SF6.

MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS GROUP
3030 Industrial Parkway
Santa Maria, CA 93455
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 928-5711
Mr. Steve Van Dyke
AF 07-107      Awarded: 7/23/2008
Title:Sulfur Hexafluride (SF6) Replacement or Reduction in high voltage switchgear and airborne radar
Abstract:Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) is a gaseous dielectric used for suppression of high-voltage breakdown by the electric power industry and airborne military radar systems, including the Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS). SF6 is chemically inert and a very efficient infrared (IR) absorber, which make it a very potent greenhouse gas (GHG) whose impact on global warming is estimated to be 24,000 times greater than CO2. Prior studies have not found a "universal" non-GHG replacement gas, consequently eliminating or reducing the use of SF6 needs to be investigated on a case-by-case basis for each application. This program will develop a step-by-step procedure that evaluates each component of a military radar system, calculating the voltage stress levels, determining the SF6 effectiveness, and investigating whether cost-effective modifications can be made to reduce or eliminate the use of SF6. Although the methodolgy will be general, the specific candidate system to be investigated will be the high power microwave portions of the AWACS radar. Because the AWACS radar system was designed long before the GHG properties of SF6 were recognized, it is likely that progress can be made in reducing or eliminating the use of SF6.

ASPIRE SOLUTIONS, INC.
700 Research Center Blvd MS 28
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(479) 236-5036
Mr. Randy Kirk
AF 07-108      Awarded: 7/25/2008
Title:Distributed, Multi-Echelon Logistics Management
Abstract:The objective of this proposal is to develop multi-echelon logistics management tools based on Agile principles and integrate them into the Manufacturing Repair Overhaul (MRO) environment. The Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) current processes are sub-optimized and focus on each individual operation. This research would create a global optimization by balancing the key issues that impact the overall flow of the aircraft. Depot MRO has its own unique set of challenges that make it different then traditional manufacturing. The age of their aircraft and the different operating environments of each aircraft further compound issues not addressed in conventional manufacturing. To address the unique needs of the MRO environment, we propose to develop heuristic strategies that approximate the optimal solution, and overcome the long computational time associated with exact solutions. These tools will utilize heuristic optimization strategies and be designed to enable the OC-ALC to react to the short lead-time environment common with its unpredictable repairs.

ACELLENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
835 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(408) 745-1188
Dr. Shawn Beard
AF 07-109      Awarded: 7/30/2008
Title:Portable Active Damage Inspection (PADI) system for stress-corrosion cracks in aerospace structures
Abstract:Safety, reliability, and life-cycle cost are of great concern to the aging aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries. Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an accurate, reliable integrated system for detection, prediction and mitigation of aging and manufacturing related hazards in civilian and military aircraft. The objective of the proposed program will be to provide the U.S. Air Force with a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system for detection and quantification of degradation in aircraft structures specifically stress corrosion cracking. This information can then be transferred to the OEM's predictive models to provide predictions of remaining strength and life, thereby facilitating the development of maintenance strategies to mitigate the effects of the degradation on the aircraft safety and reliability. Most of the current structural health monitoring systems such as those based on vibration analysis focus on detecting the damage at component level and focus less on the failure of the material. Differing from these systems, Acellent’s system will use ultrasound Lamb waves from built-in sensor networks to sense the material change and detect micro-structural material changes. Phase I will focus on demonstrating feasibility of the system to detect stress corrosion cracking while phase II will focus on complete system development.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5232
Dr. George Zhao
AF 07-109      Awarded: 7/28/2008
Title:Ultrasonic Guided Wave Ring Array for Micro-structural Level Damage Monitoring
Abstract:Corrosion and cracking in aerospace structure materials is a common problem. Early detection of failures is desired for structural safety. Most existing structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques focus on detecting the damage of sizes beyond a certain threshold. We propose to design a SHM system for monitoring the material degradation in a micro-structural level before the real defect initiates. The proposed SHM system embeds ultrasonic guided wave sensor array for data acquisition and robust software for fault diagnosis/prognosis. It can achieve reliable detection of micromechanical damages with low false alarms and be able to localize the defect position and monitor its growth.

VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY LLC
561 Camino Ramanote
Rio Rico, AZ 85648
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 872-3836
Mr. Shawn Dolan
AF 07-110      Awarded: 4/22/2008
Title:Handheld Real Time (RT) Climatic/Environmental Sensor
Abstract:This proposal will provide immediate decision support data, enabling appropriate and cost effective responses (shut down vs. continue) for training exercises/facilities. Specifically, the DoD requires the ability to “train as we fight and fight as we train”, however training is severely limited by visible emissions compliance in the current regulatory environment. Regulated facilities will have the ability to measure, report, and defend their visible emissions compliance status. Virtual Technology LLC is the prime vendor for the Digital Opacity Camera System and familiar with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 9. Both of these solutions lack critical legal defensibility due to human judgment/interpretation, data latency and traceability, and certified user availability. Re-using its existing knowledge base Virtual Technology LLC (VTLLC) will engineer a means to overcome these limitations in the context of the current regulatory environment. VTLLC will deliver a systems engineering design combining multiple existing technologies, GPS, Surveillance, GIS, Met-e, etc. into a single sensor system. The sensor system will provide real-time decision support to responsible individuals regarding compliance status and probability of violation. The final sensor design will provide a mobile device measuring visible emissions and projecting both source and boundary line opacity values on a localized and networked bases. The design will be predictive in its nature accounting for changing environmental variables with the capability to archive the required compliance data set on demand. The most critical factor in the sensor system design will be the human interface to insure simplicity of operation with no to very low training requirement.

YANKEE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC.
101 Industrial Blvd.
Turners Falls, MA 01376
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(413) 863-0200
Mr. Mark C. Beaubien
AF 07-110      Awarded: 4/1/2008
Title:Handheld Real Time (RT) Climatic/Environmental Sensor
Abstract:DoD is required to comply with EPA acceptable opacity levels, whereas training operations often involve smoke plumes and a portable measurement tool is needed for regulatory compliance. Passive imaging techniques for opacity measurements unfortunately are constrained by two limits: First, the observer must be located between the sun and the target plume of interest and second, the scene must be bright enough to ensure images have sufficient contrast ratios. That is, the sun must be located behind the observer’s camera and it must be daytime. Although the first requirement can be met through careful planning, most military missions necessarily occur under the cover of nightfall, where such imaging methods are unusable. We describe a portable passive CCD imager integrated with an eye-safe lidar rangefinder to acquire plume backscatter data to support both daytime contrast CCD imaging opacity measurement and nighttime operation, via the "lidar equation." If in the field it becomes impractical to observe with the sun behind the observer, the lidar beam can also supplant measurements during daytime hours from locations where forward scattered light pollution from the sun’s direct beam would otherwise render radiance CCD imaging impossible. The R&D of this sensor suite involves both hardware and software algorithms.

XIMAX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.LTD.
4750 Rusina Rd, STE #108
Colorado Springs, CO 80907
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(719) 260-6497
Dr. Xiqun Zhu
AF 07-111      Awarded: 4/4/2008
Title:A Compact Deployable Micro Immersive Display Component
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop a compact deployable micro immersive display component for augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) based simulation, training, exercises or mission rehearsal applications. The proposed display component is an eye protection goggle type wearable high resolution stereo display. With head tracking and registration, it enables wearers to view a 360 º immersive virtual environment and multiple users’ view can be synchronized so they are immersed in the same virtual environment. It will be compatible and can be integrated with all current visual systems. It provides a new way to solve one of the fundamental and common problems in VR: users are completely cut-off from real world view; and in AR: combining virtual and real images. It supports both video and optical see-through at dynamically variable blending ratio in one system and can switch back and forth seamlessly to combine their advantages. Additionally, it can overcome sun-light readability problem, which is a major challenge for all outdoors display systems in general. We will solve this problem in a way no other systems have used so far ------ automatically adjusting the transparency of display screen to adapt to environmental brightness.

EBERT COMPOSITES CORP.
651 Anita Street, #B-8
Chula Vista, CA 91911
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(619) 423-9360
Mr. David W. Johnson
AF 07-113      Awarded: 4/10/2008
Title:Hydrophobic/Non-Delaminating Radome Material
Abstract:Radomes provide environmental protection for radar antennas. Materials for Radome construction must exhibit certain characteristics such as resistance to environmental factors, structural strength, radar transparency, and lightweight. A common construction technique utilizes composite sandwich panel elements which can provide exceptional structural strength with low weight and optimal RF transmission properties. Traditional sandwich panel designs often delaminate under stress whereby, the structural skins separate from the core material, thus significantly lowering the load bearing capabilities of the sandwich panel. Ebert Composites Corporation has developed a 3D fiber insertion technique that produces sandwich panel that is highly resistant to delamination. The purpose of the Phase I project will be to investigate various 3D sandwich panel configurations for use as a radome structural material and to test the effects of the 3D fiber on the transmission loss at typical radar frequencies. Additionally, research will be conducted on various treatments that can be applied to the sandwich panels to provide superior hydrophobic characteristics, remain compatible with the panel material, and maintain appropriate RF properties.

COMPOSITE SUPPORT & SOLUTIONS, INC.
32526 Seahill Drive, Bldg. C-11
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90275
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 514-3162
Dr. Clem Hiel
AF 07-114      Awarded: 5/1/2008
Title:Identification of the Anisotropic Rigidities and Damping of Composite Panels for Radomes and Shelters
Abstract:Advanced Composite shelter and radome designs save large sums of money because they do not corrode, and are highly movable. Moving them does not require the energy and fuel costs once associated with their steel counterparts and their maintenance can be done in the field with almost no exceptions. Composite shelters and radomes make use of sandwich panels because they combine great stiffness and strength with low signal attenuation. The anisotropic rigidities and the damping of sandwich panels have proven to be very important for their successful utilization. Nevertheless the identification of these properties is difficult, cumbersome, and expensive. This Phase I SBIR outlines a new approach. The idea is to use a finite element program “backwards.” A procedure has been outlined for the very precise measurement of resonant frequencies. Using these frequencies as input, the sandwich panel stiffness and shear properties may be calculated by using a methodology which will be developed during the phase-I research. In addition to the rigidities, a procedure will be developed to measure precise materials damping coefficients. Since the rigidities and damping coefficients are dependent on sandwich panel type (thermoset or thermoplastic), quality and extreme temperature conditions this characterization method may also provide to be a powerful tool for sandwich panel quality inspection.

(ES3) ENGINEERING & SOFTWARE SYSTEM SOLUTION, INC.
550 West C Street, Suite 1630
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 926-1150
Mr. Craig Pessetto
AF 07-115      Awarded: 4/30/2008
Title:Restoration of Dimensional Tolerances
Abstract:When the inner diameter (ID) of aluminum landing gear outer cylinders is worn or damaged there is very little that can be done to repair the damage consequently the outer cylinder has to be condemned and taken out of service. The aircraft industry condemns many aluminum strut outer cylinders at a high cost. The cost to the USAF alone is of approximately $3M per years. The main cause for condemnations is that the ID of the cylinders is over sized due to wear or a deep scratch cause by failure of an internal component. Chrome plating and various thermal sprays can be used to repair steel outer cylinders when they are damaged, unfortunately there is very little that can be done to repair a hard anodized surface. A coating repair which builds up thickness and can be machined /ground to size, like chrome plating, for aluminum cylinder IDs would be a great value to the aircraft industry. The coating would have to be able to seal hydraulic fluid and high pressure nitrogen. It would also have to be able to handle high loads without spalling off. If a repair method could be developed then a considerable savings could be realized by the aircraft as well as improved supportability to the fleet. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) or magnetron sputtering technology has the potential to apply the same series of aluminum onto worn aluminum outer cylinders and possibly other aluminum parts. Magnetron sputtering process is currently used to apply thin coatings (0.001 inches) of aluminum on steel landing gear parts for corrosion. This process can be modified to be able to apply thick coatings (0.008-0.010 inches) of same series aluminum onto the ID of aluminum outer cylinders. This coating then can be machine, anodized and honed to bring the outer cylinder back to serviceable condition.

ADVANCED GLOBAL SERVICES
1312 Patriotic Lane
McKinney, TX 75071
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(888) 748-1778
Dr. GENNADY YUMSHTYK
AF 07-115      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Restoration of LG components by EPVD
Abstract:Aluminum-made LG outer cylinders easily become damaged developing nicks and scratches of 5 thousandths of an inch or deeper on the inner surface (ID). This leads to a premature condemnation. There is currently no repair technique to restore the LG outer cylinders to serviceable condition. The EPVD® technique is developed to apply fully dense, well-adhered non-hazardous coatings to internal surfaces of tubular shapes. Development of unique process parameters to rapidly buildup aluminum material to the specified dimension and use of unique in-situ surface preparation methods will ensure a high quality coating. Exploitation of the EPVD™ technique will allow “surface engineering” of desired materials and provide the Air Force the capability of saving in excess of $3 Million annually by restoring unserviceable LG outer cylinders to functional condition.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Michael J. Roemer
AF 07-117      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:A Portable, Vibro-Acoustic Based NDI System for Composite Structures
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in collaboration with our commercialization partner Boeing, propose to develop a portable, non-destructive inspection (NDI) system that can quickly and accurately determine the damage state of an aircraft composite structure using vibro- acoustic feature analysis. The high-frequency analysis method proposed can be applied in an automated manner using a modal hammer and vibro-acoustic accelerometers capable of assessing the location and severity of various forms of damage, including dis- bonds and delamination. The application of the proposed developments will be focused on the F-15 vertical stabilator region, which our commercialization partner Boeing to assist with design specific knowledge. The core innovations of this project include: 1) Implementation of practical, real-time, non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods (including sensors and signal processing software) that can be applied to critical regions of aircraft structures using piezo-electric response measurements for damage assessments; 2) Development of an integrated frequency, damping and mode shape sensitivity algorithm for damage detection and localization; 3) Development of a stress wave analysis algorithm that incorporates an optimized triangulation procedure for improved damage localization once damage is detected; and 4) Validation of the portable NDI system prototype (including hardware, software and sensors) based on performing a series of well-organized and realistic tests on composite panels with various levels of external and internal damage and baseline testing of the F-15 vertical stabilator region.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. James Kilpatrick
AF 07-117      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Integration of Signal Analysis Suite and Field-Portable Matrix Laser Doppler Vibrometer (MXLDV) for Composite NDE
Abstract:This proposal seeks to produce a unique instrument for flight-line NDE and defect detection in aerospace composite structures based on integration of a new high speed laser Doppler imaging vibrometer with an automated software data processing suite. The principle of the method and technical feasibility of the proposed instrument has already been established with solutions to the major technical hurdles having been demonstrated. This proposal lays out a path to practical implementation of a field instrument employing a customized detector/processor unit running dedicated data processing and defect image extraction algorithms developed under this program. The Matrix Laser Doppler Vibrometer (MXLDV) employs a 2D fiber-optic LDV array which enables high speed image capture of any arbitrary surface vibration distribution including steady state (modal), random or transient vibrations. This feature of the MXLDV is unparalleled by existing optical methods such as scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV), electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) or shearography, which have all been proposed and investigated for this application. As a unique technology, MXLDV offers the prospect of a practical field instrument for composite NDE and defect detection which is many times faster than SLDV and many times more sensitive than ESPI or shearography.

SOUTHWEST SCIENCES, INC.
1570 Pacheco Street, Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 984-1322
Dr. Andrei B. Vakhtin
AF 07-117      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Optical NDI of Advanced Composites
Abstract:Advanced composite materials are widely used in many aerospace structures. Although these materials possess superior mechanical properties, they are subject to various types of damage during operation. Therefore, it is highly desirable to have non- destructive inspection (NDI) tools capable of monitoring damage and water ingress in the advanced composites. Southwest Sciences proposes to use an innovative optical technique based on diffuse reflectance, which will provide fast non-destructive critical evaluation of damage and water penetration in advanced composites. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and outline the design of the Phase II prototype instrument.

VISTA ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
8203 W. Quinault Ave. Building C, Suite 200
Kennewick, WA 99336
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(509) 737-1377
Dr. Joseph W. Maresca, Jr.
AF 07-117      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Damage Detection and Identification in Advanced Composites
Abstract:Vista Engineering Technologies will develop, validate, and deliver a fully automated, real- time, computer-based, portable IR system for making a pass-fail decision about the location and extent of damage to composite aerospace structures that improves upon existing methods in terms of speed, accuracy, and cost. An engineering prototype of the system will be demonstrated on both test articles provided by the Air Force and on actual aircraft in the field to evaluate the detection and location performance in terms of probability of detection and probability of false alarm. The system can be automated using a signal processing algorithm that has been developed and validated by Vista Engineering on the composite samples of the rudder and vertical stabilizer of an F-15 aircraft for the detection of and classification of skin-to-core disbonds, delamination, and fluid ingress. The successful application of the technology is due to novel methods of heating the composite no more than several degrees to produce a strong thermal signature due to the defect. A single measurement over a 2-ft2-area can be in 15 to 60 s using a COTS low- cost, low-resolution (320x240) uncooled IR camera; an entire vertical stabilizer can be inspected in the field in less than 1 h.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Photonic Systems Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Volodymyr Romanov
AF 07-118      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Compton Backscattered Focusing X-Ray Corrosion Detection System
Abstract:To address this Air Force need for non-destructive inspection and subsurface corrosion detection in deep, multilayered, tapered-thickness, and potentially dissimilar metallic structures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new unique, affordable, portable, low-cost, non-scanning Compton backscattered focusing X-ray Corrosion Detection system (XCD). The proposed device is based on the use of POC’s innovative Lobster Eye X-ray focusing lens and registration of X-ray Compton backscattered photons to provide one-side in situ corrosion detection of multilayered metallic structures. The XCD includes a portable X-ray source, Lobster Eye lens, and an X-ray CCD camera, with a portable computer providing X-ray image processing integrated in the compact handheld housing. The XCD system will provide resolution better then 1 mm^2 with the Lobster-Eye lens for corrosion detection in deep layers, with a full effective thickness of 2-5 cm for aluminum and titanium alloys, and about 1 cm for steels. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the XCD system by using its prototype for corrosion detection of multilayered (4-5) aluminum alloys. In Phase II POC will design, fabricate, and test a prototype of the commercial variant of the XCD system, integrated with built-in computer system.

QUEST INTEGRATED
1012 Central Avenue South
Kent, WA 98032
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(253) 872-9500
Mr. Phillip D. Bondurant
AF 07-118      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Improved magneto-optic methods for aircraft corrosion detection
Abstract:Aircraft undergo constant routine inspection in order to maintain airworthiness. Subsurface corrosion and metal fatigue in airframes which goes undetected can have tragic consequences. The QUEST proprietary magneto-optic imager (MOI) is a non- destructive technique which is currently used by the Air Force, NASA and commercial clients for subsurface flaw detection with better performance than traditional eddy current methods. We will extend the operational methods to increase the field of view, measure the depth of detected flaws, and incorporate advanced real-time background subtraction methods. These enhancements will significantly extend the ability of the MOI to inspect for subsurface corrosion and cracking in deep subsurface layers down to layer 4 or 5 of airframes. QUEST has extensive experience in developing and deploying non-destructive testing devices for industry.

REACTIVE INNOVATIONS, LLC
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 952-6947
Dr. Michael C. Kimble
AF 07-118      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Aircraft Corrosion Inspection System
Abstract:The Air Force requires an improved corrosion detector to assess corrosion in multi-layer metallic structures on its aircraft. A compact and portable device is needed that can pinpoint corrosion in the early stages of pitting deep within these multi-layer structures. Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes a Phase I program to develop and demonstrate a corrosion detection system based on an electrochemical interrogation method. We have previously shown a method to electrochemically characterize surfaces that can be packaged into a hand-held and inexpensive device. With this approach, we will apply it to the real-time assessment of corrosion on complex geometric components on aircraft. During the Phase I program, we will show the interrogation methodology to locate and assess the severity of corrosion on multi-layer aluminum components with varying degrees of corrosion. Algorithms will be developed to help assess the detector response. An assessment of the scan rate, detector size and mass, and the unit cost will be made that will be applied in a Phase II program to develop an operational hand-held corrosion detection system.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4766
Dr. Nikolay Kharin
AF 07-119      Awarded: 1/22/2008
Title:Nonlinear Elastic Waves Spectroscopy (NEWS) for non-destructive inspection and detection of the subsurface cracks and flaws
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research is to develop a new technology, based on the principles of nonlinear acoustics that will provide an accurate detection of subsurface crack and flaws in materials used in aircraft. Existing theoretical and experimental data demonstrate that the detection of microcracks and other defects that accumulate in material due to fatigue and external damage is enhanced by orders of magnitude with the use of nonlinear acoustic techniques. In the proposed work we will apply two novel techniques of nonlinear acoustic nondestructive evaluation (NA NDE) for evaluation of the material damage. The first technique exploits modulation of ultrasound by low-frequency vibrations and the second is called nonlinear time reversal acoustic (NTRA). Both techniques have a great potential for microcracks detection and localization, even if taken separately. We, however, propose to develop a combined NEWS technique, which will take the advantages of both methods. The Phase I research effort will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed nonlinear acoustics techniques and supporting models. We will also produce first generation instrumentation and data processing techniques that will become the foundation of a cost effective and “field-friendly” product for the nondestructive inspection (NDI) of aircraft materials.

RADIATION MONITORING DEVICES, INC.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 668-6856
Mr. Timothy Tiernan
AF 07-119      Awarded: 1/21/2008
Title:Inspection of Subsurface Flaws around Fasteners on Aircraft
Abstract:New technology is needed for nondestructive inspection (NDI) of defects in metallic components on aircraft. Small cracks and flaws in multilayer components near rivets and fasteners are a particular concern. Other problems include detecting and characterizing small defects in highly confined areas. An NDI technology capable of imaging deeply buried defects at various layers of a component under a variety of surface conditions would be ideal. Existing NDI technologies such as visible imaging, x-radiography and acoustic emission cannot provide the high resolution NDI needed to detect deeply buried defects and characterize their dimensions and depth in a material. RMD proposes a revolutionary new eddy current imaging technology based on magnetic imaging and eddy current mapping detect and characterize cracks, corrosion and other defects in multilayer metallic components. A 2-D, solid-state sensor array will generate magnetic images of eddy currents. Eddy current mapping allow the system to perform highly dependable NDI on multilayer components containing defects near fasteners and holes. The proposed NDI system will be portable, versatile and simple to operate. The proposed NDI technology will improve aircraft integrity and crew safety, improve readiness, and reduce the cost and complexity of inspections.

(ES3) ENGINEERING & SOFTWARE SYSTEM SOLUTION, INC.
550 West C Street, Suite 1630
San Diego, CA 92101
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(801) 926-1150
Mr. Doug Wiser
AF 07-121      Awarded: 3/22/2008
Title:Development of Novel Cooling and Temperature Monitoring for High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Coating Applications
Abstract:Temperature control is a major concern during High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) processing in the aerospace industry. Typically, temperature must not exceed 300oF to prevent heat damage/ tempering of the substrates for steel alloys, and even lower temperature requirements for aluminum and titanium alloys. Shop air cooling has traditionally been the most widely utilized temperature control cooling medium when applying HVOF coatings to aircraft components such as airframe, engine/propeller, and landing gear components, because it is readily available in the shop environment. However, in many cases shop air has proven to be inadequate for controlling substrate temperatures. Consequently, longer off-part dwell times to allow for component cooling has become common practice – resulting in significant powder and gas consumption – both of which cost money. Additionally, the traditional temperature monitoring system has been a continuous reading single point infrared gun aimed at a single location on the component being sprayed. Although this is a widely accepted method in the HVOF community, it’s only good for measuring localized areas, whereas part temperature will vary along the length of the components particularly for parts with complex geometries. This compounds the temperature issues and makes optimization of temperature control very difficult.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Richard McAloney
AF 07-123      Awarded: 2/21/2008
Title:Ultrasensitive Contaminant Detection for PEM Fuel Cell Hydrogen Feed Strain
Abstract:Hydrogen fuel cells are poised to replace the internal combustion engine in the future. One example is a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates at low temperature and high power densities making them ideal candidates for automobile and other small domestic power applications. The main drawback of the technology is that PEM cells require highly pure hydrogen are easily poisoned by sulfur containing species and other impurities. A typical source of hydrogen for the Military is fuel reformers using fuels such a JP8. These feed stocks may contain compounds in trace amounts that would foul catalysts. Lynntech will develop an ultrasensitive sensor for liquid or vapor assuring the purity of the H2 feed streams or reformer intake. The technology relies on whispering gallery modes (WGM); optical resonances in micron-sized spheres that, due to the high quality factor, are extremely sensitive to the environment around the resonator. This property is detrimental to most sensing applications but can be used advantageously to detect minute changes in the hydrogen feed stream or reformate stock. To impart chemical sensitivity, microresonators will be coated with nanoparticles of the catalyst material or other metals to provide an exact representation and test for fouling compounds.

TECHNO-SCIENCES, INC.
11750 Beltsville Drive 3rd Floor
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(240) 790-0600
Dr. Murat Yasar
AF 07-123      Awarded: 2/22/2008
Title:Low Cost, Trace Level Sulfur Sensor for Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Abstract:The development of reliable fuel cell technology will have tremendous impact towards developing a robust hydrogen economy. To utilize a source of hydrogen from reformers has been a major technical barrier to utilize fuel cells as power sources in the DoD applications. An inexpensive and innovative method is needed to continuously monitor the process stream of military logistical fuel (JP8) for sulfur and other compounds which would harm the reformer catalyst and fuel cell operation in order to reduce system costs and logistical footprint. Techno-Sciences, Inc. together with university partner Oklahoma State University proposes to develop a novel low cost nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance sensor capable of detecting part per billion trace levels of sulfur compounds present in the fuels utilized by hydrogen fuel cells. The sensor development will employ a unique nanofabrication technique, “electroless reduction on silicon”, combined with a novel sensing mechanism based on hybrid plasmons. In Phase I, the validity of the approach will be demonstrated as prototype sensor by using bench top experimental set ups and analysis technologies

APPLIED NANOFEMTO TECHNOLOGIES LLC
181 Stedmen St. Unite # 2
Lowell, MA 01851
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 761-4293
Dr. Zhengmao Ye
AF 07-125      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Two-color Quantum Dot Emitter Array with Large Dynamic Range for Infrared Scene Projection
Abstract:Two-dimensional (2-D) infrared (IR) emitter arrays are of great importance in numerous military and commercial applications, including IR scene generation and infrared detection system emulation for missile warning systems (MWS), IR radiometric duplication and counter measurement, and medicine and spectroscopic trace-gas sensing. Existing technologies are limited in array size, dynamic range, speed, and emission IR bands that can be generated. This SBIR Phase I proposal aims to develop a new type of high-speed emitter array capable of two-color IR generation with a large dynamic range. Successfully developing the proposed innovation is expected to provide an enabling technology for high-speed IR scene projection with large dynamic coverage and voltage-tunable IR emission bands. In this SBIR phase I project, a preliminary 2×2 infrared (IR) emitter array will be developed for proof-of-concept demonstration. Performance features, such as multi-spectral emission, high-speed modulation and large dynamic range will be characterized and demonstrated. A large format (1024×1024) emitter array will be demonstrated and delivered to Air Force research lab in Phase II.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Travis Simpkins
AF 07-125      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Dual-band Infrared Projector
Abstract:The goal is to develop a dual-waveband (long-wave and mid-wave infrared) flickerless scene projector based on membrane-mirror-on-VLSI spatial light modulator technology. Two very high resolution modulators are combined in a novel zero-order pass spatial filtering system to achieve true simultaneous dual-band scene projection. The modulators employ a spatially continuous deformable mirror surface that offers continuous analog gray-scale light modulation. This gives a more realistic rendition of the scene than the pulse-width-modulation scheme offered by others. This Phase I program: (1) develops modifications to our existing high-voltage VLSI circuit substrates, (2) re-engineers the modified membrane-mirror-on-VLSI modulator for low-voltage (~ 20V) operation at mid- mid-infrared wavelengths, (3) develops the scene-generation software and hardware interfaces needed to project simultaneous dual-band scenes, and (4) begins exploratory work on the Phase II projector with performance goals that include: 2,000:1 contrast ratio, 1000x1000 pixels, 120 Hz framing rate and flickerless operation with at least a 15° field of view.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Applied Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Russell Kurtz
AF 07-125      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Multispectral Universal Infrared Scene Projector
Abstract:Modern imaging systems require high-speed, hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) virtual reality projection, including combinations of thermal and spectral objects. The Air Force, therefore, is seeking an image projector capable of testing these imaging systems. To address this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Multispectral Universal Infrared Scene Projector (MUVI-SP) system. This proposed system is based on MEMS-controlled mirror deformation, with a new design that eliminates debonding problems. It will offer interlaced thermal and spectral scene generation, with resolution exceeding 2 megapixels and a response time <1 ms. The MUVI-SP will offer a power ratio of 5000:1 (>12 bit dynamic range) throughout the infrared spectrum, from 2 to 20 microns, while simultaneously eliminating the image flicker common to existing scene projectors. By reducing pixel-to-pixel crosstalk to <0.1%, the proposed system will enable an apparent 500 degrees C temperature difference between adjacent pixels, while its design enables background temperature adjustment from <0 to >30 degrees C. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the MUVI-SP by computer analysis and design, resulting in demonstration of a proof-of-concept prototype. In Phase II POC plans to optimize the scene projector, add an HWIL interface, and demonstrate an engineering prototype MUVI-SP.

BLAZETECH CORP.
24 Thorndike St.
Cambridge, MA 02141
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 661-0700
Dr. N. Albert Moussa
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:The objective of the proposed work is the development of a micro-sized and intelligent, wireless fire detection system that can operate in the harsh environment of military aircrafts. The system will use optical sensors configured to discriminate between fires and false alarms particularly the flash from projectile impacts. The wireless aspect of the system will enable the sensors to be easily installed and moved, where needed, and will reduce the need for much of the cumbersome and costly wiring of existing fire detection systems. The wireless network component of the sensor system will perform three critical functions: 1) Detect – that is, capture the measurements from the sensors; 2) Decide -- determine if the measurements or “signature” from the sensors represents a real fire or a false alarm; and 3) Distribute – transmit any “detected events” through the network to the controlling unit and finally, the pilot console or and/or management system. To accomplish this, the system will employ an ad-hoc mesh networking approach. Each sensor (or set of sensors) will be integrated with a 900MhZ low power radio frequency (RF) node that will be capable of self-organizing into a network and communicating with other radio nodes to propagate the sensor data. Each sensor node will have the intelligence to process the sensor data that it captures, and if required, fuse that data with the data from other sensor nodes. The mesh networking will be used to communicate between nodes within a dry bay. Advanced chip antennas will be used to enable directional coverage for radio propagation and provide an additional reliability to operate in a noisy EMI environment. To transmit the data between bays, repeater/router radio nodes will be used on either side of a compartment walls adjoining dry bays of the aircraft, connected to each other with thin aircraft-grade shielded wire which can be installed through the existing wiring harness. The design will be based on work conducted in a previous DHS program using wireless RF technology which enabled communication between multiple gas sensors within a metallic shipping container. The Phase I deliverables will include the functional design of a smart and reliable fire detection and wireless ad-hoc mesh network system that is capable of integrating signals from analog sensors, making on-board knowledge-based decisions, and communicating within metal compartments.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Mr. Kenneth G. Blemel
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/4/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:MSI develops and commercializes intelligent instrumentation modules. Our product emphasis is on instruments mounted in aircraft wiring connector. Their purpose is to provide real time situation awareness for component and system health monitoring. This topic fits perfectly with our current projects that are developing “smart” instrument systems for component diagnostics and prognostics, aircraft engine health monitoring, and aircraft health management. We propose a new SBIR research program that will adapt and enhance our electronic and artificial intelligence technologies to develop, design, build, and demonstrate a reliable yet rapid wireless fire detector system compatible with future and legacy aircraft. The wireless modality will send alerts to a receiver in the cockpit. The connector mounted format would wireless communications and provide additional flexibility for crew training and safety by connecting to the aircraft data bus. The Boeing Phantomworks vehicle health management systems (VHMS) group has agreed to be our mentor our engineers by providing aircraft domain expertise during the contract work effort.

NEW WAY SOLUTIONS, LLC
1519 New Way Drive
Beavercreek, OH 45434
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 626-1405
Mr. Thomas Teall
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:New Way Solutions, LLC and Point Source Inc. offer complementary technical capabilities to provide a uniquely qualified team that can develop a rapid, low cost “proof of concept” design and propotype for an innovative wireless network of fire detectors. The New Way Solutions Team proposes to use an innovative energy harvesting technology that uses the piezoelectric effect to convert mechanical energy from aircraft vibrations into useable DC electrical energy. Vibration energy harvesting is a viable means for powering wireless sensor envisioned for the wireless flame detection system. The use of energy harvesting technologies offers the potential to eliminate the need for batteries and their associated logistics requirements.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Divsion 20600 Gramercy Place Bldg. 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Daniel Bock
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Identification
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a wireless fire detection system, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Wireless Fire Identification (WiFireID) system. This proposed device is based on a three-band optical sensor, an omnidirectional lens, and a ZigBee wireless network. The innovation in coupling an omnidirectional lens with a three-band optical sensor will enable WiFireID to detect fires over a large field of view at a very high speed (7 microseconds from ignition) and minimize false detections. The sensor package will weigh 3 ounces in a form factor of <25 cubic inches. Each package will be easily installable/ reconfigurable during maintenance once a year because it uses a universal frame clamp, which can be attached in 2 minutes per sensor. WiFireID will communicate from each sensor to the cockpit warning system and automatic fire suppression extinguishing subsystem via ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4). In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of WiFireID by creating a prototype and detecting fires, and rejecting nonfire sources as well. In Phase II POC plans to develop a field testable prototype that can be used in aircraft under operating conditions for demonstration of its ability to detect fires in aircraft.

SKYWARD, LTD.
5100 Springfield Street, Suite 418
Dayton, OH 45431
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 252-2710
Mr. John P. Haas
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/6/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:The proposed Skyward/ESI wireless fire detector system is a forward-looking concept that utilizes a collection of some commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies, applies them to this unique problem, and creates an innovative package addressing the many requirements of this SBIR topic. This system uses electro-optical devices in the form of a combination of photodiodes and thin film thermopiles (similar to fire detection technology already employed on the Joint Striker Fighter aircraft) for the fire detectors to target likely aircraft fire sources and to reduce the incidence of false detection by using comparative logic. This system also uses Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for transmission, which enables the detectors to be reduced in size and increased in quantity, eliminates wiring for the detectors, simplifies attachment requirements, and offers, with available technology, the potential for moving toward a semi-passive or even passive power source for the detectors. As this proposal shows, the final solution positively addresses requirements associated with weight, cost, false detection, response time, power requirements, installation requirements, and communication.

SYSTEMS & PROCESSES ENGINEERING CORP.(SPEC)
6800 Burleson Road Building 320
Austin, TX 78744
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(512) 479-7732
Mr. Brad Sallee
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector (WFD)
Abstract:Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a Wireless Fire Detector system (WFD) which consists of a suite of ultra low power, battery powered fire sensing modules, and repeater modules which are deployed throughout an aircraft in separate compartments, interconnected via an encoded low bandwidth network to a cockpit control unit. The sensors use solar blind UV sensors with high bandwidth processing, which allows discrimination between fire, bullet passage, and electrical corona breakdown. Upon detecting either fire or corona breakdown, the unit transmits the condition and its code, used to identify its aircraft location, to the cockpit control unit using an adaptive, flexible, multimode network using the array of radios. Communication between sensor modules and the cockpit control unit will be enhanced by implementing a combination of information cloud, information bridge and information shuttle to insure each module has connectivity to the network. Repeater modules located on both sides of the bulkhead near an existing through bulkhead connector allow transmission of the signal without aircraft structure or wiring modification. By using low power units, with one year battery life, no aircraft wiring modifications are needed to install the system.

WILLIAMS-PYRO, INC.
200 Greenleaf St.
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(817) 872-1500
Mr. Andy Stell
AF 07-130      Awarded: 3/3/2008
Title:Wireless Fire Detector
Abstract:Effective fire suppression is a key contributor to aircraft survivability in a war zone. Many aircraft lack effective fire suppression in the wings and avionics bays because of cost and weight. Williams-Pyro will combine its expertise in fire detection, wireless technology, and low-power systems to solve all of the fire suppression issues in aircraft. These advances will make fire suppression feasible even for small aircraft such as UAVs. We will use commercial-off-the-shelf IEEE 802.15.4 wireless transceiver modules to demonstrate the wireless feature of our fire detectors. 802.15.4 is well-suited for our solution as it provides features such as low transmit power (<1mW), which prevents interference with aircraft’s systems; Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) encoding improves jam resistance; and provides worldwide unlicensed radio-frequency operation. In order to achieve the required 1ms transmit/receive latency, we will modify the existing protocol layers. Zigbee, an extension of IEEE802.15.4, allows a best-case latency of 15ms. Short latencies are a critical need in airborne fire detection and suppression, so a best-case latency of 1ms is required. To meet the latency requirement, Williams-Pyro will use a Hyperbee extension of IEEE802.15.4. The Hyperbee extension uses clock synchronization and channel characterization methods to improve latency to 1ms.

DYNAMIC STRUCTURES & MATERIALS, LLC
205 Williamson Square
Franklin, TN 37064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(615) 595-6665
Dr. Jeffrey S.N. Paine
AF 07-131      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:Precision Motorized Cryo/Vacuum Stage
Abstract:Space Mechanism testing often requires precision motion control in a cryogenic and high vacuum environment. Precision position devices that can provide motion over large distances and with relatively high forces are required. DSM proposes a revolutionary piezoelectric motorized stage that is cryogenic and vacuum compatible to provide positioning and motion control for Air Force requirements in space mechanism testing. The motorized stage design represents an innovative mechanism topology that is universal in configuration such that it can be incorporated into a variety of precision instrumentation and metrology environments. Representing a novel step and repeat or walking beam motor, DSM’s design provides a number of key benefits over traditional electromagnetic driven stages. The piezoelectric motorized stage operates in cryo without any lubrication or rolling components. The technology uses very simple solid state flexure mechanisms to provide high force (600 lbf) in a relatively small cryo compatible package. With an inherently precise fit and geometry, the stage will achieve nanometer level resolution and stability. This proposal addresses DSM’s perceived approach to the development of space qualified demonstration components.

SQUARE ONE SYSTEMS DESIGN
P.O Box 10520 3135 Mallard Road
Jackson, WY 83002
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(307) 734-0211
Mr. Robert Viola
AF 07-131      Awarded: 3/18/2008
Title:A Cryo-Vacuum Compatible Positioning System
Abstract:Space-based systems have become indispensable elements of global communication, scientific research and military reconnaissance. The expenses associated with launching spacecraft are enormous and, once in orbit, any component failure may have catastrophic consequences. Extensive earth-based testing is essential to ensure a high success rate. To approximate the demanding conditions of space deployment, the Air Force maintains large test chambers capable of creating low temperature, high vacuum environments. However, commercial testing apparatus must be specially modified for the harsh cryo-vacuum environment and mechanical failures within these chambers are not uncommon. A program of applied research is proposed to develop a robust, high- precision positioning system that is fully compatible with space chamber environments. Commercial motion technologies that are inherently more compatible with high vacuum and very low temperatures are investigated. Design modification and novel materials with the potential of further improving the performance of these technologies are evaluated. Finally, ways that these individual design elements can be integrated to create a versatile, multi-axis position system are presented.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-4760
Dr. Dan Xiang
AF 07-132      Awarded: 2/25/2008
Title:High Temperature Force Sensor System for Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test
Abstract:Measurements of vehicle/test article component loads and control-surface loads are required during testing to provide vital information for flight vehicle control, design and performance estimation and for structural design loads prediction. Accurate measurements of forces and moments experienced by the test article are critical during wind tunnel tests. Typical wind tunnel conditions are speeds of Mach 8 at total temperature up to 900 ºF. Thermal effects associated with testing in the continuous-flow hypersonic wind tunnel impose challenges for strain-gauge balances or other force/moment measuring devices used for component loads. A non-water-cooled thermal protection and compensation design solution is needed. In this proposal, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes to develop innovative sensor architectures, electronics, and software techniques to provide the force sensor with capabilities of continuous measurements under high temperature without water-cool or thermal protection.

LAMBDA INSTRUMENTS, INC.
840 University City Blvd Suite 4
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 953-1796
Mr. Jon Greene
AF 07-132      Awarded: 3/10/2008
Title:High Temperature Hypersonic Force Measurement System
Abstract:The use of electrical foil strain gages to measure aerodynamic loads on sting balances during wind tunnel testing has been extremely successful for relatively low temperature applications. Problems arise, however, in strain gages when the wind tunnel is operated at high temperatures. The bonding agent used to attach the sensor to the specimen often limits the maximum working temperature of the gage to below approximately 650º F. Another important disadvantage of the electrical foil gage is their sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Previous work by AEDC and Virginia Tech investigated the ability to use optical fiber-optic based strain and temperature sensors in lieu of foil strain gages to improve wind tunnel force balance capabilities. Absolute optical fiber sensors were found to offer many advantages over conventional foil strain-gage technology (e.g., increased frequency response, increased temperature range, EMI immunity, multiplexing, and decreased size). During Phase I, Lambda Instruments, Inc. proposes to build upon previous successful results obtained by AEDC, Virginia Tech, and the Lambda PI to investigate the feasibility of extending the temperature rating of an optical fiber sensor-based force balance up to 900 ºF.

LUNA INNOVATIONS, INC.
1703 S Jefferson Street, SW Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(540) 769-8400
Mr. Matthew E. Palmer
AF 07-132      Awarded: 4/2/2008
Title:Un-cooled High-Temperature Hypersonic Force Measurement System
Abstract:The design of hypersonic vehicles is challenging when compared to other flight vehicles. This is largely due to the inadequacy of ground testing capabilities for reproducing the combined temperature and flow effects present during hypersonic flight. Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high-temperature, un-cooled, three- component force balance based on proven fiber optic sensing technology. Luna, teaming with a leading OEM, will design and develop a force balance that can accurately measure a combination of angle-of-attack, yaw, pitch, drag, lift, and moment while withstanding continuous operating temperatures of 900°F (482°C) as seen during hypersonic tests at ground based facilities. This high speed data collection system and thermally compensated, high accuracy balance is necessary to advance the testing capabilities of ground based facilities. Luna is a world leader in the development of sensing systems, supplying solutions for a variety of harsh-environment applications. This development will utilize proven sensor technology that integrates active, integrated thermal compensation with a highly accurate, miniaturized, multi-channel sensing network. The small size of the force balance combined with a high channel count data processing system designed by Luna, will provide advanced ground based measurement capabilities for the Air Force for virtually any size wind tunnel test model.

MIDE TECHNOLOGY CORP.
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 306-0609
Dr. Marthinus C. van Schoor
AF 07-133      Awarded: 3/20/2008
Title:Valves for Measurement and Actuation System of Transient Jets (VMAST)
Abstract:The Air Force has a need to measure short-duration forces and moments generated by impulse control devices, e.g., transient transverse gaseous jets. The measurement of short-duration loads/impulses from pulsating control jets of intercept missiles is important to the missile defense program offices. Testing requires very versatile but precise valves capable of providing simulated jet for control of future weapon systems. Supersonic and hypersonic ballistic missile defense interceptors as well as recently emerging ship-board defense systems, air-to-air missiles and guided rockets concepts require a level of maneuverability available almost exclusively through the use of control jets issuing at large angles relative to the direction of flight. The goal is to develop and demonstrate a valve and associated control and measurement system to generate short-duration gas streams for transient jet interaction measurements during force/moment testing in a continuous-flow wind tunnel or equivalent environment. Since both a valve and measurement system is required, very few companies can provide both solutions. Midé is uniquely positioned to provide both a custom high speed valve and force/moment balance for wind tunnel systems at the Air Force.

METROLASER, INC.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(949) 553-0688
Dr. Drew L'Esperance
AF 07-134      Awarded: 5/14/2008
Title:Hollow-Core Fibers for High-Energy Beam Delivery in CARS
Abstract:This Phase I SBIR proposal addresses an Air Force need for enabling use of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) for non-intrusive measurements of gas species and temperature in high enthalpy gas flows that are currently inaccessible or impractical with conventional CARS configurations. We propose to determine the feasibility of employing hollow core optical fibers to deliver pulses capable of generating CARS signals. This all-fiber-optical CARS system would enable the use of CARS in more hostile and restrictive environments. Lasers and other delicate equipment would be separated from a small measurement head that can be easily protected and manipulated in the vicinity of the test gas. We have identified several hollow core fiber types that appear to meet the necessary criteria and these will be evaluated as a part of the solution.

OPTO-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.
19805 Hamilton Ave
Torrance, CA 90502
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 756-0520
Dr. Nahum Gat
AF 07-134      Awarded: 4/14/2008
Title:Fiber-Based Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy System
Abstract:The goal of this project is to demonstrate a fiber-optics based Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) system. Fiber delivery will greatly increase the utility of CARS systems for measurements in test propulsion and combustion facilities. Current commercial fiber optics cannot simultaneously deliver the high peak power and beam quality needed for CARS, but by pushing specialty fiber development in the right direction the needed advances are within reach. In Phase I, OKSI will work closely with leading specialty fiber manufactures to: (1) obtain sample fibers for testing with typical CARS lasers; (2) model the fiber parameters critical in terms of damage threshold, non-linearity, and beam quality; and (3) design new custom fibers that will be specifically developed to deliver CARS probe and pump beams. In addition, OKSI will also perform a preliminary design of a complete CARS system including selecting appropriate lasers. In Phase II, custom fibers will be produced and a CARS system with remote fiber delivery will be constructed and installed at an appropriate test facility. The project builds upon OKSI’s previous compact, robust CARS system for measurements in rocket test stands, and fiber delivery will enable the application of CARS to previously inaccessible experiments.

SPECTRAL ENERGIES, LLC
2513 Pierce Ave.
Ames, IA 50010
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(937) 266-9570
Dr. Sivaram P Gogineni
AF 07-134      Awarded: 4/21/2008
Title:Picosecond-Laser-Based Fiber-Coupled Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Spectroscopy System
Abstract:The objective of the proposed Phase-I research effort is to perform temperature and species measurements in both H2-air and C2H4-air flames using a fiber-coupled picosecond CARS system. Single-mode and step-index multi-mode fibers will be investigated for the delivery of the picosecond lasers to pump the target species and also to collect the generated CARS signal. The key element of our proposed innovation is the use of the picosecond CARS, that has the ability to suppress the nonresonant background signal from the hydrocarbon-air combustion by several orders of magnitude by tuning the delay of the probe laser after the interaction of the pump and Stokes lasers with the target. It also well-suited to the hypersonic regime for studying non-equilibrium phenomena. The unique feature of the ps-CARS technique for fiber delivery is that it requires two orders of magnitude less energy per laser pulse compared to the conventional nanosecond CARS. This effort will be based on a combination of both the experimental demonstration and a theoretical investigation of the propagation of picosecond laser pulses through various fibers. We will also explore the use of a new class of dispersion managed optical fibers such as hollow core fibers and photonic crystal fibers (PCF). Based on the success of the Phase-I effort we will build and deliver a picosecond laser-based fiber-coupled CARS system for wind-tunnel and gas turbine combustor thermometry and speciation during the Phase-II research effort.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION CORP.
13029 Danielson Street Suite 200
Poway, CA 92064
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(858) 679-4140
Mr. David Popp
AF 07-135      Awarded: 4/23/2008
Title:Vibration Analysis of Rotating Plant Machinery
Abstract:Several long term vibration problems have cost AEDC thousands of labor hours from maintenance resources. These problems involving compressors, synchronous motors, and turbine engines continue to threaten testing operations and maintenance budgets. The IAC-1044 has been designed to apply advanced signal processing techniques to identify resonances, distinguish acoustically and mechanically driven vibrations, and discern electrical faults from mechanical faults. The IAC-1034, the predecessor to the IAC-1044, is already being used to monitor the health of some turbines used at AEDC. IAC proposes to continue to identify key equipment to include in the Industrial Monitoring solution. Software improvements and new sensor technologies will also be considered to support the configuration and analysis of the new equipment. This may include changes to the real-time operating system running on the IAC-1044 as well as the windows applications used to configure and monitor the results.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, INC.
6022 Constitution Avenue NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 255-8611
Dr. Carl Stern
AF 07-135      Awarded: 5/6/2008
Title:An Integrated Phenomenological and Physics-based framework for Multi-Sensor Vibration Analysis
Abstract:Management Sciences has developed a layered algorithmic framework for high dimensional data analysis and fault detection focusing on multi-sensor vibration data. Processing modes include signal processing, factor analysis, source separation, feature extraction, classification, and Bayesian contextualization. These are applied dynamically to support online health monitoring and prognostic health management. Our existing approach, called “Data Driven Diagnostics and Prognostics”, is based on a physics-free “phenomenological” methodology for characterizing the vibration signatures associated with normal and fault states, for detecting and classifying unknown states through their vibration and related sensor signatures, and for tracking progressions to failure. This phenomenological approach has been successfully applied and tested on a workbench including power supply, motor, drive shaft, gears, couplings, pump, and valves. This proposed research project would develop and extend this technology in two ways. First, we would integrate our current phenomenological approach with a physics (kinematics and geometry)–based approach for correlating vibration frequencies, magnitudes, and energies with the relevant excitatory phenomena including fault modes. Second, we would extend our existing application domain to high speed turbo-machinery, making the necessary adaptations and modifications to address the challenges associated with a multiplicity of operational and transitional states and the potential for short event horizons.

MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS, INC.
11 Apollo Drive
Whippany, NJ 07981
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(973) 326-9920
Mr. William Kelly
AF 07-135      Awarded: 4/29/2008
Title:Active Vibration and Physics-Based Health Management
Abstract:The proposed approach adds critical and innovative methods to existing vibration and electric current based CBM systems that allow more detailed evaluation of machinery health. The key methods, termed as TAP™ (Time Averaged Pulse) and BLIP™ (Bump Load Induced Pulse), involve artificial stimulation applied to the machinery system. MSI’s active method provides data in response to imposed levels of excitation and is used to update on-board physics-based FEA models. The machine user is provided with specific information about remaining life and the component(s) that will be causing an interruption in equipment operation. This is accomplished by tuning (curve-fitting) the dynamic response and applying physical interpretations to trends, with the aid of fatigue, fracture mechanics, electric current, and tribological analytical methods. Key parameters used by MSI’s system include values of the natural frequencies, their modal damping, and the force deduced at key excitation frequencies. The natural frequencies are fit into physics- based diagrams for useful interpretation. ‘Time-to-reflection” correlation plots and mode versus frequency density diagrams are automatically assembled from surprisingly few sensors. The Phase I effort concludes with a demonstration using an existing compressor rig.

SENTIENT CORP.
850 Energy Drive Suite 307
Idaho Falls, ID 83401
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(802) 876-3100
Dr. Jerome Palazzolo
AF 07-135      Awarded: 5/28/2008
Title:Vibration Analysis of Rotating Plant Machinery
Abstract:Health monitoring and management of critical machinery is becoming state-of-the-art for military aircraft. Application of advanced health monitoring technology to ground-based plant equipment is an obvious, needed extension. Advanced signal processing algorithms that can analyze vibration signals to identify fault source and severity and track trends of data features is key to efficient maintenance practices for rotating plant machinery. This is the basis of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM), in which maintenance is performed based on the measured condition of the mechanical components. Maintenance is performed only after fault detection but before failure. Condition-based maintenance minimizes downtime, eliminates unnecessary maintenance, and prevents secondary damage from in-service failures. Rudimentary technologies to monitor rotating plant machinery systems exist, taking the form of stand-alone monitoring devices or manual machine monitoring. Application of advanced diagnostic and prognostic algorithms recently developed for aerospace applications will allow the development of intelligent health monitoring system that maximizes diagnostic coverage while minimizing the number of sensors added. Sentient will develop a low-cost, robust health monitoring system applicable to a wide range of commercial rotating machinery. Phase I will demonstrate the underlying sensing and diagnostic algorithms. Phase II will develop and demonstrate a complete prototype installed on operating plant machinery.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 713-1220
Mr. Alton Reich
AF 07-135      Awarded: 4/16/2008
Title:Vibration Analysis of Rotating Plant Machinery
Abstract:The AEDC Engine Test Facility (ETF) has more than 20 test cells that can be used for testing prototype propulsion systems and components. A variety of rotating machinery, including compressors and pumps, is crucial to wind tunnel operations. The unplanned failure of a major component can have a major impact on testing schedules. As such, there is significant motivation to avoid unplanned outages caused by equipment failure, in particular failures that require significant time and effort to recover from. Therefore, AEDC requires a vibration-based machinery condition analysis system for plant rotating machinery that can provide early indication of machinery and bearing wear, and accurate predictions of time to failure that enable major maintenance operations to be planned well in advance. A vibration-based machinery condition analysis system will be developed using a combination of existing accelerometers and acoustic transducers. These enable high-frequency (several times rotational frequency) vibration information to be extracted. The captured data will be archived and used to develop trends over time. An expert system will be developed to analyze the data to screen out normal readings and to aid plant personnel in identifying areas of concern. The system will also be developed to estimate the time remaining until components will need to be replaced in order to allow planning of maintenance outages.

INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION, INC.
15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(301) 294-5236
Dr. Chujen Lin
AF 07-136      Awarded: 3/25/2008
Title:A UWB-based Secure and Robust Wireless Data Network
Abstract:We propose to design a UWB-based secure and robust wireless data transmission and tracking system for use in a plant environment. The tracking system can automatically track the location of nodes and will greatly increase the accuracy of tracking over current methods. It can penetrate obstacles, making it suitable in the plant environments. It ensures signal level transmission security, low radio frequency emission and interference, and light-weighted automatic tracking. The advantages of using UWB includes: low probability of intercept and low probability of detection, no multi-path interference, no Cosite interference, high tracking accuracy. We also propose a novel and fail-proof authentication method based on the locations of UWB radios to improve security level of the system. The location-based authentication key is impossible for any other radio to obtain without being in the same physical location as the two authorized radios.

PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP.
Information Technologies Division 20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance, CA 90501
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(310) 320-3088
Dr. Alireza Shapoury
AF 07-136      Awarded: 4/2/2008
Title:Secure Location-Based Information Network
Abstract:To address the Air Force need for a secure plant operation data network, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Secure Location-based Information Network (SLIN). This proposed system is based on spread spectrum wireless transmission, location tracking, speech recognition, text reading capability, and context- based access control (CBAC). The innovation in designing protective circuitry and optimizing the physical (PHY) layer under strong EMI will enable the SLIN to securely and reliably operate in plant and industrial environments. In this novel design, the identification, role of the operating personnel, and tasks, and the message-routing information are utilized in the authentication step. The interface consists of a wearable communicator with built-in cryptographer which communicates to installed access points. The location of the communicator is identified by the location calculator unit via the links between the communicator and the access points. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of SLIN by demonstrating a bench-scale system prototype in a laboratory environment. In Phase II POC plans to develop a complete integrated Phase II SLIN system, further optimize it, and perform extended tests of the device, subjecting it to physical challenges in a candidate plant.

STREAMLINE AUTOMATION, LLC
3100 Fresh Way SW
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 713-1220
Mr. Alton Reich
AF 07-136      Awarded: 3/19/2008
Title:Secure Plant Operations Data Network
Abstract:Many AEDC personnel are tasked with supporting facility operations by providing testing support, instrumentation support, facilities engineering and facilities maintenance. This requires personnel to spend some of their time in their normally assigned work areas and portions of their time in and around test cells, wind tunnel control areas, and on the wind tunnels themselves. The AEDC plant areas are equipped with a plant-wide paging system consisting of outdoor speakers. The sound quality of these broadcast paging messages is highly variable and dependent on the location of the listener in relation to the speakers and the level of background noise. As such, these messages are often difficult to understand. Streamline Automation proposes to develop a plant-wide voice and data communications network that will be based on Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) technology and take advantage of existing network infrastructure. Server-side software will be used to convert voice messages to text and text files to voice. Additional server- side software will be used to track the location of users within the plant. The system will utilize encryption to protect the content transmitted over the network, and will be designed to minimize transmission power to prevent message patterns from providing information about plant operations.

TOYON RESEARCH CORP.
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(805) 968-6787
Dr. Richard E. Cagley
AF 07-136      Awarded: 3/19/2008
Title:Secure Plant Operations Data Network
Abstract:From a technical perspective, providing secure and reliable wireless communication in a plant setting presents an array of challenges. In particular, there are difficult engineering trades that must be made between probability of signal detection and interception, against reliability of signal transmission and associated issues such as localization. As there are no existing off-the-shelf waveforms that satisfy the stated system requirements Toyon proposes to develop a software defined radio (SDR) waveform that incorporates a range of state-of-the-art features. While ultawideband is an appealing technology due to its low probability of detection, its limited range and susceptibility to interface precludes its use for this effort. Instead, Toyon will base our system on direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS), using cyclic code shift keying (CCSK) as the spreading waveform to minimize probability of interception and detection. 256-bit AES encryption with public key sharing will be employed, making it virtually impossible to intercept data from system communications. Time-of-flight estimation from the wireless physical layer will be used for localization. Providing a complete system, Toyon’s SDR platform will be used for Phase I demonstration. The platform is well suited to custom application layer development, such as voice-over-IP, voice-to-text translation, and bridging to WLANs.

DYMAS RESEARCH, INC.
22 Pond View Dr.
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(609) 275-4464
Dr. Wei Hu
AF 07-138      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Low Temperature Multi-Spectral Image Projector
Abstract:There has been a strong worldwide interest in the development of technologies that would enable hardware in the loop (HWIL) stimulation of imaging sensors. Presently, a majority of the image projection systems are based on micro-resistor arrays, deformable mirror devices, spatial light modulators, and liquid crystal light valves. In this SBIR program, researchers of Dymas Research propose an innovative scene projector system using our advanced electro-optic technology. The proposed scene generator is fast, wide spectrum range, fairly easy to fabricate, and low cost, compared with the currently available technologies.

OPTRON SYSTEMS, INC.
3 Preston Court
Bedford, MA 01730
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(781) 275-3100
Dr. Travis Simpkins
AF 07-138      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Low-Temperature Multi-Spectral Membrane-Mirror Projector
Abstract:The Phase I goal is to explore novel membrane materials and develop a design for a multi- waveband (visible-RGB and mid-wave infrared) flickerless scene projector that can operate at temperatures ranging from -35C to +50C. The anticipated design will most likely be based on membrane-mirror-on-VLSI spatial light modulator technology. Thus low- power VLSI circuits that both run at low temperature and that can be actively cooled are also planned for investigation. The plan is to culminate the Phase I by demonstrating IR and visible light modulation between -35C and 50 C in a device that employs a new membrane-mirror material The Phase I research will be done in the context of the Phase II program goals which include: (1) develop modifications to our existing high-voltage VLSI circuit substrates, (2) re-engineer the modified membrane-mirror-on-VLSI modulator for low-voltage (~ 40V) operation at visible and mid-mid-infrared wavelengths, (3) develops the scene-generation software and hardware interfaces needed to project simultaneous dual-band scenes, and (4) begins exploratory work on the development of a Phase II projector whose performance goals include: 2,000:1 contrast ratio, 1000x1000 pixels, 120 Hz framing rate and flickerless operation with at least a 6° field of view.

AGAVE BIOSYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 80010
Austin, TX 78708
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 272-0002
Dr. Mehran Pazirandeh
AF 07-139      Awarded: 1/26/2008
Title:Field Sensor for Measuring Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) Concentrations in Drinking Water
Abstract:Rapid detection of the total trihalomethanes (TTHM) in treated drinking water is essential for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts (DBP) Rule, which limits the maximum contaminant level of TTHM in drinking water to 80 parts per billion. The current detection method for TTHM determination involves sending samples to EPA certified laboratories for gas chromatography analysis; a method that is both expensive and time consuming. The ideal TTHM water monitoring system would be a hand-held, rapid response device that would detect TTHM levels and aid in the identification of contamination sites before they develop into larger problems. In this Phase I, Agave BioSystems proposes to develop a colorimetric/fluorometric TTHM detection system based on a modified Fujiwara reaction, which will be subsequently integrated into a portable field sensor. This assay system will elute THMs, filtered from a water sample, into a reaction buffer and through a modified Fujiwara reaction, yield a detectable color or fluorescent product that correlates directly to the TTHM levels of the water sample.

LYNNTECH, INC.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 693-0017
Dr. Bikas Vaidya
AF 07-139      Awarded: 1/26/2008
Title:Field Portable Device for Monitoring Trihalomethanes in Water
Abstract:The treatment of water with chlorine is an effective way to kill waterborne pathogens such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. This process, however, produces a toxic byproduct from the chemical reaction between chlorine and natural organic matter in the form of trihalomethanes (THMs). These THMs are considered a significant health hazard with studies showing a link to an increased risk of cancer. Currently, total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) are analyzed using the EPA Methods 502.2 and 551.1; both of which require the use of large, expensive and non-portable laboratory equipment. Although effectively accurate, the need for such large, heavy and power-hungry equipment makes these methods unsuitable for battlefield use. Commercially available portable chemical monitors on the other hand show insufficient levels of performance in terms of detection limits and sensitivity to interference or are entirely non-specific. Hence, detection of trace levels of THMs in field still remains a challenge. Lynntech proposes to develop and deliver to the military a compact, lightweight and easy-to-operate handheld TTHM monitor capable of providing rapid test results and withstanding the harsh environmental conditions typical of field use.

NANTAL, INC.
Genesis Center MSC 3ARP Box 30001
Las Cruces, NM 88003
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(505) 524-3664
Dr. Won Tae Kim
AF 07-139      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Field Sensor for Measuring Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) Concentrations in Drinking Water
Abstract:Nantal Inc. is developing a proprietary nanoparticle/fractal based sensor, which will be integrated into two electronic devices that will result in an ultra sensitive optical detector based on the Raman effect. The devices will be capable of detecting chemical contaminants in water at concentrations in the low ppb range. In Phase I the sensor will qualitatively detect total trihalometanes (TTHM) both above and below EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level of 80 ppb. In Phase II the sensor will be scaled-up to production levels and integrated into two newly designed and developed electronic instrument devices that will quantitatively detect TTHM in water in the 20 to 200 ppb range. The devices will include a small handheld, field ready device and a bench top unit for use in a laboratory. The ultra sensitive instruments will provide accurate, precise, and quantitative measurements in real time via a digital readout, require no preparative steps and be simple to use in the hands of non-technical individuals. TTHM results from the reaction of chlorine with organic materials in water. Two of the four organic TTHM agents are classified as possible carcinogens and the group has shown to affect development and reproduction in laboratory animals.

SCRIBNER ASSOC., INC.
150 E. Connecticut Ave
Southern Pines, NC 28387
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(910) 695-8884
Dr. Kevin R Cooper
AF 07-139      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Hand-Held System for On-Site Trihalomethane Measurement
Abstract:There is an immediate need for a rapid, portable detection system for carcinogenic Trihalomethanes in drinking water. A handheld total Trihalomethane sensor system would permit water system operators to identify and implement mitigation strategies to the contamination source avoiding costly regulatory violations. The aim of the proposed work is to develop an electrochemical-based sensor array system and measurement method procedure for rapid, accurate determination of the total Trihalomethane content of drinking water. The proposed electrochemical approach is well-suited to accurate quantification of part per billion-level analytes; electrochemical-based sensor array systems are ideal for portable applications because they are easily miniaturized without sacrificing performance, are low power which facilitates battery operation, and are inherently safe. High-density sensor arrays permit redundant analysis for enhanced measurement fidelity as well as targeted detection of multiple analytes without sacrificing cost or portability. The Phase I will demonstrate the technical feasibility of the proposed electroanalytical approach and the efficacy of developing small, low mass and power analytical instrumentation for the sensor array. Using results from the Phase I, the expected performance of the detection system will be critically evaluated against established performance criteria. In Phase II, the research team will develop a prototype handheld detection system.

TRITON SYSTEMS, INC.
200 TURNPIKE ROAD
CHELMSFORD, MA 01824
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 250-4200
Mr. Edward Geraghty
AF 07-139      Awarded: 2/1/2008
Title:Tri-halide Methane Detection (1001-155)
Abstract:Triton Systems, Inc., proposes a MEMS based handheld sensor for use in TTHM detection. The design is based on current MEMS based sensors modified to work in an aqueous media. This work will expand on the technology being developed in the area of explosives detection with MEMS by the Triton team. Our product is a low cost and lightweight PDA type unit that will sample, analyze and report results in minutes.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, INC.
1408 University Drive East
College Station, TX 77840
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(979) 260-5274
Dr. Michael Graul
AF 07-140      Awarded: 1/30/2008
Title:Test and Evaluation Metadata Plaza (TEMPL)
Abstract:KBSI proposes to design, develop, and demonstrate a methodology, a metadata model and suite of tools to unify the storage, transfer, and retrieval of T&E metadata across multiple systems, ranges, test articles and test missions. Our focus is to use state of the art information system engineering, including the use of ontologies and semantic web technologies to support the metadata extraction of legacy data as well as support metadata formularizations for ongoing and future test missions. At the heart of the metadata support for both legacy T&E data as well as future test missions lies the development of the T&E Metadata Reference Model (T&E Ref Mod), a UML 2.0-based metadata model for describing T&E data. Our T&E Ref Mod will be built around existing metadata standards/models and new metadata constructs. We will also develop a prototype component-based Test & Evaluation Metadata PLaza (TEMPL) that will support the extraction, representation, transfer, translation, verification, validation, completeness checking, retrieval and visualization of both structured and unstructured T&E data via its relationship to metadata. Finally, we will demonstrate integration of TEMPL components into commercial instrumentation support systems and document the methodological changes required by instrumentation engineers in using the TEMPL technologies.

APPLIED OPTICAL MATERIALS, INC.
744 Stewart Canyon Rd
Fallbrook, CA 92028
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(760) 451-0546
Dr. David Schaafsma
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:PORTABLE, COST-EFFICIENT BIOMASS CONVERSION
Abstract:Large-scale pyrolysis of biomass for energy production must aim for high throughput in order to meet economies of scale. For this reason, many of the fluidized bed and cyclonic pyrolysis reactors being developed are designed for throughputs of hundreds or thousands of tons per day of biomass. The quality of the oil produced is very dependent on the feedstock, and since most of the reactors consume electricity, the yield of the feedstock plays a role in the net energy yield of the biomass plant. Mesoscale pyrolysis has several advantages which arise from the freedom from satisfying energy economics. This energy relationship goes directly to the bottom line of any company wishing to convert biomass to fuel or electricity, and it is one of the fundamental challenges in making biomass-derived fuels a viable alternative to fossil fuels in the near future.

MAINSTREAM ENGINEERING CORP.
200 Yellow Place Pines Industrial Center
Rockledge, FL 32955
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(321) 631-3550
Dr. Paul Yelvington
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:A Portable Fluidized-Bed Reactor for Flash Pyrolysis of Landfill Waste
Abstract:The Main Base Landfill at Edwards Air Force Base will reach full capacity by no later than 2017, and many other landfills across the country are facing the same situation. Waste streams need to be redirected to extend the lives of these facilities. We propose to develop a portable, flash-pyrolysis, fluidized-bed reactor system purpose-built for conversion of landfill waste to bio-oil fuel. While wood pyrolysis has advanced to the commercial stage, existing pyrolysis plants are large and unoptimized for processing landfill waste, which is highly variable in composition. The proposed pyrolysis reactor will have a unique reactor design that allows better control over the process variables critical for processing a highly inhomogeneous feedstock. In Phase I, thermogravimetric analyses will be performed to identify the pyrolysis kinetics for the primary constituents of the landfill waste. This kinetic data will be used to design a reactor that can operate on a broad range of those feedstocks. A bench-scale prototype will be constructed and used to demonstrate feasibility. In Phase II, the prototype will be packaged into a tightly integrated system with waste heat capture and power generation for the process units.

METSS CORP.
300 Westdale Avenue
Westerville, OH 43082
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(614) 797-2200
Dr. Richard Sapienza
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Portable Biomass Liquid/Gaseous Fuel Reactor
Abstract:As Air Force landfills reach capacity, the mixed waste streams that are taken to these landfills need to be redirected to generate a significant amount of fuel from this biomass using portable biofuel reactors. Problematically, current decentralized gasification R&D is typically operated at atmospheric pressure and with air as gasification medium. The second major technological barrier in converting bio-syngas into synfuels is gas cleaning mainly dictated by the application, and furthermore by the amount and character of the contaminants as a result of feedstock. The technology METSS will apply to this program is FAST-M, a methanol catalyst that allows the process to be conducted batch-wise or in a continuous fashion and offers a method to overcome the most important technological and non-technological barriers to implementation. FAST-M can provide the technology needed to design a portable, modular or single unit biofuel reactor that can utilize a wide variety of unprocessed biomass feedstock to create liquid fuels. The biofuel reactor will be easily installed and safely operated with a minimal logistics footprint at developed, remote, and austere locations such as small landfills, construction sites, waste treatment facilities, and forward dining facilities.

REACTIVE INNOVATIONS, LLC
410 Great Road, Suite C-2
Littleton, MA 01460
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(978) 952-6947
Dr. Michael C. Kimble
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/24/2008
Title:Portable Biomass Fuel Reactor
Abstract:The U.S. Air Force is interested in processing biomass to produce liquid fuels in its facilities around the world. This would help lessen the environmental impact due to expanding landfills as well as help reduce the use of petroleum oil. Processing the cellulose in this biomass into ethanol is one viable option to meet these requirements where the cellulose is first hydrolyzed into glucose that is subsequently fermented into ethanol fuel. Large scale industrial processes are aiming to accomplish these process steps, however, the high costs and complex process units make it difficult to scale the process to smaller biomass operations more suited for Air Force needs. To this end, Reactive Innovations, LLC proposes to develop a modular biomass hydrolysis reactor that can efficiently breakdown and convert cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars using a wide variety of biomass feedstocks. During the Phase I program, we will show the merits of our hydrolysis reactor and its applicability to smaller bioethanol production for suitcase to trailer-size operations. A Phase II program will scale this reactor to operational prototypes that can be combined with the other pertinent unit operations for producing bioethanol fuel.

RENEWABLE OIL INTERNATIONAL LLC
3115 Northington Court
Florence, AL 35630
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(256) 740-5634
Mr. Phillip C. Badger
AF 07-141      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Portable Biomass Liquid/Gaseous Fuel Reactor
Abstract:The goal of this project proposed by Renewable Oil International® LLC (ROI) will be to demonstrate the feasibility of a basic reactor design capable of reliably producing a high grade alternative fuel using the widest range possible of biomass feedstock types with minimal or no adjustments or modifications. ROI has developed a simple, innovative fast pyrolysis process for converting various forms of biomass into a bio-oil, char, and syngas and has piloted the process using clean woody materials and poultry litter. This proposal will build on ROI’s experience in system design and plant operations to research the front-end processing requirements for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, conduct test runs of shredded organic solid wastes to determine plant performance, characterize the products produced, prepare preliminary engineering designs for integrated processing systems, and conduct preliminary economic analyses for the integrated processing systems.

ADVANCED DYNAMICS, INC.
1500 Bull Lea Road, Suite 203
Lexington, KY 40511
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(859) 699-0441
Dr. Patrick Hu
AF 07-142      Awarded: 3/5/2008
Title:Physics-Based Rapid Aeroelastic Model Updating In Support Of Aircraft Flight Testing
Abstract:The objective of the proposed research aims to develop Reduced Order Models (ROMs) (i.e. POD, HB, combined POD and HB) based upon flight data to better predict the aircraft aeroelastic response at next flight condition, e.g. higher Mach number. By incorporating flight test data and using the highest fidelity computational models in reduced order form we will obtain computational solutions that are the most accurate possible with the current state of the art and do so sufficiently rapidly predict the behavior at the next flight condition in an aeroelastic flight test. Many of the methods that have been developed over the years for simpler aeroelastic models that use, for example, doublet lattice aerodynamics can be adopted for this purpose. However we also propose to explore new approaches appropriate to high fidelity computational models in Phase I with a down selection to the best methods in Phase II. We will use the available wind tunnel flutter data for the AGARD 445.6 wing for our assessment in Phase I. However, we will also explore methods that would require more experimental data than is available for the AGARD wing. For the AGARD wing, the data available are principally the flutter boundary per se and the flutter frequency. If we also had data for preflutter transfer functions, for example, that would allow a more extensive incorporation of experimental data in modifying and enhancing the computational model for flight test prediction.

CLEAR SCIENCE CORP.
PO Box 233 663 Owego Hill Road
Harford, NY 13784
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(607) 844-9171
Dr. Henry A. Carlson
AF 07-142      Awarded: 3/5/2008
Title:Aeroelastic Model Updating
Abstract:Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop and demonstrate the technical merit and feasibility of compact aeroelastic models that incorporate structural and flow dynamics and their coupled effects in a low-dimensional form for safer and more efficient flutter testing of military aircraft. The reduced-order model (ROM) of the coupled flow and structure will be based on computational and experimental data from CFD and structural FEM simulations and flight or wind tunnel tests. The ultimate objectives are to reduce the costs and risks of certification testing by reducing the number of required test conditions. Coupling CFD-based ROMs of the flow with the data that are collected during flight tests will improve predictions of linear and nonlinear aeroelastic responses, providing the means of accurately interpolating between test points and extrapolating beyond them. Phase I testing of the proposed software will use CFD data and wind tunnel (rather than flight) data to construct the aeroelastic model with evaluations of model performance at on- and off-design conditions. Tests will involve canonical wings with relatively small numbers of aeroelastic modes; however, the software will be configured for future applications involving full aircraft with complex geometries, control surfaces, and a much larger set of (aeroservoelastic) structural modes.

ENGENIUSMICRO, LLC
5361 Whitehall Place
Mableton, GA 30126
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(770) 289-8272
Dr. Brian A. English
AF 07-144      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Wireless Brake and Tire Monitoring System (WBTMS)
Abstract:High temperature wireless sensors and data acquisition electronics are proposed to provide active monitoring of tire bead temperature, tire pressure, and brake temperature on landing gear. The proposal includes versatile packaging of sensors and electronics for installation and multiple channel data-acquistition on virtually any set of landing gear.

IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
200 Canal View Blvd
Rochester, NY 14623
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(585) 424-1990
Dr. Carl A. Palmer
AF 07-144      Awarded: 1/25/2008
Title:Wireless Brake and Tire Monitoring System
Abstract:Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Crane Aerospace and Electronics, proposes an end to end wireless solution for aircraft brake and tire monitoring. The proposed system will serve to reduce safety risks and increase efficiency during flight and ground testing by providing long-range wireless transmission of tire temperature, tire pressure, and brake temperature. The system will provide intelligent data fusion and diagnostic capability in support of automating the brake and tire go / no go for test decision. Key tasks of this Phase I effort include: 1) Development of a communication schema to support distributed smart sensor nodes; 2) Adapt currently available sensing hardware to meet AF range and resolution requirements; 3) Develop data fusion and processing algorithms to transform recorded data into knowledge usable by test operators in support the tire and brake go / no go for test decision; 4) Development of a tablet PC based handheld recording and display device along with a user interface capable of being operated without the use of cumbersome pointing devices or keyboards. A prototype system will be created and sensing, storage, and communications will be demonstrated within a prototype hardware platform.

TEMPLEMAN AUTOMATION, LLC
29 Miller Street
Somerville, MA 02143
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(617) 996-9054
Mr. Chris Templeman
AF 07-144      Awarded: 1/23/2008
Title:Wireless Brake and Tire Monitoring System (WBTMS)
Abstract:Templeman Automation, LLC (TALLC) proposes an innovative implementation of wireless brake and tire monitoring with its TaB-TaP (Tire and Brake Temperature and Pressure) long-range wireless telemetry system. TaB-TaP represents a significant opportunity to augment the safety and efficiency of flight and ground testing of manned and unmanned aircraft. By extending proven, commercial SmartStem technology through a Phase I partnership with Crane Aerospace and Electronics (CAE), TALLC offers an easy-to-use, accurate, cost-effective and reliable WBTMS system. The extension of the SmartStem technology, dubbed the “SmartStem-MIL”, will offer multiple RF architectures to support both local and long-range communications suitable for military taxi-testing, as well as the measurement capability for an increased tire pressure range and true tire-wall temperature. The TaB-TaP system includes high-temperature thermocouple sensors, facilitating the direct measurement of brake temperature, and will be highly-survivable in harsh environments due to a light weight, shock-proof design. Additionally, TaB-TaP will offer Bluetooth-enabled flight-time cockpit readouts as well laptop- and PDA-based readouts suitable for ground crew monitoring from a safe standoff distance. The resulting architecture makes TaB-TaP acutely capable of augmenting current Air Force taxi-test tire and pressure monitoring methods.

CMSOFT, INC.
566 Glenbrook Drive
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(650) 941-4301
Dr. Goeric Daeninck
AF 07-145      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:Aerothermoelastic Simulation
Abstract:Hypersonic flight introduces extreme heat loads into the skin of a vehicle, particularly at its leading edges. Determining these loads is a challenging task that requires accounting for the aerothermal features of both the flow and thermal state of the surface of the structure. Hence, the accurate aerothermal analysis of hot vehicles requires a tight coupling between appropriate fluid, thermal, and structural models. Incomplete forms of this integration have been attempted in the past using simple algorithms that were either computationally inefficient or numerically unstable. The main objectives of this proposal are: (a) to demonstrate a higher-fidelity, multidisciplinary computational technology for the analysis of hot vehicles that is numerically stable, provably accurate and compatible with the AERO code deployed at the Edwards AFB, and (b) equip this simulation technology with a reliable Reduced-Order Modeling (ROM) capability to enable the prediction in near real-time of heat loads and their effects on structural integrity and aeroelastic stability. The proposed high-fidelity approach centers on the four-field formulation of aerothermoelastic problems and provably accurate and computationally efficient conjugate heat transfer algorithms for deformable and vibrating structures. The proposed ROM technology is based on the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method.

D&P LLC
3409 N. 42nd Pl.
Phoenix, AZ 85018
Phone:
PI:
Topic#:
(480) 518-0981
Dr. Lei Tang
AF 07-145      Awarded: 3/12/2008
Title:A Coupled Computational Aeroelasticity and Thermal Response Analysis Tool
Abstract:This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project develops a coupled computational aeroelasticity and thermal response analysis tool that can be used to analyze and design ballistic reentry vehicles and Trajectory Shaping Vehicles (TSV). In Phase I, a well validated thermal response analysis module will be integrated into a well validated computational aeroelasticity code. In Phase II, a gas-kinetic CFD algorithm will further be implemented in this coupled computational aerothermoelasticity tool. As a result, the developed tool is not only more accurate than the conventional macroscopic computational aeroelasticity approach in the continuum regime but also is easily extendable to hypersonic flows beyond the continuum regime.